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Sample records for liposomal geiv phthalocyanine

  1. Phototoxicity of Liposomal Zn- and Al-phthalocyanine Against Cervical and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jason; Yee, Michael; Kim, Hayoung; Cheung, Jennifer; Chino, Takahiro; Düzgüneş, Nejat; Konopka, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes light to activate a photosensitizer in the presence of oxygen, and leads to local photodamage by the generation of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS). Liposomal delivery of photosensitizers is adaptable to the treatment of cancers. We examined the phototoxicity of free or liposome-embedded phthalocyanine photosensitizers using HeLa cervical carcinoma and HSC-3 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Material/Methods Liposomes were composed of palmitoyloleoyphosphatidylcholine (POPC): phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and contained either zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) or aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPc). Free or liposomal ZnPc and AlPc were incubated with cells for 24 h at 37°C. Cells incubated with ZnPc were exposed to broadband visible light (350–800 nm; light dose 43.2 J/cm2), whereas cells treated with AlPc were exposed to light at 690 nm (light dose 3.6 J/cm2). The effect of folate receptor-targeted liposomal ZnPc was evaluated with HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity was analyzed by the Alamar Blue assay. Results Cell viability, expressed as a percentage of control cells, was calculated according to the formula [(A570–A600) of test cells]×100/[(A570–A600) of control cells]. The relative percentage changes then defined the phototoxic efficacy of the experimental conditions. In HeLa cells, 1 μM free ZnPc and AlPc, reduced cell viability to 52.7±2.1 and 15.4±8.0%, respectively. Liposomal phthalocyanines, at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μM, reduced the viability to 68.0±8.6, 15.1±9.9 and 0% (ZnPc), and to 25.8±8.2, 0 and 0% (AlPc), respectively. In HSC-3 cells, 1 μM free ZnPc and AlPc, reduced cell viability to 22.1±2.8 and 56.6±8.6%, respectively. With 1 μM liposomal ZnPc and AlPc, the viability was reduced to 0 and 21.3±0.3%, respectively. Conclusions The embedding of phthalocyanines in liposomes enhanced their phototoxicity and this effect was dependent on cell type. PMID:27932777

  2. Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Ana Paula; Casasco, Agustina; Schilrreff, Priscila; Defain Tesoriero, Maria Victoria; Duempelmann, Luc; Altube, Maria Julia; Higa, Leticia; Morilla, Maria Jose; Petray, Patricia; Romero, Eder L

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the in vitro anti-Leishmania activity of photodynamic liposomes made of soybean phosphatidylcholine, sodium cholate, total polar archaeolipids (TPAs) extracted from the hyperhalophile archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcAL) was compared to that of ultradeformable photodynamic liposomes lacking TPAs (ZnPcUDLs). We found that while ZnPcUDLs and ZnPcALs (130 nm mean diameter and −35 mV zeta potential) were innocuous against promastigotes, a low concentration (0.01 μM ZnPc and 7.6 μM phospholipids) of ZnPcALs irradiated at a very low-energy density (0.2 J/cm2) eliminated L. braziliensis amastigotes from J774 macrophages, without reducing the viability of the host cells. In such conditions, ZnPcALs were harmless for J774 macrophages, HaCaT keratinocytes, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Therefore, topical photodynamic treatment would not likely affect skin-associated lymphoid tissue. ZnPcALs were extensively captured by macrophages, but ZnPcUDLs were not, leading to 2.5-fold increased intracellular delivery of ZnPc than with ZnPcUDLs. Despite mediating low levels of reactive oxygen species, the higher delivery of ZnPc and the multiple (caveolin- and clathrin-dependent plus phagocytic) intracellular pathway followed by ZnPc would have been the reason for the higher antiamastigote activity of ZnPcALs. The leishmanicidal activity of photodynamic liposomal ZnPc was improved by TPA-containing liposomes. PMID:25045264

  3. Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ana Paula; Casasco, Agustina; Schilrreff, Priscila; Tesoriero, Maria Victoria Defain; Duempelmann, Luc; Pappalardo, Juan Sebastián; Altube, Maria Julia; Higa, Leticia; Morilla, Maria Jose; Petray, Patricia; Romero, Eder L

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the in vitro anti-Leishmania activity of photodynamic liposomes made of soybean phosphatidylcholine, sodium cholate, total polar archaeolipids (TPAs) extracted from the hyperhalophile archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcAL) was compared to that of ultradeformable photodynamic liposomes lacking TPAs (ZnPcUDLs). We found that while ZnPcUDLs and ZnPcALs (130 nm mean diameter and -35 mV zeta potential) were innocuous against promastigotes, a low concentration (0.01 μM ZnPc and 7.6 μM phospholipids) of ZnPcALs irradiated at a very low-energy density (0.2 J/cm(2)) eliminated L. braziliensis amastigotes from J774 macrophages, without reducing the viability of the host cells. In such conditions, ZnPcALs were harmless for J774 macrophages, HaCaT keratinocytes, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Therefore, topical photodynamic treatment would not likely affect skin-associated lymphoid tissue. ZnPcALs were extensively captured by macrophages, but ZnPcUDLs were not, leading to 2.5-fold increased intracellular delivery of ZnPc than with ZnPcUDLs. Despite mediating low levels of reactive oxygen species, the higher delivery of ZnPc and the multiple (caveolin- and clathrin-dependent plus phagocytic) intracellular pathway followed by ZnPc would have been the reason for the higher antiamastigote activity of ZnPcALs. The leishmanicidal activity of photodynamic liposomal ZnPc was improved by TPA-containing liposomes.

  4. Analysis of the photodynamic therapy effects by using chloroaluminum phthalocyanine incorporated into liposomes and fractionation energy in colon tumors of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Janaina; Hage, Raduan; Tedesco, Antonio C.; Pazos, Marcelo; Martin, Airton A.; Plapler, Helio

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been widely studied in the last decades and it is becoming a promising tool in the treatment of tumors of many kinds. PDT is based on photoactivation of a sensitized drug that is restrained in the tumor cells, producing highly reactive species that can destroy tumoral cells with minimum collateral effect. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the PDT in induced neoplasias of the colon by 1,2-dimetilhidrazine in rats, using as photosensitizing drug the chloroaluminum phthalocyanine incorporated to the liposomes and to compare the methods of irradiation using continuous or fractionated energy in PDT. Ten Wistar rats were distributed randomly in 3 groups (G1, G2 and C), anaesthetized and submitted to PDT with of fractionated (G1) or continuum (G2) irradiation energy using as a source of excitement an InGaAl laser. After 3 hours of the laser irradiation, 2 animals of the G1 group, 2 animals of the G2 group and 1 animal of C group were sacrificed and samples of tumoral tissue were collected for histological analysis; the same procedure was carried through 24 hours after irradiation. There were no significant differences between the extensions of the induced areas of necrosis for PDT in the groups under fractionated or continuous irradiation for the parameters used in this study. New studies must be carried through, using different parameters and intervals of laser irradiation, aiming to maximize the effect of the PDT for the treatment of colon tumors.

  5. Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Posner, Robert

    2002-09-01

    Robert Posner has 40 years of experience in skin care bench chemistry, product development, and sales and marketing. Working closely with dermatologists and plastic surgeons, Posner is a former member of the NY State Hospital Pharmacists Association, the American Pharmaceutical Association, and the American Association of Hospital Pharmacists. Currently, Posner sits on the Board of Directors of EMDA (Esthetic Manufacturers and Distributors Association). Posner has written numerous articles for Les Nouvelles Esthetiques Magazine, is presently a consultant for Day Spa Magazine, and had been one of only two non-dermatologists on a consultant basis with Cosmetic Dermatology Journal. Posner's company--ABBE Cosmetic Group International in Farmingdale, NY--formulates and manufactures skin care products for many well-known companies in the beauty industry. For many years, both the bench chemist and the dermatologist have been concerned with developing an ideal base for deliverance of 'actives' to the human epidermis. As is common knowledge, the skin is a protective organ which allows very few materials to penetrate. Some bases are unable to work effectively because of their relative inability to penetrate the stratum corneum; for example, some notable actives such as collagen and elastin are molecules too large to penetrate effectively. With the liposome at our command however, we can carry and then release an active into several layers of epidermis. We can release both oil- and water-soluble actives, and at the same time control the feel and effectiveness of a topical application. This article will examine the liposome: what it is, how it works, and how products made with liposomes can benefit dermatology.

  6. Photodynamic performance of zinc phthalocyanine in HeLa cells: A comparison between DPCC liposomes and BSA as delivery systems.

    PubMed

    M Garcia, Angélica; de Alwis Weerasekera, Hasitha; Pitre, Spencer P; McNeill, Brian; Lissi, Eduardo; Edwards, Ana M; Alarcon, Emilio I

    2016-10-01

    Comparable intracellular concentrations (≈30pmol/10(6) cells) of bovine serum albumin-ZnPc (BSA) adduct outperformed dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (DPPC) liposomes containing ZnPc at photodynamic-killing of human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) after only 15min of irradiation using red light (λ>620nm, 30W/cm(2)). This result could not be simply explained in terms of dye aggregation within the carrier, since in the liposomes the dye was considerably less aggregated than in bovine serum albumin, formulation that was capable to induce cell apoptosis upon red light exposure. Thus, using specific organelle staining, our cumulative data points towards intrinsic differences in intra-cellular localization depending on the cargo vehicle used, being ZnPc:BSA preferentially located in the near vicinity of the nucleus and in the Golgi structures, while the liposomal formulation ZnPc:DPPC was preferentially located in cellular membrane and cytoplasm. In addition to those differences, using real-time advanced fluorescence lifetime imaging of HeLa cells loaded with the photosensitizer contained in the different vehicles, we have found that only for the ZnPc:BSA formulation, there was no significant changes in the fluorescence lifetime of the photosensitizer inside the cells. This contrasts with the in situ≈two-fold reduction of the fluorescence lifetime measured for the liposomal ZnPc formulation. Those observations point towards the superiority of the protein to preserve dye aggregation, and its photochemical activity, post-cell uptake, demonstrating the pivotal role of the delivery vehicle at determining the ultimate fate of a photosensitizer.

  7. METAL PHTHALOCYANINES

    DOEpatents

    Frigerio, N.A.

    1962-03-27

    A process is given for preparing heavy metal phthalocyanines, sulfonated or not. The process comprises mixing an inorganic metal salt with dimethyl formamide or methyl sulfoxide; separating the metal complex formed from the solution; mixing the complex with an equimolar amount of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, or beryllium sulfonated or unsulfonated phthalocyanine whereby heavy-metal phthalocyanine crystals are formed; and separating the crystals from the solution. Uranyl, thorium, lead, hafnium, and lanthanide rare earth phthalocyanines can be produced by the process. (AEC)

  8. Phthalocyanine polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method of forming 4,4',4'',4''' -tetraamino phthalocyanines involves reducing 4,4',4'',4''' -tetranitro phthalocyanines, polymerizing the metal tetraamino phthalocyanines with a tetracarboxylic dianhydride (preferably aromatic) or copolymerizing with a tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a diamine (preferably also aromatic) to produce amic acids which are then dehydrocyclized to imides. Thermally and oxidatively stable polymers result which form tough, flexible films, varnishes, adhesives, and fibers.

  9. Glycosylated Metal Phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Hanack, Michael

    2015-11-10

    In the first part; the syntheses of mono-; di-; and tetra-glycosylated phthalonitriles is described; which are the most used starting materials for the preparation of the corresponding glycosylated metal (mostly zinc) phthalocyanines. In the second section; the preparation of symmetric and unsymmetric mono-; tetra-; and octa- glycosylated zinc phthalocyanines are reviewed; in which the sugar is attached to the phthalocyanine macrocycle; either anomerically or via another one of its OH-groups.

  10. Liposomal chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Emanuela; Cilurzo, Felisa; Di Marzio, Luisa; Carafa, Maria; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Wolfram, Joy; Paolino, Donatella; Celia, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Currently, six liposomal chemotherapeutics have received clinical approval and many more are in clinical trials or undergoing preclinical evaluation. Liposomes exhibit low toxicity and improve the biopharmaceutical features and therapeutic index of drugs, thereby increasing efficacy and reducing side effects. In this review we discuss the advantages of using liposomes for the delivery of chemotherapeutics. Gemcitabine and paclitaxel have been chosen as examples to illustrate how the performance of a metabolically unstable or poorly water-soluble drug can be greatly improved by liposomal incorporation. We look at the beneficial effects of liposomes in a variety of solid and blood-borne tumors, including thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer and multiple myeloma.

  11. Metal phthalocyanine polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Metal 4, 4', 4", 4"'=tetracarboxylic phthalocyanines (MPTC) are prepared by reaction of trimellitic anhydride, a salt or hydroxide of the desired metal (or the metal in powdered form), urea and a catalyst. A purer form of MPTC is prepared than heretofore. These tetracarboxylic acids are then polymerized by heat to sheet polymers which have superior heat and oxidation resistance. The metal is preferably a divalent metal having an atomic radius close to 1.35A.

  12. Method of solubilizing phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Chen, Michael J.; Fendrick, Carol M.

    1997-11-04

    A one-step method of manufacturing soluble phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines, like zinc phthalocyanine, by converting a phthalocyanine or a metallophthalocyanine to a trialkylsilyl-substituted derivative is disclosed. The phthalocyanine or metallophthalocyanine is converted to a soluble trialkylsilyl-substituted derivative by interacting the phthalocyanine or metallophthalocyanine with an active metal amide, like lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide, and a halotrialkylsilane, like chlorotrimethylsilane, to provide a phthalocyanine compound, like phthalocyanine monomers, dimers or polymers, metalated or unmetalated, that are soluble in organic media.

  13. Method of solubilizing phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Chen, Michael J.; Fendrick, Carol M.

    1997-01-01

    A one-step method of manufacturing soluble phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines, like zinc phthalocyanine, by converting a phthalocyanine or a metallophthalocyanine to a trialkylsilyl-substituted derivative is disclosed. The phthalocyanine or metallophthalocyanine is converted to a soluble trialkylsilyl-substituted derivative by interacting the phthalocyanine or metallophthalocyanine with an active metal amide, like lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide, and a halotrialkylsilane, like chlorotrimethylsilane, to provide a phthalocyanine compound, like phthalocyanine monomers, dimers or polymers, metalated or unmetalated, that are soluble in organic media.

  14. Method of solubilizing phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Rathke, J.W.; Chen, M.J.; Fendrick, C.M.

    1990-06-01

    A one-step method of manufacturing soluble phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines, like zinc phthalocyanine, by converting a phthalocyanine or a metallophthalocyanine to a trialkylsilyl-substituted derivative is disclosed. The phthalocyanine or metallophthalocyanine is converted to a soluble trialkylsilyl-substituted derivative by interacting the phthalocyanine or metallophthalocyanine with an active metal amide, like lithium 2,2,6, 6-tetra-methylpiperidide, and a halotrialkylsilane, like chlorotrimethylsilane, to provide a phthalocyanine compound, like phthalocyanine monomers, dimers or polymers, metalated or unmetalated, that are soluble in organic media.

  15. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  16. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broekgaarden, M.; van Vught, R.; Oliveira, S.; Roovers, R. C.; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P. M. P.; Pieters, R. J.; van Gulik, T. M.; Breukink, E.; Heger, M.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested.Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00014b

  17. Phthalocyanine based Schottky solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Chung Yin; Djurisic, Aleksandra B.; Lam, Lillian S. M.; Chan, Wai Kin

    2003-02-01

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) materials are commonly used in organic solar cells. Four different phthalocyanines, nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), iron phthalocyanine (FePc), and cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) have been investigated for organic solar cell applications. The devices consisted of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated lass substrate, Pc layer, and aluminum (al) electrode. It has been found that ITO/CuPc/Al Schottky cell exhibits the best performance. To investigate the influence of the active layer thickness on the cell performance, cells with several different thicknesses were fabricated and optimal value was found. Schottky cell exhibits optimal performance with one ohmic and one barrier contact. However, it is suspected that ITO/CuPc contact is not ohmic. Therefore, we have investigated various ITO surface treatments for improving the performance of CuPc based Schottky solar cell. We have found that cell on ITO treated with HCl and UV-ozone exhibits the best performance. AM1 power conversion efficiency can be improved by 30% compared to cell made with untreated ITO substrate. To improve power conversion efficiency, double or multiplayer structure are required, and it is expected that suitable ITO treatments for those devices will further improve their performance by improving the contact between ITO and phthalocyanine layer.

  18. Light scattering of human skin: a comparison between zinc (II)-phthalocyanine and photofrin II.

    PubMed

    Ochsner, M

    1996-01-01

    Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine is the active component of the liposomal formulation CGP 55847 which showed a highly activity in photodynamic therapy studies on a variety of animal tumours (K. Schieweck et al., SPIE Conf. Proc., 2078 (1994) 107-118). The photophysical properties of zinc(II)-phthalocyanine have been studied in detail and compared with those of Photofrin II(R), the only sensitizing agent approved so far for Phase III and IV clinical trials (M. Ochsner-Bruderer, Inaugural Dissertation, University of Basle, 1994). As will be shown in a series of papers, the main photophysical properties of zinc(II)-phthalocyanine are significantly better than those of Photofrin II(R) (M. Ochsner-Bruderer, Inaugural Dissertation, University of Basle, 1994). In this paper we especially consider the effect of the absorption wavelength on the penetration of light into the human skin. The results clearly show that the longer absorption wavelength of zinc(II)-phthalocyanine causes a deeper penetration of light into the human skin as compared with Photofrin II(R). In addition to this, the higher extinction coefficient (epsilon S) lowers the zinc(II)-phthalocyanine dose required to induce a tumour necrosis.

  19. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  20. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  1. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  3. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, M; van Vught, R; Oliveira, S; Roovers, R C; van Bergen en Henegouwen, P M P; Pieters, R J; Van Gulik, T M; Breukink, E; Heger, M

    2016-03-28

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested.

  4. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B liposomal injection is used to treat fungal infections such as cryptococcal meningitis (a fungal infection of the ... infections in people who cannot receive conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B liposomal injection is in a ...

  5. Binuclear Phthalocyanines with Aromatic Bridges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    successful. (Scheme 2) Synthesis of Binuclear Phthalocyanines Covalently Bridged by Anthracene The coupling reaction of aromatic halides using elemental...available (16), it Is not active enough to undergo the desired cross coupling reaction . Less electropositive arylzinc derivatives can tolerate various electro...philic functional groups such as nitriles and esters (17). These organo- metallic reagents readily undergo cross coupling reaction with aryl halides

  6. Archaebacterial tetraetherlipid liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ozcetin, Aybike; Mutlu, Samet; Bakowsky, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Liposomes are widely investigated for their applicability as drug delivery systems. However, the unstable liposomal constitution is one of the greatest limitations, because the liposomes undergo fast elimination after application to the human body. In the presented study, novel archeal lipids were used to prepare liposomal formulations which were tested for their stability at elevated temperatures, at different pH-values and after heat sterilization.

  7. Liposome technology. Volume I: Preparation of liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoriadis, G.

    1984-01-01

    These three volumes cover liposome technology in pharmacology and medicine. Contributors emphasize methodology used in their own laboratories, and include a brief introduction, coverage of relevant literature, applications and critical evaluations for the methods they describe. Volume I examine methods for the preparation of liposomes and auxiliary techniques.

  8. Liposomes as nanomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Molinari, Agnese

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, liposomes have been studied in depth, and they continue to constitute a field of intense research. Liposomes are valued for their biological and technological advantages, and are considered to be the most successful drug-carrier system known to date. Notable progress has been made, and several biomedical applications of liposomes are either in clinical trials, are about to be put on the market, or have already been approved for public use. In this review, we briefly analyze how the efficacy of liposomes depends on the nature of their components and their size, surface charge, and lipidic organization. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the physicochemical properties of liposomes on their interaction with cells, half-life, ability to enter tissues, and final fate in vivo. Finally, we describe some strategies developed to overcome limitations of the "first-generation" liposomes, and liposome-based drugs on the market and in clinical trials.

  9. Liposomes as nanomedical devices

    PubMed Central

    Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Molinari, Agnese

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, liposomes have been studied in depth, and they continue to constitute a field of intense research. Liposomes are valued for their biological and technological advantages, and are considered to be the most successful drug-carrier system known to date. Notable progress has been made, and several biomedical applications of liposomes are either in clinical trials, are about to be put on the market, or have already been approved for public use. In this review, we briefly analyze how the efficacy of liposomes depends on the nature of their components and their size, surface charge, and lipidic organization. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the physicochemical properties of liposomes on their interaction with cells, half-life, ability to enter tissues, and final fate in vivo. Finally, we describe some strategies developed to overcome limitations of the “first-generation” liposomes, and liposome-based drugs on the market and in clinical trials. PMID:25678787

  10. [Electroluminescence character of novel unsymmetry substituted phthalocyanines].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dao-cheng; Li, Wan-cheng; Han, Shuang; Cheng, Chuan-hui; Li, Quan-quan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhu

    2010-09-01

    The authors for the first time fabricated OLEDs employing novel phthalocynines: 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(1), 2(3),16(17)-di(p-tert-butyl-phenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(2) and 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) as light emitting layer, and their electroluminescence character was studied. The final structures of three-layer OLEDs based on copper 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine (1) and 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) were ITO/NPB(40 nm)/Pc(30 nm)/AlQ(43.5 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al(120 nm). The structure of three-layer OLED based on 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine (3) was ITO/NPB(30 nm)/Pc(30 nm) /BCP(20 nm)/A1Q(30 nm)/LiF (0. 5 nm)/Al(120 nm). Room-temperature electroluminescence was observed at about 869 nmand 1 062 nm for 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(1); room-temperature electroluminescence of 2(3),16(17) -di(p-tert-butyl-phenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(2) was found at about 1050 nm and 1110 nm; and room-temperature electroluminescence of 2(3), 9(10), 16( 17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) was studied at about 1095 and 1204 nm. The emission wavelengths and the half bandwidths were quite different for the phthalocyanine, which may be due to the differences in the number of substituted and the molecular aggregations in vacuum sublimed films. The difference in Stokes shift relaxation was also induced by the molecular aggregations.

  11. Phthalocyanines functionalized with 2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazolylethoxy and 1,4,7-trioxanonyl moieties and the effect of metronidazole substitution on photocytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wierzchowski, Marcin; Sobotta, Lukasz; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Kruk, Justyna; Jusiak, Weronika; Yee, Michael; Konopka, Krystyna; Düzgüneş, Nejat; Tykarska, Ewa; Gdaniec, Maria; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz

    2013-10-01

    Four novel magnesium(II) and zinc(II) phthalocyanines bearing 1,4,7-trioxanonyl, polyether and/or (2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethoxy, heterocyclic substituents at their non-peripheral positions were synthesized and assessed in terms of physicochemical and biological properties. Magnesium phthalocyanine derivatives bearing polyether substituents (Pc-1), a mixed system of polyether and heterocyclic substituents (Pc-3), and four heterocyclic substituents (Pc-4), respectively, were synthesized following the Linstead macrocyclization reaction procedure. Zinc phthalocyanine (Pc-2) bearing polyether substituents at non-peripheral positions was synthesized following the procedure in n-pentanol with the zinc acetate, and DBU. Novel phthalocyanines were purified by flash column chromatography and characterized using NMR, MS, UV-Vis and HPLC. Moreover, two precursors in macrocyclization reaction phthalonitriles were characterized using X-ray. Photophysical properties of the novel macrocycles were evaluated, including UV-Vis spectra analysis and aggregation study. All macrocycles subjected to singlet oxygen generation and the oxidation rate constant measurements exhibited lower quantum yields of singlet oxygen generation in DMSO than in DMF. In addition, the Pc-2 molecule was found to be the most efficient singlet oxygen generator from the group of macrocycles studied. The photocytotoxicity evaluated on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, HSC-3, for Pc-3 was significantly higher than that for Pc-1, Pc-2, and Pc-4. Interestingly, Pc-3 was found to be the most active macrocycle in vitro although its ability to generate singlet oxygen was significantly lower than those of Pc-1 and Pc-2. However, attempts to encapsulate phthalocyanines Pc-1-Pc-3 in liposomal membranes were unsuccessful. The phthalocyanine-nitroimidazole conjugate, Pc-4 was encapsulated in phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylcholine unilamellar liposomes and subjected to photocytotoxicity study.

  12. Liposomes As Carriers Of Hydrophobic Photosensitizers In Vivo: Increased Selectivity Of Tumor Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricchelli, Fernanda; Biolo, Roberta; Reddi, Elena; Tognon, Giuseppe; Jori, Giulio

    1988-02-01

    Unilamellar liposomes of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) incorporate a variety of hydrophobic photosensitizers (e.g. hematoporphyrin dimethylester, unsubstituted phthalo-cyanines, porphycene) into the phospholipid bilayer. The physico-chemical properties of the liposome-bound photosensitizers in the ground and electronically excited states can be characterized by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The liposome-drug system is stable under physiological conditions and, once injected into tumor-bearing animals, selectively delivers the photosensitizer to serum lipoproteins. As a consequence, the tumor uptake of the drug via receptor-mediated endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is favoured. This leads to a larger ratio between the photosensitizer concentration in the tumor and adjacent normal tissues, hence to an increased efficacy of the photodynamic therapy (PDT).

  13. Fused liposome and acid induced method for liposome fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Connor, J.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a method of fusing liposomes. It comprises: preparing a suspension of liposomes containing at least one lipid which has a tendency to form the inverted hexagonal phase and at least 20 mol percent of palmitoylhomocysteine; and in the absence of externally added divalent cations, proteins or other macromolecules, acidifying the liposome suspension to reduce the pH of the liposomes to below pH 7, such that at least about 20% of the liposomes fuse to one another.

  14. Synthesis of Metal Phthalocyanine Sheet Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    New method for synthesizing metal phthalocyanine tetracarboxylic acids (MPTCA's) yields high purity end product. In addition, high-purity metal phthalocyanine sheet polymers synthesized from compounds. Monomer formed into sheet polymer by heating. Units of polymer linked in manner similar to phenyl-group linkages in biphenyl: Conjugation extends throughout macromolecule, thereby increasing delocalization of TT-electrons. Increases conductivity and thermal stability of polymer.

  15. Liposomal paclitaxel formulations.

    PubMed

    Koudelka, Stěpán; Turánek, Jaroslav

    2012-11-10

    Over the past three decades, taxanes represent one of the most important new classes of drugs approved in oncology. Paclitaxel (PTX), the prototype of this class, is an anti-cancer drug approved for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. However, notwithstanding a suitable premedication, present-day chemotherapy employing a commercial preparation of PTX (Taxol®) is associated with serious side effects and hypersensitivity reactions. Liposomes represent advanced and versatile delivery systems for drugs. Generally, both in vivo mice tumor models and human clinical trials demonstrated that liposomal PTX formulations significantly increase a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PTX which outperform that for Taxol®. Liposomal PTX formulations are in various stages of clinical trials. LEP-ETU (NeoPharm) and EndoTAG®-1 (Medigene) have reached the phase II of the clinical trials; Lipusu® (Luye Pharma Group) has already been commercialized. Present achievements in the preparation of various liposomal formulations of PTX, the development of targeted liposomal PTX systems and the progress in clinical testing of liposomal PTX are discussed in this review summarizing about 30 years of liposomal PTX development.

  16. Phenylthio-substituted phthalocyanines as new photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, Igor G.; Derkacheva, Valentina M.; Meerovich, Gennady A.; Oborotova, Natalia A.; Smirnova, Zoya S.; Polozkova, Alevtina P.; Kubasova, Irina Yu.; Lukyanets, Evgeny A.; Baryshnikov, Anatoly Yu.

    2007-02-01

    Current work is devoted to investigation of tetra-3-phenylthio-tetra-5-t-butylphthalocyanine [(PhS) 4(t-Bu) 4PcH II], aluminium hydroxyde tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine [(PhS) 4PcAlOH] and zinc tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine [(PhS) 4PcZn] as potential photosensitizers of near-infrared range. Investigations were performed on F I mice bearing Erlich tumor. Photosensitizers were administered intravenously in liposomal form at doses of 4-10 mg/kg. Dynamic and selectivity of sensitizers' accumulation in tumor were estimated in vivo from fluorescence and absorption spectra of sensitized tissue. Photosensitizers have shown high selectivity of accumulation in tumor comparing to normal tissue of mice. Maxima of selectivity for (PhS) 4(t-Bu) 4PcH II, (PhS) 4PcZn and (PhS) 4PcAlOH achieve the values up to 2.5:1, 5:1 and 8:1 respectively. All photosensitizers completely clear from the normal tissue in 7-8 days. For PDT investigations tumors were irradiated using 732 nm laser with power density of 100-500 mW/cm2 and light dose density up to 400 J/cm2. The photodynamic efficiency was estimated using the parameter of tumor growth inhibition (TGI). All photosensitizers had shown high photodynamic efficiency of relatively large tumors. PDT using (PhS) 4PcAlOH and (PhS) 4(t-Bu) 4PcH II caused pronounced TGI exceeding 80%. Using (PhS) 4PcZn caused moderate TGI of 60%. Investigations have shown that liposomal forms of phenylthiosubstituted phthalocyanine derivatives may be used to develop new efficient photosensitizers for PDT.

  17. Three new phthalocyanines with potential for PDT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihter, Boris D.; Bohorquez, Maria D.; Rodgers, Michael A. J.; Kenney, Malcolm E.

    1992-06-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a tetradibenzobarrelenoocta-n-butoxyzinc phthalocyanine, as well as the phthalocyanines t-butyldimethylsiloxy-N(3(beta) -acetoxy-23, 24-dinor-5-cholenoyl)-4-amino-n-butyldimethylsiloxysilicon phthalocyanine and bis- N(3(beta) -acetoxy-23,24-dinor-5-cholenoyl)-4-amino-n-butyldimethylsiloxysilicon phthalocyanine are reported. The zinc phthalocyanine is soluble, open at its center and highly hindered. It has a deep red absorption and a long triplet state lifetime. The silicon phthalocyanines have red absorptions and ligands bearing functions that have a resemblance to a part of the core of the low density lipoprotein fraction of blood serum. The zinc phthalocyanine has the potential to be a good photosensitizer, and the silicon phthalocyanines or related compounds have the potential to be preferentially accumulated by tumor cells. All three compounds are of interest for photodynamic therapy studies.

  18. Photodynamic activities of silicon phthalocyanines against achromic M6 melanoma cells and healthy human melanocytes and keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Decreau, R; Richard, M J; Verrando, P; Chanon, M; Julliard, M

    1999-01-01

    Dichlorosilicon phthalocyanine (Cl2SiPc) and bis(tri-n-hexylsiloxy) silicon phthalocyanine (HexSiPc) have been evaluated in vitro as potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) against the human amelanotic melanoma cell line M6. Each photosensitizer is dissolved in a solvent-PBS mixture, or entrapped in egg-yolk lecithin liposomes or in Cremophor EL micelles. The cells are incubated for 1 h with the sensitizer and then irradiated for 20 min, 1 h or 2 h (lambda > 480 nm, 10 mW cm-2). The photocytotoxic effect is dependent on the photosensitizer concentration and the light dose. Higher phototoxicity is observed after an irradiation of 2 h: treatment with a solution of photosensitizer (2 x 10(-9) M) leads to 10% (HexSiPc in egg-yolk lecithin liposomes) or 20% (Cl2SiPc in DMF-PBS solution) cell viability. After 1 h incubation and 20 min of light exposure, the photodynamic effect is connected with the type of delivery system used. For HexSiPc, lower cell viability is found when this photosensitizer is entrapped in egg-yolk lecithin instead of solvent-PBS or for Cremophor EL micelles with Cl2SiPc. Liposome-delivered HexSiPc leads to lipid damage in M6 cells, illustrated by an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARs), but the change is not significant with Cremophor EL. The same is observed for the antioxidative defences after photodynamic stress. The cells irradiated with HexSiPc entrapped in liposomes display an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase (Cat) activities.

  19. Studies of phthalocyanine-containing polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pui Sze Priscilla

    This thesis reports the synthesis, spectroscopic and photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of several series of phthalocyanine-containing polymers including poly(norbornene), poly(anhydride), and poly(epsilon-caprolactone). Chapter 1 gives a general overview of phthalocyanines including their synthesis and applications. Special emphasis has been placed on hydrophilic and non-aggregated phthalocyanines and their use in photodynamic therapy. In addition, different classes of phthalocyanine-containing polymers will also be mentioned. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis, characterization, and photophysical properties of a series of poly(norbornene)s with zinc(II) phthalocyanine and amino acid moieties. The copolymers were prepared by copolymerization of 2-(2-norbornenylmethoxy)phthalocyaninatozinc(II) with 5-norbornenes substituted with phenylalanine and tyrosine. As shown by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, phthalocyanines in this series of polymer exhibit a rather strong aggregation tendency. Chapter 3 presents the synthesis, characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of a related series of amino acid- and sugar-containing poly(norbornene)s connected axially to a silicon(IV) phthalocyanine core. These polymers exhibit a good solubility in common organic solvents. Due to the axial polymeric substituents, these compounds are free from aggregation and give a high singlet oxygen quantum yield. These polymers in Cremophor EL emulsions also show a high photodynamic activity against HepG2 cells, in particular the polymer with protected galactose moieties. Chapter 4 reports a series of silicon(IV) phthalocyanines substituted with two poly(sebacic anhydride) chains as the axial ligands. The polymers form nanoparticles in water in the presence of surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS). The degradation of the nanoparticles was carried out in alkaline media and was

  20. [Study on spectra properties of novel octa-substituted phthalocyanines].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dao-Cheng; Li, Wan-Cheng; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zheng, Xin-Xing; Guo, Yan-Jie; Yang, Xu-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum properties of four novel 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octaoxybutyl copper phthalocyanine; 1,4,8,11,15,18, 22, 25-octamethoxybutanoate manganese phthalocyanine; 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octamethoxybutanoate copper phthalocyanine; 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octamethoxybutanoate zinc phthalocyanine were investigated by infrared, fluorescence and UV-visible spectrum in the the paper. There is no rule in the infrared spectrum of these octa-substituted phthalocyanines. The orders of the Q band, B band and Pc dimer band are different among the above Octa-substituted Phthalocyanines in the UV and fluorescence spectra. The reason is related to the interaction between the ligand and the central metal of these octa-substituted phthalocyanines.

  1. Photodynamic effects of silicon phthalocyanines in model cells and tumors (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinick, Nancy L.; Zaidi, Syed I. A.; Rihter, Boris D.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Clay, Marian E.; Antunez, Antonio R.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    1992-06-01

    A series of silicon and aluminum phthalocyanines is being investigated in this laboratory for their potential as photosensitizers for photodynamic tumor therapy (PDT). Of these, one of the silicon phthalocyanines [SiPc(OH)OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2] (Pc IV) has proven to be highly efficient in a series of in vitro assays and in PDT in vivo. When compared to sulfonated or non-sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine and/or Photofrin II, Pc IV produced greater effects at lower concentrations in a clonogenic assay with V79 cells, and in photoenhancement of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocyte membranes. Physiological responses of treated cells in vitro appeared similar to those produced by PDT with other sensitizers; however, the responses, such as the induction of apoptosis in murine lymphoma, occurred with greater efficiency when Pc IV served as photosensitizer. In order to evaluate the efficacy of Pc IV in vivo, the dye was suspended in corn oil or incorporated into liposomes and injected intraperitoneally into C3H mice bearing RIF-1 tumors. Pharmacokinetic studies showed efficient uptake of Pc IV into the tumor, as well as into liver and kidney. For PDT, tumors were irradiated with 675 nm light from an argon-pumped dye laser. Treatment of tumors up to 100 mm3 with 1.0 mg/kg Pc IV and 135 J/cm2 produced ablation of the tumor within 48 hours. Tumors > 200 mm3 could be ablated with 2.0 mg/kg Pc IV. The data suggest that Pc IV may be a highly efficient photosensitizer for tumor PDT.

  2. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this use shall not be construed as waiving any of...

  3. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this use shall not be construed as waiving any of...

  4. DNA-binding and oxidative properties of cationic phthalocyanines and their dimeric complexes with anionic phthalocyanines covalently linked to oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, A A; Lukyanets, E A; Solovyeva, L I; Knorre, D G; Fedorova, O S

    2008-12-01

    Design of chemically modified oligonucleotides for regulation of gene expression has attracted considerable attention over the past decades. One actively pursued approach involves antisense or antigene oligonucleotide constructs carrying reactive groups, many of these based on transition metal complexes. The complexes of Fe(II) and Co(II) with phthalocyanines are extremely good catalysts of oxidation of organic compounds with molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The binding of positively charged Fe(II) and Co(II) phthalocyanines with single- and double-stranded DNA was investigated. It was shown that these phthalocyanines interact with nucleic acids through an outside binding mode. The site-directed modification of single-stranded DNA by O2 and H2O2 in the presence of dimeric complexes of negatively and positively charged Fe(II) and Co(II) phthalocyanines was investigated. These complexes were formed directly on single-stranded DNA through interaction between negatively charged phthalocyanine in conjugate and positively charged phthalocyanine in solution. The resulting oppositely charged phthalocyanine complexes showed significant increase of catalytic activity compared with monomeric forms of phthalocyanines Fe(II) and Co(II). These complexes catalyzed the DNA oxidation with high efficacy and led to direct DNA strand cleavage. It was determined that oxidation of DNA by molecular oxygen catalyzed by complex of Fe(II)-phthalocyanines proceeds with higher rate than in the case of Co(II)-phthalocyanines but the latter led to a greater extent of target DNA modification.

  5. [Photophysical properties and photodynamic activity of nanostructured aluminium phthalocyanines].

    PubMed

    Udartseva, O O; Lobanov, A V; Andeeva, E R; Dmitrieva, G S; Mel'nikov, M Ia; Buravkova, L B

    2014-01-01

    We developed water-soluble supramolecular complexes of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles and polyvinylpirrolidone containing rare photoactive nanoaggregates. Radiative lifetimes, extinction coefficients and energy of electronic transitions of isolated and associated metal phthalocyanine complexes were calculated. Nontoxic concentrations of synthesized nanocomposite photosensibilizers were in vitro determined. In present study we compared photodynamic treatment efficacy using different modifications of aluminium phthalocyanine (Photosens®, AlPc-nSiO2 and AlPc-PVP). Mesenchymal stromal cells were used as a model for photodynamic treatment. Intracellular accumulation of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles AlPc-nSiO2 was the most efficient. Illumination of phthalocyanine-loaded cells led to reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Silica nanoparticles provided a significant decrease of effective phthalocyanine concentration and enhanced cytotoxicity of photodynamic treatment.

  6. Structural studies of aliphatic substituted phthalocyanine-lipid multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zarbakhsh, Ali; Campana, Mario; Mills, David; Webster, John R P

    2010-10-05

    A Langmuir-Blodgett film of aliphatic substituted phthalocyanines on a C18 silane supporting layer coupled onto a silicon substrate has been investigated using neutron reflectometry. This multilayer structure is seen as a possible candidate for phthalocyanine-lipid biosensor devices. The results show the suitability of the C18 ligands as an anchoring layer for the phthalocyanines. The scattering length density profiles demonstrate the effectiveness of a lipid monolayer in partitioning the composition of phthalocyanine layers from that of the bulk liquid. The effectiveness of this barrier is a critical factor in the efficiency of such devices.

  7. Liposomes: Technologies and Analytical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2008-07-01

    Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual purpose: Either they are analytes, typically in quality-assessment procedures of liposome preparations, or they are functional components in a variety of new analytical systems. Liposome immunoassays, for example, benefit greatly from the amplification provided by encapsulated markers, and nanotube-interconnected liposome networks have emerged as ultrasmall-scale analytical devices. This review provides information about new developments in some of the most actively researched liposome-related topics.

  8. Cationic liposomes as vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dennis; Korsholm, Karen Smith; Andersen, Peter; Agger, Else Marie

    2011-04-01

    The application of cationic liposomes as vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants has been investigated extensively over the last few decades. However, cationic liposomes are, in general, not sufficiently immunostimulatory, which is why the combination of liposomes with immunostimulating ligands has arisen as a strategy in the development of novel adjuvant systems. Within the last 5 years, two novel adjuvant systems based on cationic liposomes incorporating Toll-like receptor or non-Toll-like receptor immunostimulating ligands have progressed from preclinical testing in smaller animal species to clinical testing in humans. The immune responses that these clinical candidates induce are primarily of the Th1 type for which there is a profound unmet need. Furthermore, a number of new cationic liposome-forming surfactants with notable immunostimulatory properties have been discovered. In this article we review the recent progress on the application of cationic liposomes as vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants.

  9. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F.

    1995-11-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

  10. Photochemical decontamination of red cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 and red light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hur, Ehud; Zuk, Maria M.; Oetjen, Joyce; Chan, Wai-Shun; Lenny, Leslie; Horowitz, Bernard

    1999-07-01

    Virus inactivation in red blood cells concentrates (RBCC) is being studied in order to increase the safety of the blood supply. For this purpose we have been studying the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc 4), a photosensitizer activated with red light. Two approaches were used to achieve enhanced selectivity of Pc 4 for virus inactivation. One was formulation of Pc 4 in liposomes that reduce its binding to red cells. The other was the use of a light emitting diode (LED) array emitting at 700 nm. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infectivity served as an endpoint for virus kill in treated RBCC. Red cell hemolysis and circulatory survival in rabbits served as measures for red cell damage. Treatment of small aliquots of human RBCC with 2 (mu) M Pc 4 in liposomes and 10 J/cm2 of 700 nm LED light in the presence of the quenches of reactive oxygen species glutathione and trolox resulted in 6 log10 inactivation of VSV. Under these conditions hemolysis of treated red cells stored at 4 degree(s)C for 21 days was only slightly above that of control cells. Rabbit RBCC similarly treated circulated with a half life of 7.5 days compared with 10.5 days of control. It is concluded that Pc 4 used as described here may be useful for viral decontamination of RBCC, pending toxicological and clinical studies.

  11. Hydrophobicity, topography in membranes and photosensitization of silicon phthalocyanines with axial ligands of varying lengths.

    PubMed

    Sholto, Alan; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2008-03-01

    Six amphiphilic silicon phthalocyanines (SiPc's) axially linked to a dimethylated amino alkyl group of varying length have been examined for their potential suitability as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). This group of molecules was chosen because the length of the axial ligand might place the chromophoric part of the molecule at different vertical depths in the membrane and possibly affect the extent of membrane localized damage caused by singlet oxygen. We tested the relative penetration depth of the SiPc groups in the membrane by the extent to which their fluorescence was quenched by external iodide ions. We also measured singlet oxygen quantum yields of the SiPc's in a liposome membrane, using the fluorescent target for singlet oxygen, 9,10-dimethylanthracene. The hydrophobicity parameters, LogP, were calculated and were also measured. Some correlation was found between them and Kb's, the binding constants for liposomes. The effect of the axial ligand's length is less striking than in similar cases with hematoporphyrins and protoporphyrins. We link this smaller effect with a bending of the linker chain that enables, sterically, a better positioning of the sensitizer molecules within the ordered lipid layer structure.

  12. Crystal fields of porphyrins and phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. S.; Boukahil, I.; Himpsel, F. J.; Kennedy, C.; Jersett, N.; Cook, P. L.; Garcia-Lastra, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the N 1s and metal 2p edges is combined with density functional and atomic multiplet calculations to determine the crystal field parameters 10Dq, Ds, and Dt of transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) phthalocyanines and octaethylporphyrins. Octaethyl porphyrins are observed to lie flat on Si with native oxide, while phthalocyanines lie on edge. Strong polarization dependence is found at all edges, which facilitates a unique determination of the crystal field parameters. Crystal field values from PBE density functional calculations provide helpful starting values, which are refined by fitting atomic multiplet calculations to the data. Since the crystal field affects electron-hole separation in solar cells, the systematic set of crystal field parameters obtained here can be useful for optimizing dyes for solar cells.

  13. Photophysics of silicon phthalocyanines in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Doane, Tennyson L; Chuang, Chi-Hung; Chomas, Andrew; Burda, Clemens

    2013-02-04

    Phthalocyanines have been used as photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents because of their uniquely favorable optical properties and high photostability. They have been shown to be highly successful for the treatment of cancer through efficient singlet-oxygen ((1)O(2)) production. However, due to their hydrophobic properties, the considerations of solubility and cellular location have made understanding their photophysics in vitro and in vivo difficult. Indeed, many quantitative assessments of PDT reagents are undertaken in purely organic solvents, presenting challenges for interpreting observations during practical application in vivo. With steady-state and time-resolved laser spectroscopy, we show that for axial ligated silicon phthalocyanines in aqueous media, both the water:lipophile ratio and the pH have drastic effects on their photophysics, and ultimately dictate their functionality as PDT drugs. We suggest that considering the presented photophysics for PDT drugs in aqueous solutions leads to guidelines for a next generation of even more potent PDT agents.

  14. Effects of the protein corona on liposome-liposome and liposome-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Claudia; Molinaro, Roberto; Taraballi, Francesca; Toledano Furman, Naama E; Sherman, Michael B; Parodi, Alessandro; Salvatore, Francesco; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of interactions occurring at the interface between nanocarriers and biological systems is crucial to predict and interpret their biodistribution, targeting, and efficacy, and thus design more effective drug delivery systems. Upon intravenous injection, nanoparticles are coated by a protein corona (PC). This confers a new biological identity on the particles that largely determines their biological fate. Liposomes have great pharmaceutical versatility, so, as proof of concept, their PC has recently been implicated in the mechanism and efficiency of their internalization into the cell. In an attempt to better understand the interactions between nanocarriers and biological systems, we analyzed the plasma proteins adsorbed on the surface of multicomponent liposomes. Specifically, we analyzed the physical properties and ultrastructure of liposome/PC complexes and the aggregation process that occurs when liposomes are dispersed in plasma. The results of combined confocal microscopy and flow cytometry experiments demonstrated that the PC favors liposome internalization by both macrophages and tumor cells. This work provides insights into the effects of the PC on liposomes' physical properties and, consequently, liposome-liposome and liposome-cell interactions.

  15. Monodisperse Uni- and Multicompartment Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Nan-Nan; Yelleswarapu, Maaruthy; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2016-06-22

    Liposomes are self-assembled phospholipid vesicles with great potential in fields ranging from targeted drug delivery to artificial cells. The formation of liposomes using microfluidic techniques has seen considerable progress, but the liposomes formation process itself has not been studied in great detail. As a result, high throughput, high-yielding routes to monodisperse liposomes with multiple compartments have not been demonstrated. Here, we report on a surfactant-assisted microfluidic route to uniform, single bilayer liposomes, ranging from 25 to 190 μm, and with or without multiple inner compartments. The key of our method is the precise control over the developing interfacial energies of complex W/O/W emulsion systems during liposome formation, which is achieved via an additional surfactant in the outer water phase. The liposomes consist of single bilayers, as demonstrated by nanopore formation experiments and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and they can act as compartments for cell-free gene expression. The microfluidic technique can be expanded to create liposomes with a multitude of coupled compartments, opening routes to networks of multistep microreactors.

  16. Liposomal nanotechnology for cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhifei; Yue, Xiuli

    2017-03-05

    Liposomes are a type of biomimetic nanoparticles generated from self-assembling concentric lipid bilayer enclosing an aqueous core domain. They have been attractive nanocarriers for the delivery of many drugs (e.g. radiopharmaceuticals, chemotherapeutic agents, porphyrin) and diagnostic agents (e.g. fluorescent dyes, quantum dots, Gadolinium complex and Fe3O4) by encapsulating (or adsorbing) hydrophilic one inside the liposomal aqueous core domain (or on the bilayer membrane surface), and by entrapping hydrophobic one within the liposomal bilayer. Additionally, the liposome surface can be easily conjugated with targeting molecules. Liposomes may accumulate in cancerous tissues not only passively via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, but also actively by targeting cancer cell or angiogenic marker specifically. The multimodality imaging functionalization of liposomal therapeutic agents makes them highly attracting for individualized monitoring of the in vivo cancer targeting and pharmacokinetics of liposomes loading therapeutic drugs, and predicting therapeutic efficacy in combination with the helpful information from each imaging technique. The present review article will highlight some main advances of cancer theranostic liposomes with a view to activating further research in the nanomedicine community.

  17. Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Rezaei-Sadabady, Rogaie; Davaran, Soodabeh; Joo, Sang Woo; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Hanifehpour, Younes; Samiei, Mohammad; Kouhi, Mohammad; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem

    2013-02-01

    Liposomes, sphere-shaped vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid-60s. Today, they are a very useful reproduction, reagent, and tool in various scientific disciplines, including mathematics and theoretical physics, biophysics, chemistry, colloid science, biochemistry, and biology. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Among several talented new drug delivery systems, liposomes characterize an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present, several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles to `second-generation liposomes', in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability and regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents.

  18. Photoinduced electron transfer between benzyloxy dendrimer phthalocyanine and benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Ma, Dongdong; Pan, Sujuan; Wu, Shijun; Jiang, Yufeng; Zeng, Di; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2016-10-01

    Photo-induced electron transfer (PET) is an important and fundamental process in natural photosynthesis. To mimic such interesting PET process, a suitable donor and acceptor couple were properly chosen. Dendrimer phthalocyanines and their derivatives have emerged as promising materials for artificial photosynthesis systems. In this paper, the electron transfer between the light harvest dendrimer phthalocyanine (donor) and the 1,4-benzoquinone (acceptor) was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. It was found that fluorescence of phthalocyanine was quenched by benzoquinone (BQ) via excited state electron transfer, from the phthalocyanine to the BQ upon excitation at 610 nm. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV) of electron transfer was calculated. Our study suggests that this dendritic phthalocyanine is an effective new electron donor and transmission complex and could be used as a potential artificial photosynthesis system.

  19. Room temperature ferromagnetism in a phthalocyanine based carbon material

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Z. Sato, K.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N.; Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T.

    2014-02-07

    We report on a simple method to fabricate a magnetic carbon material that contains nitrogen-coordinated transition metals and has a large magnetic moment. Highly chlorinated iron phthalocyanine was used as building blocks and potassium as a coupling reagent to uniformly disperse nitrogen-coordinated iron atoms on the phthalocyanine based carbon material. The iron phthalocyanine based carbon material exhibits ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and the ferromagnetic phase transition occurs at T{sub c} = 490 ± 10 K. Transmission electron microscopy observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, and the temperature dependence of magnetization suggest that the phthalocyanine molecules form three-dimensional random networks in the iron phthalocyanine based carbon material.

  20. Liposomal encapsulated anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Gnad-Vogt, Senta Ulrike; Beyer, Ulrich; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2005-08-01

    Among several drug delivery systems, liposomal encapsulated anti-cancer agents represent an advanced and versatile technology. Several formulations of liposomal anthracyclines are approved, e.g. for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (pegylated and non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) or AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and liposomal daunorubicin). Meanwhile, virtually all anti-cancer drugs have been encapsulated in liposomes using different technologies. This review will summarize preclinical and clinical data of approved and exemplary emerging liposomal anti-cancer agents.

  1. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    PubMed

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  2. Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes, sphere-shaped vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid-60s. Today, they are a very useful reproduction, reagent, and tool in various scientific disciplines, including mathematics and theoretical physics, biophysics, chemistry, colloid science, biochemistry, and biology. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Among several talented new drug delivery systems, liposomes characterize an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present, several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles to ‘second-generation liposomes’, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability and regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents. PMID:23432972

  3. Liposome Technology for Industrial Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andreas; Vorauer-Uhl, Karola

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes, spherical vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid 60s by Bangham and coworkers. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Today, numerous lab scale but only a few large-scale techniques are available. However, a lot of these methods have serious limitations in terms of entrapment of sensitive molecules due to their exposure to mechanical and/or chemical stress. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability. An additional point of view was taken to regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents. PMID:21490754

  4. Novel axially disubstituted non-aggregated silicon phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya; Cakır, Dilek

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization of a range of new axially-disubstituted silicon phthalocyanines with 2-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy] or 2-[2-(1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxa-16-azacyclooctadecan-16-yl)ethoxy] groups as axial ligands. 2-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy]ethanol 2, 2-[2-(1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxa-16-azacyclooctadecan-16-yl)ethoxy]ethanol 4 are reacted with silicon phthalocyanine 1, to give an axially-disubstituted silicon phthalocyanines 3 and 5. Axially-disubstituted silicon phthalocyanine complexes were synthesized at the first time. Newly synthesized silicon phthalocyanines were characterized by UV-Vis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry. These new silicon(IV) phthalocyanines 3 and 5 showed excellent solubility in organic solvents such as CHCl(3), CH(2)Cl(2), acetone, DMF, DMSO, THF, EtOAc. The aggregation behavior of these compounds were investigated in different concentrations of DMSO. The effect of solvents on absorption spectra were studied in various organic solvents. The thermal stabilities of the silicon(IV) phthalocyanines 3 and 5 were determined by thermogravimetric analysis.

  5. The photochemical properties of fluoroaluminum phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, I; Shafirovich, V Y; Geacintov, N E; Ben-Hur, E; Horowitz, B

    1994-09-01

    Fluoride is known to inhibit the photodynamic activity of aluminium phthalocyanine in a variety of biological systems. In order to gain insight into this phenomenon, the effect of fluoride on the photophysical properties of free and albumin-bound chloroaluminum phthalocyanine sulfonate (AlPcSn) were studied. The association constant of NaF with AlPcSn in aqueous solution was measured as 500 +/- 20 M-1. This binding affects the photophysical properties of the dye: the absorption bands in the visible range are blue-shifted by 6-8 nm, and this effect is mirrored in the fluorescence emission spectrum. Human serum albumin significantly quenched the dye fluorescence independent of the presence of fluoride ion. The transient absorption spectrum of the excited dye triplet is unchanged by NaF, but the quantum yield for its generation is increased by 50%, with no decrease in its lifetime. Formation of fluoroaluminum phthalocyanine complexes was also observed in tetrabutylammonium fluoride-assisted solutions in wet acetonitrile. The fluoro-AlPcSn complex is a better photosensitizer for generation of singlet oxygen than the original dye-hydroxyl ion complex, as confirmed using the imidazole-N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline method. On the other hand, the fluoro-AlPcSn complex exhibits an intense inhibitory effect on photohemolysis of red blood cells (RBC) even after the cells are washed to remove free dye and fluoride prior to irradiation, indicating that once the dye is attached to the cellular site, the fluoride ligand is no longer prone to displacement (by hydroxyl ion, for example). Nonetheless, it is clear from the spectroscopic data that the new fluoro complex is an efficient sensitizer for photooxidation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1976-01-13

    A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

  7. Phospholipid liposomes functionalized by protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Savostyanov, G. V.; Grishina, O. A.

    2015-03-01

    Finding new ways to deliver neurotrophic drugs to the brain in newborns is one of the contemporary problems of medicine and pharmaceutical industry. Modern researches in this field indicate the promising prospects of supramolecular transport systems for targeted drug delivery to the brain which can overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, the solution of this problem is actual not only for medicine, but also for society as a whole because it determines the health of future generations. Phospholipid liposomes due to combination of lipo- and hydrophilic properties are considered as the main future objects in medicine for drug delivery through the BBB as well as increasing their bioavailability and toxicity. Liposomes functionalized by various proteins were used as transport systems for ease of liposomes use. Designing of modification oligosaccharide of liposomes surface is promising in the last decade because it enables the delivery of liposomes to specific receptor of human cells by selecting ligand and it is widely used in pharmacology for the treatment of several diseases. The purpose of this work is creation of a coarse-grained model of bilayer of phospholipid liposomes, functionalized by specific to the structural elements of the BBB proteins, as well as prediction of the most favorable orientation and position of the molecules in the generated complex by methods of molecular docking for the formation of the structure. Investigation of activity of the ligand molecule to protein receptor of human cells by the methods of molecular dynamics was carried out.

  8. Uranyl phthalocyanines show promise in the treatment of brain tumors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Processes synthesize sulfonated and nonsulfonated uranyl phthalocyanines for application in neutron therapy of brain tumors. Tests indicate that the compounds are advantageous over the previously used boron and lithium compounds.

  9. Laser-Desorption Supersonic Jet Spectroscopy of Phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plows, Fiona L.; Jones, Anita C.

    1999-04-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra of zinc phthalocyanine, chloroaluminum phthalocyanine, magnesium phthalocyanine, and free-base phthalocyanine have been investigated under jet-cooled conditions, by using pulsed infrared laser desorption as the means of vaporization. Assignment of the observed vibronic transitions reveals that many of them gain intensity from coupling of theS1(Q) state with theS2(B) andQ‧ states. Low-frequency out-of-plane modes of the macrocycle are observed in the region below 100 cm-1; the vibronic structure in this region of the spectrum is sensitive to deviation of the molecule from a planar geometry. TheS1-S0excitation energy shows a weak dependence on the hole size of the macrocycle.

  10. Enhancement of ultrasonically induced cell damage by phthalocyanines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Milowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2008-12-01

    In this work, erythrocytes from carp were used as a nucleated cell model to test the hypothesis that the phthalocyanines (zinc--ZnPc and chloroaluminium -AlClPc) enhance ultrasonically induced damage in vitro. In order to confirm and complete our earlier investigation, the influence of ultrasound (US) and phthalocyanines (Pcs) on unresearched cellular components, was studied. Red blood cells were exposed to 1 MHz continuous ultrasound wave (0.61 and/or 2.44 W/cm(2)) in the presence or absence of phthalocyanines (3 microM). To identify target cell damage, we studied hemolysis, membrane fluidity and morphology of erythrocytes. To demonstrate the changes in the fluidity of plasma membrane we used the spectrofluorimetric methods using two fluorescence probes: 1-[4-(trimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5,-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The effect of US and Pcs on nucleated erythrocytes morphology was estimated on the basis of microscopic observation. The enhancement of ultrasonically induced membrane damage by both phthalocyanines was observed in case of hemolysis, and membrane surface fluidity, in comparison to ultrasound. The authors also observed changes in the morphology of erythrocytes. The obtained results support the hypothesis that the Pcs enhance ultrasonically induced cell damage in vitro. Furthermore, the influence of ultrasound on phthalocyanines (Pcs) in medium and in cells was tested. The authors observed changes in the phthalocyanines absorption spectra in the medium and the increase in the intensity of phthalocyanines fluorescence in the cells. These data can suggest changes in the structure of phthalocyanines after ultrasound action.

  11. Modelling copper-phthalocyanine/cobalt-phthalocyanine chains: towards magnetic quantum metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei

    2014-07-23

    The magnetic properties of a theoretically designed molecular chain structure CuCoPc2, in which copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc) alternate, have been investigated across a range of chain structures. The computed exchange interaction for the α-phase CuCoPc2 is ∼ 5 K (ferromagnetic), in strong contrast to the anti-ferromagnetic interaction recently observed in CuPc and CoPc. The computed exchange interactions are strongly dependent on the stacking angle but weakly on the sliding angle, and peak at 20 K (ferromagnetic). These ferromagnetic interactions are expected to arise from direct exchange with the strong suppression of super-exchange interaction. These first-principles calculations show that π-conjugated molecules, such as phthalocyanine, could be used as building blocks for the design of magnetic materials. This therefore extends the concept of quantum metamaterials further into magnetism. The resulting new magnetic materials could find applications in the studies such as organic spintronics.

  12. Synthesis and photophysical studies of phthalocyanine-gold nanoparticle conjugates.

    PubMed

    Nombona, Nolwazi; Antunes, Edith; Litwinski, Christian; Nyokong, Tebello

    2011-11-28

    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of phthalocyanine-gold nanoparticle conjugates. The phthalocyanine complexes are: tris-(5-trifluoromethyl-2-mercaptopyridine)-2-(carboxy)phthalocyanine (3), 2,9,17,23-tetrakis-[(1, 6-hexanedithiol) phthalocyaninato]zinc(II) (8) and [8,15,22-tris-(naptho)-2(amidoethanethiol) phthalocyanato] zinc(II)(10). The gold nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy where the size was confirmed to be ∼5 nm. The phthalocyanine Au nanoparticle conjugates showed lower fluorescence quantum yield values with similar fluorescence lifetimes compared to the free phthalocyanines. The Au nanoparticle conjugates of 3 and 10 also showed higher triplet quantum yields of 0.69 to 0.71, respectively. A lower triplet quantum yield was obtained for the conjugate compared to free phthalocyanine for complex 8. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 70 to 92 μs for the conjugates and from 110 to 304 μs for unbound Pc complexes.

  13. [Preparation and quality evaluation of Iohexol liposomes].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rongli; Zhu, Xiali; Hung, Guihua; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Bingjie

    2007-08-01

    The liposomes were prepared by reverse-phase evaporation technique. The morphology of the liposomes, the entrapment efficiency and the particle size distribution were evaluated. The CT signals of Iohexol liposomes in rabbits were compared with those of Iohexol injection in rabbits. The entrapment efficiency of Iohexol liposomes was 82.35% +/- 1.82%. The liposmes were spherical or ellipsoidal shape in shape. The mean diameter of the Iohexol liposomes was 207 7 nm. The polydispersity index was 0.355. The Zeta potential was--1.83 mV. The drug was highly entrapped into the liposomes with good reproduction and stability. The in vitro release of Iohexol liposomes was significantly slower than that of Iohexol,and was 98.57% at 24 h. Iohexol liposomes may reduce the dosage, prolong the effective time of the developing agent, and could reduce the side effects of Iohexol on the blood vessels and cerebral nerves.

  14. Photophysical studies of newly derivatized mono substituted phthalocyanines grafted onto silica nanoparticles via click chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-04-01

    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of newly derived phthalocyanine complexes and the phthalocyanine-silica nanoparticles conjugates. The derived phthalocyanine complexes have one terminal alkyne group. The derived phthalocyanine complexes showed improved photophysical properties (ФF, ФT, ΦΔ and τT) compared to the respective phthalocyanine complexes from which they were derived. The derived phthalocyanine complexes were conjugated to the surface of an azide functionalized silica nanoparticles via copper (1) catalyzed cyclo-addition reaction. All the conjugates showed lower triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.37 to 0.44 compared to the free phthalocyanine complexes. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 352 to 484 μs for the conjugates and from 341 to 366 μs for the free phthalocyanine complexes.

  15. Phthalocyanine-modulated isomerization behaviour of an azo-based photoswitch.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Redondo, José L; Sastre-Santos, Angela; Fernández-Lázaro, Fernando; Soares, Dilcelli; Azzellini, Gianluca C; Elliott, Bevan; Echegoyen, Luis

    2006-03-28

    A photoswitchable azobenzene-phthalocyanine-azobenzene triad has been synthesized and its electrochemical properties determined. Energy transfer among the subunits allows for modification of the E-Z ratio by selective excitation of the phthalocyanine moiety.

  16. Photophysical studies of newly derivatized mono substituted phthalocyanines grafted onto silica nanoparticles via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-04-05

    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of newly derived phthalocyanine complexes and the phthalocyanine-silica nanoparticles conjugates. The derived phthalocyanine complexes have one terminal alkyne group. The derived phthalocyanine complexes showed improved photophysical properties (ФF, ФT, ΦΔ and τT) compared to the respective phthalocyanine complexes from which they were derived. The derived phthalocyanine complexes were conjugated to the surface of an azide functionalized silica nanoparticles via copper (1) catalyzed cyclo-addition reaction. All the conjugates showed lower triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.37 to 0.44 compared to the free phthalocyanine complexes. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 352 to 484 μs for the conjugates and from 341 to 366 μs for the free phthalocyanine complexes.

  17. Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuangqing; Hu, Rui; Li, Shayu; Ma, Jin Shi; Yang, Guoqiang

    2015-10-05

    A series of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines are synthesized, intramolecular aggregation is found in bis- and tris-phthalocyanines via π-π stacking interaction. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal the formation of the intramolecular aggregation. The spectrographic, photophysical and nonlinear optical properties of these compounds are adjusted for the formation of the intramolecular aggregation. The bis-phthalocyanine dimer presents smaller fluorescence quantum yield, lower triplet formation yield and the triplet-minus-ground state extinction coefficient, which causes poorer optical limiting performance. It is interesting that the tris-phthalocyanine is composed of a mono-phthalocyanine part and a bis-phthalocyanine part, the optical limiting property of the tris-phthalocyanine is similar to that of mono-phthalocyanine.

  18. Preparation and characterization of gemcitabine liposome injections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qinmei; Liu, Liucheng; Zhang, Dengshan; Fan, Xingfeng

    2012-10-01

    Gemcitabine liposome injection (stealth liposomes) has facilitated the targeting of gemcitabine for cancer treatment. We systemically review liposome-based drug-delivery systems, which can improve pharmacokinetics, reduce side effects and potentially increase tumor uptake, for pancreatic cancer therapy. A novel liposomal formulation, which allows for higher tumor targeting efficiencies and can be used in current clinical trials to treat this challenging disease, has gained great popularity and attention. In this study, since extrusion technology was used to make sterile preparation of liposomes, the process included aseptic production process and sterile filtration. During the preparation, it has been found that the lipid concentration, emulsification speed and time, the homogenization times and pattern, the lipid solution temperature are all critical parameters for the character of the gemcitabine liposome injection. The particle size method and zeta potential method to characterize a PEGylated liposomal drug formulation of the anti-cancer agent gemcitabine was developed. The methods are specific, precise, reproducible and sensitive, therefore they are suitable for the determination of particle size and zeta potential of gemcitabine liposome injection. Negative staining technology of transmission electron microscopy revealed that gemcitabine liposome injection has a typical morphology, which enables liposomal surfaces could be seen so additional visual information on the stealth liposome can be routinely obtained in a fast and reliable manner. Moreover, the above three methods are simple, fast and would be used for continuous quality control of gemcitabine liposome injection when it moves to cGMP production scale.

  19. Environment-Responsive Multifunctional Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Amit A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Liposomal nanocarriers modified with cell-penetrating peptide and a pH-sensitive PEG shield demonstrate simultaneously a better systemic circulation and site-specific exposure of the cell-penetrating peptide. PEG chains were incorporated into the liposome membrane via the PEG-attached phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) residue with PEG and PE being conjugated with the lowered pH-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG-HZ-PE), while cell-penetrating peptide (TATp) was added as TATp-PEG-PE conjugate. Under normal conditions, liposome-grafted PEG “shielded” liposome-attached TATp moieties, since the PEG spacer for TATp attachment (PEG(1000)) was shorter than protective PEG(2000). PEGylated liposomes accumulate in targets via the EPR effect, but inside the “acidified” tumor or ischemic tissues lose their PEG coating because of the lowered pH-induced hydrolysis of HZ and penetrate inside cells via the now-exposed TATp moieties. pH-responsive behavior of these constructs is successfully tested in cell cultures in vitro as well as in tumors in experimental mice in vivo. These nanocarriers also showed enhanced pGFP transfection efficiency upon intratumoral administration in mice, compared to control pH nonsensitive counterpart. These results can be considered as an important step in the development of tumor-specific stimuli-sensitive drug and gene delivery systems. PMID:20072884

  20. Cardiac safety of liposomal anthracyclines.

    PubMed

    Ewer, Michael S; Martin, Francis J; Henderson, Craig; Shapiro, Charles L; Benjamin, Robert S; Gabizon, Alberto A

    2004-12-01

    Conventional anthracyclines are active against many tumor types, but cardiotoxicity related to the cumulative dose may limit their use; this is particularly problematic for patients with risk factors for increased toxicity, for those who have received any anthracycline in the past, or for those who are to receive other cardiotoxic agents. Preclinical studies determined that encapsulating conventional anthracyclines in liposomes reduced the incidence and severity of cumulative dose-related cardiomyopathy while preserving antitumor activity. In controlled clinical trials, the risk of cardiotoxicity was significantly lower when nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Myocet [NPLD]) was substituted for conventional doxorubicin, but the risk was not significantly different when NPLD was used in place of conventional epirubicin. Direct comparisons to conventional doxorubicin therapy showed comparable efficacy but significantly lower risk of cardiotoxicity with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil/Caelyx [PLD]) therapy. Retrospective and prospective trials have not identified a maximum "cardiac safe" dose of PLD, despite use of cumulative doses exceeding 2,000 mg/m2 in some patients. Liposomal daunorubicin (DaunoXome [DNX]) may be associated with a lower risk of cardiotoxicity than conventional anthracyclines, but comparative trials are not available. With respect to combination chemotherapy, early results of clinical trials suggest that combining trastuzumab or a taxane with NPLD or PLD instead of a conventional anthracycline significantly reduces cardiotoxicity risk without reducing chemotherapeutic efficacy. Further results are eagerly awaited from ongoing controlled trials of cardiac safety with long-term liposomal anthracycline therapy, either alone or in combination with other potentially cardiotoxic agents.

  1. [Liposomal amphotericin B].

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Masatomo

    2005-01-01

    Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) is a DDS (drug delivery system) formulation of amphotericin B (AMPH-B), and has been developed in an attempt to reduce the toxicity of AMPH-B while retaining its therapeutic efficacy. AMPH-B has been the "gold standard" of antifungal therapy over the past four decades. It has a broad spectrum of fungicidal activity against a number of clinically important pathogens including Aspergillus and Candida. The mechanism of action of AMPH-B involves binding to ergosterol, the principal sterol in fungal cell membranes. Binding to ergosterol causes an increase in fungal membrane permeability, electrolyte leakage, and cell death. AMPH-B has affinity for cholesterol in mammalian membranes, which leads to severe side-effects including kidney damage. AmBisome is a unilamellar vesicle composed of AMPH-B and phospholipid. Upon administration, AmBisome remains intact in the blood and distributes to the tissues where fungal infection may occur, and is disrupted after attachment to the outside of fungal cells, resulting in fungal cell death. AmBisome and AMPH-B show similar in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and clinical efficacy. However, AmBisome has less infusion-related toxicity and nephrotoxicity than AMPH-B.

  2. Spin doping using transition metal phthalocyanine molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atxabal, A.; Ribeiro, M.; Parui, S.; Urreta, L.; Sagasta, E.; Sun, X.; Llopis, R.; Casanova, F.; Hueso, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Molecular spins have become key enablers for exploring magnetic interactions, quantum information processes and many-body effects in metals. Metal-organic molecules, in particular, let the spin state of the core metal ion to be modified according to its organic environment, allowing localized magnetic moments to emerge as functional entities with radically different properties from its simple atomic counterparts. Here, using and preserving the integrity of transition metal phthalocyanine high-spin complexes, we demonstrate the magnetic doping of gold thin films, effectively creating a new ground state. We demonstrate it by electrical transport measurements that are sensitive to the scattering of itinerant electrons with magnetic impurities, such as Kondo effect and weak antilocalization. Our work expands in a simple and powerful way the classes of materials that can be used as magnetic dopants, opening a new channel to couple the wide range of molecular properties with spin phenomena at a functional scale.

  3. Spin doping using transition metal phthalocyanine molecules

    PubMed Central

    Atxabal, A.; Ribeiro, M.; Parui, S.; Urreta, L.; Sagasta, E.; Sun, X.; Llopis, R.; Casanova, F.; Hueso, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular spins have become key enablers for exploring magnetic interactions, quantum information processes and many-body effects in metals. Metal-organic molecules, in particular, let the spin state of the core metal ion to be modified according to its organic environment, allowing localized magnetic moments to emerge as functional entities with radically different properties from its simple atomic counterparts. Here, using and preserving the integrity of transition metal phthalocyanine high-spin complexes, we demonstrate the magnetic doping of gold thin films, effectively creating a new ground state. We demonstrate it by electrical transport measurements that are sensitive to the scattering of itinerant electrons with magnetic impurities, such as Kondo effect and weak antilocalization. Our work expands in a simple and powerful way the classes of materials that can be used as magnetic dopants, opening a new channel to couple the wide range of molecular properties with spin phenomena at a functional scale. PMID:27941810

  4. Immunosuppressive effects of silicon phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Reddan, J C; Anderson, C Y; Xu, H; Hrabovsky, S; Freye, K; Fairchild, R; Tubesing, K A; Elmets, C A

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4), a second-generation photosensitizer being evaluated for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of solid tumors, was immunosuppressive. Mice treated with Pc 4 PDT 3 days before dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization showed significant suppression of their cell-mediated immune response when compared to mice that were not exposed to PDT. The response was dose dependent, required both Pc 4 and light and occurred at a skin site remote from that exposed to the laser. The immunosuppression could not be reversed by in vivo pre-treatment of mice with antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-10. These results provide evidence that induction of cell-mediated immunity is suppressed after Pc 4 PDT. Strategies that prevent PDT-mediated immunosuppression may therefore enhance the efficacy of this therapeutic modality.

  5. Spin doping using transition metal phthalocyanine molecules.

    PubMed

    Atxabal, A; Ribeiro, M; Parui, S; Urreta, L; Sagasta, E; Sun, X; Llopis, R; Casanova, F; Hueso, L E

    2016-12-12

    Molecular spins have become key enablers for exploring magnetic interactions, quantum information processes and many-body effects in metals. Metal-organic molecules, in particular, let the spin state of the core metal ion to be modified according to its organic environment, allowing localized magnetic moments to emerge as functional entities with radically different properties from its simple atomic counterparts. Here, using and preserving the integrity of transition metal phthalocyanine high-spin complexes, we demonstrate the magnetic doping of gold thin films, effectively creating a new ground state. We demonstrate it by electrical transport measurements that are sensitive to the scattering of itinerant electrons with magnetic impurities, such as Kondo effect and weak antilocalization. Our work expands in a simple and powerful way the classes of materials that can be used as magnetic dopants, opening a new channel to couple the wide range of molecular properties with spin phenomena at a functional scale.

  6. The effect of metal ions on the photophysical and photochemical property of phenylthio bromo metal phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sujuan; Shen, Pingping; Ma, Dongdong; Wang, Yuhua; Zhang, Tiantian; Chen, Kuizhi; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; Peng, Yiru

    2016-10-01

    Phthalocyanines have attracted great attention because of their applications in material science including electro-optical devices, electrochromic display, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. In addition, the Pcs exhibit great flexibility of chemical structure modification enabled by either peripheral substituents or metal ions co-ordination to central cavity of highly conjugated tetrapyrrolic macrocycles. However, because of the hydrophobic nature of the phthalocyanine ring, Pcs have strong tendency to aggregate in solution, which limited their applications. To overcome this problem, the introduction of dendritic wedge to peripheral positions of phthalocyanines can prevent the formation of aggregation to some extent. The preparation procedure involved the modification of the zinc (II) and magnesium (II) phthalocyanines with peripherally dendritic substitutions. The photophysical and photochemical properties of dendritic phthalocyanines were studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Compared with the magnesium (II) phthalocyanine, the intensity of Q band of zinc (II) phthalocyanine was increased but no obviously position changes was observed. Furthermore, the zinc (II) phthalocyanine exhibited relatively higher fluorescence intensity than the magnesium (II) phthalocyanine. The fluorescence quantum yield and lifetimes of magnesium (II) phthalocyanine was clearly longer than that of zinc (II) phthalocyanine. As the better photosensitizer, the zinc (II) phthalocyanine has higher singlet oxygen quantum yield owning superior performance. This results indicated that the singlet oxygen quantum yield would be effected by the nature of metal ions.

  7. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  9. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich; Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich; Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich; Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich; Tilkunova,Nataliya Alexandrovna; Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna

    2009-09-08

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  10. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  13. Liposomes as delivery systems for antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Dorotkiewicz-Jach, Agata

    2010-03-15

    Liposomes are currently in common use as universal drug carriers in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The manipulation of different physicochemical properties of liposomes enables the design of particular carriers with the desired pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Most studies regarding liposomal antibiotics deal with aminoglycosides, quinolones, polypeptides, and betalactames. Some of the studies focused on improving pharmacokinetics and reducing toxicity, while others involved enhancing antibacterial activity. In an era of an avalanche of increasing bacterial resistance and severe problems in treating bacterial infections, the application of liposomal antibiotic carriers could be useful, but the high cost of liposome preparation and treatment should also be considered.

  14. Liposomes for entrapping local anesthetics: a liposome electrokinetic chromatographic study.

    PubMed

    Lokajová, Jana; Laine, Jaana; Puukilainen, Esa; Ritala, Mikko; Holopainen, Juha M; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2010-05-01

    Bupivacaine is a lipophilic, long-acting, amide class local anesthetic commonly used in clinical practice to provide local anesthesia during surgical procedures. Several cases of accidental overdose with cardiac arrest and death have been reported since bupivacaine was introduced to human use. Recent case reports have suggested that Intralipid (Fresenius Kabi) is an effective therapy for cardiac toxicity from high systemic concentrations of, e.g. bupivacaine, even though the mechanism behind the interaction is not fully clear yet. Our long-term aim is to develop a sensitive, efficient, and non-harmful lipid-based formulation to specifically trap harmful substances in vivo. In this study, the in vitro interaction of local anesthetics (bupivacaine, prilocaine, and lidocaine) with Intralipid or lipid vesicles containing phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, cardiolipin, cholesterol, and N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (ceramide) was determined by liposome electrokinetic chromatography. The interactions were evaluated by calculating the retention factors and distribution constants. Atomic force microscopy measurements were carried out to confirm that the interaction mechanism was solely due to interactions between the analytes and the moving pseudostationary phase and not by interactions with a stationary lipid phase adsorbed to the fused-silica wall. The heterogeneity of the liposomes was also studied by atomic force microscopy. The liposome electrokinetic chromatography results demonstrate that there is higher interaction between the drugs and negatively charged liposome dispersion than with the commercial Intralipid dispersion.

  15. Liposome-like Nanostructures for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weiwei; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes are a class of well-established drug carriers that have found numerous therapeutic applications. The success of liposomes, together with recent advancements in nanotechnology, has motivated the development of various novel liposome-like nanostructures with improved drug delivery performance. These nanostructures can be categorized into five major varieties, namely: (1) polymer-stabilized liposomes, (2) nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes, (3) core-shell lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, (4) natural membrane-derived vesicles, and (5) natural membrane coated nanoparticles. They have received significant attention and have become popular drug delivery platforms. Herein, we discuss the unique strengths of these liposome-like platforms in drug delivery, with a particular emphasis on how liposome-inspired novel designs have led to improved therapeutic efficacy, and review recent progress made by each platform in advancing healthcare. PMID:24392221

  16. Polymerization of actin by positively charged liposomes

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    By cosedimentation, spectrofluorimetry, and electron microscopy, we have established that actin is induced to polymerize at low salt concentrations by positively charged liposomes. This polymerization occurs only at the surface of the liposomes, and thus monomers not in direct contact with the liposome remain monomeric. The integrity of the liposome membrane is necessary to maintain actin in its polymerized state since disruption of the liposome depolymerizes actin. Actin polymerized at the surface of the liposome is organized into two filamentous structures: sheets of parallel filaments in register and a netlike organization. Spectrofluorimetric analysis with the probe N- pyrenyl-iodoacetamide shows that actin is in the F conformation, at least in the environment of the probe. However, actin assembly induced by the liposome is not accompanied by full ATP hydrolysis as observed in vitro upon addition of salts. PMID:3360852

  17. A comparative photophysicochemical study of phthalocyanines encapsulated in core-shell silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-02-25

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of a new zinc phthalocyanine complex tetrasubstituted with 3-carboxyphenoxy in the peripheral position. The photophysical properties of the new complex are compared with those of phthalocyanines tetra substituted with 3-carboxyphenoxy or 4-carboxyphenoxy at non-peripheral positions. Three phthalocyanine complexes were encapsulated within silica matrix to form a core shell and the hybrid nanoparticles particles obtained were spherical and mono dispersed. When encapsulated within the silica shell nanoparticles, phthalocyanines showed improved triplet quantum yields and singlet oxygen quantum yields than surface grafted derivatives. The improvements observed could be attributed to the protection provided for the phthalocyanine complexes by the silica matrix.

  18. Liposomal bupivacaine and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yi Cai Isaac; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard D

    2014-03-01

    In the multimodal approach to the management of postoperative pain, local infiltration and regional blocks have been increasingly utilized for pain control. One of the limitations of local anesthetics in the postoperative setting is its relatively short duration of action. Multivesicular liposomes containing bupivacaine have been increasingly utilized for their increased duration of action. Compared with bupivacaine HCl, local infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine has shown to have an increase in duration of action and causes delay in peak plasma concentration. In this article, we attempt to review the clinical literature surrounding liposomal bupivacaine and its evolving role in perioperative analgesia. This new bupivacaine formation may have promising implications in postoperative pain control, resulting in increased patient satisfaction and a decrease in both hospital stay and opioid-induced adverse events (AEs). Although more studies are needed, the preliminary clinical trials suggest that liposomal bupivacaine has predictable pharmacokinetics, a similar side effect profile compared with bupivacaine HCl, and is effective in providing increased postoperative pain control.

  19. Capacious and programmable multi-liposomal carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A.; Sybachin, Andrey V.; Zaborova, Olga V.; Migulin, Vasiliy A.; Samoshin, Vyacheslav V.; Ballauff, Matthias; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Menger, Fredric M.

    2015-01-01

    Spherical polycationic brushes (SPBs) were synthesized by grafting polycationic chains onto 100 nm polystyrene particles. These particles were exposed to unilamellar egg-lecithin (EL) liposomes with a mean diameter of 40 nm that had been rendered anionic via the presence of 10 molar% of phosphatidylserine (PS1-). The liposomes also contained 30 mole% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid (MOCH) that undergoes a conformational flip when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 5.0. Mixtures of SPBs and liposomes at pH 7 gave an electrostatically-driven complex possessing, on average, about 40 liposomes for each SPB particle. It was found that the bound liposomes rapidly release much of their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0 owing mostly to a MOCH conformational change that creates defects in the bilayer membrane. The drop in pH does not, however, induce a separation of the liposomes from the SPBs. Around 50-60% of the liposome contents escape before, it is reasoned, lateral and transmembrane motion of the membrane components heals the defects and prevents further release. Remarkably, the liposomes complexed with SPB release their cargo much faster than the identical but non-complexed liposomes.Spherical polycationic brushes (SPBs) were synthesized by grafting polycationic chains onto 100 nm polystyrene particles. These particles were exposed to unilamellar egg-lecithin (EL) liposomes with a mean diameter of 40 nm that had been rendered anionic via the presence of 10 molar% of phosphatidylserine (PS1-). The liposomes also contained 30 mole% of a morpholinocyclohexanol-based lipid (MOCH) that undergoes a conformational flip when the pH is decreased from 7.0 to 5.0. Mixtures of SPBs and liposomes at pH 7 gave an electrostatically-driven complex possessing, on average, about 40 liposomes for each SPB particle. It was found that the bound liposomes rapidly release much of their contents when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0 owing mostly to a MOCH conformational

  20. Tunable charge transfer properties in metal-phthalocyanine heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, P. F.; Hahn, T.; Salvan, G.; Knupfer, M.; Zhu, F.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2016-04-01

    Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of different organic materials to create organic heterostructures which combine the electrical capabilities of each material. This opens the possibility to precisely engineer and tune new electrical properties. In particular, similar transition metal phthalocyanines demonstrate hybridization and charge transfer properties which could lead to interesting physical phenomena. Although, when considering device dimensions, a better understanding and control of the tuning of the transport properties still remain in the focus of research. Here, by employing conductive atomic force microscopy techniques, we provide an insight about the nanoscale electrical properties and transport mechanisms of MnPc and fluorinated phthalocyanines such as F16CuPc and F16CoPc. We report a transition from typical diode-like transport mechanisms for pure MnPc thin films to space-charge-limited current transport regime (SCLC) for Pc-based heterostructures. The controlled addition of fluorinated phthalocyanine also provides highly uniform and symmetric-polarized transport characteristics with conductance enhancements up to two orders of magnitude depending on the polarization. We present a method to spatially map the mobility of the MnPc/F16CuPc structures with a nanoscale resolution and provide theoretical calculations to support our experimental findings. This well-controlled nanoscale tuning of the electrical properties for metal transition phthalocyanine junctions stands as key step for future phthalocyanine-based electronic devices, where the low dimension charge transfer, mediated by transition metal atoms could be intrinsically linked to a transfer of magnetic moment or spin.Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of

  1. Thin films of tetrafluorosubstituted cobalt phthalocyanine: Structure and sensor properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyamer, Darya D.; Sukhikh, Aleksandr S.; Krasnov, Pavel O.; Gromilov, Sergey A.; Morozova, Natalya B.; Basova, Tamara V.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, thin films of tetrafluorosubstituted cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPcF4) were prepared by organic molecular beam deposition and their structure was studied using UV-vis, polarization dependent Raman spectroscopy, XRD and atomic force microscopy. Quantum chemical calculations (DFT) have been employed in order to determine the detailed assignment of the bands in the CoPcF4 IR and Raman spectra. The electrical sensor response of CoPcF4 films to ammonia vapours was investigated and compared with that of unsubstituted cobalt phthalocyanine films. In order to explain the difference in sensitivity of the unsubstituted and fluorinated phthalocyanines to ammonia, the nature and properties of chemical binding between CoPc derivatives and NH3 were described by quantum-chemical calculations utilizing DFT method. The effect of post-deposition annealing on surface morphology and gas sensing properties of CoPcF4 films was also studied.

  2. Phthalocyanine-assisted photodynamic inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Angelov, Ivan; Borissova, Ekaterina; Avramov, Latchezar; Kussovski, Vesselin

    2007-03-01

    The phthalocyanine zinc(II) and aluminum (III) complexes were studied to photoinactivate the bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, methacillin-sensitive and methacillin-resistant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one yeast Candida albicans. The binding of phthalocyanines to bacteria and fungi cells was evaluated by the means of laserinduced fluorescence technique. The fluorescent spectra of dyes (650 - 800 nm) after direct excitation (635 nm) were measured as follows: 1. for the aqua supernatants obtained after 10 min cell incubation with the respected phthalocyanines (1.6 μmol.l -1), 2. for the washed from the unbound dye cells, and 3. for the organic extracts from the three times washed cells. Fluorescent intensities at the emission maximum (~690 nm) were compared to the spectra of the phthalocyanines in organic solutions. The phthalocyanines uptake data for bacteria and fungi were determined at different cell densities. Nevertheless the better fluorescence properties of AlPc (fluorescent quantum yield of 0.4 towards 0.3 for ZnPcs) the lower drug accumulation in microorganisms was obtained. PDI results indicated an intensive lowering of the bacterial survival of both strains of S. aureus treated with cationic ZnPcMe followed by the anionic ZnPcS, at irradiance of 100 mW cm -2 and fluence rate of 60 J cm -2. More resistant to phototreatment P. aeruginosa and morphologically complicated yeast C. albicans were successfully inactivated only with cationic ZnPcMe. These data indicate the promising future application of cationic phthalocyanine in photodynamic inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms.

  3. Tunable charge transfer properties in metal-phthalocyanine heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Siles, P F; Hahn, T; Salvan, G; Knupfer, M; Zhu, F; Zahn, D R T; Schmidt, O G

    2016-04-28

    Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of different organic materials to create organic heterostructures which combine the electrical capabilities of each material. This opens the possibility to precisely engineer and tune new electrical properties. In particular, similar transition metal phthalocyanines demonstrate hybridization and charge transfer properties which could lead to interesting physical phenomena. Although, when considering device dimensions, a better understanding and control of the tuning of the transport properties still remain in the focus of research. Here, by employing conductive atomic force microscopy techniques, we provide an insight about the nanoscale electrical properties and transport mechanisms of MnPc and fluorinated phthalocyanines such as F16CuPc and F16CoPc. We report a transition from typical diode-like transport mechanisms for pure MnPc thin films to space-charge-limited current transport regime (SCLC) for Pc-based heterostructures. The controlled addition of fluorinated phthalocyanine also provides highly uniform and symmetric-polarized transport characteristics with conductance enhancements up to two orders of magnitude depending on the polarization. We present a method to spatially map the mobility of the MnPc/F16CuPc structures with a nanoscale resolution and provide theoretical calculations to support our experimental findings. This well-controlled nanoscale tuning of the electrical properties for metal transition phthalocyanine junctions stands as key step for future phthalocyanine-based electronic devices, where the low dimension charge transfer, mediated by transition metal atoms could be intrinsically linked to a transfer of magnetic moment or spin.

  4. Controllable fabrication of copper phthalocyanine nanostructure crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Xiao, Si; Huang, Wenglong; Tao, Shaohua; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang

    2015-06-05

    Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanostructure crystals, including nanoflower, nanoribbon, and nanowire, were controllably fabricated by temperature gradient physical vapor deposition (TG-PVD) through controlling the growth parameters. In a controllable growth system with carrier gas N2, nanoflower, nanoribbon, and nanowire crystals were formed in a high-temperature zone, medium-temperature zone, and low-temperature zone, respectively. They were proved to be β-phase, coexist of α-phase and β-phase, and α-phase respectively based on x-ray diffraction results. Furthermore, ultralong CuPc nanowires up to several millimeters could be fabricated by TG-PVD without carrier gas, and they were well-aligned to form large-area CuPc nanowire crystal arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett method. The nanostructure crystals showed unusual optical absorption spectra from the ultraviolet-visible to near-infrared range, which was explained by the diffraction and scattering caused by the wavelength-sized nanostructures. These CuPc nanostructure crystals show potential applications in organic electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Photosensitizing Efficiencies Of Poryphyrins, Chlorins, And Phthalocyanines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Kimel, Sol; Roberts, Walter G.; Berns, Michael W.

    1989-06-01

    A Clark-type microelectrode is used to measure oxygen consumption rates in laser-irradiated solutions of photosensitizer and photosensitizer-containing cells. The presence of a singlet oxygen-specific acceptor molecule, furfuryl alcohol, permits indirect determination of relative singlet oxygen generation efficiencies from oxygen consumption data. Solution and cell measurements are performed which compare photosensitizing efficiency of Photofrin-II (PII), tetraphenylporphine tetrasulfonate (TPPS4), mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6 (MACE), and chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (CASPc). Relative singlet oxygen generating efficiency, per-unit-weight and per-absorbed-photon, were determined to be: MACE > CASPc > TPPS4 > PII and TPPS4 > MACE > PII > CASPc, respectively. When these results are compared to oxygen consumption in photosensitizer-containing cells, differences in the order and magnitude of photosensitizing efficiencies are observed. The relative oxygen consumption rate in cells was: PII CASPc > MACE TPPS4. Additional information concerning cell killing efficiency is derived from clongenicity assays. These data indicate that consideration of singlet oxygen generating ability in solution must be considered in conjuntion with cellular assays in order to provide an in vitro estimate of photosensitizer efficacy.

  6. Asymmetric grain distribution in phthalocyanine thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, K. Paul; Gredig, Thomas; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2009-11-01

    Many electronic and optical properties of organic thin films depend on the precise morphology of grains. Iron phthalocyanine thin films are grown on sapphire substrates at different temperatures to study the effect of grain growth kinematics and to experimentally quantify the grain size distribution in organic thin films. The grain size is measured with an atomic force microscope and the data is processed and analyzed with well-known image segmentation algorithms. For relevant statistics, over 3000 grains are evaluated for each sample. The data show pronounced asymmetric grain growth with increasing deposition temperature from almost spherical grains at room temperature to elongated needlelike shapes at 260 deg. C. The average size along the major axis increases from 35 to 200 nm and along the minor axis from 25 to 90 nm. The distribution is almost symmetric at low-deposition temperatures, but becomes lognormal at higher temperatures. Strikingly, the major axis and minor axis of the elliptically shaped grains have different distributions at all temperatures due to the planar asymmetry of the molecule.

  7. Effect of pyridine on infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Tripathi, S K; Saini, G S S

    2008-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine in KBr pellet and pyridine solution in 400-1625 and 2900-3200 cm(-1)regions are reported. In the IR spectra of solid sample, presence of weak bands, which are forbidden according to the selection rules of D4h point group, is explained on the basis of distortion in the copper phthalocyanine molecule caused by the crystal packing effects. Observation of a new band at 1511 cm(-1) and change in intensity of some other bands in pyridine are interpreted on the basis of coordination of the solvent molecule with the central copper ion.

  8. Liposomal Indocyanine Green for Enhanced Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hwan-Jun; Lee, Hye-Seong; Lim, Ji-Young; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-02-22

    In this study, we engineered liposomal indocyanine green (ICG) to maximize its photothermal effects while maintaining the fluorescence intensity. Various liposomal formulations of ICG were prepared by varying the lipid composition and the molar ratio between total lipid and ICG, and their photothermal characteristics were evaluated under near-infrared irradiation. We showed that the ICG dispersity in the liposomal membrane and its physical interaction with phospholipids were the main factors determining the photothermal conversion efficiency. In phototherapeutic studies, the optimized formulation of liposomal ICG showed greater anticancer effects in a mouse tumor model compared with other liposomal formulations and the free form of ICG. Furthermore, we utilized liposomal ICG to visualize the metastatic lymph node around the primary tumor under fluorescence imaging guidance and ablate the lymph node with the enhanced photothermal effect, indicating the potential for selective treatment of metastatic lymph node.

  9. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  10. Analysis of interaction between liposome membranes induced by stress condition: utilization of liposomes immobilized on indium tin oxide electrode.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Haruyuki; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kuboi, Ryoichi

    2009-11-01

    NBD-cholesterol (NBD-Ch)-modified liposome was immobilized on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode via the covalent binding method. The transfer of NBD-Ch between the immobilized liposomes and the target liposomes was observed by using a fluorescent microscope. The addition of liposome suspension co-incubated with alpha-chymotrypsin or stimuli-responsive polymer to the surface of the above ITO electrode, enhanced the liposome-liposome interaction, resulting in the promotion of NBD-Ch transfer. The apparent transfer rate constant of NBD-Ch was found to be correlated with the index for the liposome-liposome interaction evaluated by an immobilized liposome chromatography. This suggests that the present method using the liposome-immobilized ITO electrode was effective to evaluate the liposome-liposome interaction induced by the protein or the stimuli-responsive polymer under stress conditions.

  11. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-12-21

    The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for

  12. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for

  13. Interactions of liposomes with dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sanko; Adamczak, Malgorzata; Hiorth, Marianne; Smistad, Gro; Kopperud, Hilde Molvig

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro adsorption and retention of liposomes onto four common types of dental restorative materials (conventional and silorane-based resin composites as well as conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GIC)) have been investigated due to their potential use in the oral cavity. Uncoated liposomes (positively and negatively charged) and pectin (low- and high-methoxylated) coated liposomes were prepared and characterized in terms of particle size and zeta potential. The adsorption of liposomes was performed by immersion, quantified by fluorescence detection, and visualized by fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy. Positive liposomes demonstrated the highest adsorption on all four types of materials likely due to their attractive surface charge. They also retained well (minimum 40% after 60 min) on both conventional resin composite and GIC even when exposed to simulated salivary flow. Although an intermediate initial level of adsorption was found for the pectin coated liposomes, at least 70% high methoxylated-pectin coated liposomes still remained on the conventional resin composite after 60 min flow exposure. This indicates significant contribution of hydrophobic interactions in the prolonged binding of liposomes to resin composites. Based on these results, the present paper suggests two new possible applications of liposomes in the preservation of dental restorations.

  14. Liposomal drug delivery systems--clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Parveen; Goyal, Kumud; Vijaya Kumar, Sengodan Gurusamy; Singh, Ajit; Katare, Om Prakash; Mishra, Dina Nath

    2005-03-01

    Liposomes have been widely investigated since 1970 as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents to specific sites in the body. As a result, numerous improvements have been made, thus making this technology potentially useful for the treatment of certain diseases in the clinics. The success of liposomes as drug carriers has been reflected in a number of liposome-based formulations, which are commercially available or are currently undergoing clinical trials. The current pharmaceutical preparations of liposome-based therapeutic systems mainly result from our understanding of lipid-drug interactions and liposome disposition mechanisms. The insight gained from clinical use of liposome drug delivery systems can now be integrated to design liposomes that can be targeted on tissues, cells or intracellular compartments with or without expression of target recognition molecules on liposome membranes. This review is mainly focused on the diseases that have attracted most attention with respect to liposomal drug delivery and have therefore yielded most progress, namely cancer, antibacterial and antifungal disorders. In addition, increased gene transfer efficiencies could be obtained by appropriate selection of the gene transfer vector and mode of delivery.

  15. Liposomal formulations of cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed

    Janknegt, R

    1996-07-01

    Liposomes are microscopic particles of lipid bilayer membrane that enclose aqueous internal compartments. These drug-delivery systems offer a very interesting opportunity for delivering cytotoxic drugs with equal or improved clinical efficacy and reduced toxicity. The most important clinical application of liposomes until now has been the inclusion of amphotericin B. At the same dose level, liposomal amphotericin B is as effective or slightly less effective than the conventional formulation, but much higher dosages, up to 5-7 mg kg-1day-1, can be given with acceptable toxicity. There are three preparations of cytotoxic drugs in an advanced stage of commercial development. Two of these (Doxil and TLD D99) contain doxorubicin and the other (DaunoXome) contains daunorubicin. The cardiac toxicity of the three preparations under clinical evaluation appears to be low in comparison with conventional doxorubicin or daunorubicin. No direct comparisons between the new formulations are available, so it is not yet possible to make any statements concerning their relative efficacy and toxicity. DaunoXome is the only drug that is approved in any country, and is also the best documented. It is too early to make recommendations concerning the place of these drugs in therapy. The marked increase in concentrations at the site of the tumour has yet to lead to increased therapeutic efficacy. These findings need further investigation. The efficacy of liposomal preparations in Kaposi's sarcoma appears to be similar to that of standard therapy and the clinical tolerance is good. Perhaps combination therapy with other cytotoxic agents could result in improved clinical efficacy. Their cost will probably be high in comparison with standard therapies.

  16. Excited-State Deactivation of Branched Phthalocyanine Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huaning; Li, Yang; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Meng; Niu, Yingli; Zhang, Xinxing; Guo, Qianjin; Wang, Shuangqing; Yang, Guoqiang; Xia, Andong

    2015-12-21

    The excited-state relaxation dynamics and chromophore interactions in two phthalocyanine compounds (bis- and trisphthalocyanines) are studied by using steady-state and femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements, where the excited-state energy-transfer mechanism is explored. By exciting phthalocyanine compounds to their second electronically excited states and probing the subsequent relaxation dynamics, a multitude of deactivation pathways are identified. The transient absorption spectra show the relaxation pathway from the exciton state to excimer state and then back to the ground state in bisphthalocyanine (bis-Pc). In trisphthalocyanine (tris-Pc), the monomeric and dimeric subunits are excited and the excitation energy transfers from the monomeric vibrationally hot S1 state to the exciton state of a pre-associated dimer, with subsequent relaxation to the ground state through the excimer state. The theoretical calculations and steady-state spectra also show a face-to-face conformation in bis-Pc, whereas in tris-Pc, two of the three phthalocyanine branches form a pre-associated face-to-face dimeric conformation with the third one acting as a monomeric unit; this is consistent with the results of the transient absorption experiments from the perspective of molecular structure. The detailed structure-property relationships in phthalocyanine compounds is useful for exploring the function of molecular aggregates in energy migration of natural photosynthesis systems.

  17. Photodynamic evaluation of tetracarboxy-phthalocyanines in model systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Lais; Sampaio, Renato N; Souza, Thalita F M; Silva, Rodrigo C; Neto, Newton M Barbosa; Ribeiro, Anderson O; Alonso, Antonio; Gonçalves, Pablo J

    2016-08-01

    The present work reports the synthesis, photophysical and photochemical characterization and photodynamic evaluation of zinc, aluminum and metal free-base tetracarboxy-phthalocyanines (ZnPc, AlPc and FbPc, respectively). To evaluate the possible application of phthalocyanines as a potential photosensitizer the photophysical and photochemical characterization were performed using aqueous (phosphate-buffered solution, PBS) and organic (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO) solvents. The relative lipophilicity of the compounds was estimated by the octanol-water partition coefficient and the photodynamic activity evaluated through the photooxidation of a protein and photohemolysis. The photooxidation rate constants (k) were obtained and the hemolytic potential was evaluated by the maximum percentage of hemolysis achieved (Hmax) and the time (t50) to reach 50% of the Hmax. Although these phthalocyanines are all hydrophilic and possess very low affinity for membranes (log PO/W=-2.0), they led to significant photooxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and photohemolysis. Our results show that ZnPc was the most efficient photosensitizer, followed by AlPc and FbPc; this order is the same as the order of the triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields (ZnPc>AlPc>FbPc). Furthermore, together, the triplet, fluorescence and singlet oxygen quantum yields of zinc tetracarboxy-phthalocyanines suggest their potential for use in theranostic applications, which simultaneously combines photodiagnosis and phototherapy.

  18. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkin, Yu P.; Alfimov, E. E.; Vasil'ev, N. E.; Denisov, A. N.; Makukha, V. K.; Ogirenko, A. P.

    1999-12-01

    A demonstration is given of the feasibility of two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanine and of the pharmaceutical preparation 'Fotosens', used in photodynamic therapy. The excitation source was an Nd:YAG laser emitting at the 1064 nm wavelength. The spectra of the two-photon-excited luminescence were obtained and the two-photon absorption cross sections were determined.

  19. Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 Phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L.; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Cooper, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm2 reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24614382

  20. Silicon phthalocyanine 4 phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma D

    2014-06-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm(2) reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis.

  1. Electronic properties of the interface between hexadecafluoro copper phthalocyanine and unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine films

    SciTech Connect

    Komolov, A. S. Lazneva, E. F.; Pshenichnyuk, S. A.; Gavrikov, A. A.; Chepilko, N. S.; Tomilov, A. A.; Gerasimova, N. B.; Lezov, A. A.; Repin, P. S.

    2013-07-15

    The formation of an interface during the deposition of unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) films on the surface of hexadecafluoro copper phthalocyanine (F{sub 16}-CuPc) films is studied. An incident low-energy electron beam with energies from 0 to 25 eV is used to test the surface under study according to the very-low-energy electron-diffraction technique (VLEED) in the mode of total current spectroscopy. For F{sub 16}-CuPc films, the structure of the maxima in the total current spectra and its main differences from the structure of the maxima for the CuPc film are determined in the energy range from 5 to 15 eV above the Fermi level. The differences in the structure of vacant electron orbitals for CuPc and F{sub 16}-CuPc are also revealed using density functional theory calculations. As a result of an analysis of variations in the intensities of the total current spectra of the CuPc and F{sub 16}-CuPc films, it is assumed that an intermediate layer up to 1 nm thick appears during the formation of an interface between these films, which is characterized by a spread of the features in the total current spectrum. The height, width, and change in the work function are determined for the studied F{sub 16}-CuPc/NuPc interface barrier. A decrease in the level of vacuum by 0.7 eV occurs in the boundary region, which corresponds to electron density transfer from the CuPc film toward the F{sub 16}-CuPc substrate.

  2. Radioprotective effect of transferrin targeted citicoline liposomes.

    PubMed

    Suresh Reddy, Jannapally; Venkateswarlu, Vobalaboina; Koning, Gerben A

    2006-01-01

    The high level of expression of transferrin receptors (Tf-R) on the surface of endothelial cells of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) had been widely utilized to deliver drugs to the brain. The primary aim of this study was to use transferrin receptor mediated endocytosis as a pathway for the rational development of holo-transferrin coupled liposomes for drug targeting to the brain. Citicoline is a neuroprotective agent used clinically to treat for instance Parkinson disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and brain ischemia. Citicoline does not readily cross the BBB because of its strong polar nature. Hence, citicoline was used as a model drug. (Citicoline liposomes have been prepared using dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) by dry lipid film hydration-extrusion method). The effect of the use of liposomes composed of DPPC or DSPC on their citicoline encapsulation efficiency and their stability in vitro were studied. Transferrin was coupled to liposomes by a technique which involves the prevention of scavenging diferric iron atoms of transferrin. The coupling efficiency of transferrin to the liposomes was studied. In vitro evaluation of transferrin-coupled liposomes was performed for their radioprotective effect in radiation treated cell cultures. In this study, OVCAR-3 cells were used as a model cell type over-expressing the Tf-R and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as BBB endothelial cell model. The average diameter of DPPC and DSPC liposomes were 138 +/- 6.3 and 79.0 +/- 3.2 nm, respectively. The citicoline encapsulation capacity of DPPC and DSPC liposomes was 81.8 +/- 12.8 and 54.9 +/- 0.04 microg/micromol of phospholipid, respectively. Liposomes prepared from DSPC showed relatively better stability than DPPC liposomes at 37 degrees C and in the presence of serum. Hence, DSPC liposomes were used for transferrin coupling and an average of 46-55 molecules of transferrin were present per liposome. Free citicoline

  3. Disposition of aerosolized liposomal amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Lambros, M P; Bourne, D W; Abbas, S A; Johnson, D L

    1997-09-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is an important drug for the treatment of fungal infection, but toxicity limits the lung tissue doses which may be achieved through intravenous administration. Although incorporation of AmB in liposomes reduces these effects and increases the therapeutic index for intravenous administration, targeted delivery to lung tissues via inhaled liposomal AmB aerosol may be a more effective approach. Aerosolization of liposomal amphotericin B targets the lungs, the organs first infested by many fungi. Development of optimal aerosolized liposomal AmB therapies requires a better understanding of the effect that liposome surface charge has on lung clearance kinetics. In this work we evaluated the clearance kinetics and organ distribution of inhaled liposomal AmB in male Balb/C mice. Mice were exposed via nose only to AmB-containing liposomal aerosols having positive, negative, or neutral surface charge characteristics. The formulations were aerosolized using a Collison nebulizer. Groups of animals were euthanized at predetermined times and the lungs and other organs were analyzed for AmB. AmB was not detected in serum and other organs such as kidneys, liver, and brain. The disposition of neutral and positive liposomal amphotericin B in lungs followed biexponential kinetics. The alpha and beta phase half-lives for positive liposomes were 1.3 and 15.1 days, respectively, and 2.3 and 22 days for neutral liposomes. AmB delivered via negative liposomes exhibited monoexponential clearance with a half-life of 4.5 days. These results suggest that toxic side effects in nontarget tissues are minimal and may indicate a potential for long term protection against fungal infections.

  4. Nanoparticle Stabilized Liposomes for Acne Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Victoria

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects over 40 million people in the United States alone. The main cause of acne vulgaris is Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), resides deep in the pores and follicles of the skin in order to feed on oil produced by the sebaceous glands. The liposome is a lipid based nanoparticle with numerous advantages over free drug molecules as an acne treatment alternative. Bare liposomes loaded with lauric acid (LipoLA) were found to show strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes while generating minimal toxicity. However, the platform is limited by the spontaneous tendency of liposomes to fuse with each other. Attaching nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can overcome this challenge by providing steric repulsion and reduce surface tension. Thus, carboxyl-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuC) were attached to the surface of liposomes (AuC-liposomes) loaded with doxycycline, a general tetracycline antibiotic. These particles were found to have a diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of 20.0 mV. Both fluorescent and antimicrobial studies demonstrated that based on electrostatic interaction, negatively charged AuC attached to the liposome's positively charged surface and stabilized liposomes in a neutral pH environment (pH = 7.4). Upon entering the skin's acidic environment (pH = 4), AuC detached from the liposome's surface and liposomes could fuse with P. acnes residing in the pores. Furthermore, toxicity studies showed that AuC-liposomes did not induce any significant toxicity, while two of the leading over-the-counter therapies, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, generated substantial skin irritation.

  5. Sirolimus encapsulated liposomes for cancer therapy: physicochemical and mechanical characterization of sirolimus distribution within liposome bilayers.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, Ichioma; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Sygellou, Lamprini; Owusu-Ware, Samuel K; Antonijevic, Milan; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Douroumis, Dennis

    2013-11-04

    Sirolimus has recently been introduced as a therapeutic agent for breast and prostate cancer. In the current study, conventional and Stealth liposomes were used as carriers for the encapsulation of sirolimus. The physicochemical characteristics of the sirolimus liposome nanoparticles were investigated including the particle size, zeta potential, stability and membrane integrity. In addition atomic force microscopy was used to study the morphology, surface roughness and mechanical properties such as elastic modulus deformation and deformation. Sirolimus encapsulation in Stealth liposomes showed a high degree of deformation and lower packing density especially for dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Stealth liposomes compared to unloaded. Similar results were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies; sirolimus loaded liposomes were found to result in a distorted state of the bilayer. X-ray photon electron (XPS) analysis revealed a uniform distribution of sirolimus in multilamellar DPPC Stealth liposomes compared to a nonuniform, greater outer layer lamellar distribution in distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) Stealth liposomes.

  6. Phthalocyanine photosensitizers as contrast agents for in vivo photoacoustic tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Attia, Amalina Bte Ebrahim; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Driessen, Wouter; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Olivo, Malini

    2015-02-01

    There is a need for contrast agents for non-invasive diagnostic imaging of tumors. Herein, Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) was employed to evaluate phthalocyanines commonly used in photodynamic therapy as photoacoustic contrast agents. We studied the photoacoustic activity of three water-soluble phthalocyanine photosensitizers: phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (PcS4), Zn(II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (ZnPcS4) and Al(III) phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonic acid (AlPcS4) in phantom and in tumor-bearing mice to investigate the biodistribution and fate of the phthalocyanines in the biological tissues. PcS4 was observed to grant good contrast between the different reticuloendothelial organs and accumulate in the tumor within an hour of post-administration. ZnPcS4 and AlPcS4 offered little contrast in photoacoustic signals between the organs. PcS4 is a promising photoacoustic contrast agent and can be exploited as a photodiagnostic agent.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of monoisomeric 1,8,15,22-substituted (A3B and A2B2) phthalocyanines and phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Jenni; Kumpulainen, Tatu; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Efimov, Alexander

    2010-08-06

    Synthesis and characterization of three phthalocyanine-fullerene (Pc-C(60)) dyads, corresponding monoisomeric phthalocyanines (Pc), and building blocks, phthalonitriles, are described. Six novel bisaryl phthalonitriles were prepared by the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction from trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 2,3-dicyanophenyl ester and various oxaborolanes. Two phthalonitriles were selected for the synthesis of A(3)B- and A(2)B(2)-type phthalocyanines. Phthalonitrile 4 has a bulky 3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl substituent at the alpha-phthalo position, which forces only one regioisomer to form and greatly increases the solubility of phthalocyanine. Phthalonitrile 8 has a 3-phenylpropanol side chain at the alpha-position making further modifications of the side group possible. Synthesized monoisomeric A(3)B- and A(2)B(2)-type phthalocyanines are modified by attachment of malonic residues. Finally, fullerene is covalently linked to phthalocyanine with one or two malonic bridges to produce Pc-C(60) dyads. Due to the monoisomeric structure and increased solubility of phthalocyanines, the quality of NMR spectra of the compounds is enhanced significantly, making detailed NMR analysis of the structures possible. The synthesized dyads have different orientations of phthalocyanine and fullerene, which strongly influence the electron transfer (ET) from phthalocyanine to fullerene moiety. Fluorescence quenchings of the dyads were measured in both polar and nonpolar solvents, and in all cases, the quenching was more efficient in the polar environment. As expected, most efficient fluorescence quenching was observed for dyad 20b, with two linkers and phthalocyanine and fullerene in face-to-face orientation.

  8. Methods for using redox liposome biosensors

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Quan; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and compositions for detecting the presence of biologically-important analytes by using redox liposome biosensors. In particular, the present invention provides liposome/sol-gel electrodes suitable for the detection of a wide variety of organic molecules, including but not limited to bacterial toxins.

  9. Structure of DNA-liposome complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lasic, D.D.; Strey, H.; Podgornik, R.; Stuart, M.C.A.; Frederik, P.M.

    1997-01-29

    Despite numerous studies and commericially available liposome kits, however, the structure of DNA-cationic liposome complexes is still not yet well understood. We have investigated the structure of these complexes using high-resolution cryo electron microscopy (EM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). 14 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin for Emergency Resuscitation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    have infused liposome -encapsulated amphotericin B to treat patients with systemic fungal infections. Their formulation includes 30% dimyristoyl...procedure, including exploring new industrial-scale methodologies for liposome manufacture. In addition we have focused on basic problems of biophysics...circulation persistance of this new formulation , as produced by the Microfluidizer, is obviously necessary. The influence of negatively-charged lipids on

  11. The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Palchetti, Sara; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Digiacomo, Luca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; La Barbera, Giorgia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Following systemic administration, liposomes are covered by a 'corona' of proteins, and preserving the surface functionality is challenging. Coating the liposome surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most widely used anti-opsonization strategy, but it cannot fully preclude protein adsorption. To date, protein binding has been studied following in vitro incubation to predict the fate of liposomes in vivo, while dynamic incubation mimicking in vivo conditions remains largely unexplored. The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether shear stress, produced by physiologically relevant dynamic flow, could influence the liposome-protein corona. The corona of circulating PEGylated liposome was thoroughly compared with that formed by incubation in vitro. Systematic comparison in terms of size, surface charge and quantitative composition was made by dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Size of coronas formed under static vs. dynamic incubation did not appreciably differ from each other. On the other side, the corona of circulating liposomes was more negatively charged than its static counterpart. Of note, the variety of protein species in the corona formed in a dynamic flow was significantly wider. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes can be considerably different from that formed in a static fluid. This seems to be a key factor to predict the biological activity of a liposomal formulation in a physiological environment.

  12. Intravesical liposome therapy for interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Kashyap, Mahendra; Majima, Tsuyoshi; Kawamorita, Naoki; Yoshizawa, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2017-03-04

    Over the past two decades, there has been lot of interest in the use of liposomes as lipid-based biocompatible carriers for drugs administered by the intravesical route. The lipidic bilayer structure of liposomes facilitates their adherence to the apical membrane surface of luminal cells in the bladder, and their vesicular shape allows them to co-opt the endocytosis machinery for bladder uptake after instillation. Liposomes have been shown to enhance the penetration of both water-soluble and insoluble drugs, toxins, and oligonucleotides across the bladder epithelium. Empty liposomes composed entirely of the endogenous phospholipid, sphingomyelin, could counter mucosal inflammation and promote wound healing in patients suffering from interstitial cystitis. Recent clinical studies have tested multilamellar liposomes composed entirely of sphingomyelin as a novel intravesical therapy for interstitial cystitis. In addition, liposomes have been used as a delivery platform for the instillation of botulinum toxin in overactive bladder patients. The present review discusses the properties of liposomes that are important for their intrinsic therapeutic effect, summarizes the recently completed clinical studies with intravesical liposomes and covers the latest developments in this field.

  13. Nonperipheral Tetrakis(dibutylamino)phthalocyanines. New Types of 1,8,15,22-Tetrakis(substituted)phthalocyanine Isomers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Fang, Wenjuan; Wang, Kang; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-09-19

    Cyclic tetramerization of 3-(dibutylamino)phthalonitrile in refluxing n-pentanol in the presence of magnesium pentanoate afforded the four regioisomer-containing nonperipheral 1,8-/11,15-/18,22-/25-tetrakis(dibutylamino)phthalocyaninato magnesium complexes with the 1,8,15,22-tetrakis(dibutylamino)phthalocyanine isomer Mg{Pc[α-N(C4H9)2]4-C4} (2). This, in combination with its much superior crystallinity over the remaining three isomers, renders the easy isolation of 2 only through two simple recrystallizations from THF and methanol. Treatment of 2 with trifluoroacetic acid induced the isolation of metal-free 1,8,15,22-tetrakis(dibutylamino)phthalocyanine, H2{Pc[α-N(C4H9)2]4-C4} (1), which further reacted with M(OAc)2·nH2O (M = Ni, Zn) in refluxing n-pentanol, giving the 1,8,15,22-tetrakis(dibutylamino)phthalocyaninato metal complexes M{Pc[α-N(C4H9)2]4-C4} (M = Ni (3), Zn (4)). The full series of four 1,8,15,22-tetrakis(dibutylamino)phthalocyanine isomeric compounds have been characterized by a series of spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Obviously, the present result provides a simple and effective pathway for the synthesis and isolation of novel 1,8,15,22-tetrakis(dibutylamino)phthalocyanine isomeric derivatives, providing one step forward toward completing bis(alkyl)amino-incorporated phthalocyanine species.

  14. "Smart" liposomal nanocontainers in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Tarahovsky, Y S

    2010-07-01

    The perspectives of using liposomes for delivery of drugs to desired parts of the human body have been intensively investigated for more than 30 years. During this time many inventions have been suggested and different kinds of liposomal devices developed, and a number of them have reached the stages of preclinical or clinical trials. The latest techniques can be used to develop biocompatible nano-sized liposomal containers having some abilities of artificial intellect, such as the presence of sensory and responsive units. However, only a few have been clinically approved. Further improvements in this area depend on our knowledge of the interactions of drugs with the lipid bilayer of liposomes. Further studies on liposomal transport through the human body, their targeting of cells requiring therapeutic treatment, and finally, the development of techniques for controlled drug delivery to desired acceptors on cell surfaces or in cytoplasm are still required.

  15. Neuronal chemotaxis by optically manipulated liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinato, G.; Lien, L. T.; D'Este, E.; Torre, V.; Cojoc, D.

    2011-08-01

    We probe chemotaxis of single neurons, induced by signalling molecules which were optically delivered from liposomes in the neighbourhood of the cells. We implemented an optical tweezers setup combined with a micro-dissection system on an inverted microscope platform. Molecules of Netrin-1 protein were encapsulated into micron-sized liposomes and manipulated to micrometric distances from a specific growth cone of a hippocampal neuron by the IR optical tweezers. The molecules were then released by breaking the liposomes with UV laser pulses. Chemotaxis induced by the delivered molecules was confirmed by the migration of the growth cone toward the liposome position. Since the delivery can be manipulated with high temporal and spatial resolution and the number of molecules released can be controlled quite precisely by tuning the liposome size and the solution concentration, this technique opens new opportunities to investigate the effect of physiological active compounds as Netrin-1 to neuronal signalling and guidance, which represents an important issue in neurobiology.

  16. Dielectric Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Copper Phthalocyanine Nanocomposites Fabricated Through π- π Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zicheng; Wei, Renbo; Liu, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/copper phthalocyanine nanocomposites are successfully prepared through a simple and effective two-step method, involving preferential reduction of graphene oxide and followed by self-assembly with copper phthalocyanine. The results of photographs, ultraviolet visible, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy show that the in situ blending method can effectively facilitate graphene sheets to disperse homogenously in the copper phthalocyanine matrix through π- π interactions. As a result, the reduction of graphene oxide and restoration of the sp 2 carbon sites in graphene can enhance the dielectric properties and alternating current conductivity of copper phthalocyanine effectively.

  17. Investigation of the Qx -Qy Equilibrium in a Metal-Free Phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Yannick; Fron, Eduard; Ruzié, Christian; Geerts, Yves Henri; Van Der Auweraer, Mark

    2015-12-21

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have attracted a lot of interest as small molecules for organic electronics. However, some excited-state properties of metal-free phthalocyanines, as for example, the dynamics of the transition between the nondegenerate Qx and Qy states in a metal-free phthalocyanine, have not been fully established. This effect results in a blue-shifted shoulder with low intensity in the Pc fluorescence spectrum. This shoulder was suggested to be related to emission from the more energetic Qy state. By using ultrafast femtosecond transient absorption, we have found a clear equilibrium between the Qx and Qy state of metal-free phthalocyanines in solution.

  18. Highly Unquenched Orbital Moment In Fe Phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolome, Juan

    2012-02-01

    Metal-Phthalocyanine molecules (MPc) form a family of compounds with a wide range of commercial application such as catalysts or dyes, and more recently in thin film technology. In an early work we found that in the α-phase of FePc, where the FePc molecules are stacked in a herringbone structure, the Fe atoms are strongly magnetically coupled into ferromagnetic Ising chains with very weak antiferromagnetic interchain coupling. The chains achieve 3D long range ordering at TN=10 K, and strong irreversibility (slow relaxation) below 5K. The Fe(II) is in a S=1 state and the hyperfine field in the ordered phase reaches a record value in Fe(II) of Bhf=66.2 T. This result is consistent with a large, unquenched orbital moment. It has been measured directly in a X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopic study on FePc thin films deposited parallel on a Au surface predeposited on a Si substrate. The XMCD spectra at the L3 and L2 edges were measured as a function of incident angle γ. The orbital moment is | mL |=0.53±0.04μB and the isotropic spin component is mS=0.64±0.05μB. The origin of this unusually high orbital moment is the incompletely filled eg level lying close to the Fermi energy. The ferromagnetically coupled Fe moments show strong, in-plane anisotropy [1]. Angular dependent measurements at the Fe K-edge also show strong quadrupolar excitations associated to a strong orbital moment, confirming the above result of the existence of a large, unquenched orbital moment in this molecule. Submonolayer FePc thin films deposited on Au, recently studied my XAS and XMCD have shown that there is charge transfer from the substrate to the Fe atom, modifying the electronic structure and magnetic properties [2] [4pt] [1] J. Bartolom'e et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 195405 (2010) [0pt] [2] S. Stepanow et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 220401(R) (2011).

  19. Structural factors and mechanisms underlying the improved photodynamic cell killing with silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizers directed to lysosomes versus mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Myriam E; Zhang, Ping; Azizuddin, Kashif; Delos Santos, Grace B; Chiu, Song-mao; Xue, Liang-yan; Berlin, Jeffery C; Peng, Xinzhan; Wu, Hongqiao; Lam, Minh; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa; Kenney, Malcolm E; Oleinick, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 has been shown to bind preferentially to mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon photoirradiation of Pc 4-loaded cells, membrane components, especially Bcl-2, are photodamaged and apoptosis, as indicated by activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, is triggered. A series of analogs of Pc 4 were synthesized, and the results demonstrate that Pcs with the aminopropylsiloxy ligand of Pc 4 or a similar one on one side of the Pc ring and a second large axial ligand on the other side of the ring have unexpected properties, including enhanced cell uptake, greater monomerization resulting in greater intracellular fluorescence and three-fold higher affinity constants for liposomes. The hydroxyl-bearing axial ligands tend to reduce aggregation of the Pc and direct it to lysosomes, resulting in four to six times more killing of cells, as defined by loss of clonogenicity, than with Pc 4. Whereas Pc 4-PDT photodamages Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, Pc 181-PDT causes much less photodamage to Bcl-2 over the same dose-response range relative to cell killing, with earlier cleavage of Bid and slower caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, within this series of photosensitizers, these hydroxyl-bearing axial ligands are less aggregated than is Pc 4, tend to localize to lysosomes and are more effective in overall cell killing than is Pc 4, but induce apoptosis more slowly and by a modified pathway.

  20. New generation of liposomal drugs for cancer.

    PubMed

    Minko, Tamara; Pakunlu, Refika I; Wang, Yang; Khandare, Jayant J; Saad, Maha

    2006-11-01

    This review is focused on liposomes as a delivery system for anticancer agents and more specifically on the advantages of using liposomes as drug nanocarrier in cancer chemotherapy. The main advantages of liposomal drugs over the non-encapsulated drugs include: (1) improved pharmacokinetics and drug release, (2) enhanced intracellular penetration, (3) tumor targeting and preventing adverse side effects and (4) ability to include several active ingredients in one complex liposomal drug delivery system (DDS). The review also includes our recent data on advanced liposomal anticancer drug delivery systems. As a conclusion we propose a novel liposomal DDS which includes inhibitors of pump resistance combined in one liposomal drug delivery system with an inhibitor of antiapoptotic cellular defense, an apoptosis inducer (a traditional anticancer drug) and a targeting moiety. The proposed drug delivery system utilizes a novel three tier approach, simultaneously targeting three molecular targets: (1) extracellular receptors or antigen expressed on the surface of plasma membrane of cancer cells in order to direct the whole system specifically to the tumor, preventing adverse side effects on healthy tissues; (2) drug efflux pumps in order to inhibit them and enhance drug retention by cancer cells, increasing intracellular drug accumulation and thereby limiting the need for prescribed high drug doses that cause adverse drug side effects; and (3) intracellular controlling mechanisms of apoptosis in order to suppress cellular antiapoptotic defense.

  1. Oral peptide delivery by tetraether lipid liposomes.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Johannes; Thewes, Bernhard; Gropp, Felix; Fricker, Gert

    2011-08-30

    The aim of this study is to improve of oral peptide delivery by a novel type of liposomes containing tetraether lipids (TELs) derived from archaea bacteria. Liposomes were used for the oral delivery of the somatostatin analogue octreotide. TELs were extracted from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and subsequently purified to single compounds. Liposomes were prepared by the film method followed by extrusion. Vesicles in size between 130 and 207 nm were obtained as confirmed by photon correlation spectroscopy. The pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled TELs in liposomes was investigated after oral administration to rats. 1.6% of the applied radioactivity in fed and 1.5% in fasted rats was recovered in the blood and inner organs after 2h, while most of the radioactivity remained in the gastro-intestinal tract. After 24h the percentage of radioactivity in inner organs was reduced to 0.6% in fed rats, respectively 1.0% in fasted animals. Several liposomal formulations containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and TELs in different ratios were loaded with octreotide and orally administered. Liposomes with 25% TEL could improve the oral bioavailability of octreotide 4.1-fold and one formulation with a cationic TEL derivative 4.6-fold. TEL-liposomes probably act by protecting the peptide in the gastro-intestinal tract.

  2. Preparation of connexin43-integrated giant Liposomes by a baculovirus expression-liposome fusion method.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koki; Tsumoto, Kanta; Arakawa, Satoko; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Morita, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Tetsuro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2010-12-01

    Connexin-43 (Cx43) containing giant liposomes (GL) were prepared by a baculovirus expression-liposome fusion method. Recombinant budded viruses expressing Cx43 were prepared and then fused with GLs containing DOPG/DOPC at pH 4.5. Connexon formation on the GL membrane was observed by transmission electron microscope. Hydrophilic fluorescent dye transfers were observed through a Cx43-mediated pathway not only between Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells with Cx43 but also from giant Cx43 liposomes to Cx43-expressing U2OS cells (human osteosarcoma cell). The functional connexin-containing liposome is expected to be useful for cellular cytosolic delivery systems. The original orientation and function of Cx43 was maintained after integration into the liposomes. The liposome fusion method will create new opportunities as a tool for analysis of channel membrane proteins.

  3. Helicobacter pylori TlyA agglutinates liposomes and induces fusion and permeabilization of the liposome membranes.

    PubMed

    Lata, Kusum; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2014-06-10

    Helicobacter pylori TlyA is a pore-forming hemolysin with potent cytotoxic activity. To explore the potential membrane-damaging activity of H. pylori TlyA, we have studied its interaction with the synthetic liposome vesicles. In our study, H. pylori TlyA shows a prominent ability to associate with the liposome vesicles without displaying an obligatory requirement for any protein receptor on the liposome membranes. Interaction of TlyA triggers agglutination of the liposome vesicles. Such agglutinating activity of TlyA could also be observed with erythrocytes before the induction of its pore-forming hemolytic activity. In addition to its agglutinating activity against liposomes, TlyA also induces fusion and disruption of the liposome membranes. Altogether, our study highlights novel membrane-damaging properties of H. pylori TlyA that have not been documented previously with any other TlyA family protein.

  4. Photophysical study of Zn phthalocyanine in binary solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staicu, A.; Pascu, A.; Boni, M.; Pascu, M. L.; Enescu, M.

    2013-07-01

    Photophysical properties of phthalocyanines are important in photodynamic therapy, where these compounds are proposed as photosensitizing agents. We report here some significant solvent effects on the photophysical properties of Zn phthalocyanine (ZnPc) observed in binary solvent mixture dimethyl sulfoxide/water at several ratios of cosolvents. The absorbance of ZnPc at the maximum of Q band has a sharp drop in intensity for a water mass percent in the solvent mixture larger than 40%. The same characteristic shows also the quantum yield of fluorescence. A particular result is the increase of singlet oxygen lifetime for water percentage raise up to 20% in the solvent mixture. The effects are discussed in connection with the particular solvent microenvironment, involving DMSO/water clusters formation and the strong interaction between the solute and the solvent.

  5. Trap States in Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films using Photogenerated Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gredig, Thomas; Guerra, Jorge; Byrne, Matthew; Silverstein, Evan

    2010-03-01

    The efficiency of organic solar cells is limited by several factors including the photocurrent generation process. Copper phthalocyanine thin films with different grain structures are prepared via thermal evaporation onto interdigitated gold electrodes. The samples are analyzed with atomic force microscopy and then exposed to light pulses to explore the time dependence of photogenerated currents in phthalocyanine thin films. The average grain size is obtained from the correlation length of the height-height correlation function and varies from 30-200nm. The dependence of the recombination of photo-excited, dissociated charge pairs on the electric field is compared with the Onsager mechanism and a simple dual trap state model from which relevant time scales are extracted.

  6. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zysman-Colman, Eli; Ghosh, Sanjay S; Xie, Guohua; Varghese, Shinto; Chowdhury, Mithun; Sharma, Nidhi; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2016-04-13

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λ(EL) = 698-709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics.

  7. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λEL = 698–709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics. PMID:26990151

  8. The Role of Cavitation in Liposome Formation

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Eric S.; Pitt, William G.; Woodbury, Dixon J.

    2007-01-01

    Liposome size is a vital parameter of many quantitative biophysical studies. Sonication, or exposure to ultrasound, is used widely to manufacture artificial liposomes, yet little is known about the mechanism by which liposomes are affected by ultrasound. Cavitation, or the oscillation of small gas bubbles in a pressure-varying field, has been shown to be responsible for many biophysical effects of ultrasound on cells. In this study, we correlate the presence and type of cavitation with a decrease in liposome size. Aqueous lipid suspensions surrounding a hydrophone were exposed to various intensities of ultrasound and hydrostatic pressures before measuring their size distribution with dynamic light scattering. As expected, increasing ultrasound intensity at atmospheric pressure decreased the average liposome diameter. The presence of collapse cavitation was manifested in the acoustic spectrum at high ultrasonic intensities. Increasing hydrostatic pressure was shown to inhibit the presence of collapse cavitation. Collapse cavitation, however, did not correlate with decreases in liposome size, as changes in size still occurred when collapse cavitation was inhibited either by lowering ultrasound intensity or by increasing static pressure. We propose a mechanism whereby stable cavitation, another type of cavitation present in sound fields, causes fluid shearing of liposomes and reduction of liposome size. A mathematical model was developed based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation of bubble dynamics and principles of acoustic microstreaming to estimate the shear field magnitude around an oscillating bubble. This model predicts the ultrasound intensities and pressures needed to create shear fields sufficient to cause liposome size change, and correlates well with our experimental data. PMID:17766335

  9. Origin of electronic transport of lithium phthalocyanine iodine crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Noritake; Oda, Masato; Shinozuka, Yuzo

    2013-12-04

    The electronic structures of Lithium Phthalocyanine Iodine are investigated using density functional theory. Comparing the band structures of several model crystals, the metallic conductivity of highly doped LiPcI{sub x} can be explained by the band of doped iodine. These results reveal that there is a new mechanism for electronic transport of doped organic semiconductors that the dopant band plays the main role.

  10. Metal phthalocyanine intermediates for the preparation of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Metal 4, 4', 4"",-tetracarboxylic phthalocyanines (MPTC) are prepared by reaction of trimellitic anhydride, a salt or hydroxide of the desired metal (or the metal in powdered form), urea and a catalyst. A purer form of MPTC is prepared than heretofore. These tetracarboxylic acids are then polymerized by heat to sheet polymers which have superior heat and oxidation resistance. The metal is preferably a divalent metal having an atomic radius close to 1.35A.

  11. Targeted Magnetic Liposomes Loaded with Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Pallab; Banerjee, Rinti; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Koch, Christian; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Plank, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Targeted delivery systems for anticancer drugs are urgently needed to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy by site-specific accumulation and thereby minimizing adverse effects resulting from systemic distribution of many potent anticancer drugs. We have prepared folate receptor-targeted magnetic liposomes loaded with doxorubicin, which are designed for tumor targeting through a combination of magnetic and biological targeting. Furthermore, these liposomes are designed for hyperthermia-induced drug release to be mediated by an alternating magnetic field and to be traceable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, detailed preparation and relevant characterization techniques of targeted magnetic liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin are described.

  12. Liposome-encapsulated actinomycin for cancer chemotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh-Erh; Cerny, Elizabeth A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for chemotherapy of malignant tumors by injection of antitumor drugs. The antitumor drug is encapsulated within liposomes and the liposomes containing the encapsulated drug are injected into the body. The encapsulated drug penetrates into the tumor cells where the drug is slowly released and induces degeneration and death of the tumor cells, while any toxicity to the host body is reduced. Liposome encapsulation of actinomycin D has been found to be particularly effective in treating cancerous abdominal tumors, while drastically reducing the toxicity of actinomycin D to the host.

  13. Modification of symmetrically substituted phthalocyanines using click chemistry: phthalocyanine nanostructures by nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochun; Thomas, Jayan; Gangopadhyay, Palash; Norwood, Robert A; Peyghambarian, N; McGrath, Dominic V

    2009-09-30

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are commonly applied to advanced technologies such as optical limiting, photodynamic therapy (PDT), organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, where they are used as the p-type layer. An approach to Pc structural diversity and the incorporation of a functional group that allows fabrication of solvent resistant Pc nanostructures formed by using a newly developed nanoimprint by melt processing (NIMP) technique, a variant of standard nanoimprint lithography (NIL), is reported. Copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), a click chemistry reaction, serves as an approach to structural diversity in Pc macrocycles. We have prepared octaalkynyl Pc 1b and have modified this Pc using the CuAAC reaction to yield four Pc derivatives 5a-5d with different peripheral substituents on the macrocycle. One of these derivatives, 5c, has photo-cross-linkable cinnamate residues, and we have demonstrated the fabrication of robust cross-linked photopatterned and imprinted nanostructures from this material.

  14. Inverted methoxypyridinium phthalocyanines for PDI of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Leandro M O; Sousa, Andreina; Gomes, Maria C; Faustino, Maria A F; Almeida, Adelaide; Silva, Artur M S; Neves, Maria G P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Ângela; Tomé, João P C

    2015-10-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) are photoactive molecules that can absorb and emit light in a large range of the UV-Vis spectrum with recognized potential for medical applications. Considering the biomedical applications an important limitation of these compounds is their low solubility in water. The use of suitable pyridinium groups on Pc is a good strategy to solve this drawback and to make them more effective to photoinactivate Gram-negative bacteria via a photodynamic inactivation (PDI) approach. Herein, an easy synthetic access to obtain inverted tetra- and octa-methoxypyridinium phthalocyanines (compounds 5 and 6) and also their efficiency to photoinactivate a recombinant bioluminescent strain of Escherichia coli is described. The obtained results were compared with the ones obtained when more conventional thiopyridinium phthalocyanines (compounds 7 and 8) were used. This innovative study comparing thiopyridinium and inverted methoxypyridinium moieties on cationic Pc is reported for the first time taking into account the efficiency of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) generation, water solubility and uptake properties.

  15. Phthalocyanines And Their Sulfonated Derivatives As Photosensitizers In Photodynamic Therapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesz, Peter; Krishna, C. Murali

    1988-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of human tumors with hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) has achieved encouraging results. However, HpD is a complex mixture whose composition varies in different preparations and with time of storage. The future promise of PDT for cancer treatment depends on the development of new chemically defined sensitizers which absorb more strongly than HpD in the 600-800 nm region. A shift to higher wavelengths is desirable since it allows increased light penetration in human tissues. In vivo, these sensitizers should be non-toxic, localize selectively in tumors and generate cytotoxic species upon illumination with a high quantum yield. These damaging species may be singlet oxygen (1O2) produced by the transfer of energy from the triplet state of the sensitizer to oxygen (Type II) or superoxide anion radicals formed by electron transfer to oxygen or substrate radicals generated by electron or hydrogen transfer directly from the sensitizer (Type I). The recent work of several groups indicating that phthalocyanines and their water soluble derivatives are promising candidates for PDT is reviewed. The photophysics, photochemistry, photosensitized killing of cultured mammalian cells and the use for in vivo photodynamic therapy of phthalocyanines is outlined. Our studies of the post-illumination photohemolysis of human red blood cells as a model system for membrane photomodification sensitized by phthalocyanine sulfonates are consistent with the predominant role of 1O2 as the damaging species.

  16. Liposomes for targeting of antigens and drugs: immunoadjuvant activity and liposome-mediated depletion of macrophages.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, Nico

    2008-08-01

    Liposomes have proven their use as a tool in various immunological studies. In our own studies, both their application as antigen carriers and as drug carriers appeared to be useful. Immune responses were elicited against free soluble protein antigens and against the same antigens in a liposome-associated (particulate) form, in order to compare both types of response. Since we were especially interested in the role of splenic macrophages in both types of response, we developed a liposome-mediated macrophage suicide approach, based on the liposome-mediated internalization of the small hydrophilic molecule clodronate in macrophages. This molecule has a very short half life when released in the circulation, but does not easily cross phospholipid bilayers of liposomes or cell membranes. As a consequence, once ingested by a macrophage in a liposome-encapsulated form, it will be accumulated within the cell as soon as the liposomes are digested with the help of its lysosomal phospholipases. At a certain intracellular clodronate concentration, the macrophage is eliminated by apoptosis. Given the fact that neither the liposomal phospholipids chosen nor clodronate are toxic to other (non-phagocytic) cells, this method has proven its efficacy for depletion of macrophage subsets in various organs. In several cases, organ-specific depletion can be obtained by choosing the right administration route for the clodronate liposomes.

  17. Are PEGylated liposomes better than conventional liposomes? A special case for vincristine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuling; Song, Yanzhi; Su, Yuqing; Tian, Qingjing; Li, Boqun; Quan, Jingjing; Deng, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    Cancer poses a significant threat to human health worldwide, and many therapies have been used for its palliative and curative treatments. Vincristine has been extensively used in chemotherapy. However, there are two major challenges concerning its applications in various tumors: (1) Vincristine's antitumor mechanism is cell-cycle-specific, and the duration of its exposure to tumor cells can significantly affect its antitumor activity and (2) Vincristine is widely bio-distributed and can be rapidly eliminated. One solution to these challenges is the encapsulation of vincristine into liposomes. Vincristine can be loaded into conventional liposomes, but it quickly leak out owing to its high membrane permeability. Numerous approaches have been attempted to overcome this problem. Vincristine has been loaded into PEGylated liposomes to prolong circulation time and improve tumor accumulation. These liposomes indeed prolong circulation time, but the payout characteristic of vincristine is severer, resulting in a compromised outcome rather than a better efficacy compared to conventional sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (Chol) liposomes. In 2012, the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved SM/Chol liposomal vincristine (Marqibo®) for commercial use. In this review, we mainly focus on the drug's rapid leakage problem and the potentially relevant solutions that can be applied during the development of liposomal vincristine and the reason for conventional liposomal vincristine rather than PEGylated liposomes has access to the market.

  18. Copper phthalocyanine-based CMPs with various internal structures and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuesong; Han, Bao-Hang

    2015-08-18

    Several kinds of copper phthalocyanine-based conjugated microporous polymers have been synthesized, which present enhanced long-wavelength photon absorption capability and high efficiency for singlet oxygen generation under low energy light irradiation. This strategy opens a facile avenue towards expanding the scope of phthalocyanine-based porous materials with various internal structures and functionalities.

  19. Enhancement of NO2 gas detection in hybrid silver nanoparticles-phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasedatelev, A. V.; Krichevsky, D. M.; Zelenskiy, Yu M.; Tolbin, A. Yu; Krasovskii, V. I.; Karpo, A. B.; Tomilova, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Phthalocyanine-functionalized plasmonic sensing systems are typically based on Kretschmann configuration. Such scheme of detection utilizes spectral or angular modulation of reflected light, which is induced by surface plasmon's excitation in the metal film on prism. Phthalocyanine's layer plays a role of analyte adsorber. In present paper we offer another approach to phthalocyanine-plasmonic sensing, where both local surface plasmon resonance and optical absorption of phthalocyanines are simultaneously detected. Hybrid Ag nanoparticles (AgNps) - low symmetrical A3B zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films were prepared, and their NO2 gas sensitive properties were examined. Since the plasmon resonance of AgNps was properly tuned to charge-transfer band of ZnPc-NO2 complex, we found out more than two-fold increase of the optical response to NO2 exposure in AgNps-ZnPc thin films compared to ZnPc films without AgNps.

  20. Liposomes as delivery systems for antineoplastic drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Luis Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Liposome drug formulations are defined as pharmaceutical products containing active drug substances encapsulated within the lipid bilayer or in the interior aqueous space of the liposomes. The main importance of this drug delivery system is based on its drastic reduction in systemic dose and concomitant systemic toxicity that in comparison with the free drug, results in an improvement of patient compliance and in a more effective treatment. There are several therapeutic drugs that are potential candidates to be encapsulated into liposomes; particular interest has been focused in therapeutic and antineoplastic drugs, which are characterized for its low therapeutic index and high systemic toxicity. The use of liposomes as drug carriers has been extensively justified and the importance of the development of different formulations or techniques to encapsulate therapeutic drugs has an enormous value in benefit of patients affected by neoplastic diseases.

  1. [The entrapped efficiency of BSA liposome].

    PubMed

    Hou, Dong-Zhi; Liu, Chang-Ke; Ping, Qi-Neng; Liang, Xiao-Hui

    2007-05-01

    BSA liposomes were prepared with approximately 100 nm mean particle size under rather gentle experiment conditions, and two-colorimetric coomassie brilliant blue protein was employed to measure the free drug in the entrapped efficiency (EE%) determination of BSA liposomes. Gel filtration was used to measure the EE%, and several Sephadex gels were examined by the separation of liposomes and free drug. To determine the free drug, three methods were compared on two-colorimetric UV spectrophotography, Bradford and two-colorimetric coomassie brilliant blue, separately. Two-colorimetric coomassie brilliant blue process increased the accuracy and improved the sensitivity of the assay about 20-fold comparing with the Bradford method. Two-colorimetric coomassie brilliant blue assay appeared to be more sensitive and showed broader dynamic range to measure the free BSA in the EE% determination of BSA liposome.

  2. Liposomes as Advanced Delivery Systems for Nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are delivery vehicles for transporting substances into the body effectively via facilitating absorption directly in the mouth or by preventing breakdown by stomach acid. Since the 1970s, liposomes have been investigated as potential drug delivery systems because of their biocompatibility and ability to incorporate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutic agents. Despite early promise, it was decades later, in the late 1990s to the present, that liposome technologies could create successful commercial products. Oral deliveries are recently emerging as availability of quality phospholipids and reliable homogenization and sizing equipment have become routinely available. Nutritional industry use of liposomes will grow rapidly in the next 5–10 y. High-quality products with more complex mixtures of pure compounds and complex botanical mixtures will offer clinicians less-invasive options for dosing and delivery of these actives. PMID:27053934

  3. Liposomal anticancer therapy: pharmacokinetic and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, A

    2004-11-01

    Liposomes, which are vesicles composed of a phospholipid bilayer surrounding an aqueous milieu, represent a new strategy for anticancer drug delivery. Extravasation and accumulation of liposomal drugs within neoplastic tissues are possible because of the leaky vasculature and scarce lymphatic vessels of tumours (the enhanced permeability and retention effect). Furthermore, liposomal chemotherapeutic agents display distinctive pharmacokinetic characteristics, because they possess longer elimination half-lives, reduced clearance and smaller volume of distribution with respect to corresponding free drugs. Taken together, these features lead to highest levels of cytotoxic agents in tumours, as demonstrated in preclinical models and clinical trials, whereas healthy tissues are spared from toxicity. In fact, liposomal drugs (i.e., doxorubicin), alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents, lead to improved clinical effectiveness and ameliorated toxicity profile with respect to corresponding free drugs when they are used for the treatment of metastatic breast and ovarian cancers, and Kaposi's sarcoma.

  4. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates.

  5. Status of liposomes as MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Unger, E C; Shen, D K; Fritz, T A

    1993-01-01

    Recent work on the development of liposomal magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents has yielded structures with higher overall relaxivity than that of other nanoparticles of similar diameter. Liposomes incorporating membrane-bound complexes of manganase ("memsomes") produce greater hepatic enhancement per micromole of metal ion than either ferrite particles or paramagnetic chelates. Memsomes also hold promise for targeting of sites outside the liver. Work is in progress to take these agents into clinical trials.

  6. Liposomal Formulation of Amphiphilic Fullerene Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Lenk, Robert P.; Dellinger, Anthony; Wilson, Stephen R.; Sadler, Robert; Kepley, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    Novel amphiphilic fullerene[70] derivatives that are rationally designed to intercalate in lipid bilayers are reported, as well as its vesicular formulation with surprisingly high loading capacity up to 65% by weight. The amphiphilic C70 bisadduct forms uniform and dimensionally stable liposomes with auxiliary natural phospholipids as demonstrated by buoyant density test, particle size distribution and 31P NMR. The antioxidant property of fullerenes is retained in the bipolarly functionalized C70 derivative, Amphiphilic Liposomal Malonylfullerene[70] (ALM) as well as in its liposomal formulations, as shown by both electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies and in vitro reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibition experiments. The liposomally formulated ALM efficiently quenched hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals. In addition, the fullerene liposome inhibited radical-induced lipid peroxidation and maintained the integrity of the lipid bilayer structure. This new class of liposomally formulated, amphipathic fullerene compounds represents a novel drug delivery system for fullerenes and provides a promising pathway to treat oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:20839887

  7. Liposomal amphotericin B: clinical experience and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Winter J; Drew, Richard H; Perfect, John R

    2005-04-01

    While amphotericin B deoxycholate (Fungizone, Apothecon Pharmaceuticals) has been considered by many to be the gold standard for the treatment for numerous invasive fungal infections for over 45 years, toxicities associated with its use often necessitate treatment modification or discontinuation. Lipid-based formulations, including liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome, Fujisawa Healthcare, Inc.), were developed to decrease many of these toxicities while retaining broad antifungal spectrum and potency of amphotericin B. In clinical trials, liposomal amphotericin B has demonstrated efficacy comparable to that of amphotericin B deoxycholate while reducing the incidence of treatment-related nephrotoxicity, electrolyte-wasting, and infusion-related reactions. In addition, recent clinical trials have also compared liposomal amphotericin B with other antifungal classes. Acquisition costs of liposomal amphotericin B are substantially higher than those of amphotericin B deoxycholate and other antifungals. While pharmacoeconomic analyses consider outcomes and other treatment-related costs, they have yet to clearly demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of liposomal amphotericin B when compared with amphotericin B deoxycholate or other antifungal agents. This review will focus primarily on recent liposomal amphotericin B experience and attempt to put its use into perspective considering other available antifungal agents.

  8. Plasmon resonant liposomes for controlled drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knights-Mitchell, Shellie S.; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Nanotechnology use in drug delivery promotes a reduction in systemic toxicity, improved pharmacokinetics, and better drug bioavailability. Liposomes continue to be extensively researched as drug delivery systems (DDS) with formulations such as Doxil® and Ambisome® approved by FDA and successfully marketed in the United States. However, the limited ability to precisely control release of active ingredients from these vesicles continues to challenge the broad implementation of this technology. Moreover, the full potential of the carrier to sequester drugs until it can reach its intended target has yet to be realized. Here, we describe a liposomal DDS that releases therapeutic doses of an anticancer drug in response to external stimulus. Earlier, we introduced degradable plasmon resonant liposomes. These constructs, obtained by reducing gold on the liposome surface, facilitate spatial and temporal release of drugs upon laser light illumination that ultimately induces an increase in temperature. In this work, plasmon resonant liposomes have been developed to stably encapsulate and retain doxorubicin at physiological conditions represented by isotonic saline at 37o C and pH 7.4. Subsequently, they are stimulated to release contents either by a 5o C increase in temperature or by laser illumination (760 nm and 88 mW/cm2 power density). Successful development of degradable plasmon resonant liposomes responsive to near-infrared light or moderate hyperthermia can provide a new delivery method for multiple lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs with pharmacokinetic profiles that limit clinical utility.

  9. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5-20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells.

  10. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E C; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-22

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5-20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells.

  11. Resistive-pulse detection of multilamellar liposomes.

    PubMed

    Holden, Deric A; Watkins, John J; White, Henry S

    2012-05-15

    The resistive-pulse method was used to monitor the pressure-driven translocation of multilamellar liposomes with radii between 190 and 450 nm through a single conical nanopore embedded in a glass membrane. Liposomes (0% and 5% 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (sodium salt) in 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or 0%, 5%, and 9% 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho(1'-rac-glycerol) (sodium salt) in 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) were prepared by extrusion through a polycarbonate membrane. Liposome translocation through a glass nanopore was studied as a function of nanopore size and the temperature relative to the lipid bilayer transition temperature, T(c). All translocation events through pores larger than the liposome, regardless of temperature, show translocation times between 30 and 300 μs and current pulse heights between 0.2% and 15% from the open pore baseline. However, liposomes at temperatures below the T(c) were captured at the pore orifice when translocation was attempted through pores of smaller dimensions, but squeezed through the same pores when the temperature was raised above T(c). The results provide insights into the deformation and translocation of individual liposomes through a porous material.

  12. Octanol-assisted liposome assembly on chip

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Siddharth; Caspi, Yaron; Meijering, Anna E. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are versatile supramolecular assemblies widely used in basic and applied sciences. Here we present a novel microfluidics-based method, octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), to form monodisperse, cell-sized (5–20 μm), unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Akin to bubble blowing, an inner aqueous phase and a surrounding lipid-carrying 1-octanol phase is pinched off by outer fluid streams. Such hydrodynamic flow focusing results in double-emulsion droplets that spontaneously develop a side-connected 1-octanol pocket. Owing to interfacial energy minimization, the pocket splits off to yield fully assembled solvent-free liposomes within minutes. This solves the long-standing fundamental problem of prolonged presence of residual oil in the liposome bilayer. We demonstrate the unilamellarity of liposomes with functional α-haemolysin protein pores in the membrane and validate the biocompatibility by inner leaflet localization of bacterial divisome proteins (FtsZ and ZipA). OLA offers a versatile platform for future analytical tools, delivery systems, nanoreactors and synthetic cells. PMID:26794442

  13. XPS investigation of thionyl chloride action on iron phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines and on hydrogen phthalocyanine — Correlations with the activity of Li/SOCl 2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savy, Michel; Riga, Joseph; Verbist, Jacques J.

    1989-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements have been performed on iron phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines, and hydrogen phthalocyanine powders, after dissolution in SOCl 2 and reprecipitation. The comparison of XPS results with catalytic activities observed in the lithium/thionyl chloride batteries during their discharge underlines the rôles of the central ion oxidation facility and ligand stability in the electrocatalysis of SOCl 2 reduction.

  14. Non-aggregated axially disubstituted silicon phthalocyanines bearing electropolymerizable ligands and their aggregation, electropolymerizaton and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Bas, Huseyin; Alp, Hakan

    2015-08-21

    A novel series of axially disubstituted silicon(iv) phthalocyanines bearing electropolymerizable ligands were designed and synthesized for the first time. The silicon(iv) phthalocyanines were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques as well as elemental analysis. The aggregation behavior of the SiPcs were examined in different solvents and at different concentrations in chloroform. In all the studied solvents and concentrations, the SiPcs were non-aggregated. The thermal behavior of the silicon(iv) phthalocyanines was also studied. The electropolymerization properties of the silicon(iv) phthalocyanines were investigated by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. This study is the first example of the electropolymerization of axially disubstituted silicon phthalocyanines. The type of axial ligand on the phthalocyanine ring did not show any effect on the absorption and thermal properties but influenced the electropolymerization of the phthalocyanines.

  15. Skin delivery of hydrophilic molecules from liposomes and polysaccharide-coated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Nabila; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Loing, Estelle; Bézivin, Carine

    2017-03-07

    Liposomes are commonly used in cosmetic formulations to increase the bioavailability of active ingredients. We have previously shown that polysaccharide coating of liposomes improves their resistance to surfactants and electrolytes. In the current study, we have assessed the impact of coating on the skin penetration enhancer properties of liposomes. The physicochemical properties of coated liposomes (Ionosomes(™) ) were evaluated before and after encapsulation of two different hydrophilic molecules (caffeine and a hexapeptide), and compared to those observed with non-coated liposomes. Moreover, in vitro permeation experiments were performed using Franz(™) -modified diffusion cells, with normal human skin as membranes. Results showed that both coated and non-coated liposomes significantly improved the bioavailability of hydrophilic active molecules in skin, compared to reference solutions. Although liposome coating slightly reduced entrapment efficiency, the delivery of active molecules was not adversely affected by the process. In conclusion, polysaccharide coating of liposomes allows for better protection of their integrity without compromising the skin bioavailability of the active molecules that they convoy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. [Assemble of magnetic nanoparticles into the structure of cisplatin liposome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Yang, Cai-qin; Wang, Jing

    2011-05-01

    Effects of different procedures of magnetic nanoparticles into the liposome structure on the distribution of magnetic particles in the liposome were investigated. Magnetic liposomes with high-encapsulating rate of cisplatin (CDDP) were obtained. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles which was modified by organic functional group on surface was synthesized by an one-step modified hydrothermal method. The CDDP magnetic liposomes were prepared by a film scattering-ultrasonic technique and the concentrations of CDDP in the liposomes were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorbance spectroscopy. Magnetic liposomes with different microstructure were prepared by the two different procedures, where the magnetic particles were combined with phospholipid before the film preparation to form liposome in procedure I, and drug solution and the magnetic particles were mixed before hydrating the lipids film to form liposome in procedure II. The liposome structure was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The CDDP magnetic liposomes were prepared by the optimized method which was selected by orthogonal test. Encapsulation rate of the magnetic particles distributed in the phospholipid bilayer through the procedure I was 34.90%. While liposome, produced by the procedure II technique, contained magnetic particles in the interior aqueous compartment, which encapsulation rate was 28.34%. Encapsulation rates of both I and II were higher than that of conventional liposome. The release profile of all the three different liposomes in vitro fitted with a first-order equation. Because of distribution of magnetic particles in the phospholipid bilayer, the skeleton of phospholipid bilayer was changed. The releasing tl/2 of magnetic liposomes produced by the procedure I technique is 9 h, which is shorter than that of the other two liposomes. Assemble of magnetic nanoparticles into the structure of liposome was succeeded by the procedure I, which showed superiority than by procedure II

  17. New drug candidates for liposomal delivery identified by computer modeling of liposomes' remote loading and leakage.

    PubMed

    Cern, Ahuva; Marcus, David; Tropsha, Alexander; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Goldblum, Amiram

    2017-02-16

    Remote drug loading into nano-liposomes is in most cases the best method for achieving high concentrations of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) per nano-liposome that enable therapeutically viable API-loaded nano-liposomes, referred to as nano-drugs. This approach also enables controlled drug release. Recently, we constructed computational models to identify APIs that can achieve the desired high concentrations in nano-liposomes by remote loading. While those previous models included a broad spectrum of experimental conditions and dealt only with loading, here we reduced the scope to the molecular characteristics alone. We model and predict API suitability for nano-liposomal delivery by fixing the main experimental conditions: liposome lipid composition and size to be similar to those of Doxil® liposomes. On that basis, we add a prediction of drug leakage from the nano-liposomes during storage. The latter is critical for having pharmaceutically viable nano-drugs. The "load and leak" models were used to screen two large molecular databases in search of candidate APIs for delivery by nano-liposomes. The distribution of positive instances in both loading and leakage models was similar in the two databases screened. The screening process identified 667 molecules that were positives by both loading and leakage models (i.e., both high-loading and stable). Among them, 318 molecules received a high score in both properties and of these, 67 are FDA-approved drugs. This group of molecules, having diverse pharmacological activities, may be the basis for future liposomal drug development.

  18. A Review on Composite Liposomal Technologies for Specialized Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mufamadi, Maluta S.; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; Du Toit, Lisa C.; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of liposomes with polymeric scaffolds could revolutionize the current state of drug delivery technology. Although liposomes have been extensively studied as a promising drug delivery model for bioactive compounds, there still remain major drawbacks for widespread pharmaceutical application. Two approaches for overcoming the factors related to the suboptimal efficacy of liposomes in drug delivery have been suggested. The first entails modifying the liposome surface with functional moieties, while the second involves integration of pre-encapsulated drug-loaded liposomes within depot polymeric scaffolds. This attempts to provide ingenious solutions to the limitations of conventional liposomes such as short plasma half-lives, toxicity, stability, and poor control of drug release over prolonged periods. This review delineates the key advances in composite technologies that merge the concepts of depot polymeric scaffolds with liposome technology to overcome the limitations of conventional liposomes for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21490759

  19. Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of liposomal drugs.

    PubMed

    Song, Gina; Wu, Huali; Yoshino, Keisuke; Zamboni, William C

    2012-09-01

    Various attempts to increase the therapeutic index of the drug while minimizing side effects have been made in drug delivery systems. Among several promising strategies, liposomes represent an advanced technology to target active molecules to the site of action. Rapid clearance of circulating liposomal drugs administered intravenously has been a critical issue because circulation time in the blood affects drug exposure at the target site. The clinical use of liposomal drugs is complicated by large intra- and interindividual variability in their pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Thus, it is important to understand the factors affecting the PK/PD of the liposomal formulation of drugs and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the variability in the PK/PD of liposomal drugs. In this review article, we describe the characteristics of liposome formulations and discuss the effects of various factors, including liposome-associated factors, host-associated factors, and treatment on the PK/PD of liposomal agents.

  20. Water-soluble platinum phthalocyanines as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Giuseppina; Lanuti, Paola; D'Ambrosio, Primiano; Tonucci, Lucia; Pierdomenico, Laura; D'Emilio, Carlo; Celli, Nicola; Marchisio, Marco; d'Alessandro, Nicola; Santavenere, Eugenio; Bressan, Mario; Miscia, Sebastiano

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer represents the second cause of death in the European female population. The lack of specific therapies together with its high invasive potential are the major problems associated to such a tumor. In the last three decades platinum-based drugs have been considered essential constituents of many therapeutic strategies, even though with side effects and frequent generation of drug resistance. These drugs have been the guide for the research, in last years, of novel platinum and ruthenium based compounds, able to overcome these limitations. In this work, ruthenium and platinum based phthalocyanines were synthesized through conventional techniques and their antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic actions were tested. Normal mammary gland (MCF10A) and several models of mammarian carcinoma at different degrees of invasiveness (BT474, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) were used. Cells were treated with different concentrations (5-100 μM) of the above reported compounds, to evaluate toxic concentration and to underline possible dose-response effects. The study included growth curves made by trypan blue exclusion test and scratch assay to study cellular motility and its possible negative modulation by phthalocyanine. Moreover, we investigated cell cycle and apoptosis through flow cytometry and AMNIS Image Stream cytometer. Among all the tested drugs, tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine of platinum resulted to be the molecule with the best cytostatic action on neoplastic cell lines at the concentration of 30 μM. Interestingly, platinum tetrasulfophtalocyanine, at low doses, had no antiproliferative effects on normal cells. Therefore, such platinum complex, appears to be a promising drug for mammarian carcinoma treatment.

  1. Use of liposomes as injectable-drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ostro, M J; Cullis, P R

    1989-08-01

    The formation of liposomes and their application as delivery systems for injectable drugs are described. Liposomes are microscopic vesicles composed of one or more lipid membranes surrounding discrete aqueous compartments. These vesicles can encapsulate water-soluble drugs in their aqueous spaces and lipid-soluble drugs within the membrane itself. Liposomes release their contents by interacting with cells in one of four ways: adsorption, endocytosis, lipid exchange, or fusion. Liposome-entrapped drugs are distributed within the body much differently than free drugs; when administered intravenously to healthy animals and humans, most of the injected vesicles accumulate in the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Liposomes also accumulate preferentially at the sites of inflammation and infection and in some solid tumors; however, the reason for this accumulation is not clear. Four major factors influence liposomes' in vivo behavior and biodistribution: (1) liposomes tend to leak if cholesterol is not included in the vesicle membrane, (2) small liposomes are cleared more slowly than large liposomes, (3) the half-life of a liposome increases as the lipid dose increases, and (4) charged liposomal systems are cleared more rapidly than uncharged systems. The most advanced application of liposome-based therapy is in the treatment of systemic fungal infections, especially with amphotericin B. Liposomes are also under investigation for treatment of neoplastic disorders. Liposomes' uses in cancer therapy include encapsulation of known antineoplastic agents such as doxorubicin and methotrexate, delivery of immune modulators such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine, and encapsulation of new chemical entities that are synthesized with lipophilic segments tailored for insertion into lipid bilayers. Liposomal formulations of injectable antimicrobial agents and antineoplastic agents already are undergoing clinical testing, and most probably will receive

  2. Dynamical propagation of nanosecond pulses in Naphthalocyanines and Phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Quan; Liang, Min; Liu, Qixin; Wang, Jing-Jing; Sun, Erping; Xu, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Dynamical propagation and optical limiting of nanosecond pulses in peripherally substituted Naphthalocyanines (Npcs) and Phthalocyanines (Pcs) with central metals gallium and indium were theoretically studied using paraxial field and rate equations. The results demonstrated that both Npcs and Pcs have good optical limiting performances, and Npc with heavier central mental indium shows better optical limiting properities due to the stronger reverse saturable absorption, which is mainly strengthened by the larger one-photo absorption cross section of excited state and the faster intersystem crossing rate.

  3. Photoconductivity study of acid on Zinc phthalocyanine pyridine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The Metal Phthalocyanine (MPc) have attracted much interest because of chemical and high thermal stability. Molecules forming a crystal of MPc are held together by weak attractive Vander Waals forces. Organic semiconductors have π conjugate bonds which allow electrons to move via π-electron cloud overlaps. Conduction mechanisms for organic semiconductor are mainly through tunneling; hopping between localized states, mobility gaps, and phonon assisted hopping. The photo conductivity of thin films of these complexes changes when exposed to oxidizing and reducing gases. Arrhenius plot is used to find the thermal activation energy in the intrinsic region and impurity scattering region. Arrhenius plotsare used to find the thermal activation energy.

  4. Spectroscopic and microscopic investigations of phthalocyanine aggregates on Gold(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Krista Rachel Akiko

    Self-assembled organic pi systems are of interest because of their potential applications in light harvesting and electron transfer. Phthalocyanines (Pc) demonstrate desirable photonic and electronic properties, thus making them excellent candidates for functional nanostructures. The specific focus of this research has been the nanoscale aggregation of a metal-free organic dye, tetrasulfonic acid phthalocyanine (TSPc) and includes the use of UV-visible Spectroscopy, Resonance Light Scattering Spectroscopy (RLS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and ambient and ultra-high-vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS). The UV-visible absorption studies show that TSPc aggregates upon dissolution in water and obeys Beer's Law within the concentration range of 10 -7M to 10-4M, indicating that TSPc concentration has no further effect on aggregation in aqueous solution. In addition, both ionic strength in NaCl and pH changes in the presence of NaOH, HCl or acetic acid (HAc) do affect aggregation. The RSL studies confirm these effects of pH only in the presence of HAc. The XPS studies show that the ratio of non-protonated to protonated nitrogens does not change with decreasing solution pH. STM images of TSPc deposited from pH<1 solutions reveal ordered branched web-like assemblies hundreds of nanometers in length, generally 2 nm tall and having variable widths. STM imaging shows TSPc aggregates decrease in order as pH increases. STM images of TSPc deposited from solutions with pH>10 show monolayer coverage of TSPc in salt form. High-resolution UHV-STM images of TSPc aggregates deposited from pH 0 solution on Au(111) reveal detailed coherent columnar architecture with the phthalocyanine macrocycles orientated parallel to the substrate surface. OMTS was used to identify the HOMO and LUMO of the TSPc aggregates and the results are contrasted with the same molecular states in unsubstituted metallated

  5. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmann, Ernő Homonnay, Zoltán; Horváth, Attila; Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek; Klencsár, Zoltán; Kubuki, Shiro; Nath, Amar

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (α-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of α-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated α-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mössbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated α-FePc.

  6. Controlling the orbital sequence in individual Cu-phthalocyanine molecules.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, C; Swart, I; Repp, J

    2013-02-13

    We report on the controlled change of the energetic ordering of molecular orbitals. Negatively charged copper(II)phthalocyanine on NaCl/Cu(100) undergoes a Jahn-Teller distortion that lifts the degeneracy of two frontier orbitals. The energetic order of the levels can be controlled by Au and Ag atoms in the vicinity of the molecule. As only one of the states is occupied, the control of the energetic order is accompanied by bistable changes of the charge distribution inside the molecule, rendering it a bistable switch.

  7. Photoluminescence of nitro-substituted europium (III) phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Ziminov, A. V. Polevaya, Yu. A.; Jourre, T. A.; Ramsh, S. M.; Mezdrogina, M. M.; Poletaev, N. K.

    2010-08-15

    Europium monophthalocyanine Eu(acac)Pc, europium monotetranitrophthalocyanine Eu(acac)Pc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4}, and heteroleptic europium tetranitrobisphthalocyanine Eu(Pc)(Pc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4}) are synthesized. The spectral characteristics of the phthalocyanine complexes in the visible and near-infrared regions are studied. The photoluminescence spectra are recorded. The luminescence bands are detected in the regions 450-500 nm (S{sub 2} {yields} S{sub 0}) and 670-730 nm (S{sub 1} {yields} S{sub 0}). The peaks are attributed to electronic transitions in the organic ligands.

  8. Encapsulation, with high efficiency, of radioactive metal ions in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, K J; Merriam, J E; Beaumier, P L; Luk, K F

    1982-05-05

    The encapsulation of radioactive metalic cations, such as 111In3+ or 67Ga3+, in the internal aqueous compartment of liposomes can be achieved with an efficiency of about 90%. The efficient loading of a high specific activity of cations into liposomes involves the transport of 111In3+ or 67Ga3+ through the lipid bilayer to an encapsulated strong chelate, such as nitrilotriacetic acid, by 8-hydroxyquinoline, in conjunction with an efficient anion-exchange resin technique for the removal of the external cations. The efficiency of loading cations to liposomes is affected markedly by the concentration of 8-hydroxyquinoline-metal, and the presence of the chelating agents in the loading incubation mixture. However, the loading efficiency is not affected by the pH of the internal aqueous compartment of liposomes over a range of pH 5-9, the concentration of the liposomes, the method of liposomal preparation, the lamellar structure of the liposomes, and the composition of liposomes. Furthermore, the loading procedures do not appear to affect the size and the permeability of liposomes. There is a good agreement in the tissue distributions of the liposomes prepared by the present loading methods and those by the conventional method of encapsulation by sonication. Liposomes entrapping high specific activity of 67Ga3+ or 111In3+ will be useful for future studies of the in vivo kinetics of liposomes by the combined techniques of scintigraphic imaging and the gamma-ray perturbed angular correlation.

  9. Treatment of Digital Ischemia with Liposomal Bupivacaine

    PubMed Central

    Raul Soberón, José; Duncan, Scott F.; Sternbergh, W. Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This report describes a case in which the off-label use of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) in a peripheral nerve block resulted in marked improvement of a patient's vasoocclusive symptoms. The vasodilating and analgesic properties of liposomal bupivacaine in patients with ischemic symptoms are unknown, but our clinical experience suggests a role in the management of patients suffering from vasoocclusive disease. Case Report. A 45-year-old African American female was admitted to the hospital with severe digital ischemic pain. She was not a candidate for any vascular surgical or procedural interventions. Two continuous supraclavicular nerve blocks were placed with modest clinical improvement. These effects were also short-lived, with the benefits resolving after the discontinuation of the peripheral nerve blocks. She continued to report severe pain and was on multiple anticoagulant medications, so a decision was made to perform an axillary nerve block using liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) given the compressibility of the site as well as the superficial nature of the target structures. Conclusions. This case report describes the successful off-label usage of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) in a patient with digital ischemia. Liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) is currently FDA approved only for wound infiltration use at this time. PMID:24653844

  10. Surface Engineering of Liposomes for Stealth Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Okhil K.; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

    2013-01-01

    Liposomes are used as a delivery vehicle for drug molecules and imaging agents. The major impetus in their biomedical applications comes from the ability to prolong their circulation half-life after administration. Conventional liposomes are easily recognized by the mononuclear phagocyte system and are rapidly cleared from the blood stream. Modification of the liposomal surface with hydrophilic polymers delays the elimination process by endowing them with stealth properties. In recent times, the development of various materials for surface engineering of liposomes and other nanomaterials has made remarkable progress. Poly(ethylene glycol)-linked phospholipids (PEG-PLs) are the best representatives of such materials. Although PEG-PLs have served the formulation scientists amazingly well, closer scrutiny has uncovered a few shortcomings, especially pertaining to immunogenicity and pharmaceutical characteristics (drug loading, targeting, etc.) of PEG. On the other hand, researchers have also begun questioning the biological behavior of the phospholipid portion in PEG-PLs. Consequently, stealth lipopolymers consisting of non-phospholipids and PEG-alternatives are being developed. These novel lipopolymers offer the potential advantages of structural versatility, reduced complement activation, greater stability, flexible handling and storage procedures and low cost. In this article, we review the materials available as alternatives to PEG and PEG-lipopolymers for effective surface modification of liposomes. PMID:24300562

  11. A novel liposomal formulation of flavopiridol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Xiaobin; Phelps, Mitch A; Piao, Longzhu; Rozewski, Darlene M; Liu, Qing; Lee, L James; Marcucci, Guido; Grever, Michael R; Byrd, John C; Dalton, James T; Lee, Robert J

    2009-01-05

    Flavopiridol has shown promising activities in hematologic and solid tumor models, as well as in clinical trials in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Flavopiridol has relatively low solubility and high plasma protein-binding. To address these issues and to provide an alternative strategy to achieve clinical efficacy, we encapsulated flavopiridol into a liposomal carrier and characterized its physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The liposomes, comprising hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and poly (ethylene glycol) 2000-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE), were prepared by polycarbonate membrane extrusion and then loaded with flavopiridol by a pH-gradient driven remote loading procedure. The liposomes had a mean diameter of 120.7 nm and a flavopiridol entrapment efficiency of 70.4%. Pharmacokinetic study in mice after i.v. bolus injection showed that the liposomal flavopiridol had an increased elimination phase half-life (T((1/2)beta), 339.7 min vs. 57.0 min), decreased clearance (CL, 0.012 L/min vs. 0.036 L/min), and increased area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC, 10.8 min micromol/L vs. 3.4 min micromol/L) compared to the free drug. This indicates a significant and potentially beneficial change in flavopiridol pharmacokinetics for the liposomal formulation. Further preclinical studies are warranted to define the toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of this novel formulation.

  12. Raman and Luminescent Spectra of Sulfonated Zn Phthalocyanine Enhanced by Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavelin, V.; Fesenko, O.; Dubyna, H.; Vidal, C.; Klar, T. A.; Hrelescu, C.; Dolgov, L.

    2017-03-01

    Sulfonated Zn phthalocyanine, as a prospective photosensitizer in the photodynamic therapy of tumors, is investigated by means of Raman, infrared, and fluorescence spectroscopies. Conventional and surface-enhanced spectra from this photosensitizer are obtained and compared. Gold nano-islands attached to silica cores (Au-SiO2) are proposed as nanostructures providing plasmonically enhanced signals. Pronounced enhancement of Raman and infrared spectral bands from sulfonated Zn phthalocyanine allows their more convenient assignment with vibrational modes of sulfonated Zn phthalocyanine. In comparison to Raman and IR, the fluorescence is less enhanced by Au-SiO2 particles.

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles for "smart liposomes".

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Mustapić, Mislav; Ebrahimian, Haleh; Wagner, Pawel; Kim, Jung Ho; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Horvat, Joseph; Martinac, Boris

    2015-12-01

    Liposomal drug delivery systems (LDDSs) are promising tools used for the treatment of diseases where highly toxic pharmacological agents are administered. Currently, destabilising LDDSs by a specific stimulus at a target site remains a major challenge. The bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) presents an excellent candidate biomolecule that could be employed as a remotely controlled pore-forming nanovalve for triggered drug release from LDDSs. In this study, we developed superparamagnetic nanoparticles for activation of the MscL nanovalves by magnetic field. Synthesised CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with the radius less than 10 nm were labelled by SH groups for attachment to MscL. Activation of MscL by magnetic field with the nanoparticles attached was examined by the patch clamp technique showing that the number of activated channels under ramp pressure increased upon application of the magnetic field. In addition, we have not observed any cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles in human cultured cells. Our study suggests the possibility of using magnetic nanoparticles as a specific trigger for activation of MscL nanovalves for drug release in LDDSs.

  14. Imaging-based analysis of liposome internalization to macrophage cells: Effects of liposome size and surface modification with PEG moiety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Sun; Hwang, Sang Youn; Lee, E K

    2015-12-01

    Liposome is one of the frequently used carriers for active targeting systems in vivo. Such parameters as its size, surface charge, and surface modifiers are known to influence the liposome uptake by macrophage cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of liposome size and polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modifier on the liposomal internalization to murine macrophage (RAW-264.7), by using an imaging analysis technique. Three different sized liposomes (100, 200, and 400 nm in nominal diameter) labeled with rhodamine fluorescence were used. Liposome internalization appeared to reach a pseudo-steady plateau in about 5h incubation, and most of the internalized liposomes were seen to accumulate in the cytosol including cellular extensions. The maximum fluorescent density from the internalized liposomes was similar between 100 nm and 200 nm liposomes. However, that of the larger 400 nm liposome was approximately 1.7 times higher than the others, confirming the previous report that the larger the liposomes are the higher the degree of internalization is. When the outside of the 200 nm liposomes was modified with biocompatible anchor molecule (BAM) consisting of PEG (ca. 2kD molecular weight) moiety, the endocytosis was indeed reduced by about 2.1-fold, despite the increase of the hydrodynamic size due to BAM conjugation. This fluorescence-based cellular imaging analysis can be used to quantitatively monitor and optimize cellular internalization systems.

  15. Bioavailability of Polyphenol Liposomes: A Challenge Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mignet, Nathalie; Seguin, Johanne; Chabot, Guy G.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, including flavonoids, have long been recognized as a source of important molecules involved in the prevention of several diseases, including cancer. However, because of their poor bioavailability, polyphenols remain difficult to be employed clinically. Over the past few years, a renewed interest has been devoted to the use of liposomes as carriers aimed at increasing the bioavailability and, hence, the therapeutic benefits of polyphenols. In this paper, we review the causes of the poor bioavailability of polyphenols and concentrate on their liposomal formulations, which offer a means of improving their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The problems linked to their development and their potential therapeutic advantages are reviewed. Future directions for liposomal polyphenol development are suggested. PMID:24300518

  16. Dehydration resistance of liposomes containing trehalose glycolipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyberg, Kendra; Goulding, Morgan; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2010-03-01

    The pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has an unusual outer membrane containing trehalose glycolipids that may contribute to its ability to survive freezing and dehydration. Based on our recent discovery that trehalose glycolipids confer dehydration resistance to supported lipid monolayers (Biophys. J. 94: 4718-4724 (2008); Langmuir 25: 5193-5198, (2009)), we hypothesized that liposomes containing synthetic trehalose glycolipids may be dehydration-resistant as well. To test this, we measured the leakage of encapsulated fluorophores and larger macromolecular cargo from such liposomes subject to freeze drying. Both leakage assays and size measurements show that the liposomes are dehydration-resistant. In addition to demonstrating a possibly technologically useful encapsulation platform, our results corroborate the view that encapsulation in a trehalose-glycolipid-rich membrane is a biophysically viable route to protection of mycobacteria from environmental stresses.

  17. Prolonged blood circulation of methotrexate by modulation of liposomal composition.

    PubMed

    Hong, M S; Lim, S J; Lee, M K; Kim, Y B; Kim, C K

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged circulation by liposomal incorporation has been shown to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of drugs in many cases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the prolonged circulation of methotrexate (MTX) can be achieved by modulating the liposomal compositions. Various compositions of liposomes were prepared with 2:1 of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH) with or without distearoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine-N-poly(ethyleneglycol) 2000 (DSPE-PEG). The MTX encapsulation efficiency depended on the type of PC used. It also appeared to increase by inclusion of DSPE-PEG. The size of liposomes decreased by the inclusion of DSPE-PEG. The inclusion of DSPE-PEG lowered the plasma-induced release of MTX from EggPC/CH and DPPC/CH liposomes, suggesting its enhancement effect on the liposomal stability. After intravenous injection to rats, the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of MTX were significantly changed by liposomal incorporation and also by the composition of liposomes. The total body clearance of MTX incorporated in EggPC/CH, DPPC/CH, EggPC/CH/DSPE-PEG, and DPPC/CH/DSPE-PEG liposomes decreased 4.4-, 14.9-, 24.5-, and 53.1-fold, compared with that of free MTX. The ratio of MTX concentration in blood to liver and spleen after injection of DPPC/CH, EggPC/CH/DSPE-PEG, and DPPC/CH/DSPE-PEG liposomes was 5.4-, 8.5-, and 13.5-fold higher than that of EggPC/CH liposomes. Furthermore, the accumulation of MTX in the kidney, one of the organs in which MTX exhibits its toxicity, was significantly lowered by liposomal incorporation, especially by DSPE-PEG-containing liposomes. Taken together, DPPC/CH/DSPE-PEG liposomes most effectively prolonged the blood circulation, and reduced hepatosplenic and kidney uptake of MTX. DPPC/CH/DSPE-PEG liposomes may have potential as an efficient delivery system for MTX.

  18. Compartmentalization of Gd liposomes: the quenching effect explained.

    PubMed

    Guenoun, Jamal; Doeswijk, Gabriela N; Krestin, Gabriel P; Bernsen, Monique R

    2016-01-01

    Cationic liposomes carrying high [Gd] can be used as efficient cell-labeling agents. In a compartmentalized state, Gd can cause signal loss (relaxivity quenching). The contributions of liposomal [Gd], size and compartmentalization state to relaxivity quenching were assessed. The dependency of signal intensity (SI) on intraliposomal [Gd] was assessed comparing three different [Gd] (0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 M Gd) in both small (80 nm) and large (120 nm) cationic liposomes. In addition, five compartmentalization states were compared: free Gd, intact Gd liposomes, ruptured Gd liposomes, Gd liposomes in intact cells and Gd liposomes in ruptured cells (simulating cell death). Gd also causes R2 effects, which is often overlooked. Therefore, both R1 and R2 relaxation rates of a dilution range were measured by T1 and T2 mapping on a 7 T clinical scanner. Less is more. As the unidirectional water efflux rate (outbound across the liposome membrane, κle) is proportional to the surface:volume ratio, smaller liposomes yielded a consistently higher R1 than larger liposomes. For equal voxel [Gd] less concentrated liposomes (0.3 M Gd) yielded higher R1/R2 ratio because of the higher extraliposomal water fraction (vl ). Gd exhibits a dualistic behavior: from hypointensity to hyperintensity to hypointensity, with decreasing [Gd]. Regarding compartmentalization, fewer membrane barriers means a higher R1 /R2 ratio. Gd liposomes exhibit a versatile contrast behavior, dependent on the compartmentalization state, liposomal size, intraliposomal [Gd] and liposome number. Both R1 and R2 effects contribute to this. The versatility allows one to tailor the optimal liposomal formulation to desired goals in cell labeling and tracking.

  19. Asymmetric Zinc Phthalocyanines as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Gulenay; Yavuz, Yunus; Gurek, Aysegul; Canimkurbey, Betul; Kosemen, Arif; San, Sait Eren; Ahsen, Vefa

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received increasing attention due to their high incident to photon efficiency, easy fabrication and low production cost . Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the development of new and efficient sensitizers suitable for practical use. In TiO2-based DSSCs, efficiencies of up to 11.4% under simulated sunlight have been obtained with rutheniumepolypyridyl complexes. However, the main drawback of ruthenium complexes is the lack of absorption in the red region of the visible light and the high cost. For this reason, dyes with large and stable p-conjugated systems such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient DSSCs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been widely used as sensitizers because of their improved light-harvesting properties in the far red- and near-IR spectral regions and their extraordinary robustness [1]. In this work, a series of asymmetric Zn(II) Pcs bearing a carboxylic acid group and six hexylthia groups either at the peripheral or non-peripheral positions have been designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of the COOH group and the positions of hexylthia groups on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance.

  20. Spin Exchange Interaction in Substituted Copper Phthalocyanine Crystalline Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Naveen; Pan, Zhenwen; Lamarche, Cody J.; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; Tokumoto, Takahisa; Cherian, Judy G.; Headrick, Randall L.; McGill, Stephen A.; Furis, Madalina I.

    2015-01-01

    The origins of spin exchange in crystalline thin films of Copper Octabutoxy Phthalocyanine (Cu-OBPc) are investigated using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. These studies are made possible by a solution deposition technique which produces highly ordered films with macroscopic grain sizes suitable for optical studies. For temperatures lower than 2 K, the contribution of a specific state in the valence band manifold originating from the hybridized lone pair in nitrogen orbitals of the Phthalocyanine ring, bears the Brillouin-like signature of an exchange interaction with the localized d-shell Cu spins. A comprehensive MCD spectral analysis coupled with a molecular field model of a σπ − d exchange analogous to sp-d interactions in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) renders an enhanced Zeeman splitting and a modified g-factor of −4 for the electrons that mediate the interaction. These studies define an experimental tool for identifying electronic states involved in spin-dependent exchange interactions in organic materials. PMID:26559337

  1. Spin Exchange Interaction in Substituted Copper Phthalocyanine Crystalline Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Naveen; Pan, Zhenwen; Lamarche, Cody J.; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; Tokumoto, Takahisa; Cherian, Judy G.; Headrick, Randall L.; McGill, Stephen A.; Furis, Madalina I.

    2015-11-01

    The origins of spin exchange in crystalline thin films of Copper Octabutoxy Phthalocyanine (Cu-OBPc) are investigated using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. These studies are made possible by a solution deposition technique which produces highly ordered films with macroscopic grain sizes suitable for optical studies. For temperatures lower than 2 K, the contribution of a specific state in the valence band manifold originating from the hybridized lone pair in nitrogen orbitals of the Phthalocyanine ring, bears the Brillouin-like signature of an exchange interaction with the localized d-shell Cu spins. A comprehensive MCD spectral analysis coupled with a molecular field model of a σπ - d exchange analogous to sp-d interactions in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) renders an enhanced Zeeman splitting and a modified g-factor of -4 for the electrons that mediate the interaction. These studies define an experimental tool for identifying electronic states involved in spin-dependent exchange interactions in organic materials.

  2. Spin Exchange Interaction in Substituted Copper Phthalocyanine Crystalline Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Naveen; Pan, Zhenwen; Lamarche, Cody J; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; Tokumoto, Takahisa; Cherian, Judy G; Headrick, Randall L; McGill, Stephen A; Furis, Madalina I

    2015-11-12

    The origins of spin exchange in crystalline thin films of Copper Octabutoxy Phthalocyanine (Cu-OBPc) are investigated using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. These studies are made possible by a solution deposition technique which produces highly ordered films with macroscopic grain sizes suitable for optical studies. For temperatures lower than 2 K, the contribution of a specific state in the valence band manifold originating from the hybridized lone pair in nitrogen orbitals of the Phthalocyanine ring, bears the Brillouin-like signature of an exchange interaction with the localized d-shell Cu spins. A comprehensive MCD spectral analysis coupled with a molecular field model of a σπ - d exchange analogous to sp-d interactions in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) renders an enhanced Zeeman splitting and a modified g-factor of -4 for the electrons that mediate the interaction. These studies define an experimental tool for identifying electronic states involved in spin-dependent exchange interactions in organic materials.

  3. Soluble copper phthalocyanine applied for organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianhui; Piao, Lingyu; Zha, Suling; Jiang, Chao; Xu, Zheng; Gao, Liyan; Wu, Qian; Kong, Chao

    2011-11-01

    A soluble derivative of copper phthalocyanine, that is 2,9,16,23-tetra carboxyl copper phthalocyanine (CuTCPc), is synthesized in this paper. The applications of CuTCPc as donor and interlayer materials in solar cell devices are investigated. The results demonstrate that when CuTCPc is used as a donor material, the performance of the device ITO/CuTCPc/PCBM/Al shows an open circuit voltage (V(OC)) of 0.54 V, a short circuit current (J(SC)) of 0.825 mA/cm2, a fill factor (FF) of 32.3% and the power conversion efficiency (nu) of 0.14%. When CuTCPc acts as an interlayer, the performance of the device ITO/CuTCPc/P3HT:PCBM/Al is improved: J(SC) increases to 3.12 mA/cm2, V(OC) increases to 0.59 V, FF increases to 33.8%, and the corresponding nu is 0.62%.

  4. Intracellular phthalocyanine localization: confocal laser scanning microscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyaeva, Elena B.; Greve, Jan; de Grooth, Bart G.; Van Leeuwen, A. G.

    1994-02-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) are promising second-generation photosensitizers for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. We report on the tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS4) localization in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In these cells AlPcS4 was found in granules surrounding Golgi apparatus and in the peripheral cytoplasmic region. Peripheral Pc-containing granules partially coincided with the acidic cellular compartments. The effect of irradiation with light on Pc intracellular distribution was also studied. In the Pc-free medium disruption of some Pc- containing granules was observed followed by appearance of Pc fluorescence in the cell plasma membrane, the nuclear envelope, and the near-nuclear region. When cells were irradiated in the presence of Pc in external medium a drastic increase of membrane permeability to Pc was observed, followed by Pc binding the cell plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, and some structures in the cytoplasm. Diffusive Pc fluorescence in the nucleus was also observed. The implication of observed Pc redistribution caused by irradiation with light for the PDT protocol is discussed.

  5. Liposomal boron delivery for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B and thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons have an energy of 0.025 eV, clearly below the threshold energy required to ionize tissue components. However, neutron capture by (10)B produces lithium ion and helium (alpha-particles), which are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles, and dissipate their kinetic energy before traveling one cell diameter (5-9 microm) in biological tissues, ensuring their potential for precise cell killing. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer, and hepatoma using two boron compounds: sodium borocaptate (Na(2)(10)B(12)H(11)SH; Na(2)(10)BSH) and l-p-boronophenylalanine (l-(10)BPA). These low molecular weight compounds are cleared easily from the cancer cells and blood. Therefore, high accumulation and selective delivery of boron compounds into tumor tissues are most important to achieve effective BNCT and to avoid damage of adjacent healthy cells. Much attention has been focused on the liposomal drug delivery system (DDS) as an attractive, intelligent technology of targeting and controlled release of (10)B compounds. Two approaches have been investigated for incorporation of (10)B into liposomes: (1) encapsulation of (10)B compounds into liposomes and (2) incorporation of (10)B-conjugated lipids into the liposomal bilayer. Our laboratory has developed boron ion cluster lipids for application of the latter approach. In this chapter, our boron lipid liposome approaches as well as recent developments of the liposomal boron delivery system are summarized.

  6. Microfluidic-Enabled Liposomes Elucidate Size-Dependent Transdermal Transport

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira, Mariana; Vreeland, Wyatt N.; Quezado, Zenaide; Finkel, Julia C.; DeVoe, Don L.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic synthesis of small and nearly-monodisperse liposomes is used to investigate the size-dependent passive transdermal transport of nanoscale lipid vesicles. While large liposomes with diameters above 105 nm are found to be excluded from deeper skin layers past the stratum corneum, the primary barrier to nanoparticle transport, liposomes with mean diameters between 31–41 nm exhibit significantly enhanced penetration. Furthermore, multicolor fluorescence imaging reveals that the smaller liposomes pass rapidly through the stratum corneum without vesicle rupture. These findings reveal that nanoscale liposomes with well-controlled size and minimal size variance are excellent vehicles for transdermal delivery of functional nanoparticle drugs. PMID:24658111

  7. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Soo; George Priya Doss, C.; Yagihara, Shin; Kim, Do-Young

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole. PMID:25250340

  8. Fully protected glycosylated zinc (II) phthalocyanine shows high uptake and photodynamic cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kimani, Stanley G; Shmigol, Tatiana A; Hammond, Samantha; Phillips, James B; Bruce, James I; MacRobert, Alexander J; Malakhov, Mikhail V; Golding, Jon P

    2013-01-01

    Phthalocyanine photosensitizers are effective in anticancer photodynamic therapy (PDT) but suffer from limited solubility, limited cellular uptake and limited selectivity for cancer cells. To improve these characteristics, we synthesized isopropylidene-protected and partially deprotected tetra β-glycosylated zinc (II) phthalocyanines and compared their uptake and accumulation kinetics, subcellular localization, in vitro photocytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species generation with those of disulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine. In MCF-7 cancer cells, one of the compounds, zinc phthalocyanine {4}, demonstrated 10-fold higher uptake, 5-fold greater PDT-induced cellular reactive oxygen species concentration and 2-fold greater phototoxicity than equimolar (9 μm) disulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine. Thus, isopropylidene-protected β-glycosylation of phthalocyanines provides a simple method of improving the efficacy of PDT.

  9. Structure-function relationships in unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanines for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cid, Juan-José; García-Iglesias, Miguel; Yum, Jun-Ho; Forneli, Amparo; Albero, Josep; Martínez-Ferrero, Eugenia; Vázquez, Purificación; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Palomares, Emilio; Torres, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    A series of unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanines bearing an anchoring carboxylic function linked to the phthalocyanine ring through different spacers were designed for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). The modification of the spacer group allows not only a variable distance between the dye and the nanocrystalline TiO(2), but also a distinct orientation of the phthalocyanine on the semiconductor surface. The photovoltaic data show that the nature of the spacer group plays a significant role in the electron injection from the photo-excited dye into the nanocrystalline TiO(2) semiconductor, the recombination rates and the efficiency of the cells. The incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) for phthalocyanines bearing an insulating spacer is as low as 9%, whereas for those with a conducting spacer an outstanding IPCE 80% was obtained.

  10. A sandwich-type triple-decker lanthanide complex with mixed phthalocyanine and Schiff base ligands.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Li, Yu-Yang; Liu, Cai-Ming; Li, Yi-Zhi; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2013-08-21

    A new triple-decker dinuclear sandwich-type dysprosium complex based on both the phthalocyanine ligand and the tetradentate Schiff base ligand was synthesized, which is of interest for synthetic chemistry and also shows single-molecule magnetic behaviour.

  11. Heteroleptic naphthalo-phthalocyaninates of lutetium: synthesis and spectral and conductivity properties.

    PubMed

    Dubinina, Tatiana V; Kosov, Anton D; Petrusevich, Elizaveta F; Maklakov, Sergey S; Borisova, Nataliya E; Tomilova, Larisa G; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2015-05-07

    Novel heteroleptic naphthalo-phthalocyaninates of lutetium possessing a symmetrical substituted naphthalocyanine deck were synthesized on the basis of two preformed synthetic blocks: naphthalocyanine ligand and lutetium phthalocyaninates. The compounds obtained were characterized by (1)H NMR and high-resolution MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The correlation between the nature of the substituents and the spectral properties of the target complexes was determined by the introduction of electron-donating (aryl-, aryloxy-) or electron-withdrawing (chloro-) substituents into the phthalocyanine deck. In addition, the nature of peripheral substituents was shown not to affect drastically the phthalocyanine conductivity and activation energy. Conductivity properties depend on thin film morphology which, in turn, relies on intermolecular π-π interactions.

  12. Synthesis and comparative photodynamic properties of two isosteric alkyl substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Gauna, Gabriela A; Marino, Julieta; García Vior, María C; Roguin, Leonor P; Awruch, Josefina

    2011-11-01

    The synthesis and photophysical parameters of two novel isosteric cationic zinc(II) phthalocyanines: 2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis[(N-butyl-N-methylammoniumethylsulfanyl]phthalocyaninatozinc(II) tetraiodide (6) and 2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis[(N-dibutyl-N-methylammonium)ethoxy]phthalocyaninatozinc(II) tetraiodide (7) were investigated. Maximum absorption values were 686.5 nm and 678 nm for 6 and 7, respectively, whereas singlet molecular oxygen generation was 0.42 and 0.67, respectively. The photodynamic effect and the cellular uptake of both phthalocyanines were evaluated on human nasopharynx KB carcinoma cells. After light exposure, phthalocyanine 6 showed a higher cytotoxic activity than 7. In addition, a higher intracellular uptake of 6 and a preferential localization within lysosomes were demonstrated. The production of a greater amount of reactive oxygen species after phthalocyanine 6 irradiation would be responsible for its potent phototoxic action on KB cells.

  13. Copper phthalocyanine films deposited by liquid-liquid interface recrystallization technique (LLIRCT).

    PubMed

    Patil, K R; Sathaye, S D; Hawaldar, R; Sathe, B R; Mandale, A B; Mitra, A

    2007-11-15

    The simple recrystallization process is innovatively used to obtain the nanoparticles of copper phthalocyanine by a simple method. Liquid-liquid interface recrystallization technique (LLIRCT) has been employed successfully to produce small sized copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles with diameter between 3-5 nm. The TEM-SAED studies revealed the formation of 3-5 nm sized with beta-phase dominated mixture of alpha and beta copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles. The XRD, SEM, and the UV-vis studies were further carried out to confirm the formation of copper phthalocyanine thin films. The cyclic voltametry (CV) studies conclude that redox reaction is totally reversible one electron transfer process. The process is attributed to Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox reaction.

  14. Photochemical and Photophysical Properties of Phthalocyanines Modified with Optically Active Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Aline A; Nascimento, Francisco B; de Souza, Thaiza F M; Omori, Alvaro T; Manieri, Tânia M; Cerchiaro, Giselle; Ribeiro, Anderson O

    2015-07-24

    Three phthalocyanine derivatives were synthesized and characterized: one modified with a racemic mixture of 1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol and two other macrocycles modified with each one of the enantioenriched isomers (R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol and (S)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol. The compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, UV-Vis absorption, and excitation and emission spectra. Additionally, partition coefficient values and the quantum yield of the generation of oxygen reactive species were determined. Interestingly, the phthalocyanine containing a (R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethoxy moiety showed higher quantum yield of reactive oxygen species generation than other compounds under the same conditions. In addition, the obtained fluorescence microscopy and cell viability results have shown that these phthalocyanines have different interactions with mammary MCF-7 cells. Therefore, our results indicate that the photochemical and biological properties of phthalocyanines with chiral ligands should be evaluated separately for each enantiomeric species.

  15. Phthalocyanines: a new class of G-quadruplex-ligands with many potential applications.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Hidenobu; Fujimoto, Takeshi; Murashima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2012-06-25

    A G-quadruplex is a four-stranded DNA structure featuring stacked guanine tetrads, G-quartets. Formation of a G-quadruplex in telomere DNA can inhibit telomerase activity; therefore, development of G-quadruplex-ligands, which induce and/or stabilize G-quadruplexes, has become an area of great interest. Phthalocyanine derivatives have substantial potential as high-affinity G-quadruplex-ligands because these planar chromophores are similar in size and shape to the G-quartets. Here, we focus on the latest findings on phthalocyanine derivatives as G-quadruplex-ligands, and discuss the mechanisms by which phthalocyanines bind to G-quadruplexes with high affinity and selectivity. We also discuss potential biomedical and organic electronic applications of phthalocyanines that are dependent on their photophysical properties.

  16. The effect of axial ligands on the quantum yield of singlet oxygen of new silicon phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Huafei; Zhang, Xuemei; Yu, Xinxin; Pan, Sujuan; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2016-10-01

    The singlet oxygen (1O2) production abilitity is an important factor to assess their potential as effective of photosensitizers. In this paper, the 1O2 production rate, production rate constant and quantum yield of silicon(IV) phthalocyanine axially bearing 1-3 generation dendritic substituents were evaluated by a high performance liquid chromatographic method. The results show that the 1O2 production rate and production rate constant of these compounds increase gradually with dendritic generations increase. And the 1O2 quantum yield of silicon(IV) phthalocyanine with first generation dendritic ligand was the highest. This may be due to the isolation effect of the dendritic ligands on the phthalocyanine core. The parameters of the observed 1O2 production properties will provide valuable data for these dendrimer phthalocyanines as promising photosensitizer in PDT application.

  17. Overcoming cellular and tissue barriers to improve liposomal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Aditya G.

    Forty years of liposome research have demonstrated that the anti-tumor efficacy of liposomal therapies is, in part, driven by three parameters: 1) liposome formulation and lipid biophysics, 2) accumulation and distribution in the tumor, and 3) release of the payload at the site of interest. This thesis outlines three studies that improve on each of these delivery steps. In the first study, we engineer a novel class of zwitterlipids with an inverted headgroup architecture that have remarkable biophysical properties and may be useful for drug delivery applications. After intravenous administration, liposomes accumulate in the tumor by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, the tumor stroma often limits liposome efficacy by preventing distribution into the tumor. In the second study, we demonstrate that depletion of hyaluronan in the tumor stroma improves the distribution and efficacy of DoxilRTM in murine 4T1 tumors. Once a liposome has distributed to the therapeutic site, it must release its payload over the correct timescale. Few facile methods exist to quantify the release of liposome therapeutics in vivo. In the third study, we outline and validate a simple, robust, and quantitative method for tracking the rate and extent of release of liposome contents in vivo. This tool should facilitate a better understanding of the pharmacodynamics of liposome-encapsulated drugs in animals. This work highlights aspects of liposome behavior that have prevented successful clinical translation and proposes alternative approaches to improve liposome drug delivery.

  18. Liposomes from hydrogenated soya lecithin formed in sintered glass pores.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Zygmunt H

    2012-01-01

    Possible complete closure of hydrophilic drug solutions in liposomes with required dimensions is the aim of variety liposome techniques. The ease of separating medication-loaded liposomes from liposome suspension to achieve an appropriate drug concentration in the final preparation is also desired. This paper describes the use of liposome preparation method, called reverse-phase evaporation, which leads to practical achievement of the earlier mentioned objectives. Preparation process is performed in an appropriately designed device. In optimal conditions of liposome preparation the final encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic drug solution amounted to 50% in liposomes with a diameter in the range of a few micrometers up to 250 nm. The diameter of terminal liposomes is a simple function of relative amount of the lipid used and the degree of emulsion emulsification w/o at the beginning of liposome preparation. The density of the concentrated drug solution trapped in liposomes is usually higher than that of the buffer. Therefore, the loaded liposomes may be easily separated from non-trapped material by using of a simple sedimentation at 30000 x g. Density of aqueous drug solution insufficient to effective centrifugation can be magnified with an appropriate quantity of sucrose solution before encapsulation.

  19. Determination of liposome size: a tool for protein reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Aleksandar; Scheuring, Johannes; Neumaier, Nikolaus; Mirus, Oliver; Weinkauf, Sevil; Schleiff, Enrico

    2005-12-01

    Reconstitution of proteins into liposomes is a widespread approach to analyzing their biological function. Many protocols exist for this procedure and for the subsequent analysis of proteins. Here, we establish a procedure for preparation and analysis of liposomes with a lipid composition reflecting the outer envelope of chloroplasts. First, the stability of the liposomes in different buffer systems was investigated to provide information for the storage of the reconstituted system. Then, the size of the liposomes created by filtration through a polycarbonate filter dependent on the lipid composition was analyzed. Subsequently, solubilization of the liposomes composed of lipids with the outer envelope composition by dodecylmaltoside and octylglucoside as a preceding step of reconstitution was studied. Finally, we developed a straightforward method to determine the size of liposomes by absorption spectroscopy. The described setup allows the construction of reconstitution protocols, including the final determination of the liposome size.

  20. Modeling the interactions of phthalocyanines in water: from the Cu(II)-tetrasulphonate to the metal-free phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Martín, Elisa I; Martínez, Jose M; Sánchez Marcos, Enrique

    2011-01-14

    A quantum and statistical study on the effects of the ions Cu(2+) and SO(3)(-) in the solvent structure around the metal-free phthalocyanine (H(2)Pc) is presented. We developed an ab initio interaction potential for the system CuPc-H(2)O based on quantum chemical calculations and studied its transferability to the H(2)Pc-H(2)O and [CuPc(SO(3))(4)](4-)-H(2)O interactions. The use of the molecular dynamics technique allows the determination of energetic and structural properties of CuPc, H(2)Pc, and [CuPc(SO(3))(4)](4-) in water and the understanding of the keys for the different behaviors of the three phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives in water. The inclusion of the Cu(2+) cation in the Pc structure reinforces the appearance of two axial water molecules and second-shell water molecules in the solvent structure, whereas the presence of SO(3)(-) anions implies a well defined hydration shell of about eight water molecules around them making the macrocycle soluble in water. Debye-Waller factors for axial water molecules have been obtained in order to examine the potential sensitivity of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure technique to detect the axial water molecules.

  1. Conductivity of copper phthalocyanine-polystyrene composite films in the presence of adsorbed oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochtennyi, A. E.; Misevich, A. V.; Dolgii, V. K.

    2014-09-01

    The electrical conductivity and adsorption-resistive response to nitrogen dioxide of composite films containing copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles dispersed into the polystyrene matrix are investigated experimentally. The results are analyzed using the two-level model of hopping conductivity. The contributions to the conductivity from intrinsic and impurity localization centers are singled out, and the concentrations of the localization centers in copper phthalocyanines free of impurities as well as the electron localization radii in impurity and intrinsic states are determined.

  2. ABAB Phthalocyanines: Scaffolds for Building Unprecedented Donor–π–Acceptor Chromophores

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Ettore; Jaramillo‐García, Javier; Medel, María; Urbani, Maxence; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Unique donor–π–acceptor phthalocyanines have been synthesized through the asymmetric functionalization of an ABAB phthalocyanine, crosswise functionalized with two iodine atoms through Pd‐catalyzed cross‐coupling reactions with adequate electron‐donor and electron‐acceptor moieties. These push–pull molecules have been optically and electrochemically characterized, and their ability to perform as chromophores for dye‐sensitized solar cells has been tested. PMID:28168157

  3. ABAB Phthalocyanines: Scaffolds for Building Unprecedented Donor-π-Acceptor Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Ettore; Jaramillo-García, Javier; Medel, María; Urbani, Maxence; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeerudin, Mohammad K; de la Torre, Gema; Torres, Tomas

    2017-02-01

    Unique donor-π-acceptor phthalocyanines have been synthesized through the asymmetric functionalization of an ABAB phthalocyanine, crosswise functionalized with two iodine atoms through Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with adequate electron-donor and electron-acceptor moieties. These push-pull molecules have been optically and electrochemically characterized, and their ability to perform as chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cells has been tested.

  4. DFT study of the effect of substitution on the molecular structure of copper phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Sachdeva, Ritika; Singh, Sukhwinder; Saini, G. S. S.

    2016-05-01

    To study the effect of sulfonic acid group as substituent on the molecular structure of an organic compound copper Phthalocyanine, the optimized geometry, mulliken charges, energies and dipole momemts of copper phthalocyanine and copper phthalocyaninetetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt have been investigated using density functional theory. Also to predict the change in reactive sites after substitution, molecular electrostatic potential maps for both the molecules have been calculated.

  5. Synthesis, photophysical studies and ¹O₂ generation of carboxylate-terminated zinc phthalocyanine dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Setaro, Francesca; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Hahn, Uwe; Torres, Tomás

    2014-07-01

    Highly water-soluble dendrimers have been prepared consisting of a central zinc phthalocyanine moiety and dendritic wedges with terminal carboxylate groups. The biggest polyelectrolyte comprises 32 negative charges at the dendrimer surface. The photophysical studies reveal a strong correlation between the degree of dendritic environment, the extent of aggregation, and the ability to generate singlet oxygen in aqueous media. Compared to dendrimers having an axial derivatization the functionalization on the outer rim also significantly improves the phthalocyanine's ability to photosensitize singlet oxygen.

  6. Potential Effect of Liposomes and Liposome-Encapsulated Botulinum Toxin and Tacrolimus in the Treatment of Bladder Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Joseph J; Chancellor, Michael B; Kaufman, Jonathan; Gruber, Michele A; Chancellor, David D

    2016-03-18

    Bladder drug delivery via catheter instillation is a widely used treatment for recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Intravesical instillation of liposomal botulinum toxin has recently shown promise in the treatment of overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and studies of liposomal tacrolimus instillations show promise in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis. Liposomes are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug molecules to be delivered to cells via endocytosis. This review will present new developments on instillations of liposomes and liposome-encapsulated drugs into the urinary bladder for treating lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  7. Electrochemical Behavior and Characterization of Polypyrrole-Copper Phthalocyanine Tetrasulfonate Thin Film: Cyclic Voltammetry and in Situ Raman Spectroscopic Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-10

    and identify by block number) r!ELD GROUP SUB- GROUP Polypyrrole- Copper Phthalocyanine Tetrasulfonate, Thin Film, Cyclic Voltammetry, In Situ Raman...purity), copper phthalocyanine -3,4’,4’’,4’’’-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (appr. 85% purity), and methyl viologen dichloride hydrate were obtained...Electrochemical Behavior and Characterization of Polypyrrole- Copper Phthalocyanine Tetrasulfonate Thin Film: Cyclic Voltammetry and in Situ Raman

  8. Preparation and in vitro photodynamic activity of novel silicon(IV) phthalocyanines conjugated to serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Dong; Lo, Pui-Chi; Chen, Yan-Mei; Lai, Janice C; Fong, Wing-Ping; Ng, Dennis K P

    2006-05-01

    The interactions of four novel silicon(IV) phthalocyanines (SiPc), namely SiPc[OC(3)H(5)(NMe(2))(2)](2) (1), SiPc[OC(3)H(5)(NMe(2))(2)](OMe) (2), {SiPc[OC(3)H(5)(NMe(3))(2)](2)}I(4) (3), and {SiPc[OC(3)H(5)(NMe(3))(2)](OMe)}I(2) (4) with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and maleylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence emission of the serum albumins was effectively quenched by these phthalocyanines mainly through a static quenching mechanism. The higher Stern-Volmer quenching constants for the unsymmetrically substituted phthalocyanines 2 and 4 suggested that they have a stronger interaction with these proteins than the symmetrically substituted analogues 1 and 3. A series of non-covalent BSA or mBSA conjugates of these phthalocyanines were also prepared and evaluated for their in vitro photodynamic activity against HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The bioconjugation could enhance the photocytotoxicity of 1 and 4 by up to eight folds, but the effects on 2 and 3 were negligible. The results could be partly explained by two counter-balancing effects, namely the enhanced uptake and increased aggregation tendency of phthalocyanine due to BSA conjugation. As shown by absorption spectroscopy, the tetracationic phthalocyanine 3 was significantly aggregated in the protein cavity and its photocytotoxicity remained the lowest among the four photosensitizers.

  9. Assembly of Multi-Phthalocyanines on a Porphyrin Template by Fourfold Rotaxane Formation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Kato, Tatsuhisa; Tanaka, Kentaro

    2016-08-22

    A stacked assembly composed of a porphyrin and two phthalocyanines was prepared through fourfold rotaxane formation. Two phthalocyanine molecules, bearing four 24-crown-8 units, were assembled onto a porphyrin template incorporating four sidechains with two dialkylammonium ions each through pseudorotaxane formation between crown ether units and ammonium ions. The Staudinger phosphite reaction, as the stoppering reaction, resulted in the formation of the stacked heterotrimer composed of a porphyrin and two phthalocyanines connected through a fourfold rotaxane structure. UV/Vis spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of the heterotrimer indicated that there is a significant electronic interaction between the two phthalocyanine units due to the close stacking. The electrochemical oxidation process of the stacked heterotrimer was studied by cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of a dinuclear Cu(II) complex, in which two Cu(II) phthalocyanines were assembled on a metal-free porphyrin template, revealed that two Cu(II) phthalocyanines were located within the stacking distance, which resulted in an antiferromagnetic interaction between the two S=1/2 spins in the ground state of the Cu(2+) ions in the heterotrimer.

  10. Studies of anti-fibrillogenic activity of phthalocyanines of zirconium containing out-of-plane ligands.

    PubMed

    Kovalska, Vladyslava; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo; Chernii, Viktor; Volkova, Kateryna; Tretyakova, Iryna; Cherepanov, Vsevolod; Yarmoluk, Sergiy; Volkov, Sergiy

    2012-01-01

    Series of phthalocyanines of zirconium containing lysine, citric, nonanoic acid residues and dibenzolylmethane groups as out-of-plane ligands are firstly studied as inhibitors of fibrillogenesis using cyanine-based fluorescent inhibitory assay. It was shown that studied phthalocyanines at concentration of 20μM inhibited aggregation reaction on 38.5-57.6% and inhibitory activity of phthalocyanines depended on the chemical nature of out-of-plane ligand. For the most active compound PcZrLys(2) (zirconium phthalocyanine containing lysine fragment) the efficient inhibitor concentration was estimated to be 37μM. AFM studies have shown that in the presence of PcZrLys(2) the inhibition of fibrils formation and formation of spherical oligomeric aggregates took place. Due to the ability of phthalocyanines to decrease efficiently protein aggregation into the amyloid fibrils, modification of phthalocyanine molecules via out-of-plane substitutions was proposed as approach for design of anti-fibrillogenic agents with required properties.

  11. Aldehyde Substituted Phthalocyanines: Synthesis, Characterization and Investigation of Photophysical and Photochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Sen, Pinar; Yildiz, S Zeki; Erdoğmuş, Ali; Dege, Necmi; Atalay, Yusuf

    2016-07-01

    The new free and nickel phthalocyanine derivatives, tetrakis [(2-formylphenoxy)-phthalocyanine (4), tetrakis [(2-formylphenoxy)-phthalocyaninato]nickel(II) (5) have been synthesized via de-protection of tetra acetal-substituted phthalocyanines in acetic acid/FeCl3 system. The starting phthalocyanines, tetrakis [(2-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)phenoxy)-phthalocyanine (2) and tetrakis [(2-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)phenoxy)-phthalocyaninato]nickel (3), were prepared by the tetramerization of 4-(2-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl) phenoxy) phthalonitrile (1). The new compounds have been characterized by the combination of FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, Mass spectra and elemental analysis. Compound 1 crystallizes in the Orthorhombic, space group Pbca with a = 9.2542 (4) Å, b = 13.3299 (5) Å, c = 23.2333 (11) Å, and Z = 8. Compound 1 is built up from two planar groups (phthalonitrile and phenoxy), with a dihedral angle of 69.693(36)° between them and non-planar dioxolane group. We report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecule 1, as well. Geometric, spectroscopic and electronic properties of compound 1 has been calculated using B3LYP method and 6-311++G(dp) basis set. Fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to record the photoluminescence spectra of the prepared phthalocyanines and the photophysical and photochemical properties were examined in DMSO.

  12. Fluorination of phthalocyanine substituents: Improved photoproperties and enhanced photodynamic efficacy after optimal micellar formulations.

    PubMed

    Pucelik, Barbara; Gürol, Ilke; Ahsen, Vefa; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Dąbrowski, Janusz M

    2016-11-29

    A fluorinated phthalocyanine and its non-fluorinated analogue were selected to evaluate the potential enhancement of fluorination on photophysical, photochemical and redox properties as well as on biological activity in cellular and animal models. Due to the pharmacological relevance, the affinity of these phthalocyanines towards biological membranes (logPow) as well as their primary interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were determined. Water-dispersible drug formulation of phthalocyanines via Pluronic(®)-based triblock copolymer micelles was prepared to avoid self-aggregation effects and to improve their delivery. The obtained results demonstrate that phthalocyanines incorporation into tunable-polymeric micelles significantly enhanced their cellular uptake and their photocytotoxicity. The improved biodistribution and photodynamic efficacy of the phthalocyanines-triblock copolymer conjugates was also confirmed in vivo in CT26 bearing BALB/c mice. PDT with both compounds led to tumor growth inhibition in all treated animals. Fluorinated phthalocyanine 2 turned out to be the most effective anticancer agent as the tumors of 20% of mice treated regressed completely and did not appear for over one year after treatment.

  13. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of novel phthalocyanines against Escherichia coli--comparison of analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Mikula, Premysl; Kalhotka, Libor; Jancula, Daniel; Zezulka, Stepan; Korinkova, Radka; Cerny, Jiri; Marsalek, Blahoslav; Toman, Petr

    2014-09-05

    We analyzed antibacterial effects of several novel phthalocyanines against Escherichia coli and evaluated the suitability of flow cytometry for the detection of antibacterial effects of phthalocyanines in comparison with routinely used cultivation. After 3h of exposure under cool white light eight cationic phthalocyanines showed very high antibacterial activity in the concentration of 2.00 mg L(-1) and four of them were even efficient in the concentration of 0.20 mg L(-1). Antibacterial activity of neutral and anionic compounds was considerably lower or even negligible. No antibacterial effect was detected when bacteria were exposed without illumination. Binding affinity to bacterial cells was found to represent an important parameter influencing phthalocyanine antibacterial activity that can be modified by total charge of peripheral substituents and by the presence of suitable functional groups inside them. Agglomeration of cells observed in suspensions treated with a higher concentration of certain cationic phthalocyanines (the strongest binders to bacterial membrane) affected cytometric measurements of total cell counts, thus without appropriate pretreatment of the sample before analysis this parameter seems not to be fully valid in the evaluation of phthalocyanine antibacterial activity. Cytometric measurement of cell membrane integrity appears to be a suitable and even more sensitive parameter than cultivation.

  14. Anti-fibrillogenic properties of phthalocyanines: effect of the out-of-plane ligands.

    PubMed

    Kovalska, V; Cherepanov, V; Losytskyy, M; Chernii, S; Senenko, A; Chernii, V; Tretyakova, I; Yarmoluk, S; Volkov, S

    2014-12-15

    The axially-coordinated phthalocyanines were previously reported as agents possessing strong anti-fibrillogenic properties. In the presented study we used the atomic force microscopy to investigate the intermediates and the products of insulin aggregation reaction formed in the presence of Zr and Hf phthalocyanine complexes that contain out-of-plane ligands of different size and nature. It is shown that while phthalocyanine-free insulin generated mostly amyloid fibrils with a diameter of 2-8nm and a length of up to 5μm, the presence of phthalocyanines with spatial bulky ligands (PcZrDbm2) leads to the redirection of the fibrillization reaction to the formation of the spherical oligomer aggregates with a diameter of 4-12nm. At the same time the phthalocyanine complex PcHfCl2 having the small-volume ligands induces the formation of large size insulin aggregates with a height of about 100nm that are supposed to be amorphous species. The study of the aggregation intermediates showed the certain similarity of the reaction passing for phthalocyanine-free insulin and insulin in the presence of PcZrDbm2. The large-size amorphous species were observed at the beginning of reaction, later they dissociated, leading to the formation and growth of the smaller size particles. The amyloid-sensitive cyanine dye 7519 demonstrates the strong fluorescent response both in the presence of fibrils and spherical oligomers, while it is non-sensitive to amorphous aggregates.

  15. The quest for biocompatible phthalocyanines for molecular imaging: Photophysics, relaxometry and cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sara M A; Tomé, Vanessa A; Calvete, Mário J F; Pereira, Mariette M; Burrows, Hugh D; Cardoso, Ana M S; Pallier, Agnès; C A Castro, M Margarida; Tóth, Éva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble phthalocyanines bearing either four PEG500 or four choline substituents in the macrocyclic structure, as well as their Zn(II) and Mn(III) complexes were synthesized. The metal-free and Zn(II) complexes present relatively high fluorescence quantum yields (up to 0.30), while the Mn(III) complexes show no fluorescence as a consequence of rapid non-radiative deactivation of the Mn(III) phthalocyanine excited states through low-lying metal based or charge-transfer states. The effect of DMSO on the aggregation of the phthalocyanines was studied. It was not possible to obtain the Mn(II) complexes by reduction of the corresponding Mn(III) complexes due to the presence of electron donating substituents at the periphery of the phthalocyanines. The (1)H NMRD plots of the PEG500 and choline substituted Mn(III)-phthalocyanine complexes are typical of self-aggregated Mn(III) systems with r1 relaxivities of 4.0 and 5.7mM(-1)s(-1) at 20MHz and 25°C. The Mn(III)-phthalocyanine-PEG4 complex shows no significant cytotoxicity to HeLa cell cultures after 2h of incubation up to 2mM concentration. After 24h of cell exposure to the compound, significant toxicity was observed for all the concentrations tested with IC50 of 1.105mM.

  16. Photophysical property of the pyridyl and pyrimidinyloxy silicon (IV) phthalocyanines and their morphology of polymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sujuan; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Shijun; Jiang, Yufeng; Zeng, Di; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2016-10-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are extensively studied by many scientists because of their interesting optical, electrical properties, and good thermal stability. The unsubstituted Pcs can present solubility and aggregation behaviour problems for their limiting applications. In our study two pyridyl and pyrimidinyloxy silicon (IV) phthalocyanines were synthesized. Their photophysical properties were examined by UV-Vis, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The positions of Q band were observed at 670 nm for two phthalocyanines. Compared with silicon phthalocyanine dichloride (SiPcCl2), the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of pyridyl and pyrimidinyloxy silicon (IV) phthalocyanines increased. In order to improve biocompatibility and tumor-targeted delivery, the hydrophobic dendritic phthalocyanine were encapsulated by diblock amphiphilic copolymer poly (N'-benzyl oxygen carbonyl lysine)-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (N'-benzyl oxygen carbonyl lysine) (PLL(Z)-PEG-PLL(Z)) to form the polymeric nanoparticles. The morphology of two nanoparticles were investigated by using atomic force microscope. The polymeric nanoparticles were spherical with the diameter at about 35 nm. The polymeric nanoparticle SiPc(OR2)2@PLL(Z)-PEG-PLL(Z) would be the promising third-generation photosensitizer (PS) for photodynamic therapy (PDT).

  17. Photophysical property of a polymeric nanoparticle loaded with an aryl benzyl ester silicon (IV) phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sujuan; Ma, Dongdong; Chen, Xiuqin; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2014-09-01

    Because of their excellent near-infrared (NIR) optical properties, phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been regarded as promising therapy agents for fluorescence image-guided drug delivery and noninvasive treatment of tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Nevertheless, phthalocyanines are substantially limited in clinical applications owing to their poor solubility, aggregation and insufficient selectivity for cancer cells. To address these issues, we have developed a novel dendrimer-based theranostic nanoparticle for tumor-targeted delivery of phthalocyanine. The preparation procedure involved the modification of the silicon (IV) phthalocyanine molecule with a dendritic axially substitution, which significantly enhances their photophysical property. In order to improve biocompatibility and tumor-targeted delivery, the hydrophobic dendritic phthalocyanine was encapsulated by diblock amphiphilic copolymer poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (Epsilon-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) to form a polymeric nanoparticle. The polymeric nanoparticle is spherical with a diameter at about 90 nm. The photophysical property of the polymeric nanoparticle was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Compared with the free dendritic phthalocyanine, the Q band of the polymeric nanoparticle was red-shifted, and the fluorescence intensity decreased. Furthermore, the polymeric nanoparticle has a relatively high loading amount and encapsulation rate. Therefore, the polymeric nanoparticle would be a promising third-generation photosensitizer (PS) for PDT.

  18. Photodynamic therapy of melanoma using new, synthetic porphyrins and phthalocyanines as photosensitisers – a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    BALDEA, IOANA; ION, RODICA-MARIANA; OLTEANU, DIANA ELENA; NENU, IULIANA; TUDOR, DIANA; FILIP, ADRIANA GABRIELA

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma, a cancer that arises from melanocytes, is one of the most unresponsive cancers to known therapies and has a tendency to produce early metastases. Several studies showed encouraging results of the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in melanoma, in different experimental settings in vitro and in vivo, as well as several clinical reports. Aims Our study focuses on testing the antimelanoma efficacy of several new, synthetic photosensitisers (PS), from two different chemical classes, respectively four porphyrins and six phthalocyanines. Methods These PS were tested in terms of cell toxicity and phototoxicity against a radial growth phase melanoma cell line (WM35), in vitro. Cells were exposed to different concentrations of the PS for 24h, washed, then irradiatied with red light (630 nm) 75 mJ/cm2 for the porphyrins and 1 J/cm2 for the phthalocyanines. Viability was measured using the MTS method. Results Two of the synthetic porphyrins, TTP and THNP, were active photosensitizers against WM35 melanoma in vitro. Phthalocyanines were effective in producing a dose dependent PDT-induced decrease in viability in a dose-dependent manner. The most efficient was Indium (III) Phthalocyanine chloride, a metal substituted phthalocyanine. Conclusions The most efficient photosensitizers for PDT in melanoma cells were the phthalocyanines in terms of tumor cell photokilling and decreased dark toxicity. PMID:26528068

  19. Physico-chemical characterization of liposomes and drug substance-liposome interactions in pharmaceutics using capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Ulrik; Østergaard, Jesper

    2012-12-07

    Liposomes are self-assembled phospholipid vesicles and have numerous research and therapeutic applications. In the pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences liposomes find use as models of biological membranes, partitioning medium and as drug carriers. The present review addresses the use of capillary electrophoresis and liposome electrokinetic chromatography for the characterization of liposomes in a pharmaceutical context. Capillary electrophoretic techniques have been used for the measurement of electrophoretic mobility, which provides information on liposome surface charge, size and membrane permeability of liposomes. The use of liposome electrokinetic chromatography and capillary electrophoresis for determination of liposome/water partitioning and characterization of drug-liposome interactions is reviewed. A number of studies indicate that capillary electrophoresis may have a role in the characterization of liposome drug delivery systems, e.g., for the investigation of encapsulation efficiency and drug leakage. The well-known characteristics of capillary electrophoresis, i.e., low sample volume requirement, high separation efficiency in aqueous media without a stationary phase, minimal sample preparation, and a high degree of automation, makes it an attractive approach in liposome research.

  20. Branching ratio and L2 + L3 intensities of 3d-transition metals in phthalocyanines and the amine complexes

    PubMed

    Koshino; Kurata; Isoda; Kobayashi

    2000-08-01

    L(2,3) inner-shell excitation spectra were obtained by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) for the divalent first transition series metals in phthalocyanine complexes (MPc) such as titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), fluoro-chromium phthalocyanine (CrFPc), manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc), iron phthalocyanine (FePc), cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). It was found that the value of normalized total intensity of I(L2 + L3) was nearly proportional to the formal electron vacancies of each 3d-state, and the values of the branching ratio, I(L3)/I((L2 + L3), represented a high-spin-state rather than low-spin-state for MnPc, FePc and NiPc. EELS was also applied to charge-transfer complexes of FePc with an amine such as pyridine or gamma-picoline. It was concluded that their I(L2 + L3) intensity of Fe showed the decrease in vacancies of 3d-states on the formation of the charge-transfer complex with these amines, which suggests some electron transfer from the amine to Fe in phthalocyanine. The EELS study provides beneficial information for investigating the electronic states of the specific metal sites in organic materials.

  1. Predicting the influence of liposomal lipid composition on liposome size, zeta potential and liposome-induced dendritic cell maturation using a design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Soema, Peter C; Willems, Geert-Jan; Jiskoot, Wim; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of liposomal lipid composition on the physicochemical characteristics and adjuvanticity of liposomes was investigated. Using a design of experiments (DoE) approach, peptide-containing liposomes containing various lipids (EPC, DOPE, DOTAP and DC-Chol) and peptide concentrations were formulated. Liposome size and zeta potential were determined for each formulation. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of the liposomes was assessed in an in vitro dendritic cell (DC) model, by quantifying the expression of DC maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. The acquired data of these liposome characteristics were successfully fitted with regression models, and response contour plots were generated for each response factor. These models were applied to predict a lipid composition that resulted in a liposome with a target zeta potential. Subsequently, the expression of the DC maturation factors for this lipid composition was predicted and tested in vitro; the acquired maturation responses corresponded well with the predicted ones. These results show that a DoE approach can be used to screen various lipids and lipid compositions, and to predict their impact on liposome size, charge and adjuvanticity. Using such an approach may accelerate the formulation development of liposomal vaccine adjuvants.

  2. Influence of the Encapsulation Efficiency and Size of Liposome on the Oral Bioavailability of Griseofulvin-Loaded Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Ming, Long Chiau; Lee, Kah Seng; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-08-26

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the encapsulation efficiency and size of liposome on the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes. Griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with desired characteristics were prepared from pro-liposome using various techniques. To study the effect of encapsulation efficiency, three preparations of griseofulvin, namely, griseofulvin aqueous suspension and two griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with different amounts of griseofulvin encapsulated [i.e., F1 (32%) and F2(98%)], were administered to rats. On the other hand, to study the effect of liposome size, the rats were given three different griseofulvin-loaded liposomes of various sizes, generated via different mechanical dispersion techniques [i.e., FTS (142 nm), MS (357 nm) and NS (813 nm)], but with essentially similar encapsulation efficiencies (about 93%). Results indicated that the extent of bioavailability of griseofulvin was improved 1.7-2.0 times when given in the form of liposomes (F1) compared to griseofulvin suspension. Besides that, there was an approximately two-fold enhancement of the extent of bioavailability following administration of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with higher encapsulation efficiency (F2), compared to those of F1. Also, the results showed that the extent of bioavailability of liposomal formulations with smaller sizes were higher by approximately three times compared to liposomal formulation of a larger size. Nevertheless, a further size reduction of griseofulvin-loaded liposome (≤400 nm) did not promote the uptake or bioavailability of griseofulvin. In conclusion, high drug encapsulation efficiency and small liposome size could enhance the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes and therefore these two parameters deserve careful consideration during formulation.

  3. Influence of the Encapsulation Efficiency and Size of Liposome on the Oral Bioavailability of Griseofulvin-Loaded Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Ming, Long Chiau; Lee, Kah Seng; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the encapsulation efficiency and size of liposome on the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes. Griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with desired characteristics were prepared from pro-liposome using various techniques. To study the effect of encapsulation efficiency, three preparations of griseofulvin, namely, griseofulvin aqueous suspension and two griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with different amounts of griseofulvin encapsulated [i.e., F1 (32%) and F2(98%)], were administered to rats. On the other hand, to study the effect of liposome size, the rats were given three different griseofulvin-loaded liposomes of various sizes, generated via different mechanical dispersion techniques [i.e., FTS (142 nm), MS (357 nm) and NS (813 nm)], but with essentially similar encapsulation efficiencies (about 93%). Results indicated that the extent of bioavailability of griseofulvin was improved 1.7–2.0 times when given in the form of liposomes (F1) compared to griseofulvin suspension. Besides that, there was an approximately two-fold enhancement of the extent of bioavailability following administration of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with higher encapsulation efficiency (F2), compared to those of F1. Also, the results showed that the extent of bioavailability of liposomal formulations with smaller sizes were higher by approximately three times compared to liposomal formulation of a larger size. Nevertheless, a further size reduction of griseofulvin-loaded liposome (≤400 nm) did not promote the uptake or bioavailability of griseofulvin. In conclusion, high drug encapsulation efficiency and small liposome size could enhance the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes and therefore these two parameters deserve careful consideration during formulation. PMID:27571096

  4. Photodynamic therapy potential of thiol-stabilized CdTe quantum dot-group 3A phthalocyanine conjugates (QD-Pc).

    PubMed

    Tekdaş, Duygu Aydın; Durmuş, Mahmut; Yanık, Hülya; Ahsen, Vefa

    2012-07-01

    Thiol stabilized CdTe quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous phase and were used as energy donors to tetra-triethyleneoxythia substituted aluminum, gallium and indium phthalocyanines through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Energy transfer occurred from the QDs to phthalocyanines upon photoexcitation of the QDs. An enhancement in efficiency of energy transfer with the nature of the carboxylic thiol stabilizer on the QDs was observed. As a result of the nanoparticle and the phthalocyanine mixing, the photoluminescence efficiency of the phthalocyanine moieties in the mixtures does not strictly follow the quantum yields of the bare phthalocyanines. The photochemistry study of phthalocyanines in the presence of the QDs revealed high singlet oxygen quantum yield, hence the possibility of using QDs in combination with phthalocyanines as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy of cancer. The fluorescence of the CdTe quantum dots-phthalocyanine conjugates (QDs-Pc) were effectively quenched by addition of 1,4-benzoquinone.

  5. Nanocomposite liposomes containing quantum dots and anticancer drugs for bioimaging and therapeutic delivery: a comparison of cationic, PEGylated and deformable liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chih-Jen; Sung, Calvin T.; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A.; Huang, Yu-Jie; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-08-01

    Multifunctional liposomes loaded with quantum dots (QDs) and anticancer drugs were prepared for simultaneous bioimaging and drug delivery. Different formulations, including cationic, PEGylated and deformable liposomes, were compared for their theranostic efficiency. We had evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of these liposomes. The developed liposomes were examined using experimental platforms of cytotoxicity, cell migration, cellular uptake, in vivo melanoma imaging and drug accumulation in tumors. The average size of various nanocomposite liposomes was found to be 92-134 nm. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of QDs within liposomal bilayers. The incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Span 20 into the liposomes greatly increased the fluidity of the bilayers. The liposomes provided sustained release of camptothecin and irinotecan. The cytotoxicity and cell migration assay demonstrated superior activity of cationic liposomes compared with other carriers. Cationic liposomes also showed a significant fluorescence signal in melanoma cells after internalization. The liposomes were intratumorally administered to a melanoma-bearing mouse. Cationic liposomes showed the brightest fluorescence in tumors, followed by classical liposomes. This signal could last for up to 24 h for cationic nanosystems. Intratumoral accumulation of camptothecin from free control was 35 nmol g-1 it could be increased to 50 nmol g-1 after loading with cationic liposomes. However, encapsulation of irinotecan into liposomes did not further increase intratumoral drug accumulation. Cationic liposomes were preferable to other liposomes as nanocarriers in both bioimaging and therapeutic approaches.

  6. Liposomes as immune adjuvants: T cell dependence.

    PubMed

    Beatty, J D; Beatty, B G; Paraskevas, F; Froese, E

    1984-08-01

    The T cell dependence of the immune adjuvant action of liposomes containing the soluble antigens bovine serum albumin (BSA) and chicken immunoglobulin (CIgG) was studied with use of a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum antibody levels. Normal BALB/c mice, adult thymectomized mice, and congenitally athymic (nu+/nu+) mice were intravenously inoculated with liposomes containing BSA (Lip-BSA). The high levels of serum anti-BSA antibody that were seen in the normal group were decreased in the adult thymectomized group and were almost completely abrogated in the nu+/nu+ group. Reconstitution of nu+/nu+ mice with normal thymocytes and cortisone-resistant thymocytes led to a partial restoration of the anti-BSA antibody production after Lip-BSA immunization. Examination of the class of immunoglobulin produced in normal mice, immunized with Lip-BSA, showed an early low IgM response and a sustained higher IgG response that was primarily due to the IgG1 subclass. Trypsin removal of BSA exposed on the liposome surface decreased the resulting serum anti-BSA antibody level by 30% to 50%. Animals could be primed equally with a very low dose (0.2 micrograms) of Lip-BSA or with peritoneal macrophages that had phagocytosed the same dose of Lip-BSA. The adjuvant effect of liposomes containing CIgG on the number and type of specific anti-CIgG antibody-producing cells in the spleen was an early increase in IgM-producing cells followed by a substantially higher increase in IgG-producing cells. These observations suggest that liposome encapsulation of a soluble T-dependent antigen stimulates the helper T cell, not the suppressor T cell population, and that this stimulation involves uptake by macrophages.

  7. Liposomal Encapsulated Rhodomyrtone: A Novel Antiacne Drug

    PubMed Central

    Chorachoo, Julalak; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2013-01-01

    Rhodomyrtone isolated from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. Since rhodomyrtone is insoluble in water, it is rather difficult to get to the target sites in human body. Liposome exhibited ability to entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds and easily penetrate to the target site. The present study aimed to develop a novel liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone formulations. In addition, characterization of liposome, stability profiles, and their antiacne activity were performed. Three different formulations of total lipid concentrations 60, 80, and 100 μmol/mL were used. Formulation with 60 μmol/mL total lipid (phosphatidylcholine from soybean and cholesterol from lanolin in 4 : 1, w/w) exhibited the highest rhodomyrtone encapsulation efficacy (65.47 ± 1.7%), average particle size (209.56 ± 4.8 nm), and ζ-potential (–41.19 ± 1.3 mV). All formulations demonstrated good stability when stored for 2 months in dark at 4°C as well as room temperature. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values of liposomal formulation against 11 clinical bacterial isolates and reference strains ranged from 1 to 4 and from 4 to 64 μg/mL, respectively, while those of rhodomyrtone were 0.25–1 and 0.5–2 μg/mL, respectively. The MIC and MBC values of liposome formulation were more effective than topical drugs against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:23762104

  8. Liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone: a novel antiacne drug.

    PubMed

    Chorachoo, Julalak; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2013-01-01

    Rhodomyrtone isolated from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. Since rhodomyrtone is insoluble in water, it is rather difficult to get to the target sites in human body. Liposome exhibited ability to entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds and easily penetrate to the target site. The present study aimed to develop a novel liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone formulations. In addition, characterization of liposome, stability profiles, and their antiacne activity were performed. Three different formulations of total lipid concentrations 60, 80, and 100  μ mol/mL were used. Formulation with 60  μ mol/mL total lipid (phosphatidylcholine from soybean and cholesterol from lanolin in 4 : 1, w/w) exhibited the highest rhodomyrtone encapsulation efficacy (65.47 ± 1.7%), average particle size (209.56 ± 4.8 nm), and ζ -potential (-41.19 ± 1.3 mV). All formulations demonstrated good stability when stored for 2 months in dark at 4°C as well as room temperature. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values of liposomal formulation against 11 clinical bacterial isolates and reference strains ranged from 1 to 4 and from 4 to 64  μ g/mL, respectively, while those of rhodomyrtone were 0.25-1 and 0.5-2  μ g/mL, respectively. The MIC and MBC values of liposome formulation were more effective than topical drugs against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  9. Allometric scaling of pegylated liposomal anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Caron, Whitney P; Clewell, Harvey; Dedrick, Robert; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Davis, Whitney L; Yu, Ning; Tonda, Margaret; Schellens, Jan H; Beijnen, Jos H; Zamboni, William C

    2011-10-01

    Pegylated liposomal formulations contain lipid conjugated to polyethylene glycol. The disposition of encapsulated drug is dictated by the composition of the liposome, thus altering the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the drug. Allometric scaling is based on a power-log relationship between body weight (W) and drug clearance (CL) among mammals and has been used to compare the disposition of nonliposomal drugs across species. The objectives of this study were to use allometric scaling to: (1) compare the disposition of pegylated liposomal drugs across speciesand determine the best scaling model and (2) predict PK parameters of pegylated liposomal drugs in humans. The PK of pegylated liposomal CKD-602 (S-CKD602), doxorubicin (Doxil®), and cisplatin (SPI-077) were compared. PK studies ofS-CKD602, Doxil®, and SPI-077 were performed at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in male and female mice, rats, dogs and patients with refractory solid tumors. The allometric equation used to evaluate the relationship between W and CL in each species was CL = a(W)(m) (a = empirical coefficient; m = allometric exponent). Substitution of physiological variables other than body weight, such as factors representative of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) were evaluated. Dedrick Plots and Maximum Life-Span Potential (MLP) were used to determine scaling feasibility. Standard allometry demonstrated a relationship between clearance of S-CKD602, Doxil®, and SPI-077 and body, spleen, liver, and kidney weights, total monocyte count, and spleen and liver blood flow. However, using scaling to predict CL of these agents in humans often resulted in differences >30%. Despite a strong correlation between body weight and MPS-associated variables with CL among preclinical species, the use of the equations did not predict CL. Thus, new methods of allometric scaling and measures of MPS function need to be developed.

  10. The potential of liposomes as dental drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sanko; Hiorth, Marianne; Rykke, Morten; Smistad, Gro

    2011-01-01

    The potential of liposomes as a drug delivery system for use in the oral cavity has been investigated. Specifically targeting for the teeth, the in vitro adsorption of charged liposomal formulations to hydroxyapatite (HA), a common model substance for the dental enamel, has been conducted. The experiments were performed in human parotid saliva to simulate oral-like conditions. It was observed, however, that precipitation occurred in tubes containing DPPC/DPTAP or DPPC/DPPG-liposomes in parotid saliva with no HA present, indicating that constituents of parotid saliva reacted with the liposomes. The aggregation reactions of liposome-parotid saliva mixtures were examined by turbidimetry and by atomic force microscopy. Negatively charged DPPC/DPPS and DPPC/PI-liposomes were additionally included in these experiments. The initial turbidity of positive DPPC/DPTAP-liposomes in parotid saliva was very high, but decreased markedly after 30 min. AFM images showed large aggregates of micelle-like globules known to be present in saliva. The turbidity of the various negatively charged liposome and parotid saliva mixtures stayed relatively constant throughout the measuring time; however, their initial turbidities were different; mixtures with DPPC/DPPG-liposomes were the most turbid and DPPC/DPPA-liposomes the least. Pyrophosphate (PP) was added to the various liposome-parotid saliva mixtures to examine the effect of Ca(2+) on the interactions. The effect of PP treatment of the negatively charged liposome-parotid saliva mixtures was most pronounced with DPPC/DPPG-liposome mixtures where it caused a sudden drop in turbidity. For positive DPPC/DPTAP liposome and parotid saliva mixtures, the effect of PP was minimal. These experiments showed that saliva constituents may interact with liposomes. An appropriate liposomal drug delivery system intended for use in the oral cavity seems to be dependent on the liposomal formulation. Based on the present results, negatively charged DPPC/DPPA-liposomes

  11. Internalization of paramagnetic phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes by macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays an important role in many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological conditions and oncology, and is considered an important predictor for disease progression and outcome. In vivo imaging of inflammatory cells will improve diagnosis and provide a read-out for therapy efficacy. Paramagnetic phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing liposomes were developed for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy imaging of macrophages. These nanoparticles also provide a platform to combine imaging with targeted drug delivery. Results Incorporation of PS into liposomes did not affect liposomal size and morphology up to 12 mol% of PS. Liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS showed the highest uptake by murine macrophages, while only minor uptake was observed in endothelial cells. Uptake of liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS was dependent on the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Furthermore, these 6 mol% PS-containing liposomes were mainly internalized into macrophages, whereas liposomes without PS only bound to the macrophage cell membrane. Conclusions Paramagnetic liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS for MR imaging of macrophages have been developed. In vitro these liposomes showed specific internalization by macrophages. Therefore, these liposomes might be suitable for in vivo visualization of macrophage content and for (visualization of) targeted drug delivery to inflammatory cells. PMID:22929153

  12. Liposome disposition in vivo. VI: Delivery to the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Abra, R.M.; Hunt, C.A.; Lau, D.T.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of negatively charged liposome components and vesicle size on the time course and dose dependency of liposome disposition in mice was studied with a view to optimizing liposome delivery to the lung. The disposition of large multilamellar liposomes was followed using 125I-labeled p-hydroxybenzamidine phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Of the three negatively charged liposome compositions studied (phosphatidyl choline-X-cholesterol-alpha-tocopherol, molar ratio: 4:1:5:0.1; X . phosphatidyl serine, dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, or phosphatidyl glycerol), phosphatidyl serine liposomes resulted in the greatest accumulation in lungs. Lung levels decreased up to 95 h postdose, at which time 6% of the liposome dose present at 2 h still remained. The disposition of phosphatidyl serine-containing liposomes was independent of dose for the range 0.04-21 mumol/animal. When liposomes containing phosphatidyl choline were prepared using a variety of extrusion and dialysis conditions, a strong link between liposome size and lung accumulation was revealed. A maximum lung accumulation of 30.9% of the administered dose was achieved with no detectable gross pathological lung lesions up to 24 h postdose.

  13. Liposomes with polyribonucleotides as model of precellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, Isabel; Ibañez, Miguel; Lazcano, Antonio; Santiago, Carlos; Arguello, Carlos; Wong, Carlos; Oró, J.

    1987-09-01

    A study of the encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C) within liposomes made from dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC), from egg yold phosphatidyl choline (PC), and from PC with cholesterol (CHOL) was made. The liposomes were prepared under anoxic conditions following the reverse-phase evaporation method. Determinations showed that 36 to 70% of the available lipids form liposomes and 2 to 5% of the polyribonucleotides can be entrapped by liposomes. The encapsulation of polyribonucleotides has also been measured in the presence of urea, cyanamide and Zn++, condensing agents in prebiotic polymerization reactions. DPPC and PC:CHOL liposomes were formed in the presence of 1.0 M urea, although no PC liposomes were formed. The three types of liposomes were readily formed at 0.01 M urea, but in no case an enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of poly(U) was observed due to the presence of urea. Similar results were obtained with cyanamide. An enhanced encapsulation of poly(U) by the three types of liposomes was observed when Zn++ was in the range of 0.001 to 0.01 M. Poly(U) encapsulation was 15 to 25 times higher when liposomes were prepared from DPPC at 0.01 M Zn++. Similar results were obtained with poly(C). The advantages of DPPC-polyribonucleotide liposomes as precellular systems are discussed.

  14. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Frieder; Fricker, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Treatments of central nervous system (CNS) diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA) as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC) and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated) liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA) were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes. PMID:25835091

  15. Covalent immobilization of liposomes on plasma functionalized metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mourtas, S; Kastellorizios, M; Klepetsanis, P; Farsari, E; Amanatides, E; Mataras, D; Pistillo, B R; Favia, P; Sardella, E; d'Agostino, R; Antimisiaris, S G

    2011-05-01

    A method was developed to functionalize biomedical metals with liposomes. The novelty of the method includes the plasma-functionalization of the metal surface with proper chemical groups to be used as anchor sites for the covalent immobilization of the liposomes. Stainless steel (SS-316) disks were processed in radiofrequency glow discharges fed with vapors of acrylic acid to coat them with thin adherent films characterized by surface carboxylic groups, where liposomes were covalently bound through the formation of amide bonds. For this, liposomes decorated with polyethylene glycol molecules bearing terminal amine-groups were prepared. After ensuring that the liposomes remain intact, under the conditions applying for immobilization; different attachment conditions were evaluated (incubation time, concentration of liposome dispersion) for optimization of the technique. Immobilization of calcein-entrapping liposomes was evaluated by monitoring the percent of calcein attached on the surfaces. Best results were obtained when liposome dispersions with 5mg/ml (liposomal lipid) concentration were incubated on each disk for 24h at 37°C. The method is proposed for developing drug-eluting biomedical materials or devices by using liposomes that have appropriate membrane compositions and are loaded with drugs or other bioactive agents.

  16. Sensing Properties of Cobalt-Phthalocyanine-Based Multipurpose Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Fazal; Sayyad, M. H.; Khan, Dil Nawaz; Tahir, Muhammad; Aziz, Fakhra; Khan, Rashid; Karimov, Kh. S.

    2017-04-01

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), an organic semiconductor, has been introduced as an active sensing layer in a surface-type multipurpose sensor owing to its stability, low fabrication cost, and multifunctional sensitivity. The capacitance of the sensor was recorded to increase 26.7-fold for a change in relative humidity (RH) from 0% to 92.3%, 12.6-fold for a change in illumination from 11.5 lx to 23,000 lx, and 5.2-fold for a change in temperature from 27°C to 187°C. The morphology of the active thin film of the sensor was analyzed by atomic force microscopy, revealing a rough surface favorable for moisture absorption and light harvesting. The CoPc film was amorphous in nature according to x-ray diffraction analysis. By virtue of its response to humidity, light, and temperature, this represents an attractive approach for cost-effective environmental sensing applications.

  17. Charge dependent photodynamic activity of alanine based zinc phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ao; Li, Yejing; Zhou, Lin; Yuan, Linxin; Lu, Shan; Lin, Yun; Zhou, Jiahong; Wei, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, to minimize the effects of different structure, three alanine-based zinc phthalocyanines (Pcs) of differing charges were engineered and synthesized with the same basic structure. On this premise, the relationship between nature of charge and photodynamic activity was studied. Besides, further verification and explanation of some inconsistent results were also carried out. The results showed that charge can influence the aggregation state, singlet oxygen generation ability and cellular uptake of Pcs, thereby affecting their photodynamic activity. In addition, the biomolecules inside cells may interact with Pcs of differing charges, which can also influence the aggregation state and singlet oxygen generation of the Pcs, and then influence the relationship between nature of charge and photodynamic activity.

  18. Phthalocyanines as photosensitizing agents for tumors--mechanism of action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hur, Ehud

    1994-03-01

    Aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) is a second-generation photosensitizer under study for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Its mechanism of action is not known. Fluoride appears to be a powerful probe for the mechanistic study of AlPc derivatives. F- forms a complex with the Al ligand, resulting in drastically reduced AlPc-induced phototoxicity. This is due to a modified binding of AlPc with certain target proteins, resulting in inhibition of electron transfer reactions (type I) but not singlet oxygen reactions (type II). In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes, Na+/K+-ATPase activity is selectively protected by F- from photosensitized inhibition by AlPc, suggesting that this enzyme may be a critical target for AlPc-PDT. Another cellular response, not interfered with by F-, is a transient increase of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ after AlPc-PDT. This increase was shown to trigger the induction of a recovery process.

  19. Hybrid structures of polycationic aluminum phthalocyanines and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, E G; Gvozdev, D A; Strakhovskaya, M G; Paschenko, V Z

    2015-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, QDs) were used as inorganic focusing antenna, allowing for the enhancement of fluorescence and photosensitizing activity of polycationic aluminum phthalocyanines (PCs). It was found that QDs form stable complexes with PCs in aqueous solutions due to electrostatic interactions. In such hybrid complexes, we observed highly efficient nonradiative energy transfer from QD to PC, leading to a sharp increase in the effective absorption cross section of PC in the absorption bands of the CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. When hybrid complexes are excited within these bands, the intensity of PC fluorescence and the rate of photosensitized singlet oxygen generation increases significantly (up to 500 and 350%, correspondingly) compared to free PC at the same concentration. The observed effect is of interest for modeling primary stages of photosynthesis and increasing photosensitizing activity of dyes used in photodynamic therapy.

  20. Sensing of volatile organic compounds by copper phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridhi, R.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of copper phthalocyanine have been deposited by thermal evaporation technique. We have subsequently exposed these films to the vapours of methanol, ethanol and propanol. Optical absorption, infrared spectra and electrical conductivities of these films before and after exposure to chemical vapours have been recorded in order to study their sensing mechanisms towards organic vapours. These films exhibit maximum sensing response to methanol while low sensitivities of the films towards ethanol and propanol have been observed. The changes in sensitivities have been correlated with presence of carbon groups in the chemical vapours. The effect of different types of electrodes on response-recovery times of the thin film with organic vapours has been studied and compared. The electrodes gap distance affects the sensitivity as well as response-recovery time values of the thin films.

  1. Order on disorder: Copper phthalocyanine thin films on technical substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Peisert, H.; Schwieger, T.; Auerhammer, J. M.; Knupfer, M.; Golden, M. S.; Fink, J.; Bressler, P. R.; Mast, M.

    2001-07-01

    We have studied the molecular orientation of the commonly used organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine (CuPC) grown as thin films on the technically relevant substrates indium tin oxide, oxidized Si, and polycrystalline gold using polarization-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and compare the results with those obtained from single crystalline substrates [Au(110) and GeS(001)]. Surprisingly, the 20{endash}50 nm thick CuPC films on the technical substrates are as highly ordered as on the single crystals. Importantly, however, the molecular orientation in the two cases is radically different: the CuPC molecules stand on the technical substrates and lie on the single crystalline substrates. The reasons for this and its consequences for our understanding of the behavior of CuPC films in devices are discussed. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Synthesis and characteristics of metal-phthalocyanine-polymer composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianming; Zhang, Jiancheng; Shen, Yue; Liu, Xiuhong

    2000-11-01

    Fe(III)-2,9,16,23-tertracarboxy-phthalocyanine (Fe (III)- taPc) was synthesized, and was bonded to polystyrene (PS) with covalence by Friedel-Crafts reaction to form a new polymer [Fe (111)-taPc-PS] [polymer (II)]. Uv-Vis and Infrared spectra indicated that Fe (III)-taPc was successfully bonded to PS. A photoreceptor device of sandwich structure consisting of alternate layers of polymer (II) and fullerene (C60) was prepared. The experiment results show that the photoconductivity of the photoreceptor is higher than that of the single-layer film of polymer (II) or C60, because of the charge-transfer effect between the layers.

  3. Characterization of hot wall grown silver phthalocyanine films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Himani; Bedi, R. K.; Mahajan, Aman

    2007-10-01

    Silver phthalocyanine (AgPc) has attracted considerable interest because of its outstanding chemical stability, optical and electrical properties, and wide variety of potential applications in modern optical recording and optoelectronic devices. To improve the performance of devices based on AgPc, hot wall technique has been used to grow thin layers of AgPc onto the glass substrates kept at different temperatures in a vacuum of 10-5Torr. The films so obtained are annealed and studied for structural, electrical, and optical characterization. The x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy pattern of these films show a crystalline behavior of films. The films deposited at higher substrate temperature suggest the formation of more ordered and crystalline films. An analysis of optical absorption measurements on the films indicates that the interband transition energies lie in the range 4.1-4.13eV.

  4. Dissociation of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomova, T. N.

    2015-07-01

    The kinetics of dissociation of phthalocyanine complexes with cerium(III) and neodymium(III) (X)LnPc (X = Cl-, Br-, AcO-) under the action of acetic acid in ethanol with isolation of the macrocyclic ligand depending on the temperature was studied. The kinetic equations with the numerical values of rate constants, activation parameters, and the stoichiometric mechanisms with the limiting simple reaction between the nonionized AcOH molecule and (phthalocyaninato)lanthanide(III) in the axially coordinated ((X)LnPc, cerium complexes) or axially ionized ([(AcOH)LnPc]+X-, neodymium complexes) state were derived by solving the direct and inverse problems. As shown by a comparative analysis of quantitative kinetic data, the state is determined by the electronic structure of the metal cation and the mutual effect of the axial and equatorial ligands in the first coordination sphere.

  5. Like a bolt from the blue: phthalocyanines in biomedical optics.

    PubMed

    Sekkat, Nawal; van den Bergh, Hubert; Nyokong, Tebello; Lange, Norbert

    2011-12-23

    The purpose of this review is to compile preclinical and clinical results on phthalocyanines (Pcs) as photosensitizers (PS) for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and contrast agents for fluorescence imaging. Indeed, Pcs are excellent candidates in these fields due to their strong absorbance in the NIR region and high chemical and photo-stability. In particular, this is mostly relevant for their in vivo activation in deeper tissular regions. However, most Pcs present two major limitations, i.e., a strong tendency to aggregate and a low water-solubility. In order to overcome these issues, both chemical tuning and pharmaceutical formulation combined with tumor targeting strategies were applied. These aspects will be developed in this review for the most extensively studied Pcs during the last 25 years, i.e., aluminium-, zinc- and silicon-based Pcs.

  6. Tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine for photodynamic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kuzyniak, Weronika; Ermilov, Eugeny A; Atilla, Devrim; Gürek, Ayşe Gül; Nitzsche, Bianca; Derkow, Katja; Hoffmann, Björn; Steinemann, Gustav; Ahsen, Vefa; Höpfner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for several diseases, including some forms of cancer. However, several drawbacks of the approved photosensitizers (PS), such as insufficient light absorption at therapeutically relevant wavelengths hampered the clinical effectiveness of PDT. Phthalocyanines (Pc) are interesting PS-candidates with a strong light absorption in the favourable red spectral region and a high quantum yield of cancer cell destroying singlet oxygen generation. Here, we evaluated the suitability of tetra-triethyleneoxysulfonyl substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as novel PS for PDT. ZnPc-induced phototoxicity, induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arresting effects was studied in the human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines of different origin. Photoactivation of ZnPc-pretreated (1-10 μM) cancer cells was achieved by illumination with a broad band white light source (400-700 nm) at a power density of 10 J/cm(2). Photoactivation of ZnPc-loaded cells revealed strong phototoxic effects, leading to a dose-dependent decrease of cancer cell proliferation of up to almost 100%, the induction of apoptosis and a G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle, which was associated with decrease in cyclin D1 expression. By contrast, ZnPc-treatment without illumination did not induce any cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest or decreased cell growth. Antiangiogenic effects of ZnPc-PDT were investigated in vivo by performing CAM assays, which revealed a marked degradation of blood vessels and the capillary plexus of the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs. Based on our data we think that ZnPc may be a promising novel photosensitizer for innovative PDT.

  7. Percutaneous permeation measurement of topical phthalocyanine by photoacoustic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Emanoel P. O.; Barja, Paulo R.; Cardoso, Luiz E.; Beltrame, Milton

    2012-11-01

    This investigation have studied photoacoustic (PA) technique to percutaneous permeation of topical hydroxy-(29H,31H-phthalocyaninate) aluminum (PcAlOH) on pig ear skin. The PcAlOH was incorporated in an emulsion (O/W) (1 mg/dl) with assessed stability parameters of: pH, short and long term stability tests (in the several conditions). The skin was prepared through a heat separation technique, and with a scalpel, the outer skin of the cartilage was removed. The skins were then cut into 4 cm2 pieces and treated with sodium bromide 2 mol/L for 6 h at 37 °C. The epidermis layer was washed with purified water, dried, and stored under reduced pressure until use. The skin permeation kinetics was determined by photoacoustic technique in an open photoacoustic cell. Short (after preparation) and long-term stability tests showed no phase separation. The emulsion developed pH 7.6 and after incorporating the pH was unchanged. The typical times for percutaneous permeation of the emulsion base and emulsion + PcAlOH were 182 (±6) and 438 (±3) s, respectively. This study indicated that the formulations containing PcAlOH have stabile characteristics and show promising results in absorption into the skin. The presence of the photosensitive agent in the formulation contributed significantly to the greater absorption time than observed in the base formulation. The used photoacoustic technical to examine the penetration kinetics of PcAlOH in pig ear skin was adequate and may be employed in the determination of the percutaneous permeation of phthalocyanines.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of liposomal formulations of tropicamide for ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Nagarsenker, M S; Londhe, V Y; Nadkarni, G D

    1999-11-10

    Tropicamide, a mydriatic, cycloplegic drug was entrapped in liposomes. Liposomes were investigated by laser counting studies, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry for characterization. The precorneal clearance of liposomes was compared with solution by gamma-scintigraphy in the rabbit. The neutral liposomes failed to demonstrate significant enhancement in precorneal retention in comparison with aqueous solution. The potential of liposomes as an ophthalmic drug delivery system was investigated by comparing pupil dilatory effect of tropicamide by topical instillation, in the rabbit eye, of the solution and various drug-loaded liposomal forms, i.e. neutral liposomes, positively charged liposomes and neutral liposomes dispersed in 0.25% (w/v) polycarbophil gel. The positively charged liposomal formulation and liposomes dispersed in polycarbophil gel were found to be more effective than neutral liposomal dispersion when data were statistically treated at the 5% level of significance.

  9. The effect of lipid composition and liposome size on the release properties of liposomes-in-hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Hurler, Julia; Žakelj, Simon; Mravljak, Janez; Pajk, Stane; Kristl, Albin; Schubert, Rolf; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2013-11-01

    To study the release of liposome-associated drugs into hydrogels, we designed and synthesized two pH-sensitive rhodamine derivatives to use as model compounds of different lipophilicities. The dyes were fluorescent when in the free form released from liposomes into the chitosan hydrogel, but not when incorporated within liposomes. The effect of liposomal composition, surface charge and vesicle size on the release of those incorporated dyes was evaluated. The lipophilicity of the rhodamine derivatives affected both the amount and rate of release. While liposome size had only a minor effect on the release of dyes into the hydrogel, the surface charge affected the release to a greater extent. By optimizing the characteristics of liposomes we could develop a liposomes-in-hydrogel system for application in wound therapy. We further characterized liposomes-in-hydrogel for their rheological properties, textures and moisture handling, as well as their potential to achieve a controlled release of the dye. The polymer-dependent changes in the hydrogel properties were observed upon addition of liposomes. The charged liposomes exhibited stronger effects on the textures of the chitosan hydrogels than the neutral ones. In respect to the ability of the system to handle wound exudates, chitosan-based hydrogels were found to be superior to Carbopol-based hydrogels.

  10. Electronic structure at transition metal phthalocyanine-transition metal oxide interfaces: Cobalt phthalocyanine on epitaxial MnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Mathias; Peisert, Heiko Adler, Hilmar; Aygül, Umut; Ivanovic, Milutin; Chassé, Thomas; Nagel, Peter; Merz, Michael; Schuppler, Stefan

    2015-03-14

    The electronic structure of the interface between cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and epitaxially grown manganese oxide (MnO) thin films is studied by means of photoemission (PES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Our results reveal a flat-lying adsorption geometry of the molecules on the oxide surface which allows a maximal interaction between the π-system and the substrate. A charge transfer from MnO, in particular, to the central metal atom of CoPc is observed by both PES and XAS. The change of the shape of N-K XAS spectra at the interface points, however, to the involvement of the Pc macrocycle in the charge transfer process. As a consequence of the charge transfer, energetic shifts of MnO related core levels were observed, which are discussed in terms of a Fermi level shift in the semiconducting MnO films due to interface charge redistribution.

  11. Recent advances in liposome surface modification for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Xuan; Huang, Lin; Gauthier, Mario; Yang, Guang; Wang, Qun

    2016-05-01

    Oral delivery via the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the dominant route for drug administration. Orally delivered liposomal carriers can enhance drug solubility and protect the encapsulated theraputic agents from the extreme conditions found in the GI tract. Liposomes, with their fluid lipid bilayer membrane and their nanoscale size, can significantly improve oral absorption. Unfortunately, the clinical applications of conventional liposomes have been hindered due to their poor stability and availability under the harsh conditions typically presented in the GI tract. To overcome this problem, the surface modification of liposomes has been investigated. Although liposome surface modification has been extensively studied for oral drug delivery, no review exists so far that adequately covers this topic. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and critically analyze emerging trends in liposome surface modification for oral drug delivery.

  12. High performance optical resolution with liposome immobilized hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Ishigami, Takaaki; Sugita, Kazuma; Suga, Keishi; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Umakoshi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    We prepared liposome immobilized hydrogels (LI-gels) for analysis and separation of chiral molecules, to overcome the drawbacks of liposomes such as low stability, and difficulties with handling and isolation from sample solutions. The amounts of liposomes in the hydrogels were larger than those in other solid matrices reported previously. The liposome morphology was intact, and its original properties, such as fluidity and phase transition behaviors, were preserved. We investigated the chiral recognition performance of the LI-gel, as described in our previous paper. Our results indicate that the enantioselectivity of the LI-gel was higher than those of conventional methods and of the liposomes alone. Our prepared LI-gel therefore overcomes the drawbacks of liposomes, and has potential applications in analysis and separation, including chiral separation.

  13. Advances and Challenges of Liposome Assisted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sercombe, Lisa; Veerati, Tejaswi; Moheimani, Fatemeh; Wu, Sherry Y.; Sood, Anil K.; Hua, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The application of liposomes to assist drug delivery has already had a major impact on many biomedical areas. They have been shown to be beneficial for stabilizing therapeutic compounds, overcoming obstacles to cellular and tissue uptake, and improving biodistribution of compounds to target sites in vivo. This enables effective delivery of encapsulated compounds to target sites while minimizing systemic toxicity. Liposomes present as an attractive delivery system due to their flexible physicochemical and biophysical properties, which allow easy manipulation to address different delivery considerations. Despite considerable research in the last 50 years and the plethora of positive results in preclinical studies, the clinical translation of liposome assisted drug delivery platforms has progressed incrementally. In this review, we will discuss the advances in liposome assisted drug delivery, biological challenges that still remain, and current clinical and experimental use of liposomes for biomedical applications. The translational obstacles of liposomal technology will also be presented. PMID:26648870

  14. Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Bern, Caryn; Adler-Moore, Jill; Berenguer, Juan; Boelaert, Marleen; den Boer, Margriet; Davidson, Robert N; Figueras, Concepcion; Gradoni, Luigi; Kafetzis, Dimitris A; Ritmeijer, Koert; Rosenthal, Eric; Royce, Catherine; Russo, Rosario; Sundar, Shyam; Alvar, Jorge

    2006-10-01

    During the past decade, liposomal amphotericin B has been used with increasing frequency to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The World Health Organization convened a workshop to review current knowledge and to develop guidelines for liposomal amphotericin B use for VL. In Europe, liposomal amphotericin B is widely used to treat VL. In Africa and Asia, the VL disease burden is high and drug access is poor; liposomal amphotericin B is available only through preferential pricing for nonprofit groups in East Africa. Clinical trials and experience demonstrate high efficacy and low toxicity for liposomal amphotericin B (total dose, 20 mg/kg) in immunocompetent patients with VL. Combination trials in areas with antileishmanial drug resistance, and treatment and secondary prophylaxis trials in VL-human immunodeficiency virus-coinfected patients, are important to safeguard the current armamentarium and to optimize regimens. The public health community should work to broaden access to preferential liposomal amphotericin B pricing by public sector VL treatment programs.

  15. Liposome clusters with shear stress-induced membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Makoto; Tamura, Ryota; Natsume, Tomotaka

    2013-09-01

    Clusters of negatively charged liposomes were prepared by the addition of Ca(2+) and characterized in their structure and membrane permeability under shear stress. The liposomes mainly used were composed of zwitterionic 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 20 mol% negatively charged 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and 30 mol% cholesterol. The liposomes with mean diameter of 193 nm were aggregated into the clusters with a distribution peak at about 1.5 μm in the 50mM Tris buffer solution of pH 8.5 at the lipid and Ca(2+) concentrations of 1.0mM and 40 mM, respectively. More than 90% of liposomes were redispersed at the Ca(2+) concentration of 80 mM. POPG-rich liposomes (POPC/POPG/cholesterol=5:65:30 [lipid]=1.0mM) were irreversibly aggregated at [Ca(2+)]≥ 10 mM, indicating the significant contribution of POPC to the reversible clustering of liposomes. The membranes of liposome clusters were impermeable to 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) in the static liquid system at 25°C due to the decrease in specific surface area of the liposomal system. In the shear flow, in clear contrast, continuous membrane permeation of CF was observed at the shear rate of 1.5 × 10(3)s(-1), exhibiting comparable membrane permeability to the non-clustered liposomes. The theoretical analysis of modified DLVO potential indicated that liposome membranes were not in contact with each other within the clusters. Therefore, the liposome clusters are structurally flexible under the applied shear stress, providing sufficient lipid membrane-water interfacial area for the permeation of CF. The results obtained would be important to control the formation of liposome clusters and their permeabilization for biochemical and biomedical applications.

  16. Microfluidic synthesis of multifunctional liposomes for tumour targeting.

    PubMed

    Ran, Rui; Middelberg, Anton P J; Zhao, Chun-Xia

    2016-12-01

    Nanotechnology has started a new era in engineering multifunctional nanoparticles for diagnosis and therapeutics by incorporating therapeutic drugs, targeting ligands, stimuli-responsive release and imaging molecules. However, more functionality requires more complex synthesis processes, resulting in poor reproducibility, low yield and high production cost, hence difficulties in clinical translation. Herein we report a one-step microfluidic method for making multifunctional liposomes. Three formulations were prepared using this simple method, including plain liposomes, PEGylated liposomes and folic acid functionalised liposomes, all with a fluorescence dye encapsulated for imaging. The size and surface properties of these liposomes can be precisely controlled by simply tuning the flow rate ratio and the ratio of the lipids to PEGylated lipid (DSPE-PEG2000) and to the DSPE-PEG2000-Folate, respectively. The synthesised liposomes remained stable under mimic serum conditions. Compared to the plain liposomes and PEGylated liposomes, the targeted folic acid functionalised liposomes exhibited enhanced cellular uptake by the FA receptor positive SKOV3 cells, but not the negative MCF7 cells, and this enhanced uptake could be inhibited by adding excess free folic acid, indicating high specificity of FA ligand-receptor endocytosis. Further evaluation using the 3D tumour spheroid model also showed higher internalisation of the targeted liposome formulation in comparison with the PEGylated one. To the best of our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time the versatility of this microfluidic method for making different liposome formulations in a single step, their superior physicochemical properties as well as the enhanced cellular uptake and tumour spheroid uptake of the targeted liposomes.

  17. Synthesis of the iron phthalocyaninate radical cation μ-nitrido dimer and its interaction with hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishina, E. S.; Makarova, A. S.; Kudrik, E. V.; Makarov, S. V.; Koifman, O. I.

    2016-03-01

    The iron phthalocyaninate μ-nitrido dimer radical cation, as well as the μ-nitrido dimer complexes of iron phthalocyaninate, was found to have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of organic compounds. It was concluded that this compound is of interest as a model of active intermediates—catalase and oxidase enzymes.

  18. A disulfide-linked conjugate of ferrocenyl chalcone and silicon(IV) phthalocyanine as an activatable photosensitiser.

    PubMed

    Lau, Janet T F; Jiang, Xiong-Jie; Ng, Dennis K P; Lo, Pui-Chi

    2013-05-14

    A novel bis(ferrocenyl chalcone) silicon(IV) phthalocyanine has been prepared in which the disulfide linker can be cleaved by dithiothreitol. The separation of the ferrocenyl quencher and the phthalocyanine core greatly enhances the fluorescence emission, singlet oxygen production and in vitro photocytotoxicity.

  19. Liposomes and MTT cell viability assay: an incompatible affair.

    PubMed

    Angius, Fabrizio; Floris, Alice

    2015-03-01

    The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay is commonly used to evaluate the cytotoxicity potential of drugs vehicled by liposomes. However, liposome delivering drugs could produce inconsistent values of MTT absorbance. On the basis of previous experiments demonstrating the MTT affinity for lipid droplets, this paper aims to show that empty-liposomes interfere, per se, on MTT assay due to its lipidic nature. This brings into question the use of MTT testing cytotoxicity when liposomes are involved in delivering drugs.

  20. The preparation and characterization of gas bubble containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wei, Xiaohui; Yao, Yanbin; Chai, Qiliang; Chen, Yue; Xu, Yuhong

    2005-01-01

    Liposomes and lipid nano-particles containing gas bubbles have great potentials to be used as ultrasound contrast agents or as drug and gene delivery vehicles. We developed a method to enable in situ CO2gas bubbles formation inside liposomes. The resulted bubbles containing liposomes were shown to be able to effectively echo ultrasound. Their acoustic properties were assessed by ultrasound imaging and intensity analysis. Compared to most other echogenic liposome formulations reported, our method is easier, faster, and more economical. It would be useful for many applications with improvements and optimization.

  1. Development of risperidone liposomes for brain targeting through intranasal route.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Reema; Singh, Mohan; Ranjan, OmPrakash; Nayak, Yogendra; Garg, Sanjay; Shavi, Gopal V; Nayak, Usha Y

    2016-10-15

    The present paper is aimed at development of functionalized risperidone liposomes for brain targeting through nasal route for effective therapeutic management of schizophrenia. The risperidone liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method. Various parameters such as lipid ratio and lipid to drug ratio were optimized by using Design-Expert(®) Software to obtain high entrapment with minimum vesicle size. The surface of the optimized liposomes was modified by coating stearylamine and MPEG-DSPE for enhanced penetration to the brain. The formulations were evaluated for vesicle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The morphology was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In vivo efficacy was assessed by performing pharmacokinetic study in Wistar albino rats following intranasal administration of the formulations in comparison to intravenous bolus administration of pure drug. The mean vesicle size of optimized liposomes ranged from 90 to 100nm with low polydispersity index (<0.5). The entrapment efficiency of optimized liposomes was between 50 and 60%, functionalized liposomes showed maximum entrapment. The TEM images showed predominantly spherical vesicles with smooth bilayered surface. All formulations showed prolonged diffusion controlled drug release. The in vivo results showed that liposomal formulations provided enhanced brain exposure. Among the formulations studied, PEGylated liposomes (LP-16) had shown greater uptake of risperidone into the brain than plasma. High brain targeting efficiency index for LP-16 indicating preferential transport of the drug to brain. The study demonstrated successful formulation of surface modified risperidone liposomes for nasal delivery with brain targeting potential.

  2. Complexation-triggerable liposome mixed with silk protein and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Jin-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Complexation-triggerable liposomes were prepared by modifying the surface of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) liposomes with hydrophobicized silk fibroin (HmSF) and hydrophobicized chitosan (HmCh). Maximum complexation, determined by measuring the diameter of complexation, was found when the ratio of HmSF to HmCh was 14:1, so they were immobilized on the surface of liposomes at the same ratio. The degree of fluorescence quenching of calcein in liposomal suspension was as high as 68% when the ratio of surface modifier (HmSF + HmCh) to EPC was 1:15. When the ratio was increased to 1:5, the degree of quenching decreased to 32%, indicating the inefficient formation of liposome. Liposome mixed with the surface modifier was multi-lamellar vesicle on TEM photo. And, the mean diameter was larger than those of liposome mixed with either HmSF or HmCh, possibly due to insoluble complex on the liposomal surface. The liposome exhibited a pH-sensitive release and triggered the release at pH 5.5 and 6.0. It is believed that complexation is responsible for the promoted release at those pH values.

  3. Distribution of local anesthetics between aqueous and liposome phases.

    PubMed

    Ruokonen, Suvi-Katriina; Duša, Filip; Rantamäki, Antti H; Robciuc, Alexandra; Holma, Paula; Holopainen, Juha M; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2017-01-06

    Liposomes were used as biomimetic models in capillary electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) for the determination of distribution constants (KD) of certain local anesthetics and a commonly used preservative. Synthetic liposomes comprised phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol phospholipids with and without cholesterol. In addition, ghost liposomes made from red blood cell (RBC) lipid extracts were used as pseudostationary phase to acquire information on how the liposome composition affects the interactions between anesthetics and liposomes. These results were compared with theoretical distribution coefficients at pH 7.4. In addition to 25°C, the distribution constants were determined at 37 and 42°C to simulate physiological conditions. Moreover, the usability of five electroosmotic flow markers in liposome (LEKC) and micellar EKC (MEKC) was studied. LEKC was proven to be a convenient and fast technique for obtaining data about the distribution constants of local anesthetics between liposome and aqueous phase. RBC liposomes can be utilized for more representative model of cellular membranes, and the results indicate that the distribution constants of the anesthetics are greatly dependent on the used liposome composition and the amount of cholesterol, while the effect of temperature on the distribution constants is less significant.

  4. Application of long-circulating liposomes to cancer photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Oku, N; Saito, N; Namba, Y; Tsukada, H; Dolphin, D; Okada, S

    1997-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a cancer treatment is notable for its quite low side effects in comparison with those of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the accumulation of porphyrin derivatives used in PDT into tumor tissues is rather low. Since long-circulating liposomes are known to accumulate passively into tumor tissues, we liposomalized a porphyrin derivative, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA), and used these liposomes to investigate the usefulness of PDT for tumor-bearing mice. BPD-MA was liposomalized into glucuronate-modified liposomes, which are known to be long-circulating. These liposomes were injected i.v. into Balb/c mice bearing Meth A sarcoma, and tumor regression and survival time were monitored after irradiation with laser light. Tumor regression and complete curing of tumor (80% cure rate by the treatment with 6 mg/kg BPD-MA) were observed when long circulating liposomalized BPD-MA was injected and laser-irradiated. In contrast, only a 20% cure rate was obtained when the animals were treated with BPD-MA solution or BPD-MA entrapped in conventional liposomes. These results suggest that a long-circulating liposomal formulation of photo-sensitive agents is useful for PDT.

  5. Liposomally encapsulated diclofenac for sonophoresis induced systemic delivery.

    PubMed

    Vyas, S P; Singh, R; Asati, R K

    1995-01-01

    Liposomes containing diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory agent were incorporated into an ointment base for topical application. The drug loaded liposomes were characterized for various physico-chemical attributes and drug efflux profile in in vitro. The systemic availability of drug from liposomes following topical application was evaluated in rats. The effect of sonophoresis on the drug release profile in vitro and systemic availability in vivo was established. The application of liposomal diclofenac resulted in localization of the drug at the site of application with slow systemic availability; however, with the application of ultrasound pulsed drug systemic levels could be achieved.

  6. Liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating iloprost exhibit enhanced vasodilation in pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pritesh P; Leber, Regina; Nagaraj, Chandran; Leitinger, Gerd; Lehofer, Bernhard; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea; Prassl, Ruth; Marsh, Leigh M

    2014-01-01

    Prostacyclin analogues are standard therapeutic options for vasoconstrictive diseases, including pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Although effective, these treatment strategies are expensive and have several side effects. To improve drug efficiency, we tested liposomal nanoparticles as carrier systems. In this study, we synthesized liposomal nanoparticles tailored for the prostacyclin analogue iloprost and evaluated their pharmacologic efficacy on mouse intrapulmonary arteries, using a wire myograph. The use of cationic lipids, stearylamine, or 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) in liposomes promoted iloprost encapsulation to at least 50%. The addition of cholesterol modestly reduced iloprost encapsulation. The liposomal nanoparticle formulations were tested for toxicity and pharmacologic efficacy in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The liposomes did not affect the viability of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Compared with an equivalent concentration of free iloprost, four out of the six polymer-coated liposomal formulations exhibited significantly enhanced vasodilation of mouse pulmonary arteries. Iloprost that was encapsulated in liposomes containing the polymer polyethylene glycol exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries. Strikingly, half the concentration of iloprost in liposomes elicited similar pharmacologic efficacy as nonencapsulated iloprost. Cationic liposomes can encapsulate iloprost with high efficacy and can serve as potential iloprost carriers to improve its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25045260

  7. Characterization of sterically stabilized cisplatin liposomes by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Shulman, T; Gibson, D; Cohen, R; Abra, R; Barenholz, Y

    2001-02-09

    Extensive scientific efforts are directed towards finding new and improved platinum anticancer agents. A promising approach is the encapsulation of cisplatin in sterically stabilized, long circulating, PEGylated 100 nm liposomes. This liposomal cisplatin (STEALTH cisplatin, formerly known as SPI-77) shows excellent stability in plasma and has a longer circulation time, greater efficacy and lower toxicity than much free cisplatin. However, so far, the physicochemical characterization of STEALTH cisplatin has been limited to size distribution, drug-to-lipid ratio and stability. Information on the physical state of the drug in the liposome aqueous phases and the drug's interaction with the liposome membrane has been lacking. This study was aimed at filling this gap. We report a multinuclear NMR study in which several techniques have been used to assess the physical nature of cisplatin in liposomal formulations and if and to what extent the drug affects the liposome phospholipids. Since NMR detects only the soluble cisplatin in the liposomes and not the insoluble drug, combining NMR and atomic absorption data enables one to determine how much of the encapsulated drug is soluble in the intraliposomal aqueous phase. Our results indicate that almost all of the cisplatin remains intact during the loading process, and that the entire liposomal drug is present in a soluble form in the internal aqueous phase of the liposomes.

  8. Liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating iloprost exhibit enhanced vasodilation in pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pritesh P; Leber, Regina; Nagaraj, Chandran; Leitinger, Gerd; Lehofer, Bernhard; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea; Prassl, Ruth; Marsh, Leigh M

    2014-01-01

    Prostacyclin analogues are standard therapeutic options for vasoconstrictive diseases, including pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud's phenomenon. Although effective, these treatment strategies are expensive and have several side effects. To improve drug efficiency, we tested liposomal nanoparticles as carrier systems. In this study, we synthesized liposomal nanoparticles tailored for the prostacyclin analogue iloprost and evaluated their pharmacologic efficacy on mouse intrapulmonary arteries, using a wire myograph. The use of cationic lipids, stearylamine, or 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) in liposomes promoted iloprost encapsulation to at least 50%. The addition of cholesterol modestly reduced iloprost encapsulation. The liposomal nanoparticle formulations were tested for toxicity and pharmacologic efficacy in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The liposomes did not affect the viability of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Compared with an equivalent concentration of free iloprost, four out of the six polymer-coated liposomal formulations exhibited significantly enhanced vasodilation of mouse pulmonary arteries. Iloprost that was encapsulated in liposomes containing the polymer polyethylene glycol exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries. Strikingly, half the concentration of iloprost in liposomes elicited similar pharmacologic efficacy as nonencapsulated iloprost. Cationic liposomes can encapsulate iloprost with high efficacy and can serve as potential iloprost carriers to improve its therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Elastic liposomes containing benzophenone-3 for sun protection factor enhancement.

    PubMed

    Severino, Patrícia; Moraes, Lívia Faria; Zanchetta, Beatriz; Souto, Eliana B; Santana, Maria H A

    2012-01-01

    This work was focused on the loading of benzophenone-3 in elastic liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, prepared by the Bangham method. Samples were characterized in terms of particle size, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro photoprotection properties. The extrusion of liposomes loading benzophenone-3 produced reduced-size (100 nm) elastic liposomes with a PI of 0.2. The active was loaded with a concentration of 20.34% (m/m) revealing changes in the ultraviolet properties after loading. On the basis of these results, it can be anticipated that liposomes are able to improve sun protector factor in vitro compared the free active.

  10. Current trends in the use of liposomes for tumor targeting

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Pranali P; Biswas, Swati; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-01-01

    The use of liposomes for drug delivery began early in the history of pharmaceutical nanocarriers. These nanosized, lipid bilayered vesicles have become popular as drug delivery systems owing to their efficiency, biocompatibility, nonimmunogenicity, enhanced solubility of chemotherapeutic agents and their ability to encapsulate a wide array of drugs. Passive and ligand-mediated active targeting promote tumor specificity with diminished adverse off-target effects. The current field of liposomes focuses on both clinical and diagnostic applications. Recent efforts have concentrated on the development of multifunctional liposomes that target cells and cellular organelles with a single delivery system. This review discusses the recent advances in liposome research in tumor targeting. PMID:23914966

  11. Liposomes in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nelson; Martins, Albino; Reis, Rui L.; Neves, Nuno M.

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes are vesicular structures made of lipids that are formed in aqueous solutions. Structurally, they resemble the lipid membrane of living cells. Therefore, they have been widely investigated, since the 1960s, as models to study the cell membrane, and as carriers for protection and/or delivery of bioactive agents. They have been used in different areas of research including vaccines, imaging, applications in cosmetics and tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is defined as a strategy for promoting the regeneration of tissues for the human body. This strategy may involve the coordinated application of defined cell types with structured biomaterial scaffolds to produce living structures. To create a new tissue, based on this strategy, a controlled stimulation of cultured cells is needed, through a systematic combination of bioactive agents and mechanical signals. In this review, we highlight the potential role of liposomes as a platform for the sustained and local delivery of bioactive agents for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:25401172

  12. Studying mechanosensitive ion channels using liposomes.

    PubMed

    Martinac, Boris; Rohde, Paul R; Battle, Andrew R; Petrov, Evgeny; Pal, Prithwish; Foo, Alexander Fook; Vásquez, Valeria; Huynh, Thuan; Kloda, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are the primary molecular transducers of mechanical force into electrical and/or chemical intracellular signals in living cells. They have been implicated in innumerable mechanosensory physiological processes including touch and pain sensation, hearing, blood pressure control, micturition, cell volume regulation, tissue growth, or cellular turgor control. Much of what we know about the basic physical principles underlying the conversion of mechanical force acting upon membranes of living cells into conformational changes of MS channels comes from studies of MS channels reconstituted into artificial liposomes. Using bacterial MS channels as a model, we have shown by reconstituting these channels into liposomes that there is a close relationship between the physico-chemical properties of the lipid bilayer and structural dynamics bringing about the function of these channels.

  13. Effect of liposomal fluidity on skin permeation of sodium fluorescein entrapped in liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Subongkot, Thirapit; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultradeformable liposome components, Tween 20 and terpenes, on vesicle fluidity. The fluidity was evaluated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 5-doxyl stearic acid and 16-doxyl stearic acid as spin labels for phospholipid bilayer fluidity at the C5 atom of the acyl chain near the polar head group (hydrophilic region) and the C16 atom of the acyl chain (lipophilic region), respectively. The electron spin resonance study revealed that Tween 20 increased the fluidity at the C5 atom of the acyl chain, whereas terpenes increased the fluidity at the C16 atom of the acyl chain of the phospholipid bilayer. The increase in liposomal fluidity resulted in the increased skin penetration of sodium fluorescein. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that ultradeformable liposomes with terpenes increase the skin penetration of sodium fluorescein by enhancing hair follicle penetration. PMID:26229462

  14. Elaboration of ammonia gas sensors based on electrodeposited polypyrrole--cobalt phthalocyanine hybrid films.

    PubMed

    Patois, Tilia; Sanchez, Jean-Baptiste; Berger, Franck; Fievet, Patrick; Segut, Olivier; Moutarlier, Virginie; Bouvet, Marcel; Lakard, Boris

    2013-12-15

    The electrochemical incorporation of a sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine (sCoPc) in conducting polypyrrole (PPy) was done, in the presence or absence of LiClO4, in order to use the resulting hybrid material for the sensing of ammonia. After electrochemical deposition, the morphological features and structural properties of polypyrrole/phthalocyanine hybrid films were investigated and compared to those of polypyrrole films. A gas sensor consisting in platinum microelectrodes arrays was fabricated using silicon microtechnologies, and the polypyrrole and polypyrrole/phthalocyanine films were electrochemically deposited on the platinum microelectrodes arrays of this gas sensor. When exposed to ammonia, polymer-based gas sensors exhibited a decrease in conductance due to the electron exchange between ammonia and sensitive polymer-based layer. The characteristics of the gas sensors (response time, response amplitude, reversibility) were studied for ammonia concentrations varying from 1 ppm to 100 ppm. Polypyrrole/phthalocyanine films exhibited a high sensitivity and low detection limit to ammonia as well as a fast and reproducible response at room temperature. The response to ammonia exposition of polypyrrole films was found to be strongly enhanced thanks to the incorporation of the phthalocyanine in the polypyrrole matrix.

  15. Morphological control of copper phthalocyanine films by protonation-electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanyuan; Qian, Lingfeng; Xue, Minzhao; Sheng, Qiaorong; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yangang

    2011-01-01

    Films composed of various nanostructured copper phthalocyanine are controllably prepared by the method of protonation-electrophoretic deposition. The ultralong nanowires of copper phthalocyanine are grown at the deposition temperature of 70 °C. And the results of films UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction indicate that copper phthalocyanine possesses the transformation tendency from α-phase to thermostable β-phase under the higher deposition temperature. The formation process of the ultralong nanowires illustrates that the nanowires grow in longitudinal orientation much faster than in lateral direction. And the time dependence of the films morphology, from another point of view, proves that copper phthalocyanine is dissolved in the precursor solutions, and the formation of the nanostructured copper phthalocyanine contains the process of crystal growth, which is different from the traditional electrophoretic deposition. So the films morphology is flexible to be controlled by varying the deposition conditions. These diverse nanostructured films have potential applications in the electrochemical and optoelectrical equipments.

  16. Antibacterial effect of cationic porphyrazines and anionic phthalocyanine and their interaction with plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Leila; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Safaei, Elham; Fazeli, Zahra

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is a public health issue and identification of new antibacterial agents is one of the most important goals of pharmacological research. Among the novel developed antibacterial agents, porphyrin complexes and their derivatives are ideal candidates for use in medical applications. Phthalocyanines differ from porphyrins by having nitrogen atoms link the individual pyrrol units. The aza analogues of the phthalocyanines (azaPcs) such as tetramethylmetalloporphyrazines are heterocyclic Pc analogues. In this investigation, interaction of an anionic phthalocyanine (Cu(PcTs)) and two cationic tetrapyridinoporphyrazines including [Cu(2,3-tmtppa)]4+ and [Cu(3,4-tmtppa)]4+ complexes with plasmid DNA was studied using spectroscopic and gel electrophoresis methods. In addition, antibacterial effect of the complexes against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria was investigated using dilution test method. The results indicated that both porphyrazines have significant antibacterial properties, but Cu(PcTs) has weak antibacterial effect. Compairing the binding of the phthalocyanine and the porphyrazines to DNA demonstrated that the interaction of cationic porphyrazines is stronger than the anionic phthalocyanine remarkably. The extent of hypochromicity and red shift of absorption spectra indicated preferential intercalation of the two porphyrazine into the base pairs of DNA helix. Gel electrophoresis result implied Cu(2,3-tmtppa) and Cu(3,4-tmtppa) are able to perform cleavage of the plasmid DNA. Consequently, DNA binding and cleavage might be one of the antibacterial mechanisms of the complexes.

  17. Evaluation of electrostatic binding of PAMAM dendrimers and charged phthalocyanines by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fernandez, Emilio; Paulo, Pedro M R; Costa, Sílvia M B

    2015-02-14

    We have assessed host-guest interactions between PAMAM dendrimers and charged phthalocyanine probes by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS). Our results show strong binding in water at low ionic strength with an affinity that decreases from KB ∼ 10(9) to 10(8) M(-1) upon decreasing the phthalocyanine charge of z = -4, -2 and -1. The binding affinity also decreases significantly upon salt addition leading to KB values of ca. 10(5)-10(6) M(-1). The changes of binding affinity probed by varying the phthalocyanine charge, and by changing the ionic strength or pH conditions, allowed us to evaluate the electrostatic contribution (Kel) in dendrimer-phthalocyanine interactions. In particular, this approach afforded values of electrostatic potential for PAMAM dendrimers in water at low ionic strength and at dendrimer concentrations in the nanomolar range. The electrostatic potential of PAMAM generations 4 and 7 are around 50 mV in close agreement with theoretical estimates using the Poisson-Boltzmann cell model. Interestingly, the nonelectrostatic binding is significant and contributes even more than electrostatic binding to dendrimer-phthalocyanine interactions. The nonelectrostatic binding contributes to an affinity of KB above 10(5) M(-1), as measured under conditions of low dendrimer charge and high ionic strength, which makes these dendrimers promising hosts as drug carriers.

  18. Synthesis, spectral, and electrochemical characterization of the first arsenic(V)-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Isago, Hiroaki; Kagaya, Yutaka

    2012-08-06

    The first arsenic(V)-phthalocyanines, [As(tbpc)X(2)](+), where tbpc denotes tetra(tert-butyl)phthalocyaninate, C(48)H(48)N(8)(2-) and X = F, Cl, and Br) have been prepared through an appropriate oxidative addition process to a highly soluble arsenic(III) derivative, [As(tbpc)](+). Among them, [As(tbpc)F(2)](+) has been isolated as PF(6)(-) salt. Unlike conventional metal derivatives of phthalocyanines, they show a significantly red-shifted (by >1000 cm(-1)) Q-band and facile reduction of the macrocyclic ligand (redox potentials for [As(tbpc)F(2)](+) have been determined by cyclic voltammetry; 1.13 V vs ferricinium(+)/ferrocene (tbpc(-/2-)), -0.45 V (tbpc(2-/3-)), and -0.90 V (tbpc(3-/4-)), of which the values are anodically shifted by about 1 V) as compared to those of conventional phthalocyanines. Although the anomaly in their spectral and electrochemical properties is similar to that of the known antimony analogues, the arsenic-phthalocyanines have been found less stable.

  19. Virus inactivation under the photodynamic effect of phthalocyanine zinc(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Remichkova, Mimi; Mukova, Luchia; Nikolaeva-Glomb, Lubomira; Nikolova, Nadya; Doumanova, Lubka; Mantareva, Vanya; Angelov, Ivan; Kussovski, Veselin; Galabov, Angel S

    2017-03-01

    Various metal phthalocyanines have been studied for their capacity for photodynamic effects on viruses. Two newly synthesized water-soluble phthalocyanine Zn(II) complexes with different charges, cationic methylpyridyloxy-substituted Zn(II)- phthalocyanine (ZnPcMe) and anionic sulfophenoxy-substituted Zn(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), were used for photoinactivation of two DNA-containing enveloped viruses (herpes simplex virus type 1 and vaccinia virus), two RNA-containing enveloped viruses (bovine viral diarrhea virus and Newcastle disease virus) and two nude viruses (the enterovirus Coxsackie B1, a RNA-containing virus, and human adenovirus 5, a DNA virus). These two differently charged phthalocyanine complexes showed an identical marked virucidal effect against herpes simplex virus type 1, which was one and the same at an irradiation lasting 5 or 20 min (Δlog=3.0 and 4.0, respectively). Towards vaccinia virus this effect was lower, Δlog=1.8 under the effect of ZnPcMe and 2.0 for ZnPcS. Bovine viral diarrhea virus manifested a moderate sensitivity to ZnPcMe (Δlog=1.8) and a pronounced one to ZnPcS at 5- and 20-min irradiation (Δlog=5.8 and 5.3, respectively). The complexes were unable to inactivate Newcastle disease virus, Coxsackievirus B1 and human adenovirus type 5.

  20. Zinc phthalocyanine thin film and chemical analyte interaction studies by density functional theory and vibrational techniques.

    PubMed

    Saini, G S S; Singh, Sukhwinder; Kaur, Sarvpreet; Kumar, Ranjan; Sathe, Vasant; Tripathi, S K

    2009-06-03

    Thin films of zinc phthalocyanine have been deposited on KBr and glass substrates by the thermal evaporation method and characterized by the x-ray diffraction, optical, infrared and Raman techniques. The observed x-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectra of as-deposited thin films suggest the presence of an α crystalline phase. Infrared and Raman spectra of thin films after exposure to vapours of ammonia and methanol have also been recorded. Shifts in the position of some IR and Raman bands in the spectra of exposed films have been observed. Some bands also show changes in their intensity on exposure. Increased charge on the phthalocyanine ring and out-of-plane distortion of the core due to interaction between zinc phthalocyanine and vapour molecules involving the fifth coordination site of the central metal ion may be responsible for the band shifts. Changes in the intensity of bands are interpreted in terms of the lowering of molecular symmetry from D(4h) to C(4v) due to doming of the core. Molecular parameters and Mulliken atomic charges of zinc phthalocyanine and its complexes with methanol and ammonia have been calculated from density functional theory. The binding energy of the complexes have also been calculated. Calculated values of the energy for different complexes suggest that axially coordinated vapour molecules form the most stable complex. Calculated Mulliken atomic charges show net charge transfer from vapour molecules to the phthalocyanine ring for the most stable complex.

  1. Mannosylated liposomes for bio-film targeting.

    PubMed

    Vyas, S P; Sihorkar, Vaibhav; Jain, Sanyog

    2007-02-07

    Vesicular systems in general are investigated to achieve bacterial bio-film targeting as their architecture mimics bio-membranes in terms of structure and bio-behavior. This paper elaborates upon the role of the inherent characteristics of the carrier system and further envisages the role of anchored ligands in navigating the contents in the vicinity of bio-films. Vesicles in the present study were coated with hydrophobic derivatives of mannan (cholesteryl mannan and sialo-mannan). The prepared vesicles were characterized for size, shape, percentage entrapment and ligand binding specificity and results were compared with the uncoated versions. Using a set of in vitro and in vivo models, the bio-film targeting potential of plain and mannosylated liposomal formulations were compared. Results suggested that mannosylated vesicles could be effectively targeted to the model bacterial bio-films, compared with plain vesicles. Moreover, the sialo-mannan coated liposomes recorded superior targetability as reflected in the significantly higher percentage growth inhibition when compared with cholesteryl mannan coated liposomes. The engineered systems thus have the potential use for the delivery of anti-microbial agents to the bio-films.

  2. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  3. Liposomes as lubricants: beyond drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ronit; Klein, Jacob

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we review recent work (Goldberg et al., 2011a,b) on a new use for phosphatidylcholine liposomes: as ultra-efficient boundary lubricants at up to the highest physiological pressures. Using a surface force balance, we have measured the normal and shear interactions as a function of surface separation between layers of hydrogenated soy phophatidylcholine (HSPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) adsorbed from dispersion, at both pure water and physiologically high salt concentrations of 0.15 M NaNO(3). Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy shows each surface to be coated by a close-packed HSPC-SUV layer with an over-layer of liposomes on top. The shear forces reveal strikingly low friction coefficients down to 2×10(-5) in pure water system or 6×10(-4) in the 150 mM salt system, up to contact pressures of at least 12 MPa (pure water) or 6 MPa (high salt), comparable with those in the major joints. This low friction is attributed to the hydration lubrication mechanism arising from rubbing of the highly hydrated phosphocholine-headgroup layers exposed at the outer surface of each liposome, and provides support for the conjecture that phospholipids may play a significant role in biological lubrication.

  4. Liposomes as potential masking agents in sport doping. Part 2: Detection of liposome-entrapped haemoglobin by flow cytofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Simone; Colicchia, Sonia; de la Torre, Xavier; Donati, Francesco; Mazzarino, Monica; Botrè, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    This work presents an analytical procedure for the identification and characterization of liposome-entrapped haemoglobins, based on flow cytofluorimetry. Flow cytofluorimetric detection is carried out following labelling by two distinct fluorescent reagents, an anti-haemoglobin antibody, fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated, and an anti-poly(ethylene glycol) antibody, streptavidin-phycoerythrin conjugated. This experimental strategy allows the detection of liposome-entrapped haemoglobins in aqueous media, including plasma; the efficacy of the proposed approach has been verified on whole blood samples added with the liposomal formulation (ex-vivo). Additionally, the proposed technique allows the characterization of several key parameters in the study of liposomal haemoglobins, including, for instance (1) the determination of the degree of haemoglobin entrapment by liposomes; (2) the poly(ethylene glycol) insertion efficiency; and (3) the evaluation of liposome-entrapped haemoglobins stability following storage at 4 °C, allowing to follow both the process of haemoglobin loss from liposomes and the liposome degradation. The procedure is proposed for the detection and characterization of liposome-entrapped haemoglobin formulations to control their misuse in sport, but is also suggested for further applications in biological and clinical laboratory investigations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Synthesis of phthalocyanine doped sol-gel materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of sol-gel silica materials doped with three different types of metallophthalocyanines has been studied. Homogeneous materials of good optical quality were prepared and the first optical limiting measurements of dyes in sol-gel hosts were carried out. The properties of these solid state limiters are similar to limiters based on phthalocyanine (Pc) in solution. Sol-gel silica materials containing copper, tin and germanium phthalocyanines were investigated. The initial step in all cases was to prepare silica sols by the sonogel method using tetramethoxy silane (TMOS), HCl and distilled water. Thereafter, the synthesis depended upon the specific Pc and its solubility characteristics. Copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt (CuPc4S) is soluble in water and various doping levels (1 x 10 (exp -4) M to 1 x 10 (exp -5) M) were added to the sol. The group IV Pc's, SnPc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2 and GePc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2, are insoluble in water and the process was changed accordingly. In these cases, the compounds were dissolved in THF and then added to the sol. The Pc concentration in the sol was 2 x 10(exp -5)M. The samples were then aged and dried in the standard method of making xerogel monoliths. Comparative nanosecond optical limiting experiments were performed on silica xerogels that were doped with the different metallophthalocyanines. The ratio of the net excited state absorption cross section (sigma(sub e)) to the ground state cross section (sigma(sub g)) is an important figure of merit that is used to characterize these materials. By this standard the SnPc sample exhibits the best limiting for the Pc doped sol-gel materials. Its cross section ratio of 19 compares favorably with the value of 22 that was measured in toluene. The GePc materials appear to not be as useful as those containing SnPc. The GePc doped solids exhibit a higher onset energy (2.5 mj and lower cross section ratio, 7. The CuPc4S sol-gel material has a still lower cross

  6. Peritoneal retention of liposomes: Effects of lipid composition, PEG coating and liposome charge.

    PubMed

    Dadashzadeh, S; Mirahmadi, N; Babaei, M H; Vali, A M

    2010-12-01

    In the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis, systemic chemotherapy is not quite effective due to the poor penetration of cytotoxic agents into the peritoneal cavity, whereas intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutic agents is generally accompanied by quick absorption of the free drug from the peritoneum. Local delivery of drugs with controlled-release delivery systems like liposomes could provide sustained, elevated drug levels and reduce local and systemic toxicity. In order to achieve an ameliorated liposomal formulation that results in higher peritoneal levels of the drug and retention, vesicles composed of different phospholipid compositions (distearoyl [DSPC]; dipalmitoyl [DPPC]; or dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine [DMPC]) and various charges (neutral; negative, containing distearoylphosphatidylglycerol [DSPG]; or positive, containing dioleyloxy trimethylammonium propane [DOTAP]) were prepared at two sizes of 100 and 1000nm. The effect of surface hydrophilicity was also investigated by incorporating PEG into the DSPC-containing neutral and charged liposomes. Liposomes were labeled with (99m)Tc and injected into mouse peritoneum. Mice were then sacrificed at eight different time points, and the percentage of injected radiolabel in the peritoneal cavity and the tissue distribution in terms of the percent of the injected dose/gram of tissue (%ID/g) were obtained. The ratio of the peritoneal AUC to the free label ranged from a minimum of 4.95 for DMPC/CHOL (cholesterol) 100nm vesicles to a maximum of 24.99 for DSPC/CHOL/DOTAP 1000nm (DOTAP 1000) vesicles. These last positively charged vesicles had the greatest peritoneal level; moreover, their level remained constant at approximately 25% of the injected dose from 2 to 48h. Among the conventional (i.e., without PEG) 100nm liposomes, the positively charged vesicles again showed the greatest retention. Incorporation of PEG at this size into the lipid structures augmented the peritoneal level, particularly

  7. Liposomal nanoparticles as a drug delivery vehicle against osteosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhule, Santosh Subhashrao

    The delivery of curcumin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, has been explored in the form of liposomal nanoparticles to treat osteosarcoma (OS). Curcumin is water insoluble and an effective delivery route is through encapsulation in cyclodextrins followed by a second encapsulation in liposomes. Liposomal curcumin's potential was evaluated against cancer models of mesenchymal (OS) and epithelial origin (breast cancer). The resulting 2-Hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin/curcumin - liposome complex shows promising anticancer potential both in vitro and in vivo against KHOS OS cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. An interesting aspect is that liposomal curcumin initiates the caspase cascade that leads to apoptotic cell death in vitro in comparison with DMSO-curcumin induced autophagic cell death. In addition, the efficiency of the liposomal curcumin formulation was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft OS model. Curcumin-loaded gamma-cyclodextrin liposomes indicate significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cancers of different tissue origin. The second part of this study examines the anti-tumor potential of curcumin and C6 ceramide (C6) against osteosarcoma cell lines when both are encapsulated in the bilayer of liposomal nanoparticles. Curcumin in combination with C6 showed 1.5 times enhanced cytotoxic effect in the case of MG-63 and KHOS OS cell lines, in comparison with systems with curcumin alone. Interestingly, C6-curcumin liposomes were found to be less toxic on untransformed human cells in comparison to OS cell lines. In addition, cell cycle assays on a KHOS cell line after treatment revealed that curcumin only liposomes induced G 2/M arrest by upregulation of cyclin B1, while C6 only liposomes induced G1 arrest by downregulation of cyclin D1. C6-curcumin liposomes induced G2/M arrest and showed a combined effect in the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. Using pegylated liposomes to increase the plasma half-life and tagging

  8. Cationic liposomes evoke proinflammatory mediator release and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) toward human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-04-01

    Cationic liposomes are widely used as nanocarriers for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. The cationic components of liposomes can induce inflammatory responses. This study examined the effect of cationic liposomes on human neutrophil activation. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate (SME) was incorporated into liposomes as the cationic additive. The liposomes' cytotoxicity and their induction of proinflammatory mediators, intracellular calcium, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were investigated. The interaction of the liposomes with the plasma membrane triggered the stimulation of neutrophils. CTAB liposomes induced complete leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at all concentrations tested, whereas SME liposomes released LDH in a concentration-dependent manner. CTAB liposomes proved to more effectively activate neutrophils compared with SME liposomes, as indicated by increased superoxide anion and elastase levels. Calcium influx increased 9-fold after treatment with CTAB liposomes. This influx was not changed by SME liposomes compared with the untreated control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunofluorescence images indicated the presence of NETs after treatment with cationic liposomes. NETs could be quickly formed, within minutes, after CTAB liposomal treatment. In contrast to this result, NET formation was slowly and gradually increased by SME liposomes, within 4h. Based on the data presented here, it is important to consider the toxicity of cationic liposomes during administration in the body. This is the first report providing evidence of NET production induced by cationic liposomes.

  9. Zinc phthalocyanine-conjugated with bovine serum albumin mediated photodynamic therapy of human larynx carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, E. P. O.; Santos, E. D.; Gonçalves, C. S.; Cardoso, M. A. G.; Soares, C. P.; Beltrame, M., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    Phthalocyanines, which are classified as second-generation photosensitizers, have advantageous photophysical properties, and extensive studies have demonstrated their potential applications in photodynamic therapy. The present work describes the preparation of a new zinc phthalocyanine conjugated to bovine serum albumin (compound 4a) and its photodynamic efficiency in human larynx-carcinoma cells (HEp-2 cells). The unconjugated precursor (compound 4) was also studied. Compounds 4 and 4a penetrated efficiently into the cell, exhibiting cytoplasmic localization, and showed no cytotoxicity in the dark. However, high photodynamic activities were observed in HEp-2 cells after treatments with 5 µM photosensitizers and 4.5 J cm-2 light. These conditions were sufficient to decrease the cell viability to 57.93% and 32.75% for compounds 4 and 4a, respectively. The present results demonstrated high photodynamic efficiency of zinc phthalocyanine conjugated with bovine serum albumin in destroying the larynx-carcinoma cells.

  10. [Synthesis, characterization and fluorescent properties of copper phthalocyanine derivates substituted by aliphatic alcohol].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Xu, Qing-Feng; Lu, Jian-Mei; Yao, She-Chun

    2007-04-01

    A series of copper phthalocyanine derivatives substituted by aliphatic chain were obtained by the reaction of tetra-formyl chloride copper phthalocyanine and aliphatic alcohol such as n-butyl alcohol, n-amyl alcohol, n-hexyl alcohol, n-caprylic alcohol and lauryl alcohol. IR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis and 1H NMR verified the structures and substituting degree. The solubility and the relationship between fluorescence and concentration and substituting group were studied in organic solution. It was confirmed that the solubility in organic solution was improved greatly, the fluorescence did not change in linear according to the concentration and the fluorescence of copper phthalocyanine derivatives substituted by the long alkyl was stronger than that substituted by the relatively short alkyl.

  11. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Evaluation of Two Novel Glycosylated Zinc(II)-Phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Bächle, Felix; Hanack, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-10-09

    In continuation of our work on glycoconjugated phthalocyanines, two new water soluble, non-ionic zinc(II) phthalocyanines have been prepared and fully characterized by means of ¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MALDI-TOF, ESI-TOF, UV-Vis spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime measurements. The carbohydrate-containing phthalonitrile precursors were synthesized through a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The 2-methoxyethoxymethyl protecting group (MEM) was used to protect the carbohydrate moieties. It resisted the harsh basic cyclotetramerization conditions and could be easily cleaved under mild acidic conditions. The glycoconjugated zinc(II) phthalocyanines described here have molar extinction coefficents εmax>10⁵ m(-1) cm(-1) and absorption maxima λ>680 nm, which make them attractive photosensitizers for photo-dynamic therapy.

  12. Effect of axial ligands on the molecular configurations, stability, reactivity, and photodynamic activities of silicon phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Luan, Liqiang; Ding, Lanlan; Shi, Jiawei; Fang, Wenjuan; Ni, Yuxing; Liu, Wei

    2014-12-01

    To demonstrate the effect of axial ligands on the structure-activity relationship, a series of axially substituted silicon phthalocyanines (SiPcs) have been synthesized with changes to the axial ligands. The reactivity of the axial ligand upon shielding by the phthalocyanine ring current, along with their stability, photophysical, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) activities were compared and evaluated for the first time. As revealed by single-crystal XRD analysis, rotation of the axial -OMe ligands was observed in SiPc 3, which resulted in two molecular configurations coexisting synchronously in both the solid and solution states and causing a split of the phthalocyanine α protons in the (1)H NMR spectra that is significantly different from all SiPcs reported so far. The remarkable photostability, good singlet oxygen quantum yield, and efficient in vitro photodynamic activity synergistically show that compound 3 is one of the most promising photosensitizers for PDT.

  13. Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of polymeric carboxyl phthalocyanine coordinated with rare earth atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Wang, Zonghua; Chen, Jishi; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Fushi

    2017-04-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of the polymeric carboxyl phthalocyanine with lanthanum (LaPPc.COOH), holmium (HoPPc.COOH) and ytterbium (YbPPc.COOH) as centric atom, were investigated by the Z-scan method using a picosecond 532 nm laser. The synthesized phthalocyanines had steric polymeric structure and dissolved well in aqueous solution. The nonlinear optical response of them was attributed to the reverse saturable absorption and self-focus refraction. The nonlinear absorption properties decreased with the centric atoms changing from La, Ho to Yb. The largest second-order hyperpolarizability and optical limiting response threshold of LaPPc.COOH were 3.89 × 10-29 esu and 0.32 J/cm2, respectively. The reverse saturable absorption was explained by a three level mode of singlet excited state under the picosecond irradiation. The result indicates the steric structure presented additive stability of these polymeric phthalocyanines for their application as potential optical limiting materials.

  14. Spectral, photophysical and photochemical properties of tetra- and octaglycosylated zinc phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Masilela, Nkosiphile; Nyokong, Tebello; Lyubimtsev, Alexey; Hanack, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Photophysical and photochemical properties of a series of tetra- and octaglycosylated zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) substituted with glucose and galactose moieties have been reported. Spectral properties of these phthalocyanines are compared in DMSO. Absorption spectra of the non-peripherally tetra-substituted ZnPcs 2 showed a significant red shift in their Q-band maxima as compared to the peripherally substituted analog 1. All the complexes gave high triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.68 to 0.88, whereas triplet lifetimes were in the range of 100-430 μs in argon-saturated solutions. The octagalactosylated ZnPc 3b showed the highest triplet quantum yield and singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.88 and 0.69, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes of all the compounds under investigation were within the range of zinc phthalocyanine complexes.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of novel phthalocyanines and evaluation of photodynamic therapy properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, Aysun; Kahraman, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    In this study, phthalocyanine (Pc) compounds were synthesized and evaluated photophysical and photochemical properties for the possible application of PDT. Zinc is used as central atom for the Pc to obtain higher singlet oxygen production. The structures of the synthesized Pc are characterized by IR, UV-vis, 1H , elemental analysis and MS. The results demonstrated that the synthesized Pc is a good candidate for the PDT applications for the cancers. The synthesized Pc will be also bound covalently to the nano surface via -SH functional group that can contribute to the production of singlet oxygen amount carrying phthalocyanines having diamagnetic metal. Thus, phthalocyanine compounds and their derivatives having high wavelength (near-IR) absorption, high triplet quantum yields, triplet state lifetime of singlet oxygen allow us to use PDT applications effectively.

  16. Hollow silica nanoparticles loaded with hydrophobic phthalocyanine for near-infrared photodynamic and photothermal combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juanjuan; Zhao, Lingzhi; Zhu, Xingjun; Sun, Yun; Feng, Wei; Gao, Yanhong; Wang, Liya; Li, Fuyou

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the convenience and minimal invasiveness, phototherapy, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT), is emerging as a powerful technique for cancer treatment. To date, however, few examples of combination PDT and PTT have been reported. Phthalocyanine (Pc) is a class of traditional photosensitizer for PDT, but its bioapplication is limited by high hydrophobicity. In this present study, hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs) were employed to endow the hydrophobic phthalocyanine with water-dispersity, and the as-prepared hollow silica nanoparticles loaded with hydrophobic phthalocyanine (Pc@HSNs) exhibits highly efficient dual PDT and PTT effects. In vitro and in vivo experimental results clearly indicated that the dual phototherapeutic effect of Pc@HSNs can kill cancer cells or eradicate tumor tissues. This multifunctional nanomedicine may be useful for PTT/PDT treatment of cancer.

  17. Characterization of phthalocyanine functionalized quantum dots by dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler, and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-García, Gonzalo; Oluwole, David O; Nxele, Siphesihle Robin; d'Orlyé, Fanny; Nyokong, Tebello; Bedioui, Fethi; Varenne, Anne

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we characterized different phtalocyanine-capped core/shell/shell quantum dots (QDs) in terms of stability, ζ-potential, and size at various pH and ionic strengths, by means of capillary electrophoresis (CE), and compared these results to the ones obtained by laser Doppler electrophoresis (LDE) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The effect of the phthalocyanine metallic center (Zn, Al, or In), the number (one or four), and nature of substituents (carboxyphenoxy- or sulfonated-) of functionalization on the phthalocyanine physicochemical properties were evaluated. Whereas QDs capped with zinc mono-carboxyphenoxy-phtalocyanine (ZnMCPPc-QDs) remained aggregated in the whole analyzed pH range, even at low ionic strength, QDs capped with zinc tetracarboxyphenoxy phtalocyanine (ZnTPPc-QDs) were easily dispersed in buffers at pH equal to or higher than 7.4. QDs capped with aluminum tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (AlTSPPc-QDs) and indium tetracarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanines (InTCPPc-QDs) were stable in aqueous suspension only at pH higher than 9.0 due to the presence of functional groups bound to the metallic center of the phthalocyanine. The ζ-potential values determined by CE for all the samples decreased when ionic strength increased, being well correlated with the aggregation of the nanoconjugates at elevated salt concentrations. The use of electrokinetic methodologies has provided insights into the colloidal stability of the photosensitizer-functionalized QDs in physiological relevant solutions and thereby, its usefulness for improving their design and applications for photodynamic therapy. Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration of the phthalocyanine capped QDs nanoconjugates and the capillary electrophoresis methods applied for size and ζ-potential characterization.

  18. Amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine photosensitizers: synthesis, photophysicochemical properties and in vitro studies for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Dilek; Göksel, Meltem; Çakır, Volkan; Durmuş, Mahmut; Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Kantekin, Halit

    2015-05-28

    Peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-substituted zinc(ii) phthalocyanines bearing 2-(2-{2-[3-(dimethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy and 2-(2-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy groups (, , and ) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of the corresponding phthalonitriles (, , and ). Their quaternized ionic derivatives (, , and ) were also synthesized by the reaction of them with methyl iodide. The novel compounds were characterized by using standard spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-vis, mass and elemental analyses. The obtained quaternized phthalocyanines (, , and ) showed amphiphilic behaviour with excellent solubility in both organic and aqueous solutions, which makes them potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical (singlet oxygen and photodegradation quantum yields) properties of these novel phthalocyanines were studied in DMSO for both non-ionic and ionic quaternized derivatives. However, these properties were examined in both DMSO and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for quaternized ionic phthalocyanines. The effects of the positions of substituents (peripheral or non-peripheral) and the quaternization of the nitrogen atoms on the substituents about their photophysical and photochemical properties were also compared in this study. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding behaviours of the studied quaternized ionic zinc(ii) phthalocyanines were also described in PBS solutions. The quaternized phthalocyanines (, , and ) successfully displayed light-dependent photodamage in HeLa and HuH-7 cancer cells in photodynamic therapy treatment. The photosensitivity and the intensity of damage were found directly related to the concentration of the photosensitizers.

  19. General and programmable synthesis of hybrid liposome/metal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Shin, Yonghee; Lee, Wooju; Whang, Keumrai; Kim, Dongchoul; Lee, Luke P.; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kang, Taewook

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid liposome/metal nanoparticles are promising candidate materials for biomedical applications. However, the poor selectivity and low yield of the desired hybrid during synthesis pose a challenge. We designed a programmable liposome by selective encoding of a reducing agent, which allows self-crystallization of metal nanoparticles within the liposome to produce stable liposome/metal nanoparticles alone. We synthesized seven types of liposome/monometallic and more complex liposome/bimetallic hybrids. The resulting nanoparticles are tunable in size and metal composition, and their surface plasmon resonance bands are controllable in visible and near infrared. Owing to outer lipid bilayer, our liposome/Au nanoparticle shows better colloidal stability in biologically relevant solutions as well as higher endocytosis efficiency than gold nanoparticles without the liposome. We used this hybrid in intracellular imaging of living cells via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, taking advantage of its improved physicochemical properties. We believe that our method greatly increases the utility of metal nanoparticles in in vivo applications. PMID:28028544

  20. Liposomal gel with chloramphenicol: characterisation and in vitro release.

    PubMed

    Pavelić, Zeljka; Skalko-Basnet, Natasa; Jalsenjak, Ivan

    2004-12-01

    The aim of our study was to develop a liposomal carrier system for the local treatment of bacterial vaginosis, capable to efficiently deliver entrapped drug during an extended period of time. Chloramphenicol was entrapped in liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine/egg phosphatidylgycerol-sodium (9:1, molar ratio) and prepared by two different methods, the proliposome method and the polyol dilution method. Both liposome preparations were characterised and compared for particle size, polydispersity, entrapment efficiency and tested for in vitro stability in media that simulate human vaginal conditions (buffer pH 4.5 and vaginal fluid simulant). To achieve application viscosity of liposomes and to further improve their stability, liposomes prepared by the proliposome method were incorporated in the bioadhesive gel made of Carbopol 974P NF resin. In vitro release studies of liposomes incorporated in the gel have shown a prolonged release of entrapped chloramphenicol compared to control gel. Even after 24 hours of incubation in the vaginal fluid simulant, more than 40% of the originally entrapped drug was still retained in the gel. Storage stability studies have proven the ability of the Carbopol 974P NF gel to preserve the original size distribution of incorporated liposomes. All the performed experiments confirm the applicability of liposomes as a novel drug carrier system for the local treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

  1. Enzyme-Responsive Liposomes for the Delivery of Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Farnaz; Steffen, Kristine J; Mallik, Sanku

    2017-03-08

    Liposomes are nanocarriers that deliver the payloads at the target site, leading to therapeutic drug concentrations at the diseased site and reduced toxic effects in healthy tissues. Several approaches have been used to enhance the ability of the nanocarrier to target the specific tissues, including ligand-targeted liposomes and stimuli-responsive liposomes. Ligand-targeted liposomes exhibit higher uptake by the target tissue due to the targeting ligand attached to the surface, while the stimuli-responsive liposomes do not release their cargo unless they expose to an endogenous or exogenous stimulant at the target site. In this review, we mainly focus on the liposomes that are responsive to pathologically increased levels of enzymes at the target site. Enzyme-responsive liposomes release their cargo upon contact with the enzyme through several destabilization mechanisms: (1) structural perturbation in the lipid bilayer, (2) removal of a shielding polymer from the surface and increased cellular uptake, (3) cleavage of a lipopeptide or lipopolymer incorporated in the bilayer, and (4) activation of a prodrug in the liposomes.

  2. Biodistribution of liposome-entrapped human gamma-globulin.

    PubMed

    García-Santana, María A; Duconge, Jorge; Sarmiento, María E; Lanio-Ruíz, María E; Becquer, María A; Izquierdo, Luís; Acosta-Domínguez, Armando

    2006-09-01

    The present study was aimed at the preparation and performance evaluation of Intacglobin-loaded liposomes for selective drug presentation to the lungs. Egg phosphatidylcholine- and cholesterol-based liposomes (1:1 and 1:0.25 mol/mol) were prepared by a dehydration-rehydration procedure. A tissue distribution study after single intranasal administration of 0.5 microCi 125I-Intacglobin-loaded liposomes was conducted in Balb/c mice. The efficiencies of drug entrapment (30%) and the average diameters did not differ significantly between the two liposome formulations. However, liposomes composed of an increased cholesterol amount showed a lower in vitro drug release rate. The airway penetration efficiency of the liposomal formulation was determined by the cumulative percentage of the dose reaching the lungs (AUC) and its sojourn time therein, and were 1.7- and 2.2-times higher compared with the plain 125I- Intacglobin solution-based formulation, respectively. A significantly greater (p<0.001) drug localization index after 24 h was found at the lungs in comparison with the other tissues (p<0.01), although similar values were detected between groups following administration of either liposomes or control solutions, despite the formulations attributes. In conclusion, it is suggested that longer Intacglobin exposure at the pulmonary region is observed after administration of the liposomal formulation. The results open future perspectives in assessing local passive immunization for the treatment of respiratory infectious diseases.

  3. Improved Tumor Uptake by Optimizing Liposome Based RES Blockade Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaolian; Yan, Xuefeng; Jacobson, Orit; Sun, Wenjing; Wang, Zhantong; Tong, Xiao; Xia, Yuqiong; Ling, Daishun; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Minimizing the sequestration of nanomaterials (NMs) by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) can enhance the circulation time of NMs, and thus increase their tumor-specific accumulation. Liposomes are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) agents that can block the RES reversibly and temporarily. With the help of positron emission tomography (PET), we monitored the in vivo tissue distribution of 64Cu-labeled 40 × 10 nm gold nanorods (Au NRs) after pretreatment with liposomes. We systematically studied the effectiveness of liposome administration by comparing (1) differently charged liposomes; (2) different liposome doses; and (3) varying time intervals between liposome dose and NR dose. By pre-injecting 400 μmol/kg positively charged liposomes into mice 5 h before the Au NRs, the liver and spleen uptakes of Au NRs decreased by 30% and 53%, respectively. Significantly, U87MG tumor uptake of Au NRs increased from 11.5 ± 1.1 %ID/g to 16.1 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 27 h post-injection. Quantitative PET imaging is a valuable tool to understand the fate of NMs in vivo and cationic liposomal pretreatment is a viable approach to reduce RES clearance, prolong circulation, and improve tumor uptake. PMID:28042337

  4. Sphingomyelin Liposomes Containing Porphyrin-phospholipid for Irinotecan Chemophototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Kevin A; Luo, Dandan; Razi, Aida; Geng, Jumin; Shao, Shuai; Ortega, Joaquin; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    Porphyrin-phospholipid (PoP) liposomes can entrap anti-cancer agents and release them in response to near infrared (NIR) light. Doxorubicin, when remotely loaded via an ammonium sulfate gradient at a high drug-to-lipid ratio, formed elongated crystals that altered liposome morphology and could not be loaded into liposomes with higher PoP content. On the other hand, irinotecan could also be remotely loaded but did not form large crystals and did not induce liposome elongation. The loading, stability, and NIR light-triggered release of irinotecan in PoP liposomes was altered by the types of lipids used and the presence of PEGylation. Sphingomyelin, which has been explored previously for liposomal irinotecan, was found to produce liposomes with relatively improved serum stability and rapid NIR light-triggered drug release. PoP liposomes composed from sphingomyelin, cholesterol and 2 molar percent PoP rapidly released irinotecan in vivo in response to NIR irradiation as monitored by intravital microscopy and also induced effective tumor eradication in mice bearing MIA Paca-2 subcutaneous tumor xenografts. PMID:27877238

  5. Liposomal drug delivery systems: from concept to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Allen, Theresa M; Cullis, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The first closed bilayer phospholipid systems, called liposomes, were described in 1965 and soon were proposed as drug delivery systems. The pioneering work of countless liposome researchers over almost 5 decades led to the development of important technical advances such as remote drug loading, extrusion for homogeneous size, long-circulating (PEGylated) liposomes, triggered release liposomes, liposomes containing nucleic acid polymers, ligand-targeted liposomes and liposomes containing combinations of drugs. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas as the delivery of anti-cancer, anti-fungal and antibiotic drugs, the delivery of gene medicines, and the delivery of anesthetics and anti-inflammatory drugs. A number of liposomes (lipidic nanoparticles) are on the market, and many more are in the pipeline. Lipidic nanoparticles are the first nanomedicine delivery system to make the transition from concept to clinical application, and they are now an established technology platform with considerable clinical acceptance. We can look forward to many more clinical products in the future.

  6. Pharmocokinetical study of Al- and Zn-sulphonated phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazachkina, Natalia I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Fomina, Galina I.; Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.

    1996-12-01

    The comparative pharmacokinetical study of Al- and Zn- sulphonated phthalocyanines (AlPcS and ZnPcS, respectively) is the aim of the present work. Mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumor were used in this study. AlPcS (sodium salt) and ZnPcS (ammonium and sodium salts were used as photosensitizers. The photosensitizers were injected i/v in various doses. The exogenous fluorescence of tissues (tumor, liver, spleen, kidneys, muscles, skin) was measured dynamically after sensitization. It was shown that all of the photosensitizers under study had similar distribution pattern in organisms of mice and were selectively accumulated in the Ehrlich tumor tissue. The exogenous fluorescence intensity of tissues and it tumor:normal muscle ratio (Cs) depended on the dosage of the preparation, on the time, which had passed after drug injection, and on the stage of tumor growth. It was also shown that the kinetics of the tissue uptake of the studied sensitizers varied to some extent. Thus, the obtained data may be interesting for deeper understanding of the interaction of the dye with malignant tissues.

  7. Synthesis of Phthalocyanines with a Pentafluorosulfanyl Substituent at Peripheral Positions

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Norihito; Tanaka, Kenta; Tokunaga, Etsuko; Mori, Satoru; Saito, Norimichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The pentafluorosulfanyl (SF5) group is more electronegative, lipophilic and sterically bulky relative to the well‐explored trifluoromethyl (CF3) group. As such, the SF5 group could offer access to pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and optoelectronic materials with novel properties. Here, the first synthesis of phthalocyanines (Pcs), a class of compounds used as dyes and with potential as photodynamic therapeutics, with a SF5 group directly attached on their peripheral positions is disclosed. The key for this work is the preparation of a series of SF5‐containing phthalonitriles, which was beautifully regio‐controlled by a stepwise cyanation via ortho‐lithiation/iodination from commercially available pentafluorosulfanyl arenes. The macrocyclization of the SF5‐containing phthalonitriles to SF5‐substituted Pcs required harsh conditions with the exception of the synthesis of β‐SF5‐substituted Pc. The regiospecificity of the newly developed SF5‐substituted Pcs observed by UV/Vis spectra and fluorescence quantum yields depend on the peripheral positon of the SF5 group. PMID:27308194

  8. New approaches to photodynamic therapy of tumors with Al phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Chental, V. V.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Poddubny, Boris K.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors of different localization and histology with new photosensitizer aluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (Photosense, Russia). PDT have been provided in 106 patients with different tumors. The initial dose (2.0 - 2.5 mg/kg) of PHS was significantly reduced till 0.5 - 0.8 mg/kg during clinical trials because of phototoxicity. The results of PDT, side effects and ways of their correction and prevention, as well as possibility to work out less toxic regimes of PDT with photosense, choice of laser and type of irradiation are discussed. Efficacy of PDT depended on tumor size and it's histological type. Using low doses of PHS we've reduced the phototoxicity of sensitizer with the same direct effectiveness of treatment. Undesirable changes in plasma content of antioxidants by means of high pressure liquid chromatography have been found in patients after PHS injection. Influence of short-term and long-term supplementation with beta- carotene and vitamin E on this parameters are discussed.

  9. Tissue Distribution Of Chloroaluminium Sulfonated Phthalocyanine In Dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. M.; H. C.; Newman

    1989-06-01

    Chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (A1PCS) was administered intravenously to clinically normal dogs, and A1PCS levels were determined in tissues using a sensitive assay. A1PCS accumulated to high levels in liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and lung. These tissue levels confirm previous determinations in mice and rats. Only a small amount of dye was retained in skin and very small amounts in muscle and brain. A1PCS was cleared from the blood within 24 h, and excreted primarily by urine. Serum clearance was faster in males than in females. There were also significant tissue distribution differences between the genders, particularly during the first 12 h. The low levels of A1PCS in skin suggest that cutaneous photosensitivity and toxic skin reactions using this photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy of cancer may be eliminated. The difference in tissue distribution between genders is not only intriguing, but indicates that the optimal time window for treatment of various tissue sites may vary by gender.

  10. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of thiadiazole substituted metallo-phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirbaş, Ümit; Akyüz, Duygu; Barut, Burak; Bayrak, Rıza; Koca, Atıf; Kantekin, Halit

    2016-01-01

    4-Thiadiazole substituted phthalonitrile and peripherally tetra-substituted phthalocyanine Cu(II), Fe(II) and Ti(IV)O complexes have been synthesized for the first time. Electrochemical properties of these complexes were determined with voltammetric and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. CuPc has redox inactive Cu2 + center, therefore it gave three Pc based reduction and two Pc based oxidation processes. TiOPc and FePc complexes gave metal based redox processes in addition to Pc based redox reactions due to the redox activity of Ti4 +O and Fe2 + metal centers. Although FePc also gave three reduction and two oxidation reactions, peak potentials of these processes are different than those of CuPc due to the different assignments of the redox reactions. TiOPc went to five reduction and one oxidation reactions. Assignments of the redox processes were carried out with in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Spectra and color of the electrogenerated redox species of the complexes were also determined with in situ spectroelectrochemical and in situ electrocolorimetric measurements. Distinct color differences between the electrogenerated redox species were observed, which indicated their possible electrochromic usages.

  11. Optical behaviour of copper phthalocyanine preparations for inkjet inks.

    PubMed

    Otáhalová, Lenka; Kaplanová, Marie; Gunde, Marta Klanjšek; Puchta, Miloš

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigates the preparation of the copper phthalocyanine pigment for inkjet printing inks. The pigment particle size distribution was measured with laser diffraction at different times of wet milling. Simultaneously, the absorbance spectra in a visible-near infrared spectral region of the corresponding diluted pigment dispersions were measured. At the beginning of the milling process, the particle size distribution is bimodal, showing the presence of aggregates and agglomerates. During the second hour of milling, the particle size distribution changes to unimodal due to the breaking of agglomerates, and the corresponding absorbance spectra change accordingly. Further milling diminishes the size of pigment aggregates up to the steady state value of around 130 nm, where also the absorbance in the corresponding spectra does not increase. A detailed analysis of intensity and position of the absorbance peak at 340 nm in dependence on the milling time and pigment concentration confirms the idea that an optical spectroscopy could be used for the assessment of optimal milling time required for the preparation of pigments with the maximum absorption ability.

  12. Adsorption Behavior of Nonplanar Phthalocyanines: Competition of Different Adsorption Conformations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory augmented with state-of-the-art van der Waals corrections, we studied the geometric and electronic properties of nonplanar chlorogallium-phthalocyanine GaClPc molecules adsorbed on Cu(111). Comparing these results with published experimental data for adsorption heights, we found indications for breaking of the metal–halogen bond when the molecule is heated during or after the deposition process. Interestingly, the work-function change induced by this dissociated geometry is the same as that computed for an intact adsorbate layer in the “Cl-down” configuration, with both agreeing well with the experimental photoemission data. This is unexpected, as the chemical natures of the adsorbates and the adsorption distances are markedly different in the two cases. The observation is explained as a consequence of Fermi-level pinning due to fractional charge transfer at the interface. Our results show that rationalizing the adsorption configurations on the basis of electronic interface properties alone can be ambiguous and that additional insight from dispersion-corrected DFT simulations is desirable. PMID:27066160

  13. Active and passive control of zinc phthalocyanine photodynamics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Huijser, Annemarie; Savolainen, Janne; Steen, Gerwin; Herek, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report on the ultrafast photodynamics of the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and manipulation thereof. Two approaches are followed: active control via pulse shaping and passive control via strategic manipulation in the periphery of the molecular structure. The objective of both of these control experiments is the same: to enhance the yield of the functional pathway and to minimize loss channels. The aim of the active control experiments is to increase the intersystem crossing yield in ZnPc, which is important for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Pulse shaping allowed an improvement in triplet to singlet ratio of 15% as compared to a transform-limited pulse. This effect is ascribed to a control mechanism that utilizes multiphoton pathways to higher-lying states from where intersystem crossing is more likely to occur. The passive control experiments are performed on ZnPc derivatives deposited onto TiO2, serving as a model system of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Modification of the anchoring ligand of the molecular structure resulted in an increased rate for electron injection into TiO2 and slower back electron transfer, improving the DSSC efficiency.

  14. Phthalocyanine-based organometallic nanocages: properties and gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guizhi; Li, Yawei; Lü, Kun; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-13

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) molecules are well-known flexible structural units for 1D nanotubes and 2D nanosheets. First-principles calculations combined with grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain the geometries, electronic structures, optical properties, and hydrogen-storage capacities of nanocages consisting of six Pc molecules with six Mg or Ca atoms. The primitive Pc cage has Th symmetry with twofold degeneracy in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and threefold degeneracy in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO); the corresponding HOMO-LUMO gap is found to be 0.97 eV. The MgPc and CaPc cages have Oh symmetry with a HOMO-LUMO gap of 1.24 and 1.13 eV, respectively. Optical absorption spectra suggest that the Pc-based cages can absorb infrared light, which is different from the visible-light absorption in Pc molecules. We further show that the excess uptake of hydrogen on MgPc and CaPc cages at 298 K and 100 bar (1 bar=0.1 MPa) is about 3.49 and 4.74 wt%, respectively. The present study provides new insight into Pc-based nanostructures with potential applications.

  15. Preclinical evaluation of zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate-based PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgatti-Jeffreys, Antonella; Hooser, Stephen B.; Miller, Margaret A.; Thomas, Rose M.; deGortari, Amalia; Lucroy, Michael D.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the light activation of a drug within a tumor causing selective tumor cell death. Unfortunately, some photosensitizing drugs have been associated with adverse reactions in veterinary patients. Zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (ZnPcS4) is a promising second-generation photosensitizer for use in veterinary medicine, however, it cannot be applied clinically until safety and efficacy data are available. ZnPcS4 was given to Swiss Webster mice to assess acute toxicity. Doses >100 mg/kg were associated with acute toxicity and mortality, and doses >100 mg/kg resulted in renal tubular nephrosis, suggesting that the minimum toxic dose is approximately 100 mg/kg. Based on these data, a Phase I clinical trial of ZnPcS4-based PDT in tumor-bearing dogs is underway, with ZnPcS4 doses up to 2 mg/kg producing no apparent toxicity. Tumor response has been observed after ZnPcS4-based PDT using doses as low as 0.25 mg/kg, suggesting that conventional phase I clinical trials may not be appropriate for PDT protocols.

  16. Photoinduced hole transfer in QD-phthalocyanine hybrids.

    PubMed

    Arvani, M; Virkki, K; Abou-Chahine, F; Efimov, A; Schramm, A; Tkachenko, N V; Lupo, D

    2016-10-05

    A series of CdSe quantum dot (QD)-phthalocyanine (Pc) hybrids were synthesized and their photophysics was studied using steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. Emission of QDs was progressively quenched upon increasing the concentration of Pc in the hybrids. A detailed transient absorption study of the hybrids revealed that the mechanism of quenching is charge separation, resulting in the formation of hybrids with negatively charged QDs and the Pc cation. Direct photo-excitation of Pc did not show any detectable interaction between the excited state of Pc and the QD to which it is attached. An explanation is proposed, based on the suggestion that the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of Pc is lower than the lower edge of the QD conduction band, while the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of Pc is sufficiently higher than the high energy edge of the QD valence band (VB), thus permitting hole transfer from the QD VB to the Pc HOMO after photo-excitation of QDs.

  17. Direct insertion of metal ions into tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Linkous, C.A.; Shea, C.E.; Jaber, M.R.A. )

    1989-07-01

    A series of metal salts were reacted with aqueous solutions of the tetrasulfonated free base phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}TsPc) in an attempt to prepare the corresponding metal TsPc derivative by direct insertion instead of the usual template reaction in a urea melt. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Sn{sup 2+} could be successfully inserted; higher oxidation states as well as Pb{sup 2+} caused precipitation. Reducing species such as Cr{sup 2+} and V{sup 2+} reduced H{sub 2}TsPc but did not insert; Sn{sup 2+} inserted with formation of an air-sensitive intermediate species. Mg{sup 2+}, VO{sup 2+}, Pt{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+} were unreactive. It is recommended that insertion may be the preferable method for synthesis of the MTsPc's listed above when air sensitivity, reaction time, and microscale are important issues in an overall synthetic scheme. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Synthesis of phthalocyanine derivatives as materials for organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazo-Ramos, Aura

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are used to convert sunlight into electricity by using thin films of organic semiconductors. OPVs have the potential to produce low cost, lightweight, flexible devices with an eased manufacturing process. This technology contains the potential to increase the use of clean, sustainable solar energy, helping manage the global energy and environmental crisis that results majorly from the constant use of fossil fuels as an energy source. The ability to modulate the physical properties of organic molecules by tuning their chemical structure is an advantage for OPVs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are highly pi-conjugated synthetic porphyrin analogs that have been explored as active layer components in OPVs due to their high extinction coefficients and hole mobilities. The Pc structure can be modified by the introduction of metals in the core and the incorporation of substituents into the periphery. These modifications tend to tune the solubility, photophysical properties and condensed phase organization of Pcs. The research work in this dissertation describes improved methods towards substituted Pc derivatives addressing: (1) the use of mass spectrometry techniques for Pcs characterization, (2) efforts to achieve materials with near-infrared (NIR) absorption, and (3) the potential of Pc as electron-acceptor materials. Herein, the synthesis of a series of asymmetric and symmetric metallated Pcs has been established, which resulted in interesting chemical, photophysical and electrochemical properties. The materials investigated in this thesis increase the potential of Pcs as organic semiconductors for OPVs.

  19. Electrochemical and optical characterization of cobalt, copper and zinc phthalocyanine complexes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyun; Kim, Se Hun; Lee, Woosung; Lee, Jiwon; An, Byeong-Kwan; Oh, Se Young; Kim, Jae Pil; Park, Jongwook

    2013-06-01

    New phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives that include the alkyl group in ligand were synthesized based on three core metals such as zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co). Electrochemical behaviors and optical properties of the new phthalocyanine derivatives with ligand and different core metal were investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In UV-Vis data, maximum values of 2H, Co, Cu, and Zn complexes were 708 nm and 677 nm, 686 nm, 684 nm, respectively.

  20. Highly substituted phthalocyanine derivatives as potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michael J.; Fabris, Clara; Ometto, Cristina; Mayes, Denise A.; Jori, Giulio; McMurdo, Jim; Milanesi, Carla; Russell, David A.

    1994-03-01

    An octakis-decyl-substituted Zn(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnODPc) was prepared by chemical synthesis and was shown to possess favorable photophysical properties to act as a photodynamic agent. Intravenous injection of ZnODPc incorporated into Cremophor emulsions (1.2 or 2.4 mg/kg) to Balb/c mice bearing a MS-2 fibrosarcoma resulted in an efficient and selective accumulation of the phthalocyanine in the tumor. Illumination of the ZnODPc-loaded neoplastic lesion at 24 h after injection caused tumor regression as a result of both intracellular and intravascular damage.

  1. Application of nanophotosensitizers (aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles) for early diagnosis and prevention of inflammatory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, J. O.; Makarov, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with a possibility of new types of photosensitizers application - Aluminum Phthalocyanine nanoparticles (nAlPc) in clinical practice for diagnosis, prevention and therapy of inflammatory diseases in dentistry and traumatology. It was detected that the aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) fluoresces in the nanoparticle form in the presence of pathologic microflora or inflammation process. It will make possible to detect the local accumulation of pathological microflora on the enamel surface and also for diagnostics and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Experimental studies of interaction of NP-AlPc with tooth enamel and with biological joint tissue at arthrosis are presented.

  2. Liposomal resiquimod for the treatment of Leishmania donovani infection

    PubMed Central

    Peine, Kevin J.; Gupta, Gaurav; Brackman, Deanna J.; Papenfuss, Tracey L.; Ainslie, Kristy M.; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Bachelder, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The imidazoquinoline family of drugs are Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonists that have previously been used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Because of the hydrophobic nature of imidazoquinolines, they are traditionally not administered systemically for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. We formulated liposomal resiquimod, an imidazoquinoline, for the systemic treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Methods By using lipid film hydration with extrusion, we encapsulated resiquimod in liposomes. These liposomes were then injected intravenously to treat BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania donovani. Results Treatment with liposomal resiquimod significantly decreased the parasite load in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. In addition, resiquimod treatment increased interferon-γ and interleukin-10 production in an antigen recall assay. Resiquimod was shown to be non-toxic in histology and in vitro culture experiments. Conclusions FDA-approved resiquimod, in a liposomal formulation, displays promising results in treating visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:23956375

  3. Ultrasound triggered drug delivery with liposomal nested microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Wallace, N; Wrenn, S P

    2015-12-01

    When ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles are nested within a liposome, damage to the liposome membrane caused by both stable and inertial cavitation of the microbubble allows for release of the aqueous core of the liposome. Triggered release was not accomplished unless microbubbles were present within the liposome. Leakage was tested using fluorescence assays developed specifically for this drug delivery vehicle and qualitative measurements using an optical microscope. These studies were done using a 1 MHz focused ultrasound transducer while varying parameters including peak negative ultrasound pressure, average liposome diameter, and microbubble concentration. Two regimes exist for membrane disruption caused by cavitating microbubbles. A faster release rate, as well as permanent membrane damage are seen for samples exposed to high pressure (2.1-3.7 MPa). A slower release rate and dilation/temporary poration are characteristic of stable cavitation for low pressure studies (0.54-1.7 MPa).

  4. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release said chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65.degree. C. The invention further relates to the use of said liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  5. Preparation and characterization of clove essential oil-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Carine; Jraij, Alia; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    In this study, suitable formulations of natural soybean phospholipid vesicles were developed to improve the stability of clove essential oil and its main component, eugenol. Using an ethanol injection method, saturated (Phospholipon 80H, Phospholipon 90H) and unsaturated soybean (Lipoid S100) phospholipids, in combination with cholesterol, were used to prepare liposomes at various eugenol and clove essential oil concentrations. Liposomal batches were characterized and compared for their size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The liposomes were tested for their stability after storing them for 2 months at 4°C by monitoring changes in their mean size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values. It was found that liposomes exhibited nanometric oligolamellar and spherical shaped vesicles and protected eugenol from degradation induced by UV exposure; they also maintained the DPPH-scavenging activity of free eugenol. Liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile unstable essential oil constituents.

  6. Recent Developments in Liposome-Based Veterinary Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in nanomedicine have been studied in the veterinary field and have found a wide variety of applications. The past decade has witnessed a massive surge of research interest in liposomes for delivery of therapeutic substances in animals. Liposomes are nanosized phospholipid vesicles that can serve as delivery platforms for a wide range of substances. Liposomes are easily formulated, highly modifiable, and easily administered delivery platforms. They are biodegradable and nontoxic and have long in vivo circulation time. This review focuses on recent and ongoing research that may have relevance for veterinary medicine. By examining the recent developments in liposome-based therapeutics in animal cancers, vaccines, and analgesia, this review depicts the current significance and future directions of liposome-based delivery in veterinary medicine. PMID:24222862

  7. Microfabrication of three-dimensional filters for liposome extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacchini, Tommaso; Nuñez, Vicente; LaFratta, Christopher N.; Grech, Joseph S.; Vullev, Valentine I.; Zadoyan, Ruben

    2015-03-01

    Liposomes play a relevant role in the biomedical field of drug delivery. The ability of these lipid vesicles to encapsulate and transport a variety of bioactive molecules has fostered their use in several therapeutic applications, from cancer treatments to the administration of drugs with antiviral activities. Size and uniformity are key parameters to take into consideration when preparing liposomes; these factors greatly influence their effectiveness in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. A popular technique employed to achieve the optimal liposome dimension (around 100 nm in diameter) and uniform size distribution is repetitive extrusion through a polycarbonate filter. We investigated two femtosecond laser direct writing techniques for the fabrication of three-dimensional filters within a microfluidics chip for liposomes extrusion. The miniaturization of the extrusion process in a microfluidic system is the first step toward a complete solution for lab-on-a-chip preparation of liposomes from vesicles self-assembly to optical characterization.

  8. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Liposomes containing drugs for treatment of vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Pavelić, Z; Skalko-Basnet, N; Jalsenjak, I

    1999-08-01

    To develop a novel vaginal delivery system, able to effectively deliver entrapped drugs during an extended period of time at the site of action, liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine were prepared by two different methods, namely the polyol dilution method and the proliposome method. Liposomes containing three commonly applied drugs in the treatment of vaginal infections: clotrimazole, metronidazole and chloramphenicol were tested for in vitro stability (in buffers at pH 4.5 and 5.9 representing pre- and postmenopausal vaginal pH). In situ stability (in the presence of cow vaginal mucosa) showed that after 6 h incubation (at 37 degrees C), liposomes retained more than 40% of originally entrapped clotrimazole, 28% of entrapped metronidazole or 37% of entrapped chloramphenicol. In vitro and in situ stability studies confirmed the applicability of liposomes as a carrier system for vaginal delivery. Even after 24 h of incubation in the presence of vaginal mucosa liposomes retained sufficient amounts of entrapped drugs.

  10. Recent Developments of Liposomes as Nanocarriers for Theranostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Hang; Hwang, Kevin; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are nanocarriers comprised of lipid bilayers encapsulating an aqueous core. The ability of liposomes to encapsulate a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic agents has led to significant interest in utilizing liposomes as nanocarriers for theranostic applications. In this review, we highlight recent progress in developing liposomes as nanocarriers for a) diagnostic applications to detect proteins, DNA, and small molecule targets using fluorescence, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and nuclear imaging; b) therapeutic applications based on small molecule-based therapy, gene therapy and immunotherapy; and c) theranostic applications for simultaneous detection and treatment of heavy metal toxicity and cancers. In addition, we summarize recent studies towards understanding of interactions between liposomes and biological components. Finally, perspectives on future directions in advancing the field for clinical translations are also discussed. PMID:27375783

  11. Shrinkage of pegylated and non-pegylated liposomes in serum.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Joy; Suri, Krishna; Yang, Yong; Shen, Jianliang; Celia, Christian; Fresta, Massimo; Zhao, Yuliang; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    An essential requisite for the design of nanodelivery systems is the ability to characterize the size, homogeneity and zeta potential of nanoparticles. Such properties can be tailored in order to create the most efficient drug delivery platforms. An important question is whether these characteristics change upon systemic injection. Here, we have studied the behavior of phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes exposed to serum proteins. The results reveal a serum-induced reduction in the size and homogeneity of both pegylated and non-pegylated liposomes, implicating the possible role of osmotic forces. In addition, changes to zeta-potential were observed upon exposing liposomes to serum. The liposomes with polyethylene glycol expressed different characteristics than their non-polymeric counterparts, suggesting the potential formation of a denser protein corona around the non-pegylated liposomes.

  12. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, R.P.

    1993-03-02

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release the chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65 C. The invention further relates to the use of the liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  13. Designing liposomal adjuvants for the next generation of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Yvonne; Crofts, Fraser; Devitt, Andrew; Griffiths, Helen R; Kastner, Elisabeth; Nadella, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Liposomes not only offer the ability to enhance drug delivery, but can effectively act as vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants. Their flexibility in size, charge, bilayer rigidity and composition allow for targeted antigen delivery via a range of administration routes. In the development of liposomal adjuvants, the type of immune response promoted has been linked to their physico-chemical characteristics, with the size and charge of the liposomal particles impacting on liposome biodistribution, exposure in the lymph nodes and recruitment of the innate immune system. The addition of immunostimulatory agents can further potentiate their immunogenic properties. Here, we outline the attributes that should be considered in the design and manufacture of liposomal adjuvants for the delivery of sub-unit and nucleic acid based vaccines.

  14. Use of Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ ultrasound in controlling liposome formation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Katherine C; Kakumanu, Srikanth; Beckett, Carl D; Laugharn, James A

    2015-11-01

    Many techniques for producing large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) or small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) have drawbacks, including exposure of sensitive biological materials to harsh organic solvents or high temperatures. Here we describe the use of controlled focused ultrasound, Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ (AFA), to make LUV or SUV at low temperature without organic solvents and at a consistent, chosen size. We studied the effects of peak incident power (PIP), cycles per burst (CPB), duty factor (DF), temperature, and lipid composition (natural or synthetic), on liposome size distribution. We found that an increase in PIP, DF, CPB, or temperature decreased liposome size. When processed under the same conditions as the natural lipid composition [Phospholipon 90 G], the synthetic lipid composition [HSPC, DSPE-PEG-2000, Chol] generally produced larger liposomes, although extending processing time reduced liposomes to similar size. In combination with AFA, these trends can help pinpoint parameter values that achieve a desired liposome size distribution.

  15. Current Trends in Development of Liposomes for Targeting Bacterial Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Rukavina, Zora; Vanić, Željka

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm targeting represents a great challenge for effective antimicrobial therapy. Increased biofilm resistance, even with the elevated concentrations of very potent antimicrobial agents, often leads to failed therapeutic outcome. Application of biocompatible nanomicrobials, particularly liposomally-associated nanomicrobials, presents a promising approach for improved drug delivery to bacterial cells and biofilms. Versatile manipulations of liposomal physicochemical properties, such as the bilayer composition, membrane fluidity, size, surface charge and coating, enable development of liposomes with desired pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. This review attempts to provide an unbiased overview of investigations of liposomes destined to treat bacterial biofilms. Different strategies including the recent advancements in liposomal design aiming at eradication of existing biofilms and prevention of biofilm formation, as well as respective limitations, are discussed in more details. PMID:27231933

  16. Cell penetrating peptide conjugated liposomes as transdermal delivery system of Polygonum aviculare L. extract.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kim, Sun Young; Kong, Bong Ju; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Noh, Geun Young; Im, Na Ri; Lim, Ji Won; Ha, Ji Hoon; Kim, Junoh; Park, Soo Nam

    2015-04-10

    In this study, Polygonum aviculare L. extract, which has superior antioxidative and cellular membrane protective activity, was loaded onto cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugated liposomes to enhance transdermal delivery. The physical characteristics of typical liposomes and CPP-conjugated liposomes containing P. aviculare extract were evaluated. The particle sizes of both liposomes were approximately 150 nm. Whereas the zeta potential of typical liposomes was -45 mV, that of CPP-conjugated liposomes was +42 mV. The loading efficiency of P. aviculare extract in both liposomes was calculated to be about 83%. Fluorescent-labeled liposomes were prepared to evaluate cellular uptake and skin permeation efficiency. Using flow cytometry, we found that CPP-conjugated liposomes improved cellular uptake of the fluorescent dye as compared with the typical liposomes. In addition, the skin permeation of CPP-conjugated liposomes was proved higher than that of typical liposomes by confocal laser scanning microscopy studies and Franz diffusion cell experiments. The improved cellular uptake and skin permeation of the CPP-conjugated liposomes were due to the cationic arginine-rich peptide. In vivo studies also determined that the CPP-conjugated liposomes were more effective in depigmentation and anti-wrinkle studies than typical liposomes. These results indicate that the CPP-conjugated liposomes could be effective for transdermal drug delivery of antioxidant and anti-aging therapeutics.

  17. Light induced cytosolic drug delivery from liposomes with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Tatu; Viitala, Lauri; Kontturi, Leena-Stiina; Laaksonen, Timo; Liang, Huamin; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina; Viitala, Tapani; Le Guével, Xavier; Yliperttula, Marjo; Murtomäki, Lasse; Urtti, Arto

    2015-04-10

    Externally triggered drug release at defined targets allows site- and time-controlled drug treatment regimens. We have developed liposomal drug carriers with encapsulated gold nanoparticles for triggered drug release. Light energy is converted to heat in the gold nanoparticles and released to the lipid bilayers. Localized temperature increase renders liposomal bilayers to be leaky and triggers drug release. The aim of this study was to develop a drug releasing system capable of releasing its cargo to cell cytosol upon triggering with visible and near infrared light signals. The liposomes were formulated using either heat-sensitive or heat- and pH-sensitive lipid compositions with star or rod shaped gold nanoparticles. Encapsulated fluorescent probe, calcein, was released from the liposomes after exposure to the light. In addition, the pH-sensitive formulations showed a faster drug release in acidic conditions than in neutral conditions. The liposomes were internalized into human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and did not show any cellular toxicity. The light induced cytosolic delivery of calcein from the gold nanoparticle containing liposomes was shown, whereas no cytosolic release was seen without light induction or without gold nanoparticles in the liposomes. The light activated liposome formulations showed a controlled content release to the cellular cytosol at a specific location and time. Triggering with visual and near infrared light allows good tissue penetration and safety, and the pH-sensitive liposomes may enable selective drug release in the intracellular acidic compartments (endosomes, lysosomes). Thus, light activated liposomes with gold nanoparticles are an attractive option for time- and site-specific drug delivery into the target cells.

  18. Liposomal dry powders as aerosols for pulmonary delivery of proteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dongmei; Hickey, Anthony J

    2005-12-21

    The purpose of this research was to develop liposomal dry powder aerosols for protein delivery. The delivery of stable protein formulations is essential for protein subunit vaccine delivery, which requires local delivery to macrophages in the lungs. Beta-glucuronidase (GUS) was used as a model protein to evaluate dry powder liposomes as inhaled delivery vehicles. Dimyristoyl phosphatylcholine:cholesterol (7:3) was selected as the liposome composition. The lyophilization of liposomes, micronization of the powders, aerosolization using a dry powder inhaler (DPI), and in vitro aerodynamic fine particle fraction upon collection in a twin-stage liquid impinger were evaluated. After lyophilization and jet-milling, the total amount of GUS and its activity, representing encapsulation efficiency and stability, were evaluated. The GUS amount and activity were measured and compared with freshly-prepared liposomes in the presence of mannitol, 43% of initial GUS amount, 29% of GUS activity after lyophilization and 36% of GUS amount, 22% of activity after micronization were obtained. Emitted doses from dry powder inhaler were 53%, 58%, 66%, and 73% for liposome powder:mannitol carrier ratios of 1:0, 1:4, 1:9, and 1:19. Fifteen percent of the liposome particles were less than 6.4 mum in aerodynamic diameter. The results demonstrate that milled liposome powders containing protein molecules can be aerosolized effectively at a fixed flow rate. Influences of different cryoprotectants on lyophilization of protein liposome formulations are reported. The feasibility of using liposomal dry powder aerosols for protein delivery has been demonstrated but further optimization is required in the context of specific therapeutic proteins.

  19. Formulation and in vitro characterization of protein-loaded liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzimski, Lauren

    Background/Objective: Protein-based drugs are increasingly used to treat a variety of conditions including cancer and cardio-vascular disease. Due to the immune system's innate ability to degrade the foreign particles quickly, protein-based treatments are generally short-lived. To address this limitation, the objective of the study was to: 1) develop protein-loaded liposomes; 2) characterize size, stability, encapsulation efficiency and rate of protein release; and 3) determine intracellular uptake and distribution; and 4) protein structural changes. Method: Liposomes were loaded with a fluorescent-albumin using freeze-thaw (F/T) methodology. Albumin encapsulation and release were quantified by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Flow cytometry was used to determine liposome uptake by macrophages. Epifluorescence microscopy was used to determine cellular distribution of liposomes. Stability was determined using dynamic light scattering by measuring liposome size over one month period. Protein structure was determined using circular dichroism (CD). Result: Encapsulation of albumin in liposome was ˜90% and was dependent on F/T rates, with fifteen cycles yielding the highest encapsulation efficacy (p < 0.05). Albumin-loaded liposomes demonstrated consistent size (<300nm). Release of encapsulated albumin in physiological buffer at 25°C was ˜60% in 72 h. Fluorescence imaging suggested an endosomal route of cellular entry for the FITC-albumin liposome with maximum uptake rates in immune cells (30% at 2hour incubation). CD suggested protein structure is minimally impacted by freeze-thaw methodology. Conclusion: Using F/T as a loading method, we were able to successfully achieve a protein-loaded liposome that was under 300nm, had encapsulation of ˜90%. Synthesized liposomes demonstrated a burst release of encapsulate protein (60%) at 72 hours. Cellular trafficking confirmed endosomal uptake, and minimal protein damage was noticed in CD.

  20. Ultrasound, liposomes, and drug delivery: principles for using ultrasound to control the release of drugs from liposomes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Avi; Kost, Joseph; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasound is used in many medical applications, such as imaging, blood flow analysis, dentistry, liposuction, tumor and fibroid ablation, and kidney stone disruption. In the past, low frequency ultrasound (LFUS) was the main method to downsize multilamellar (micron range) vesicles into small (nano scale) unilamellar vesicles. Recently, the ability of ultrasound to induce localized and controlled drug release from liposomes, utilizing thermal and/or mechanical effects, has been shown. This review, deals with the interaction of ultrasound with liposomes, focusing mainly on the mechanical mechanism of drug release from liposomes using LFUS. The effects of liposome lipid composition and physicochemical properties, on one hand, and of LFUS parameters, on the other, on liposomal drug release, are addressed. Acoustic cavitation, in which gas bubbles oscillate and collapse in the medium, thereby introducing intense mechanical strains, increases release substantially. We suggest that the mechanism of release may involve formation and collapse of small gas nuclei in the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer during exposure to LFUS, thereby inducing the formation of transient pores through which drugs are released. Introducing PEG-lipopolymers to the liposome bilayer enhances responsivity to LFUS, most likely due to absorption of ultrasonic energy by the highly hydrated PEG headgroups. The presence of amphiphiles, such as phospholipids with unsaturated acyl chains, which destabilize the lipid bilayer, also increases liposome susceptibility to LFUS. Application of these principles to design highly LFUS-responsive liposomes is discussed.

  1. Analytical approaches for clarification of DNA-double decker phthalocyanine binding mechanism: As an alternative anticancer chemotherapeutic.

    PubMed

    Bağda, Esra; Yabaş, Ebru; Bağda, Efkan

    2017-02-05

    In the present study a novel water soluble double-decker phthalocyanine was synthesized and calf thymus DNA interaction of the synthesized double-decker phthalocyanine was investigated. 5-(3-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole substituted phthalonitrile 1 was prepared by a nucleophilic displacement reaction of 4-nitrophthalonitrile with 5-(3-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol. Lutetium(III) double-decker phthalocyanine 2 was prepared by cyclotetramerization of compound 1. Water soluble lutetium(III) double-decker phthalocyanine 3 was prepared with quaternarization of compound 2. The synthesized double-decker phthalocyanine and calf thymus DNA interaction was investigated with UV-vis titrimetric methods, gel electrophoresis, and viscosity measurements. The fluorometric ethidium bromide replacement assay was conducted to clarify the binding mode of water soluble double-decker phthalocyanine. The thermodynamic parameters for interaction, K, ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) were calculated between the temperature ranges of 25°C-75°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about a double-decker phthalocyanine and DNA interaction.

  2. Analytical approaches for clarification of DNA-double decker phthalocyanine binding mechanism: As an alternative anticancer chemotherapeutic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bağda, Esra; Yabaş, Ebru; Bağda, Efkan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study a novel water soluble double-decker phthalocyanine was synthesized and calf thymus DNA interaction of the synthesized double-decker phthalocyanine was investigated. 5-(3-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole substituted phthalonitrile 1 was prepared by a nucleophilic displacement reaction of 4-nitrophthalonitrile with 5-(3-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol. Lutetium(III) double-decker phthalocyanine 2 was prepared by cyclotetramerization of compound 1. Water soluble lutetium(III) double-decker phthalocyanine 3 was prepared with quaternarization of compound 2. The synthesized double-decker phthalocyanine and calf thymus DNA interaction was investigated with UV-vis titrimetric methods, gel electrophoresis, and viscosity measurements. The fluorometric ethidium bromide replacement assay was conducted to clarify the binding mode of water soluble double-decker phthalocyanine. The thermodynamic parameters for interaction, K, ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0 were calculated between the temperature ranges of 25 °C-75 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about a double-decker phthalocyanine and DNA interaction.

  3. An OEGylated thiol monolayer for the tethering of liposomes and the study of liposome interactions.

    PubMed

    Briand, Elisabeth; Humblot, Vincent; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Kasemo, Bengt; Svedhem, Sofia

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present work is to develop a protocol for the specific immobilization of liposomes, via tethers, onto functionalized gold surfaces, and in addition to give one example for such a surface architecture. All surface functionalization steps are charcerized and controlled. First, mixed thiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) prepared from COOH- and OCH(3)-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) alkane thiols were characterized by polarization modulation reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS) and by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The composition of the mixed SAMs was found to be close to that of the thiol solution. Next, grafting of biotin conjugated with an NH(2)-terminated OEG spacer (biotin-OEG-NH(2)) to the COOH groups via conventional amine coupling was optimized with respect to the COOH/OCH(3) ratio of the SAM. The grafting of biotin-OEG-NH(2) was assessed by monitoring the binding of neutravidin and albumin to the biotinylated surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), as well as by PM-RAIRS. It was shown that a COOH/OCH(3) ratio of around 0.3 was sufficient to saturate the SAMs with neutravidin. Finally, tethering of liposomes onto the neutravidin-terminated SAMs, was achieved. As an application example, of a close packed layer of tethered liposomes was exposed to the membrane-penetrating peptide melittin. As monitored by QCM-D, the liposomes fused when interacting with the peptide and ruptured into an extended, supported lipid bilayer over the whole surface. In summary, the described surface modification has potential for the development of assays requiring tethered intact liposomes, or tethered planar bilayers. Such surface architectures are especially important for the study of transmembrane proteins and peptides.

  4. Liposomal drug formulations in cancer therapy: 15 years along the road.

    PubMed

    Slingerland, Marije; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Gelderblom, Hans

    2012-02-01

    Liposomes as pharmaceutical drug carriers were developed to increase antitumour efficacy and decrease drug toxicity. Doxorubicin HCl liposomal injection was the first liposomal encapsulated anticancer drug to receive clinical approval. To date, virtually all traditional anticancer drugs have been encapsulated in liposomes. The majority of clinical studies only support the concept of a decreased toxicity and better tolerability of the liposomal anticancer drug. Although liposomal anticancer drugs have grown to maturity in several indications and are now in widespread further development programmes using their theoretical advantages to fulfil the high expectations, further studies are warranted--including the development of novel liposomal formulations.

  5. Theranostic liposomes for cancer diagnosis and treatment: current development and pre-clinical success.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Madaswamy S; Feng, Si-Shen

    2013-02-01

    Liposomes are one of the effective drug delivery systems that are developed based on the nanotechnology concept. Liposomal formulation is the first nanomedicine approved by the US FDA for clinical application. Recently, the marketed liposomes and stealth liposomes have made impact for cancer therapy. In addition, a few receptor-targeted liposome products have been in different phases of clinical trials, which are yet to be marketed. In the present editorial, the advantages of vitamin E TPGS-coated liposomes over the currently available PEG-coated liposomes will be described and their great potentials for nanotheranostics for cancer imaging and therapy will be covered.

  6. Azaphenalene phthalocyanines: phthalocyanine analogues with six-membered-ring units instead of five-membered-ring units.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Soji; Zhu, Hua; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2010-09-24

    Mixed-condensation reaction of 1,8-naphthalenedicarbonitrile and a 4,5-disubstituted phthalonitrile provided a series of phthalocyanine (Pc) analogues with azaphenalene (AP) moieties in place of the isoindole moieties. Monosubstituted species, APPc, and the two structural isomers of disubstituted species, adj-AP(2)Pc and opp-AP(2)Pc, were successfully isolated by gel-permeation chromatography on HPLC apparatus. Their structures were elucidated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Replacement of the isoindole moieties with azaphenalene moieties created six-membered-ring units in the core and caused distortion of the molecular structures. The Q-band absorption shifted to the red upon an increase in the number of azaphenalene units; the shape of the absorption spectra depended on the molecular symmetries. APPc and opp-AP(2)Pc showed a large splitting of the Q band, whereas adj-AP(2)Pc exhibited a single broad Q band. These changes in the absorption spectra, as well as the unique electronic structures, are discussed in detail, based on magnetic circular dichroism spectra, electrochemical measurements, and density functional theory calculations.

  7. Delivery of aerosolized drugs encapsulated in liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Lyons, C.R.; Schmid, M.H.

    1995-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an infectious disease that resides in the human lung. Due to the difficulty in completely killing off the disease in infected individuals, Mtb has developed drug-resistant forms and is on the rise in the human population. Therefore, ITRI and the University of New Mexico are collaborating to explore the treatment of Mtb by an aerosolized drug delivered directly to the lungs. In conclusion, it is feasible to obtain an appropriate size and concentration of the liposomes before and after aerosolization.

  8. Analysis of individual lipoproteins and liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.L.; Keller, R.A.; Nolan, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    We describe the application of single molecule detection (SMD) technologies for the analysis of natural (serum lipoproteins) and synthetic (liposomes) transport systems. The need for advanced analytical procedures of these complex and important systems is presented with the specific enhancements afforded by SMD with flowing sample streams. In contrast to bulk measurements which yield only average values, measurement of individual species allows creation of population histograms from heterogeneous samples. The data are acquired in minutes and the analysis requires relatively small sample quantities. Preliminary data are presented from the analysis of low density lipoprotein, and multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles.

  9. Cadherin-integrated liposomes with potential application in a drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koki; Tsumoto, Kanta; Yoshimura, Tetsuro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2011-12-01

    N-cadherin (CDH2) proteins were reconstituted with liposomes using a baculovirus expression-liposome fusion method. CDH2 budded viruses were fused with giant liposomes containing dioleoylphophogycerol/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPG/DOPC) at pH 4.5 and the localization of CDH2 on the liposome membrane was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. CDH2 liposomes showed Ca(2+)-dependent association. CDH2-mediated association/dissociation in CDH2 liposomes was specific to Ca(2+) and reversible. CDH2-expressing LN-229 cells (human glioblastoma cell) adhered to CDH2 liposomes and small CDH2 liposomes (diameter approximately 150 nm), in particular, were internalized by endocytosis and partly escaped endosomes. Cadherin-containing liposomes show high potential as a new cell-specific proteoliposome. The baculovirus expression-liposome fusion method is useful as a new enabling technology for biomedical applications of functional proteoliposomes.

  10. Towards clarifying the N-M vibrational nature of metallo-phthalocyanines. Infrared spectrum of phthalocyanine magnesium complex: density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianxi; Zhang, Yuexing; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2004-08-01

    Infrared frequencies and intensities for the magnesium phthalocyanine complex MgPc have been calculated at density functional B3LYP level using the 6-31G(d) basis set. Detailed assignments of the metal-nitrogen (N-M) vibrational bands in the IR spectrum have been made on the basis of comparison of the calculated data of MgPc with the experimental result and also with that of H(2)Pc. The empirical controversial assignment of the characteristic band at 886-919 cm(-1) for metallo-phthalocyanines is also clearly interpreted. Nevertheless, the previous assignments of N-H stretchings, in-plane bending (IPB) and out-of-plane bending (OPB) modes made based on the comparative calculation of H(2)Pc and D(2)Pc are confirmed again by the present research result.

  11. Binding and interstitial penetration of liposomes within avascular tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Kostarelos, Kostas; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Papakostas, Alexandros; Yang, Wei-Hong; Ballangrud, Ase; Sgouros, George

    2004-11-20

    The liposomal delivery of cancer therapeutics, including gene therapy vectors, is an area of intense study. Poor penetration of liposomes into interstitial tumor spaces remains a problem, however. In this work, the penetration of different liposomal formulations into prostate carcinoma spheroids was examined. Spheroid penetration was assessed by confocal microscopy of fluorescently labeled liposomes. The impact of liposomal surface charge, mean diameter, lipid bilayer fluidity and fusogenicity on spheroid penetration was examined. A variety of different liposome systems relevant to clinical or preclinical protocols have been studied, including classical zwitterionic (DMPC:chol) and sterically stabilized liposomes (DMPC:chol:DOPE-PEG2000), both used clinically, and cationic liposomes (DMPC:DOPE:DC-chol and DOTAP), forming the basis of the vast majority of nonviral gene transfer vectors tested in various cancer trials. Surface interactions between strongly cationic vesicles and the tumor cells led to an electrostatically derived binding-site barrier effect, inhibiting further association of the delivery systems with the tumor spheroids (DMPC:DC-chol). However, inclusion of the fusogenic lipid DOPE and use of a cationic lipid of lower surface charge density (DOTAP instead of DC-chol) led to improvements in the observed intratumoral distribution characteristics. Sterically stabilized liposomes did not interact with the tumor spheroids, whereas small unilamellar classical liposomes exhibit extensive distribution deeper into the tumor volume. Engineering liposomal delivery systems with a relatively low charge molar ratio and enhanced fusogenicity, or electrostatically neutral liposomes with fluid bilayers, offered enhanced intratumoral penetration. This study shows that a delicate balance exists between the strong affinity of delivery systems for the tumor cells and the efficient penetration and distribution within the tumor mass, similar to previous work studying

  12. Circular dichroism spectroscopic investigation of double-decker phthalocyanine with G-Quadruplex as promising telomerase inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baǧda, Efkan; Baǧda, Esra; Yabaş, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, interaction of a double-decker phthalocyanine with two G-quadruplex DNA, Tel 21 and cMYC, was investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about G-quadruplex-double decker phthalocyanine interaction. The spectrophotometric titration method was used for binding constant calculations. From the binding constants, it can be said that double-decker phthalocyanine more likely to bind Tel 21 rather than cMYC. The conformational changes upon binding were monitored via circular dichroism spectroscopy. The ethidium bromide replacement assay was investigated spectrofluorometrically.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using metal complex of phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kida, Tomoyasu Suzuki, Atsushi Akiyama, Tsuyoshi Oku, Takeo

    2015-02-27

    Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using shuttle-cock-type phthalocyanines were carried out. Photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with inverted structures were investigated by current density-voltage characteristics. Effects of phase transition between H and J aggregates on the photovoltaic and optical properties were investigated. The photovoltaic mechanisms, energy levels and band gap of active layers were discussed.

  14. Theoretical study of NMR, infrared and Raman spectra on triple-decker phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo

    2016-02-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of multi-decker phthalocyanines were studied by theoretical calculation. Electronic structures, excited processes at multi-states, isotropic chemical shifts of {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), principle V-tensor in electronic field gradient (EFG) tensor and asymmetry parameters (η), vibration mode in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of triple-decker phthalocyanines were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT using B3LYP as basis function. Electron density distribution was delocalized on the phthalocyanine rings with electron static potential. Considerable separation of chemical shifts in {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 1}H-NMR was originated from nuclear spin interaction between nitrogen and carbon atoms, nuclear quadrupole interaction based on EFG and η of central metal under crystal field. Calculated optical absorption at multi-excited process was derived from overlapping π-orbital on the phthalocyanine rings. The vibration modes in IR and Raman spectra were based on in-plane deformation and stretching vibrations of metal-ligand coordination bond on the deformed structure.

  15. Strongly enhanced Raman scattering of Cu-phthalocyanine sandwiched between graphene and Au(111).

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Ing; Gholami, Mohammad Fardin; Beyer, Paul; Severin, Nikolai; Shao, Feng; Zenobi, Renato; Rabe, Jürgen P

    2017-01-05

    Graphene and flat gold have both been argued to enhance Raman scattering of molecular adsorbates through a chemical mechanism. Here we show that these two effects can add to each other. For Cu-phthalocyanine in between graphene and Au(111) on mica a Raman enhancement up to 68-fold has been observed.

  16. Towards Clarifying the Role of O2 during the Phthalocyanine Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Pan, Houhe; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2015-12-07

    The role of O2 within the synthesis of phthalocyanines (Pcs) has remained unclear in the past century. Here, we demonstrate that O2 , in cooperation with the solvent n-pentanol, participates in the cyclic tetramerization of phthalonitriles over the half-sandwich complex template [Lu(Pc)(acac)] (acac=acetylacetonate) and terminates the reaction at the stage of uncyclized isoindole oligomeric derivatives rather than the phthalocyanine chromophores, resulting in the isolation of the heteroleptic (phthalocyaninato)(triisoindole-1-one) lutetium double-decker complexes [(Pc)Lu(TIO-I)] (TIO-I=3,4,7,8,11,12-sexi(2,6-diisopropylphenoxy)-15-[4,5-di(2,6-diisopropylphenoxy)-2-cyanobenzimidamido]triisoindole-1-one) and [(Pc)Lu(TIO-II)] (TIO-II=3,4,7,8,11,12-sexi(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-15-[4,5-di(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-cyanobenzimidamido]triisoindole-1-one) with the help of bulky substituents at the phthalonitrile periphery and an unsubstituted phthalocyanine ligand in the double-decker skeleton. Nevertheless, the cyclic tetramerization of the phthalonitriles was revealed to be sensitive to O2 with the reaction progression also depending on the oxygen concentration/content, leading to the O2 -senstive and -dependent nature for the isolation of phthalocyanine derivatives.

  17. Interaction of cationic phthalocyanines with DNA. Importance of the structure of the substituents.

    PubMed

    López Zeballos, N C; Gauna, G A; García Vior, M C; Awruch, J; Dicelio, L E

    2014-07-05

    The interaction of novel zinc (II) cationic phthalocyanines with CT-DNA was studied using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as thermal denaturation profiles. Results showed an electrostatic interaction between the phthalocyanines and CT-DNA. The properties of these phthalocyanines were compared taking the structure of the macrocycle peripheral substituents into account. 2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis[(N-butyl-N-methylammonium)ethylsulfanyl]phthalocyaninatozinc(II) tetraiodide (Pc6) had a greater affinity for the CT-DNA helix than its bioisoster 2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis[(N-dibutyl-N-methylammonium)ethoxy]phthalocyaninatozinc(II) tetraiodide (Pc7). 2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis[(2-trimethylammonium)ethyl-sulfanyl]phthalocyaninatozinc(II) tetraiodide (Pc13) also carried a sulfur atom like Pc6, but linked to bulky substituents such as trimethylammonium groups. The planar aromatic region of the cationic phthalocyanines in this study appears to be unable to facilitate their intercalation with CT-DNA.

  18. Phthalocyanine derivatives possessing 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy groups as potential agents for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kucinska, Malgorzata; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Szczolko, Wojciech; Sobotta, Lukasz; Sciepura, Mateusz; Tykarska, Ewa; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Teubert, Anna; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Wyszko, Eliza; Gdaniec, Maria; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Goslinski, Tomasz; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Murias, Marek

    2015-03-12

    Three 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituted phthalocyanines were synthesized and characterized. Phthalocyanine derivatives revealed moderate to high quantum yields of singlet oxygen production depending on the solvent applied (e.g., in DMF ranging from 0.25 to 0.53). Their photosensitizing potential for photodynamic therapy was investigated in an in vitro model using cancer cell lines. Biological test results were found particularly encouraging for the zinc(II) phthalocyanine derivative possessing two 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituents in nonperipheral positions. Cells irradiated for 20 min at 2 mW/cm(2) revealed the lowest IC50 value at 0.25 μM for prostate cell line (PC3), whereas 1.47 μM was observed for human malignant melanoma (A375) cells. The cytotoxic activity in nonirradiated cells of novel phthalocyanine was found to be very low. Moreover, the cellular uptake, localization, cell cycle, apoptosis through an ELISA assay, and immunochemistry method were investigated in LNCaP cells. Our results showed that the tested photosensitizer possesses very interesting biological activity, depending on experimental conditions.

  19. Spectroscopic insights on imidazole substituted phthalocyanine photosensitizers: Fluorescence properties, triplet state and singlet oxygen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Fu; Lin, Yong; Guo, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jingzhong

    2014-12-01

    Imidazole substituted metal phthalocyanine (Pc) complexes were synthesized. UV-vis absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, as well as laser flash photolysis were used to measure the photophysical and photosensitizing properties. All the imidazole-phthalocyanine conjugates show high ΦT (quantum yield of excited triplet formation), high ΦΔ (singlet oxygen formation yield, >0.50) and good fluorescence properties (quantum yield Φf > 0.20 and lifetime τf > 3.0 ns). Compared to the unsubstituted Pc, both α- and β-imidazole substitutions result in the remarkable decrease in Φf and τf, but the α-substitution is stronger. The imidazole substitution, on the other hand, causes the increase of ΦT, τT, and ΦΔ values. Magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) is more susceptible to the substitution than zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc). The mechanism responsible for the result is suggested based on the involvement of intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer. The high ΦΔ and appropriate fluorescence properties make the Pcs good candidate for PDT photosensitizers.

  20. Metal (2) 4,4',4",4'" phthalocyanine tetraamines as curing agents for epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Metal, preferably divalent copper, cobalt or nickel, phthalocyanine tetraamines are used as curing agents for epoxides. The resulting copolymers have high thermal and chemical resistance and are homogeneous. They are useful as binders for laminates, e.g., graphite cloth laminate.

  1. Photovoltaic properties of cadmium selenide-titanyl phthalocyanine planar heterojunction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, J.; Jarosz, G.; Signerski, R.

    2015-07-01

    Photovoltaic phenomenon taking place in cadmium selenide (CdSe)/titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) planar heterojunction devices is described. Mechanisms of free charge carrier generation and their recombination in the dark and under illumination are analyzed, chosen photovoltaic parameters are presented.

  2. Lattice expansion of highly oriented 2D phthalocyanine covalent organic framework films.

    PubMed

    Spitler, Eric L; Colson, John W; Uribe-Romo, Fernando J; Woll, Arthur R; Giovino, Marissa R; Saldivar, Abraham; Dichtel, William R

    2012-03-12

    Expanding into application: covalent organic framework (COF) films are ideally suited for vertical charge transport and serve as precursors of ordered heterojunctions. Their pores, however, were previously too small to accommodate continuous networks of complementary electron acceptors. Four phthalocyanine COFs with increased pore size well into the mesoporous regime are now described.

  3. Femtosecond time-resolved energy transfer from CdSe nanoparticles to phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, S.; Królicki, R.; Lou, Y.; Qiu, X.; Berlin, J. C.; Kenney, M. E.; Burda, C.

    2006-07-01

    The first real-time observation of the early events during energy transfer from a photoexcited CdSe nanoparticle to an attached phthalocyanine molecule are presented in terms of a femtosecond spectroscopic pump-probe study of the energy transfer in conjugates of CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) and silicon phthalocyanines (Pcs) with 120 fs time resolution. Four different silicon phthalocyanines have been conjugated to CdSe NPs. All of these have proven potential for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In such NP-Pc conjugates efficient energy transfer (ET) from CdSe NPs to Pcs occurs upon selective photoexcitation of the NP moiety. Spectral analysis as well as time-resolved fluorescence up-conversion measurements revealed the structure and dynamics of the investigated conjugates. Femtosecond transient differential absorption (TDA) spectroscopy was used for the investigation of the non-radiative carrier and ET dynamics. The formation of excitons, trapped carriers states, as well as stimulated emission was monitored in the TDA spectra and the corresponding lifetimes of these states were recorded. The time component for energy transfer was found to be between 15 and 35 ps. The ET efficiencies are found to be 20-70% for the four Pc conjugates, according to fluorescence quenching experiments. Moreover, as a result of the conjugation between NP and the Pcs the photoluminescence efficiency of the Pc moieties in the conjugates do not strictly follow the quantum yields of the bare phthalocyanines.

  4. Nanoparticles improve biological functions of phthalocyanine photosensitizers used for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao; Jia, Lee

    2012-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new technology using photodynamic effect for disease diagnosis and treatment. It is a two-step technique involving the uptake of a photosensitizer by cancer tissue followed by light irradiation that excites the photosensitizer to produce highly reactive oxygen species, the latter execute apoptosis of cancerous cells. As a second-generation of photosensitizers, phthalocyanine demonstrates higher absorption in the 650-800 nm range and short tissue accumulation compared to their first generation. However, many potent phthalocyanine photosensitizers are hydrophobic and poorly water-soluble, which limit their therapeutic applications. As a result, advanced delivery systems and different strategies are called for to improve the effectiveness of PDT. Facts have proved that using nanoparticles as carries of photosensitizers is a very promising route. Nanoparticles have the potentials to increase photosensitizers' aqueous solubility, bioavailability and stability, and deliver photosensitizers to the target tissues. This article reviewed the commonly-used nanoparticles, including colloid gold, quantum dots, paramagnetic nanoparticles, silica-based materials, polymer-based nanoparticles, as potential delivery systems for phthalocyanine photosensitizers, and summarized the improved biological functions of phthalocyanine photosensitizers in PDT.

  5. Comparative photodynamic therapy study using two phthalocyanine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    YSLAS, EDITH INÉS; MILLA, LAURA NATALIA; ROMANINI, SILVIA; DURANTINI, EDGARDO NÉSTOR; BERTUZZI, MABEL; RIVAROLA, VIVIANA ALICIA

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, a comparative photodynamic therapy (PDT) study was performed using the phthalocyanine derivatives, ZnPc(OCH3)4 and ZnPc(CF3)4, in a mouse tumor model, under identical experimental procedures. We studied the ablation of tumors induced by PDT. The end-point was to compare the photodynamic efficacy of ZnPc(OCH3)4 and ZnPc(CF3)4. ZnPc(OCH3)4 and ZnPc(CF3)4 were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. The injections of drugs were carried out in Balb/c mice bearing subcutaneously inoculated LM2 mouse mammary adenocarcinoma. Histological examination and serum biochemical parameters were used to evaluate hepatic and renal toxicity and function. Phototherapeutic studies were achieved employing a light intensity of 210 J/cm2. After PDT, tumoral regression analyses were carried out, and the degree of tumor cell death was measured utilizing the vital stain Evan’s blue. In this pilot study, we revealed that the cytotoxic effect of ZnPc(OCH3)4 after PDT led to a higher success rate compared to ZnPc(CF3)4-PDT when both were intraperitoneally injectioned. Both phthalocynanine derivatives were able to induce ablation in the tumors. In summary, these results demonstrate the feasibility of ZnPc(OCH3)4- or ZnPc(CF3)4-PDT and its potential as a treatment for small tumors. PMID:22993594

  6. Interface energetics in zinc phthalocyanine growth on Ag(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mahboob, Abdullah; Sadowski, Jerzy T.

    2016-02-01

    The nucleation and growth of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films on a Ag(100) surface are studied employing in situ, real-time low-energy electron microscopy and complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculation to elucidate the role of incorporation kinetics of planar molecules in phase selection during nucleation and apply this knowledge to the fabrication of highly crystalline ZnPc films. We show that the nucleation of crystalline ZnPc islands requires a large concentration of diffusing molecules. The required amount of nominal deposition to initiate the growth of monolayer (ML) high two-dimensional crystalline islands is dependent on both growth temperature and crystalline phase. At room temperature (RT) and slightly above (RT to ˜430 K), ZnPc crystalline islands have double-domain R 33.69 structures with average domain sizes in the submicrometer range. At higher temperatures, a 5 × 5 commensurate ZnPc structure nucleates. DFT calculations reveal significant differences in interfacial energies of an isolated ZnPc molecule on a substrate, depending on an adsorption site and azimuthal orientation of the molecule relative to the substrate atomic lattice. The observed delay in the onset of the nucleation of an island is caused by the existence of a large energy barrier for molecule incorporation into an island. At certain growth conditions it is possible to induce a structural transition from the 5 × 5 to the R 33.69 phase when the nominal coverage reaches 1 ML. The resulting film has excellent crystallinity with individual domains of hundreds of micrometers in size.

  7. Nonlinear optical response of cofacial phthalocyanine dimers and trimers

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, E.S.; Spano, F.C.; Chen, L.X.

    1997-07-01

    The effects of intermacrocycle interactions on the second hyperpolarizabilities {l_angle}{gamma}({minus}{omega};{omega},{minus}{omega},{omega}){r_angle} of cofacial phthalocyanine dimers and trimers are studied. A theoretical analysis is presented based on the Frenkel exciton model for a chain of three level molecules. Using a simplified analysis in the static and near-resonant regimes we identify two mechanisms which lead to enhancements in the dimer or trimer value of {l_angle}{gamma}({minus}{omega};{omega},{minus}{omega},{omega}){r_angle} over that of the monomer. The first mechanism is a disruption of the balance between type I and type II terms in the sum over states expression for the second hyperpolarizability tensor {gamma}{sub kjih}({minus}{omega};{omega},{minus}{omega},{omega}), caused by weak intermacrocycle interactions. The second is a near-resonance enhancement of the type II terms due to an intermacrocycle interaction induced shift in the monomer derived two-photon allowed states towards twice the laser photon energy. This analysis is in good agreement with recent degenerate four wave mixing experiments [SPIE Proc. {bold 2527}, 61 (1995)] which showed a strong enhancement of {l_angle}{gamma}({minus}{omega};{omega},{minus}{omega},{omega}){r_angle} for SiPcO oligomers as a function of the number of macrocycles. Our calculations suggest that the first mechanism is responsible for the 25-fold monomer to dimer enhancement measured in this system, and that the additional 4-fold enhancement found in going from the dimer to the trimer is primarily the result of the second mechanism. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Tuning coercivity via iron chains in phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werber, Mathew Stephen

    We investigated the properties of magnetic hysteresis loops of Iron Phthalocyanine (FePc) thin films using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The FePc thin films were deposited onto heated silicon substrates. During deposition the FePc molecules self-assemble into small crystallites ranging in size from 30 to 300 nm on average. Due to the planar shape of the molecule, chains of iron atoms are formed. The magnetic interaction within a chain is much stronger than between chains, making these thin films quasi-one-dimensional magnetic systems. The average length of the major axis of the grains increases with the temperature of the substrate (deposition temperature). Essentially the thin films are made up of many randomly oriented iron chains of variable length, which are parallel to the substrate surface. We show that the coercivity of hysteresis loops measured at 2 K increases linearly with the average major axis grain length. From interpolation, the minimum average grain length for hysteresis to occur is 8 nm, and every additional nano-meter in length increases the coercivity by 72 Oe. By measuring hysteresis loops of many thin films of varying thickness we found that the saturation magnetization is 31 emu/cm3. This corresponds to 2.0 +/- 0.6 micro B per iron ion, as compared to 2.22 microB for iron in a 3D lattice at 0 K. The choice of substrate also affects the hysteresis properties. Samples deposited on silicon substrates that had first been coated in gold with a rms roughness of approximately 1 nm will show much lower coercivity than corresponding silicon substrate samples. The planar gold surface allows for a different growth pattern in which the chains form vertically, perpendicular to the substrate. This lower coercivity suggests that the chains are shorter when vertically oriented.

  9. Phthalocyanine-labeled LDL for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Marotta, Diane; Kim, Soungkyoo; Chance, Britton; Glickson, Jerry D.; Busch, Theresa M.; Zheng, Gang

    2005-01-01

    Current limitation of both near-infrared (NIR) tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT) is their lack of sufficient tumor-to-tissue contrast due to the relatively non-specific nature of delivering dye to the tumor, which has led to false negatives for NIR imaging and inadequate therapeutic ratio for PDT. Hence, agents targeting "cancer signatures", i.e. molecules that accumulate selectively in cancer cells, are particular attractive. One of these signatures is low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), which is overexpressed in many tumors. We have developed pyropheophorbide cholesterol oleate reconstituted LDL as a LDLR-targeting photosensitizer (PS) and demonstrated its LDLR-mediated uptake in vitro and in vivo. To improve the labeling efficiency for achieving high probe/protein ratio, tetra-t-butyl silicon phthalocyanine bearing two oleate moieties at its axial positions, (tBu)4SiPcBOA, was designed and synthesized. This compound was designed to 1) prevent the PS aggregation; 2) improve the PS solubility in non-polar solvent; and 3) maximize the PS binding to LDL phospholipid monolayer. Using this novel strategy, (tBu)4SiPcBOA was reconstituted into LDL (r-SiPcBOA-LDL) with a very high payload (500:1 molar ratio). In addition, (tBu)4SiPcBOA reconstituted acetylated LDL (r-SiPcBOA)-AcLDL with similar payload was also prepared. Since Ac-LDL cannot bind to LDLR, (r-SiPcBOA)-AcLDL can serve as the negative control to evaluate LDLR targeting specificity. For biological evaluation of these new agents, confocal microscopy and in vitro PDT protocols were performed using LDLR-overexpressing human hepatoblastoma G2 (HepG2) tumor model. These studies suggest that LDL serves as a delivery vehicle to bring large amount of the NIR/PDT agents selectively to tumor cells overexpressing LDLR.

  10. The photodynamic antibacterial effects of silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4.

    PubMed

    Dimaano, Matthew L; Rozario, Chantal; Nerandzic, Michelle M; Donskey, Curtis J; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D

    2015-04-08

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a) more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b) increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c) higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 on (a) methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25923); (b) community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) (ATCC 43300); and (c) hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) (PFGE type 300). Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2-5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens.

  11. The Photodynamic Antibacterial Effects of Silicon Phthalocyanine (Pc) 4

    PubMed Central

    Dimaano, Matthew L.; Rozario, Chantal; Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a) more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b) increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c) higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 on (a) methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25923); (b) community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) (ATCC 43300); and (c) hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) (PFGE type 300). Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2–5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens. PMID:25856680

  12. Spectroscopic studies of alpha tocopherol interaction with a model liposome and its influence on oxidation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krilov, Dubravka; Kosović, Marin; Serec, Kristina

    2014-08-14

    The influence of α-tocopherol on the surface conformation of liposome, as a model component of lipoproteins, and its role in oxidation process were studied. FT-IR spectra from suspensions of neat liposome, mixtures of liposome and α-tocopherol and liposome with incorporated α-tocopherol were analyzed. When α-tocopherol was incorporated into liposome, intensities of some bands were decreased or increased in comparison with the spectra of liposome and α-tocopherol mixture. These changes reflect the different localization of α-tocopherol in two types of liposome suspensions. The oxidation of liposome suspensions was initiated by addition of cupric ions. After prolonged oxidation, the differences in FT-IR spectra of oxidized samples were recorded. Differences were observed in comparison with spectra of native and oxidized liposomes were analyzed. The rate of oxidation was measured by EPR oximetry. Oxidation was generally very slow, but faster in liposome without α-tocopherol, indicating the protective role of α-tocopherol against liposome oxidation. On the other hand, liposome suspensions with EDTA in the buffer were not oxidized at all, while those with α-tocopherol and liposome mixture were only slightly oxidized. In this case the consumption of oxygen was the result of liposome oxidation supported by α-tocopherol. These results reflect the ambivalent role of α-tocopherol in liposome oxidation, similarly to findings in studies of lipoprotein oxidation.

  13. Modulation of the carotenoid bioaccessibility through liposomal encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chen; Zhang, Yating; Abbas, Shabbar; Feng, Biao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin

    2014-11-01

    The low bioaccessibility of carotenoids is currently a challenge to their incorporation in pharmaceutics, nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulating effects of liposome encapsulation on the bioaccessibility, and its relationship with carotenoid structure and incorporated concentration. The physical stability of liposomes, lipid digestibility, carotenoids release and bioaccessibility were investigated during incubation in a simulated gastrointestinal tract. Analysis on the liposome size and morphology showed that after digestion, the majority of particles maintained spherical shape with only an increase of size in liposomes loading β-carotene or lutein. However, a large proportion of heterogeneous particles were visible in the micelle phase of liposomes loading lycopene or canthaxanthin. It was also found that the release of lutein and β-carotene from liposomes was inhibited in a simulated gastric fluid, while was slow and sustained in a simulated intestinal fluid. By contrast, lycopene and canthaxanthin exhibited fast and considerable release in the gastrointestinal media. Both carotenoid bioaccessibility and micellization content decreased with the increase of incorporated concentration. Anyway, the bioaccessibility of carotenoids after encapsulated in liposomes was in the following order: lutein>β-carotene>lycopene>canthaxanthin. Bivariate correlation analysis revealed that carotenoid bioaccessibility depended strongly on the incorporating ability of carotenoids into a lipid bilayer, loading content, and nature of the system.

  14. Aptamer-based liposomes improve specific drug loading and release.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Kevin; Derbali, Rabeb Mouna; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Dubath, Céline; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Leblond, Jeanne

    2017-04-10

    Aptamer technology has shown much promise in cancer therapeutics for its targeting abilities. However, its potential to improve drug loading and release from nanocarriers has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, we employed drug-binding aptamers to actively load drugs into liposomes. We designed a series of DNA aptamer sequences specific to doxorubicin, displaying multiple binding sites and various binding affinities. The binding ability of aptamers was preserved when incorporated into cationic liposomes, binding up to 15equivalents of doxorubicin per aptamer, therefore drawing the drug into liposomes. Optimization of the charge and drug/aptamer ratios resulted in ≥80% encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin, ten times higher than classical passively-encapsulating liposomal formulations and similar to a pH-gradient active loading strategy. In addition, kinetic release profiles and cytotoxicity assay on HeLa cells demonstrated that the release and therapeutic efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin could be controlled by the aptamer's structure. Our results suggest that the aptamer exhibiting a specific intermediate affinity is the best suited to achieve high drug loading while maintaining efficient drug release and therapeutic activity. This strategy was successfully applied to tobramycin, a hydrophilic drug suffering from low encapsulation into liposomes, where its loading was improved six-fold using aptamers. Overall, we demonstrate that aptamers could act, in addition to their targeting properties, as multifunctional excipients for liposomal formulations.

  15. Development of liposomal salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Wu, Heng; Wong, Yuen-Fan; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Liu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a formulation of liposomal salbutamol sulfate (SBS) dry powder inhaler (DPI) for the treatment of asthma. Liposomes of high encapsulation efficiency (more than 80%) were prepared by a vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG) technique. SBS VPG liposomes were subjected to lyophilization using different kinds of cryoprotectants in various mass ratios. Coarse lactose (63-106 microm) in different mass ratios was used as a carrier. Magnesium stearate (0.5%) was added as a lubricator. The dry liposomal powders were then crushed by ball milling and sieved through a 400-mesh sieve to control the mean particle size at about 10 microm. The effects of different kinds of cryoprotectants and the amount of lactose carrier on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SBS were investigated. The results showed that the developed formulation of liposomal dry powder inhaler was obtained using lactose as a cryoprotectant with a mass ratio of lyophilized powder to carrier lactose at 1 : 5; 0.5% magnesium stearate was used as a lubricator. The value of FPF for SBS was 41.51+/-2.22% for this formulation. Sustained release of SBS from the VPG liposomes was found in the in vitro release study. The study results offer the promising possibility of localized pulmonary liposomal SBS delivery in the anhydrous state.

  16. Liposomal cytarabine for leukemic and lymphomatous meningitis: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Martin; Urban, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) is a sustained-release formulation of cytarabine developed for intrathecal administration, ensuring prolonged cytotoxic drug concentrations of cytarabine in cerebrospinal fluid. Although liposomal cytarabine is increasingly used for the treatment (and prophylaxis) of CNS involvement in patients with leukemia/lymphoma, many of the recently presented clinical trials on liposomal cytarabine were retrospective in nature or used this drug on a compassionate basis. So far, one randomized Phase III study has shown significantly better response rates in patients with lymphomatous meningitis who received liposomal cytarabine compared with free cytarabine. Considerable concerns about the safety of this drug arose from recent observations that liposomal cytarabine might contribute to neurologic side effects when given too closely to high-dose systemic chemotherapy known to penetrate the brain-blood barrier. Superior efficacy of liposomal cytarabine compared with standard intrathecal therapy should be confirmed in prospective clinical trials. Careful adherence with preventive measures might help physicians to minimize side effects possibly related to the administration of liposomal cytarabine.

  17. Droplet-Based Production of Liposomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackley, Donald E.; Forster, Anita

    2009-01-01

    A process for making monodisperse liposomes having lipid bilayer membranes involves fewer, simpler process steps than do related prior methods. First, a microfluidic, cross junction droplet generator is used to produce vesicles comprising aqueous solution droplets contained in single layer lipid membranes. The vesicles are collected in a lipid-solvent mix that is at most partially soluble in water and is less dense than is water. A layer of water is dispensed on top of the solvent. By virtue of the difference in densities, the water sinks to the bottom and the solvent floats to the top. The vesicles, which have almost the same density as that of water, become exchanged into the water instead of floating to the top. As there are excess lipids in the solvent solution, in order for the vesicles to remain in the water, the addition of a second lipid layer to each vesicle is energetically favored. The resulting lipid bilayers present the hydrophilic ends of the lipid molecules to both the inner and outer membrane surfaces. If lipids of a second kind are dissolved in the solvent in sufficient excess before use, then asymmetric liposomes may be formed.

  18. Liposomes formed in sintered glass pores.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Zygmunt H; Gubernator, Jerzy; Pentak, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    The method for preparation of vesicles, by evaporation of hydrophobic solvent from double emulsion (w/o/w) formed in the properly designed device is described. These method leads to multiple increase of encapsulation efficiency of aqueous solutions of drug in liposomes in comparison with other method. The w/o/w was passed through the glass sinter with the use of negative pressure to disrupt w/o/w drops into smaller ones. At low pressure and at heigher temperature, the hydrophobic solvent from oil phase evaporated off and the lipids that were diluted in oil phase had created bilayer. When the relatively small quantity of lipids was used, the final encapsulation efficiency (ee) was about 50% and the uppermost encapsulation volume (ev) was 160 mL/g of lipids. Similar ee was noted for a 4-amino-10-methylfolic acid (MTX), Patent Blue V (PB) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Liposomes loaded with drug at high concentration may be easily separated from suspension with the use of simple centrifugation.

  19. Mucosal Vaccine Development Based on Liposome Technology

    PubMed Central

    Norling, Karin; Bally, Marta; Höök, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Immune protection against infectious diseases is most effective if located at the portal of entry of the pathogen. Hence, there is an increasing demand for vaccine formulations that can induce strong protective immunity following oral, respiratory, or genital tract administration. At present, only few mucosal vaccines are found on the market, but recent technological advancements and a better understanding of the principles that govern priming of mucosal immune responses have contributed to a more optimistic view on the future of mucosal vaccines. Compared to live attenuated vaccines, subcomponent vaccines, most often protein-based, are considered safer, more stable, and less complicated to manufacture, but they require the addition of nontoxic and clinically safe adjuvants to be effective. In addition, another limiting factor is the large antigen dose that usually is required for mucosal vaccines. Therefore, the combination of mucosal adjuvants with the recent progress in nanoparticle technology provides an attractive solution to these problems. In particular, the liposome technology is ideal for combining protein antigen and adjuvant into an effective mucosal vaccine. Here, we describe and discuss recent progress in nanoparticle formulations using various types of liposomes that convey strong promise for the successful development of the next generation of mucosal vaccines. PMID:28127567

  20. Enzymatic action of phospholipase A₂ on liposomal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anders H; Mouritsen, Ole G; Arouri, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    The overexpression of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in tumors has opened new avenues for enzyme-triggered active unloading of liposomal antitumor drug carriers selectively at the target tumor. However, the effects of the liposome composition, drug encapsulation, and tumor microenvironment on the activity of sPLA2 are still not well understood. We carried out a physico-chemical study to characterize the sPLA2-assisted breakdown of liposomes using dye-release assays in the context of drug delivery and under physiologically relevant conditions. The influence of temperature, lipid concentration, enzyme concentration, and drug loading on the hydrolysis of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, Tm=42°C) liposomes with snake venom sPLA2 was investigated. The sensitivity of human sPLA2 to the liposome composition was checked using binary lipid mixtures of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) phospholipids with C14 and C16 acyl chains. Increasing temperature (36-41°C) was found to mainly shorten the enzyme lag-time, whereas the effect on lipid hydrolysis rate was modest. The enzyme lag-time was also found to be inversely dependent on the lipid-to-enzyme ratio. Drug encapsulation can alter the hydrolysis profile of the carrier liposomes. The activity of human sPLA2 was highly sensitive to the phospholipid acyl-chain length and negative surface charge density of the liposomes. We believe our work will prove useful for the optimization of sPLA2-susceptible liposomal formulations as well as will provide a solid ground for predicting the hydrolysis profile of the liposomes in vivo at the target site.

  1. Liposome/water lipophilicity: methods, information content, and pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    van Balen, Georgette Plemper; Martinet, Catherine a Marca; Caron, Giulia; Bouchard, Géraldine; Reist, Marianne; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Testa, Bernard

    2004-05-01

    This review discusses liposome/water lipophilicity in terms of the structure of liposomes, experimental methods, and information content. In a first part, the structural properties of the hydrophobic core and polar surface of liposomes are examined in the light of potential interactions with solute molecules. Particular emphasis is placed on the physicochemical properties of polar headgroups of lipids in liposomes. A second part is dedicated to three useful methods to study liposome/water partitioning, namely potentiometry, equilibrium dialysis, and (1)H-NMR relaxation rates. In each case, the principle and limitations of the method are discussed. The next part presents the structural information encoded in liposome/water lipophilicity, in other words the solutes' structural and physicochemical properties that determine their behavior and hence their partitioning in such systems. This presentation is based on a comparison between isotropic (i.e., solvent/water) and anisotropic (e.g., liposome/water) systems. An important factor to be considered is whether the anisotropic lipid phase is ionized or not. Three examples taken from the authors' laboratories are discussed to illustrate the factors or combinations thereof that govern liposome/water lipophilicity, namely (a) hydrophobic interactions alone, (b) hydrophobic and polar interactions, and (c) conformational effects plus hydrophobic and ionic interactions. The next part presents two studies taken from the field of QSAR to exemplify the use of liposome/water lipophilicity in structure-disposition and structure-activity relationships. In the conclusion, we summarize the interests and limitations of this technology and point to promising developments.

  2. Targeted drug delivery and enhanced intracellular release using functionalized liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Ashish

    The ability to target cancer cells using an appropriate drug delivery system can significantly reduce the associated side effects from cancer therapies and can help in improving the overall quality of life, post cancer survival. Integrin alpha5beta1 is expressed on several types of cancer cells, including colon cancer and plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, the ability to target the integrin alpha 5beta1 using an appropriate drug delivery nano-vector can significantly help in inhibiting tumor growth and reducing tumor metastasis. The work in this thesis focuses on designing and optimizing, functionalized stealth liposomes (liposomes covered with polyethylene glycol (PEG)) that specifically target the integrin alpha5beta1. The PEG provides a steric barrier allowing the liposomes to circulate in the blood for longer duration and the functionalizing moiety, PR_b peptide specifically recognizes and binds to integrin alpha5beta1 expressing cells. The work demonstrates that by optimizing the amount of PEG and PR_b on the liposomal interface, nano-vectors can be engineered that bind to CT26.WT colon cancer cells in a specific manner and internalize through alpha 5beta1-mediated endocytosis. To further improve the efficacy of the system, PR_b functionalized pH-sensitive stealth liposomes that exhibit triggered release under mild acidic conditions present in endocytotic vesicles were designed. The study showed that PR_b functionalized pH-sensitive stealth liposomes, undergo destabilization under mildly acidic conditions and incorporation of the PR_b peptide does not significantly affect the pH-sensitivity of the liposomes. PR_b functionalized pH-sensitive stealth liposomes bind to CT26.WT colon carcinoma cells that express integrin alpha5beta 1, undergo cellular internalization, and release their load intracellularly in a short period of time as compared to other formulations. PR_b-targeted pH-sensitive stealth liposomes encapsulating 5

  3. Liposomal Drug Products: A Quality by Design Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming

    Quality by Design (QbD) principles has been applied to the development of two liposomal formulations, containing a hydrophilic small molecule therapeutic (Tenofovir) and a protein therapeutic (superoxide dismutase). The goal of the research is to provide critical information on 1) how to reduce the preparation variability in liposome formulations, and 2) how to increase drug encapsulation inside liposomes to reduce manufacturing cost. Most notably, an improved liposome preparation method was developed which increased the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic molecules. In particular, this method allows for very high encapsulation efficiency. For example, encapsulation efficiencies of up to 50% have been achieved, whereas previously only 20% or less have been reported. Another significant outcome from this research is a first principle mathematical model to predict the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic drugs in unilamellar liposomes. This mathematical model will be useful in: formulation development to rapidly achieve optimized formulations; comparison of drug encapsulation efficiencies of liposomes prepared using different methods; and assisting in the development of suitable process analytical technologies to achieve real-time monitoring and control of drug encapsulation during manufacturing. A novel two-stage reverse dialysis in vitro release testing method has also been developed for passively targeted liposomes, which uses the first stage to mimic the circulation of liposomes in the body and the second stage to imitate the drug release process at the target. The developed in vitro release testing method can be used to distinguish formulations with varied compositions for quality control testing purposes. This developed method may pave the way to the development of more biorelevant quality control testing methods for liposomal drug products in the future. The QbD case studies performed in this research are examples of how this approach can be used to

  4. Studies on precellular evolution - The encapsulation of polyribonucleotides by liposomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, I.; Ibanez, M.; Santiago, J. C.; Wong, C.; Lazcano, A.

    1986-01-01

    Liposomes have been suggested as possible models of precellular systems formed in the early Archean earth from lipids of nonenzymatic origin. Since it is generally accepted that RNA molecules preceded double-stranded DNA molecules as genetic material, the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides within liposomes (made from dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine) was studied. Quantitative determinations show that approximately 50 percent of the available lipids form liposomes, and that up to 5 percent of the polyribonucleotides can be entrapped by them. Also studied was the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides in the presence of urea and cyanamide and of Zn(2+) and Pb(2+).

  5. Liposome production by microfluidics: potential and limiting factors

    PubMed Central

    Carugo, Dario; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Owen, Joshua; Stride, Eleanor; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of microfluidic techniques for the production of nanoscale lipid-based vesicular systems. In particular we focus on the key issues associated with the microfluidic production of liposomes. These include, but are not limited to, the role of lipid formulation, lipid concentration, residual amount of solvent, production method (including microchannel architecture), and drug loading in determining liposome characteristics. Furthermore, we propose microfluidic architectures for the mass production of liposomes with a view to potential industrial translation of this technology. PMID:27194474

  6. Enhanced liposome-mediated activity of piperacillin against staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Nacucchio, M C; Bellora, M J; Sordelli, D O; D'Aquino, M

    1985-01-01

    This study showed that encapsulation of the beta-lactam antibiotic piperacillin (PIP) by liposomes prepared with phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (1:1) protected the drug from hydrolysis by staphylococcal beta-lactamase. This was demonstrated by growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of the liposomal preparation containing PIP at a 50% MIC. Growth inhibition was also seen when exogenous beta-lactamase was added. Furthermore, adsorption of PIP onto the surface of liposomes containing buffer conferred a significant degree of protection against enzymatic hydrolysis of the drug, thus enhancing its antistaphylococcal activity. PMID:3872624

  7. pH-Sensitive Liposomes: Possible Clinical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatvin, M. B.; Kreutz, W.; Horwitz, B. A.; Shinitzky, M.

    1980-12-01

    When pH-sensitive molecules are incorporated into liposomes, drugs can be specifically released from these vesicles by a change of pH in the ambient serum. Liposomes containing the pH-sensitive lipid palmitoyl homocysteine (PHC) were constructed so that the greatest pH differential (6.0 to 7.4) of drug release was obtained near physiological temperature. Such liposomes could be useful clinically if they enable drugs to be targeted to areas of the body in which pH is less than physiological, such as primary tumors and metastases or sites of inflammation and infection.

  8. Second generation liposomal cancer therapeutics: transition from laboratory to clinic.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kacoli; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2013-05-01

    Recent innovations and developments in nanotechnology have revolutionized cancer therapeutics. Engineered nanomaterials are the current workhorses in the emerging field of cancer nano-therapeutics. Lipid vesicles bearing anti-tumor drugs have turned out to be a clinically feasible and promising nano-therapeutic approach to treat cancer. Efficient entrapment of therapeutics, biocompatibility, biodegradability, low systemic toxicity, low immunogenicity and ability to bypass multidrug resistance mechanisms has made liposomes a versatile drug/gene delivery system in cancer chemotherapy. The present review attempts to explore the recent key advances in liposomal research and the vast arsenal of liposomal formulations currently being utilized in treatment and diagnosis of cancer.

  9. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of octyl methoxycinnamate liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Varjão Mota, Aline de Carvalho; Faria de Freitas, Zaida Maria; Júnior, Eduardo Ricci; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela Maria; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; Ribeiro, Vanessa Lira; Silva, Ronald Santos; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation causes damage to human skin, and photoprotection is the main way to prevent these harmful effects. The development of sunscreen formulations containing nanosystems is of great interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of the many potential benefits. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) liposomal nanosystem (liposome/OMC) to obtain a sunscreen formulation with improved safety and efficacy by retaining OMC for longer on the stratum corneum. Methods The liposome/OMC nanostructure obtained was tested for enzymatic hydrolysis with lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and biodistribution with liposomes labeled with technetium-99m. The liposome/OMC formulation was then incorporated in a gel formulation and tested for ocular irritation using the hen’s egg test-chorio-allantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay, in vitro and in vivo sun protection factor, in vitro release profile, skin biometrics, and in vivo tape stripping. Results The liposome/OMC nanosystem was not hydrolyzed from R. miehei by lipase. In the biodistribution assay, the liposome/OMC formulation labeled with technetium-99m had mainly deposited in the skin, while for OMC the main organ was the liver, showing that the liposome had higher affinity for the skin than OMC. The liposome/OMC formulation was classified as nonirritating in the HET-CAM test, indicating good histocompatibility. The formulation containing liposome/OMC had a higher in vivo solar photoprotection factor, but did not show increased water resistance. Inclusion in liposomes was able to slow down the release of OMC from the formulation, with a lower steady-state flux (3.9 ± 0.33 μg/cm2/hour) compared with the conventional formulation (6.3 ± 1.21 μg/cm2/hour). The stripping method showed increased uptake of OMC in the stratum corneum, giving an amount of 22.64 ± 7.55 μg/cm2 of OMC, which was higher than the amount found for the conventional formulation (14.57 ± 2.30 μg/cm2

  10. [Spectrum characterization and fine structure of copper phthalocyanine-doped TiO2 microcavities].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-lin; Zhang, Xin-yi; Zhong, Ju-hua; Zhu, Yi-hua; He, Bo; Wei, Shi-qiang

    2007-10-01

    Copper phthalocyanine-doped TiO2 microcavities were fabricated by chemistry method. Their spectrum characterization was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, and their fine structure was analyzed by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results show that there is interaction of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and TiO2 microcavities after TiO2 microcavities was doped with CuPc. For example, there is absorption at 900.76 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra, and the "red shift" of both OH vibration at 3392.75 cm(-1) and CH vibration at 2848.83 cm(-1). There exist definite peak shifts and intensity changes in infrared absorption in the C-C or C-N vibration in the planar phthalocyanine ring, the winding vibration of C-H inside and C-N outside plane of benzene ring. In Raman spectrum, there are 403.4, 592.1 and 679.1 cm(-1) characterized peaks of TiO2 in CuPc-doped TiO2 microcavities, but their wave-numbers show shifts to anatase TiO2. The vibration peaks at 1586.8 and 1525.6 cm(-1) show that there exists the composite material of CuPc and TiO2. These changes are related to the plane tropism of the molecule structure of copper phthalocyanine. XAFS showed tetrahedron TiO4 structure of Ti in TiO2 microcavities doped with copper phthalocyanine, and the changes of inner "medial distances" and the surface structure of TiO2 microcavities.

  11. Near Infrared Phosphorescent, Non-oxidizable Palladium and Platinum Perfluoro-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Łapok, Łukasz; Obłoza, Magdalena; Gorski, Alexandr; Knyukshto, Valeri; Raichyonok, Tamara; Waluk, Jacek; Nowakowska, Maria

    2016-04-18

    New Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes with a highly electron-deficient ligand (H2 PcF64 ) were conveniently prepared in a three-step synthesis. This is the first time that the phosphorescence of phthalocyanines with a H2 PcF64 framework has been measured. Based on these measurements, the triplet-state energies (ET ) were directly determined. Transient absorption experiments revealed broad T1 →Tn absorption spanning from ca. 350 to ca. 1000 nm and allowed determination of the triplet-state lifetimes. Removal of the Pd or Pt from the perfluoro-phthalocyanine resulted in a significant increase of the triplet lifetime for H2 PcF64 . The very efficient intersystem crossing observed for both PdPcF64 and PtPcF64 leads to residual fluorescence and suppresses the fluorescence lifetimes to less than 50 ps. The absence of Pd and Pt in the perfluoro-phthalocyanine ligand, viz. H2 PcF64 , led to a recovery of fluorescence. Cyclic voltamperometry studies pointed to complete resistance of PdPcF64 and PtPcF64 to oxidation and very strong electron affinity, which rendered these materials very good electron acceptors (n-type materials). The presence of d-orbital metals such as Pd(II) and Pt(II) in the phthalocyanine ring stabilizes their reduced forms, as indicated by the spectroelectrochemical experiments. PdPcF64 and PtPcF64 easily sensitize singlet oxygen production with very high quantum yields. Both phthalocyanines presented resistance to photodegradation in the solid state under aerobic conditions and under intense irradiation.

  12. Meta-analysis of inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability of liposomal and non-liposomal anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Ryan F.; Sidone, Brian J.; Caron, Whitney P.; Walsh, Mark D.; Zamboni, Beth A.; Ramanathan, Ramesh K.; Zamboni, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-patient pharmacokinetic (PK) variability of liposomal and small molecule (SM) anticancer agents. Methods Inter-patient PK variability of 9 liposomal and SM formulations of the same drug were evaluated. PK variability was measured as coefficient of variance (CV%) of area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) and the fold-difference between AUCmax and AUCmin (AUC range). Results CV% of AUC and AUC ranges were 2.7-fold (P<0.001) and 16.7-fold (P=0.13) greater, respectively, for liposomal compared with SM drugs. There was an inverse linear relationship between the clearance (CL) of liposomal agents and PK variability with a lower CL associated with greater PK variability (R2 = 0.39). PK variability of liposomal agents was greater when evaluated from 0–336 h compared with 0–24 h. Conclusion PK variability of liposomes is significantly greater than SM. The factors associated with the PK variability of liposomal agents needs to be evaluated. PMID:23891988

  13. Tetrabutylammonium Salts of Aluminum(III) and Gallium(III) Phthalocyanine Radical Anions Bonded with Fluoren-9-olato(-) Anions and Indium(III) Phthalocyanine Bromide Radical Anions.

    PubMed

    Konarev, Dmitri V; Khasanov, Salavat S; Ishikawa, Manabu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Otsuka, Akihiro; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N

    2017-02-15

    Reduction of aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) phthalocyanine chlorides by sodium fluorenone ketyl in the presence of tetrabutylammonium cations yielded crystalline salts of the type (Bu4 N(+) )2 [M(III) (HFl-O(-) )(Pc(.3-) )](.-) (Br(-) )⋅1.5 C6 H4 Cl2 [M=Al (1), Ga (2); HFl-O(-) =fluoren-9-olato(-) anion; Pc=phthalocyanine] and (Bu4 N(+) ) [In(III) Br(Pc(.3-) )](.-) ⋅0.875 C6 H4 Cl2 ⋅0.125 C6 H14 (3). The salts were found to contain Pc(.3-) radical anions with negatively charged phthalocyanine macrocycles, as evidenced by the presence of intense bands of Pc(.3-) in the near-IR region and a noticeable blueshift in both the Q and Soret bands of phthalocyanine. The metal(III) atoms coordinate HFl-O(-) anions in 1 and 2 with short Al-O and Ga-O bond lengths of 1.749(2) and 1.836(6) Å, respectively. The C-O bonds [1.402(3) and 1.391(11) Å in 1 and 2, respectively] in the HFl-O(-) anions are longer than the same bond in the fluorenone ketyl (1.27-1.31 Å). Salts 1-3 show effective magnetic moments of 1.72, 1.66, and 1.79 μB at 300 K, respectively, owing to the presence of unpaired S=1/2 spins on Pc(.3-) . These spins are coupled antiferromagnetically with Weiss temperatures of -22, -14, and -30 K for 1-3, respectively. Coupling can occur in the corrugated two-dimensional phthalocyanine layers of 1 and 2 with an exchange interaction of J/kB =-0.9 and -1.1 K, respectively, and in the π-stacking {[In(III) Br(Pc(.3-) )](.-) }2 dimers of 3 with an exchange interaction of J/kB =-10.8 K. The salts show intense electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals attributed to Pc(.3-) . It was found that increasing the size of the central metal atom strongly broadened these EPR signals.

  14. Characterization of conjugates of NaYF4:Yb,Er,Gd upconversion nanoparticle with aluminium phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Zane; Uddin, Imran; Britton, Jonathan; Nyokong, Tebello

    2017-02-01

    NaYF4:Er/Yb/Gd upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP) capped with amino groups were covalently attached to chloro aluminium tetrasulphonated phthalocyanine (ClAlTSPc) and chloro aluminium tetracarboxy phthalocyanine (ClAlTCPc). The conjugates were characterized using different techniques such as infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). There was a decrease in the intensity of fluorescence emission spectra of the UCNPs at 658 nm in the presence of the phthalocyanines. This decrease indicates an energy transfer between the donor UCNP and conjugated accepting phthalocyanine (Pc), due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). FRET efficiencies of 18% and 21% for ClAlTSPc and ClAlTCPc, respectively, were obtained. Oxygen generation by ClAlTSPc following FRET was proved.

  15. Intermolecular interaction of nickel (ii) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt with bovine serum albumin: A multi-technique study.

    PubMed

    Dezhampanah, Hamid; Firouzi, Roghaye; Hasani, Leila

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of nickel (II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by combination of fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and circular dichorism (CD) spectroscopies as well as through molecular docking. Fluorescence quenching and absorption spectra were investigated as a mean for estimating the binding parameters. Analysis of fluorescence quenching data at different temperatures was performed in order to specify the thermodynamics parameters for interactions of phthalocyanine complex with BSA. According to experimental data it was suggested that phthalocyanine had a significant binding affinity to BSA and the process was entropy driven. Based on the results of molecular docking it was indicated that the main active binding site for this phthalocyanine complex is site I in subdomain IIA of BSA. The results provide useful information for understanding the binding mechanism of anticancer drug-albumin and gives insight into the biological activity and metabolism of the drug in blood.

  16. Regioisomer-Free C 4h β-Tetrakis(tert-butyl)metallo-phthalocyanines: Regioselective Synthesis and Spectral Investigations.

    PubMed

    Iida, Norihito; Tanaka, Kenta; Tokunaga, Etsuko; Takahashi, Hiromi; Shibata, Norio

    2015-04-01

    Metal β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)phthalocyanines are the most commonly used phthalocyanines due to their high solubility, stability, and accessibility. They are commonly used as a mixture of four regioisomers, which arise due to the tert-butyl substituent on the β-position, and to the best of our knowledge, their regioselective synthesis has yet to be reported. Herein, the C 4h -selective synthesis of β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)metallophthalocyanines is disclosed. Using tetramerization of α-trialkylsilyl phthalonitriles with metal salts following acid-mediated desilylation, the desired metallophthalocyanines were obtained in good yields. Upon investigation of regioisomer-free zinc β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)phthalocyanine using spectroscopy, the C 4h single isomer described here was found to be distinct in the solid state to zinc β-tetrakis(tert-butyl)phthalocyanine obtained by a conventional method.

  17. Synthesis of asymmetric zinc(II) phthalocyanines with two different functional groups & spectroscopic properties and photodynamic activity for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Göksel, Meltem

    2016-09-15

    Zinc(II) phthalocyanine containing [2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]ethoxy and iodine groups (A and B), as well as their deprotected mono-amino and tri-iodine zinc(II) phthalocyanine (2) were obtained. This structure surrounds by substituents with functional groups. From this perspective it can be used a starting material for many reactions and applications, such as sonogashira coupling, carbodiimide coupling. An example of a first diversification reaction of this compound was obtained with conjugation of a biotin. Asymmetrically biotin conjugated and heavy atom bearing zinc(II) phthalocyanine (3) were synthesized characterized for the first time and photophysical, photochemical and photobiological properties of these phthalocyanines were compared in this study.

  18. Effects of the liposomal formulation on the behavior and physical characteristics of acoustic liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sax, Nicolas; Horie, Sachiko; Li, Li; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are nano/microbubbles that contain air or a highmolecular-weight, low-solubility gas encapsulated in a lipid or albumin shell. Previous studies have developed acoustic liposomes (ALs), liposomes that encapsulate perfluoropropane (C3F8) gas. These ALs can be used as just UCAs, for early diagnostic or observation of angiogenesis. They can also be used for drug delivery, through their ultrasound-induced destruction leading to permeabilization of the neighboring cells. However, the echogenicity of ALs decreases within minutes, raising the need for more stable preparations. Here we show that the in vitro stability of ALs is affected by fluidity changes in the bilayer, the presence of anionic phospholipids and the density of the PEG coating layer. These results allowed the preparation of "optimized" ALs displaying a 50% enhanced detection time in vitro. We anticipate their stability to be enhanced in a similar manner, in vivo. Further research aims at further improvement of the stability of gas encapsulation by surface modification and coating of the liposomes, and in vivo characterization of the optimized ALs.

  19. Novel amphiphilic probes for [18F]-radiolabeling preformed liposomes and determination of liposomal trafficking by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Urakami, Takeo; Akai, Shuji; Katayama, Yurie; Harada, Norihiro; Tsukada, Hideo; Oku, Naoto

    2007-12-27

    Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive real-time functional imaging system and is expected to be useful for the development of new drug candidates in clinical trials. For its application with preformulated liposomes, we devised an optimized [18F]-compound and developed a direct liposome modification method that we termed the "solid-phase transition method". We were successful in using 1-[18F]fluoro-3,6-dioxatetracosane ([18F]7a) for in vivo trafficking of liposomes. This method might be a useful tool in preclinical and clinical studies of lipidic particle-related drugs.

  20. The modulation of the permeability and the cellular uptake of liposome by stable anchoring of lipid-conjugated pluronic on liposome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Chul; Chungt, Yong-Il; Kim, Young Ha; Tae, Giyoong

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the permeability of liposome is important to modulate the release behavior of drug from the liposome. Pluronic F127 (PF127) is a biocompatible tri-block copolymer, which can interact with lipid bilayer of liposomes and make leakages that allow the release of hydrophilic substance from liposome interior. However, the interaction between unmodified PF127 and lipid bilayer is not very strong and the incorporated PF127 is easily desorbed from the liposomes in an infinite reservoir condition. In this paper, we conjugated lipid molecule (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [DSPE]) at the both ends of PF127 to increase the interaction between polymer and liposome. This lipid-conjugated PF127 was incorporated into the liposomes and it remained stably without desorption from liposomes in an infinite reservoir condition. The stably bound PF127 increased the release rate of hydrophilic drug from liposomes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the lipid-conjugated PF127 changed the surface property of liposomes and inhibited its cellular uptake when the incorporated amount was above 2.5 wt%. In conclusion, the lipid-conjugated PF127 could function as a stable anchor on the lipid bilayer of liposomes to control the permeability as well as provide the hydrophilic surface of liposomes in an open system like an in vivo situation.

  1. Features of the spectral dependences of transmittance of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted lutetium phthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2011-11-15

    Vibronic properties of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted phthalocyanine lutetium diphthalocyanine molecules are studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that substitution of several carbon atoms in initial phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands with {sup 13}C isotope atoms causes a spectral shift in the main absorption lines attributed to benzene, isoindol, and peripheral C-H groups. A comparison of spectral characteristics showed that the shift can vary from 3 to 1 cm{sup -1}.

  2. Kinetic of the Intracellular Incorporation of New Phthalocyanines Synthesized in mexico and Its Potential as Photosensibilizers in the Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon-Aguilar, Hector; Ramon-Gallegos, Eva; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco Jesus; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Sosa-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Garcia Miranda, Maribel

    2008-08-11

    The search of more specific and efficient photosensitizer in low oxygen tensions is a need in the Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Phthalocyanines have demonstrated to have the above mentioned activity. The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency of PDT using two phthalocyanines synthesized in Mexico to eliminate melanoma cells. B16F0 melanoma mouse cells were exposed to concentrations from 8.95x10{sup -5} to 0.733 m/mL of F16VoPc and F16NbPcC13 during 24h, afterwards cellular mortality was measured. One kinetic was realized to determine the intracellular incorporation of phthalocyanines by confocal microscopy at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h of exposition. The PDT was applied exposing the cells to innocuous concentration (that does not provoke cellular death with out irradiation) and irradiating with an argon laser at 100 J/cm{sup 2}. For each phthalocyanine a control group was used; one group was not treated neither with light nor with phthalocyanine, the other group it was only irradiated. 24 h after treatment the citotoxicity was measured by Alamar blue assay. The innocuous concentration found for the phthalocyanines F16VoPc and F16NbPcC13 were 4.58x10-2 and 2.29xl0{sup -2} mg/mL, respectively. The time of maximum intracellular accumulation for both phthalocyanines was 24 h. Only the F16VoPc had anticancerous activity and induced 31.7% of cellular death. The PDT might offer a potential alternative to the treatment of this cancer when is used the phthalocyanine F16VoPc.

  3. Photophysical and photochemical studies of a novel amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine and its interaction with calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Linxin; Gui, Li; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Quanquan; Zhou, Lin; Wei, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    β-tetra (aminophenoxy) sulfonic substituted zinc phthalocyanines (SNZnPc), a novel amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine (Pc), was synthesized. The photophysical, photochemical, and photobiology properties were studied. Results indicated that the synthesized SNZnPc has good amphiphilic property and high reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation ability. Furthermore, SNZnPc has strong affinity to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation ways and can effectively cleavage CT-DNA after irradiation by light with appropriate wavelength.

  4. Electronic structure differences between H(2)-, Fe-, Co-, and Cu-phthalocyanine highly oriented thin films observed using NEXAFS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Willey, T M; Bagge-Hansen, M; Lee, J R I; Call, R; Landt, L; van Buuren, T; Colesniuc, C; Monton, C; Valmianski, I; Schuller, Ivan K

    2013-07-21

    Phthalocyanines, a class of macrocyclic, square planar molecules, are extensively studied as semiconductor materials for chemical sensors, dye-sensitized solar cells, and other applications. In this study, we use angular dependent near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy as a quantitative probe of the orientation and electronic structure of H2-, Fe-, Co-, and Cu-phthalocyanine molecular thin films. NEXAFS measurements at both the carbon and nitrogen K-edges reveal that phthalocyanine films deposited on sapphire have upright molecular orientations, while films up to 50 nm thick deposited on gold substrates contain prostrate molecules. Although great similarity is observed in the carbon and nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra recorded for the films composed of prostrate molecules, the H2-phthalocyanine exhibits the cleanest angular dependence due to its purely out-of-plane π* resonances at the absorption onset. In contrast, organometallic-phthalocyanine nitrogen K-edges have a small in-plane resonance superimposed on this π* region that is due to a transition into molecular orbitals interacting with the 3dx(2)-y(2) empty state. NEXAFS spectra recorded at the metal L-edges for the prostrate films reveal dramatic variations in the angular dependence of specific resonances for the Cu-phthalocyanines compared with the Fe-, and Co-phthalocyanines. The Cu L3,2 edge exhibits a strong in-plane resonance, attributed to its b1g empty state with dx(2)-y(2) character at the Cu center. Conversely, the Fe- and Co- phthalocyanine L3,2 edges have strong out-of-plane resonances; these are attributed to transitions into not only b1g (dz(2)) but also eg states with dxz and dyz character at the metal center.

  5. Changes in the adsorbate dipole layer with changing d-filling of the metal (II) (Co, Ni, Cu) phthalocyanines on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Dowben, Peter A

    2009-02-04

    In combined photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy studies, we observe changes in the metal phthalocyanine molecular orbital offsets with respect to the conducting gold substrate Fermi level, with the changing d-electron filling of the metal (II) (Co, Ni, Cu) phthalocyanines. The implication is that the interfacial dipole layer depends upon the choice of metal (Co, Ni, Cu) centers within the metal (II) phthalocyanines adsorbed on Au(111).

  6. Hydration of polyethylene glycol-grafted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, O; Barenholz, Y; Katzhendler, J; Priev, A

    1998-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of polyethylene glycol of 2000 molecular weight (PEG2000) attached to a dialkylphosphatidic acid (dihexadecylphosphatidyl (DHP)-PEG2000) on the hydration and thermodynamic stability of lipid assemblies. Differential scanning calorimetry, densitometry, and ultrasound velocity and absorption measurements were used for thermodynamic and hydrational characterization. Using a differential scanning calorimetry technique we showed that each molecule of PEG2000 binds 136 +/- 4 molecules of water. For PEG2000 covalently attached to the lipid molecules organized in micelles, the water binding increases to 210 +/- 6 water molecules. This demonstrates that the two different structural configurations of the PEG2000, a random coil in the case of the free PEG and a brush in the case of DHP-PEG2000 micelles, differ in their hydration level. Ultrasound absorption changes in liposomes reflect mainly the heterophase fluctuations and packing defects in the lipid bilayer. The PEG-induced excess ultrasound absorption of the lipid bilayer at 7.7 MHz for PEG-lipid concentrations over 5 mol % indicates the increase in the relaxation time of the headgroup rotation due to PEG-PEG interactions. The adiabatic compressibility (calculated from ultrasound velocity and density) of the lipid bilayer of the liposome increases monotonically with PEG-lipid concentration up to approximately 7 mol %, reflecting release of water from the lipid headgroup region. Elimination of this water, induced by grafted PEG, leads to a decrease in bilayer defects and enhanced lateral packing of the phospholipid acyl chains. We assume that the dehydration of the lipid headgroup region in conjunction with the increase of the hydration of the outer layer by grafting PEG in brush configuration are responsible for increasing thermodynamic stability of the liposomes at 5-7 mol % of PEG-lipid. At higher PEG-lipid concentrations, compressibility and partial volume of the lipid phase

  7. Hydration of polyethylene glycol-grafted liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Tirosh, O; Barenholz, Y; Katzhendler, J; Priev, A

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of polyethylene glycol of 2000 molecular weight (PEG2000) attached to a dialkylphosphatidic acid (dihexadecylphosphatidyl (DHP)-PEG2000) on the hydration and thermodynamic stability of lipid assemblies. Differential scanning calorimetry, densitometry, and ultrasound velocity and absorption measurements were used for thermodynamic and hydrational characterization. Using a differential scanning calorimetry technique we showed that each molecule of PEG2000 binds 136 +/- 4 molecules of water. For PEG2000 covalently attached to the lipid molecules organized in micelles, the water binding increases to 210 +/- 6 water molecules. This demonstrates that the two different structural configurations of the PEG2000, a random coil in the case of the free PEG and a brush in the case of DHP-PEG2000 micelles, differ in their hydration level. Ultrasound absorption changes in liposomes reflect mainly the heterophase fluctuations and packing defects in the lipid bilayer. The PEG-induced excess ultrasound absorption of the lipid bilayer at 7.7 MHz for PEG-lipid concentrations over 5 mol % indicates the increase in the relaxation time of the headgroup rotation due to PEG-PEG interactions. The adiabatic compressibility (calculated from ultrasound velocity and density) of the lipid bilayer of the liposome increases monotonically with PEG-lipid concentration up to approximately 7 mol %, reflecting release of water from the lipid headgroup region. Elimination of this water, induced by grafted PEG, leads to a decrease in bilayer defects and enhanced lateral packing of the phospholipid acyl chains. We assume that the dehydration of the lipid headgroup region in conjunction with the increase of the hydration of the outer layer by grafting PEG in brush configuration are responsible for increasing thermodynamic stability of the liposomes at 5-7 mol % of PEG-lipid. At higher PEG-lipid concentrations, compressibility and partial volume of the lipid phase

  8. Sustained distribution of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in epithelial lining fluids on alveolar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Keita; Togami, Kohei; Yamamoto, Eri; Wang, Shujun; Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Itagaki, Shirou; Chono, Sumio

    2016-10-01

    The distribution characteristics of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were examined in rats, and the ensuing mechanisms were investigated in the in vitro uptake and protein adsorption experiments. Nonmodified or PEGylated liposomes (particle size 100 nm) were aerosolized into rat lungs. PEGylated liposomes were distributed more sustainably in ELFs than nonmodified liposomes. Furthermore, the uptake of PEGylated liposomes by alveolar macrophages (AMs) was less than that of nonmodified liposomes. In further in vitro uptake experiments, nonmodified and PEGylated liposomes were opsonized with rat ELF components and then added to NR8383 cells as cultured rat AMs. The uptake of opsonized PEGylated liposomes by NR8383 cells was lower than that of opsonized nonmodified liposomes. Moreover, the protein absorption levels in opsonized PEGylated liposomes were lower than those in opsonized nonmodified liposomes. These findings suggest that sustained distributions of aerosolized PEGylated liposomes in ELFs reflect evasion of liposomal opsonization with surfactant proteins and consequent reductions in uptake by AMs. These data indicate the potential of PEGylated liposomes as aerosol-based drug delivery system that target ELF for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  9. Liposomes with polyribonucleotides as model of precellular systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, Isabel; Ibanez, Miguel; Santiago, Carlos; Lazcano, Antonio; Arguello, Carlos

    1987-01-01

    Three types of liposomes were prepared under anoxic conditions: from dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC), from egg yolk phosphatidyl choline (PC), and from PC with cholesterol (PC:Chol). These were used for encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C). It was found that 36 to 70 percent of the available liposome lipids and 2 to 5 percent of the polyribonucleotides could be entrapped. An enhanced encapsulation of poly(U) and poly(C) by all three types of liposomes was observed in the presence of 0.001 to 0.01 M Zn(2+), with the effect being greatest with DPPC. The presence of 1.0 M urea inhibited the formation of PC liposomes.

  10. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  11. Voyage of Theranostic Liposomes for Imaging and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sachin, Mitkare; Sachin, Dolare; Dinesh, Sakarkar

    2017-01-31

    Drug delivery is a critical issue in any disease treatment. Now-a-days much more effort is being focused on integrating imaging agent and therapeutic drugs in a single formulation to achieve a simultaneous disease diagnosis and targeted drug delivery. This new terminology 'nanotheranostics' have been used to describe these nanoparticle formulations. In past few years, number of nanocarriers (liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers, micelles, antibodies etc.) has been studied for targeted delivery of chemical or biological molecules. Among these nanocarriers, liposome is largely studied nanoscale delivery systems and offers more advantages than others due to their unique structural properties. This review will highlight theranostic concept as well as some examples of theranostic liposomal formulations in clinical or preclinical stages. We briefly reviewed approaches to formulate theranostic liposomal formulations.

  12. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Clement, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-12-24

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  13. Real-time observation of liposome bursting induced by acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Horii, Keitaro; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Izumi

    2014-10-06

    We show the bursting process of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) liposomes in response to the addition of acetonitrile, a small toxic molecule widely used in the fields of chemistry and industry. The percentage of destroyed liposomes is reduced upon decreasing the acetonitrile fraction in the aqueous solution and vesicle bursting is not observed at volume ratios of 4:6 and below. This indicates that a high fraction of acetonitrile causes the bursting of liposomes, and it is proposed that this occurs through insertion of the molecules into outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer. The elapsed time between initial addition of acetonitrile and liposome bursting at each vesicle is also measured and demonstrated to be dependent on the volume fraction of acetonitrile and the vesicle size.

  14. Liposome surface charge influence on skin penetration behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gillet, A; Compère, P; Lecomte, F; Hubert, P; Ducat, E; Evrard, B; Piel, G

    2011-06-15

    Vesicular systems have shown their ability to increase dermal and transdermal drug delivery. Their mechanism of drug transport into and through the skin has been investigated but remains a much debated question. Several researchers have outlined that drug penetration can be influenced by modifying the surface charge of liposomes. In the present work we study the influence of particle surface charge on skin penetration. The final purpose is the development of a carrier system which is able to enhance the skin delivery of two model drugs, betamethasone and betamethasone dipropionate. Liposomes were characterised by their size, morphology, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Ex vivo diffusion studies using Franz diffusion cells were performed. Confocal microscopy was performed to visualise the penetration of fluorescently labelled liposomes into the skin. This study showed the potential of negatively charged liposomes to enhance the skin penetration of betamethasone and betamethasone dipropionate.

  15. Light activated liposomes: Functionality and prospects in ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Tatu; Nurmi, Riikka; Kontturi, Leena; Viitala, Lauri; Yliperttula, Marjo; Murtomäki, Lasse; Urtti, Arto

    2016-12-28

    Ocular drug delivery, especially to the retina and choroid, is a major challenge in drug development. Liposome technology may be useful in ophthalmology in enabling new routes of delivery, prolongation of drug action and intracellular drug delivery, but drug release from the liposomes should be controlled. For that purpose, light activation may be an approach to release drug at specified time and site in the eye. Technical advances have been made in the field of light activated drug release, particularly indocyanine green loaded liposomes are a promising approach with safe materials and effective light triggered release of small and large molecules. This review discusses the liposomal drug delivery with light activated systems in the context of ophthalmic drug delivery challenges.

  16. Effect of Surface Properties on Liposomal siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yuqiong; Tian, Jie; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are one of the most widely investigated carriers for siRNA delivery. The surface properties of liposomal carriers, including the surface charge, PEGylation, and ligand modification can significantly affect the gene silencing efficiency. Three barriers of systemic siRNA delivery (long blood circulation, efficient tumor penetration and efficient cellular uptake/endosomal escape) are analyzed on liposomal carriers with different surface charges, PEGylations and ligand modifications. Cationic formulations dominate siRNA delivery and neutral formulations also have good performance while anionic formulations are generally not proper for siRNA delivery. The PEG dilemma (prolonged blood circulation vs. reduced cellular uptake/endosomal escape) and the side effect of repeated PEGylated formulation (accelerated blood clearance) were discussed. Effects of ligand modification on cationic and neutral formulations were analyzed. Finally, we summarized the achievements in liposomal siRNA delivery, outlined existing problems and provided some future perspectives. PMID:26695117

  17. Liposomal amphotericin B in neonates with invasive candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Al Arishi, H; Frayha, H H; Kalloghlian, A; Al Alaiyan, S

    1998-01-01

    Liposomal amphotericin B (L-Amp B), a novel formulation of amphotericin B, is effective for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in children and adults and is associated with less toxicity than the conventional preparation. Data on the use of Liposomal amphotericin B in neonates is scarce. We describe the clinical course of two premature infants who were treated with Liposomal amphotericin B (one infant had candidemia, and the other had candidemia and meningitis), and provide a summary of previously published experience on this topic. Liposomal amphotericin B may be an option for therapy of invasive candidiasis in neonates who are at high risk of nephrotoxicity and other amphotericin-related reactions, but clinical trials are necessary to document its safety and efficacy in this age group.

  18. Remote loading of preencapsulated drugs into stealth liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sur, Surojit; Fries, Anja C; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Zhou, Shibin; Vogelstein, Bert

    2014-02-11

    Loading drugs into carriers such as liposomes can increase the therapeutic ratio by reducing drug concentrations in normal tissues and raising their concentrations in tumors. Although this strategy has proven advantageous in certain circumstances, many drugs are highly hydrophobic and nonionizable and cannot be loaded into liposomes through conventional means. We hypothesized that such drugs could be actively loaded into liposomes by encapsulating them into specially designed cyclodextrins. To test this hypothesis, two hydrophobic drugs that had failed phase II clinical trials because of excess toxicity at deliverable doses were evaluated. In both cases, the drugs could be remotely loaded into liposomes after their encapsulation (preloading) into cyclodextrins and administered to mice at higher doses and with greater efficacy than possible with the free drugs.

  19. Potential utility of liposome bupivacaine in orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lonner, Jess H; Scuderi, Giles R; Lieberman, Jay R

    2015-03-01

    Management of postsurgical analgesia is an important consideration in orthopedic procedures, including joint arthroplasty. Inadequate postsurgical analgesia is associated with increased hospital length of stay, delayed ambulation, and reduced exercise capacity. In this article, we review the potential contribution of a prolonged-release liposomal formulation of bupivacaine as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen after orthopedic surgery. Controlled studies across multiple surgical settings have demonstrated that, compared with placebo and bupivacaine HCl, liposome bupivacaine in a single administration provides postsurgical analgesia for up to 72 hours, delays use of rescue medication, and reduces postsurgical opioid consumption. Liposome bupivacaine has been well tolerated in clinical studies and has had a low rate of treatment-related adverse events. To date, there has been no signal of cardiac toxicity, chondrolysis, or delayed wound healing associated with liposome bupivacaine.

  20. Pyrolyzed cobalt phthalocyanine as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ladouceur, M.; Lalande, G.; Guay, D.; Dodelet, J.P. ); Dignard-Bailey, L. . Lab. de Recherche en Diversification Energetique); Trudeau, M.L.; Schulz, R. . Technologie des Materiaux)

    1993-07-01

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) adsorbed on carbon black (XC-72) and heat-treated at temperature ranging from 300 to 1,150 C display catalytic activity toward the electroreduction of oxygen in acidic medium (H[sub 2]SO[sub 4],pH 0.5). The best catalysts are obtained for pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 700 to 950 C. X-ray diffraction performed on CoPc/XC-72 pyrolyzed between 700 and 1,150 C reveals the presence of [beta]-Co particles whose average size varies from 9 nm at 700 C to 44 nm at 1,150 C. Co and N bulk elemental analyses have been performed on CoPc/XC-72 heat-treated from 20 to 1,150 C. These show that: (1) there is no loss of Co even after pyrolysis at 1,150 C when the loading is at 2 weight percent (w/o) Co; (2) the bulk N content decreases as the pyrolysis temperatures are increased and the N content reaches the detection limit (0.5 w/o) at pyrolysis temperatures [>=] 1000 C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study shows that at 600 C there is a sudden three-fold increase in the surface concentration of Co and N at the surface of the carbon black support. A sublimation-redistribution of the CoPc is proposed. The effect appears to limit the Co loading to approximately 2 w/o (At loadings of 4 and 8 w/o Co, most of the Co is lost due to the sublimation.) The XPS study also shows that metallic Co particles begin to be formed at 600 C, and that the formation and growth of Co particles occurs as the pyrolysis temperature increases to 1,050 C. The chemical stability of the pyrolyzed catalysts was evaluated in concentrated H[sub 2]SO[sub 4],HCl, and HNO[sub 3] for time periods ranging from 1 to 30 min. Bulk Co analysis, after immersion in acid, indicate that up to 40% of the Co can be lost in the process, and that this induces a decrease in the catalyst activity.

  1. Interaction of isopropylthioxanthone with phospholipid liposomes.

    PubMed

    Momo, Federico; Fabris, Sabrina; Stevanato, Roberto

    2007-04-01

    Isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) is a highly lipophilic molecule which can be released in foods and beverages from the packages, where it is present as photoinitiator of inks in printing processes. Recently it was found in babies milk, and its toxicity cannot be excluded. The structure of the molecule suggests a possible strong interaction with the lipid moiety of biological membranes, and this is the first study of its effects on phospholipid organization, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and spin labelling techniques. The data obtained with multilamellar liposomes of saturated phospholipids of different length, with and without cholesterol, point out that the molecule changes the lipid structure; in particular, in the gel state, behaving like a disordering agent it increases the mobility of the bilayer, while, in the fluid state, tends to rigidify the membrane, in a cholesterol like way. This behavior supports the hypothesis that ITX experiences a relocation process when the lipid matrix passes from the gel to the fluid state.

  2. Cerebrovascular Involvement in Liposome - Induced Cardiopulmonary Distress in Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    expressed as mean ± SD. There was no statistical treament for data on the 24 pigs (Table 1); only percentage values were calculated. All applied...new, promising field for use of liposomes as a vehicle is in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease through gene therapy (Saito et al., 2004; Shi...brain by means of liposomes. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 136:219-229. Toyoda, K., Chu, Y., Heistad, D. D. (2003). Gene therapy for cerebral vascular disease

  3. Photosensitive liposomes as potential drug delivery vehicles for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Christopher G.; Mitchell, A. C.; Chowdhary, R. K.

    1991-11-01

    Light-sensitive liposomes incorporating a photochromic phospholipid (Bis-Azo PC) have been developed which exhibit light-activated release of entrapped contents and intervesicular fusion. The trapping and light-induced release of inorganic ions, fluorescent market dyes, and the antitumor drug methotrexate have been demonstrated. These results are discussed together with some of the potential therapeutic applications of light-sensitive liposomes.

  4. Recent advances in liposomal dry powder formulations: preparation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ambikanandan; Jinturkar, Kaustubh; Patel, Deepa; Lalani, Jigar; Chougule, Mahavir

    2009-01-01

    Liposomal drug dry powder formulations have shown many promising features for pulmonary drug administration, such as selective localization of drug within the lung, controlled drug release, reduced local and systemic toxicities, propellant-free nature, patient compliance, high dose carrying capacity, stability and patent protection. Critical review of the recent developments will provide a balanced view on benefits of liposomal encapsulation while developing dry powder formulations and will help researchers to update themselves and focus their research in more relevant areas. In liposomal dry powder formulations (LDPF), drug encapsulated liposomes are homogenized, dispersed into the carrier and converted into dry powder form by using freeze drying, spray drying and spray freeze drying. Alternatively, LDPF can also be formulated by supercritical fluid technologies. On inhalation with a suitable inhalation device, drug encapsulated liposomes get rehydrated in the lung and release the drug over a period of time. The prepared LDPF are evaluated in vitro and in vivo for lung deposition behavior and drug disposition in the lung using a suitable inhaler device. The most commonly used liposomes are composed of lung surfactants and synthetic lipids. Delivery of anticancer agents for lung cancer, corticosteroids for asthma, immunosuppressants for avoiding lung transplantation rejection, antifungal drugs for lung fungal infections, antibiotics for local pulmonary infections and cystic fibrosis and opioid analgesics for pain management using liposome technology are a few examples. Many liposomal formulations have reached the stage of clinical trials for the treatment of pulmonary distress, cystic fibrosis, lung fungal infection and lung cancer. These formulations have given very promising results in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, modifications to new therapies for respiratory diseases and systemic delivery will provide new challenges in conducting well

  5. Liposome-coated quantum dots targeting the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Maoquan; Zhuo, Shu; Xu, Jiang; Sheng, Qiunan; Hou, Shengke; Wang, Ruifei

    2010-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping with near-infrared (NIR) quantum dot (QDs) have many advantages over traditional methods. However, as an inorganic nanomaterial, QDs have low biocompatibility and low affinity to the lymphatic system. Here, we encapsulated QDs into nanoscale liposomes and then used these liposome-coated QDs for SLN mapping. The results showed that the liposome-coated QDs exhibited core-shell characterization, and their fluorescence emission did not decrease but slightly increased after being continuously excited by a xenon lamp source (150 W) at 488 nm at 37 °C for 1 h. After storing at 4 °C for more than one and half years, the liposome-coated QDs were found to have retained their spherical structure containing a large amount of QDs. When liposome-coated QDs with average size of 55.43 nm were injected intradermally into the paw of a mouse, the SLN was strongly fluorescent within only a few seconds and visualized easily in real time. Moreover, the fluorescence of the QDs trapped in the SLN could be observed for at least 24 h. Compared with the SLN mapping of QDs absent of liposomes and liposome-coated QDs with a larger average size (100.3 and 153.6 nm), more QDs migrated into the SLN when the liposome-coated QDs with smaller average size (55.43 nm) were injected. This technique may make a great contribution to the improvement of the biocompatibility of QDs and the targeting delivery capacity of QDs into the SLN.

  6. Hyaluronic acid-coated liposomes for active targeting of gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Arpicco, Silvia; Lerda, Carlotta; Dalla Pozza, Elisa; Costanzo, Chiara; Tsapis, Nicolas; Stella, Barbara; Donadelli, Massimo; Dando, Ilaria; Fattal, Elias; Cattel, Luigi; Palmieri, Marta

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was the preparation, characterization, and preliminary evaluation of the targeting ability toward pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells of liposomes containing the gemcitabine lipophilic prodrug [4-(N)-lauroyl-gemcitabine, C12GEM]. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was selected as targeting agent since it is biodegradable, biocompatible, and can be chemically modified and its cell surface receptor CD44 is overexpressed on various tumors. For this purpose, conjugates between a phospholipid, the 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE), and HA of two different low molecular weights 4800 Da (12 disaccharidic units) and 12,000 Da (32 disaccharidic units), were prepared, characterized, and introduced in the liposomes during the preparation. Different liposomal formulations were prepared and their characteristics were analyzed: size, Z potential, and TEM analyses underline a difference in the HA-liposomes from the non-HA ones. In order to better understand the HA-liposome cellular localization and to evaluate their interaction with CD44 receptor, confocal microscopy studies were performed. The results demonstrate that HA facilitates the recognition of liposomes by MiaPaCa2 cells (CD44(+)) and that the uptake increases with increase in the polymer molecular weight. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the different preparations was evaluated and data show that incorporation of C12GEM increases their cytotoxic activity and that HA-liposomes inhibit cell growth more than plain liposomes. Altogether, the results demonstrate the specificity of C12GEM targeting toward CD44-overexpressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line using HA as a ligand.

  7. The Mechanism of Formation of Lipid Tubules from Liposomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    structures about 10 in diameter and as longt as hundreds of micrometers. To elucidate the nature of the conversion process. freeze fracture electron...microscopy was utilized to examine samples that were rapidly quenched during tubule fOrmation. Many transitional structures -Acre obserjed. typically...that form unusual tubular structures [1-61. tain trapped liposomes (Fig. 1). When liposomes The lecithin 1.2-bis( l.l2-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-gly- are

  8. Interaction of fluoxetine with phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Momo, Federico; Fabris, Sabrina; Stevanato, Roberto

    2005-10-22

    Fluoxetine (Prozac) is one of the latest of a new generation of antidepressants, approved by FDA in 2002. The interactions of fluoxetine with multilamellar liposomes of pure phosphatidylcholine (PC) or containing cholesterol 10% molar were studied as a function of the lipid chain lengths, using differential scanning calorimetry and spin labelling EPR techniques. The DSC profiles of the gel-to-fluid state transition of liposomes of DMPC (C14:0) are broadened and shifted towards lower temperatures at increasing dopant concentrations and, with less than 10% fluoxetine, any detectable transition is destroyed. The broadened profiles and the lowered transition temperatures demonstrate that both the size and the packing of the cooperative units undergoing the transition are modified by fluoxetine, leading to a looser and more flexible bilayer. No phase separation was observed. The effects of fluoxetine on the thermotropic phase behaviour of DPPC (C16:0) and, even more, of DSPC (C18:0) are different from that of DMPC. In fact, in the former cases, two peaks appeared at increasing dopant concentrations, suggesting the occurrence of a phase separation phenomenon, which is a sign of a binding of fluoxetine in the phosphate region. In cholesterol containing membranes, fluoxetine, even at low concentrations, leads to a general corruption of the membrane, both in terms of packing and cooperativity, and the formation of any new phase is no longer observable. EPR spectra reflect the disordered motion of acyl chains in the bilayer. It was found that fluoxetine lowers the order of the lipid chains mainly in correspondence of the fifth carbon position of SASL, indicating a possible accumulation near the interfacial region.

  9. Liposomal cisplatin: a new cisplatin formulation.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, George P

    2010-09-01

    Over the last three decades, cisplatin has been one of the most effective cytotoxic agents, but its administration has been hindered by its nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and myelo toxicity. Recently, liposomal cisplatin, lipoplatin, has been formulated and tested thoroughly in preclinical (in vitro) and phase I, II and III trials, as documented in the literature. Experiments in animals showed that lipoplatin is less toxic than cisplatin and that it produces tumour reduction. The histological examination of treated tumours from mouse xenografts was consistent with apoptosis in the tumour cells in a mechanism similar to that of cisplatin. Lipoplatin infusion in patients and measurements of platinum levels in tumour specimens showed 10-50 times higher levels in tumours and metastases than in the adjacent normal specimens. A phase I-II study using a combination of lipoplatin and gemcitabine in pretreated patients (with disease progression or stable disease) with advanced pancreatic cancer was conducted. No nephrotoxicity was observed. With lipoplatin monotherapy the dose-limiting toxicity was determined to be 350 mg/m and the maximum tolerated dose 300 mg/m; when used in combination with paclitaxel the dose-limiting toxicity for lipoplatin was 250 mg/m and for paclitaxel 175 mg/m, and the maximum tolerated dose was 200 and 175 mg/m, respectively. In two phase II randomized studies comparing the lipoplatin combination versus the cisplatin combination, it was found that the former was statistically significantly less toxic than the latter, whereas the response rate and survival were similar. Up to now, the data on lipoplatin treatment in malignant tumours are quite impressive, because of the negligible toxicity and because it is equal if not superior to cisplatin with regard to response rate. This review aims to chronologically document publications relevant to liposomal cisplatin to date.

  10. Technological and Theoretical Aspects for Testing Electroporation on Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Denzi, Agnese; della Valle, Elena; Esposito, Gianluca; Mir, Lluis M.; Apollonio, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the use of nanometer liposomes as nanocarriers in drug delivery systems mediated by nanoelectroporation has been proposed. This technique takes advantage of the possibility of simultaneously electroporating liposomes and cell membrane with 10-nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) facilitating the release of the drug from the liposomes and at the same time its uptake by the cells. In this paper the design and characterization of a 10 nsPEF exposure system is presented, for liposomes electroporation purposes. The design and the characterization of the applicator have been carried out choosing an electroporation cuvette with 1 mm gap between the electrodes. The structure efficiency has been evaluated at different experimental conditions by changing the solution conductivity from 0.25 to 1.6 S/m. With the aim to analyze the influence of device performances on the liposomes electroporation, microdosimetric simulations have been performed considering liposomes of 200 and 400 nm of dimension with different inner and outer conductivity (from 0.05 to 1.6 S/m) in order to identify the voltage needed for their poration. PMID:28393078

  11. The Antimicrobial Activity of Liposomal Lauric Acids Against Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Darren; Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chan, Michael; Carson, Dennis; Huang, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Liangfang

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of lauric acid (LA) and its liposomal derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), the bacterium that promotes inflammatory acne. First, the antimicrobial study of three free fatty acids (lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid) demonstrated that LA gives the strongest bactericidal activity against P. acnes. However, a setback of using LA as a potential treatment for inflammatory acne is its poor water solubility. Then the LA was incorporated into a liposome formulation to aid its delivery to P. acnes. It's demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of LA was not only well maintained in its liposomal derivatives but also enhanced at low LA concentration. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of LA-loaded liposomes (LipoLA) mainly depended on the LA loading concentration per single liposomes. Further study found that the LipoLA could fuse with the membranes of P. acnes and release the carried LA directly into the bacterial membranes, thereby killing the bacteria effectively. Since LA is a natural compound that is the main acid in coconut oil and also resides in human breast milk and liposomes have been successfully and widely applied as a drug delivery vehicle in the clinic, the LipoLA developed in this work holds great potential of becoming an innate, safe and effective therapeutic medication for acne vulgaris and other P. acnes associated diseases. PMID:19665786

  12. Liposomal preparations of muramyl glycopeptides as immunomodulators and adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Turánek, Jaroslav; Ledvina, Miroslav; Kasná, Andrea; Vacek, Antonín; Hríbalova, Vera; Krejcí, Josef; Miller, Andrew D

    2006-04-12

    The need for safe and structurally defined immunomodulators and adjuvants is increasing in connection with the recently observed marked increase in the prevalence of pathological conditions characterized by immunodeficiency. Important groups of such compounds are muramyl glycopeptides, analogs of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), glucosaminyl-muramyl dipeptide (GMDP), and desmuramylpeptides. We have designed and synthesized new types of analogs with changes in both the sugar and the peptide parts of the molecule that show a high immunostimulating and adjuvant activity and suppressed adverse side effects. The introduction of lipophilic residues has also improved their incorporation into liposomes, which represent a suitable drug carrier. The proliposome-liposome method is based on the conversion of the initial proliposome preparation into liposome dispersion by dilution with the aqueous phase. The description of a home-made stirred thermostated cell and its link-up with a liquid delivery system for a rapid and automated preparation of multilamellar liposomes at strictly controlled conditions (sterility, temperature, dilution rate and schedule) is presented. The cell has been designed for laboratory-scale preparation of liposomes (300-1000 mg of phospholipid per run) in a procedure taking less than 90 min. The method can be readily scaled up. Examples of adjuvant and immunostimulatory effect of liposomal preparation in mice model will be presented.

  13. Click modification of multifunctional liposomes bearing hyperbranched polyether chains.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Thomas; Hirsch, Markus; Richter, Felix C; Müller, Sophie S; Hofmann, Anna M; Rusitzka, Kristiane A K; Markl, Jürgen; Massing, Ulrich; Frey, Holger; Helm, Mark

    2014-07-14

    Aiming at controlled modification of liposomal surface structures, we describe a postpreparational approach for surface derivatization of a new type of multifunctional, sterically stabilized liposomes. Application of dual centrifugation (DC) resulted in high encapsulation efficiencies above 50% at very small batch sizes with a total volume of 150 μL, which were conductive to fast and efficient optimization of variegated surface modification reactions. Cholesterol-polymer amphiphiles, including complex hyperbranched polyether structures bearing 1-4 terminal alkynes, were used in DC formulations to provide steric stabilization. The alkyne moieties were explored as anchors for the conjugation of small molecules to the liposomal surface via click chemistry, binding 350-450 fluorophores per liposome as examples for surface active molecules. Using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy, the conjugation reaction as well as the uptake of FRET-labeled liposomes by RBE4 cells was monitored, and the distribution of the fluorescent lipids among cellular structures and membranes could be studied. Thus, the combination of clickable hyperbranched amphiphiles and dual centrifugation provides access to well-defined liposomal formulations with a variety of surface moieties.

  14. Folate receptor targeted liposomes encapsulating anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Anumita; Das, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Among all available lipid based nanoparticulate systems, the success of liposomal drug delivery system is evident by the number of liposomal products available in the market or under advanced stages of preclinical and clinical trials. Liposome has the ability to deliver chemotherapeutic agents to the targeted tissues or even inside the cancerous cells by enhanced intracellular penetration or improved tumour targeting. In the last decade, folate receptor mediated tumour targeting has emerged as an attractive alternative method of active targeting of cancer cells through liposomes due to its numerous advantages over other targeting methods. Folate receptors, also known as folate binding proteins, allow the binding and internalization of folate or folic acid into the cells by a method called folate receptor mediated endocytosis. They have restricted presence in normal cells and are mostly expressed during malignant transformation. In this review article, folate receptor targeting capability of liposomes has been described. This review article has focussed on the different cancer drugs which have been encapsulated in folate receptor targeted liposomes and their in vitro as well as in vivo efficacies in several tumour models.

  15. Liposomal delivery system for topical anaesthesia of the palatal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Franz-Montan, M; de Paula, E; Groppo, F C; Silva, A L R; Ranali, J; Volpato, M C

    2012-01-01

    An effective topical agent to reduce pain during local anaesthesia of the palate is not yet available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of liposome-encapsulated ropivacaine in different concentrations for topical anaesthesia of the palatal mucosa. In this single-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study 40 (20 male) healthy volunteers were randomised to be given: liposome-encapsulated 2% ropivacaine, liposome-encapsulated 1% ropivacaine, a eutectic mixture of 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine (EMLA), and liposomal placebo gel, topically on to the palatal mucosa of the right canine region for 5 min each, at four different sessions. Pain associated with insertion of a 30G needle, and with injection of a local anaesthetic, was rated on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The effect of liposomal ropivacaine 1% and 2% did not differ from that of placebo (p=0.3 and p=0.1, respectively) in reducing pain during insertion of the needle. Lower VAS were obtained with EMLA. In this group VAS were lower in women than men (p=0.007). There was no difference in VAS among groups (p=0.3) as far as injection of the local anaesthetic was concerned. In conclusion, liposomal-encapsulated ropivacaine formulations did not reduce the pain of insertion of a needle into the palatal mucosa. None of the anaesthetic formulations tested, including the positive control (EMLA), were effective in reducing the pain of an injection of local anaesthetic compared with placebo.

  16. The Role of Liposomal Bupivacaine in Value-Based Care.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Richard

    Multimodal pain control strategies are crucial in reducing opioid use and delivering effective pain management to facilitate improved surgical outcomes. The utility of liposomal bupivacaine in enabling effective pain control in multimodal strategies has been demonstrated in several studies, but others have found the value of liposomal bupivacaine in such approaches to be insignificant. At New York University Langone Medical Center, liposomal bupivacaine injection and femoral nerve block were compared in their delivery of efficacious and cost-effective multimodal analgesia among patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Retrospective analysis revealed that including liposomal bupivacaine in a multimodal pain control protocol for TJA resulted in improved quality and efficiency metrics, decreased narcotic use, and faster mobilization, all relative to femoral nerve block, and without a significant increase in admission costs. In addition, liposomal bupivacaine use was associated with elimination of the need for patient-controlled analgesia in TJA. Thus, at Langone Medical Center, the introduction of liposomal bupivacaine to TJA has been instrumental in achieving adequate pain control, delivering high-level quality of care, and controlling costs.

  17. [Trends in the development of research in the field of liposomes (review of patent literature)].

    PubMed

    Nesytova, N Iu; Paleva, N S; Il'ina, E V; Shenk, P; Bendas, F; Nun, P

    1990-01-01

    The review embraces major trends and tendencies in liposome studies and is based on the statistical and qualitative analysis of patent information issued in the period 1970-1988. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of patents in liposome production techniques, their lipid composition, and application in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries and also for the diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Liposomal preparations are shown to be superior to common drugs as concerns, in particular, liposomes containing medicinal agents for prolonged use (including hormones, antibiotics, cytostatics, and immunostimulants) and liposomes used in dermatological practice. Liposome-based assessment of application prospects is given.

  18. Improved photodynamic efficacy of Zn(II) phthalocyanines via glycerol substitution.

    PubMed

    Chin, Yunni; Lim, Siang Hui; Zorlu, Yunus; Ahsen, Vefa; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Lee, Hong Boon

    2014-01-01

    Phthalocyanines are excellent photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy as they have strong absorbance in the near infra-red region which is most relevant for in vivo activation in deeper tissular regions. However, most phthalocyanines present two major challenges, ie, a strong tendency to aggregate and low water-solubility, limiting their effective usage clinically. In the present study, we evaluated the potential enhancement capability of glycerol substitution on the photodynamic properties of zinc (II) phthalocyanines (ZnPc). Three glycerol substituted ZnPc, 1-3, (tetra peripherally, tetra non-peripherally and mono iodinated tri non-peripherally respectively) were evaluated in terms of their spectroscopic properties, rate of singlet oxygen generation, partition coefficient (log P), intracellular uptake, photo-induced cytotoxicity and vascular occlusion efficiency. Tetrasulfonated ZnPc (ZnPcS4) was included as a reference compound. Here, we showed that 1-3 exhibited 10-100 nm red-shifted absorption peaks with higher molar absorptivity, and at least two-fold greater singlet oxygen generation rates compared to ZnPcS4. Meanwhile, phthalocyanines 1 and 2 showed more hydrophilic log P values than 3 consistent with the number of glycerol attachments but 3 was most readily taken up by cells compared to the rest. Both phthalocyanines 2 and 3 exhibited potent phototoxicity against MCF-7, HCT-116 and HSC-2 cancer cell-lines with IC50 ranging 2.8-3.2 µM and 0.04-0.06 µM respectively, while 1 and ZnPcS4 (up to 100 µM) failed to yield determinable IC50 values. In terms of vascular occlusion efficiency, phthalocyanine 3 showed better effects than 2 by causing total occlusion of vessels with diameter <70 µm of the chorioallantoic membrane. Meanwhile, no detectable vascular occlusion was observed for ZnPcS4 with treatment under similar experimental conditions. These findings provide evidence that glycerol substitution, in particular in structures 2 and 3, is able to improve

  19. Hybrid ZnO/phthalocyanine photovoltaic device with highly resistive ZnO intermediate layer.

    PubMed

    Izaki, Masanobu; Chizaki, Ryo; Saito, Takamasa; Murata, Kazufumi; Sasano, Junji; Shinagawa, Tsutomu

    2013-10-09

    We report a hybrid photovoltaic device composed of a 3.3 eV bandgap zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor and metal-free phthalocyanine layers and the effects of the insertion of the highly resistive ZnO buffer layer on the electrical characteristics of the rectification feature and photovoltaic performance. The hybrid photovoltaic devices have been constructed by electrodeposition of the 300 nm thick ZnO layer in a simple zinc nitrate aqueous solution followed by vacuum evaporation of 50-400 nm thick-phthalocyanine layers. The ZnO layers with the resistivity of 1.8 × 10(3) and 1 × 10(8) Ω cm were prepared by adjusting the cathodic current density and were installed into the hybrid photovoltaic devices as the n-type and buffer layer, respectively. The phthalocyanine layers with the characteristic monoclinic lattice showed a characteristic optical absorption feature regardless of the thickness, but the preferred orientation changed depending on the thickness. The ZnO buffer-free hybrid 50 nm thick phthalocyanine/n-ZnO photovoltaic device showed a rectification feature but possessed a poor photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 7.5 × 10(-7) %, open circuit voltage of 0.041 V, and short circuit current density of 8.0 × 10(-5) mA cm(-2). The insertion of the ZnO buffer layer between the n-ZnO and phthalocyanine layers induced improvements in both the rectification feature and photovoltaic performance. The excellent rectification feature with a rectification ratio of 3188 and ideally factor of 1.29 was obtained for the hybrid 200 nm thick phthalocyanine/ZnO buffer/n-ZnO photovoltaic device, and the hybrid photovoltaic device possessed an improved photovoltaic performance with the conversion efficiency of 0.0016%, open circuit voltage of 0.31 V, and short circuit current density of 0.015 mA cm(-2).

  20. Improved Photodynamic Efficacy of Zn(II) Phthalocyanines via Glycerol Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Yunni; Lim, Siang Hui; Zorlu, Yunus; Ahsen, Vefa; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Lee, Hong Boon

    2014-01-01

    Phthalocyanines are excellent photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy as they have strong absorbance in the near infra-red region which is most relevant for in vivo activation in deeper tissular regions. However, most phthalocyanines present two major challenges, ie, a strong tendency to aggregate and low water-solubility, limiting their effective usage clinically. In the present study, we evaluated the potential enhancement capability of glycerol substitution on the photodynamic properties of zinc (II) phthalocyanines (ZnPc). Three glycerol substituted ZnPc, 1–3, (tetra peripherally, tetra non-peripherally and mono iodinated tri non-peripherally respectively) were evaluated in terms of their spectroscopic properties, rate of singlet oxygen generation, partition coefficient (log P), intracellular uptake, photo-induced cytotoxicity and vascular occlusion efficiency. Tetrasulfonated ZnPc (ZnPcS4) was included as a reference compound. Here, we showed that 1–3 exhibited 10–100 nm red-shifted absorption peaks with higher molar absorptivity, and at least two-fold greater singlet oxygen generation rates compared to ZnPcS4. Meanwhile, phthalocyanines 1 and 2 showed more hydrophilic log P values than 3 consistent with the number of glycerol attachments but 3 was most readily taken up by cells compared to the rest. Both phthalocyanines 2 and 3 exhibited potent phototoxicity against MCF-7, HCT-116 and HSC-2 cancer cell-lines with IC50 ranging 2.8–3.2 µM and 0.04–0.06 µM respectively, while 1 and ZnPcS4 (up to 100 µM) failed to yield determinable IC50 values. In terms of vascular occlusion efficiency, phthalocyanine 3 showed better effects than 2 by causing total occlusion of vessels with diameter <70 µm of the chorioallantoic membrane. Meanwhile, no detectable vascular occlusion was observed for ZnPcS4 with treatment under similar experimental conditions. These findings provide evidence that glycerol substitution, in particular in structures 2 and 3, is able

  1. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns modified by liposomes for characterization of analyte-liposome interactions by capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2013-11-22

    This study introduces a silica-based monolith in a capillary format (0.1 mm × 100 mm) as a support for immobilization of liposomes and its characterization in immobilized liposome chromatography. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns prepared by acidic hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in the presence of polyethylene glycol and urea were modified by (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane, whereby amino groups were introduced to the monolithic surface. These groups undergo reaction with glutaraldehyde to form an iminoaldehyde, allowing covalent binding of pre-formed liposomes containing primary amino groups. Two types of phospholipid vesicles were used for column modification; these were 2-oleoyl-1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl choline with and without 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine. The prepared columns were evaluated under isocratic separation conditions employing 20mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 as a mobile phase and a set of unrelated drugs as model analytes. The liposome layer on the synthesized columns significantly changed the column selectivity compared to the aminopropylsilylated monolithic stationary phase. Monolithic columns modified by liposomes were stable under the separation conditions, which proved the applicability of the suggested preparation procedure for the synthesis of capillary columns dedicated to study analyte-liposome interactions. The column efficiency originating from the silica monolith was preserved and reached, e.g., more than 120,000 theoretical plates/m for caffeine as a solute.

  2. Tablets of pre-liposomes govern in situ formation of liposomes: concept and potential of the novel drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Vanić, Željka; Planinšek, Odon; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Tho, Ingunn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel drug delivery system for challenging drugs with potential for scale-up manufacturing and controlled release of incorporated drug. Pre-liposomes powder containing metronidazole, lecithin and mannitol, prepared by spray-drying, was mixed with different tableting excipients (microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, pregelatinized starch, pectin or chitosan) and compressed into tablets. The delivery system was characterized with respect to (i) dry powder characteristics, (ii) mechanical tablet properties and drug release, and (iii) liposomal characteristics. The pre-liposomes powder was free-flowing, and tablets of similarly high qualities as tablets made of physical mixtures were prepared with all excipients. Liposomes were formed in situ upon tablet disintegration, dissolution or erosion depending on the type of tablet excipient used. The liposomal characteristics and drug release were found to depend on the tablet excipient. The new delivery system offers a unique synergy between the ability of liposomes to encapsulate and protect drugs and increased stability provided by compressed formulations. It can be adjusted for drug administration via various routes, e.g. oral, buccal and vaginal.

  3. Terpene-loaded Liposomes and Isopropyl Myristate as Chemical Permeation Enhancers Toward Liposomal Gene Delivery in Lung Cancer cells; A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Saffari, Mostafa; Hoseini Shirazi, Farshad; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is in its development stage as a novel method for cancer treatment. Liposomes look promising as gene delivery vectors; however, investigations have shown that these vesicles are not doing well in some cases. It was decided here to investigate the possibility of augmentation of liposomal gene delivery by chemical penetration enhancers. Cationic liposome containing antisense oligonucleotide (AsODN) against lung cancer was prepared by ethanol injection method. Liposomal cineole and limonene (as enhancers) were prepared by film hydration method. Isopropyl myristate (IPM) was also investigated as penetration enhancer. Liposomes were evaluated for their size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency. Cancer cells (A549) were pretreated with liposomal terpenes prior to treatment with liposomal antisense or scrambled oligonucleotide. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Oligonucleotide -containing liposome showed particle size of about115 nm and zeta potential of 0.6 mV. Liposomal cineole significantly (P<0.05) increased specific activity of liposomal antisense but limonene didn’t show such an effect. IPM increased both specific and non-specific cytotoxicity of Oligonucleotide. These results show that penetration enhancers (such as cineole) may be used for improving liposomal gene delivery and to reduce non-specific toxicity. Concentration and chemical nature of enhancer has prominent effect in their efficacy. PMID:27980561

  4. Liposome Delivery Systems for Inhalation: A Critical Review Highlighting Formulation Issues and Anticancer Applications.

    PubMed

    Rudokas, Mindaugas; Najlah, Mohammad; Alhnan, Mohamed Albed; Elhissi, Abdelbary

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical review on research conducted in the field of pulmonary delivery of liposomes. Issues relating to the mechanism of nebulisation and liposome composition were appraised and correlated with literature reports of liposome formulations used in clinical trials to understand the role of liposome size and composition on therapeutic outcome. A major highlight was liposome inhalation for the treatment of lung cancers. Many in vivo studies that explored the potential of liposomes as anticancer carrier systems were evaluated, including animal studies and clinical trials. Liposomes can entrap anticancer drugs and localise their action in the lung following pulmonary delivery. The safety of inhaled liposomes incorporating anticancer drugs depends on the anticancer agent used and the amount of drug delivered to the target cancer in the lung. The difficulty of efficient targeting of liposomal anticancer aerosols to the cancerous tissues within the lung may result in low doses reaching the target site. Overall, following the success of liposomes as inhalable carriers in the treatment of lung infections, it is expected that more focus from research and development will be given to designing inhalable liposome carriers for the treatment of other lung diseases, including pulmonary cancers. The successful development of anticancer liposomes for inhalation may depend on the future development of effective aerosolisation devices and better targeted liposomes to maximise the benefit of therapy and reduce the potential for local and systemic adverse effects.

  5. Liposome chaperon in cell-free membrane protein synthesis: one-step preparation of KcsA-integrated liposomes and electrophysiological analysis by the planar bilayer method.

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Akiyama, M; Okuno, D; Hirano, M; Ide, T; Sawada, S; Sasaki, Y; Akiyoshi, K

    2016-02-01

    Chaperoning functions of liposomes were investigated using cell-free membrane protein synthesis. KcsA potassium channel-reconstituted liposomes were prepared directly using cell-free protein synthesis. In the absence of liposomes, all synthesized KcsA protein aggregated. In the presence of liposomes, however, synthesized KcsA spontaneously integrated into the liposome membrane. The KscA-reconstituted liposomes were transferred to the planar bilayer across a small hole in a thin plastic sheet and the channel function of KcsA was examined. The original electrophysiological activities, such as voltage- and pH-dependence, were observed. These results suggested that in cell-free membrane protein synthesis, liposomes act as chaperones, preventing aggregation and assisting in folding and tetrameric formation, thereby allowing full channel activity.

  6. From conventional to stealth liposomes: a new frontier in cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cattel, Luigi; Ceruti, Maurizio; Dosio, Franco

    2003-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to achieve good selectivity to targeted tumor cells by preparing specialized carrier agents that are therapeutically profitable for anticancer therapy. Among these, liposomes are the most studied colloidal particles thus far applied in medicine and in particular in antitumor therapy. Although they were first described in the 1960s, only at the beginning of 1990s did the first therapeutic liposomes appear on the market. The first-generation liposomes (conventional liposomes) comprised a liposome-containing amphotericin B, Ambisome (Nexstar, Boulder, CO, USA), used as an antifungal drug, and Myocet (Elan Pharma Int, Princeton, NJ, USA), a doxorubicin-containing liposome, used in clinical trials to treat metastatic breast cancer. The second-generation liposomes ("pure lipid approach") were long-circulating liposomes, such as Daunoxome, a daunorubicin-containing liposome approved in the US and Europe to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. The third-generation liposomes were surface-modified liposomes with gangliosides or sialic acid, which can evade the immune system responsible for removing liposomes from circulation. The fourth-generation liposomes, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, were called "stealth liposomes" because of their ability to evade interception by the immune system, in the same way as the stealth bomber was able to evade radar. Actually, the only stealth liposome on the market is Caelyx/Doxil (Schering-Plough, Madison NJ, USA), used to cure AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, resistant ovarian cancer and metastatic breast cancer. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is characterized by a very long-circulation half-life, favorable pharmacokinetic behavior and specific accumulation in tumor tissues. These features account for the much lower toxicity shown by Caelyx in comparison to free doxorubicin, in terms of cardiotoxicity, vesicant effects, nausea, vomiting and alopecia. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin also appeared to be less

  7. Enhanced Reverse Saturable Absorption and Optical Limiting in Heavy-Atom Substituted Phthalocyanines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. W.; Mansour, K.; Marder, S. R.; Alvarez, D., Jr.; Perry, K. J.; Choong, I.

    1994-01-01

    The reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting response of metal phthalocyaninies can be enhanced by using the heavy-atom effect. Phthalocyanines containing heavy metal atoms, such as In, Sn, and Pb show nearly a factor of two enhancement in the ratio of effective excited-state to ground-state absorption cross sections compared to those containing lighter atoms, such as Al and Si. In an f/8 optical geometry, homogeneous solutions of heavy metal phthalocyanines, at 30% linear transmission, limit 8-ns, 532-nm laser pulses to less than or equal to 3 (micro)J (the energy for 50% probability of eye damage) for incident pulses up to 800 (micro)J.

  8. Solvent-assisted growth of metal phthalocyanine thin films on Au(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Tskipuri, Levan; Shao Qian; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    2012-05-15

    Thin films of metal phthalocyanine (MPc) are grown on an Au(111) support with a newly developed aerosol molecular beam deposition source and characterized in situ via ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy. MPcs are delivered to Au(111) in a series of N{sub 2}-entrained microsized solvent droplets of variable surface residence time. Phthalocyanine film registration to the herringbone reconstruction of the Au(111) surface, indicative of thermodynamically favored structure, is observed at submonolayer coverages for aromatic solvents with long residence times. Aerosol-deposited monolayer film structures are noncrystalline with tilted MPc orientations and vacancy nanocavities. Upon annealing, MPc molecules adopt flat-lying orientations with respect to the substrate and vacancies are eliminated. Film morphologies indicate solvation-mediated film nucleation and growth, with less long-range ordering that in vapor-generated films.

  9. Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, Wei-Dong; Huang, Shu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-07

    Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure π–π interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface.

  10. Preparation and magnetic properties of phthalocyanine-based carbon materials containing transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Z.; Sato, S.; Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N.

    2016-07-01

    A simple method for the preparation of bulk quantities of magnetic carbon materials, which contain uniformly dispersed transition metals (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) as the magnetic components, is presented. By using highly chlorinated metal phthalocyanine as the building block and potassium as the coupling reagent, phthalocyanine-based carbon materials (PBCMs) containing transition metals were obtained. Our experiments demonstrate the structure of these PBCMs consists of transition metals embedded in graphitic carbon that includes a square planar MN4 magnetic core and the Fe and Co-PBCM possess spontaneous magnetization at room temperature. In addition, carbon-coated transition metal particles were obtained by the Wurtz-type reaction with excess amount of potassium coupling agent. The large transition metal surface area and magnetization of these M-PBCMs are useful for spintronic and catalytic applications.

  11. Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wei-Dong; Huang, Shu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-07

    Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure π-π interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface.

  12. Phthalocyanine-Biomolecule Conjugated Photosensitizers for Targeted Photodynamic Therapy and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Chen, Jincan; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is now in clinical practice in many European and American countries as a minimally invasive therapeutic technique to treat oncologic malignancies and other nononcologic conditions. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are gathering importance as effective photosensitizers in targeted PDT and imaging of tumors. The possibility of modification around the Pc macrocycle led the researchers to the synthesis of a diversity of photosensitizers with varied cell specificity, cellular internalization and localization, photodynamic cytotoxicity and excretion. Cellular targeting is the primary aspect of an ideal photosensitizer for targeting PDT. Therefore, Pcs have been structurally modified with a variety of biomolecules capable of recognizing the specific lesions. This review emphasizes the photocytotoxicity and the cellular uptakes of phthalocyanine photosensitizers conjugated with biomolecules including carbohydrates, nucleotides and protein constituents such as amino acids and peptides. In addition, the role of the Pc-biomolecule conjugates in imaging and antimicrobial chemotherapy has been discussed.

  13. Phthalocyanine identification in paintings by reflectance spectroscopy. A laboratory and in situ study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poldi, G.; Caglio, S.

    2013-06-01

    The importance of identifying pigments using non invasive (n.i.) analyses has gained increasing importance in the field of spectroscopy applied to art conservation and art studies. Among the large set of pigments synthesized and marketed during 20th century, surely phthalocyanine blue and green pigments occupy an important role in the field of painting (including restoration) and printing, thanks to their characteristics like brightness and fastness. This research focused on the most used phthalocyanine blue (PB15:1 and PB15:3) and green pigments (PG7), and on the possibility to identify these organic compounds using a methodology like reflectance spectroscopy in the UV, visible and near IR range (UV-vis-NIR RS), performed easily through portable instruments. Laboratory tests and three examples carried out on real paintings are discussed.

  14. Lowest energy Frenkel and charge transfer exciton intermixing in one-dimensional copper phthalocyanine molecular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, I. V.; Popescu, A.; Younts, R. A.; Hoffman, B.; McAfee, T.; Dougherty, D. B.; Gundogdu, K.; Ade, H. W.

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of the combined experimental and theoretical studies of the low-lying exciton states in crystalline copper phthalocyanine. We derive the eigen energy spectrum for the two lowest intramolecular Frenkel excitons coupled to the intermolecular charge transfer exciton state and compare it with temperature dependent optical absorption spectra measured experimentally, to obtain the parameters of the Frenkel-charge-transfer exciton intermixing. The two Frenkel exciton states are spaced apart by 0.26 eV, and the charge transfer exciton state is 50 meV above the lowest Frenkel exciton. Both Frenkel excitons are strongly mixed with the charge transfer exciton, showing the coupling constant 0.17 eV which agrees with earlier experimental measurements. These results can be used for the proper interpretation of the physical properties of crystalline phthalocyanines.

  15. Molecular arrangement investigation of copper phthalocyanine grown on hydrogen passivated Si(1 1 1) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbi, I.; Ben Hamada, B.; Souissi, A.; Menzli, S.; Ben Azzouz, C.; Laribi, A.; Akremi, A.; Chefi, C.

    2014-06-01

    Chemical, electronic and structural properties of ultra thin films of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) grown on hydrogen passivated silicon (1 1 1) surfaces were investigated in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) and electron diffraction (LEED). The early stages of copper phthalocyanine adsorption (1-2) were characterized by the saturation of surface defects and by a flat lying disposition on the surface. Upon further CuPc coverage, the passivation of Si surfaces resulted in the molecule taking a standing position in films. The molecular packing deduced from these studies appears very close to the one in the bulk α phase of CuPc. The work function of the films was found to be decreasing during the growth and was correlated with the molecular orientation.

  16. Dry etching of copper phthalocyanine thin films: effects on morphology and surface stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Van Dijken, Jaron G; Brett, Michael J

    2012-08-24

    We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment; a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in diameter. The changes in morphology are independent of plasma power, which controls the etch rate only. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that surface concentrations of copper and oxygen increase with etch time, while carbon and nitrogen are depleted. Despite these changes in surface stoichiometry, we observe no effect on the work function. The absorbance and X-ray diffraction spectra show no changes other than the peaks diminishing with etch time. These findings have important implications for organic photovoltaic devices which seek nanopillar thin films of metal phthalocyanine materials as an optimal structure.

  17. Optical, morphological and structural characterization of Langmuir-Schaefer films of a functionalized copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Giancane, Gabriele; Filippo, Emanuela; Manno, Daniela; Serra, Antonio; Valli, Ludovico

    2011-11-01

    Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) films of copper(II) tetrakis-(isoprpoxy-carbonyl)-phthalocyanine (TiPCuPc) have been deposited onto various solid supports. Its floating film have been characterized at the air-water interface by means of Brewster Angle Microscopy and Langmuir curves. Vibrational modes of multilayer transferred LS film have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and the optical parameters (refractive index n and extinction coefficient k) have been determined in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Linearly polarized light absorbance measurements have been performed at room temperature in the 400-800 nm spectral range and the average orientation of the phthalocyanine rings have been estimated. Transmission electron microscopy has been also used to characterize the morphological properties of the LS film and a close packed arrangement of the deposited molecules has been observed.

  18. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500 mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur.

  19. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500 mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  20. Mechanism of Charge Transport in Cobalt and Iron Phthalocyanine Thin Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Arvind; Samanta, Soumen; Singh, Ajay; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2011-12-12

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), iron phthalocyanine (FePc) and their composite (CoPc-FePc) films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies showed that composite films has better structural ordering compared to individual CoPc and FePc films. The temperature dependence of resistivity (in the temperature range 25 K- 100 K) showed that composite films are metallic, while individual CoPc and FePc films are in the critical regime of metal-to-insulator (M-I) transition The composite films show very high mobility of 110 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} at room temperature i.e. nearly two order of magnitude higher compared to pure CoPc and FePc films.

  1. ZnO and cobalt phthalocyanine hybridized graphene: efficient photocatalysts for degradation of rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    A novel method has been developed to synthesize graphene-ZnO composite as a highly efficient catalyst by reduction of graphite oxide and in-situ deposition of ZnO nanoparticles by chemical reduction reaction. The graphene-ZnO catalyst is capable of complete degradation of rhodamine B under exposure to natural sunlight. Further, the catalytic efficiency of graphene-ZnO catalyst was enhanced by sensitizing with cobalt phthalocyanine. The formation of graphene-ZnO pcatalyst and its further sensitization with cobalt phthalocyanine was characterized using UV-vis, ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy, powder XRD and thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology of both graphene-ZnO and graphene-ZnO-CoPC catalysts was analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. PMID:24972296

  2. Electronic structures and magnetic/optical properties of metal phthalocyanine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Shintaro; Suzuki, Atsushi Oku, Takeo

    2016-02-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic / optical properties of metal phthalocyanine complexes were studied by quantum calculations using density functional theory. Effects of central metal and expansion of π orbital on aromatic ring as conjugation system on the electronic structures, magnetic, optical properties and vibration modes of infrared and Raman spectra of metal phthalocyanines were investigated. Electron and charge density distribution and energy levels near frontier orbital and excited states were influenced by the deformed structures varied with central metal and charge. The magnetic parameters of chemical shifts in {sup 13}C-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C-NMR), principle g-tensor, A-tensor, V-tensor of electric field gradient and asymmetry parameters derived from the deformed structures with magnetic interaction of nuclear quadruple interaction based on electron and charge density distribution with a bias of charge near ligand under crystal field.

  3. Novel axially carborane-cage substituted silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer; synthesis, characterization and photophysicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Göknur Yaşa; Dizman, Cemil; Eren, Tarık; Erdoğmuş, Ali

    2015-02-25

    The novel axially dicarborane substituted silicon (IV) (SiPc-DC) phthalocyanine was synthesized by treating silicon phthalocyanine dichloride SiPc(Cl)2 (SiPc) with o-Carborane monool. The compound was characterized by mass spectrometry, UV-Vis, FT-IR, (1)H and (11)B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR). Spectral, photophysical (fluorescence quantum yield) and photochemical (singlet oxygen (ΦΔ) and photodegradation quantum yield (Φd)) properties of the complex were reported in different solutions (Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Dimethylformamide (DMF) and Toluene). The results of spectral measurements showed that both SiPc and carborane cage can have potential to be used as sensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by their singlet oxygen efficiencies (ΦΔ=0.41, 0.39).

  4. Novel axially carborane-cage substituted silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer; synthesis, characterization and photophysicochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmaca, Göknur Yaşa; Dizman, Cemil; Eren, Tarık; Erdoğmuş, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The novel axially dicarborane substituted silicon (IV) (SiPc-DC) phthalocyanine was synthesized by treating silicon phthalocyanine dichloride SiPc(Cl)2 (SiPc) with o-Carborane monool. The compound was characterized by mass spectrometry, UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H and 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR). Spectral, photophysical (fluorescence quantum yield) and photochemical (singlet oxygen (ΦΔ) and photodegradation quantum yield (Φd)) properties of the complex were reported in different solutions (Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Dimethylformamide (DMF) and Toluene). The results of spectral measurements showed that both SiPc and carborane cage can have potential to be used as sensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by their singlet oxygen efficiencies (ΦΔ = 0.41, 0.39).

  5. Marine lipid-based liposomes increase in vivo FA bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Cansell, Maud; Nacka, Fabienne; Combe, Nicole

    2003-05-01

    Liposomes made from an extract of natural marine lipids and containing a high n-3 PUFA lipid ratio were envisaged as oral route vectors for FA supplements in order to increase PUFA bioavailability. The absorption of FA in thoracic lymph duct-cannulated rats, after intragastric feeding of dietary fats in the form of liposomes or fish oil, was compared. Lipid and FA analyses were also performed on feces. Five mole percent alpha-tocopherol was added to fish oil and incorporated into the liposome membrane. The influence of alpha-tocopherol on FA lymph recovery was also investigated. In vivo, FA absorption in rats was favored by liposomes (98 +/- 1%) compared to fish oil (73 +/- 6%). In the same way, the DHA proportion in lymph was higher after liposome ingestion (78%) than after fish oil ingestion (47%). However, phospholipid (PL) concentration in lymph was not affected by the kind of dietary fat ingested, suggesting a PL regulation due to de novo TAG synthesis. The influence of the intramolecular distribution of n-3 PUFA in dietary lipids (TAG and PL) on the intramolecular FA distribution in TAG of chylomicrons was also investigated. The results obtained showed that the distribution of n-3 PUFA esterified on the sn-2 position of chylomicron TAG depended on the lipid source administered. All these results correlated, at least partly, with in vitro liposome behavior under conditions that mimic those of the gastrointestinal tract. As a whole, this study pointed out that marine PL may constitute an attractive material for the development of liposomes as oral PUFA supplements.

  6. Phthalocyanine adsorption to graphene on Ir(111): Evidence for decoupling from vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Endlich, M. Gozdzik, S.; Néel, N.; Kröger, J.; Rosa, A. L. da; Frauenheim, T.; Wehling, T. O.

    2014-11-14

    Phthalocyanine molecules have been adsorbed to Ir(111) and to graphene on Ir(111). From a comparison of scanning tunneling microscopy images of individual molecules adsorbed to the different surfaces alone it is difficult to discern potential differences in the molecular adsorption geometry. In contrast, vibrational spectroscopy using inelastic electron scattering unequivocally hints at strong molecule deformations on Ir(111) and at a planar adsorption geometry on graphene. The spectroscopic evidence for the different adsorption configurations is supported by density functional calculations.

  7. Electronic structure of the organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Aristov, V Yu; Molodtsova, O V; Maslyuk, V V; Vyalikh, D V; Zhilin, V M; Ossipyan, Yu A; Bredow, T; Mertig, I; Knupfer, M

    2008-01-21

    The electronic structure of the organic semiconductor copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) has been determined by a combination of conventional and resonant photoemission, near-edge x-ray absorption, as well as by the first-principles calculations. The experimentally obtained electronic valence band structure of CuPc is in very good agreement with the calculated density of states results, allowing the derivation of detailed site specific information.

  8. Peripheral Substitution of a Near-IR-Absorbing Soluble Phthalocyanine Using "Click" Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mayukh, Mayank; Lu, Chin-Wei; Hernandez, Edgardo; McGrath, Dominic V.

    2011-06-10

    A series of near-IR-absorbing soluble phthalocyanines (Pcs) with eight alkyne moieties as side chains of the chromophore have been synthesized. One of these Pcs has been used as a scaffold for functional group modification using alkyne–azide click chemistry with various azides. This led to a small library of Pcs with photo and thermal crosslinkable, dendritic, and hydrophilic moieties starting from a single Pc molecule. A patterned thin film was fabricated by photocrosslinking one of these Pc derivatives.

  9. Biological decolorization of reactive anthraquinone and phthalocyanine dyes under various oxidation-reduction conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young H; Matthews, Rosalyn D; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2006-02-01

    The decolorization of two anthraquinone dyes (Reactive Blue 4 [RB4] and Reactive Blue 19 [RB19]) and two phthalocyanine dyes (Reactive Blue 7 [RB7] and Reactive Blue 21 [RB21]) was investigated at an initial dye concentration of 300 mg/L using an unacclimated, enrichment culture. The culture was fed a mixture of organic compounds and maintained initially under aerobic conditions, and then progressively developed anoxic/ anaerobic conditions. Biotransformation-related decolorization of the dyes did not take place under aerobic conditions, but use of the feed organic mixture and biomass production by the enrichment culture were not affected. Complete ammonia removal occurred in the control and all dye-amended cultures. The development and extent of nitrification were much lower in the latter cultures, in which ammonia removal via air stripping was the dominant mechanism. Prolonged incubation of the culture under anoxic/anaerobic conditions with multiple carbon source additions resulted in a high decolorization extent of anthraquinone dyes (over 84%) and only partial decolorization of phthalocyanine dyes (49 to 66%). Development of significant methanogenic activity took place in the control and, to a lesser extent, in the two phthalocyanine dye-amended cultures, but the anthraquinone dyes severely inhibited the development of methanogenic activity. The RB4 and RB19 decolorization was attributed to nonreversible, microbially mediated dye transformation(s), demonstrated by the accumulation of decolorization products with absorbance maxima in the 420- to 460-nm region. The decolorization of RB4 and RB19 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At an initial dye concentration of 300 mg/L, the observed maximum decolorization rate per unit biomass was 9.1 and 37.5 mg dye/mg volatile suspended solids x day for the RB4 and RB19, respectively. Thus, partial decolorization of reactive phthalocyanine dyes and extensive biological decolorization of reactive anthraquinone dyes is

  10. Silicon-naphthalo/phthalocyanine-hybrid sensitizer for efficient red response in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bogyu; Margulis, George Y; Yum, Jun-Ho; Unger, Eva L; Hardin, Brian E; Grätzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D; Sellinger, Alan

    2013-02-15

    Introduction of a naphthalocyanine moiety to phthalocyanine allows for a gradual red shift of the absorption spectrum in the resulting chromophore. Using silicon as a core atom allows for the introduction of additional siloxane side chains which mitigate dye aggregation. A dye-sensitized solar cell with this hybrid sensitizer exhibits a broad and flat IPCE of 80% between 600 and 750 nm and high photocurrent densities of 19.0 mA/cm(2).

  11. Clinical development of liposome-based drugs: formulation, characterization, and therapeutic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsin-I; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2012-01-01

    Research on liposome formulations has progressed from that on conventional vesicles to new generation liposomes, such as cationic liposomes, temperature sensitive liposomes, and virosomes, by modulating the formulation techniques and lipid composition. Many research papers focus on the correlation of blood circulation time and drug accumulation in target tissues with physicochemical properties of liposomal formulations, including particle size, membrane lamellarity, surface charge, permeability, encapsulation volume, shelf time, and release rate. This review is mainly to compare the therapeutic effect of current clinically approved liposome-based drugs with free drugs, and to also determine the clinical effect via liposomal variations in lipid composition. Furthermore, the major preclinical and clinical data related to the principal liposomal formulations are also summarized. PMID:22275822

  12. Etoposide incorporated into camel milk phospholipids liposomes shows increased activity against fibrosarcoma in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmad N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Alsharidah, Mansour S; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  13. Behaviour of liposomes loaded with bovine serum albumin during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weilin; Ye, Aiqian; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Han, Jianzhong; Singh, Harjinder

    2015-05-15

    This study examined the stability of liposomes loaded with negatively charged protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) during in vitro digestion. Zeta-potential and morphology measurements confirmed that BSA-loaded liposomes were successfully prepared, with an encapsulation efficiency of around 34%. The encapsulated BSA and the integrity of the liposomes remained unchanged with time when the liposomes were digested in a simulated gastric environment, suggesting that the liposomal membrane protected the entrapped BSA from pepsin hydrolysis. BSA-loaded liposomes exhibited lower stability in simulated intestinal fluid, as shown by damaged membranes and the release of free fatty acids. Also, lipolysis kinetics revealed that bile salts and ionic strength could facilitate a high level of free fatty acid release. This work further supplemented our knowledge about the effects of gastrointestinal digestion conditions on liposomal properties and provided valuable information for the design of liposome formulations for the food and health care industries.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of cyclodextrin polypseudorotaxane with PEGylated liposome as a sustained release drug carrier

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Kayoko; Higashi, Taishi; Kono, Daichi; Motoyama, Keiichi; Wada, Koki

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cyclodextrins (CDs) can form polypseudorotaxanes (PPRXs) with drugs or drug carriers possessing linear polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). On the other hand, PEGylated liposomes have been utilized as a representative anticancer drug carrier. However, little is known about the formation of CD PPRX with PEGylated liposome. In the present study, we first report the formation of CD PPRX with PEGylated liposome and evaluate it as a sustained release drug carrier. PEGylated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin was disrupted by the addition of α-CD. Meanwhile, γ-CD included two PEG chains and/or one bending PEG chain of PEGylated liposome and formed PPRX without the disruption of the membrane integrity of the PEGylated liposome. Moreover, the release of doxorubicin and/or PEGylated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin from the PPRX was prolonged in accordance with the matrix type release mechanism. These findings suggest the potential of γ-CD PPRX as sustained release carriers for PEGylated liposome products. PMID:25550741

  15. Preparation and evaluation of cyclodextrin polypseudorotaxane with PEGylated liposome as a sustained release drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kayoko; Higashi, Taishi; Kono, Daichi; Motoyama, Keiichi; Wada, Koki; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) can form polypseudorotaxanes (PPRXs) with drugs or drug carriers possessing linear polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). On the other hand, PEGylated liposomes have been utilized as a representative anticancer drug carrier. However, little is known about the formation of CD PPRX with PEGylated liposome. In the present study, we first report the formation of CD PPRX with PEGylated liposome and evaluate it as a sustained release drug carrier. PEGylated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin was disrupted by the addition of α-CD. Meanwhile, γ-CD included two PEG chains and/or one bending PEG chain of PEGylated liposome and formed PPRX without the disruption of the membrane integrity of the PEGylated liposome. Moreover, the release of doxorubicin and/or PEGylated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin from the PPRX was prolonged in accordance with the matrix type release mechanism. These findings suggest the potential of γ-CD PPRX as sustained release carriers for PEGylated liposome products.

  16. Enhanced combination therapy effect on paclitaxel-resistant carcinoma by chloroquine co-delivery via liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Menghua; Xu, Yuzhen; Qiu, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    A novel composite liposomal system co-encapsulating paclitaxel (PTX) with chloroquine phosphate (CQ) was designed for treating PTX-resistant carcinoma. It was confirmed that liposomal CQ can sensitize PTX by means of autophagy inhibition and competitively binding with multidrug-resistance transporters. Furthermore, according to the in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis assay, real-time observation of cellular uptake, and in vivo tissue distribution study, co-encapsulation of PTX and CQ in liposomes was validated as superior to the mixture of PTX liposome plus CQ liposome due to the simultaneous delivery and synergetic effect of the two drugs. Consequently, this composite liposome achieved significantly stronger anticancer efficacy in vivo than the PTX liposome plus CQ liposome mixture. This study helps to guide and enlighten ongoing and future clinical trials about the optimal administration modes for drug combination therapy. PMID:26543365

  17. Liposomal formulations of amphotericin B: differences according to the scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Azanza, José Ramón; Sádada, Belén; Reis, Joana

    2015-12-01

    This article presents an overview of the characteristics of liposomes as drug carriers, particularly in relation to liposomal formulations of amphotericin B. General features regarding structure, liposome-cell interactions, stability, encapsulation of active substances and elimination of liposomes are described. Up to the present time extensive efforts to produce similar or bioequivalent products of amphotericin B formulations, in particular in the case of liposomal amphotericin B, have been unsuccessful in spite of having a very similar composition and even an apparently identical manufacturing process. Guidelines for the development of generic liposomal formulations developed by the FDA and EMA are also summarized. Based on the available evidence of the composition of liposomes, any differences in the manufacturing process even if the same lipid composition is used may result in different final products. Therefore, it seems unreasonable to infer that all amphotericin B liposomal formulations are equal in efficacy and safety.

  18. Enhanced combination therapy effect on paclitaxel-resistant carcinoma by chloroquine co-delivery via liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Menghua; Xu, Yuzhen; Qiu, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    A novel composite liposomal system co-encapsulating paclitaxel (PTX) with chloroquine phosphate (CQ) was designed for treating PTX-resistant carcinoma. It was confirmed that liposomal CQ can sensitize PTX by means of autophagy inhibition and competitively binding with multidrug-resistance transporters. Furthermore, according to the in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis assay, real-time observation of cellular uptake, and in vivo tissue distribution study, co-encapsulation of PTX and CQ in liposomes was validated as superior to the mixture of PTX liposome plus CQ liposome due to the simultaneous delivery and synergetic effect of the two drugs. Consequently, this composite liposome achieved significantly stronger anticancer efficacy in vivo than the PTX liposome plus CQ liposome mixture. This study helps to guide and enlighten ongoing and future clinical trials about the optimal administration modes for drug combination therapy.

  19. Time-resolved spectroscopic studies of sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine triplet states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Mary S. C.; Beeby, A.; Bishop, Steven M.; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Parker, Andrew W.; Phillips, David

    1992-04-01

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of sulphonated aluminum and zinc phthalocyanines have been investigated in a range of solvents and model biological systems. Anomalous effects are observed upon deuteration of the solvent and addition of fluoride ions. In D2O the excited singlet and triplet state lifetimes and quantum yields of fluorescence and triplet state formation are increased relative to H2O. No solvent isotope effect is observed between CH3OH and CH3OD. It is proposed that relaxation of the excited state involves a tunnelling type interaction in which the phthalocyanine's highly energetic metal-axial ligand stretching vibrations are coupled to the HO-H or DO-D stretching vibrations. A significant increase in triplet lifetimes of phthalocyanine sensitizers bound to protein substrates is observed which is a function of the degree of sulphonation. The implications of these results to the determination of the quantum yields of singlet oxygen formation in D2O and lipophilic environments are discussed.

  20. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hernandez, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; Garcia-Cabezon, Cristina; Martin-Pedrosa, Fernando; del Valle, Isabel; de Saja, Jose Antonio; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz

    2015-01-01

    An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM) modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo). The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS) evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately. PMID:26610494