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Sample records for liquid chromatography columns

  1. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  2. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  3. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  4. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  5. Electrically assisted capillary liquid chromatography using a silica monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Bergström, Edmund T; Goodall, David M

    2010-04-09

    A silica monolithic capillary column was linked to an open capillary of the same internal diameter via a Teflon sleeve to form a duplex column to investigate the combination of chromatography and electrophoresis in the mode of electrically assisted capillary liquid chromatography (eCLC). Using a commercial CE instrument with an 8.5 cm long, 100 microm i.d. reversed phase silica monolithic section and a window 1.5 cm beyond the end of this in a 21.5 cm open section, a minimum plate height of 9 microm was obtained in capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) mode at a low driving pressure of 50 psi. In eCLC mode, high speed and high resolution separations of acidic and basic compounds were achieved with selectivity tuning based on the flexible combination of pressure (0-100 psi) and voltage. Taking advantage of the excellent permeability of silica monolithic columns, use of a step flow gradient enabled elution of compounds with different charge state. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Cordyceps by multi-column liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengming; Li, Shaoping

    2017-03-01

    Cordyceps is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been used in China for hundreds of years. In the present study a multi-column liquid chromatography (MC-LC) system was developed for the qualitative analysis of macromolecules and micromolecules in Cordyceps. The MC-LC system includes a size exclusion pre-column, a size exclusion column (SEC) and a reversed phase column (RP) which were controlled by column-switching valves. The sample was separated by the size exclusion pre-column into two fractions (macromolecules and micromolecules). These fractions were further separated on SEC and RP columns, respectively. A diode array detector (DAD) and a mass spectrometer (MS) were used to detect the components. This MC-LC method was utilized for analysis of Cordyceps samples. Two macromolecular peaks and 15 micromolecular peaks were found in Cordyceps, and 11 of the micromolecular peaks were identified as adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP), phenylalanine, uridine, hypoxanthine, inosine, guanine, guanosine, deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate (dAMP), adenosine, adenine and cordycepin (or its isomer). This method is useful for quality control of Cordyceps.

  7. Purification of pituitary autoantigen by column liquid chromatography and chromatofocusing

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Jakub; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Bączyk, Maciej; Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pituitary autoantibodies can be determined both in patients with pituitary disease as well as patients with autoimmune endocrine diseases. The purpose of the study was to isolate and purify pituitary autoantigen using sera of patients and the microsomal fraction of the pituitary. Material and methods To isolate a pituitary autoantigen, patient sera were used, which showed a strong immune response to pituitary antigens. Pituitary microsomal fractions were prepared from pituitary tissue homogenates. In the study, sera of patients with pituitary disease, Addison and Graves’ disease were used. The initial stages were carried out by affinity chromatography on CN -Br sepharose column whereas purification was continued by column liquid chromatography on AcA54 Ultrogel. Chromatofocusing was performed by Polybuffer exchanger PBE 94. Results 125I-labeled pituitary antigens after isolation appeared in column chromatography in three peaks. The first peak contained 50-70 kDa proteins, the second peak – 17 to 22 kDa proteins and the third peak contains 125-iodides. Three fractions obtained from filtration on Ultrogel were separated in a polyacrylamide gel. In the first peak two bands 67 and 55 kDa appeared. The second peak contained low molecular weight substances, and the third peak contained 125I. The first peak from Ultrogel was isolated by chromatofocusing – the first peak with pH 5.9 and the second one with pH 4.9. Conclusions Isolation and purification of pituitary autoantigen with the use of column liquid chromatography and chromatofocusing resulted in obtainment of two antigenic proteins of specific gravity of 67 and 55 kDa. PMID:26155099

  8. Purification of pituitary autoantigen by column liquid chromatography and chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Gut, Paweł; Fischbach, Jakub; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Bączyk, Maciej; Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary autoantibodies can be determined both in patients with pituitary disease as well as patients with autoimmune endocrine diseases. The purpose of the study was to isolate and purify pituitary autoantigen using sera of patients and the microsomal fraction of the pituitary. To isolate a pituitary autoantigen, patient sera were used, which showed a strong immune response to pituitary antigens. Pituitary microsomal fractions were prepared from pituitary tissue homogenates. In the study, sera of patients with pituitary disease, Addison and Graves' disease were used. The initial stages were carried out by affinity chromatography on CN -Br sepharose column whereas purification was continued by column liquid chromatography on AcA54 Ultrogel. Chromatofocusing was performed by Polybuffer exchanger PBE 94. (125)I-labeled pituitary antigens after isolation appeared in column chromatography in three peaks. The first peak contained 50-70 kDa proteins, the second peak - 17 to 22 kDa proteins and the third peak contains (125)-iodides. Three fractions obtained from filtration on Ultrogel were separated in a polyacrylamide gel. In the first peak two bands 67 and 55 kDa appeared. The second peak contained low molecular weight substances, and the third peak contained (125)I. The first peak from Ultrogel was isolated by chromatofocusing - the first peak with pH 5.9 and the second one with pH 4.9. Isolation and purification of pituitary autoantigen with the use of column liquid chromatography and chromatofocusing resulted in obtainment of two antigenic proteins of specific gravity of 67 and 55 kDa.

  9. Group type analysis of asphalt by column liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Yang, J.; Xue, Y.; Li, Y.

    2008-07-01

    An improved analysis method for characterization of asphalt was established. The method is based on column chromatography technique. The asphalts were separated into four groups: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, quantitatively. About 0.1 g of sample was required in each analysis. About 20 mL of n-heptanes was used to separate out saturates first. Then about 35 mL of n-heptanes/dichloromethane (.5, v/v) mixture was used to separate out aromatics. About 30 mL of dichloromethane/tetrahydrofuran (1/3, v/v) mixture was used to separate out resin. The quality of the separation was confirmed by infrared spectra (IR) and {sup 1}H NMR analysis. The model compounds, tetracosan for saturates, dibenz(o)anthracen for aromatics, and acetanilide for resins were used for verification. The IR and {sup 1}H NMR analysis of the prepared fractions from the column liquid chromatography were in good agreement that of pure reagents.

  10. Effect of column dimension on observed column efficiency in very high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Naijun; Bradley, Ashley C

    2012-10-26

    The effect of extra-column volume on observed linear velocity was investigated for columns of various internal diameters in very high pressure liquid chromatography. The results showed that the observed linear velocities were approximately 4.5, 9.5, 16.8, and 39.5% lower than the linear velocities corrected for the extra-column volume contribution for 4.6, 3.0, 2.1, and 1.0mm internal diameter columns, respectively. An empirical relationship between extra-column band broadening and extra-column volume was obtained using 50 cm long tubings of various internal diameters. The peak variance from the extra-column volume is near linearly proportional to the square of the extra-column volume for tubings with 0.0635-0.178 mm (0.025-0.07 in.) i.d. using a 50/50 acetonitrile/water mobile phase at flow rates greater than 0.3 mL/min. The effect of column internal diameter and column length on observed efficiency was studied using 50mm columns with four different column internal diameters and 2.1mm i.d columns with three different lengths. The results showed that the observed column efficiencies for 3.0, 2.1, and 1.0mm internal diameter columns were 18, 33, and 73% lower than that for a 4.6mm internal diameter column for benzophenone (k=5.5), respectively. An approximate 20% decrease in theoretical plate number was observed for propiophenone (k=3.3) using a 50 mm × 2.1 mm column packed with 1.7 μm particles compared to a 150 mm × 2.1 mm column packed with 5.0 μm particles, while the former column provided 9 fold faster separation. It is the column to extra column volume ratio instead of absolute extra-column volume that determines the degree of extra-column band-broadening in VHPLC.

  11. 3D printed metal columns for capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sandron, S; Heery, B; Gupta, V; Collins, D A; Nesterenko, E P; Nesterenko, P N; Talebi, M; Beirne, S; Thompson, F; Wallace, G G; Brabazon, D; Regan, F; Paull, B

    2014-12-21

    Coiled planar capillary chromatography columns (0.9 mm I.D. × 60 cm L) were 3D printed in stainless steel (316L), and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys (external dimensions of ~5 × 30 × 58 mm), and either slurry packed with various sized reversed-phase octadecylsilica particles, or filled with an in situ prepared methacrylate based monolith. Coiled printed columns were coupled directly with 30 × 30 mm Peltier thermoelectric direct contact heater/cooler modules. Preliminary results show the potential of using such 3D printed columns in future portable chromatographic devices.

  12. Column properties and flow profiles of a flat, wide column for high-pressure liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Mriziq, Khaled S; Guiochon, Georges A

    2008-01-01

    The design and the construction of a pressurized, flat, wide column for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are described. This apparatus, which is derived from instruments that implement over-pressured thin layer chromatography, can carry out only uni-dimensional chromatographic separations. However, it is intended to be the first step in the development of more powerful instruments that will be able to carry out two-dimensional chromatographic separations, in which case, the first separation would be a space-based separation, LC{sup x}, taking place along one side of the bed and the second separation would be a time-based separation, LC{sup t}, as in classical HPLC but proceeding along the flat column, not along a tube. The apparatus described consists of a pressurization chamber made of a Plexiglas block and a column chamber made of stainless steel. These two chambers are separated by a thin Mylar membrane. The column chamber is a cavity which is filled with a thick layer (ca. 1 mm) of the stationary phase. Suitable solvent inlet and outlet ports are located on two opposite sides of the sorbent layer. The design allows the preparation of a homogenous sorbent layer suitable to be used as a chromatographic column, the achievement of effective seals of the stationary phase layer against the chamber edges, and the homogenous flow of the mobile phase along the chamber. The entire width of the sorbent layer area can be used to develop separations or elute samples. The reproducible performance of the apparatus is demonstrated by the chromatographic separations of different dyes. This instrument is essentially designed for testing detector arrays to be used in a two-dimensional LC{sup x} x LC{sup t} instrument. The further development of two-dimension separation chromatographs based on the apparatus described is sketched.

  13. Comparison of the kinetic performance of different columns for fast liquid chromatography, emphasizing the contributions of column end structure.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Nándor; Miyazaki, Shota; Ohira, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Nobuo; Felinger, Attila

    2016-11-18

    The kinetic performance of five chromatographic columns designed for fast liquid chromatography with different column packing materials - including fully porous (2.0 and 1.9μm particles), core-shell (2.6μm particles) or monolithic packings - with identical column dimensions (2.1×50mm) was tested. Since the tested monolithic column showed systematically better efficiency for early eluting compounds than the packed columns, an additional band broadening effect was suspected for the packed columns. The effects of the presence of the frits and the bed heterogeneity of the columns near the frits were characterized by a column-reversal method. It has been shown that significant differences - even 20-25% difference in efficiency - can exist between the two ends of the packed columns, while the monolithic column shows rather similar performance at either column end.

  14. Column selectivity in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. VI. Columns with embedded or end-capping polar groups.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N S; Gilroy, J; Dolan, J W; Snyder, L R

    2004-02-13

    A previous model of column selectivity for reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) has been applied to an additional 21 columns with embedded or end-capping polar groups (EPGs). Embedded-polar-group columns exhibit a significantly different selectivity vs. non-EPG, type-B columns, generally showing preferential retention of hydrogen-bond donors, as well as decreased retention for hydrogen-bond acceptors or ionized bases. EPG-columns are also generally less hydrophobic (more polar) than are non-EPG-columns. Interestingly, columns with polar end-capping tend to more closely resemble non-EPG columns, suggesting that the polar group has less effect on column selectivity when used to end-cap the column versus the case of an embedded polar group. Column selectivity data reported here for EPG-columns can be combined with previously reported values for non-EPG columns to provide a database of 154 different columns. This enables a comparison of any two of these columns in terms of selectivity. However, comparisons that involve EPG columns are more approximate.

  15. Evaluation of a silicon oxynitride hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column in saccharide and glycoside separations.

    PubMed

    Wan, Huihui; Sheng, Qianying; Zhong, Hongmin; Guo, Xiujie; Fu, Qing; Liu, Yanfang; Xue, Xingya; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-01

    The retention characteristics of a silicon oxynitride stationary phase for carbohydrate separation were studied in hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode. Four saccharides including mono-, di-, and trisaccharides were employed to investigate the effects of water content and buffer concentration in the mobile phase on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography retention. For the tested saccharides, the silicon oxynitride column demonstrated excellent performance in terms of separation efficiency, hydrophilicity, and interesting separation selectivity for carbohydrates compared to the bare silica stationary phase. Finally, the silicon oxynitride hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column was employed in the separation of complex samples of fructooligosaccharides, saponins, and steviol glycoside from natural products. The resulting chromatograms demonstrated good separation efficiency and longer retention compared with silica, which further confirmed the advantages and potential application of silicon oxynitride stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Stationary phase modulation in liquid chromatography through the serial coupling of columns: A review.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Segura, T; Torres-Lapasió, J R; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2016-06-07

    Liquid chromatography with single columns often does not succeed in the analysis of complex samples, in terms of resolution and analysis time. A relatively simple solution to enhance chromatographic resolution is the modulation of the stationary phase through the serial coupling of columns. This can be implemented with any type of column using compatible elution conditions and conventional instruments. This review describes the key features of column coupling and published procedures, where two or more columns were coupled in series to solve separation problems. In all reports, the authors could not resolve their samples with single columns, whereas significant enhancement in chromatographic performance was obtained when the columns were combined. Particularly interesting is the reduction in the analysis time in the isocratic mode, which alleviates the "general elution problem" of liquid chromatography, and may represent a stimulus for the proposal of new procedures, especially in combination with mass spectrometric, electrochemical and refractometric detection. Developments proposed to make the serial coupling of columns useful in routine and research laboratories are outlined, including optimisation strategies that facilitate the selection of the appropriate column combination and elution conditions (solvent content, flow rate or temperature) in both isocratic and gradient modes. The availability of zero dead volume couplers, able to connect standard columns, and the commercialisation of short columns with multiple lengths, have expanded the possibilities of success.

  17. Characterization of the efficiency of microbore liquid chromatography columns by van Deemter and kinetic plot analysis.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Terence; Loeker, Denise; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-10-01

    The efficiency of miniaturized liquid chromatography columns with inner diameters between 200 and 300 μm has been investigated using a dedicated micro-liquid chromatography system. Fully porous, core-shell and monolithic commercially available stationary phases were compared applying van Deemter and kinetic plot analysis. The sub-2 μm fully porous as well as the 2.7 μm core-shell particle packed columns showed superior efficiency and similar values for the minimum reduced plate heights (2.56-2.69) before correction for extra-column contribution compared to normal-bore columns. Moreover, the influence of extra-column contribution was investigated to demonstrate the difference between apparent and intrinsic efficiency by replacing the column by a zero dead volume union to determine the band spreading caused by the system. It was demonstrated that 72% of the intrinsic efficiency could be reached. The results of the kinetic plot analysis indicate the superior performance of the sub-2 μm fully porous particle packed column for ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

  18. Halo columns: new generation technology for high speed liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Gaitonde, Vinay D; Grahn, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Fast speed and high sample loading and the pressing demands of industries and researchers are compelling scientists and manufacturers to explore the new horizons in column technology. Recently, superficially porous silica particle columns are manufactured with some salient features such as super fast speed, sharp peaks, good sample loading, and low backpressure. The commercially available columns are Halo (Advanced Material Technology, Wilmington, DE), Express (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA), and Proshell 120 (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA). Halo columns are of C(8), C(18), RP Amide, and HILIC types with 2.7 microm over all diameters, 0.5 microm porous thick layers containing 90 A as pore diameter, and 150 m(2)/g surface area. These columns have been used for fast separation of low molecular weight compounds with some exception for large molecules such as protein, peptides, and DNA. The present article describes the importance of these state-of-the-art superficially porous silica particles based columns with special emphasis on Halo columns. The different aspects of these columns such as structures, mechanism of separations, applications, and comparison, with conventional columns have been discussed.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of a Polymeric Monolithic Column for Use in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindis, Michael P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.

    2011-01-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment, most often done in the undergraduate analytical instrumentation laboratory course, generally illustrates reversed-phase chromatography using a commercial C[subscript]18 silica column. To avoid the expense of periodic column replacement and introduce a choice of columns with different…

  20. Preparation and Characterization of a Polymeric Monolithic Column for Use in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindis, Michael P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.

    2011-01-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment, most often done in the undergraduate analytical instrumentation laboratory course, generally illustrates reversed-phase chromatography using a commercial C[subscript]18 silica column. To avoid the expense of periodic column replacement and introduce a choice of columns with different…

  1. Orthogonal separation on one beta-cyclodextrin column by switching reversed-phase liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jia-tao; Guo, Zhi-mou; Shi, Hui; Gu, Jiang-ping; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xin-miao

    2010-06-15

    A dual retention combined with reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) has been observed on beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) bonded stationary phase. A typical U-shaped retention curve was achieved owing to dual retention mechanism. Based on this observation, a beta-CD column can be operated under reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) modes. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) analysis can be realized on just a beta-CD column by switching these two different separation modes. In this study, off-line 2D-LC analysis for a natural product was carried out to prove the orthogonal separation between RP-LC and HILIC modes on a Click beta-CD column. Herba Hedyotis Diffusae, the whole grass of Hedyotis Diffusae wild was extracted with water, pretreated with macroporous resin and then first separated at RP-LC mode on the Click beta-CD column to obtain successive fractions, which were then reanalyzed at HILIC mode on the same Click beta-CD column. The result proved that both separation modes on the Click beta-CD column have good retention and peak shape, and these two separation modes have good orthogonality. 2D-LC analysis revealed abundant information in the natural product. Especially numerous minor components were enriched and separated. The mobile phase used in RP-LC and HILIC modes can be same and the switch between these two separation modes is easily realized by changing the ratio of the acetonitrile and water. Hence the mobile phase in this 2D-LC system is completely compatible. This advantage makes this combination is an appropriate 2D-LC method for the solutes having retention at both separation modes.

  2. Robust naphthyl methacrylate monolithic column for high performance liquid chromatography of a wide range of solutes.

    PubMed

    Jonnada, Murthy; El Rassi, Ziad

    2015-08-28

    An organic monolithic column based on the co-polymerization of 2-naphthyl methacrylate (NAPM) as the functional monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker was introduced for high performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPC). The co-polymerization was performed in situ in a stainless steel column of 4.6mm i.d. in the presence of a ternary porogen consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. This monolithic column (referred to as naphthyl methacrylate monolithic column or NMM column) showed high mechanical stability at relatively high mobile phase flow velocity indicating that the column has excellent hydrodynamic characteristics. To characterize the NMM column, different probe molecules including alkyl benzenes, and aniline, benzene, toluene and phenol derivatives were chromatographed on the column and the results in terms of k, selectivity and plate counts were compared to those obtained on an octadecyl silica (ODS) column in order to assess the presence of π-π and hydrophobic interactions on the NMM column under otherwise the same elution conditions. The NMM column offered additional π-π interactions with aromatic molecules in addition to hydrophobic interactions under RPC elution conditions. Run-to-run and column-to-column reproducibility of solute k values were evaluated, and percent relative standard deviation of <1% and ∼2-3.5%, respectively, were obtained. Six standard proteins were readily separated on the NMM column using shallow (30min at 1.0mL/min), steep (10min at 1.0mL/min) and ultra steep (1min at 3.0mL/min) linear gradient elution at increasing ACN concentration in the mobile phase using a 10cm×4.6mm i.d. column in case of shallow and steep linear gradients and a 3cm×4.6mm i.d. column for ultra steep linear gradient.

  3. Methacrylate-bonded covalent-organic framework monolithic columns for high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Hua; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2017-01-06

    Covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) are a newfangled class of intriguing microporous materials. Considering their unique properties, COFs should be promising as packing materials for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the irregular shape and sub-micrometer size of COFs synthesized via the traditional methods render the main obstacles for the application of COFs in HPLC. Herein, we report the preparation of methacrylate-bonded COF monolithic columns for HPLC to overcome the above obstacles. The prepared COF bonded monolithic columns not only show good homogeneity and permeability, but also give high column efficiency, good resolution and precision for HPLC separation of small molecules including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, anilines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benzothiophenes. Compared with the bare polymer monolithic column, the COF bonded monolithic columns show enhanced hydrophobic, π-π and hydrogen bond interactions in reverse phase HPLC. The results reveal the great potential of COF bonded monoliths for HPLC and COFs in separation sciences.

  4. Quantification of PSP toxins in toxic shellfish matrices using post-column oxidation liquid chromatography and pre-column oxidation liquid chromatography methods suggests post-column oxidation liquid chromatography as a good monitoring method of choice.

    PubMed

    Rey, Verónica; Botana, Ana M; Botana, Luis M

    2017-04-01

    Different shellfish samples were analyzed by Pre- and Post-Column Oxidation Liquid Chromatography to compare the toxins profiles and get information about the degree of accomplishment of both methods. Comparison of the results obtained, the linear correlation coefficient (r(2) = 0.94) and the paired t test (two tails, α = 0.05), indicated that there were not significant differences between both sets of data. Nevertheless, important differences related to toxins profiles were found: it was remarkable the difference in results for both Gonyautoxins 1 and 4 and Decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3, depending on the method of choice, due to an overestimation in the Pre-Column method. It was necessary to modify the elution conditions in the Post-Column method to avoid the interference of matrix peaks at retention times closer to the retention times of the calibrants, mostly when working with oyster and scallop matrices, although it is a good method to use routinely.

  5. Characterization of peak capacity of microbore liquid chromatography columns using gradient kinetic plots.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Terence; Blaesing, Christina; Jaeger, Martin; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-02-17

    The performance of micro-liquid chromatography columns with an inner diameter of 0.3mm was investigated on a dedicated micro-LC system for gradient elution. Core-shell as well as fully porous particle packed columns were compared on the basis of peak capacity and gradient kinetic plot limits. The results for peak capacity showed the superior performance of columns packed with sub-2μm fully porous particles compared to 3.0μm fully porous and 2.7μm core-shell particles within a range of different gradient time to column void time ratios. For ultra-fast chromatography a maximum peak capacity of 16 can be obtained using a 30s gradient for the sub-2μm fully porous particle packed column. A maximum peak capacity of 121 can be achieved using a 5min gradient. In addition, the influence of an alternative detector cell on the basis of optical waveguide technology and contributing less to system variance was investigated showing an increased peak capacity for all applied gradient time/column void time ratios. Finally, the influence of pressure was evaluated indicating increased peak capacity for maximum performance whereas a limited benefit for ultra-fast chromatography with gradient times below 30s was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High-performance liquid chromatography of histamine and 1-methylhistamine with on-column fluorescence derivatization.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Horie, M; Nose, N; Nakagomi, K; Nakazawa, H

    1992-03-20

    An on-column fluorometric derivatization method was developed for the determination of histamine and 1-methylhistamine (HMs) by high-performance liquid chromatography. The system for the derivatization consisted only of a commercially available single-plunger pump and a reversed-phase C18 column supported on synthetic polymer with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and alkaline borate buffer solution containing o-phthalaldehyde as a derivatization reagent. It required no additional reaction system as for a post-column derivatization method. Injected HMs might be derivatized to a fluorophore on the inlet site of the high-performance liquid chromatographic column, followed by chromatography on the same column. Optimization of the on-column reaction conditions resulted in a simple and sensitive analytical method for the determination of HMs with excellent reproducibility and linearity of 0.05-5 micrograms/ml of both HMs. Application of this method to the determination of HMs in food samples resulted in a limit of quantification of 0.05 mg/100 g and in a greater than 95% overall mean recovery at a fortification of 0.1 mg/g of both HMs. This method was furthermore applicable to the determination of histamine released from rat peritoneal mast cells.

  7. Evaluation of column hardware on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of phosphorylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Uchida, Takeharu; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2015-02-13

    The influences of column hardware, such as chromatographic tubes and frits, on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of phosphorylated compounds were evaluated. The signal to noise ratio (S/N) and the intensity of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) using a glass lined tube and polyethylene frit (GL-PE) column was approximately 170 and 90 times higher, respectively, than those using conventional stainless steel tube and stainless steel frit (S-S) column. In addition, the retention time of FAD using GL-PE column was the shortest compared to other columns. Interaction between phosphorylated compounds and metal ions in the flow path in the S-S column was stronger than that between them and the GL-PE column. Thus, the metal ions in the flow path in GL-PE column were low. Since the specific surface area of a pair of frits was 70 times larger than that of a chromatographic tube (150 mm×2.1 mm), the frits were found to have more effective improvement of the S/N as well as the intensity than the chromatographic tubes, when phosphorylated compounds were analyzed by LC-MS. When the evaluated phosphorylated compounds were analyzed by LC-MS(/MS) using a GL-PE column, the intensity and S/N were increased.

  8. Automation of nanoscale microcapillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a vented column.

    PubMed

    Licklider, Lawrence J; Thoreen, Carson C; Peng, Junmin; Gygi, Steven P

    2002-07-01

    To fully automate the sample introduction step for nanoscale microcapillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses, 75 microm i.d. x 14 cm capillary columns were interfaced with a commercial autosampler instrument using a novel procedure which allowed dilute peptide samples to be transferred from the AS loop injector to the nanoscale column at flow rates up to 5 microL min(-1). On-column enrichment and desalting was demonstrated for large sample volumes (>40 microL) by constructing a vent 2 cm after the entrance to the packed bed of 5-microm ODS-AQ modified silica. Salts and nonretained solutes were removed via the vent, which allowed for column washing independent of the continuation of the bed into the electrospray source. Separations of test peptide mixtures demonstrated 50-nL elution peak volumes with low- to subfemtomole detection levels. In addition, a highly complex peptide mixture (outer membrane preparation from Psuedemonas aeruginosa) was efficiently separated with more than 100 proteins identified from a single reversed-phase LC-MS/MS analysis. Finally, the vented column (V-column) was utilized for on-line separations in a multidimensional chromatography/tandem MS experiment where large numbers of strong cation exchange chromatography fractions from a trypsinized yeast lysate were desalted, concentrated, and analyzed in a completely automated fashion. The procedures for constructing and using a V-column require minimal changes in current methods and equipment for nano-LC-MS analyses using columns of 100-microm diameter and smaller.

  9. Post-column labeling techniques in amino acid analysis by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rigas, Pantelis G

    2013-10-01

    Amino acid analysis (AAA) has always presented an analytical challenge in terms of sample preparation, separation, and detection. Because of the vast number of amino acids, various separation methods have been applied taking into consideration the large differences in their chemical structures, which span from nonpolar to highly polar side chains. Numerous separation methods have been developed in the past 60 years, and impressive achievements have been made in the fields of separation, derivatization, and detection of amino acids (AAs). Among the separation methods, liquid chromatography (LC) prevailed in the AAA field using either pre-column or post-column labeling techniques in order to improve either separation of AAs or selectivity and sensitivity of AAA. Of the two approaches, the post-column technique is a more rugged and reproducible method and provides excellent AAs separation relatively free from interferences. This review considers current separations combined with post-column labeling techniques for AAA, comparison with the pre-column methods, and the strategies used to develop effective post-column methodology. The focus of the article is on LC methods coupled with post-column labeling techniques and studying the reactions to achieve optimum post-column derivatization (PCD) conditions in order to increase sensitivity and selectivity using various types of detectors (UV-Vis, fluorescence, electrochemical etc.) and illustrating the versatility of the PCD methods for practical analysis.

  10. Column switching liquid chromatography and post-column photochemically fluorescence detection to determine imidacloprid and 6-chloronicotinic acid in honeybees.

    PubMed

    García, M D Gil; Galera, M Martínez; Valverde, R Santiago; Galanti, A; Girotti, S

    2007-04-13

    The determination of imidacloprid and its main metabolite (6-chloronicotinic acid) in honeybees was performed by liquid chromatography with post-column photochemical derivatisation in alkaline medium and fluorescence detection. The compounds were extracted from honeybees with acetone under ultrasound conditions prior to liquid-liquid partition with dichloromethane. The separation of extract components was performed using a 50 mm x 4.6 mm i.d. short column packed with 5 microm Aquasil C(18) using an acetonitrile:water gradient program as mobile phase. Injection of samples in 0.1 mol L(-1) H(3)PO(4)/KH(2)PO(4) buffer solution (pH 3) improved the chromatographic separation between the most polar components of matrix and the 6-chloronicotinic acid. Matrix components were removed to waste using an on-line clean-up method previously to post-column reaction. Limits of quantification were 0.3 and 5.0 microg L(-1) (corresponding to 1.2 and 20.0 microg kg(-1) in the honeybee sample) for imidacloprid and 6-chloronicotinic acid, respectively. The recovery was ranged from 80.2 to 91.7% with a relative standard deviation lower than 9.0%.

  11. Core-Shell Columns in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Food Analysis Applications.

    PubMed

    Preti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The increased separation efficiency provided by the new technology of column packed with core-shell particles in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted in their widespread diffusion in several analytical fields: from pharmaceutical, biological, environmental, and toxicological. The present paper presents their most recent applications in food analysis. Their use has proved to be particularly advantageous for the determination of compounds at trace levels or when a large amount of samples must be analyzed fast using reliable and solvent-saving apparatus. The literature hereby described shows how the outstanding performances provided by core-shell particles column on a traditional HPLC instruments are comparable to those obtained with a costly UHPLC instrumentation, making this novel column a promising key tool in food analysis.

  12. Core-Shell Columns in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Food Analysis Applications

    PubMed Central

    Preti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The increased separation efficiency provided by the new technology of column packed with core-shell particles in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted in their widespread diffusion in several analytical fields: from pharmaceutical, biological, environmental, and toxicological. The present paper presents their most recent applications in food analysis. Their use has proved to be particularly advantageous for the determination of compounds at trace levels or when a large amount of samples must be analyzed fast using reliable and solvent-saving apparatus. The literature hereby described shows how the outstanding performances provided by core-shell particles column on a traditional HPLC instruments are comparable to those obtained with a costly UHPLC instrumentation, making this novel column a promising key tool in food analysis. PMID:27143972

  13. Flow rate dependent extra-column variance from injection in capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pankaj; Liu, Kun; Sharma, Sonika; Lawson, John S; Dennis Tolley, H; Lee, Milton L

    2015-02-06

    Efficiency and resolution in capillary liquid chromatography (LC) can be significantly affected by extra-column band broadening, especially for isocratic separations. This is particularly a concern in evaluating column bed structure using non-retained test compounds. The band broadening due to an injector supplied with a commercially available capillary LC system was characterized from experimental measurements. The extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to have an extra-column contribution independent of the injection volume, showing an exponential dependence on flow rate. The overall extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to vary from 34 to 23 nL. A new mathematical model was derived that explains this exponential contribution of extra-column variance on chromatographic performance. The chromatographic efficiency was compromised by ∼130% for a non-retained analyte because of injection valve dead volume. The measured chromatographic efficiency was greatly improved when a new nano-flow pumping system with integrated injection valve was used.

  14. Octyl-type monolithic columns of 530 microm i.d. for capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojia; Wang, Qiuquan; Yan, Hua; Huang, Ying; Huang, Benli

    2005-01-14

    A novel monolithic capillary column (530 microm i.d.) was prepared for capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) by in situ copolymerization of octyl methacrylate (MAOE) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of a porogen solvent containing 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water with azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator. The influences of the contents of the porogen solvent, EDMA and the various concentration ratios of 1-propanol to 1,4-butanediol in the polymerization mixture on the morphology, porosity, globule size, stability and column efficiency were investigated. The morphology and pore size distribution of monolithic capillary columns were characterized by SEM and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Chromatographic evaluations of the columns were performed under CLC mode. The results showed that good permeability and stability can be obtained under optimal experimental conditions. The separation results of some acid, neutral and basic analytes demonstrated the hydrophobicity and low affinity to basic analytes of the new column. Three metal ions, i.e. Mg(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) were also separated under ion-pair mode on the new monolithic capillary column and the results were acceptable.

  15. Stationary phase optimized selectivity liquid chromatography: Basic possibilities of serially connected columns using the "PRISMA" principle.

    PubMed

    Nyiredy, Sz; Szucs, Zoltán; Szepesy, L

    2007-07-20

    A new procedure (stationary phase optimized selectivity liquid chromatography: SOS-LC) is described for the optimization of the HPLC stationary phase, using serially connected columns and the principle of the "PRISMA" model. The retention factors (k) of the analytes were determined on three different stationary phases. By use of these data the k values were predicted applying theoretically combined stationary phases. These predictions resulted in numerous intermediate theoretical separations from among which only the optimal one was assembled and tested. The overall selectivity of this separation was better than that of any individual base stationary phase. SOS-LC is independent of the mechanism and the scale of separation.

  16. Effect of extra-column volume on practical chromatographic parameters of sub-2-μm particle-packed columns in ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Naijun; Bradley, Ashley C; Welch, Christopher J; Zhang, Li

    2012-08-01

    Effects of extra-column volume on apparent separation parameters were studied in ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography with columns and inlet connection tubings of various internal diameters (id) using 50-mm long columns packed with 1.8-μm particles under isocratic conditions. The results showed that apparent retention factors were on average 5, 11, 18, and 41% lower than those corrected with extra-column volumes for 4.6-, 3.0-, 2.1-, and 1.0-mm id columns, respectively, when the extra-column volume (11.3 μL) was kept constant. Also, apparent pressures were 31, 16, 12, and 10% higher than those corrected with pressures from extra-column volumes for 4.6-, 3.0-, 2.1-, and 1.0-mm id columns at the respective optimum flow rate for a typical ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography system. The loss in apparent efficiency increased dramatically from 4.6- to 3.0- to 2.1- to 1.0-mm id columns, less significantly as retention factors increased. The column efficiency was significantly improved as the inlet tubing id was decreased for a given column. The results suggest that maximum ratio of extra-column volume to column void volume should be approximately 1:10 for column porosity more than 0.6 and a retention factor more than 5, where 80% or higher of theoretically predicted efficiency could be achieved.

  17. How to select equivalent and complimentary reversed phase liquid chromatography columns from column characterization databases.

    PubMed

    Borges, Endler M

    2014-01-07

    Three RP-LC column characterization protocols [Tanaka et al. (1989), Snyder et al. (PQRI, 2002), and NIST SRM 870 (2000)] were evaluated using both Euclidian distance and Principal Components Analysis to evaluate effectiveness at identifying equivalent columns. These databases utilize specific chromatographic properties such as hydrophobicity, hydrogen bonding, shape/steric selectivity, and ion exchange capacity of stationary phases. The chromatographic parameters of each test were shown to be uncorrelated. Despite this, the three protocols were equally successful in identifying similar and/or dissimilar stationary phases. The veracity of the results has been supported by some real life pharmaceutical separations. The use of Principal Component Analysis to identify similar/dissimilar phases appears to have some limitations in terms of loss of information. In contrast, the use of Euclidian distances is a much more convenient and reliable approach. The use of auto scaled data is favoured over the use of weighted factors as the former data transformation is less affected by the addition or removal of columns from the database. The use of these free databases and their corresponding software tools shown to be valid for identifying similar columns with equivalent chromatographic selectivity and retention as a "backup column". In addition, dissimilar columns with complimentary chromatographic selectivity can be identified for method development screening strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Capillary monolithic titania column for miniaturized liquid chromatography and extraction of organo-phosphorous compounds.

    PubMed

    Abi Jaoudé, Maguy; Randon, Jérôme

    2011-05-01

    A new sol-gel protocol was designed and optimized to produce titanium-dioxide-based columns within confined geometries such as monolithic capillary columns and porous-layer open-tubular columns. A surface pre-treatment of the capillary enabled an efficient anchorage of the monolith to the silica capillary wall during the synthesis. The monolith was further synthesized from a solution containing titanium n-propoxide, hydrochloric acid, N-methylformamide, water, and poly(ethylene oxide) as pore template. The chromatographic application of capillary titania-based columns was demonstrated with the separation of a set of phosphorylated nucleotides as probe molecules using aqueous normal-phase liquid chromatography conditions. Capillary titania monoliths offered a compromise between the high permeability and the important loading capacity needed to potentially achieve miniaturized sample preparations. The specificity of the miniaturized titania monolithic support is illustrated with the specific enrichment of 5'-adenosine mono-phosphate. The monolithic column offered a ten times higher loading capacity of 5'-adenosine mono-phosphate compared with that of the capillary titania porous-layer open-tubular geometry.

  19. Electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Column design, retention processes, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, En -Yi

    1997-10-08

    This work describes the continued development of a new separation technique, electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC), from column design, retention mechanisms to pharmaceutical applications. The introduction section provides a literature review of the technique as well as a brief overview of the research in each of the chapters. This section is followed by four chapters which investigate the issues of EMLC column design, the retention mechanism of monosubstituted aromatic compounds, and the EMLC-based applications to two important classes of pharmaceutical compounds (i.e., corticosteroids and benzodiazepines). These four sections have been removed to process separately for inclusion on the database. The dissertation concludes with a general summary, a prospectus, and a list of references cited in the General Introduction. 32 refs.

  20. Application of Pre-Column Labeling Liquid Chromatography for Canine Plasma-Free Amino Acid Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kazuo; Hirao, Yoshiko; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Murahata, Yusuke; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Ito, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) levels are a useful metric for diagnosing cancer and providing a prognosis. However, the use of analysis of PFAA levels has been limited in the veterinary medicine field. We addressed the application of liquid chromatography (LC) using a pre-column labeling technique for analysis of canine PFAA levels. This method significantly shortened the analysis time relative to conventional methods. No diurnal fluctuations were detected at 9:00 AM in most PFAA levels, and food intake increased the levels of some PFAAs, including valine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and proline. These results indicate that LC with pre-column labeling is useful for measuring canine PFAA levels, for which time of day and interval after food intake must be taken into consideration. PMID:26771650

  1. Determination of fungicide residues in fruits by coupled-column liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Tatiana; Hidalgo, Carmen; López, Francisco J; Hernández, Félix

    2004-06-01

    Coupled-column liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was applied to the determination of o-phenylphenol and bitertanol residues in orange and banana fruits. After extraction with a mixture of acetone, dichloromethane-petroleum ether, and ethyl acetate, an extract aliquot of 100 microL was injected directly without any additional clean-up into the chromatographic system using two reversed phase C18 coupled columns. The LC-LC approach allowed automated sample clean up of the vegetal extracts, leading to a simple and rapid analytical procedure, with limits of quantification between 0.01 and 0.05 mg kg(-1). Recovery experiments performed on orange and banana samples fortified at different concentrations (0.01 - 4 mg kg(-1)) gave average recoveries between 70 and 113% with relative standard deviations lower than 15%. The procedure developed was finally applied to orange and banana samples from different geographical locations and the results were confirmed by GC-MS.

  2. [Determination of major carbonyls in mainstream smoke by rapid column high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Wang, Yigeng; Miao, Mingming; Zhao, Qihua; Yang, Guangyu

    2007-03-01

    Abstract: The determination of major carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke by rapid column high performance liquid chromatography was investigated. The cigarette smoke was collected using a Cambridge filter treated with acidic solution of 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, 2-butanone and butyraldehyde were extracted from the Cambridge filter with 50 mL of 2% pyridine acetonitrile solution. The carbonyl compounds in samples were separated on a ZORBAX Stable Bound rapid column (50 mm x 4. 6 mm, 1. 8 microm) in approximately seven minutes and then determined by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. The average recoveries were in the range of 89. 1% to 99. 2% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were generally below 6. 0%. The eight carbonyl compounds in the mainstream smoke of five brands of cigarettes were determined using this method. This method is faster, simpler and consumes less solvent. It is suitable for rapid analysis of carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke.

  3. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography. Column permeability and changes of the eluent properties.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2008-04-11

    The behavior of four similar liquid chromatography columns (2.1mm i.d. x 30, 50, 100, and 150 mm, all packed with fine particles, average d(p) approximately 1.7 microm, of bridged ethylsiloxane/silica hybrid-C(18), named BEH-C(18)) was studied in wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The pressure and the temperature dependencies of the viscosity and the density of the eluent (pure acetonitrile) along the columns were also derived, using the column permeabilities and applying the Kozeny-Carman and the heat balance equations. The heat lost through the external surface area of the chromatographic column was directly derived from the wall temperature of the stainless steel tube measured with a precision of +/-0.2 degrees C in still air and +/-0.1 degrees C in the oven compartment. The variations of the density and viscosity of pure acetonitrile as a function of the temperature and pressure was derived from empirical correlations based on precise experimental data acquired between 298 and 373 K and at pressures up to 1.5 kbar. The measurements were made with the Acquity UPLC chromatograph that can deliver a maximum flow rate of 2 mL/min and apply a maximum column inlet pressure of 1038 bar. The average Kozeny-Carman permeability constant of the columns was 144+/-3.5%. The temperature hence the viscosity and the density profiles of the eluent along the column deviate significantly from linear behavior under high-pressure gradients. For a 1000 bar pressure drop, we measured DeltaT=25-30 K, (Deltaeta/eta) approximately 100%, and (Deltarho/rho) approximately 10%. These results show that the radial temperature profiles are never fully developed within 1% for any of the columns, even under still-air conditions. This represents a practical advantage regarding the apparent column efficiency at high flow rates, since the impact of the differential analyte velocity between the column center and the column wall is not maximum. The interpretation of the peak profiles recorded in

  4. Comprehensive two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography system with immobilized liposome chromatography column and monolithic column for separation of the traditional Chinese medicine Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuowen; Wang, Chen; Zhao, Xin; Mao, Shilong; Wu, Yutian; Fan, Guorong

    2012-02-03

    A comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) separation is one that employs two separation dimensions (columns) and draws on all of the available resolving power from each of the dimensions of separate the components in a sample. In this study, a comprehensive 2D chromatography approach was developed for the separation and identification of membrane permeable compounds in a famous traditional Chinese medicine of Schisandra chinensis. The first dimensional column was the immobilized liposome chromatography (ILC) column, which mimics the biological membranes and can be used to study drug-membrane interactions in liquid chromatography. Using an automatic ten-port switching valve equipped with two sample loops, the section of the first-dimension was introduced in the second-dimension consist of a silica monolithic column. More than 40 components in Schisandra chinensis were resolved by using the developed separation system and among them 14 compounds were identified interacting with the ILC column based on their retention action, UV and mass data. With this comprehensive 2D-HPLC system, the three-dimensional chromatographic fingerprints of Schisandra chinensis were preliminarily established and processed by using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. The obtained information can distinguish the unacceptable samples of the quality control. The result demonstrated that the 2D biochromatography system has been demonstrated to have more advantages of finding strong binding bioactive components, providing an enhanced peak capacity, good sensitivity and powerful resolution biological fingerprinting analysis of complex TCMs, which was a useful means to control the quality of and to clarify the membrane permeability of the compounds in Schisandra chinensis.

  5. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography analysis of synthetic polymers using fast size exclusion chromatography at high column temperature.

    PubMed

    Im, Kyuhyun; Park, Hae-Woong; Lee, Sekyung; Chang, Taihyun

    2009-05-22

    In recent years, two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has been used increasingly for the analysis of synthetic polymers. A 2D-LC analysis provides richer information than a single chromatography analysis at the cost of longer analysis time. The time required for a comprehensive 2D-LC analysis is essentially proportional to the analysis time of the second dimension separation. Many of 2D-LC analyses of synthetic polymers have employed size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for the second-dimension analysis due to the relatively short analysis time in addition to the wide use in the polymer analysis. Nonetheless, short SEC columns are often used for 2D-LC analyses to reduce the separation time, which inevitably deteriorates the resolution. In this study, we demonstrated that high temperature SEC can be employed as an efficient second-LC in the 2D-LC separation of synthetic polymers. By virtue of high temperature operation (low solvent viscosity and high diffusivity of the polymer molecules), a normal length SEC column can be used at high flow rate with little loss in resolution.

  6. Blind column selection protocol for two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Burns, Niki K; Andrighetto, Luke M; Conlan, Xavier A; Purcell, Stuart D; Barnett, Neil W; Denning, Jacquie; Francis, Paul S; Stevenson, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    The selection of two orthogonal columns for two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (LC×LC) separation of natural product extracts can be a labour intensive and time consuming process and in many cases is an entirely trial-and-error approach. This paper introduces a blind optimisation method for column selection of a black box of constituent components. A data processing pipeline, created in the open source application OpenMS®, was developed to map the components within the mixture of equal mass across a library of HPLC columns; LC×LC separation space utilisation was compared by measuring the fractional surface coverage, fcoverage. It was found that for a test mixture from an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) extract, the combination of diphenyl and C18 stationary phases provided a predicted fcoverage of 0.48 and was matched with an actual usage of 0.43. OpenMS®, in conjunction with algorithms designed in house, have allowed for a significantly quicker selection of two orthogonal columns, which have been optimised for a LC×LC separation of crude extractions of plant material.

  7. Impact of reversed phase column pairs in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robert C; Barnes, Brian B; Haidar Ahmad, Imad A; Filgueira, Marcelo R; Carr, Peter W

    2014-09-26

    A major issue in optimizing the resolving power of two-dimensional chromatographic separations is the choice of the two phases so as to maximize the distribution of the analytes over the separation space. In this work, we studied the choice of appropriate reversed phases to use in on-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC). A set of four chemically different conventional bonded reversed phases was used in the first dimension. The second dimension column was either a conventional bonded C18 phase or a carbon-clad phase (CCP). The LC×LC chromatograms and contour plots were all rather similar indicating that the selectivities of the two phases were also similar regardless of the reverse phase column used in the first dimension. Further, the spatial coverage seen with all four first dimension stationary phases when paired with a second dimension C18 phase were low and the retention times were strongly correlated. However, when the C18 column was replaced with the CCP column much improved separations were observed with higher spatial coverages, greater orthogonalities and significant increases in the number of observed peaks.

  8. Ionic liquid-based zwitterionic organic polymer monolithic column for capillary hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Chen, Yihui; Ma, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-08-21

    In the current study, a novel ionic liquid-based zwitterionic organic polymer monolithic column was developed by copolymerizing 1-vinyl-3-(butyl-4-sulfonate) imidazolium, acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in a quaternary porogenic solvent consisting of formamide, dimethyl sulphoxide, polyethylene glycol 8000 and polyethylene glycol 10,000 for capillary hydrophilic interaction chromatography. The monolithic stationary phase was optimized by adjusting the amount of monomer in the polymerization solution along with the composition of porogenic solvent. The optimized monolith exhibited excellent selectivity and favorable retention for nucleosides and benzoic acid derivatives. The primary factors affecting the separation efficiency of the monolithic column (including acetonitrile content, pH, and buffer salt concentration in the mobile phase) have been thoroughly evaluated. Excellent reproducibility of the retention times for five nucleosides was achieved, with relative standard deviations of run-to-run (n = 3), column-to-column (n = 3) and batch-to-batch (n = 3) in the range of 0.18-0.48%, 2.33-4.20% and 3.07-6.50%, respectively.

  9. Determination of ofloxacin in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, T; Kudo, M; Sugawara, K

    1992-01-17

    The chromatographic behaviour of ofloxacin on various sorbents, including ODS, C8, C1, nitril, phenyl and tert,-butyl, as stationary phases was investigated and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed for the determination of ofloxacin in serum. The serum samples were directly introduced onto an HPLC column after filtering through a Morcut II membrane filter to remove proteins. The filtrate was concentrated on a pre-column using a phenyl stationary phase and was then introduced to an analytical column with an ODS stationary phase by column switching. Ofloxacin and enoxacin as an internal standard were detected by ultraviolet absorbance at 300 nm. Determination was possible for ofloxacin over the concentration range 50-2000 ng/ml; the limit of detection was 20 ng/ml. The recovery of ofloxacin added to serum was 88.8-101.7% with a coefficient of variation of less than 5.2%. This method is applicable to pharmacokinetic studies of patients after treatment with ofloxacin.

  10. Measurement of bromate in bread by liquid chromatography with post-column flow reactor detection.

    PubMed

    Himata, K; Noda, M; Ando, S; Yamada, Y

    2000-01-01

    This method is suitable for the determination of bromate residues in a variety of baked goods. The peer-verified method trial was performed on white bread, multigrain bread, and coffee cake spiked with known levels of potassium bromate. The analytical portion is extracted with deionized water to remove bromate from the bulk of the baked product. The aqueous extract is carried through a series of steps to remove co-extractives that would interfere with the liquid chromatography (LC) in the determinative step or hasten the deterioration of the LC column. The extract is filtered before passing it through a reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) column and a cation-exchange column in the silver form to remove lipids and chloride, respectively. Ultrafiltration is then used to remove proteins with molecular weights of >30,000 daltons. Finally, a cation-exchange column in the sodium form is used to remove silver ions from the extract. The determinative step uses LC with a reversed-phase column and an ion-pairing agent in the mobile phase. Detection is based on the post-column reaction of bromate with o-dianisidine to form an oxidation product that is quantitated spectrophotometrically at 450 nm. Overall agreement between the submitting and peer laboratories was quite good. For bromate levels of 10-52 ppb, overall mean recoveries were 76.9 and 78.8% for the submitting and peer laboratories, respectively. The standard deviations were higher for the results of the peer laboratory, probably because of the generally higher level of baseline noise present in the chromatograms. The results demonstrate that the method provides adequate accuracy with low-fat as well as high-fat foods. Bromate at levels as low as 5 ppb (ng/g) can be detected with the method.

  11. Resolution of diacylglycerol moieties of natural glycerophospholipids by gas-liquid chromatography on polar capillary columns.

    PubMed

    Myher, J J; Kuksis, A

    1982-06-01

    A rapid and practical method has been developed for the gas-liquid chromatographic determination of the sn-1,2-diacylglycerol moieties of natural glycerophospholipids using polar wall-coated open tubular columns. The method gives complete resolution and quantitative estimates for all species according to molecular weight and degree of unsaturation, including stearoyl docosahexaenoylglycerol and related polyunsaturates. For this purpose the sn-1,2-diacylglycerols are obtained from the glycerophospholipids by hydrolysis with phospholipase C and are converted into the trimethylsilyl or tertiary-butyldimethylsilyl ethers. The silyl ethers are separated by gas-liquid chromatography on the capillary glass columns coated with a polar cyanopropylsiloxane polymer, in the temperature range 175-250 degrees C, using hydrogen as the carrier gas. Practical applications of the method are illustrated by analyses of the sn-1,2-diacylglycerol moieties of the phosphatidylcholines of soybean phosphatides, egg yolk, and rat liver. The method of analysis is applicable to other classes of glycerophospholipids and the total time requirements for the analysis of any one phospholipid class are comparable to those for a fatty acid analysis.

  12. Chromatographic performance of large-pore versus small-pore columns in micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Timothy J; Foley, Joe P; Lloyd, David K

    2003-02-25

    Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) is useful in bioanalysis because proteinaceous biofluids can be directly injected onto the column. The technique has been limited in part because of the apparently weak eluting power of micellar mobile phases. It has recently been shown [Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 294] that this may be overcome by the use of large pore size stationary phases. In this work, large-pore (1000 A) C(18) stationary phases were evaluated relative to conventional small-pore (100 A) C(18) stationary phases for the direct sample injection of drugs in plasma. Furthermore, the difference between the large and small pore phases in gradient elution separations of mixtures of widely varying hydrophobicities was investigated. Large-pore stationary phases were found to be very effective for eluting moderately to highly hydrophobic compounds such as ibuprofen, crotamiton, propranolol, and dodecanophenone, which were highly retained on the small-pore stationary phases typically used in MLC. The advantages of direct introduction of biological samples (drugs in plasma) and rapid column re-equilibration after gradient elution in MLC were maintained with large-pore phases. Finally, recoveries, precision, linearity, and detection limits for the determination of quinidine and DPC 961 in spiked bovine plasma were somewhat better using MLC with wide pore phases.

  13. Separation of PCBs by liquid chromatography on reversed phase sub-2-micron particle columns.

    PubMed

    Olsovská, Jana; Kresinová, Zdena; Flieger, Miroslav; Cajthaml, Tomás

    2010-03-15

    A new ultra high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection was examined for detection and separation of polychlorinated biphenyls. This included optimization of separation conditions for two model mixtures containing seven and fifteen most relevant congeners, comparison of three types of reversed phase sub-2-micron particle sized columns and assessment of system suitability under the optimized conditions. Calibration curves determined in the range from 0.5 to 50.0 microg/mL exhibited correlation coefficients ranging from 0.997 to 0.999. Lower limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 ppm. The most efficient Grace C18 column filled with 1.5 microm particles was then tested to separate the complex commercial mixture Delor 103, where the elution order was confirmed by GC-MS. 13 individual congeners were separated and some of the other co-eluting congeners could be resolved using another separation dimension performed with a mass spectrometry detector. The developed method could be directly applied to the separation of less complex mixtures in aqueous sample matrixes, which are used in general for enzyme degradation studies. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of haemoglobin A(1c) by liquid chromatography using a new cation-exchange column.

    PubMed

    Beatriz de la Calle Guntiñas, Maria; Wissiack, René; Bordin, Guy; Rodríguez, Adela Rosa

    2003-07-05

    The use of a new cation-exchange column, ProPac SCX-10, for the determination of haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) by high-performance liquid chromatography is described. After optimization of the analytical method for the separation of the various isoforms of haemoglobin with the ProPac SCX-10 column, the method was applied to the determination of HbA(1c) in blood from 59 volunteers. Three of the 59 had previously been diagnosed as diabetics. Interference studies for carbamylation, acetylation and pre-HbA(1c) were carried out via "in-vitro" experiments. No interference due to carbamylation was observed at the urea values normally found in uremic patients undergoing dialysis. No interference from pre-HbA(1c) was detected either. The method is able to separate haemoglobin A (alpha(2)beta(2)), haemoglobin S (haemoglobin from sickle cell anaemia patients) and haemoglobin A(2) (alpha(2)delta(2)) without interference. The method of Hampel was applied to detect outliers. A value of 3.29+/-0.44% (2sigma) for HbA(1c) was obtained in the analysis of 56 blood samples from non-diabetics. This average value is lower than that reported by most of the methods currently used in routine analyses.

  15. Determination of S-carboxymethylcysteine in serum by reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography with column switching following pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde.

    PubMed

    De Schutter, J A; Van der Weken, G; Van den Bossche, W; de Moerloose, P

    1988-07-15

    A method is described for the determination of S-(carboxymethyl)-L-cysteine in serum. After addition of S-(carboxyethyl)-L-cysteine as internal standard, both compounds are extracted into methanol, converted into fluorescent derivatives with o-phthalaldehyde and quantitatively determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Chromatography of unwanted amino acid derivatives is avoided by column switching, thereby shortening analysis time and increasing column lifetime. The technique was applied in a study of the bioavailability of S-(carboxymethyl)-L-cysteine after oral administration to humans. The concentration-response curve was linear from 2 to 16 micrograms/ml; mean serum concentrations are reported.

  16. Determination of 1-hydroxypyrene in children urine using column-switching liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ching-Tang; Chen, Hong-Wen; Chen, Jiann-Lin

    2004-06-15

    This study developed an acid hydrolysis method instead of using enzyme extraction, equipped with column-switching system for the pretreatment of samples, in the determination of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine from children and pyrene in airborne particulates. We collected both types of samples from areas near a petrochemical industry and rural areas as reference. Samples were first treated with acid hydrolysis and followed by solvent extraction prior to being injected into the separation system for the determination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence. A column-switching system was on-line with a C18 separation column to remove matrix interference and obtain a stable baseline of the chromatogram. The eluent used to separate the 1-hydroxypyrene was 60% (v/v) aqueous acetonitrile solution. A fluorescence detector was used to monitor 1-hydroxypyrene at lambdaex = 348 nm and lambdaem = 388 nm, and pyrene at lambdaex = 331 nm and lambdaem = 390 nm. Both calibration graphs were linear with very good correlation coefficients (r > 0.999) and the detection limits were ca. 2pg (5ng/l). Results showed that there was a significant association between 1-hydroxypyrene levels in urine specimens and pyrene levels in airborne particulate samples (r = 0.68, P < 0.05). The average levels of pyrene in the particulates (0.18 versus 0.09ng/m3) and of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine specimens (155.9 versus 110.2ng/g creatinine) were higher for the petrochemical area than for the rural area. This method is stable and sensitive for measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples.

  17. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of unsaturated organic compounds by a monolithic silica column embedded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Morisato, Kei; Hasegawa, George; Moitra, Nirmalya; Kiyomura, Tsutomu; Kurata, Hiroki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2015-08-01

    The optimization of a porous structure to ensure good separation performances is always a significant issue in high-performance liquid chromatography column design. Recently we reported the homogeneous embedment of Ag nanoparticles in periodic mesoporous silica monolith and the application of such Ag nanoparticles embedded silica monolith for the high-performance liquid chromatography separation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, the separation performance remains to be improved and the retention mechanism as compared with the Ag ion high-performance liquid chromatography technique still needs to be clarified. In this research, Ag nanoparticles were introduced into a macro/mesoporous silica monolith with optimized pore parameters for high-performance liquid chromatography separations. Baseline separation of benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene was achieved with the theoretical plate number for analyte naphthalene as 36,000 m(-1). Its separation function was further extended to cis/trans isomers of aromatic compounds where cis/trans stilbenes were chosen as a benchmark. Good separation of cis/trans-stilbene with separation factor as 7 and theoretical plate number as 76,000 m(-1) for cis-stilbene was obtained. The trans isomer, however, is retained more strongly, which contradicts the long- established retention rule of Ag ion chromatography. Such behavior of Ag nanoparticles embedded in a silica column can be attributed to the differences in the molecular geometric configuration of cis/trans stilbenes.

  18. Determination of biogenic amines in beer with pre-column derivatization by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; Shi, Tianyu; Qian, Kun; Li, Pingliang; Li, Jianqiang; Cao, Yongsong

    2009-02-15

    Eighteen samples of commercially available Chinese beer were analyzed in order to determine the content of biogenic amines. The method involves pre-column derivatization of the amines with 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride (CNBF) and subsequent analysis by RP-HPLC (reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography) with diode array detection. The labeled biogenic amines were separated on a Kromasil C18 column (250mmx4.6mm, 5microm) at room temperature and UV detection was applied at 254nm. The separation of seven labeled biogenic amines was achieved within 22min by elution acetonitrile and HAc-NaAc buffers. The method linearity, calculated for each biogenic amine, has a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9925, in concentrations ranging from 2.9micromolL(-1) to 565micromolL(-1). Detection limits of biogenic amines were 0.056-0.87micromolL(-1), at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The proposed method has been applied to the quantitative determination of spermine, phenethylamine, spermidine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and putrescine in beer with recoveries of 91.9-103.1% and R.S.D. of 2.86-5.63%. Quantitation is relative to external standards. The results showed that each kind of beer examined contained at least three biogenic amines. Putrescine, histamine and tyramine were detected in all samples. Spermidine was detected in 89% of the beers. Spermine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine occurred in 78%, 61% and 44% of the beers examined, respectively. These levels were below the level that may elicit direct adverse reactions for most consumers.

  19. Novel approach to determine ghrelin analogs by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry using a monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Zemenova, Jana; Sykora, David; Adamkova, Hana; Maletinska, Lenka; Elbert, Tomas; Marek, Ales; Blechova, Miroslava

    2017-03-01

    In our project, ghrelin analogs possessing enhanced stability and potential to significantly increase food intake were used. Three newly synthesized ghrelin analogs with fatty acid residues consisting of 8, 10, and 14 carbon atoms were studied. The main goal of this work was to develop a suitable analytical method for the determination of the stability of the novel ghrelin analogs in plasma. An appropriate liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and optimized. The results obtained were compared with the data measured by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and a good correlation was found. A preparation strategy for plasma samples was optimized and consisted of simple dilution of the plasma samples followed by direct injection onto a very short monolithic column in combination with mass spectrometric detection. The developed analytical method was utilized for the determination of the stability of the prepared lipopeptides in plasma and for the quantification of the lipopeptides in a preliminary pharmacokinetic study. The feasibility of the developed separation method was clearly demonstrated. Accuracy and precision were within 80-120% and ±20% limits, respectively. Calibration curves were constructed in the range of 1-250 μg/mL. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Factors influencing the separation of oligonucleotides using reversed-phase/ion-exchange mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Biba, Mirlinda; Jiang, Eileen; Mao, Bing; Zewge, Daniel; Foley, Joe P; Welch, Christopher J

    2013-08-23

    New mixed-mode columns consisting of reversed-phase and ion-exchange separation modes were evaluated for the analysis of short RNA oligonucleotides (∼20mers). Conventional analysis for these samples typically involves using two complementary methods: strong anion-exchange liquid chromatography (SAX-LC) for separation based on charge, and ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) for separation based on hydrophobicity. Recently introduced mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns combine both reversed-phase and ion-exchange modes, potentially offering a simpler analysis by combining the benefits of both separation modes into a single method. Analysis of a variety of RNA oligonucleotide samples using three different mixed-mode stationary phases showed some distinct benefits for oligonucleotide separation and analysis. When using these mixed-mode columns with typical IP-RPLC mobile phase conditions, such as ammonium acetate or triethylammonium acetate as the primary ion-pair reagent, the separation was mainly based on the IP-RPLC mode. However, when changing the mobile phase conditions to those more typical for SAX-LC, such as salt gradients with NaCl or NaBr, very different separation patterns were observed due to mixed-mode interactions. In addition, the Scherzo SW-C18 and SM-C18 columns with sodium chloride or sodium bromide salt gradients also showed significant improvements in peak shape.

  1. Applications of monolithic columns in liquid chromatography-based clinical chemistry assays.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Dustin R; Wang, Sihe

    2011-08-01

    Monolithic columns have slowly been applied to HPLC methods for clinical chemistry testing in the last 10 years. The application areas include therapeutic drug monitoring, drugs of abuse, vitamins, porphyrins, and steroids. In comparison with conventional particulate columns, the monolithic columns may offer shorter chromatography time, more robustness, and better resolution for certain analytes. The potential drawback of large mobile phase consumption may be improved with smaller id columns, which are currently on the market. Methods covered in this review are those searchable in PubMed up to December 2010. This review highlights the emergence of monolithic column technology in HPLC methods used for clinical chemistry testing. The goals of this review are threefold: (i) To identify the areas of clinical chemistry that analytical monolithic columns have been used in HPLC methods. (ii) To demonstrate the application of analytical monolithic columns in HPLC methods using different detection systems. (iii) To discuss the advantages and limitations of the monolithic columns compared with particulate columns in the clinical chemistry applications.

  2. Intrinsic advantages of packed capillaries over narrow-bore columns in very high-pressure gradient liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin

    2016-06-17

    250μm×100mm fused silica glass capillaries were packed with 1.8μm high-strength silica (HSS) fully porous particles. They were prepared without bulky stainless steel endfittings and metal frits, which both generate significant sample dispersion. The isocratic efficiencies and gradient peak capacities of these prototype capillary columns were measured for small molecules (n-alkanophenones) using a home-made ultra-low dispersive micro-HPLC instrument. Their resolution power was compared to that of standard 2.1mm×100mm very high-pressure liquid chromatography (vHPLC) narrow-bore columns packed with the same particles. The results show that, for the same column efficiency (25000 plates) and gradient steepness (0.04min(-1)), the peak capacity of the 250μm i.d. capillary columns is systematically 15-20% higher than that of the 2.1mm i.d. narrow-bore columns. A validated model of gradient chromatography enabled one to predict accurately the observed peak capacities of the capillary columns for non-linear solvation strength retention behavior and under isothermal conditions. Thermodynamics applied to the eluent quantified the temperature difference for the thermal gradients in both capillary and narrow-bore columns. Experimental data revealed that the gradient peak capacity is more affected by viscous heating than the column efficiency. Unlike across 2.1mm i.d. columns, the changes in eluent composition across the 250μm i.d. columns during the gradient is rapidly relaxed by transverse dispersion. The combination of (1) the absence of viscous heating and (2) the high uniformity of the eluent composition across the diameter of capillary columns explains the intrinsic advantage of capillary over narrow-bore columns in gradient vHPLC.

  3. Hydrothermal preparation of hybrid carbon/silica monolithic capillary column for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peiling; Wang, Wentao; Xiao, Xing; Jia, Li

    2014-08-01

    A simple, easy and economical approach for the preparation of a hybrid carbon/silica monolithic capillary column was described for the first time by using silica monolith as framework in combination with hydrothermal carbonization at 180°C. During the preparation process, formamide was introduced to the reaction solutions to reduce the dissolution rate of monolithic silica skeleton and its optimal concentration was 1.5 M. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and inverse size exclusion chromatography were carried out to characterize the as-prepared column. The results demonstrated that carbon spheres ranging from 150 to 1000 nm were successfully attached to the surface of silica skeleton. The prepared hybrid carbon/silica column had a permeability of 4.4 × 10(-14) m(2). Chromatographic performance of the column was evaluated by separation of various compounds including alkylbenzenes, nucleosides and bases, and aromatic acids. The column exhibited an efficiency of 75,000 plates/m for butylbenzene at the optimal linear velocity of 0.23 mm/s. The successful separation of these compounds and the study on mechanism indicated that the column can be applied in mixed-mode chromatography.

  4. Phenolic composition of pomegranate peel extracts using an liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach with silica hydride columns.

    PubMed

    Young, Joshua E; Pan, Zhongli; Teh, Hui Ean; Menon, Veena; Modereger, Brent; Pesek, Joseph J; Matyska, Maria T; Dao, Lan; Takeoka, Gary

    2017-04-01

    The peels of different pomegranate cultivars (Molla Nepes, Parfianka, Purple Heart, Wonderful and Vkunsyi) were compared in terms of phenolic composition and total phenolics. Analyses were performed on two silica hydride based stationary phases: phenyl and undecanoic acid columns. Quantitation was accomplished by developing a liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry approach for separating different phenolic analytes, initially in the form of reference standards and then with pomegranate extracts. The high-performance liquid chromatography columns used in the separations had the ability to retain a wide polarity range of phenolic analytes, as well as offering beneficial secondary selectivity mechanisms for resolving the isobaric compounds, catechin and epicatechin. The Vkunsyi peel extract had the highest concentration of phenolics (as determined by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry) and was the only cultivar to contain the important compound punicalagin. The liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry data were compared to the standard total phenolics content as determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Study of an electroosmotic pump for liquid delivery and its application in capillary column liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingxin; Ma, Jiping; Guan, Yafeng

    2004-03-05

    A packed-bed electroosmotic pump (EOP) was constructed and evaluated. The EOP consisted of three capillary columns packed in parallel, a gas-releasing device, Pt electrodes and a high-voltage power supply. The EOP could generate output pressure above 5.0 MPa and constant flow rate in the range of nl/min to a few microl/min for pure water, pure methanol, 2 mM potassium dihydrogenphosphate buffer, the buffer-methanol mixture and the pure water-methanol mixture at applied potentials less than 20 kV. The composition of solvent before/after pumping was quantitatively determined by using a gas chromatograph equipped with both flame ionization detector and thermal conductivity detector. It was found that there were no apparent changes in composition and relative concentrations after pumping process for a methanol-ethanol-acetonitrile mixture and a methanol-water mixture. Theoretical aspect of the EOP was discussed in detail. An capillary HPLC system consisting of the EOP, an injection valve, a 15 cm x 320 microm i.d., 5 microm Spherigel C18 stainless steel analytical column, and an on-column UV detector was connected to evaluate the performance of the EOP. A comparative study was also carried out with a mechanical capillary HPLC pump on the same system. The results demonstrated that the reproducibility of flow rate and the pulsation-free flow property of the EOP are superior to that of mechanical pump in capillary HPLC application.

  6. Characterization by the solvation parameter model of the retention properties of commercial ionic liquid columns for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Galindo-Iranzo, P; Soria, A C; Sanz, M L; Quintanilla-López, J E; Lebrón-Aguilar, R

    2014-01-24

    For the first time, four commercial ionic liquid columns (SLB-IL59, SLB-IL76, SLB-IL82 and SLB-IL100) for gas chromatography have been comprehensively evaluated in terms of efficiency, polarity and solvation properties. Grob tests and McReynolds constants showed that they were all high-efficiency columns of high polarity, but with low inertness to compounds with hydrogen bonding capabilities. The solvation parameter model was used to characterize the solvation interactions of the four columns in the 80-160°C temperature range. Results revealed that all the ionic liquids studied can be considered moderately hydrogen-bond acid and highly cohesive stationary phases, on which the dominant contributions to retention were the dipolar-type and hydrogen-bond base interactions, while π-π and n-π interactions were barely significant. The SLB-IL59 column provided the best separation of homologs, while the SLB-IL76 and SLB-IL100 columns had the most basic and the most acidic phases, respectively. A principal component analysis for the commonly used stationary phases in capillary GC showed that these commercial ionic liquid columns fill an empty area of the available selectivity space, which clearly enhances the separation capacity of this technique.

  7. Refolding and simultaneous purification of recombinant human proinsulin from inclusion bodies on protein-folding liquid-chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Zhou, Huifang; Yang, Yicong; Li, Weimin; Wan, Yi; Wang, Lili

    2015-05-01

    Protein-folding liquid chromatography (PFLC) is an effective and scalable method for protein renaturation with simultaneous purification. However, it has been a challenge to fully refold inclusion bodies in a PFLC column. In this work, refolding with simultaneous purification of recombinant human proinsulin (rhPI) from inclusion bodies from Escherichia coli were investigated using the surface of stationary phases in immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The results indicated that both the ligand structure on the surface of the stationary phase and the composition of the mobile phase (elution buffer) influenced refolding of rhPI. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, the mass recoveries of IMAC column and HPSEC column were 77.8 and 56.8% with purifies of 97.6 and 93.7%, respectively. These results also indicated that the IMAC column fails to refold rhPI, and the HPSEC column enables efficient refolding of rhPI with a low-urea gradient-elution method. The refolded rhPI was characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The molecular weight of the converted human insulin was further confirmed with SDS-18% PAGE, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and the biological activity assay by HP-RPLC. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Greener liquid chromatography using a guard column with micellar mobile phase for separation of some pharmaceuticals and determination of parabens.

    PubMed

    Youngvises, Napaporn; Chaida, Thanatcha; Khonyoung, Supada; Kuppithayanant, Nattawan; Tiyapongpattana, Warawut; Itharat, Arunporn; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2013-03-15

    In this research, a greener chromatography employing a short column, Zorbax SB C18 cartridge (12.5 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) commonly used as a guard column in a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), was utilized as the analytical column in conjunction with a more eco-friendly micellar mobile phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for separation tertiary mixtures of local anesthetics and antihistamines; and binary mixture of colds drugs; and quaternary mixture of some parabens with different separation conditions. The chromatographic behavior of these analytes was studied to demonstrate separation efficiency of this guard column in a micellar mobile phase. Moreover, this column and SDS mobile phase was exploited for determination of parabens in 64 samples of cosmetic product, both those that were produced locally in the community and those that were commercially manufactured. Linear calibration graphs of the parabens as detected at 254 nm were obtained in the range of 1-100 μmol L(-1) with R(2)>0.9990. Percentage recoveries were 92.4-109.2 with %RSD<3, and the limit of detection and quantitation were 0.04-0.10 and 0.20-0.80 μmol L(-1), respectively. This analytical system is not only greener but also faster and employing simpler sample preparation than a conventional liquid chromatographic system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of hypercrosslinked polystyrene columns for the separation of nitrogen group-types in petroleum using High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Oro, Nicole E; Lucy, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    High performance liquid chromatography in a quasi-normal phase mode (QNP) is used to separate the nitrogen group-types (pyrrole and pyridine) that are found in petroleum. A new type of stationary phase, hypercrosslinked polystyrene, is used to achieve this separation. Three different hypercrosslinked polystyrene stationary phases are compared under quasi-normal phase mode; a commercial 5-HGN packing, and two hypercrosslinked phases on silica particles. The utility of the columns for petroleum-based separations was explored with the use of 21 analytical standards. Partial elucidation of adsorption retention mechanisms for the columns are shown, as well as a comparison of retention characteristics for the three columns. The silica particle column derived with toluene (HC-Tol) was found to have the best selectivity for nitrogen group-types and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), attaining a separation under gradient conditions in less than 30 min. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct determination of benzamides in serum by column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Ryoko; Ogasawara, Ayako; Kubo, Teppei; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Umino, Masuo; Ishizuka, Yoichi

    2003-05-01

    A column-switching high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of four benzamide-type anti-psychotic drugs: sulpiride, tiapride, sultopride and metoclopramide in human serum. In this method, a TSKgel Super-ODS column was used as an analytical column, and a TSKgel G 2000SW was prepared as a pretreatment column. Under the optimized analytical conditions, four benzamide-type anti-psychotic drugs were eluted within 18 min. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for sulpiride, tiapride, sultopride and metoclopramide are 1 ng/ml, 4 ng/ml, 2 ng/ml and 0.5 ng/ml, respectively. Finally, the method was applied to the determination of sulpiride in human serum samples obtained after a single oral dose of sulpiride.

  11. Sugar Determination in Foods with a Radially Compressed High Performance Liquid Chromatography Column.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondrus, Martin G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Advocates use of Waters Associates Radial Compression Separation System for high performance liquid chromatography. Discusses instrumentation and reagents, outlining procedure for analyzing various foods and discussing typical student data. Points out potential problems due to impurities and pump seal life. Suggests use of ribose as internal…

  12. Separation of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers: Application of C18 and phenyl-hexyl ultra-performance liquid chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Baek, Song-Yee; Lee, Sunyoung; Kim, Byungjoo

    2017-03-10

    This study was performed to establish the proper liquid chromatographic conditions for the separation of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers. Column selectivity towards HBCD diastereomers was evaluated for C18 and phenyl-hexyl stationary phases. First, the baseline separation of the primary HBCDs (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD) was obtained using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) column with C18 stationary phase chosen in most previous studies for HBCD analysis; however, co-elution of δ- and ε-HBCD with the primary HBCD diastereomers was observed. To prevent the interference from δ- and ε-HBCD, we adopted a phenyl-hexyl UPLC column to resolve the HBCD diastereomers. The phenyl-hexyl UPLC column showed significantly different selectivity for the HBCD diastereomers compared with the C18 column, which allowed the clear isolation of δ-HBCD and ε-HBCD from the primary HBCD diastereomers. In addition, by checking the retention times of all HBCD diastereomers using both C18 and phenyl-hexyl columns, we confirmed the presence of δ-, ε-, η-, and θ-HBCDs in two technical HBCD mixtures.

  13. [Online enrichment ability of restricted-access column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by column switching technique for benazepril hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Rong; Xie, Hua; Yin, Qiang; Li, Xiaoyun; Jia, Zhengping; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Juanhong; Li, Wenbin

    2013-05-01

    The online enrichment ability of the restricted-access media (RAM) column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by column switching technique for benazepril hydrochloride in plasma was studied. The RAM-HPLC system consisted of an RAM column as enrichment column and a C18 column as analytical column coupled via the column switching technique. The effects of the injection volume on the peak area and the systematic pressure were studied. When the injection volume was less than 100 microL, the peak area increased with the increase of the injection volume. However, when the injection volume was more than 80 microL, the pressure of whole system increased obviously. In order to protect the whole system, 80 microL was chosen as the maximum injection volume. The peak areas of ordinary injection and the large volume injection showed a good linear relationship. The enrichment ability of RAM-HPLC system was satisfactory. The system was successfully used for the separation and detection of the trace benazepril hydrochloride in rat plasma after its administration. The sensitivity of HPLC can be improved by RAM pre-enrichment. It is a simple and economic measurement method.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of molecularly imprinted polymer liquid chromatography column for the separation of Cathine enantiomers

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Krishnamoorthy; Gokulakrishnan, Kannan; Prakasam, Tangirala

    2011-01-01

    In this study molecular imprinting technology was employed to prepare a specific affinity sorbent for the resolution of Cathine, a chiral drug product. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared by non-covalent molecular imprinting with either (+) or (−)-Cathine (threo-2-amino-1-hydroxy-1-phenyl propane; norpseudoephedrine) as the template. Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol di-methacrylate were copolymerized in the presence of the template molecule. The bulk polymerization was carried out in chloroform with 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator, at 5 °C and under UV radiation. The resulting MIP was ground into powders, which were slurry packed into analytical columns. After removal of template molecules, the MIP-packed columns were found to be effective for the resolution of (±)-Cathine racemates. The separation factor for the enantiomers ranged between 1.5 and 2.4 when the column was packed with MIP prepared with (+)-Cathine as the template. A separation factor ranging from 1.6 to 2.9 could be achieved from the column packed with MIP, prepared with (−)-Cathine as the template. Although the separation factor was higher with that previously obtained from reversed-phase column chromatography following derivatization with a chiral agent, elution peaks were broader due to the heterogeneity of binding sites on MIP particles and the possible non-specific interaction. PMID:23960776

  15. Temperature-assisted on-column solute focusing: a general method to reduce pre-column dispersion in capillary high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Groskreutz, Stephen R; Weber, Stephen G

    2014-08-08

    Solvent-based on-column focusing is a powerful and well known approach for reducing the impact of pre-column dispersion in liquid chromatography. Here we describe an orthogonal temperature-based approach to focusing called temperature-assisted on-column solute focusing (TASF). TASF is founded on the same principles as the more commonly used solvent-based method wherein transient conditions are created that lead to high solute retention at the column inlet. Combining the low thermal mass of capillary columns and the temperature dependence of solute retention TASF is used effectively to compress injection bands at the head of the column through the transient reduction in column temperature to 5°C for a defined 7mm segment of a 6cm long 150μm I.D. column. Following the 30s focusing time, the column temperature is increased rapidly to the separation temperature of 60°C releasing the focused band of analytes. We developed a model to simulate TASF separations based on solute retention enthalpies, focusing temperature, focusing time, and column parameters. This model guides the systematic study of the influence of sample injection volume on column performance. All samples have solvent compositions matching the mobile phase. Over the 45-1050nL injection volume range evaluated, TASF reduces the peak width for all solutes with k' greater than or equal to 2.5, relative to controls. Peak widths resulting from injection volumes up to 1.3 times the column fluid volume with TASF are less than 5% larger than peak widths from a 45nL injection without TASF (0.07 times the column liquid volume). The TASF approach reduced concentration detection limits by a factor of 12.5 relative to a small volume injection for low concentration samples. TASF is orthogonal to the solvent focusing method. Thus, it can be used where on-column focusing is required, but where implementation of solvent-based focusing is difficult.

  16. Temperature-assisted On-column Solute Focusing: A General Method to Reduce Pre-column Dispersion in Capillary High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Groskreutz, Stephen R.; Weber, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Solvent-based on-column focusing is a powerful and well known approach for reducingthe impact of pre-column dispersion in liquid chromatography. Here we describe an orthogonal temperature-based approach to focusing called temperature-assisted on-column solute focusing (TASF). TASF is founded on the same principles as the more commonly used solvent-based method wherein transient conditions are created thatlead to high solute retention at the column inlet. Combining the low thermal mass of capillary columns and the temperature dependence of solute retentionTASF is used effectivelyto compress injection bands at the head of the column through the transient reduction in column temperature to 5 °C for a defined 7 mm segment of a 6 cm long 150 μm I.D. column. Following the 30 second focusing time, the column temperature is increased rapidly to the separation temperature of 60 °C releasing the focused band of analytes. We developed a model tosimulate TASF separations based on solute retention enthalpies, focusing temperature, focusing time, and column parameters. This model guides the systematic study of the influence of sample injection volume on column performance.All samples have solvent compositions matching the mobile phase. Over the 45 to 1050 nL injection volume range evaluated, TASF reducesthe peak width for all soluteswith k’ greater than or equal to 2.5, relative to controls. Peak widths resulting from injection volumes up to 1.3 times the column fluid volume with TASF are less than 5% larger than peak widths from a 45 nL injection without TASF (0.07 times the column liquid volume). The TASF approach reduced concentration detection limits by a factor of 12.5 relative to a small volume injection for low concentration samples. TASF is orthogonal to the solvent focusing method. Thus, it canbe used where on-column focusing is required, but where implementation of solvent-based focusing is difficult. PMID:24973805

  17. Capillary liquid chromatography using a hydrophilic/cation-exchange monolithic column with a dynamically modified cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Lin, Jia; Lin, Xucong; Xie, Zenghong

    2009-11-06

    A novel form of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) by the dynamically modified hydrophilic interaction monolithic column has been described in this paper. A porous poly(SPMA-co-PETA) monolith with strong cation-exchange (SCX) was prepared and the resulting monolith showed a typical hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) mechanism at higher organic solvent content (ACN%>50%). The good selectivity for neutral, basic and acidic polar analytes was observed in the HILIC mode. In order to increase the hydrophobic interaction, the monolith with SCX was dynamically modified with a long-chain quaternary ammonium salt, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which was added to the mobile phase. CTAB ions were adsorbed onto the surface of the SCX monolithic material, and the resulting hydrophobic layer was used as the stationary phase. Using the dynamically modified SCX monolithic column, neutral, basic and acidic hydrophobic analytes were well separated with the RPLC mode.

  18. Development of an electric charge-tunable micro-column for capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kouji; Fukano, Mizue; Yoshida, Saori; Ogawa, Masahiro; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2012-01-01

    An electric charge-tunable micro-column (CTMC) was developed as a precolumn for reversed-phase capillary chromatography using conductive carbon fibers as the stationary phase. The carbon fibers, which constitute one electrode, are packed into a heat-shrinkable tube, which is attached to a stainless-steel column body. The mobile phase flows into CTMC through a stainless-steel tube that acts as a counter electrode. The retention times for hydrophobic and ionic compounds are controlled by the applied potential. The characteristics, such as the electrolysis efficiency and shift in retention factor, were evaluated. As a case study, estrogens in spiked beef were analyzed by capillary chromatography. With no applied potential, the resolution between the unknown peak and estriol and the recoveries of estriol were 0.81 and 65.5%, respectively. These values improved to 1.2 and 78.8%, respectively, upon applying +500 mV. These results indicate that a high-resolution capillary chromatography system can be achieved with CTMC.

  19. Efficiency of short, small-diameter columns for reversed-phase liquid chromatography under practical operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Chassy, Alexander W; Miyazaki, Shota; Motokawa, Masanori; Morisato, Kei; Uzu, Hideyuki; Ohira, Masayoshi; Furuno, Masahiro; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Minakuchi, Hiroyoshi; Mriziq, Khaled; Farkas, Tivadar; Fiehn, Oliver; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2015-02-27

    Prototype small-size (1.0mm I.D., 5cm long) columns for reversed-phase HPLC were evaluated in relation to instrument requirements. The performance of three types of columns, monolithic silica and particulate silica (2μm, totally porous and 2.6μm, core-shell particles) was studied in the presence of considerable or minimal extra-column effects, while the detector contribution to band broadening was minimized by employing a small size UV-detector cell (6- or 90nL). A micro-LC instrument having small system volume (<1μL) provided extra-column band variance of only 0.01-0.02μL(2). The three columns generated about 8500 theoretical plates for solutes with retention factor, k>1-3 (depending on the column), in acetonitrile/water mobile phase (65/35=vol/vol) at 0.05mL/min, with the instrument specified above. The column efficiency was lower by up to 30% than that observed with a 2.1mm I.D. commercial column. The small-size columns also provided 8000-8500 theoretical plates for well retained solutes with a commercial ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) instrument when extra-column contributions were minimized. While a significant extra-column effect was observed for early eluting solutes (k<2-4, depending on column) with methanol/water (20/80=vol/vol) as weak-wash solvent, the use of methanol/water=50/50 as wash solvent affected the column efficiency for most analytes. The results suggest that the band compression effect by the weak-wash solvent associated with partial-loop injection may provide a practical means to reducing the extra-column effect for small-size columns, while the use of an instrument with minimum extra-column effect is highly desirable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone in grains by new immunoaffinity column/liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Roswitha; Lusky, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of mycotoxins was performed in 3 steps: extraction, cleanup, and detection. For extraction, a mixture of acetonitrile-water (60 + 40, v/v) was proved appropriate. For cleanup, a new Afla-Ochra-Zea immunoaffinity column was used. After derivatization with trifluoroacetic acid, the mycotoxins aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) were determined simultaneously by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The detection limits in different matrixes after cleanup with the new immunoaffinity column were very low: aflatoxins, 0.002-0.7 microg/kg; OTA, 0.07-0.25 microg/kg; ZEA, 1-3 microg/kg. The limits of determination were: aflatoxins, 0.25 microg/kg; OTA, 0.5 microg/kg; ZEA, 5 microg/kg. The recovery rates for aflatoxins, OTA, and ZEA for rye and rice were between 86 and 93% when a 0.5 g sample matter per immunoaffinity column was used.

  1. [High-performance liquid chromatography determination of histamine in nasal mucosa of guinea pig after post-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Huang, X H; Chen, B M; Liang, S X; Deng, F L

    2000-06-28

    A rapid and simple method for determining histamine by post-column derivatization liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection was described. SCX weakly acidic cation exchange column was used as an analytical column. Histamine was eluted at 13 min 12 s by 40 mmol.L-1 of trisodium citrate (pH5.50) at flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1. The recoveries of histamine ranged from 1.0 mumol.L-1 to 100 mumol.L-1 were above 92%. The detection limit for histamine was 50 nmol.L-1 and the linear range for histamine was 50 nmol.L(-1)-500 mumol.L-1.

  2. Effect of high-temperature on high-performance liquid chromatography column stability and performance under temperature-programmed conditions.

    PubMed

    Marin, Stephanie J; Jones, Brian A; Felix, W Dale; Clark, Jody

    2004-03-19

    Six commercially available analytical (4.1 or 4.6 mm i.d.) columns were evaluated under temperature-programmed high-temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC) conditions to access their stability and performance at extreme temperatures. Seven components consisting of acidic, basic and neutral compounds were analyzed under temperature-programmed conditions and solvent gradient conditions using three different mobile phase compositions (acidic, basic and neutral). Each column was checked with a two-component test mix at various stages of the evaluation to look for signs of stationary phase collapse. Three zirconia based stationary phases studied exhibited column bleed under temperature-programmed conditions. The other three columns, a polydentate silica column, a polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) polymeric column, and a graphitic carbon column performed well with no evidence of stationary phase degradation. The R.S.D. for the retention times and efficiencies were less than 10% for most conditions, and not more than 15% during the course of the evaluation for each column. The polydentate silica stationary phase was temperature programmed to 100 degrees C, the PS-DVB stationary phase was temperature programmed up to 150 degrees C, and the graphitic carbon column was used with temperature programming up to 200 degrees C. Comparable peak capacities and similar retention behaviors were observed under solvent gradient and temperature-programmed conditions. Temperature programming with dynamic mobile phase preheating can replace solvent gradient analysis without a loss of peak capacity when used with 4.1 or 4.6 mm columns.

  3. Determination of citrulline and homocitrulline by high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization.

    PubMed

    Koshiishi, I; Kobori, Y; Imanari, T

    1990-10-26

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of citrulline and homocitrulline using a post-column colorimetric reaction with o-phthaladehyde and N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine. Citrulline and homocitrulline were determined with no interferences from protein amino acids. The results show that the level of citrulline in the plasma of patients with uremia on intermittent hemodialysis is higher than that in healthy human plasma, and that homocitrulline is excreted into the urine of healthy adults.

  4. Simultaneous determination of methamphetamine and its metabolite, amphetamine, in urine using a high performance liquid chromatography column-switching method.

    PubMed

    Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Shibayama, Takayuki; Suga, Keisuke; Miyauchi, Hiroshi; Jamal, Mostofa; Wang, Weihuan; Uekita, Ikuo; Ijiri, Iwao

    2007-01-01

    We describe here a simple, precise, and highly sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in urine using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column-switching method. A PK-2A (Shodex) column was used for extraction and deproteinization, and a CAPCELL PAK SCX semi-micro, polymer-coated cation-exchange column was employed for separation. The urine sample was mixed with an equal volume of borate buffer (0.1M, pH 9.4), and then 100 microl of the mixture was injected into the HPLC column. The column was switched for 6 min, and then 10 min later detection was performed at 210 nm. Recovery yields of the MA and AM spiked in the urine were 93.0-100.4% with a coefficient of variation of less than 1%. The calibration curves of MA and AM were in the range of 0.1-10 microg/ml with good linearity (r(2)=0.999), with the limit of qualification being 0.005 microg/ml. This method of using HPLC with column-switching can be used for both qualification and quantification of MA and its metabolite, AM, in urine, especially in forensic cases.

  5. Isolation and purification of diastereoisomeric flavonolignans from silymarin by binary-column recycling preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiquan; Yang, Guang; Zhong, Fanyi; Yang, Nan; Zhao, Xin; Qi, Yunpeng; Fan, Guorong

    2014-09-01

    Silymarin extracted from Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn consists of a large number of flavonolignans, of which diastereoisomeric flavonolignans including silybin A and silybin B, and isosilybin A and isosilybin B are the main bioactive components, whose preparation from the crude extracts is still a difficult task. In this work, binary-column recycling preparative high-performance liquid chromatography systems without sample loop trapping, where two columns were switched alternately via one or two six-port switching valves, were established and successfully applied to the isolation and purification of the four diastereoisomeric flavonolignans from silymarin. The proposed system showed significant advantages over conventional preparative high-performance liquid chromatography with a single column in increasing efficiency and reducing the cost. To obtain the same amounts of products, the proposed system spends only one tenth of the time that the conventional system spends, and needs only one eleventh of the solvent that the conventional system consumes. Using the proposed system, the four diastereoisomers were successfully isolated from silymarin with purities over 98%.

  6. A simple procedure for the preparation of fritless columns by entrapping conventional high performance liquid chromatography sorbents.

    PubMed

    Chirica, G S; Remcho, V T

    2000-09-01

    A rapid and direct method for immobilizing conventional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) packing material inside fritless capillaries has been developed. Due to the simple composition of the entrapment matrix (tetraethoxysilane, alkyltriethoxysilane, ethanol and water), straightforward manufacturing procedure and modest equipment requirement, the method can readily be transferred to any laboratory and easily automated. The entrapment procedure has minimal influence on the structure and chromatographic properties of the original reverse-phase sorbent. Various immobilization solutions have been tested, and a comparison between columns entrapped with different immobilization mixtures and conventional packed capillaries is presented. High efficiency separations were obtained using tert-butyl-triethoxysilane entrapped columns in both capillary electrochromatography (reduced plate heights of 1.1-1.4 were measured) and microliquid chromatography (reduced plate heights of 2.2-2.6 were observed) formats. Elimination of frits, stabilization of the packed bed and on-the-fly customization of column length render mechanically robust columns that are remarkably stable over time, from which manufacturing imperfections can be removed easily.

  7. Selection of column dimensions and gradient conditions to maximize the peak-production rate in comprehensive off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography using monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Dolman, Sebastiaan; Vivo-Truyols, Gabriel; Schoenmakers, Peter; Swart, Remco; Ursem, Mario; Desmet, Gert

    2010-08-15

    The peak-production rate (peak capacity per unit time) in comprehensive off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC/x/LC) was optimized for the separation of peptides using poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic columns in the reversed-phase (RP) mode. A first-dimension ((1)D) separation was performed on a monolithic column operating at a pH of 8, followed by sequential analysis of all the (1)D fractions on a monolithic column operating at a pH of 2. To obtain the highest peak-production rate, effects of column length, gradient duration, and sampling time were examined. RP/x/RP was performed at undersampling conditions using a short 10 min (1)D gradient. The peak-production rate was highest using a 50 mm long (2)D column applying an 8-10 min (2)D gradient time and was almost a factor of two higher than when a 250 mm monolithic column was used. The best way to obtain a higher peak-production rate in off-line LC/x/LC proved to be an increase in the number of (1)D fractions collected. Increasing the (2)D gradient time was less effective. The potential of the optimized RP/x/RP method is demonstrated by analyzing proteomics samples of various complexities. Finally, the trade-off between peak capacity and analysis time is discussed in quantitative terms for both one-dimensional RP gradient-elution chromatography and the off-line two-dimensional (RP/x/RP) approach. At the conditions applied, the RP/x/RP approach provided a higher peak-production rate than the (1)D-LC approach when collecting three (1)D fractions, which corresponds to a total analysis time of 60 min.

  8. Analysis of drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with organic-inorganic hybrid cyanopropyl monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Souza, Israel Donizeti de; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2015-07-01

    This study reports on the development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze sixteen drugs (antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and antipsychotics) in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients. The developed organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with cyanopropyl groups was used for the first dimension of the column-switching arrangement. This arrangement enabled online pre-concentration of the drugs (monolithic column) and their subsequent analytical separation on an XSelect SCH C18 column. The drugs were detected on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (multiple reactions monitoring mode) with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The developed method afforded adequate linearity for the sixteen target drugs; the coefficients of determination (R(2)) lay above 0.9932, the interassay precision had coefficients of variation lower than 6.5%, and the relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -14.0 to 11.8%. The lower limits of quantification in plasma samples ranged from 63 to 1250pgmL(-1). The developed method successfully analyzed the target drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM).

  9. Rapid analysis of benzodiazepines in whole blood by high-performance liquid chromatography: use of a monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Bugey, Aurélie; Staub, Christian

    2004-05-28

    In a previous work [J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 23 (2000) 447] a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, using a monolithic column in HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector, was developed for the quantitative determination of benzodiazepines in whole blood. The present method has been applied to the assay of eight benzodiazepines amongst the most frequently encountered in forensic toxicology: clonazepam, desalkylflurazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nordiazepam and oxazepam. The sample pre-treatment involved a liquid-liquid extraction of blood samples by n-butyl chloride. The separation was carried out in reversed-phase conditions using a Chromolith Performance (RP-18e 100 x 4.6 mm) column. The mobile phase was composed of a phosphate buffer (35 mM, pH 2.1) and acetonitrile (70:30, v/v) and the flow-rate was 2 ml/min. The duration of the analysis was less than 4 min and the results of validation, including linearity, precision, recovery, limit of quantification, were satisfactory. The therapeutic and toxic concentrations usually encountered for these substances could be measured. The compounds were separated by a monolithic column which, on account of its particular structure, could bear higher flow-rates than usually found for this kind of analysis. The present method has been applied to two real cases and was tested with about 30 compounds.

  10. Multidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography on Pinkerton ISRP and RP18 columns: direct serum injection to quantify creatinine.

    PubMed

    Puhlmann, A; Dülffer, T; Kobold, U

    1992-10-02

    A two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of creatinine with direct serum injection without sample pretreatment has been developed. The column-switching technique allowed a switch from columns packed with internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP) material to columns of almost any other material, even if the eluents necessary in a particular case do not appear to be directly compatible. A Pinkerton ISRP column, which stands out because of its very good stability when loaded with undiluted serum samples, was used as precolumn. The creatinine-containing fraction was switched to a reversed-phase Shandon RP18 column and was focused there by alteration of the eluent from pH 6.5 to phosphoric acid-ion-pair reagent. The separation occurs via a pH gradient, with ultraviolet detection at 234 nm. This method stands out particularly for its good long-term stability, simple sample handling without pretreatment, high selectivity, a broad linearity (0.3-30 mg/dl creatinine), good reproducibility (inter-assay coefficient of variation less than 3%) and high recovery (97-100%) relative to values obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  11. Determination of famotidine in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with column switching.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Yeh, K C

    1998-02-01

    A rapid, sensitive and robust reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with column switching and an internal standard for the quantitative determination of famotidine in human plasma is described. Famotidine and the internal standard were isolated from plasma samples by cation exchange solid phase extraction with SCX cartridges. The chromatographic separation was accomplished by an Inertsil C4 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/phosphate aqueous solution, connected by a switching valve to a BDS Hypersil C8 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/sodium dodecyl sulfate and phosphate aqueous solution. UV detection was set at 267 nm. The standard curve was linear in the concentration range of 1-100 ng ml-1. The intraday coefficients of variation at all concentration levels were less than 10%. The interday consistency was assessed by running QC samples during each daily run. The limit of quantification for famotidine in human plasma was 1 ng ml-1. The method has been utilized to support clinical pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers who received famotidine 10 mg orally.

  12. Determination of oxytetracycline levels in rainbow trout serum on a biphenyl column using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ron A; Reimschuessel, Renate; Carson, Mary C

    2007-06-01

    We developed a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method on a biphenyl column to determine oxytetracycline (OTC) levels in rainbow trout serum. The assay used deproteination, filtration, and subsequent separation on a reverse-phase biphenyl column, with UV detection at 355 nm. OTC (7.8-7.9 min) was completely resolved from structurally similar riboflavin (10.4-10.5 min), a common feed supplement. Estimated limits of detection and quantitation of OTC were 0.01 and 0.04 microg/mL, respectively. The average recovery for OTC was 102% with a R.S.D. of 8.34%. Calibration standards were linear from 0.01 to 10 microg/mL.

  13. Rapid determination of Papaver somniferum alkaloids in process streams using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Costin, Jason W; Lewis, Simon W; Purcell, Stuart D; Waddell, Lucy R; Francis, Paul S; Barnett, Neil W

    2007-07-30

    We have combined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations using a monolithic column with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection in a rapid and highly sensitive method to monitor the process of extracting opiate alkaloids from Papaver somniferum. Due to the high flow rates allowed with the monolithic column and the inherent selectivity of the chemiluminescence reactions, the four predominant alkaloids--morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine--were determined in less than 2 min. The results obtained with numerous process samples compared favourable with those of the standard HPLC methodology. Limits of detection were 1x10(-10) M, 5x10(-10) M, 5x10(-10) M and 1x10(-9) M, for morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine, respectively.

  14. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuhs, Bradley L.; Rounds, Mary Ann

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) developed during the 1960s as a direct offshoot of classic column liquid chromatography through improvements in the technology of columns and instrumental components (pumps, injection valves, and detectors). Originally, HPLC was the acronym for high-pressure liquid chromatography, reflecting the high operating pressures generated by early columns. By the late 1970s, however, high-performance liquid chromatography had become the preferred term, emphasizing the effective separations achieved. In fact, newer columns and packing materials offer high performance at moderate pressure (although still high pressure relative to gravity-flow liquid chromatography). HPLC can be applied to the analysis of any compound with solubility in a liquid that can be used as the mobile phase. Although most frequently employed as an analytical technique, HPLC also may be used in the preparative mode.

  15. Tuning preparation conditions towards optimized separation performance of thermally polymerized organo-silica monolithic columns in capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gharbharan, Deepa; Britsch, Denae; Soto, Gabriela; Weed, Anna-Marie Karen; Svec, Frantisek; Zajickova, Zuzana

    2015-08-21

    Tuning of preparation conditions, such as variations in the amount of a porogen, concentration of an aqueous acid catalyst, and adjustment in polymerization temperature and time, towards optimized chromatographic performance of thermally polymerized monolithic capillaries prepared from 3-(methacryloyloxy)propyltrimethoxysilane has been carried out. Performance of capillary columns in reversed-phase liquid chromatography was assessed utilizing various sets of solutes. Results describing hydrophobicity, steric selectivity, and extent of hydrogen bonding enabled comparison of performance of hybrid monolithic columns prepared under thermal (TSG) and photopolymerized (PSG) conditions. Reduced amounts of porogen in the polymerization mixture, and prolonged reaction times were necessary for the preparation of monolithic columns with enhanced retention and column efficiency that reached to 111,000 plates/m for alkylbenzenes with shorter alkyl chains. Both increased concentration of catalyst and higher temperature resulted in faster polymerization but inevitably in insufficient time for pore formation. Thermally polymerized monoliths produced surfaces, which were slightly more hydrophobic (a methylene selectivity of 1.28±0.002 TSG vs 1.20±0.002 PSG), with reduced number of residual silanols (a caffeine/phenol selectivity of 0.13±0.001 TSG vs 0.17±0.003 PSG). However, steric selectivity of 1.70±0.01 was the same for both types of columns. The batch-to-batch repeatability was better using thermal initiation compared to monolithic columns prepared under photopolymerized conditions. RSD for retention factor of benzene was 3.7% for TSG capillaries (n=42) vs. 6.6% for PSG capillaries (n=18). A similar trend was observed for columns prepared within the same batch.

  16. Application of coupled-column liquid chromatography combined with post-column photochemically induced fluorimetry derivatization and fluorescence detection to the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in vegetable samples.

    PubMed

    Parrilla Vázquez, P; Gil García, M D; Barranco Martínez, D; Martínez Galera, M

    2005-03-01

    This study reports the first application of coupled-column liquid chromatography-photochemically induced fluorimetry-fluorescence detection (LC-LC-PIF-FD), demonstrating its potential for the quantitative and selective detection of seven pyrethroids in vegetable samples such as cucumber, green bean, tomato and aubergine. An internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP) column coupled to a C18 column for analyte clean-up and determination were used, respectively. In comparison with a C18 column, the ISRP substantially improved the separation between analytes and interferences from the vegetable matrix. The limits of detection ranged from 0.01 to 0.22 microg kg(-1) in the vegetable samples (equivalent to 0.01 and 0.13 microg L(-1) in the extract injected), and limits of determination ranged from 0.56 to 8.33 microg kg(-1) in the vegetable samples (equivalent to 0.34 and 5.00 microg L(-1) in the extract injected). Samples were extracted into dichloromethane to yield mean recoveries at two levels of concentration between 72.8 and 110.0% in all cases. Relative standard deviations were lower than 11%.

  17. An Undergraduate Column Chromatography Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danot, M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for an experiment designed to introduce undergraduate students to the theoretical and technical aspects of column chromatography. The experiment can also be shortened to serve as a demonstration of the column chromatography technique. (JN)

  18. 3D printed titanium micro-bore columns containing polymer monoliths for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vipul; Talebi, Mohammad; Deverell, Jeremy; Sandron, Sara; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Heery, Brendan; Thompson, Fletcher; Beirne, Stephen; Wallace, Gordon G; Paull, Brett

    2016-03-03

    The potential of 3D selective laser melting (SLM) technology to produce compact, temperature and pressure stable titanium alloy chromatographic columns is explored. A micro bore channel (0.9 mm I.D. × 600 mm long) was produced within a 5 × 30 × 30 mm titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) cuboid, in form of a double handed spiral. A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate) (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic stationary phase was thermally polymerised within the channel for application in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The prepared monolithic column was applied to the liquid chromatographic separation of intact proteins and peptides. Peak capacities of 69-76 (for 6-8 proteins respectively) were observed during isothermal separation of proteins at 44 °C which were further increased to 73-77 using a thermal step gradient with programmed temperature from 60 °C to 35 °C using an in-house built direct-contact heater/cooler platform based upon matching sized Peltier thermoelectric modules. Rapid temperature gradients were possible due to direct-contact between the planar metal column and the Peltier module, and the high thermal conductivity of the titanium column as compared to a similar stainless steel printed column. The separation of peptides released from a digestion of E.coli was also achieved in less than 35 min with ca. 40 distinguishable peaks at 210 nm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of formetanate hydrochloride in selected fruits by coupled-column cation exchange liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Niemann, R A

    1993-01-01

    A strong cation exchange (SCX) liquid chromatographic (LC) method is described for determination of formetanate hydrochloride residue in pome, citrus, and stone fruits. A test portion of fruit, homogenized with the peel left on, was blended with acidified acetonitrile and filtered. A portion of extract was finely filtered, and a 500 microL aliquot (ca 0.2 g test sample equivalent) was loaded onto an SCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) LC column, which replaced the injection loop of the LC injection valve. Cations were selectively enriched; noncations were eluted by acetonitrile in a pre-separation cleanup. Turning the valve to the inject position coupled the SPE column to an SCX analytical column for separation and detection at 250 nm. The mobile phase was 0.4M pH 3.0 ammonium phosphate buffer-water-acetonitrile (50 + 25 + 25). Formetanate cation was quantitated by peak area and regression coefficients from a 5-point linear calibration covering a 100-fold range. Recovery of duplicate fortifications of apple, pear, orange, and peach averaged 89-99% at the respective U.S. tolerances of 3, 3, 4, or 5 ppm and averaged 93-99% at one-tenth of the respective tolerance level. Peel pigments or variable peel bulk of crop varieties tested, as well as other endogenous fruit material, contributed interference that was below the 0.02 ppm limit of detection. In a 1991 limited survey comprising 15 samples, none were found violative. Residues were found in 2 samples, but only 1 measurement was quantifiable, near the 0.06 ppm limit of quantitation.

  20. Determination of ochratoxin A in baby food by immunoaffinity column cleanup with liquid chromatography: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Burdaspal, P; Legarda, T M; Gilbert, J

    2001-01-01

    An interlaboratory study funded by the European Commission, Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme (4th Framework Programme) was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of an immunoaffinity column cleanup liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of ochratoxin A in baby food at a possible future European regulatory limit (0.1 ng/g). The test portion is extracted in a blender with tert-butyl methyl ether (chosen to avoid use of chloroform but shown to give equivalent extraction efficiency) after addition of 0.5 mol/L phosphoric acid-2 mol/L sodium chloride solution. The extract is centrifuged and redissolved in a mixture of phosphate buffered saline solution and methanol. After removal of lypophilic substances with hexane, the extract is applied to an immunoaffinity column containing antibodies specific to ochratoxin A. The column is washed with water to remove the interfering compounds and the purified ochratoxin A is eluted with methanol. The separation and determination of ochratoxin A is performed by reversed-phase LC and detected by fluorescence after postcolumn derivatization (PCD) with ammonia. Test materials (baby food infant formulae), both spiked and naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A, were sent to 13 laboratories in 8 different European countries. Test portions were spiked at a level of 0.085 ng/g ochratoxin A. The average recovery for the spiked blank baby food was 108%. Based on results for spiked samples (blind pairs at 0.085 ng/g) as well as naturally contaminated samples (blind pairs at levels between 0.05 and 0.22 ng/g) the relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 18-36%. The relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 29-63% and HORRAT values of between 0.4 and 0.9 were obtained.

  1. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  2. [Determination of histamine in canned fish by high performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Jin, Gaowa; Cai, Youqiong; Yu, Huijuan; Qian, Beilei

    2010-11-01

    A pre-column derivatization-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of histamine in canned fish. The homogenated samples were ultrasonically extracted with perchloric acid aqueous solution, derivatized with dansyl chloride and diluted with acetonitrile to a desired volume. The samples were determined by HPLC with ultraviolet detector and quantified by external standard method. Adopting a C18 column with 1.8 microm stationary phase particles, the analysis time for each sample was smaller than 5 min with the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. It can decrease the consumption of the mobile phase and save the cost. The linear range was 0.08-8.00 mg/L for histamine. The correlation coefficient was 0.999 98. The average recoveries of histamine at different concentration levels in spiked samples were greater than 96% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were smaller than 2.5%. The quantitation limit was 5.00 mg/kg for histamine in canned fish by HPLC. The results indicated that this HPLC method is fast, sensitive, reproducible and practical for the routine analysis of histamine in canned fish.

  3. Determination of fluvoxamine and its metabolite fluvoxamino acid by liquid-liquid extraction and column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Inoue, Yoshimasa; Kaneko, Sunao; Otani, Koichi

    2005-02-07

    This study describes a new simultaneous determination of fluvoxamine and fluvoxamino acid by automated column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography. The test compounds were extracted from 1.5 ml of plasma using chloroform-toluene (15:85, v/v), and the extract was injected into a hydrophilic metaacrylate polymer column for clean-up and a C18 analytical column for separation. The mobile phase for separation consisted of phosphate buffer (0.02 M, pH 4.6), acetonitrile and perchloric acid (60%) (62.4:37.5:0.1, v/v/v) and was delivered at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min. The peak was detected using a UV detector set at 254 nm. The method was validated for the concentration range 0.8-153.6 ng/ml for fluvoxamine and 0.6-115.2 ng/ml for fluvoxamino acid, and their good linearity (r > 0.998) were confirmed. Intra-day coefficient variations (CVs) for fluvoxamine and fluvoxamino acid were less than 6.6 and 6.0%, respectively. Inter-day CVs for corresponding compounds were 6.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Relative errors ranged from -18 to 9% and mean recoveries were 96-100%. The limit of quantification was 1.2 and 0.9 ng/ml for fluvoxamine and fluvoxamino acid, respectively. This method shows successful application for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring.

  4. Fingerprinting of traditional Chinese medicines on the C18-Diol mixed-mode column in online or offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column modes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Tong, Ling; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Li

    2016-06-05

    In the present study, a mixed-mode stationary phase, C18-Diol, was applied for fingerprint analysis of traditional Chinese medicines. Hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions were demonstrated to contribute the retention separately or jointly, which endowed the C18-Diol stationary phase with distinct selectivity compared to the bare C18 one. The separation of total alkaloids extracted from Fritillaria hupehensis was compared on the C18-Diol and conventional C18 column with the greater resolving power and better symmetry responses on the former one. Besides, a novel two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column (2D-LC-1C) was realized on C18-Diol with the offline mode for the alcohol extract of Fritillaria hupehensis and online mode for Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. The early co-eluted extracted components with great polarity on the first dimension were reinjected on the same column and well separated on the second dimension. The results exhibited that the two complementary RPLC and HILIC modes on C18-Diol stationary phase enhanced the separation capacity and revealed more abundant chemical information of the sample, which was a powerful tool in analyzing complex herbal medicines.

  5. Determination of chlorophylls in Taraxacum formosanum by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry and preparation by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Loh, Chin Hoe; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Liu, Man Hai; Chen, Bing Huei

    2012-06-20

    Taraxacum formosanum, a well-known Chinese herb shown to be protective against hepatic cancer as well as liver and lung damage, may be attributed to the presence of abundant carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and content of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls in T. formosanum and preparation by column chromatography. An HyPURITY C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of water (A), methanol (B), acetonitrile (C), and acetone (D) could resolve 10 chlorophylls and an internal standard Fast Green FCF within 30 min with a flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. Both chlorophylls a and a' were present in the largest amount (1389.6 μg/g), followed by chlorophylls b and b' (561.2 μg/g), pheophytins a and a' (31.7 μg/g), hydroxychlorophyll b (26.5 μg/g), hydroxychlorophylls a and a' (9.8 μg/g), and chlorophyllides a and a' (0.35 μg/g). A glass column containing 52 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w) could elute chlorophylls with 800 mL of acetone containing 50% ethanol at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. Some new chlorophyll derivatives including chlorophyllide b, pyropheophorbide b, hydroxypheophytin a, and hydroxypheophytin a' were generated during column chromatography but accompanied by a 63% loss in total chlorophylls. Thus, the possibility of chlorophyll fraction prepared from T. formosanum as a raw material for future production of functional food needs further investigation.

  6. Comparison of chromatographic band profiles obtained under microwave irradiated and non-irradiated reversed-phase liquid chromatography column

    SciTech Connect

    Galinada, Wilmer; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-08-01

    The possible influence of the application of microwave energy to a reversed-phase liquid chromatography column on the mass transfer kinetics and the thermodynamics of equilibrium between mobile and stationary phases was examined. Chromatograms of propylbenzene and phenol were recorded under the same experimental conditions, on the same column, successively irradiated and not. The effect of microwave irradiation on the mass transfer kinetics was determined by measuring the second moment of small pulses of propylbenzene in a 70:30 (v/v) solution of methanol in water and microwave outputs of 15 and 30 W. The effect of microwave irradiation on the equilibrium thermodynamics was determined by measuring the elution time of breakthrough curves of phenol at high concentrations in a 20:80 (v/v) solution of methanol and water and microwave outputs of 15, 50, and 150 W. A qualitative comparison of the profiles of the propylbenzene peaks obtained with and without irradiation suggests that this irradiation affects significantly the peak shapes. However, a qualitative comparison of the profiles of the breakthrough curves of phenol obtained with and without irradiation suggests that this irradiation has no significant effect on their shapes. The peak sharpening observed may be due to an increase in the diffusivity, resulting from the dielectric polarization under microwave irradiation. This effect is directly related to an increase of the rate of mass transfers in the column. In contrast, the similarity of the overloaded band profiles at high concentrations suggests that the equilibrium thermodynamics is unaffected by microwave irradiation. This may be explained by the transparence of the stationary phase to microwaves at 2.45 GHz. The column temperature was measured at the column outlet under irradiation powers of 15, 30, 50, and 150 W. It increases with increasing power, the corresponding effluent temperatures being 25 {+-} 1, 30 {+-} 1, 35 {+-} 1, and 45 {+-} 1 C, respectively.

  7. Development of immunoaffinity columns for pyraclostrobin extraction from fruit juices and analysis by liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2011-07-29

    Pyraclostrobin belongs to a new generation of fungicides widely used to preserve high valuable crops. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies with different affinities to this modern strobilurin have been evaluated for their usefulness in the production of immunoaffinity columns suitable for the solid-phase extraction, concentration, and clean-up of residues from food commodities. Different immunosorbents were produced and characterized in terms of antibody immobilization efficiency, immunosorbent binding capacity, optimum elution conditions, and reusability. Covalent coupling of the antibodies to Sepharose-CNBr gel took place with high yield (over 90%), whereas the immunosorbent efficacy to retain the analyte (from 28 to 68%) was shown to depend on the amount and type of antibody immobilized on the support. As a matter of fact, columns prepared with the monoclonal antibody PYs5#14 were able to selectively bound up to 53 μg of pyraclostrobin per gram of beads. Acetonitrile solutions were preferred over methanolic ones for analyte elution, and some immunosorbents could be reused at least 4-6 times provided that the amount of pyraclostrobin and the volume of sample did not overload the column. Effectiveness of the selected immunoaffinity column was evidenced by the development of an extraction procedure for pyraclostrobin residues from fruit juices and further determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. A concentration factor of 50 times was achieved with the developed immunoaffinity column, which eventually resulted in a limit of quantification of 0.01 mg L(-1). Finally, quantitative recoveries were obtained on apple juice and red grape must samples spiked with pyraclostrobin from 0.01 to 1 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metal free columns for determination of deoxynucleotide monophosphate by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and application to oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Sachie; Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Taichi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2015-08-07

    We have developed a highly sensitive method for the analysis of deoxynucleotide monophosphates (dNMPs), which involves the use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and a new metal-free column. The new column solves the problem that the phosphate group in dNMPs interacts with the metal portion of the device or column. After optimization of the analytical conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) of dNMPs were from 5.4ng/g to 6.3ng/g. Those values were 10 times lower than the LODs of previous methods. We applied the method to the determination of the base composition and the quantification of 20-mer oligonucleotide. Despite use of a very small sample amount of 14.5ng, we were able to determine the base composition, and the result was consistent with theoretical values. We were also able to quantify the mass fraction of oligonucleotide with 8.2% expanded uncertainty (k=2). By means of the developed method, we were able to analyze dNMPs with high sensitivity as well as determine the base composition and quantify the mass fraction of oligonucleotide despite use of a small amount of sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radial heterogeneity of some analytical columns used in high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Mriziq, Khaled S; Guiochon, Georges A

    2009-01-01

    An on-column electrochemical microdetector was used to determine accurately the radial distribution of the mobile phase velocity and of the column efficiency at the exit of three common analytical columns, namely a 100 mm x 4.6 mm C18 bonded silica-based monolithic column, a 150 mm x 4.6 mm column packed with 2.7 {micro}m porous shell particles of C18 bonded silica (HALO), and a 150 mm x 4.6 mm column packed with 3 {micro}m fully porous C18 bonded silica particles (LUNA). The results obtained demonstrate that all three columns are not radially homogeneous. In all three cases, the efficiency was found to be lower in the wall region of the column than in its core region (the central core with a radius of 1/3 the column inner radius). The decrease in local efficiency from the core to the wall regions was lower in the case of the monolith (ca. 25%) than in that of the two particle-packed columns (ca. 35-50%). The mobile phase velocity was found to be ca. 1.5% higher in the wall than in the core region of the monolithic column while, in contrast, it was ca. 2.5-4.0% lower in the wall region for the two particle-packed columns.

  10. Rapid evaluation for heterogeneities in monoclonal antibodies by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with a column-switching system.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Ryosuke; Hashii, Noritaka; Harazono, Akira; Kawasaki, Nana

    2012-01-01

    The development of therapeutic antibodies has grown over the last several years. Most of the recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produced by mammalian cells are glycoproteins. Glycosylation of the mAbs can be associated with effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity, as well as immunogenicity and clearance. Thus, mAb glycan heterogeneity is a significant characteristic associated with the safety and efficacy of the products. Therefore, glycan heterogeneity should be evaluated during research and development (R&D) and during development of mAbs manufacturing processes to identify the process parameters that affect glycan heterogeneity and to enhance understanding of the manufacturing process. There is an increasing need for a rapid, easy, and automated evaluation method for glycan heterogeneity. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is a method that can be used to analyze glycoforms. LC/MS is marked by the ability to measure the oligosaccharide composition of each glycoform, whereas other general methods, such as capillary electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and ion-exchange chromatography, cannot. However, a laborious off-line purification of mAbs is required to evaluate glycan heterogeneities. In this study, we demonstrate the use of a rapid, easy, and automated evaluation system for mAb glycoforms by LC/MS. This LC/MS system uses a column-switching system equipped with 2 columns, a protein A affinity column and a reversed-phase column (desalting column). We devised 2 column-switching systems: one that targeted intact mAbs (system 1) and one that targeted the light and heavy chains of the mAbs (system 2). Our results show that the proposed systems are applicable as a tool to evaluate the glycoforms in several situations, including the research, development, and production processes of mAbs. Additionally, we hope that our systems are useful as

  11. Investigation of a new core-shell particle column for ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis of oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Biba, Mirlinda; Welch, Christopher J; Foley, Joe P

    2014-08-05

    A new core-shell particle column showed excellent performance and durability for separation of short (∼21-mer) ribonucleic acid (RNA) oligonucleotides by ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC). Previously investigated core-shell C18 columns showed excellent peak shapes and separations of closely eluting impurities by IP-RPLC. However, these columns showed only modest long-term stability at the neutral pH and elevated column temperatures of ≥60°C, typically used for IP-RPLC analysis of oligonucleotides. The newly introduced SunShell C18 column provided separations comparable to the previously evaluated core-shell columns, but with significantly improved long-term column stability when operated at neutral pH and elevated column temperature.

  12. Determination of taspoglutide in human and animal plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with orthogonal column-switching.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Katja; Wirz, Thomas

    2009-05-15

    A highly sensitive liquid chromatographic method with online solid-phase extraction (SPE) and tandem mass spectrometric detection was developed for the quantification of the synthetic peptide drug taspoglutide in human and animal plasma. Sample preparation consisted of simple protein precipitation or automated off-line SPE using mixed mode cation exchange material, optionally preceded by cleavage of potential antidrug antibody complexes. Excellent selectivity was obtained by a novel orthogonal column switching approach, employing hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) for online SPE followed by chromatographic separation on a 300 A pore size C18 column. The use of a stable isotope labeled drug (C-terminal arginine containing six (13)C and four (15)N atoms) as internal standard improved the quality and ruggedness of the method. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) in human and animal plasma were 10.0 and 50.0 pg/mL, respectively, extracting only 250 or 100 microL sample aliquots. Precisions and accuracies were below 15% CV and between 89% and 114%, respectively. The method was successfully employed to analyze samples from pharmacokinetic studies.

  13. [Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins, zearalenone and ochratoxin A in cereal grains by immunoaffinity column and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column photochemical derivatization].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Yu, Yimang; Tian, Miao; Wang, Hongwei; Wei, Feng; Li, Li; Wang, Xiong

    2006-11-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFs) (B1, B2, G1 and G2), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in cereal grains by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up and post-column derivatization. Cereal grain sample was extracted with methanol-water (80: 20, v/v). The extract was purified by immunoaffinity column and the toxins were separated by reversed-phase HPLC, and quantified with fluorescence detection after photochemical derivatization. The separation was performed on a Nova-Pak column (3.9 mm i. d. x 150 mm, 4 microm, Waters) with a linear gradient of methanol-acetonitrile-1% phosphoric acid mixture. The calibration curves for mycotoxins were made in the concentration range of 0.24 - 6.0 for AFs ( B1, B2, G1 and G2), 4.0 - 100.0 for ZEA and 0.5 - 40.0 microg/L for OTA. Recoveries of the different cereal grains (wheat, rice, rye) spiked with mycotoxins at levels ranged from 0.24 -1.0 microg/kg for AFs (B1, B2, G1 and G2), 4.0 -16.0 microg/kg for ZEA and 0.5 - 3.0 microg/kg for OTA were from 70.8% to 94.0% and relative standard deviations were between 2.79% and 9.38%. The limits of detection were 0.24 Rg/kg for AFs (B1, B2, G1 and G2), 0.5 microg/kg for OTA and 4.0 microg/kg for ZEA.

  14. Exogenous factors contributing to column bed heterogeneity: Part 1: Consequences of 'air' injections in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny; Shalliker, Andrew

    2015-08-07

    It has been shown that not only the packing homogeneity, but also factors external to the column bed, such as, frits and distributors can have important effects on the column performance. This current communication is the first in a series focusing on the impact of exogenous factors on the column bed heterogeneity. This study is based on several observations by us and others that chromatographic runs often, for technical reasons, include more or less portions of air in the injections. It is therefore extremely important to find out the impact of air on the column performance, the reliability of the results derived from analyses where air was injected, and the effect on the column homogeneity. We used a photographic approach for visualising the air transport phenomena, and found that the air transport through the column is comprised of many different types of transport phenomena, such as laminal flow, viscous fingering like flows, channels and bulbs, and pulsations. More particularly, the air clouds within the column definitely interact in the adsorption, i.e. mobile phase adsorbed to the column surface is displaced. In addition, irrespective of the type of air transport phenomena, the air does not penetrate the column homogeneously. This process is strongly flow dependent. In this work we study air transport both in an analytical scale and a semi-prep column. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Quasi-adiabatic vacuum-based column housing for very high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Gilar, Martin; Jarrell, Joseph A

    2016-07-22

    A prototype vacuum-based (10(-6)Torr) column housing was built to thermally isolate the chromatographic column from the external air environment. The heat transfer mechanism is solely controlled by surface radiation, which was minimized by wrapping the column with low-emissivity aluminum tape. The adiabaticity of the column housing was quantitatively assessed from the measurement of the operational pressure and fluid temperature at the outlet of a 2.1mm×100mm column (sub-2 μm particles). The pressure drop along the column was raised up to 1kbar. The enthalpy balance of the eluent (water, acetonitrile, and one water/acetonitrile mixture, 70/30, v/v) showed that less than 1% of the viscous heat generated by friction of the fluid against the packed bed was lost to the external air environment. Such a vacuum-based column oven minimizes the amplitude of the radial temperature gradients across the column diameter and maximizes its resolving power.

  16. Monolithic columns with organic sorbent based on poly-1-vinylimidazole for high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrushev, Y. V.; Sidelnikov, V. N.; Yudina, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    Monolithic chromatographic columns for HPLC with sorbent based on 1-vinylimidazole are prepared. It is shown that changing the 1-vinylimidazole content in the initial solution allows us to change the polarity of columns. An example of aromatic hydrocarbons separation is presented.

  17. Separation of amino acids and antibiotics by narrow-bore and normal-bore high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, H P; Plaga, A

    1987-01-16

    The selectivity, efficiency and lifetime of normal- and narrow-bore columns for high-performance liquid chromatography were investigated for the separation and quantification of amino acids and the amino acid-like antibiotics phosphinothricin and phosphinothricylalanylalanine in biological samples. These compounds were determined by an automated pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde-2-mercaptoethanol reagent and UV detection at 338 nm.

  18. Overloading study of basic compounds with a positively charged C18 column in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoran; Guo, Zhimou; Long, Zhen; Zhang, Xiuli; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-03-15

    While tailing and overloading of basic compounds remain problematic on most RP columns, a new kind of positively charged RP column named XCharge C18 was found to be superior good for the separation of alkaloids in our practical use. In this work, the surface charge property of the XCharge C18 column was evaluated by the retention of NO(3)(-) under different pH values and buffer concentrations. A considerable and pH-dependent positive charge was confirmed on the column. Then overloading behaviors of bases were systematically studied using amitriptyline as a basic probe. Good peak shapes (Tf<1.5) and extra high loadability with a C(0.5) of about 30,000 mg/L were observed on the column, with commonly used 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase additive. However, increasing the ionic strength of buffer with phosphates led to tailing peaks at high sample amount and sharp decline in loadability (C(0.5) of 2000-3000 mg/L), although it brought higher column efficiency at low sample amount. Higher pH also induced worse performance and lower loadability. The overall results demonstrated the importance of an appropriate level of ionic repulsion for the XCharge C18 column to achieve the good performance for bases, which could be explained by the multiple-site adsorption theory as ionic repulsion would shield the solute from occupying high-energy sites deeper in C18 layer.

  19. [A simple preparation method of an electric heating apparatus for heating capillary chromatographic columns and its application in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zuyao; Lü, Yayao; Zhou, Shanshan; Hao, Feiran; Fu, Bin; Ying, Wantao; Qian, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yangjun

    2015-06-01

    For deep coverage of proteome, especially in performing qualitative identification and quantitative analysis of low-abundance proteins, the most commonly used method is the application of a longer capillary chromatographic column or a capillary column packed with smaller particle sizes. However, this causes another problem, the very high back pressure which results in liquid leaks in some connection parts in a liquid chromatograph. To solve this problem, an electric heating apparatus was developed to raise the temperature of a capillary column for reducing its back pressure, which was further applied in a capillary high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system (cHPLC-MS/MS), and evaluated in the terms of chromatographic column back pressure and chromatographic column efficiency using bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic digests and yeast tryptic digests, separately. The results showed that at the optimum current, our electric heating apparatus could reduce the column pressure of a capillary column packed with 3 µm packing materials by at least 50% during the separation of BSA tryptic digestion and yeast tryptic digestion, compared with that without electric heating. The column efficiency was also increased slightly. This suggested that the electric heating apparatus can significantly reduce the column pressure, which provides an efficient way to use capillary chromatographic columns packed with smaller sizes of particles at a lower pressure.

  20. Determination of citrus limonoid glucosides by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to post-column reaction with Ehrlich’s Reagent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A method for the identification and quantification of citrus limonoid glucosides in juices based upon high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupled to post-column reaction with Ehrlichs’s reagent has been developed. This method utilizes a phenyl stationary phase and an isocratic ...

  1. The Trace Analysis of DEET in Water using an On-line Preconcentration Column and Liquid Chromatography with UV Photodiode Array Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the detection of trace levels of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in water is discussed. The method utilizes an on-line preconcentration column in series with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV photodiode array detection. DEET, a common insect repel...

  2. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  3. Aflatoxin evaluation in ready-to-eat brazil nuts using reversed-phase liquid chromatography and post-column derivatisation.

    PubMed

    Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Nakano, Felipe; Lemes, Daniel Ponciano; Ferranti, Larissa Souza; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence (HPLC-FD) method for aflatoxin quantification in brazil nuts was developed. Samples of brazil nuts collected in Brazilian markets were extracted with methanol:water and cleaned using an immunoaffinity column. Aflatoxins were eluted with methanol and a post-column derivatisation was performed with bromine, using a Kobra Cell system. The optimised method for total aflatoxins was sensitive, with detection and quantification limits of 0.05 and 0.25 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. The method was accurate, with recovery values of 87.6%; 85.3% and 85.0% for 0.5, 5.0 and 14.6 µg kg⁻¹ spiked levels, respectively. It was shown that the method was applicable to brazil nuts. From a total of 95 brazil nut samples analysed from 21 São Paulo supermarket samples and 51 Manaus and 23 Belém street markets samples, 37.9% showed detectable levels of aflatoxins and three exceeded the recommended Codex Alimentarius limit of 10 µg kg⁻¹ for ready-to-eat brazil nuts.

  4. Determination of deoxynivalenol in infant cereal by immunoaffinity column cleanup and high-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Dombrink-Kurtzman, Mary Ann; Poling, Stephen M; Kendra, David F

    2010-06-01

    The presence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in cereal-based baby food, a primary source of the first solid food for infants, was studied in order to develop a method to detect its presence at low concentrations. DON, produced primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is commonly isolated from grains and feed around the world and affects both animal and human health, producing diarrhea, vomiting, gastrointestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. An aqueous extract of infant cereal was cleaned by means of an immunoaffinity chromatography column. After the eluate was evaporated and redissolved, DON was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography-UV. The level of quantification for DON was 10 ppb for three types of infant cereal (mixed, barley, and oatmeal); the level of detection was 5 ppb. The protocol we have developed can measure DON between 10 to 500 ppb. An advisory level of 1 ppm for wheat products has been established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; however, the European Communities (EC) regulations have been set at 200 ppb for cereal-based foods for infants. Only 1 of 52 samples of barley-, mixed-, or oat-based infant cereal purchased in 2008 and 2009 in the United States exceeded the European standard.

  5. Characterization of capillary-channeled polymer fiber stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography protein separations: Comparative analysis with a packed-bed column.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Dwella M; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2006-12-15

    Capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers are investigated as reversed-phase (RP) stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography of proteins. A comparative analysis of column characteristics for polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) C-CP fiber columns and a conventional packed-bed (C4-derivatized silica) column has been undertaken. Five proteins (ribonuclease A, cytochrome c, lysozyme, myoglobin, bovine serum albumin) were used to investigate the separation characteristics under typical RP gradient conditions. Column performance was compared under standard (identical) and optimized RP chromatographic conditions. The gradient compositions utilized with the C-CP fiber columns are similar to those used with conventional columns, employing flow rates in the 1-6 mL/min range and gradient rates of approximately 1%/min. The packed-bed column was operated as prescribed by the column manufacturer. The retention factor (k'), separation factor (alpha), resolution (Rs), asymmetry factor (As), elution order, and peak capacity values of a four protein separations performed on the C-CP fiber columns are compared to the same separation on the C4 column. One unique feature observed here is the lessening of the percentage of organic modifier necessary to elute the proteins from the fiber phases with increased linear velocity. The potential contribution of the different stationary phases to protein denaturation was evaluated through a spectrophotometric enzymatic activity assay. The repeatability of retention times under both sets of conditions for six consecutive injections of lysozyme on each C-CP fiber column is < or =1.5% RSD. The column-to-column reproducibility of retention times for three columns of each fiber type is also < or =1.5% RSD. The overall performance of the C-CP fiber columns was comparable to the conventional column used in these studies. Basic characteristics demonstrated here suggested further developments in the areas of ultrafast protein

  6. Complete temperature profiles in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2008-07-01

    The temperature profiles were calculated along and across seven packed columns (lengths 30, 50, 100, and 150 mm, i.d., 1 and 2.1 mm, all packed with Acquity UPLC, BEH-C 18 particles, average d(p) approximately 1.7 microm) and their stainless steel tubes (o.d. 4.53 and 6.35 mm). These columns were kept horizontal and sheltered from forced air convection (i.e., under still air conditions), at room temperature. They were all percolated with pure acetonitrile, either under the maximum pressure drop (1034 bar) or at the maximum flow rate (2 mL/min) permitted by the chromatograph. The heat balance equation of chromatographic columns was discretized and solved numerically with minimum approximation. Both the compressibility and the thermal expansion of the eluent were taken into account. The boundary conditions were determined from the experimental measurements of the column inlet pressure and of the temperature profile along the column wall, which were made with a precision better than +/-0.1 K. These calculation results provide the 3-D temperature profiles along and across the columns. The axial and radial temperature gradients are discussed in relationship with the experimental conditions used. The temperature map obtained permits a prediction of the chromatographic data obtained under a very high pressure gradient.

  7. [Determination of 14 sulfonamide residues in shrimps by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dongmei; Huang, Xuanyun; Gu, Runrun; Hui, Yunhua; Tian, Liangliang; Feng, Bing; Zhang, Xuan; Yu, Huijuan

    2014-08-01

    A method for the determination of 14 sulfonamide residues in shrimps by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column derivatization was established. The sulfonamide residues were extracted with ethyl acetate after adding sulfapyridine as internal standard. The extracts were vacuum-concentrated and reverse-extracted by 2 mol/L hydrochloric acid solution for clean-up, and then the hydrochloric acid solution was defatted with n-hex- ane. The solution after filtration was blended with a mixed solution of methanol, acetonitrile and 3. 5 mol/L sodium acetate solution (5:5:20, v/v/v). The sulfonamides were separated on a C18 column by RP-HPLC and on-line derivatized with a fluorescamine and detected with a fluorescence detector. The standard addition method was used for quantitative analysis. The parameters of post-column derivatization system, such as concentration of fluorescamine solution, velocity of reagent solution and reaction temperature, were optimized. The calibration curves of the method showed good linearity in the range of 5 - 200 μg/L. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N= 10) were 1.0-5.0 μg/kg for the 14 sulfonamides. The recoveries were 77.8%- 103. 6% in the spiked range of 1. 0-100.0 μg/kg in shrimps with the relative standard deviations of 2.9%-9.1% (n= 6). The results indicated that the method is sensitive, efficient and more accurate. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of the 14 sulfonamide residues in shrimps.

  8. Determination of ochratoxin A in wine by means of immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Visconti, A; Pascale, M; Centonze, G

    1999-12-09

    A new and accurate method to quantify ochratoxin A (OA) in table wine has been developed. The method uses commercial immunoaffinity columns for clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection for quantification of the toxin. Wine was diluted with a solution containing 1% polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000) and 5% sodium hydrogencarbonate, filtered and applied to an OchraTest immunoaffinity column. The column was washed with a solution containing sodium chloride (2.5%) and sodium hydrogencarbonate (0.5%) followed by water. OA was eluted with methanol and quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorometric detection (excitation wavelength 333 nm, emission wavelength 460 nm) using acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (99:99:2) as mobile phase. Average recoveries of OA from white, rosé and red wine samples spiked at levels from 0.04 to 10 ng/ml ranged from 88% to 103%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 0.2 and 9.7%. Detection limit was 0.01 ng/ml based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. The method was applied successfully to 56 samples of red (38), rosé (8), white (9) and dessert (1) wine. The levels of OA ranged from <0.01 to 7.6 ng/ml with red wines more contaminated than rosé and white wines. A good correlation (r=0.987) was found by comparative analysis of 20 naturally contaminated samples using this method and the method of Zimmerli and Dick with better recoveries of OA and better performances for the new method. Several advantages of this method with respect to the actually available methods have been pointed out, with particular reference to red wine which appears to be the most difficult to analyze.

  9. Utilization of different crown ethers impregnated polymeric resin for treatment of low level liquid radioactive waste by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Attallah, M F; Borai, E H; Hilal, M A; Shehata, F A; Abo-Aly, M M

    2011-11-15

    The main goal of this study was to find a novel impregnated resin as an alternative for the conventional resin (KY-2 and AN-31) used for low and intermediate level liquid radioactive waste treatment. Novel impregnated ion exchangers namely, poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid-acrylonitril)-N,N'-methylenedi-acrylamide-4,4'(5')di-t-butylbenzo 18 crown 6 [P(AM-AA-AN)-DAM/DtBB18C6], poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid-acrylonitril)-N,N'-methylenediacrylamide-dibenzo 18 crown 6 [P(AM-AA-AN)-DAM/DB18C6], and poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid-acrylonitril)-N,N'-methylenediacrylamide-18 crown 6 [P(AM-AA-AN)-DAM/18C6] were prepared and their removal efficiency of some radionuclides was investigated. Preliminary batch experiments were performed in order to study the influence of the different derivatives of 18 crown 6 on the characteristic removal performance. Separation of (134)Cs, (60)Co, (65)Zn and ((152+154))Eu radionuclides from low level liquid radioactive waste was investigated by using column chromatography with P(AM-AA-AN)-DAM/DtBB18C6 and metal salt solutions traced with the corresponding radionuclides. Breakthrough data was obtained in a fixed bed column at room temperature (298K) using different bed heights and flow rates. The breakthrough capacities were found to be 94.7, 83.3, 58.7, 43.1 (mg/g) for (60)Co, (65)Zn, (134)Cs, and ((152+154))Eu, respectively. Pre-concentration and separation of all radionuclides under study have been carried out using different concentration of nitric and/or oxalic acids.

  10. Application of Diol column under adsorption and mixed partition-adsorption normal-phase liquid chromatography mode for the separation of purines and pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Kazoka, H

    2008-05-02

    The diol-bonded phase (column LiChrospher 100 Diol) has been studied for the separation of some purines and pyrimidines under normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) conditions. Retention time, column efficiency, and selectivity of column with diol-phase were compared to those of unmodified silica (column LiChrospher SI-60). It was established that under adsorption NPLC mode application of diol-phase can reduce the separation time and a little improve the column efficiency. Significant improvement of the column efficiency for polar solutes is observed if mixed partition-adsorption NPLC mode is used. The investigation has shown that application of diol-phase instead of bare silica is useful not only under adsorption, but also under mixed partition-adsorption mode if the system with specific selectivity is necessary.

  11. Polymer-based monolithic column with incorporated chiral metal-organic framework for enantioseparation of methyl phenyl sulfoxide using nano-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Lamprou, Alexandros; Svec, Frantisek; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2016-12-01

    A new approach to the preparation of enantioselective porous polymer monolithic columns with incorporated chiral metal-organic framework for nano-liquid chromatography has been developed. While no enantioseparation was achieved with monolithic poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) column, excellent separations of both enantiomers of (±)-methyl phenyl sulfoxide were achieved with its counterpart prepared after admixing metal-organic framework [Zn2 (benzene dicarboxylate)(l-lactic acid)(dmf)], which is synthesized from zinc nitrate, l-lactic acid, and benzene dicarboxylic acid in the polymerization mixture. These novel monolithic columns combined selectivity of the chiral framework with the excellent hydrodynamic properties of polymer monoliths, may provide a great impact on future studies in the field of chiral analysis by liquid chromatography.

  12. Immunoaffinity column cleanup with liquid chromatography using post-column bromination for determination of aflatoxins in peanut butter, pistachio paste, fig paste, and paprika powder: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Stroka, J; Anklam, E; Jörissen, U; Gilbert, J

    2000-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an immunoaffinity column cleanup liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins at European regulatory limits. The test portion is extracted with methanol-water (8 + 2) for dried figs and paprika, and with methanol-water (8 + 2) plus hexane (or cyclohexane) for peanut butter and pistachios. The sample extract is filtered, diluted with phosphate buffer saline, and applied to an immunoaffinity column. The column is washed with water and the aflatoxins are eluted with methanol. Aflatoxins are quantitated by reversed-phase LC with post-column derivatization (PCD) involving bromination. PCD is achieved with either an electrochemical cell (Kobra cell) and addition of bromide to the mobile phase or pyridinium hydrobromide perbromide. Determination is by fluorescence. Peanut butter, pistachio paste, dried fig paste, and paprika powder samples, both naturally contaminated with aflatoxins and containing added aflatoxins, were sent to 16 collaborators in 16 European countries. Test portions of samples were spiked at levels of 2.4 and 9.6 ng/g for total aflatoxins which included 1.0 and 4.0 ng/g aflatoxin B1, respectively. Recoveries for total aflatoxins ranged from 71 to 92% with corresponding recoveries for aflatoxin B1 of 82 to 109%. Based on results for spiked samples (blind duplicates at 2 levels) as well as naturally contaminated samples (blind duplicates at 4 levels, including blank), the relative standard deviation for repeatability ranged from 4.6 to 23.3% for total aflatoxins and from 3.1 to 20.0% for aflatoxin B1. The relative standard deviation for reproducibility ranged from 14.1 to 34.2% for total aflatoxins, and from 9.1 to 32.2% for aflatoxin B1. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for all 4 matrixes, as evidenced by HORRAT values <1, at the low levels of determination for both total aflatoxins and

  13. Evolution in miniaturized column liquid chromatography instrumentation and applications: An overview.

    PubMed

    Nazario, Carlos E D; Silva, Meire R; Franco, Maraíssa S; Lanças, Fernando M

    2015-11-20

    The purpose of this article is to underline the miniaturized LC instrumental system and describe the evolution of commercially available systems by discussing their advantages and drawbacks. Nowadays, there are already many miniaturized LC systems available with a great variety of pump design, interface and detectors as well as efficient columns technologies and reduced connections devices. The solvent delivery systems are able to drive the mobile phase without flow splitters and promote gradient elution using either dual piston reciprocating or syringe-type pumps. The mass spectrometry as detection system is the most widely used detection system; among many alternative ionization sources direct-EI LC-MS is a promising alternative to APCI. In addition, capillary columns are now available showing many possibilities of stationary phases, inner diameters and hardware materials. This review provides a discussion about miniaturized LC demonstrating fundamentals and instrumentals' aspects of the commercially available miniaturized LC instrumental system mainly nano and micro LC formats. This review also covers the recent developments and trends in instrumentation, capillary and nano columns, and several applications of this very important and promising field.

  14. Quantitation of triacylglycerols in edible oils by off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Hu, Na; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-24

    In this investigation, off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column has been applied for the identification and quantification of triacylglycerols in edible oils. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this off-line two-dimensional separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column combined the features of traditional C18 and silver-ion columns, which could provide hydrophobic interactions with triacylglycerols under acetonitrile conditions and can offer π-π interactions with triacylglycerols under methanol conditions. When compared with traditional off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography employing two different chromatographic columns (C18 and silver-ion column) and using elution solvents comprised of two phases (reversed-phase/normal-phase) for triacylglycerols separation, the novel off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column can be achieved by simply altering the mobile phase between acetonitrile and methanol, which exhibited a much higher selectivity for the separation of triacylglycerols with great efficiency and rapid speed. In addition, an approach based on the use of response factor with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for triacylglycerols quantification. Due to the differences between saturated and unsaturated acyl chains, the use of response factors significantly improves the quantitation of triacylglycerols. This two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system was successfully applied for the profiling of triacylglycerols in soybean oils, peanut oils and lord oils. A total of 68 triacylglycerols including 40 triacylglycerols in soybean oils, 50 triacylglycerols in peanut oils and 44 triacylglycerols in lord oils have been identified and quantified. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data were analyzed

  15. Sensitive determination of a glyoxal-DNA adduct biomarker candidate by column switching capillary liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Raymond; Ovrebø, Steinar; Thorud, Syvert; Lundanes, Elsa; Thomassen, Yngvar; Greibrokk, Tyge; Molander, Paal

    2008-06-01

    A method based on column switching packed capillary liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of the adduct glyoxal-deoxyguanosine, a biomarker candidate for the assessment of glyoxal exposure, in DNA hydrolysate solutions. Microgram amounts of DNA were isolated and enzymatically hydrolyzed to deoxyribonucleosides, prior to ultrafiltration and subsequent dilution to a sample solution consisting of water-acetonitrile-formic acid (98 : 2 : 0.2, v/v). The sample solution was loaded onto a 1 mm I.D. x 5 mm Hypercarb (5 mum) porous graphitic carbon trap column for analyte enrichment using an injection volume of 200 mul, and was subsequently back-flushed onto a 0.30 mm I.D. x 150 mm Lichrospher diol (5 mum) analytical column. The samples were loaded with a flow rate of 40 mul min(-1) and glyoxal-deoxyguanosine was desorbed from the trap column and eluted with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water-acetonitrile-formic acid (50 : 50 : 0.2, v/v) at a flow rate of 5 mul min(-1). Mass spectrometric determination of glyoxal-deoxyguanosine was obtained by multiple reaction monitoring of the transition [M + H](+)m/z 326 --> m/z 210. The method was evaluated over the concentration range 0.25-50 ng ml(-1) of glyoxal-deoxyguanosine in the hydrolysate of 5 mug DNA. The method was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 in this range. The within-day (n = 6) and between-day (n = 6) precisions were determined as 1.2-11% and 1.4-11% RSD, respectively, and the recovery was close to 100%. The mass limit of detection was 15 pg, corresponding to a concentration limit of detection of 75 fg mul(-1) DNA hydrolysate solution, corresponding to 48 adducts per 10(6) normal nucleosides. The method was applied for the determination of glyoxal-deoxyguanosine in DNA hydrolysate solutions of calf thymus DNA and cell cultures after reaction or incubation with glyoxal.

  16. Method for determining monohydroxybenzo[a]pyrene isomers using column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Toriba, Akira; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya; Kizu, Ryoichi; Makino, Tsunehisa; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2003-01-01

    A method for determining monohydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (OHBaP) isomers using column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was developed. Eleven of 12 isomers of OHBaP (all except 6-OHBaP) were separated on an alkylamide-type reversed-phase column and, via column-switching, on a beta-cyclodextrin-bonded silica gel column. The detection limits for the OHBaPs were in the range 0.3-8 pg/injection (S/N=3). By using this method, 1-, 3-, and 9-OHBaPs were identified as major metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene in vitro by human recombinant p450 1A1. The method was used to determine OHBaPs in the urine of a nonsmoker subject. After enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites by beta-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase, the analytes were selectively adsorbed on blue rayon (a cellulose-supported copper phthalocyanine) from the urine matrix. Methanol as the eluting solvent from the rayon gave the best recoveries of OHBaPs and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in the range of 91-103%, which was superior to that of the solid-phase extraction method. 1-OHP, a well-known biomarker of the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, was simultaneously analyzed. Intra- and interday accuracy values for the determination of 3-OHBaP in 200 ml of urine were 95.5 and 100.9%, and those for 1-OHP were 96.4 and 103.6%, respectively. The intra- and interday precision values were 3.9 and 2.4% for 3-OHBaP and 2.4 and 3.2% for 1-OHP, respectively. In 11 kinds of isomers, only 3-OHBaP was detected in the human urine. Urinary concentration of 3-OHBaP was quantified at 0.5 ng/g creatinine concentration and the 3-OHBaP/1-OHP ratio was approximately 1/130.

  17. Enantiomeric separation of asymmetric triacylglycerol by recycle high-performance liquid chromatography with chiral column.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Otake, Ikuko; Ichioka, Kenji; Kojima, Koichi; Matsumoto, Yumiko; Gotoh, Naohiro; Kuroda, Ikuma; Wada, Shun

    2011-05-20

    In our previous studies, we employed recycle HPLC for the separation of triacylglycerol (TAG)-positional isomers (PIs). In this study, a recycle HPLC system equipped with a polysaccharide-based chiral column was applied to the enantiomeric separation of some asymmetric TAGs having straight-chain C16-C18 acyl residues. As a result, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol (rac-PPO), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol (rac-OOP), and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-linoleoyl-rac-glycerol (rac-PPL) were resolved into their respective enantiomers. However, neither 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl-rac-glycerol (rac-OOL), consisting of only unsaturated fatty acids, nor 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol (rac-PPS), consisting of only saturated fatty acids, was resolved. These results suggest that the asymmetric TAGs, used in this study, having both a palmitic acid moiety and an oleic acid (or a linoleic acid) moiety at the sn-1 or sn-3 positions are resolved by the chiral column. This new chiral separation method can be used in combination with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry to determine the sn-OOP/sn-POO ratio in palm oil. This method is applicable for the chiral separation of asymmetric TAGs in palm oil.

  18. [Determination of free formaldehyde in cosmetics by pre-column derivatization, extraction inhibition and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lü, Chunhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Chen, Mei; Xie, Wen; Chen, Xiaomei

    2012-12-01

    Pre-column derivatization and inhibition by solvent extraction were applied to determine free formaldehyde in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Due to the rapid decomposition of formaldehyde donors in the derivatization, it is hard to detect the amount of the free formaldehyde in cosmetics. The formaldehyde directly reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2) (1:1, v/v) solution for 2 min, then dichloromethane extraction was used to induce the decomposition of formaldehyde donors. The extract was diluted with acetonitrile and then determined by HPLC. The formaldehyde derivative was separated on an Agilent C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) at 30 degrees C with acetonitrile-water (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and detected at the wavelength of 355 nm. The recoveries were from 81% to 106% at the spiked levels of 50, 100, 500, 1 000 microg/g of formaldehyde in shampoo, milk, cream, hand cleaner, toothpaste, nail polish, powder separately, and the relative standard deviations (n = 6) were less than 5.0%. The limit of quantification of the formaldehyde in cosmetics was 50 microg/g. The method has been applied to the determination of free formaldehyde in real samples and the results showed that the release by formaldehyde donors was inhibited. The method has the advantages of simple operation, good accuracy and meets the requirement of determination of free formaldehyde in cosmetics.

  19. Determination of gas-liquid partition coefficients of several organic solutes in trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide using capillary gas chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Nicolás R; Menestrina, Fiorella; Romero, Lílian M; Castells, Cecilia B

    2017-06-09

    In this paper, we report gas-liquid partition constants for thirty-five volatile organic solutes in the room temperature ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide measured by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary columns. The relative contribution of gas-liquid partition and interfacial adsorption to retention was evaluated through the use of columns with different the phase ratio. Four capillary columns with exactly known phase ratios were constructed and employed to measure the solute retention factors at four temperatures between 313.15 and 343.15K. The partition coefficients were calculated from the slopes of the linear regression between solute retention factors and the reciprocal of phase ratio at a given temperature according to the gas-liquid chromatographic theory. Gas-liquid interfacial adsorption was detected for a few solutes and it has been considered for the calculations of partition coefficient. Reliable solute's infinite dilution activity coefficients can be obtained when retention data are determined by a unique partitioning mechanism. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution have been estimated from the dependence of experimental values of solute activity coefficients with the column temperature. A thorough discussion of the uncertainties of the experimental measurements and the main advantages of the use of capillary columns to acquire the aforementioned relevant thermodynamic information was performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct determination of acylcarnitines in amniotic fluid by column-switching liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jeongae; Lee, Won-Yong; Chung, Bong Chul

    2006-01-01

    A direct, simple, and simultaneous determination of acylcarnitines in amniotic fluid was developed using column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The analytes can be assayed within 20 min without any sample preparation process, and we monitored separated acylcarnitines with positive electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS. The calibration ranges of acylcarnitines were 1 to 100 nmol/L. The linearity of the method was 0.992 to 0.999, and the limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 1 nmol/L. The coefficients of variation were in the range of 5.2 to 13.3% for within-day variation and 6.7 to 11.9% for day-to-day, respectively. We detected acylcarnitines in the amniotic fluid of 22 women in the early stages of their pregnancies in the range of 2.2 to 17.2 nmol/L. The proposed method could be applied to diagnosis, monitoring, and biomedical investigations of inborn errors of the organic acid and fatty acid metabolism of the embryo.

  1. Determination of the herbicide amitrole in water with pre-column derivatization, liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bobeldijk, I; Broess, K; Speksnijder, P; van Leerdam, T

    2001-12-14

    Amitrole is a widely used polar herbicide, difficult to isolate from water. Due to its persistence, it can easily pollute ground and surface waters used in drinking water production. A fully automated on-line SPE-HPLC (solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography) method with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry detection is described for the determination of amitrole. A pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride directly in the native aqueous sample allows an enrichment step by SPE and HPLC separation. Due to the sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometric detection, a limit of detection and quantification as low as 0.025 microg/l was achieved in drinking water and ground and surface water. Based on the constant ratio of two selected product ions together with the retention time, the identification is very selective and quantitation is very reliable. The performance characteristics of the described method fully meet the requirements set by the EU Drinking Water Directive: recoveries of >95% in drinking water and >75% in surface water were achieved, as well as RSD values for repeatability of <9% in drinking water and <12% in surface water (determined at a spiking level of 0.1 microg/l). The method was successfully applied to real samples of ground and surface water with actual concentration up to 1.1 microg/l.

  2. Polymeric strong cation-exchange monolithic column for capillary liquid chromatography of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L

    2009-08-01

    A strong cation-exchange (SCX) monolithic stationary phase was prepared in 75 microm id capillaries by direct in situ polymerization of sulfopropyl methacrylate and polyethylene glycol diacrylate in a ternary porogen system consisting of methanol, cyclohexanol, and water. The resulting monolith exhibited good dynamic binding capacity, fast kinetic adsorption of proteins, and high permeability. The monolith had a dynamic binding capacity of approximately 52 mg/mL of column volume for lysozyme and cytochrome C. The monolith was evaluated for SCX capillary LC of synthetic peptides, natural peptides, and protein standards. Fast separation of proteins was achieved in less than 4 min. The average peak capacity for peptides was 28 using a relatively steep gradient when hydrophobic interactions were suppressed with 40% acetonitrile.

  3. Quantitative Evaluation of Models for Solvent-based, On-column Focusing in Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Groskreutz, Stephen R.; Weber, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    On-column focusing or preconcentration is a well-known approach to increase concentration sensitivity by generating transient conditions during the injection that result in high solute retention. Preconcentration results from two phenomena: 1) solutes are retained as they enter the column. Their velocities are k′-dependent and lower than the mobile phase velocity and 2) zones are compressed due to the step-gradient resulting from the higher elution strength mobile phase passing through the solute zones. Several workers have derived the result that the ratio of the eluted zone width (in time) to the injected time width is the ratio k2/k1 where k1 is the retention factor of a solute in the sample solvent and k2 is the retention factor in the mobile phase (isocratic). Mills et al. proposed a different factor. To date, neither of the models has been adequately tested. The goal of this work was to evaluate quantitatively these two models. We used n-alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) as solutes. By making large injections to create obvious volume overload, we could measure accurately the ratio of widths (eluted/injected) over a range of values of k1 and k2. The Mills et al. model does not fit the data. The data are in general agreement with the factor k2/k1, but focusing is about 10% better than the prediction. We attribute the extra focusing to the fact that the second, compression, phenomenon provides a narrower zone than that expected for the passage of a step gradient through the zone. PMID:26210110

  4. A column switching ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Camila; de Souza, Israel Donizeti; Grecco, Caroline Fernandes; Crippa, José Alexandre; Tumas, Vitor; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2017-03-23

    This study reports a fast, sensitive, and selective column switching ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to determine the endocannabinoids (eCBs), anandamide (AEA), and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in plasma samples. This bidimensional system used a restricted access media column (RP-8 ADS, 25 mm × 4 mm × 25 μM) in the first dimension and a core-shell Kinetex C18 (100 mm × 2, 1.7 mm × 1 μM) column in the second dimension, followed by detection in a mass spectrometer triple quadrupole (multiple reactions monitoring mode) operating in the positive mode. RP-8 ADS was used for trace enrichment of eCBs (reverse phase partitioning) and macromolecular matrix size exclusion; the core-shell column was used for the chromatographic separation. The column switching UHPLC-MS/MS method presented a linear range spanning from 0.1 ng mL(-1) (LOQ) to 6 ng mL(-1) for AEA and from 0.04 ng mL(-1) (LOQ) to 10 ng mL(-1) for 2-AG. Excluding the LLOQ values, the precision assays provided coefficients of variation lower than 8% and accuracy with relative standard error values lower than 14%. Neither carryover nor matrix effects were detected. This high-throughput column switching method compared to conventional methods is time saving as it involves fewer steps, consumes less solvent, and presents lower LLOQ. The column switching UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine AEA and 2-AG in plasma samples obtained from Alzheimer's disease patients. Graphical abstract A column switching ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using RP-8 ADS column and core shell column to determine endocannabinoids in plasma samples.

  5. The use of a temperature-responsive column for the direct analysis of drugs in serum by two-dimensional heart-cutting liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mikuma, Toshiyasu; Uchida, Ryo; Kajiya, Mizuki; Hiruta, Yuki; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2017-02-01

    A novel pretreatment method, which was performed using a two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (2D-HPLC) system, was proposed for the direct analysis of drugs in human serum. A temperature-responsive column was used as a pretreatment column. The stationary phase of the temperature-responsive column exhibits temperature-regulated hydrophilic/hydrophobic characteristics. Controlling the ionic strength of the eluent enables human serum albumin (HSA) to pass through the column without retention. When serum samples containing barbiturates or benzodiazepines were injected into the temperature-responsive column using 10 mM of ammonium acetate (pH 6.5) as the mobile phase and in the temperature range of 10-40 °C, HSA was eluted from the column near the dead time, followed by the individual drugs. When the column temperature was changed, the retention times of the drugs were altered owing to surface property changes within the pretreatment column. These closely eluted compounds were subsequently introduced into the analytical column using a column-switching valve, with a minimal gap time to avoid foreign substance contamination. This new 2D-HPLC method afforded high-quality chromatograms of multiple drugs without unwanted peaks from foreign substances. The present technique could be an attractive choice in selecting the analytical method for drug analysis.

  6. Characterization of warfarin unusual peak profiles on oligoproline chiral high performance liquid chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Lao, Wenjian; Gan, Jay

    2010-10-15

    Unusual peak profiles of warfarin were characterized on two oligoproline chiral stationary phases (CSPs). The pattern of 1st peak (S(-)) broadening and the 2nd peak (R(+)) compression was observed under mobile phase of hexane (0.1% TFA)/2-propanol (IPA) on a triproline CSP 1, and with other alcohol modifier such as ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol as well. Through analyzing system peak of additives, the unusual peak profile was interpreted by perturbation of TFA additive system peak. The unusual peak profile was also found in enantioseparation of coumachlor and on a covalently bonded doubly tethered diproline CSP 2. The pattern of 1st peak (S(-)) broadening and the 2nd peak (R(+)) compression can change to pattern of 1st peak compression and the 2nd peak broadening from 15 to 50°C. Chiral separation of warfarin created nonlinear van't Hoff plots on CSP. No peak broadening/compression were observed with methyl tertiary butyl ether or ethyl acetate as the modifier. The peak shapes of the two warfarin enantiomers can thus be tuned by varying alcohol concentration and column temperature. High separation factor and resolution may be carried out to tune the peak profiles into Langmuir/anti-Langmuir band-shape composition. Using none hydrogen donor modifier may avoid interference of the TFA system peak.

  7. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns modified by liposomes for characterization of analyte-liposome interactions by capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2013-11-22

    This study introduces a silica-based monolith in a capillary format (0.1 mm × 100 mm) as a support for immobilization of liposomes and its characterization in immobilized liposome chromatography. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns prepared by acidic hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in the presence of polyethylene glycol and urea were modified by (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane, whereby amino groups were introduced to the monolithic surface. These groups undergo reaction with glutaraldehyde to form an iminoaldehyde, allowing covalent binding of pre-formed liposomes containing primary amino groups. Two types of phospholipid vesicles were used for column modification; these were 2-oleoyl-1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl choline with and without 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine. The prepared columns were evaluated under isocratic separation conditions employing 20mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 as a mobile phase and a set of unrelated drugs as model analytes. The liposome layer on the synthesized columns significantly changed the column selectivity compared to the aminopropylsilylated monolithic stationary phase. Monolithic columns modified by liposomes were stable under the separation conditions, which proved the applicability of the suggested preparation procedure for the synthesis of capillary columns dedicated to study analyte-liposome interactions. The column efficiency originating from the silica monolith was preserved and reached, e.g., more than 120,000 theoretical plates/m for caffeine as a solute.

  8. Rapid bioanalysis of vancomycin in serum and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using on-line sample extraction and parallel analytical columns.

    PubMed

    Cass, R T; Villa, J S; Karr, D E; Schmidt, D E

    2001-01-01

    A novel high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method is described for the determination of vancomycin in serum and urine. After the addition of internal standard (teicoplanin), serum and urine samples were directly injected onto an HPLC system consisting of an extraction column and dual analytical columns. The columns are plumbed through two switching valves. A six-port valve directs extraction column effluent either to waste or to an analytical column. A ten-port valve simultaneously permits equilibration of one analytical column while the other is used for sample analysis. Thus, off-line analytical column equilibration time does not require mass spectrometer time, freeing the detector for increased sample throughput. The on-line sample extraction step takes 15 seconds followed by gradient chromatography taking another 90 seconds. Having minimal sample pretreatment the method is both simple and fast. This system has been used to successfully develop a validated positive-ion electrospray bioanalytical method for the quantitation of vancomycin. Detection of vancomycin was accurate and precise, with a limit of detection of 1 ng/mL in serum and urine. The calibration curves for vancomycin in rat, dog and primate were linear in a concentration range of 0.001-10 microg/mL for serum and urine. This method has been successfully applied to determine the concentration of vancomycin in rat, dog and primate serum and urine samples from pharmacokinetic and urinary excretion studies.

  9. Self-regenerating column chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Park, W.K.

    1995-05-30

    The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternating ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multi-function column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multi-function ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins.

  10. Performance limits and kinetic optimization of parallel and serially connected multi-column systems spanning a wide range of efficiencies for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cabooter, Deirdre; Desmet, Gert

    2012-01-06

    Using a set of experimentally determined liquid chromatography column performance data, it has been investigated how a range of efficiencies can best be covered when using a multi-column system. Two main variants are considered: a serially-connected variant (realizing different column lengths by connecting a different number of column segments in series) and a parallel-connected variant (realizing different column lengths by simply switching between columns with a different length arranged in parallel). Both variants are compared for their ability to keep the average analysis time along a given range of efficiencies as close as possible to the intrinsic Knox & Saleem-speed limit. It was found that the serial connection mode offers a better compromise between average speed and amount of required silica (total required column length) than the parallel connection mode for all efficiency ranges running from 5000-10,000 plates up to 75,000-150,000 plates. Considering an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) operation at 1200 bar, the best possible serial connection system can get within about within 15-25% of the Knox & Saleem-speed limit, whereas a three-column parallel system can only get to within 40-50% of the speed limit, while needing 50-100% more total column length. In absolute terms, the serially-connected system with individually optimized segment lengths should be able to cover a range of 5000-75,000 theoretical plates (dynamic range of 25) in an average analysis time of 14.3 min when using a 1200 bar instrument. At 400 bar, this would be 37.9 min, showing that the construction of wide-efficiency range systems would be one of the application areas where the advantages of UHPLC-conditions would be most fully realized.

  11. Polystyrene-co-Divinylbenzene PolyHIPE Monoliths in 1.0 mm Column Formats for Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Sidratul; Fitzhenry, Laurence; White, Blánaid; Connolly, Damian

    2016-03-18

    The reversed phase liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation of small molecules using a polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene (PS-co-DVB) polyHIPE stationary phases housed within 1.0 mm i.d. silcosteel columns is presented within this study. A 90% PS-co-DVB polyHIPE was covalently attached to the walls of the column housing by prior wall modification with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate and could withstand operating backpressures in excess of 200 bar at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Permeability studies revealed that the monolith swelled slightly in 100% acetonitrile relative to 100% water but could nevertheless be used to separate five alkylbenzenes using a flow rate of 40 µL/min (linear velocity: 0.57 mm/s). Remarkable column-to-column reproducibility is shown with retention factor variation between 2.6% and 6.1% for two separately prepared columns.

  12. Determination of trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid content in pure royal jelly and royal jelly products by column liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Genç, M; Aslan, A

    1999-04-16

    In this research, several royal jellies and commercial products containing royal jelly were analysed for their trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) content by using a column liquid chromatography technique. Ten samples claimed to be pure royal jelly, containing 10-HDA between 0.75 and 2.54%. Seven samples claimed to contain royal jelly as an ingredient which ranged from non-detectable to 0.054%. The technique was found to be rapid with high recovery.

  13. Quantitative measurement of plasma free metanephrines by ion-pairing solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with porous graphitic carbon column.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Gabler, Jessica; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Sihe; Shi, Yang; Kozak, Marta

    2011-08-01

    Plasma free metanephrine and normetanephrine are the best biomarkers for diagnosing pheochromocytoma. In the past few years, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has become the preferred technology to measure plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine because of its high sensitivity and specificity, as well as fast and simple sample preparation. In this study, we report a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for measuring plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine. A solid phase extraction method using ion-pairing reagent and C18 stationary phase was used for sample preparation. We tested a porous graphitic carbon column and a HILIC column for chromatographic separation, and the former one showed better resolution with no interference from plasma matrix. This method was linear from 7.2-486.8 pg/mL for metanephrine and 18.0-989.1 pg/mL for normetanephrine with an accuracy of 92.2-111.8% and 92.1-115.0%, respectively. Inter-assay and intra-assay CV for metanephrine and normetanephrine at two different concentration levels ranged from 2.0% to 10.9%. In conclusion, this liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using ion-pairing solid phase extraction and porous graphitic column was simple and efficient for measuring plasma metanephrines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dry-Column Flash Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusterman, Alan J.; McDougal, Patrick G.; Glasfeld, Arthur

    1997-10-01

    Dry-column flash chromatography is a safe, powerful, yet easily learned preparative chromatography technique. It has proven useful in research, and an adaptation of the technique for use in large teaching laboratories (general chemistry, organic chemistry) is described here. The student version is similar to vacuum filtration, uses the same compact, readily available glassware, and inexpensive and safe solvents (ethyl acetate and hexane) and adsorbent (Merck grade 60 silica gel). The technique is sufficiently simple and powerful that a beginning student can successfully resolve diastereomers on sample scales ranging from 100 mg to >1 g.

  15. Versatile, sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry – Implementation of 10 μm OT columns suitable for small molecules, peptides and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vehus, T.; Roberg-Larsen, H.; Waaler, J.; Aslaksen, S.; Krauss, S.; Wilson, S. R.; Lundanes, E.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed a versatile and sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) system, featuring a monolithic trap column and a very narrow (10 μm ID) fused silica open tubular liquid chromatography (OTLC) separation column functionalized with C18-groups, for separating a wide range of molecules (from small metabolites to intact proteins). Compared to today’s capillary/nanoLC approaches, our system provides significantly enhanced sensitivity (up to several orders) with matching or improved separation efficiency, and highly repeatable chromatographic performance. The chemical properties of the trap column and the analytical column were fine-tuned to obtain practical sample loading capacities (above 2 μg), an earlier bottleneck of OTLC. Using the OTLC system (combined with Orbitrap mass spectrometry), we could perform targeted metabolomics of sub-μg amounts of exosomes with 25 attogram detection limit of a breast cancer-related hydroxylated cholesterol. With the same set-up, sensitive bottom-up proteomics (targeted and untargeted) was possible, and high-resolving intact protein analysis. In contrast to state-of-the-art packed columns, our platform performs chromatography with very little dilution and is “fit-for-all”, well suited for comprehensive analysis of limited samples, and has potential as a tool for challenges in diagnostics. PMID:27897190

  16. Liquid chromatography coupled to on-line post column derivatization for the determination of organic compounds: a review on instrumentation and chemistries.

    PubMed

    Zacharis, Constantinos K; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D

    2013-10-10

    Analytical derivatization either in pre or post column modes is one of the most widely used sample pretreatment techniques coupled to liquid chromatography. In the present review article we selected to discuss the post column derivatization mode for the analysis of organic compounds. The first part of the review focuses to the instrumentation of post-column setups including not only fundamental components such as pumps and reactors but also less common parts such as static mixers and back-pressure regulators; the second part of the article discusses the most popular "chemistries" that are involved in post column applications, including reagent-less approaches and new sensing platforms such as the popular gold nanoparticles. Some representative recent applications are also presented as tables.

  17. Enantioselective determination of ornidazole in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on a Chiral-AGP column.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiangbo; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Ting; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang

    2013-12-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and enantioselective method was developed and validated for determination of ornidazole enantiomers in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ornidazole enantiomers were extracted from 100μl of plasma using ethyl acetate. Baseline chiral separation (Rs=2.0) was obtained within 7.5min on a Chiral-AGP column (150mm×4.0mm, 5μm) using an isocratic mobile phase of 10mM ammonium acetate/acetic acid (100/0.01, v/v). Stable isotopically labeled R-(+)-d5-ornidazole and S-(-)-d5-ornidazole were synthesized as internal standards. Acquisition of mass spectrometric data was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization, using the transitions of m/z 220→128 for ornidazole enantiomers, and m/z 225→128 for d5-ornidazole enantiomers. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.030-10.0μg/ml for each enantiomer. The lower limit of quantification for each enantiomer was 0.030μg/ml. The relative standard deviation values of intra- and inter-day precision were 1.8-6.2% and 1.5-10.2% for R-(+)-ornidazole and S-(-)-ornidazole, respectively. The relative error values of accuracy ranged from -4.5% to 1.2% for R-(+)-ornidazole and from -5.4% to -0.8% for S-(-)-ornidazole. The validated method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of ornidazole after oral administration of 1000mg racemic ornidazole. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of ricin by nano liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after extraction using lactose-immobilized monolithic silica spin column.

    PubMed

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Kato, Haruhito; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Ohta, Shigenori; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Furuno, Masahiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2011-08-01

    Ricin is a glycosylated proteinous toxin that is registered as toxic substance by Chemical Weapons convention. Current detection methods can result in false negatives and/or positives, and their criteria are not based on the identification of the protein amino acid sequences. In this study, lactose-immobilized monolithic silica extraction followed by tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was developed as a method for rapid and accurate determination of ricin. Lactose, which was immobilized on monolithic silica, was used as a capture ligand for ricin extraction from the sample solution, and the silica was supported in a disk-packed spin column. Recovery of ricin was more than 40%. After extraction, the extract was digested with trypsin and analyzed by LC/MS. The accurate masses of molecular ions and MS/MS spectra of the separated peptide peaks were measured by Fourier transform-MS and linear iontrap-MS, respectively. Six peptides, which were derived from the ricin A-(m/z 537.8, 448.8 and 586.8) and B-chains (m/z 701.3, 647.8 and 616.8), were chosen as marker peptides for the identification of ricin. Among these marker peptides, two peptides were ricin-specific. This method was applied to the determination of ricin from crude samples. The monolithic silica extraction removed most contaminant peaks from the total ion chromatogram of the sample, and the six marker peptides were clearly detected by LC/MS. It takes about 5 h for detection and identification of more than 8 ng/ml of ricin through the whole handling, and this procedure will be able to deal with the terrorism using chemical weapon.

  19. Proteomic analysis with integrated multiple dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based on elution of ion exchange column using pH steps.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Shieh, Chia Hui; Sheng, Quan-Hu; Zhou, Hu; Zeng, Rong

    2005-09-15

    A novel integrated multidimensional liquid chromatography (IMDL) method is demonstrated for the separation of peptide mixtures by two-dimensional HPLC coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry. The method uses an integrated column, containing both strong cation exchange and reversed-phase sections for two-dimensional liquid chromatography. The peptide mixture was fractionated by a pH step using a series of pH buffers, followed by reversed-phase chromatography. Since no salt was used during separation, the integrated multidimensional liquid chromatography can be directly connected to mass spectrometry for peptide analysis. The pH buffers were injected from an autosampler, and the entire process can be carried out on a one-dimensional liquid chromatography system. In a single analysis, the IMDL system, coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry, identified more than 2000 proteins in mouse liver. The peptides were eluted according to their pI distribution. The resolution of the pH fractionation is approximately 0.5 pH unit. The method has low overlapping across pH fractions, good resolution of peptide mixture, and good correlation of peptide pIs with pH steps. This method provides a technique for large-scale protein identification using existing one-dimensional HPLC systems.

  20. Determination of methandrostenolone and its metabolites in equine plasma and urine by coupled-column liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Edlund, P O; Bowers, L; Henion, J

    1989-02-24

    Monitoring steroid use requires an understanding of the metabolism in the species in question and development of sensitive methods for screening of the steroid or its metabolites in urine. Qualitative information for confirmation of methandrostenolone and identification of its metabolites was primarily obtained by coupled-column high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The steroids and a sulphuric acid conjugate were isolated and identified by their daughter ion mass spectra in the urine of both man and the horse following administration of methandrostenolone. Spontaneous hydrolysis of methandrostenolone sulphate gave 17-epimethandrostenolone and several dehydration products. This reaction had a half-life of 16 min in equine urine at 27 degrees C. Mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites were also identified. Several screening methods were evaluated for detection and confirmation of methandrostenolone use including thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Coupled-column liquid chromatography was used for automated clean-up of analytes difficult to isolate by manual methods. The recovery of methandrostenolone was 101 +/- 3.3% (mean +/- S.D.) at 6.5 ng/ml and both methandrostenolone and 17-epimethandrostenolone were quantified in urine by ultraviolet detection up to six days after a 250-mg intramuscular dose to a horse. The utility of on-line tandem mass spectrometry for confirmation of suspected metabolites is also shown.

  1. RAPID ANALYSIS OF CYNANURIC ACID IN SWIMMING POOL WATERS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY USING POROUS GRAPHITIC CARBON COLUMN

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative approach is presented for reducing analysis times of cyanuric acid in swimming pool waters by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method exploits the unique selectivity of porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to fully resolve cyanuric acid from other p...

  2. Simultaneous determination of metabolic stability and identification of buspirone metabolites using multiple column fast liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nägele, Edgar; Fandino, Anabel S

    2007-07-13

    A recent trend in the drug discovery and development process is to shift the starting point of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies to a time as early as possible in the development chain to address potential issues in parallel with the optimization of the drug's lead structure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop assay methods to determine early adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) parameters like metabolic stability and metabolite identification. For metabolite identification it is of crucial importance to work with fast liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) systems, which provide the necessary high throughput functionalities to handle a large number of samples in combination with high speed and high resolution chromatography as well as mass accuracy. In this study a fast two-column liquid chromatography (LC) method will be used to simultaneously determine metabolic stability and to identify metabolites of buspirone using highly accurate mass measurement by means of an electrospray time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Whereby, the metabolic stability will be determined on a short sub-two micron column, the main metabolites will be identified in the same experiment by the automated use of a long sub-two micron column, which provides the necessary high resolution.

  3. Effect of pressure pulses at the interface valve on the stability of second dimension columns in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Talus, Eric S; Witt, Klaus E; Stoll, Dwight R

    2015-01-23

    Users of online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LCxLC) frequently acknowledge that the mechanical instability of HPLC columns installed in these systems, particularly in the second dimension, is a significant impediment to its use. Such instability is not surprising given the strenuous operating environment to which these columns are subjected, including the large number (thousands per day) of fast and large pressure pulses resulting from interface valve switches (on the timescale of tens of milliseconds) associated with very fast second dimension separations. There appear to be no published reports of systematic studies of the relationship between second dimension column lifetime and any of these variables. In this study we focused on the relationship between the lifetimes of commercially available columns and the pressure pulses observed at the inlet of the second dimension column that occur during the switching of the valve that interfaces the two dimensions of a LCxLC system. We find that the magnitude of the pressure drop at the inlet of the second dimension column during the valve switch, which may vary between 10 and 95% of the column inlet pressure, is dependent on valve switching speed and design, and has a dramatic impact on column lifetime. In the worst case, columns fail within the first few hours of use in an LCxLC system. In the best case, using a valve that exhibits much smaller pressure pulses, the same columns exhibit much improved lifetimes and have been used continuously under LCxLC conditions for several days with no degradation in performance. This result represents a first step in understanding the factors that affect second dimension column lifetime, and will significantly improve the usability of the LCxLC technique in general.

  4. Profiling of triacylglycerols in plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmosphere pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a novel mixed-mode column.

    PubMed

    Hu, Na; Wei, Fang; Lv, Xin; Wu, Lin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

    2014-12-01

    In this investigation, a rapid and high-throughput method for profiling of TAGs in plant oils by liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry was reported. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column could provide hydrophobic interactions as well as π-π interactions. Compared with two traditionally columns used in TAG separation - the C18 column and silver-ion column, this column exhibited much higher selectivity for the separation of TAGs with great efficiency and rapid speed. By comparison with a novel mix-mode column (Ag-HiSep OTS column), which can also provide both hydrophobic interactions as well as π-π interactions for the separation of TAGs, phenyl-hexyl column exhibited excellent stability. LC method using phenyl-hexyl column coupled with APCI-MS was successfully applied for the profiling of TAGs in soybean oils, peanut oils, corn oils, and sesame oils. 29 TAGs in peanut oils, 22 TAGs in soybean oils, 19 TAGs in corn oils, and 19 TAGs in sesame oils were determined and quantified. The LC-MS data was analyzed by barcodes and principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting barcodes constitute a simple tool to display differences between different plant oils. Results of PCA also enabled a clear identification of different plant oils. This method provided an efficient and convenient chromatographic technology for the fast characterization and quantification of complex TAGs in plant oils at high selectivity. It has great potential as a routine analytical method for analysis of edible oil quality and authenticity control.

  5. Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Whole Water by Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; Schroeder, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 69 compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on aquatic organisms in wastewater. This method also is useful for evaluating the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water quality of urban streams. The method focuses on the determination of compounds that are indicators of wastewater or have endocrine-disrupting potential. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Wastewater compounds in whole-water samples were extracted using continuous liquid-liquid extractors and methylene chloride solvent, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-water samples fortified at 0.5 microgram per liter averaged 72 percent ? 8 percent relative standard deviation. The concentration of 21 compounds is always reported as estimated because method recovery was less than 60 percent, variability was greater than 25 percent relative standard deviation, or standard reference compounds were prepared from technical mixtures. Initial method detection limits averaged 0.18 microgram per liter. Samples were preserved by adding 60 grams of sodium chloride and stored at 4 degrees Celsius. The laboratory established a sample holding-time limit prior to sample extraction of 14 days from the date of collection.

  6. Achieving the full performance of highly efficient columns by optimizing conventional benchmark high-performance liquid chromatography instruments.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Sanchez, Carl A; Farkas, Tivadar; Guiochon, Georges

    2010-04-30

    A series of experiments and measurements demonstrate the importance of minimizing the extra-column band broadening contribution of the instrument used. The combination of several measures allowed the achievement of the full potential efficiency of three Kinetex-C(18) columns, using a conventional liquid chromatograph. The first measure consists in minimizing the extra-column volume of the instrument, without increasing much its back pressure contribution, by changing the needle seat volume, the inner diameter and length of the capillary connectors, and the volume of the detector cell of a standard instrument (Agilent 1100). The second measure consists in injecting a volume of weak eluent (less than half the elution strength of the mobile phase) right after the sample, before the sample had time to reach the column. Experimental results show that these changes could provide most of the resolution expected from the true column performance. After the changes were made, the resolutions of the 2.1 mm x 50 mm, 4.6 mm x 50 mm, and 4.6 mm x 100 mm Kinetex-C(18) columns for compounds having retention factors close to 1 were increased by about 180, 35, and 30%, respectively. The resolutions obtained are then similar to those measured with advanced instruments like the Agilent 1200, the Agilent 1290 Infinity HPLC, and the Acquity chromatographs. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-column reactors for sensitive and selective detection in high-performance liquid chromatography: categorization and applications.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, U A; Frei, R W; Lingeman, H

    1989-08-11

    The increasing interest in the rapid trace analysis of large series of biomedical samples using column liquid chromatographic techniques requires the use of well balanced combinations of sample pretreatment, separation and detection techniques. In such work, selectivity, sensitivity and reproducibility are the key parameters. The application of automated or semi-automated on-line pre-column technology and/or post-column reaction detection are excellent ways to meet these requirements. A critical review is presented of the theoretical background of on-line post-column reactors with emphasis on their categorization, viz., open-tubular, packed-bed, segmented-stream and hollow-fibre membrane reactors. The evaluation of these reactor systems is performed by discussing selected applications of, for instance, systems based on electrochemical and redox, hydrolytic, photochemical, ion-pairing, true chemical derivatization, peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence and solid-phase reactions. As automation is becoming even more important, a number of labelling procedures, which can be performed in an on-line pre-column mode, are briefly discussed and a comparison is made between the potential of on-line pre- and post-column procedures.

  8. Half-width plots, a simple tool to predict peak shape, reveal column kinetics and characterise chromatographic columns in liquid chromatography: state of the art and new results.

    PubMed

    Baeza-Baeza, J J; Ruiz-Ángel, M J; García-Álvarez-Coque, M C; Carda-Broch, S

    2013-11-01

    Peak profiles in chromatography are characterised by their height, position, width and asymmetry; the two latter depend on the values of the left and right peak half-widths. Simple correlations have been found between the peak half-widths and the retention times. The representation of such correlations has been called half-width plots. For isocratic elution, the plots are parabolic, although often, the parabolas can be approximated to straight-lines. The plots can be obtained with the half-widths/retention time data for a set of solutes experiencing the same kinetics, eluted with a mobile phase at fixed or varying composition. When the analysed solutes experience different resistance to mass transfer, the plots will be solute dependent, and should be obtained with the data for each solute eluted with mobile phases at varying composition. The half-width plots approach is a simple tool that facilitates the prediction of peak shape (width and asymmetry) with optimisation purposes, reveal the interaction kinetics of solutes in different columns, and characterise chromatographic columns. This work shows half-width plots for different situations in isocratic elution, including the use of different flows, the effect of temperature, the modification of the stationary phase surface by an additive, the existence of specific interactions within the column, and the comparison of columns. The adaptation to gradient elution is also described. Previous knowledge on half-width plots is structured and analysed, to which new results are added.

  9. The synthesis of surface-glycosylated porous monolithic column via aqueous two-phase graft copolymerization and its application in capillary-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiyue; He, Haiqin; Shu, Yan; Li, Yuxin; Yang, Zihui; Chen, Yingzhuang; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo

    2016-12-01

    A facile, flexible process was developed for the preparation of surface-glycosylated porous monolithic columns via aqueous two-phase graft copolymerization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and water-soluble dextran (dextran sulfate). The formation of poly(PEGDA) porous skeletons and surface glycosylation were achieved via a one-step process without pre-modification of the dextran. The synthesis conditions were thoroughly optimized. The optimal monolithic column exhibited a large dry state surface area (greater than 400m(2)/g), and it was evaluated as a hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase. A typical HILIC mechanism was observed at high organic solvent content (≥65% acetonitrile). In addition, the resulting monolithic column demonstrated the potential use in analysis of complex biological sample and enviroment water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Extraction of amphetamines and methylenedioxyamphetamines from urine using a monolithic silica disk-packed spin column and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Namera, Akira; Nakamoto, Akihiro; Nishida, Manami; Saito, Takeshi; Kishiyama, Izumi; Miyazaki, Shota; Yahata, Midori; Yashiki, Mikio; Nagao, Masataka

    2008-10-24

    To overcome the limitations of solid-phase extraction, we developed a device comprising a spin column packed with octadecyl silane-bonded monolithic silica for extracting amphetamines and methylenedioxyamphetamines from urine. Urine (0.5mL), buffer (0.4mL), and methoxyphenamine (internal standard) were directly put into the preactivated column. The column was centrifuged (3000rpm, 5min) for sample loading and washed. The adsorbed analytes were eluted and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, without evaporation. The results were as follows: linear curves (drug concentrations of 0.2-20microg/mL); correlation coefficients >0.99; detection limit, 0.1microg/mL. The proposed method is not only useful for drugs from biological materials but also highly reproducible for the analysis of these drugs in urine.

  11. Interest of a chemometric approach in understanding the retention behaviour of three columns in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography: application to the separation of glycerol carbonate, glycerol and urea.

    PubMed

    Fourdinier, Marion; Bostyn, Stéphane; Delépée, Raphaël; Fauduet, Henri

    2010-06-15

    A chemometric approach was used to study the retention behaviour of glycerol, urea and glycerol carbonate in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). First, a simplex method was developed to optimize the sensitivity of an evaporative light scattering detector. A mixture design was then applied to model retention factors as a function of the mobile phase content in acetonitrile, water and methanol on three columns: Atlantis HILIC Silica, ZIC-HILIC and Monochrom diol. Atlantis HILIC Silica exhibits predominantly hydrophobic interactions, while retention on the other two columns is mainly ruled by hydrophilic interactions. Finally, a desirability function is applied on the resolution factors. The use of this function enables the compositions of eluent phases to be determined in order to achieve separation between the three chemicals. Monochrom diol proved to be the most efficient column.

  12. Ion-Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Aliphatic Organic Acids Using a Surfactant-Modified C18 Column.

    PubMed

    Fasciano, Jennifer M; Mansour, Fotouh R; Danielson, Neil D

    2016-07-01

    Ion exclusion chromatography (IELC) of short chain aliphatic carboxylic acids is normally done using a cation exchange column under standard HPLC conditions but not in the ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) mode. A novel IELC method for the separation of this class of carboxylic acids by either HPLC or UHPLC utilizing a C18 column dynamically modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate has been developed. The sample capacity is estimated to be near 10 mM for a 20 µL injection or 0.2 µmol using a 150 × 4.6 mm column. The optimum mobile phase determined for three standard mixtures of organic acids is 1.84 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.43 and a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Under optimized conditions, a HPLC separation of four aliphatic carboxylic acids such as tartaric, malonic, lactic and acetic can be achieved in under 4 min and in <2 min in the UHPLC mode at 2.1 mL/min. A variety of fruit juice and soft drink samples are analyzed. Stability of the column as measured by the retention order of maleic and fumaric acid is estimated to be ∼4,000 column volumes using HPLC and 600 by UHPLC. Reproducible chromatograms are achieved over at least a 2-month period. This study shows that the utility of a C18 column can be easily extended when needed to IELC under either standard or UHPLC conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Rapid and direct analysis of statins in human plasma by column-switching liquid chromatography with restricted-access material.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Vinicius Freire; Leite, Camila Prado; Pianetti, Gerson Antonio; Fernandes, Christian

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the development of a column-switching liquid chromatographic method with direct injection of human plasma for simultaneous determination of four statins (lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin), the main class of drugs used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. By using a C18 (30 mm × 4.6 mm, 15 μm) a lab made bovine serum albumin restricted access material (RAM) column was prepared and compared with a commercial alquil-diol silica RAM column (C18, 25 mm × 4.0 mm, 25 μm) in terms of their protein exclusion capacity and micromolecules retention. Foreflush and backflush modes were compared for both RAM columns to the number of theoretical plates, asymmetry, resolution and chromatographic run time. The developed method was validated in the range from 125 to 876 ng mL(-1) for lovastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin, and from 500 to 2000 ng mL(-1) for pravastatin, presenting selectivity, precision and accuracy intra and inter-run. Total analysis time (sample preparation and chromatographic separation) was only 16 min when the backflush mode was employed in the column-switching system.

  14. Parallel extraction columns and parallel analytical columns coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for on-line simultaneous quantification of a drug candidate and its six metabolites in dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Xia, Y Q; Hop, C E; Liu, D Q; Vincent, S H; Chiu, S H

    2001-01-01

    A method with parallel extraction columns and parallel analytical columns (PEC-PAC) for on-line high-flow liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of a drug candidate and its six metabolites in dog plasma. Two on-line extraction columns were used in parallel for sample extraction and two analytical columns were used in parallel for separation and analysis. The plasma samples, after addition of an internal standard solution, were directly injected onto the PEC-PAC system for purification and analysis. This method allowed the use of one of the extraction columns for analyte purification while the other was being equilibrated. Similarly, one of the analytical columns was employed to separate the analytes while the other was undergoing equilibration. Therefore, the time needed for re-conditioning both extraction and analytical columns was not added to the total analysis time, which resulted in a shorter run time and higher throughput. Moreover, the on-line column extraction LC/MS/MS method made it possible to extract and analyze all seven analytes simultaneously with good precision and accuracy despite their chemical class diversity that included primary, secondary and tertiary amines, an alcohol, an aldehyde and a carboxylic acid. The method was validated with the standard curve ranging from 5.00 to 5000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was no more than 8% CV and the assay accuracy was between 95 and 107%.

  15. Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)

  16. Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)

  17. Online micro-solid-phase extraction based on boronate affinity monolithic column coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoting; Hu, Yufei; Li, Gongke

    2014-05-16

    Quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters is very important in diagnosing and monitoring of patients with neurological disorders. We developed an online analytical method to selectively determine urinary monoamine neurotransmitters, which coupled the boronate affinity monolithic column micro-solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The boronate affinity monolithic column was prepared by in situ polymerization of vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA) in a stainless capillary column. The prepared monolithic column showed good permeability, high extraction selectivity and capacity. The column-to-column reproducibility was satisfactory and the enrichment factors were 17-243 for four monoamine neurotransmitters. Parameters that influence the online extraction efficiency, including pH of sample solution, flow rate of extraction and desorption, extraction volume and desorption volume were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method exhibited low limit of detection (0.06-0.80μg/L), good linearity (with R(2) between 0.9979 and 0.9993). The recoveries in urine samples were 81.0-105.5% for four monoamine neurotransmitters with intra- and inter-day RSDs of 2.1-8.2% and 3.7-10.6%, respectively. The online analytical method was sensitive, accurate, selective, reliable and applicable to analysis of trace monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine sample.

  18. Comparison of analytical and semi-preparative columns for high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Miliauskas, Giedrius; van Beek, Teris A; de Waard, Pieter; Venskutonis, Rimantas P; Sudhölter, Ernst J R

    2006-04-21

    The application of analytical and semi-preparative columns in reversed-phase liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance (HPLC-SPE-NMR) was compared. The work was aiming at separating a higher sample amount in a single run and in this way to reduce the necessary NMR measurement time of separated compounds. Several parameters for compound separation and trapping procedures were optimised: flow rate of HPLC and make-up water pumps, choice of stationary phase cartridges and drying time. The separation and loadability of nine model compounds on analytical and semi-preparative columns was determined, as well as the focussing capacity of SH-type SPE cartridges. It was found that a semi-preparative column--or multiple peak trapping on analytical columns--gave better results than a standard 4.6mm analytical column for non-polar compounds (e.g. flavonoid aglycones, sesquiterpene lactones, non-polar terpenes, logP>2), but for polar compounds (logP<-2) did not offer any advantage over an analytical column, or was even disadvantageous. For intermediately polar compounds (-2

  19. Narrowbore high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of sildenafil and its metabolite UK-103,320 in human plasma using column switching.

    PubMed

    Jeong, C K; Lee, H Y; Jang, M S; Kim, W B; Lee, H S

    2001-03-05

    A fully automated narrowbore high-performance liquid chromatography method with column switching was developed for the simultaneous determination of sildenafil and its active metabolite UK-103,320 in human plasma samples without pre-purification. Diluted plasma sample (100 microl) was directly introduced onto a Capcell Pak MF Ph-1 column (20x4 mm I.D.) where primary separation occurred to remove proteins and concentrate target substances using 15% acetonitrile in 20 mM phosphate solution (pH 7). The drug molecules eluted from the MF Ph-1 column were focused in an intermediate column (35x2 mm I.D.) by a valve switching step. The substances enriched in the intermediate column were eluted and separated on a phenyl-hexyl column (100x2 mm I.D.) using 36% acetonitrile in 10 mM phosphate solution (pH 4.5) when the valve status was switched back. The method showed excellent sensitivity (detection limit of 10 ng/ml), good precision (RSD < or = 2.3%) and accuracy (bias: +/-2.0%) and speed (total analysis time 17 min). The response was linear (r2 > or = 0.999) over the concentration range 10-1000 ng/ml.

  20. Development of molecular imprinted column-on line-two dimensional liquid chromatography for selective determination of clenbuterol residues in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pengqi; Luo, Zhimin; Xu, Xinya; Zhou, Yulan; Zhang, Bilin; Chang, Ruimiao; Du, Wei; Chang, Chun; Fu, Qiang

    2017-02-15

    A novel method coupling molecular imprinted monolithic column with two-dimensional liquid chromatography was developed and validated for the analysis of clenbuterol in pork liver and swine urine samples. The polymers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption desorption analyses, frontal analysis and the adsorption of selectivity. The results indicated that the imprinted columns were well prepared and possessed high selectivity adsorption capacity. Subsequently, the MIMC-2D-LC (molecular imprinted monolithic column-two dimensional liquid chromatography) method was developed for the selective analysis of clenbuterol in practical samples. The accuracy ranged from 94.3% to 99.7% and from 93.7% to 99.6% for liver and urine, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability was lower than 8.6% for both analyses. The limit of detections was 16ng·mL(-1) for liver and 25ng·mL(-1) for urine, respectively. Compared with the reported methods, the disturbance of endogenous impurity could be avoided by the 2D-LC method.

  1. Increasing selectivity in comprehensive three-dimensional gas chromatography via an ionic liquid stationary phase column in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Siegler, W Christopher; Crank, Jeffery A; Armstrong, Daniel W; Synovec, Robert E

    2010-04-30

    Recent advances in improving the selectivity and performance for a comprehensive, three-dimensional (3D) gas chromatograph (GC(3)) instrument are described. With GC(3), two six-port diaphragm valves are utilized as the interfaces between three, in-series capillary columns housed in a standard GC instrument fitted with a high data acquisition rate flame ionization detector (FID). Modulation periods for sampling from one column to the next are set so that sufficient slices (i.e., modulations) are acquired by the subsequent dimension resulting in comprehensive data. We present GC(3) instrumentation with significantly higher 3D peak capacity than previously reported. An average peak capacity production (i.e., per time) of 180 resolved peaks per minute was experimentally achieved for three representative analytes in a 3D diesel sample separation. This peak capacity production is about 4 times higher than our previous report. We also demonstrate the significant benefit of the added chemical selectivity of the three column GC(3) instrument relative to a two column GC x GC instrument, in which one of the three columns is a triflate ionic liquid stationary phase column with a high selectivity for phosphonated compounds (i.e., di-methyl-methyl phosphonate, di-ethyl-methyl phosphonate and di-isopropyl-methyl phosphonate). Using all three separation dimensions, the 2D separation fingerprint of a diesel sample is simultaneously obtained along with selective information regarding the phosphonated compounds in the diesel samples in the additional dimension. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Determination of lansoprazole enantiomers in dog plasma by column-switching liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Yantong; Meng, Xiangjun; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai

    2015-09-01

    Lansoprazole, a selective proton pump inhibitor, has a chiral benzimidazole sulfoxide structure and is used for the treatment of gastric acid hypersecretory related diseases. To investigate its stereoselective pharmacokinetics, a column-switching liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of lansoprazole enantiomers in dog plasma using (+)-pantoprazole as an internal standard. After a simple protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile, matrix components left behind after sample preparation were further eliminated from the sample by reversed-phase chromatography on a C18 column. The fluent was fed to a chiral column for the separation of lansoprazole enantiomers. Baseline separation of lansoprazole enantiomers was achieved on a Chiralcel OZ-RH column using acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid in water (35:65, v/v) as the mobile phase at 40°C. The linearity of the calibration curves ranged from 3 to 800 ng/mL for each enantiomer. Intra- and inter-day precisions ranged from 2.1 to 7.3% with an accuracy of ±1.7% for (+)-lansoprazole, and from 1.6 to 6.9% with an accuracy of ±3.5% for (-)-lansoprazole, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied for the stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of lansoprazole in beagle dog after intravenous infusion.

  3. Determination of Sudan dyes in chili pepper powder by online solid-phase extraction with a butyl methacrylate monolithic column coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Wang, Man-Man; Ai, Lian-Feng; Zhang, Chang-Kun; Li, Xin; Wang, Xue-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was fabricated and used as a novel sorbent for online solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of Sudan I-IV in chili pepper powder. The prepared columns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and pressure drop measurements. Online solid-phase extraction was performed on the synthesized monolithic column using 10 mM ammonium acetate solution as the loading solution with the aid of an online cleanup chromatography system. The desorption of Sudan I-IV was achieved with acetonitrile as the eluting solution at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The extracted analytes were subsequently eluted into a C18 analytical column for chromatographic separation using a mixture of 10% acetonitrile/90% formic acid (0.5%) solution as the mobile phase. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method had linear range of 1.0-50 μg/kg, a detection limit of 0.3 μg/kg, and a quantification limit of 1.0 μg/kg for each analyte. The intraday and interday recoveries of Sudan I-IV in chili pepper powder samples ranged from 94.8 to 100.9% and 94.9 to 99.4%, respectively. The intraday and interday precision were between 3.37-7.01% and 5.01-7.68%, respectively.

  4. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  5. Accelerated quantification of amphetamine enantiomers in human urine using chiral liquid chromatography and on-line column-switching coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hädener, Marianne; Bruni, Pia S; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Frübis, Matthias; König, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Amphetamine (AM) is a powerful psychostimulant existing in two enantiomeric forms. Stereoselective analysis of AM in biosamples can assist clinicians and forensic experts in differentiating between abuse of illicitly synthesized racemic AM and ingestion of pharmaceutical AM formulations containing either S-AM or different proportions of the S- and R-enantiomers. Therefore, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying AM enantiomers in urine was newly developed. The method comprised dilution with water, followed by injection of the diluted sample onto an achiral C18 trapping column for purification and subsequent backflush elution to a chiral Lux 3 μm AMP LC column by means of a switching valve. An isocratic mobile phase of 25 % acetonitrile in 0.1 M aqueous ammonia was used for enantiomeric separation. Injection, cleanup, and backflush of the next sample were performed before the previous sample had eluted from the analytical column, thus enabling simultaneous enantioseparation of up to three samples within the analytical column. This novel chromatographic concept allowed for increased sample throughput by accelerating both the sample preparation and the LC analysis. Analyte detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring using a triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was successfully validated through assessment of its linearity, lower limit of quantification, accuracy and precision, selectivity, matrix effect, carry-over, dilution integrity, and re-injection reproducibility. Linearity ranged from 0.05 to 25 mg/L for both enantiomers. Proof of the method included analysis of urine samples obtained from drug abusers and patients receiving an S-AM prodrug. Graphical Abstract Enantioselective determination of amphetamine in human urine using liquid chromatography with achiral-chiral column-switching and tandem mass spectrometry.

  6. [An on-line solid phase extraction column switching liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system to analyze bisphenol A and nonylphenol in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunjia; Niu, Yumin; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing

    2013-01-01

    To develop a method for bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) analysis in drinking water by on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) column switching liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Target compounds were concentrated and purified by a Waters Direct Connect HP XBridge C18 column, with average particle size 10 microm. The mobile phase of SPE extraction column was methanol/water at a flow-rate of 2.0 ml/min. The analytical column was Waters BEH C18 column (2.1 mm x 50 mm, 1.7 microm) and the mobile phase was methanol/0.1% ammonia water at a flow-rate of 0.4 ml/min. BPA and NP were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in the negative ion mode with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). The whole run time of an individual sample was about 10 min. The linear calibration curves covered the range of 5 - 1000 ng/L and 10 - 5000 ng/L for BPA and NP, respectively, while the correlation coefficients (r2) were above 0.999. The quantification limits of the method were 5 and 10 ng/L for BPA and NP, respectively. Recovery test was performed at three fortification levels, mean recoveries ranged from 86.6% to 105% with acceptable coefficients of variation (3.11% - 18.2%, n = 6). The inter-day precisions were less than 13.2%. The established On-line SPE LC-MS/MS method needs no complicated sample pretreatment step, which is significantly time-saving. The analytical procedure is rapid, simple, and high-sensitive. It can be applied to analysis BPA and NP in drinking water.

  7. Advantages of monolithic over particulate columns for multiresidue analysis of organic pollutants by in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Moliner-Martínez, Y; Molins-Legua, C; Verdú-Andrés, J; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2011-09-16

    The performance of a monolithic C(18) column (150 mm×0.2 mm i.d.) for multiresidue organic pollutants analysis by in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME)-capillary liquid chromatography has been studied, and the results have been compared with those obtained using a particulate C(18) column (150 mm×0.5 mm i.d., 5 μm). Chromatographic separation has been carried out under isocratic elution conditions, and for detection and identification of the analytes a UV-diode array detector has been employed. Several compounds of different chemical structure and hydrophobicity have been used as model compounds: simazine, atrazine and terbutylazine (triazines), chlorfenvinphos and chlorpyrifos (organophosphorous), diuron and isoproturon (phenylureas), trifluralin (dinitroaniline) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. The results obtained revealed that the monolithic column was clearly advantageous in the context of multiresidue organic pollutants analysis for a number of reasons: (i) the selectivity was considerably improved, which is of particular interest for the most polar compounds triazines and phenyl ureas that could not be resolved in the particulate column, (ii) the sensitivity was enhanced, and (iii) the time required for the chromatographic separation was substantially shortened. In this study it is also proved that the mobile-phase flow rates used for separation in the capillary monolithic column are compatible with the in-valve IT-SPME methodology using extractive capillaries of dimensions similar to those used in conventional scale liquid chromatography (LC). On the basis of these results a new method is presented for the assessment of pollutants in waters, which permits the characterization of whole samples (4 mL) in less than 30 min, with limits of detection in the range of 5-50 ng/L.

  8. Direct extraction of tetracyclines from bovine milk using restricted access carbon nanotubes in a column switching liquid chromatography system.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Henrique Dipe; Rosa, Mariana Azevedo; Silveira, Alberto Thalison; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa

    2017-06-15

    This paper describes, for the first time, the use of restricted access carbon nanotubes (RACNTs) in the analysis of tetracyclines from milk samples, in a multidimensional liquid chromatographic system. Milk samples were initially acidified and centrifuged, and then the supernatant was directly analyzed in a column switching system in backflush configuration employing an extraction column of RACNTs. The sorbent was able to exclude all the remained proteins in less than 2.0min. The method was linear from 50 to 200μgL(-1) and the coefficients of determination (r(2)) were 0.997, 0.992, 0.994 and 0.998 for oxytetracycline (OXI), tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and doxycycline (DOX), respectively. The analytical range included the maximum residue limits established by the regulatory agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A strategy for identification and structural characterization of compounds from Gardenia jasminoides by integrating macroporous resin column chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with ion-mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Xueju; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui

    2016-06-24

    In this paper, an analysis strategy integrating macroporous resin (AB-8) column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) combined with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was proposed and applied for identification and structural characterization of compounds from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides. The extracts of G. jasminoides were separated by AB-8 resin column chromatography combined with reversed phase liquid chromatography (C18 column) and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was employed as a supplementary separation technique to discover previously undetected isomers from the fruits of G. jasminoides. A total of 71 compounds, including iridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, monoterpenoids, carotenoids and phenolic acids were identified by the characteristic high resolution mass spectrometry and the ESI-MS/MS fragmentations. In conclusion, the IMS-MS technique achieved the separation of isomers in crocin-3 and crocin-4 according to their acquired mobility drift times differing from classical analysis by mass spectrometry. The proposed strategy can be used as a highly sensitive and efficient procedure for identification and separation isomeric components in extracts of herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Column liquid chromatography determination of vitamins A and E in powdered milk and local flour: a validation procedure.

    PubMed

    Ake, M; Fabre, H; Malan, A K; Mandrou, B

    1998-11-27

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous routine determination of vitamins A and E in powdered milk and flour made from local plants and purchased from open markets in the Ivory Coast. The method involves saponification followed by extraction with a mixture of organic solvents. The vitamins were resolved by reversed-phase HPLC and detection at a single wavelength. The main tests of method validation were applied to the procedure. The results show the reliability of the analytical method for the intended application.

  11. Determination of pegfilgrastim aggregates by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography on a methacrylate-based column.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Majid; Tamaskany Zahedy, Elnaz; Kiumarsi, Shiva; Hadi Soltanabad, Mojtaba; Shahbazi Azar, Saleh; Amini, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    A size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatographic method using a methacrylate-based column was developed, validated and implemented for the determination of pegfilgrastim aggregates. The samples were directly injected into a TSKgel G4000PWXL column (7.5 mm × 300 mm, 10 μm, <500 A°) with a mobile phase of 100 mM phosphate, pH 2.5. Detection was made at 215 nm and analyses were run at a flow-rate of 0.6 ml/min at 10 °C. Vortex-mixing of samples produced oligomers, however, very high molecular weight aggregates were formed at high temperatures. The method exhibited linearity over the concentration range of 0.1-14 mg/ml for pegfilgrastim monomer and high molecular weight aggregates with a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.99. The method was specific and sensitive, with a lower quantification limit of 0.1 mg/ml and a detection limit of 0.02 mg/ml. Over 1200 samples were analyzed by the present method without significant change in the column performance. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Streamlined pentafluorophenylpropyl column liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry and global (13)C-labeled internal standards improve performance for quantitative metabolomics in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yang, Song; Sadilek, Martin; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2010-11-19

    Streamlined quantitative metabolomics in central metabolism of bacteria would be greatly facilitated by a high-efficiency liquid chromatography (LC) method in conjunction with accurate quantitation. To achieve this goal, a methodology for LC-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) involving a pentafluorophenylpropyl (PFPP) column and culture-derived global (13)C-labeled internal standards (I.Ss.) has been developed and compared to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-MS/MS and published combined two-dimensional gas chromatography and LC methods. All 50 tested metabolite standards from 5 classes (amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleotides, acyl-CoAs and sugar phosphates) displayed good chromatographic separation and sensitivity on the PFPP column. In addition, many important critical pairs such as isomers/isobars (e.g. isoleucine/leucine, methylsuccinic acid/ethylmalonic acid and malonyl-CoA/3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA) and metabolites of similar structure (e.g. malate/fumarate) were resolved better on the PFPP than on the HILIC column. Compared to only one (13)C-labeled I.S., the addition of global (13)C-labeled I.Ss. improved quantitative linearity and accuracy. PFPP-MS/MS with global (13)C-labeled I.Ss. allowed the absolute quantitation of 42 metabolite pool sizes in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. A comparison of metabolite level changes published previously for ethylamine (C2) versus succinate (C4) cultures of M. extorquens AM1 indicated a good consistency with the data obtained by PFPP-MS/MS, suggesting this single approach has the capability of providing comprehensive metabolite profiling similar to the combination of methods. The more accurate quantification obtained by this method forms a fundamental basis for flux measurements and can be used for metabolism modeling in bacteria in future studies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in nutmeg by ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Shu-Yu; Qiu, Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-07

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection (USLE-IAC-HPLC-PCD-FLD) has been developed for simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 13 edible and medicinal nutmeg samples marketed in China. AFs and OTA were extracted from nutmeg samples by ultrasonication using a methanol : water (80 : 20, v/v) solution, followed by an IAC clean-up step. Different USL extraction conditions, pre-processing ways for nutmeg sample and clean-up columns for mycotoxins, as well as HPLC-PCD-FLD parameters (mobile phase, column temperature, elution procedure, excitation and emission wavelengths) were optimized. This method, which was appraised for analyzing nutmeg samples, showed satisfactory results with reference to limits of detection (LODs) (from 0.02 to 0.25 μg kg(-1)), limits of quantification (LOQs) (from 0.06 to 0.8 μg kg(-1)), linear ranges (up to 30 ng mL(-1) for AFB1, AFG1 and OTA and 9 ng mL(-1) for AFB2 and AFG2), intra- and inter-day variability (all <2%) and average recoveries (from 79.6 to 90.8% for AFs and from 93.6 to 97.3% for OTA, respectively). The results of the application of developed method in nutmeg samples have elucidated that four samples were detected with contamination of AFs and one with OTA. AFB1 was the most frequently found mycotoxin in 30.8% of nutmeg samples at contamination levels of 0.73-16.31 μg kg(-1). At least two different mycotoxins were co-occurred in three samples, and three AFs were simultaneously detected in one sample.

  14. Quantification of malachite green in fish feed utilising liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Abro, Kamran; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Iqbal, Seema; Perveen, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of malachite green (MG) in fish feed using LC-ESI-MS/MS with a monolithic column as stationary phase. Fish feed was cleaned using ultrasonic assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The separation was achieved on a Chromolith® Performance RP-18e column (100 × 4.6 mm) using gradient mobile phase composition of methanol and 0.1% formic acid at the flow rate of 1.0 ml min⁻¹. The analyte was ionised using electrospray ionisation in positive mode. Mass spectral transitions were recorded in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode at m/z 329.78 → m/z 314.75 with a collision energy (CE) of 52% for MG. The system suitability responses were calculated for reproducibility tests of the retention time, number of theoretical plates and capacity factor. System validation was evaluated for precision, specificity and linearity of MG. The linearity and calibration graph was plotted in the range of 15.0-250 ng ml⁻¹ with the regression coefficient of >0.997. The lower limits of detection and quantification for MG were 0.55 and 1.44 ng ml⁻¹, respectively, allowing easy determination in fish feed with accuracy evaluated as a percentage recovery of 92.1% and precision determined as % CV of < 5. The method was also extended to the determination of MG in an actual fish feed. The sensitivity and selectivity of LC-ESI-MS/MS using monolithic column offers a valuable alternative to the methodologies currently employed for the quantification of MG in fish feeds.

  15. Sensitive and simple determination of bromate in foods disinfected with hypochlorite reagents using high performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Azusa; Kubota, Hiroki; Komiya, Satomi; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Koshiishi, Ichiro

    2012-11-02

    A novel analytical method for the quantification of bromate in fresh foods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a post-column reaction has been developed. The fresh food sample solutions were pretreated with homogenization, centrifugal ultrafiltration and subsequent solid phase extraction using a strong anion-exchange resin. After separation on a strong anion-exchange chromatography column using a highly concentrated NaCl solution (0.3M) as the eluent, the bromate was quantified by detection using a post-column reaction with a non-carcinogenic reagent (tetramethylbenzidine). The developed HPLC technique made it possible to quantify bromate in salt-rich fresh foods. The recoveries from fresh foods spiked with bromate at low levels (2 or 10 ng/g) satisfactorily ranged from 75.3 to 90.7%. The lowest quantification limit in fresh foods was estimated to be 0.6 ng/g as bromic acid. The method should be helpful for the quantification of bromate in fresh foods disinfected with hypochlorite solutions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid trace level determination of sulfonamide residues in honey with online extraction using short C-18 column by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Na, Na; Safdar, Muhammad; Lu, Xin; Ma, Lin; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-11-01

    A sensitive and inexpensive quantification method with online extraction using a short C-18 column for sulfonamide residues in honey by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was developed and validated. In sample preparation, acid hydrolysis was used to break the N-glycoside bond between the honey sugar and sulfonamide drugs and derivatization of sulfonamide residues with fluorescamine was conducted at pH 3.5 using a citrate buffer (0.5M) in the honey matrix. The chromatography was carried out on Zorbax Extended C-18 (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and an acetate buffer (pH 4.50, 20mM) as a mobile phase. A Zorbax Extended C-18 (12mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column was used for online extraction of fifteen sulfonamide residues from honey sample with the help of a two position valve. The limit of quantification of sulfonamide residues in honey was less than 3ngg(-1), and the percentage recovery of study compounds in spiked honey sample was from 80% for sulfacetamide to 100% of sulfachloropyridazine. The developed method has excellent linearity for all studied sulfonamides with a correlation coefficient 0.993. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monolithic stationary phases with incorporated fumed silica nanoparticles. Part I. Polymethacrylate-based monolithic column with incorporated bare fumed silica nanoparticles for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Cemil; El Rassi, Ziad

    2016-05-06

    Fumed silica nanoparticles (FSNPs), were incorporated for the first time into a polymethacrylate monolithic column containing glyceryl monomethacrylate (GMM) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in order to develop a new monolithic column for hydrophilic interaction high performance liquid chromatography (HILIC). When compared to poly(GMM-EDMA) monolithic column without FSNPs, the same monolithic column with incorporated FSNPs yielded important effects on HILIC separations. The effects of monomers and FSNPs content of the polymerization mixture on the performance of the monolithic column were examined in details, and the optimized stationary phase was investigated over a wide range of mobile phase composition with polar acidic, weakly basic and neutral analytes including hydroxy benzoic acids, nucleotides, nucleosides, dimethylformamide, formamide and thiourea. The retention of these analytes was mainly controlled by hydrophilic interactions with the FSNPs and electrostatic repulsion from the negatively charged silica surface in the case of hydroxy benzoic acids and nucleotides. The electrostatic repulsion was minimized by decreasing the pH of the aqueous component of the mobile phase, which in turn enhanced the retention of acidic solutes. Nucleotides were best separated using step gradient elution at decreasing pH as well as ACN concentration in the mobile phase. Improved peak shape and faster analysis of nucleosides were attained by a fast linear gradient elution with a shallow decrease in the ACN content of the ACN-rich mobile phase. The run-to-run and column-to-column reproducibility were satisfactory. The percent relative standard deviations (%RSDs) for the retention times of tested solutes were lower than 2.5% under isocratic conditions and lower than 3.5 under gradient conditions.

  18. Determination of Gonyautoxin-4 in Echinoderms and Gastropod Matrices by Conversion to Neosaxitoxin Using 2-Mercaptoethanol and Post-Column Oxidation Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marisa; Rey, Verónica; Botana, Ana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Botana, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Paralytic Shellfish Toxin blooms are common worldwide, which makes their monitoring crucial in the prevention of poisoning incidents. These toxins can be monitored by a variety of techniques, including mouse bioassay, receptor binding assay, and liquid chromatography with either mass spectrometric or pre- or post-column fluorescence detection. The post-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method, used routinely in our laboratory, has been shown to be a reliable method for monitoring paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel, scallop, oyster and clam species. However, due to its high sensitivity to naturally fluorescent matrix interferences, when working with unconventional matrices, there may be problems in identifying toxins because of naturally fluorescent interferences that co-elute with the toxin peaks. This can lead to erroneous identification. In this study, in order to overcome this challenge in echinoderm and gastropod matrices, we optimized the conversion of Gonyautoxins 1 and 4 to Neosaxitoxin with 2-mercaptoethanol. We present a new and less time-consuming method with a good recovery (82.2%, RSD 1.1%, n = 3), requiring only a single reaction step. PMID:26729166

  19. Determination of Gonyautoxin-4 in Echinoderms and Gastropod Matrices by Conversion to Neosaxitoxin Using 2-Mercaptoethanol and Post-Column Oxidation Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marisa; Rey, Verónica; Botana, Ana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Botana, Luis

    2015-12-30

    Paralytic Shellfish Toxin blooms are common worldwide, which makes their monitoring crucial in the prevention of poisoning incidents. These toxins can be monitored by a variety of techniques, including mouse bioassay, receptor binding assay, and liquid chromatography with either mass spectrometric or pre- or post-column fluorescence detection. The post-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method, used routinely in our laboratory, has been shown to be a reliable method for monitoring paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel, scallop, oyster and clam species. However, due to its high sensitivity to naturally fluorescent matrix interferences, when working with unconventional matrices, there may be problems in identifying toxins because of naturally fluorescent interferences that co-elute with the toxin peaks. This can lead to erroneous identification. In this study, in order to overcome this challenge in echinoderm and gastropod matrices, we optimized the conversion of Gonyautoxins 1 and 4 to Neosaxitoxin with 2-mercaptoethanol. We present a new and less time-consuming method with a good recovery (82.2%, RSD 1.1%, n = 3), requiring only a single reaction step.

  20. Rapid determination of lipophilic vitamins in human serum by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography using a fluorinated column and high-throughput miniaturized liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Cervinkova, Barbora; Krcmova, Lenka Kujovska; Klabackova, Sava; Solichova, Dagmar; Solich, Petr

    2017-09-01

    A high-throughput miniaturized liquid-liquid extraction procedure followed by a simple ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with fluorescence detection for bioanalytical analysis of all tocopherol isomers and retinol in human serum has been developed and validated. In the extraction procedure, a synthetic internal standard tocol was used, which does not occur in the human body. The separation of structurally related vitamins was achieved using a new generation of pentafluorophenyl propyl core-shell stationary phase with elution using methanol and an aqueous solution of ammonium acetate. The fluorescence of retinol and tocopherol isomers was detected at λex  = 325, 295 nm and λem  = 480, 325 nm, respectively. The rapid baseline separation of all analytes was accomplished within 4.0 min. The sensitivity of method was demonstrated with lower limits of quantification: retinol 0.01 μM, α-tocopherol 0.38 μM, β-tocopherol 0.18 μM, γ-tocopherol 0.14 μM, and δ-tocopherol 0.01 μM. Possible application of this method in clinical practice was confirmed by the analysis of human serum samples from healthy volunteers. Finally, the simultaneous determination of retinol and all tocopherol isomers in human serum can enable the clarification of their role in metabolism and in diseases such as cancer. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Determination of benzalkonium chloride in eye care products by high-performance liquid chromatography and solid-phase extraction or on-line column switching.

    PubMed

    Elrod, L; Golich, T G; Morley, J A

    1992-11-20

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, which is commonly used as a bacteriostat. In this work, the three major homologues of BAK are quantitated in the over-the-counter eye care products Murine and Murine Plus using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analytes are separated from various product excipients and concentrated by either solid-phase extraction onto Sep-Pak C18 cartridges or by an on-line column-switching technique using 1-cm reversed-phase precolumns. Absolute recoveries of BAK homologues by the solid-phase extraction technique ranged from 97.2 to 98.7% for standards and from 98.0 to 98.4% for samples. Absolute recovery of the BAK homologues by the column-switching technique was 101.3% for standards and ranged from 99.9 to 103.7% for samples. Relative recoveries were quantitative by both techniques. Assay precision (R.S.D. values) were +/- 2.2% to +/- 2.6% and +/- 0.4% to +/- 0.8% by solid-phase extraction and column-switching techniques, respectively. The method provides advantages of high sample throughput, excellent column life and automation.

  2. Fast comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography method for fatty acid methyl ester separation and quantification using dual ionic liquid columns.

    PubMed

    Nosheen, Asia; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Bano, Asghari; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-10-18

    Safflower oil is a complex mixture of C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids amongst other fatty acids, and achieving separation between these similar structure components using one dimensional gas chromatography (GC) may be difficult. This investigation aims to obtain improved separation of fatty acid methyl esters in safflower oil, and their quantification using comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC). Here, GC×GC separation is accomplished by the coupling of two ionic liquid (IL) column phases: the combination of SLB-IL111 with IL59 column phases was finally selected since it provided excellent separation of a FAME standard mixture, as well as fatty acids in safflower and linseed oil, compared to other tested column sets. Safflower oil FAME were well separated in a short run of 16min. FAME validation was demonstrated by method reproducibility, linearity over a range up to 500mgL(-1), and limits of detection which ranged from 1.9mgL(-1) to 5.2mgL(-1) at a split ratio of 20:1. Quantification was carried out using two dilution levels of 200-fold for major components and 20-fold for trace components. The fatty acids C15:0 and C17:0 were not reported previously in safflower oil. The SLB-IL111/IL59 column set proved to be an effective and novel configuration for separation and quantification of vegetable and animal oil fatty acids.

  3. Analysis of linear and cyclic oligomers in polyamide-6 without sample preparation by liquid chromatography using the sandwich injection method. I. Injection procedure and column stability.

    PubMed

    Mengerink, Y; Peters, R; Kerkhoff, M; Hellenbrand, J; Omloo, H; Andrien, J; Vestjens, M; van der Wal, S

    2000-04-21

    We report a method for reliable routine polymer sample introduction with minimal bias, a separation method of the first six linear and cyclic oligomers by liquid chromatography, quantification using group equivalents and long term method performance. Injecting a polymer sample in a mobile phase containing an aqueous non-solvent often results in blocked systems as the polymer precipitates in the connecting capillaries. In this first part we focus on a new injection technique, in which the dissolved polyamide is placed between two zones of formic acid, preventing the polymer to precipitate before it reaches the column. Development of this sandwich injection method makes direct injection of the polymer into an aqueous acetonitrile gradient feasible. The oligomeric polyamide recovery of this technique, extraction, dissolution/precipitation and direct injection on a hexafluoro-isopropanol (HFIP) gradient were compared. With the sandwich injection method the polymer remains on the column, slowly changing the stationary phase. The influence of this on resolution and retention was studied. Column stability allows sixty injections before cleaning or replacing the column is necessary.

  4. Rapid simultaneous determination of isoflavones in Radix puerariae using high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with novel shell-type column.

    PubMed

    Du, Gang; Zhao, Haiyu; Song, Yuelin; Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Yitao

    2011-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for rapid determination of 13 isoflavones in Radix puerariae. A novel shell-type column, namely Kinetex core-shell C(18) column (50 mm×2.1 mm id, 2.6 μm), and gradient elution were used during the analysis. The chromatographic peaks of 13 investigated compounds were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with the related reference compounds. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) was employed for the quantitative analysis with negative ionization mode. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9990) within test ranges. The LOD and LOQ were lower than 0.017 and 0.873 μg/mL on column, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions for 13 analytes were <1.17 and 2.17%, respectively, and the recoveries were 93.1-104.4%. The validated method was applied for quantitative analysis of 13 isoflavones in 7 species of Radix puerariae. The result demonstrated that HPLC-MS/MS system with Kinetex column could be a promising analytical tool for the determination of isoflavones in traditional Chinese medicines, which is helpful for comprehensive evaluation of quality of R. puerariae. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in human plasma by isocratic high-pressure liquid chromatography with post-column hydrolysis and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hobl, Eva-Luise; Jilma, Bernd; Ebner, Josef; Schmid, Rainer W

    2013-06-01

    A selective, sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with post-column hydrolysis and fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous quantification of acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite salicylic acid in human plasma. Following the addition of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid as internal standard and simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the analytes were separated on a ProntoSIL 120 C18 ace-EPS column (150 × 2 mm, 3 µm) protected by a C8 guard column (5 µm). The mobile phase, 10 mm formic acid in water (pH 2.9) and acetonitrile (70:30, v/v), was used at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. After on-line post-column hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) to salicylic acid (SA) by addition of alkaline solution, the analytes were measured at 290 nm (λex ) and 400 nm (λem ). The method was linear in the concentration ranges between 0.05 and 20 ng/μL for both ASA and SA with a lower limit of quantification of 25 pg/μL for SA and 50 pg/μL for ASA. The limit of detection was 15 pg/μL for SA and 32.5 pg/μL for ASA. The analysis of ASA and SA can be carried out within 8 min; therefore this method is suitable for measuring plasma concentrations of salicylates in clinical routine.

  6. Chemometrics-assisted high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection strategy to solve varying interfering patterns from different chromatographic columns and sample matrices for beverage analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Wu, Hai-Long; Gu, Hui-Wen; Hu, Yong; Wang, Li; Xia, Hui; Xiang, Shou-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-02-26

    This work reports a chemometrics-assisted high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) strategy to solve varying interfering patterns from different chromatographic columns and sample matrices for the rapid simultaneous determination of six synthetic colorants in five kinds of beverages with little sample pretreatment. The investigation was performed using two types of LC columns under the same elution conditions. Although analytes using different columns have different co-elution patterns that appear more seriously in complex backgrounds, all colorants were properly resolved by alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) method and accurate chromatographic elution profiles, spectral profiles as well as relative concentrations were obtained. The results were confirmed by those obtained from traditional HPLC-UV method at a particular wavelength and the results of both methods were consistent with each other. All results demonstrated that the proposed chemometrics-assisted HPLC-DAD method is accurate, economical and universal, and can be promisingly applied to solve varying interfering patterns from different chromatographic columns and sample matrices for the analysis of complex food samples.

  7. Determination of methamphetamine and its metabolites incorporated in hair by column-switching liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miki, Akihiro; Katagi, Munehiro; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2003-03-01

    An automated column-switching liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS) method has been established for the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolites, amphetamine (AP), and p-hydroxymethamphetamine (p-OH-MA) in hair. The combination of an N-vinylacetamide-containing hydrophilic polymer online extraction column, an SCX semi-micro LC column, and an electrospray ionization interface provided the successful concentration, separations, and highly sensitive MS determinations of these analytes in a hair extract without tedious sample pretreatments. The limits of detection of these analytes were 0.02 ng/mg and 0.1-0.2 ng/mg in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) and full-scan modes, respectively, when using a 100-microL hair extract sample that corresponds to a 2.5-mg sample of hair. The calibration curves using dibenzylamine as an internal standard were linear up to 30 ng/mg hair equivalents for all these analytes in the SIM mode. p-OH-MA, the detection of which in MA users' hair had not been previously reported, was detectable in all 22 hair specimens/sections from which 1 ng or more of MA was detected per milligram hair. The amount of p-OH-MA detected per milligram of hair is presented with those of MA and AP among the MA users population. The detection of AP and p-OH-MA, in addition to the parent drug MA with reasonable ratios, was found to be a useful indicator for distinguishing internal MA incorporation from external contamination.

  8. Isocratic separation of ginsenosides by high-performance liquid chromatography on a diol column at subambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lou, Da-Wei; Saito, Yoshihiro; Zarzycki, Paweł K; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Jinno, Kiyokatsu

    2006-05-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatographic method for separation of a number of ginsenosides has been developed. The influence of temperature (from 0 to 25 degrees C) on the retention and separation of the ginsenosides was studied by applying a binary mobile phase (acetonitrile/water, 82:18 v/v) and a diol column (LiChrospher 100 Diol). The column temperature is one of the more important parameters for the retention and separation of the components investigated. Selected thermodynamic parameters, including changes of enthalpy (deltaH degrees) and entropy (deltaS degrees), were estimated from linear van't Hoff plots, and possible retention mechanisms were discussed. Moreover, the best separation conditions were selected based on optimization criteria including maximum retention time (t(R max)), minimum resolution (R(s min)), and relative resolution product (r). Temperature regions close to 14 degrees C offered the highest selectivity and almost equal distribution of the ginsenosides peaks across the chromatogram. Under such isocratic conditions, excellent separation of chromatographic standards and selected ginseng samples was achieved in less than 16 min.

  9. Triangular Helical Column for Centrifugal Countercurrent Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoichiro; Yu, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Effective column space and stationary phase retention have been improved by changing the configuration of the helical column originally used for toroidal coil countercurrent chromatography. The use of an equilateral triangular core for the helix column doubles effective column space and retains the stationary phase over 40% of the total column capacity without increasing the column pressure. The present results suggest that the stationary phase retention and the peak resolution will be further improved using new column designs fabricated by a new technology called “laser sintering for rapid prototyping.” PMID:20046940

  10. Performance of different C18 columns in reversed-phase liquid chromatography with hydro-organic and micellar-organic mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Angel, M J; Pous-Torres, S; Carda-Broch, S; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2014-05-30

    Column selection in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) can become a challenge if the target compounds interact with the silica-based packing. One of such interactions is the attraction of cationic solutes to the free silanols in silica-based columns, which is a slow sorption-desorption interaction process that gives rise to tailed and broad peaks. The effect of silanols is minimised by the addition of a competing agent in the mobile phase, such as the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In micellar-organic RPLC, the adsorption of an approximately fixed amount of SDS monomers gives rise to a stable modified stationary phase, with properties remarkably different from those of the underlying bonded phase. The chromatographic behaviour (in terms of selectivity, analysis time and peak shape) of eight C18 columns in the analysis of weakly acidic phenols and basic β-blockers was examined with hydro-organic and micellar-organic mobile phases. The behaviour of the columns differed significantly when the cationic basic drugs were eluted with hydro-organic mobile phases. With micellar-organic mobile phases, the adsorption of surfactant, instead of making the columns similar, gave rise to a greater diversity of behaviours (especially in terms of selectivity and analysis time), for both groups of phenols and β-blockers, which should be explained by the residual effect of the underlying bonded stationary phase and the different amount of surfactant covering the packing. Therefore, the implementation of a micellar-organic procedure in RPLC will depend significantly on the selected type of C18 column.

  11. Identification of l-carnitine and its impurities in food supplement formulations by online column-switching liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Xie, Sijun

    2017-01-01

    The identification of impurities in l-carnitine by mass spectrometry is difficult because derivative reagents or ion pair reagents are usually used to separate and increase the retention of l-carnitine on the reversed-phase column. In this study, four impurities including 3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylpropan-1-aminium, 3-cyano-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylpropan-1-aminium, 3-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylprop-2-en-1-aminium, and 4-chloro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylbutan-1-aminium were identified in l-carnitine and its tablets by using two-dimensional column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The first column was a C8 column at a flow rate of 0.15 mL/min; the detection wavelength was 220 nm. The second column was an Acclaim Q1 column using a gradient elution program with aqueous 30 mM ammonium acetate (pH 5.0) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The mass fragmentation patterns and structural assignments of impurities were studied, and the quantitative validation of three impurities was further investigated. The linearity (r(2) ) was found to be >0.99, with ranges from 0.2 to 50 ng/mL and 0.1 to 10 ng/mL. The method was used successfully for determination of impurities in five samples of l-carnitine and tablets.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of poly(4-vinylphenylboronic acid-co-pentaerythritol triacrylate) monolithic column for capillary liquid chromatography of small molecules and proteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Lin, Zian; Lin, Yao; Sun, Xiaobo; Xie, Yanyan; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan

    2012-08-17

    A mixed-mode monolithic stationary phase was prepared for capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) by in situ copolymerization of 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) in a binary porogenic solvent consisting of ethylene glycol/cyclohexanol. The monomer of VPBA functioned as ion-exchange sites, hydrophilic ligands, hydrophobic groups and affinity sites, while PETA was introduced as a hydrophilic crosslinker. The resultant monoliths with different column properties (e.g. morphology, permeability and selectivity) were optimized by adjusting the ratio of VPBA to PETA and the composition of porogenic solvent. The results showed that the selectivity of the monoliths increased with increasing content of VPBA in the polymerization mixture. A series of alkylbenzenes, amides, and anilines were used to evaluate the column performance in terms of hydrophobic, hydrophilic and cation-exchange interactions. At an optimized flow rate of 50 μL/min (corresponding to 0.265 mm/s), the monolith exhibited high column efficiencies of 43,000-100,000 plates/m for alkylbenzenes. Good repeatability was obtained with relative standard deviation (RSD) of retention factor (k) less than 0.65% for run-to-run (n=5) and less than 2.49% for column-to-column (n=5). In addition, the poly(VPBA-co-PETA) monolithic column was applied to the separation of phenols, nucleobases, and proteins, respectively. These successful applications demonstrate the purposed monoliths are promising for cLC separation of small molecules and proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

  14. Liquid Chromatography in 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

  15. Band broadening in fast gradient high-performance liquid chromatography: application to the second generation of 4.6 mm I.D. silica monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2012-05-18

    The sources of band broadening in fast gradient elution chromatography include the contributions of the tubings placed upstream the column, the isocratic migration of the sample that takes place in the column until the moment when the front of the gradient catches up with it, dispersion and mass transfer resistance during band migration under gradient elution to the column outlet, and dispersion in the tubings downstream the column to the detector. The measurements of all these contributions is meticulously described, analyzed, and applied to assess the kinetic performance of monolithic columns of the second generation (KGaA Merck) in gradient elution, at the highest possible speed at which they can be operated (t(0)=25s at P=200 bar). These results are compared to those provided by several 4.6mm × 100mm columns packed with sub-3 μm core-shell particles (Kinetex, Phenomenex and Halo, Advanced Material Technologies) and by a 2.1mm × 100mm column packed with fully porous 1.7 μm BEH particles (Waters). A RPLC checkout sample (Agilent) containing nine alkanophenones (molecular weights between 120 and 204 g/mol) was used for this purpose. The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and water and the instrument, an optimized version of the 1290 Infinity HPLC system (Agilent). The results show that the overall peak capacity provided by this second generation of monolithic columns is nearly 30% smaller than that provided by commercial columns packed with sub-3 μm core-shell particles and 20% smaller than that provided by a narrow-bore column packed with sub-2 μm fully porous particles. After isolating the sole band broadening contribution due to the gradient migration of the analytes along the columns, the BEH column proved to provide the highest resolution power (apparent average plate height, of 2 μm), followed by the 2.6 μm Kinetex particles (3.0 μm), the Halo particles (3.2 μm), and the second generation of 4.6mm I.D. monolithic columns (6.5 μm). This

  16. Systematic evaluation of commercially available ultra-high performance liquid chromatography columns for drug metabolite profiling: optimization of chromatographic peak capacity.

    PubMed

    Dubbelman, Anne-Charlotte; Cuyckens, Filip; Dillen, Lieve; Gross, Gerhard; Hankemeier, Thomas; Vreeken, Rob J

    2014-12-29

    The present study investigated the practical use of modern ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation techniques for drug metabolite profiling, aiming to develop a widely applicable, high-throughput, easy-to-use chromatographic method, with a high chromatographic resolution to accommodate simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of small-molecule drugs and metabolites in biological matrices. To this end, first the UHPLC system volume and variance were evaluated. Then, a mixture of 17 drugs and various metabolites (molecular mass of 151-749Da, logP of -1.04 to 6.7), was injected on six sub-2μm particle columns. Five newest generation core shell technology columns were compared and tested against one column packed with porous particles. Two aqueous (pH 2.7 and 6.8) and two organic mobile phases were evaluated, first with the same flow and temperature and subsequently at each column's individual limit of temperature and pressure. The results demonstrated that pre-column dead volume had negligible influence on the peak capacity and shape. In contrast, a decrease in post-column volume of 57% resulted in a substantial (47%) increase in median peak capacity and significantly improved peak shape. When the various combinations of stationary and mobile phases were used at the same flow rate (0.5mL/min) and temperature (45°C), limited differences were observed between the median peak capacities, with a maximum of 26%. At higher flow though (up to 0.9mL/min), a maximum difference of almost 40% in median peak capacity was found between columns. The finally selected combination of solid-core particle column and mobile phase composition was chosen for its selectivity, peak capacity, wide applicability and peak shape. The developed method was applied to rat hepatocyte samples incubated with the drug buspirone and demonstrated to provide a similar chromatographic resolution, but a 6 times higher signal-to-noise ratio than a more traditional UHPLC

  17. Coupled-column liquid chromatography applied to the trace-level determination of triazine herbicides and some of their metabolites in water samples.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Hidalgo, C; Sancho, J V; López, F J

    1998-08-01

    In the present work, a study is reported of the potential of coupled-column liquid chromatography (LC) applied to the determination of triazine residues in environmental water samples. For this purpose, two different techniques have been compared: on-line trace enrichment followed by LC (SPE-LC) and coupled-column liquid chromatography (LC-LC). First, a completely automated liquid chromatographic method based on on-line trace enrichment in a prepacked precolumn and using diode array detection has been developed for the simultaneous trace-level determination of six triazine herbicides (simazine, cyanazine, atrazine, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn) and the main atrazine metabolites (desisopropylatrazine, desethylatrazine, and hydroxyatrazine). After preconcentration parameters were optimized by testing two different sorbents (C18 and PRP-1) in three cartridges with different dimensions, a sample volume of 100 mL was selected in order to achieve maximal solute preconcentration. Detection limits lower than 0.1 microgram.L-1 were obtained even for the most polar analyte (desisopropylatrazine), which presented recoveries of around 30%. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments in groundwater and surface water samples spiked with the analytes at different levels (0.2-2 micrograms.L-1). Afterward, the procedure was successfully applied in a program for monitoring of triazine residues in surface water carried out in a wet area of Castellón, Spain. Different triazine herbicides such as simazine, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn were identified and quantified. The identity of these compounds was confirmed by their absorption UV spectra and by GC/MS analysis. Finally, two rapid, sensitive, and selective procedures, previously developed in our laboratory for the trace-level determination of triazine compounds, both based on LC-LC, were compared with the former procedure. The SPE-LC approach showed a considerable improvement in the global

  18. Luminescent determination of quinolones in milk samples by liquid chromatography/post-column derivatization with terbium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yánez-Jácome, G S; Aguilar-Caballos, M P; Gómez-Hens, A

    2015-07-31

    The usefulness of terbium oxide nanoparticles (Tb4O7NPs) as post-column derivatizing reagent for the liquid chromatographic determination of residues of quinolone antibiotics in milk samples has been studied. Seven quinolones of veterinary use have been chosen as model analytes to develop this method. The derivatization step is based on the formation of luminescent chelates of quinolones with Tb4O7NPs, which are monitored at λex=340nm and λem=545nm. Another relevant feature of the method is that the use of a 10-cm column and a ternary mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and acetic acid as mobile phase in gradient elution mode allow the chromatographic separation of the quinolones in about 13min, whereas previously described chromatographic methods require about 20min. The dynamic ranges of the calibration graphs and limits of detection are, respectively: 65-900ngmL(-1) and 35ngmL(-1) for marbofloxacin, 7.2-900ngmL(-1) and 2.5ngmL(-1) for ciprofloxacin, 6-900ngmL(-1) and 2ngmL(-1) for danofloxacin, 50-900ngmL(-1) and 20ngmL(-1) for enrofloxacin, 35-900ngmL(-1) and 12ngmL(-1) for sarafloxacin, 5-900ngmL(-1) and 2ngmL(-1) for oxolinic acid, and 7-900ngmL(-1) and 2.5ngmL(-1) for flumequine. The precision, established at two concentration levels of each analyte and expressed as the percentage of the relative standard deviation is in the range of 1.9-8.1% using standards, and of 3.4-10.7% in the presence of milk samples. The method has been satisfactorily applied to the analysis of skimmed, semi-skimmed and whole milk samples, with recoveries ranging from 89.0 to 106.5%.

  19. Temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-23

    A temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by the integration of a resistive heating element and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Additionally, means are provided to thermally isolate the heated column from their surroundings. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  20. Programmed temperature vaporizing injector to filter off disturbing high boiling and involatile material for on-line high performance liquid chromatography gas chromatography with on-column transfer.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2013-03-15

    Insertion of a programmed temperature vaporizing (PTV) injector under conditions of concurrent solvent recondensation (CSR) into the on-line HPLC-GC interface for on-column transfer (such as the retention gap technique with partially concurrent eluent evaporation) enables filtering off high boiling or involatile sample constituents by a desorption temperature adjusted to the required cut-off. Details of this technique were investigated and optimized. Memory effects, observed when transferred liquid was sucked backwards between the transfer line and the wall of the injector liner, can be kept low by a small purge flow rate through the transfer line at the end of the transfer and the release of the liquid through a narrow bore capillary kept away from the liner wall. The column entrance should be within the well heated zone of the injector to prevent losses of solute material retained on the liner wall during the splitless period. The desorption temperature must be maintained until an elevated oven temperature is reached to prevent peak broadening resulting of a cool inlet section in the bottom part of the injector.

  1. Stationary phases for packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F

    2012-08-10

    The properties of silica-based, chemically bonded, packed column stationary phases used in supercritical fluid chromatography are described with a focus on column design and retention mechanisms. Supercritical fluid chromatography has benefited substantially from innovations in column design for liquid chromatography even if the separation conditions employed are generally quite different. The mobile phase composition and column operating conditions play an interactive role in modifying selectivity in supercritical fluid chromatography by altering analyte solubility in the mobile phase and through selective solvation of the stationary phase resulting in a wider range and intensity of intermolecular interactions with the analyte. The solvation parameter model is used to identify the main parameters that affect retention in supercritical fluid chromatography using carbon dioxide-methanol as a mobile phase and as a basis for column characterization to facilitate the identification of stationary phases with different separation characteristics for method development. As a caution it is pointed out that these column characterization methods are possibly a product of both the stationary phase chemistry and the column operating conditions and are suitable for use only when columns of similar design and with similar operating conditions are used.

  2. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect.

  3. Determination of propylthiouracil in pharmaceutical formulation by high-performance liquid-chromatography with a post-column iodine-azide reaction as a detection system.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Robert

    2008-12-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with a post-column iodine-azide reaction has been chosen and tested for validity in quantitative determination of propylthiouracil in tablets. A mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.4 ml/min was conducted in the form of isocratic chromatography on a C18 column with acetonitrile-water-sodium azide solution (2.5%; pH 5.5) 24:26:50 (v/v/v). Unreacted iodine from post-column iodine-azide induced by reaction was monitored with visible detection at lambda=350 nm. The method proved both its linearity within the range of 8-100 nM (r2>0.9988) and satisfactory results of inter-day precision (RSD<4.2%) and accuracy (recovery>91%). The limits of detection (DDL) and quantification (DQL) reached the levels of 5 and 8 nM, respectively. The validation of the method comprised also its specificity. The results obtained proved the suitability and appropriateness of the suggested method for intended use.

  4. Single column comprehensive analysis of pharmaceutical preparations using dual-injection mixed-mode (ion-exchange and reversed-phase) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Taylor, Mark R; Haddad, Paul R; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2013-12-01

    The comprehensive separation and detection of hydrophobic and hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), their counter-ions (organic, inorganic) and excipients, using a single mixed-mode chromatographic column, and a dual injection approach is presented. Using a mixed-mode Thermo Fisher Acclaim Trinity P1 column, APIs, their counter-ions and possible degradants were first separated using a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and hydrophobic interactions, using a mobile phase consisting of a dual organic modifier/salt concentration gradient. A complementary method was also developed using the same column for the separation of hydrophilic bulk excipients, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) under high organic solvent mobile phase conditions. These two methods were then combined within a single gradient run using dual sample injection, with the first injection at the start of the applied gradient (mixed-mode retention of solutes), followed by a second sample injection at the end of the gradient (HILIC retention of solutes). Detection using both ultraviolet absorbance and refractive index enabled the sensitive detection of APIs and UV-absorbing counter-ions, together with quantitative determination of bulk excipients. The developed approach was applied successfully to the analysis of a dry powder inhalers (Flixotide(®), Spiriva(®)), enabling comprehensive quantification of all APIs and excipients in the sample.

  5. Direct enrichment and high performance liquid chromatography analysis of ultra-trace Bisphenol A in water samples with narrowly dispersible Bisphenol A imprinted polymeric microspheres column.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Jiang-hua; Mei, Su-rong; Shi, Yun; Zou, Li-jun; Zhu, Ye-xiang; Dai, Kang; Lu, Bin

    2006-03-31

    Direct injection, enrichment and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ultra-trace Bisphenol A (BPA) in water samples using one narrowly dispersible BPA imprinted polymeric microspheres (MIPM) column in one analysis process was developed. One BPA imprinted MIPM that had the best globular morphology and imprinted efficiency was used as HPLC stationary phase and applied to direct analysis of ultra-trace BPA in water. The optimum direct analysis conditions were: conditioning the MIPM column with water for 10min, injecting 40mL water sample directly, eluting with 70% methanol for 13min and then 100% methanol for 7min. Under the optimum conditions, the MIPM column can simultaneously extract, enrich, separate and determine ultra-trace BPA in one analysis process with UV detector by injection of large volume water samples (40mL). The calibration graph was linear with R(2)>0.998 in the ranges from 0.1-100nmol/L BPA standard solution. The intra- and inter-day RSD are less than 9.5 and 9.6%, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.1nmol/L. RSD for spiked tap and lake water was less than 8.9% and the recoveries were 96-101.8%. The enrichment factor for BPA was 10,000 as 40mL water sample was directly injected and analyzed.

  6. [Determination of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin residues in tomato paste by tandem dual solid phase extraction column-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiguo; Su, Min; Ji, Xincheng; Li, Shiyu; Wan, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    The method was specifically developed for the simultaneous determination of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin residues in tomato paste by tandem dual solid phase extraction (SPE) column cleanup-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The residues were extracted from the samples with phosphate buffer solution (pH 4). The cleanup was performed by the way of dispersive solid phase extraction and tandem dual solid phase extraction column. The polar chromatographic column was used to complete the separation of the analytes under gradient elution and the analytes were detected in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization (ESI +). The external standard calibration curves were used for the quantification. The linear ranges were from 0.01 to 0.2 mg/L with a good linear relationship (r > 0.999) for streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin. The limit of quantification (LOQs) was 0.02 mg/kg for the both analytes. The recovery range was from 71% to 101% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 2.3% and 15%. It was indicated that this method is accurate, easier, more sensitive, and has a better purification effect in the monitoring and analysis. The method is accurate and specific to monitor and analyze of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin residues in tomato paste and its products.

  7. Segmented post-column analyte addition; a concept for continuous response control of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry peaks affected by signal suppression/enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Anton; Butcher, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    A novel technique, "segmented post-column analyte addition", is proposed to visualize and compensate signal suppression/enhancement effects in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Instead of delivering a constant flow of analyte solution between the liquid chromatography (LC) column exit and the ESI interface into the eluent resulting from LC separation of analyte-free matrix in order to determine retention time widows in which suppression/enhancement is unimportant (King et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2000; 11: 942), segmented packets of analyte-containing solvent and analyte-free solvent were infused into an LC eluent resulting from separation of an analyte-containing sample. The obtained, superimposed, periodic spikes are much narrower than the analyte peak eluting from the column. The height of the spikes is affected by signal suppression phenomena to the same extent as the analyte signal, and hence variations of the spike height can be used to correct the peak area of analyte peaks affected by signal suppression/enhancement.

  8. The use of phospholipid modified column for the determination of lipophilic properties in high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Godard, Tal; Grushka, Eli

    2011-03-04

    A new chromatographic stationary phase obtained by coating a reversed phase amide column with phosphatidylcholine based liposomes solution to yield a phospholipid modified column (PLM). The modification is achieved by the dynamic coating method which recycles the coating solution through the column in a closed loop for a period of 24 h. The chromatographic properties of the new column have changed significantly as compared to the original amide column due to the phospholipid coating. A good correlation was observed between n-octanol/water logP values and the logarithm of the retention factor obtained on the PLM column for a large number of solutes. In addition the PLM column was characterized using the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). The values of the LSER system constants for the PLM column were calculated and were found to be very close to those of the n-octanol/water extraction system thus suggesting that the PLM column can be used for the estimation of n-octanol/water partition coefficient and serve as a possible alternative to the shake-flask method for lipophilicity determination. In addition, the results suggest that the PLM column can provide an alternative to other phospholipid-based column such as the IAM and the DPC columns.

  9. Analysis of oil-biodiesel samples by high performance liquid chromatography using the normal phase column of new generation and the evaporative light scattering detector.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Fernandes, Natalia A; Firdaus, Mohd Y

    2014-01-24

    Conversion of vegetable oil to biodiesel is usually monitored by gas chromatography. This is not always convenient because of (i) an elaborate derivatization of the samples; (ii) inhibition of this process by methanol and water; (iii) low stability of the derivatives under storage. HPLC methods are apparently more convenient, but none of the described variants had won a wide recognition so far. This can be ascribed to the problems of reproducibility (in the case of normal phase chromatography) and limited separation of some analytes (in the case of reverse phase chromatography). Here we report an HPLC procedure suitable for separation of biodiesel, free fatty acids, glycerides, glycerol and lecithin. The normal phase column of new generation (Poroshell 120 HILIC) and the novel gradient were used. The method was tested on both the artificial mixtures and the crude reaction samples. Elution of the analytes was monitored by an evaporative light scattering detector. This method is usually confined to a very limited range of masses, where only a part of the complex calibration curve is used. We have analyzed the light scattering signal within a very broad range of masses, whereupon the calibration curves were produced. The data were approximated by the appropriate equations used afterward to recalculate the signal to the mass in a convenient way. An experimental conversion of rapeseed oil to biodiesel was performed by a liquid lipase formulation. This process was monitored by HPLC to illustrate advantages of the suggested registration method.

  10. Loss of bonded phase in reversed-phase liquid chromatography in acidic eluents and practical ways to improve column stability.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lianjia; Carr, Peter W

    2007-06-15

    Silica-based, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) stationary phases are very widely used to separate basic compounds in acidic eluents due to their high efficiency, good mechanical strength, and the versatile selectivity offered by different functional groups and the chemistry on the silica surface. However, the stability in acid of most silica-based stationary phases is poor, especially at elevated temperatures, due to hydrolysis of the siloxane bonds, which hold silanes on the silica substrate. This hydrolysis is commonly believed to be solely the result of catalysis by protons. However, we show that various metal cations (principally Fe3+/Fe2+, Ni2+, and Cr3+) released from acid corrosion of the stainless steel inlet frit greatly accelerate the hydrolysis of the siloxane bond. Furthermore, these metal cations, and not the high acidity per se, are mainly responsible for column instability. We show that removing the stainless steel inlet frit, or use of a titanium frit, greatly reduces or totally eliminates corrosion of the inlet frit and radically improves retention stability. The effects of various acids and types of organic modifier were also studied. These observations suggest a number of practical approaches that can significantly extend the lifetime of any RPLC stationary phase in acidic media at elevated temperature.

  11. Online profiling of triacylglycerols in plant oils by two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Ji, Shu-Xian; Hu, Na; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

    2013-10-18

    The complexity of natural triacylglycerols (TAGs) in various edible oils is high because of the hundreds of TAG compositions, which makes the profiling of TAGs quite difficult. In this investigation, a rapid and high-throughput method for online profiling of TAGs in plant oils by two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry was reported. A novel mixed-mode 2D chromatographic column packed with silver-ion-modified octyl and sulfonic co-bonded silica was employed in this online 2D separation system. This novel 2D column combined the features of C8 column and silver-ion. In comparison with the traditional C18 column and silver-ion column, which are the two main columns used for the separation of complex TAGs in natural oil samples, this novel 2D column, could provide hydrophobic interactions as well as π-complexation interactions. It exhibited much higher selectivity for the separation of TAGs, and the separation was rapid. This online 2D separation system was successful in the separation of a large number of TAG solutes, and the TAG structures were evaluated by analyzing their APCI mass spectra information. This system was applied for the profiling of TAGs in peanut oils, corn oils, and soybean oils. 30 TAGs in peanut oils, 18 TAGs in corn oils, and 21 TAGs in soybean oils were determined and quantified. The highest relative content of TAGs was LLL, which was found in corn oil with the relative content up to 45.43 (%, w/w), and the lowest relative content of TAGs was LLS and OSS, which was found in soybean oil and corn oil respectively, with the relative content only 0.01 (%, w/w). In addition, the TAG data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Results of PCA enabled a clear identification of different plant oils. This method provided an efficient and convenient chromatographic technology for the fast characterization and quantification of complex TAGs

  12. Comparison of a new high-resolution monolithic column with core-shell and fully porous columns for the analysis of retinol and α-tocopherol in human serum and breast milk by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kučerová, Barbora; Krčmová, Lenka; Solichová, Dagmar; Plíšek, Jiří; Solich, Petr

    2013-07-01

    The reduction of analysis time, cost, and improvement of separation efficiency are the main requirements in the development of high-throughput assay methods in bioanalysis. It can be achieved either by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using stationary phases with small particles (<2 μm) at high back pressures or by using opposite direction--monolithic stationary phases with low back pressures. The application of new types of monolithic stationary phases for UHPLC is a novel idea combining these two different paths. The aim of this work was to test the recently introduced second-generation of monolithic column Chromolith® HighResolution for UHPLC analysis of liposoluble vitamins in comparison with core-shell and fully porous sub-2 μm columns with different particle sizes, column lengths, and shapes. The separation efficiency, peak shape, resolution, time of analysis, consumption of mobile phase, and lifetime of columns were calculated and compared. The main purpose of the study was to find a new, not only economical option of separation of liposoluble vitamins for routine practice. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate on a C18 column under micellar and high submicellar conditions in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bolsico, C; Ruiz-Angel, M J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2015-02-01

    Micellar liquid chromatography makes use of aqueous solutions or aqueous-organic solutions containing a surfactant, at a concentration above its critical micelle concentration. In the mobile phase, the surfactant monomers aggregate to form micelles, whereas on the surface of the nonpolar alkyl-bonded stationary phases they are significantly adsorbed. If the mobile phase contains a high concentration of organic solvent, micelles break down, and the amount of surfactant adsorbed on the stationary phase is reduced, giving rise to another chromatographic mode named high submicellar liquid chromatography. The presence of a thinner coating of surfactant enhances the selectivity and peak shape, especially for basic compounds. However, the risk of full desorption of surfactant is the main limitation in the high submicellar mode. This study examines the adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate under micellar and high submicellar conditions on a C18 column, applying two methods. One of them uses a refractive index detector to obtain direct measurements of the adsorbed amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, whereas the second method is based on the retention and peak shape for a set of cationic basic compounds that indirectly reveal the presence of adsorbed monomers of surfactant on the stationary phase.

  14. High-throughput sample preparation and simultaneous column regeneration liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of nitrogen mustard metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Muntha K; Mills, Grier; Nixon, Christopher; Wyatt, Shane A; Croley, Timothy R

    2011-08-15

    Nitrogen mustards (NMs) are known to have DNA alkylation and strong vesicant properties. Their availability to terrorist organizations makes them a potential choice for chemical attacks on civilian populations. After an exposure, it is difficult to measure NMs directly because of their rapid metabolism in the human body. Therefore to determine an individual's level of exposure to NMs, it is necessary to analyze for NM metabolites being excreted by the body. The metabolites of NMs are generated by a hydrolysis reaction, and are easily detectable by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This work is focused on the development of a high-throughput assay for the quantitation of N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) metabolites of bis (2-chloroethyl) ethylethanamine (HN1) and bis (2-chloroethyl) methylethanamine (HN2), respectively. The method uses automated 96-well plate sample preparation of human urine samples and a 2-position 10-port switching valve to allow for simultaneous regeneration of the liquid chromatography (LC) columns. Using this method, over 18 h was saved through the reduction of sample preparation and analysis time when compared to a conventional method for 96 samples. The validated method provided excellent accuracy for both EDEA (100.9%) and MDEA (100.6%) with precision better than 5.27% for each analyte.

  15. Analysis of nine drugs and their cytochrome P450-specific probe metabolites from urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry utilizing sub 2 microm particle size column.

    PubMed

    Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Turpeinen, Miia; Pelkonen, Olavi; Tolonen, Ari

    2008-12-26

    An LC/MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of twelve cytochrome P450 (CYP)-specific probe metabolites and their nine parent drugs from human urine. CYP-specific metabolites of melatonin (CYP1A2), nicotine (CYP2A6), bupropion (CYP2B6), repaglinide (CYP2C8), losartan (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19 and CYP3A4), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1) and midazolam (CYP3A4) were all analyzed using the same LC/MS/MS method with a single analytical run, either after a one-at-a-time dose or cocktail-type dosing of the parent drugs. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with a 1.7 microm particle size column was utilized, providing 1.5-3-fold increase in sensitivity, decrease of analysis time to one third and clearly better chromatographic peak shapes when comparing it with the method using traditional high performance liquid chromatography for the same metabolites. In addition, the method was applied for the analysis of the metabolites from human urine samples collected at multiple time points after single and N-in-one dosing of each of the drugs, showing that the use of both the analytical method and these probe metabolites as CYP-specific markers is feasible in in vivo drug-drug interaction or phenotyping studies.

  16. Determination of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and some of its metabolites in urine and serum by high-performance liquid chromatography using fluorescent pre-column labelling.

    PubMed

    Staffeldt, B; Brockmöller, J; Roots, I

    1991-11-15

    Pre-column labelling techniques are described for the determination of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (CMC) and its metabolites in urine and plasma samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) without prior extraction. All substances containing an amino group were converted into fluorescent fluorenylmethyl derivatives with 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC). Deaminated or N-acetylated carbocysteine metabolites were coupled with 1-pyrenyldiazomethane (PDAM) to give fluorescent PDAM esters. Similar results were obtained with the two commercially available and stable diazomethane derivatives PDAM and 9-anthryldiazomethane (ADAM). Following double derivatization with PDAM and FMOC, in a single chromatographic run with two fluorescence detectors connected in series, amines and amino(carboxylic) acids could be detected by their FMOC residues and, simultaneously, carboxylic acids were detected as fluorescent PDAM esters. The (R) and (S) enantiomers of the sulphoxides of CMC, of methylcysteine and of N-acetyl CMC were separated, although the reversed-phase HPLC system did not contain a chiral additive or stationary phase designed for the separation of enantiomers. The methods do not include liquid extraction steps and can therefore be performed either manually or automatically using an HPLC autosampler. These methods were used for the investigation of a disputed pharmacogenetic polymorphism of S-oxidation of CMC in humans, which until now has most often been studied using paper chromatography. The described techniques were applied to the determination of CMC and its metabolites in human urine and plasma samples.

  17. Determination of isoflavones in rat serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a highly efficient core-shell column.

    PubMed

    Gavina, Jennilee M A; Priem, Jessica; Wood, Carla M; Xiao, Chao Wu; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2013-03-01

    Consumption and nutritional supplementation of soy and soy-based products have been linked to health benefits such as lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this study, we have developed a sensitive, specific, and robust method using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for determination of serum isoflavones. A new highly efficient pentafluorophenyl phase core-shell column was first used to separate all isoflavones within 3 min, a separation time which is comparable to ultra-pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) and micro-HPLC. A two-enzyme hydrolysis system with sulfatase and β-glucuronidase has also been developed to improve the efficiency of deconjugation of conjugated isoflavones in serum. The corresponding conjugated isoflavones were used to evaluate recoveries. In addition to duplicates, the method of standard addition was also applied in sample analysis for quality control. The developed method was applied to the analysis of 32 serum samples and was shown to be specific, sensitive and reproducible.

  18. Improved proteomic discovery by sample pre-fractionation using dual-column ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Havugimana, Pierre C; Wong, Peter; Emili, Andrew

    2007-02-15

    Clinically relevant biomarkers are urgently needed for improving patient diagnosis, risk stratification, prognosis and therapeutic treatments. There is a particularly compelling motivation for identifying protein-based indicators of early-stage disease for more effective interventions. Despite recent progress, the proteomic discovery process remains a daunting challenge due to the sheer heterogeneity and skewed protein abundances in biofluids. Even the most advanced mass spectrometry systems exhibit limiting overall dynamic ranges and sensitivities relative to the needs of modern biomedical applications. To this end, we report the development of a robust, rapid, and reproducible high performance ion-exchange liquid chromatography pre-fractionation method that allows for improved proteomic detection coverage of complex biological specimens using basic tandem mass spectrometry screening procedures. This form of sample simplification prior to global proteomic profiling, which we refer to collectively as 'fractionomics', increases the number and diversity of proteins that can be confidently identified in tissue and cell lysates as compared to the straight analysis of unfractionated crude extracts.

  19. [Determination of aflatoxins in peanut by high performance liquid chromatography using immunoaffinity column clean-up and on-line electrochemical derivatization].

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Zhang, Y B; Zhao, W D; Li, Y B

    2000-01-01

    A method for the determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in peanut by high performance liquid chromatography using immunoaffinity column clean-up and on-line electrochemical derivatization was developed. Sample was extracted with 80% methanol and the extract was passed through the IAC. Aflatoxins were retained by the monoclonal in the IAC and eluted with actonitrile. AFT B1 and G1 were derivatized with on-line electrochemical equipment Kobra Cell. The four toxins can be separated in 13 minutes and the detection limit was 0.1 microgram/kg for each toxin. The method has been applied to the determination of peanut sample. The relative standard deviation was 9.2%-15% and the average recovery of AFT spiked at 0.5-9.0 micrograms/kg levels was in the range of 74.8%-97.3%.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column dual-bioactivity assay for simultaneous screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors and free radical scavengers from complex mixture.

    PubMed

    Li, D Q; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2014-06-06

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to generate uric acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion radical (O₂(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide. XO inhibitors and free radical scavengers are beneficial to the treatment of gout and many related diseases. In the present study, an on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with post-column dual-bioactivity assay was established and successfully applied to simultaneously screening of XO inhibitors and free radical scavengers from a complex mixture, Oroxylum indicum extract. The integrated system of HPLC separation, bioactivity screening and mass spectrometry identification was proved to be simple and effective for rapid and sensitive screening of individual bioactive compounds in complex mixtures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma L-Ergothioneine Measurement by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis after a Pre-Column Derivatization with 5-Iodoacetamidofluorescein (5-IAF) and Fluorescence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sotgia, Salvatore; Pisanu, Elisabetta; Pintus, Gianfranco; Erre, Gian Luca; Pinna, Gerard Aime; Deiana, Luca; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Two sensitive and reproducible capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence procedures were established for quantitative determination of L-egothioneine in plasma. After derivatization of L-ergothioneine with 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein, the separation was carried out by HPLC on an ODS-2 C-18 sperisorb column by using a linear gradient elution and by HPCE on an uncoated fused silica capillary, 50 µm id, and 60 cm length. The methods were validated and found to be linear in the range of 0.3 to 10 µmol/l. The limit of quantification was 0.27 µmol/l for HPCE and 0.15 µmol/l for HPLC. The variations for intra- and inter-assay precision were around 6 RSD%, and the mean recovery accuracy close to 100% (96.11%). PMID:23922985

  2. Chromatography column comparison and rapid pretreatment for the simultaneous analysis of amantadine, rimantadine, acyclovir, ribavirin, and moroxydine in chicken muscle by ultra high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyan; Xiao, Chaogeng; Wang, Wei; Qian, Mingrong; Xu, Jie; Yang, Hua

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a chromatography column comparison and rapid pretreatment development were carried out. A multi-class method was built based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe pretreatment method with hydrophilic interaction ultra high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for the high-throughput analysis of five antivirals in chicken muscle. The HSS T3 column, BEH HILIC column and BEH Amide column were studied, and their chemical functionalities and chromatographic separation effectiveness were compared. The BEH Amide column was selected to perform the mass spectrometry analysis under the hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode. First, a different strategy without adding MgSO4 and NaCl into the muscle samples was considered. Then, different concentrations of formic acid, acetic acid, and ammonia in acetonitrile were compared for better extraction efficiency. Nine sorbents (C18 , PSA, NH2 , Florisil, Alumina-B, Alumina-N, PestiCarb, NANO, and NANO-NH2 ) were studied. The optimized procedure consisted of the use of 10% acetic acid in acetonitrile for the extraction solvent and NANO-NH2 for clean-up. NANO-NH2 had not been applied in other matrix and pollutants so far. The developed method provided favorable trueness, precision, and acceptable matrix effect. Meanwhile, the method was sensitive, the limits of detection of amantadine, rimantadine, acyclovir, ribavirin, and moroxydine achieved were 0.56, 0.50, 0.30, 2.22, and 0.51 μg/kg, respectively, and were successfully applied for the routine detection of antivirals in the chicken samples.

  3. Characterization of a 2.6 μm Kinetex porous shell hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column in supercritical fluid chromatography with a comparison to 3 μm totally porous silica.

    PubMed

    Berger, Terry A

    2011-07-15

    The first systematic study of the performance of a porous shell, hydrophylic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is presented. Observed efficiency on 2.6-μm porous shell particles exceeded all reports using UHPLC on 100-mm long columns packed with <2-μm totally porous particles. A Kinetex 4.6×150 mm, 2.6 μm HILIC column significantly outperformed a 3 μm Luna totally porous silica of the same length and diameter. A 17 component, low molecular weight test mix, consisting of a range of small drug-like molecules was separated isocratically on each column, with similar selectivity, but the porous shell column required ½ the time (≈2 min vs. 4 min), with almost 50% higher efficiency. Even little retained compounds (k<0.5) exhibited more than 30,000 plates under some conditions. Reduced plate heights were higher than previously reported on porous shell particles in both HILIC and rHPLC, with the lowest value of 1.62. Significant fronting was sometimes observed. The cause of the fronting was not determined. The least symmetrical peaks showed the highest apparent efficiency. Pressure drop at optimum velocity (2.5 ml/min) and low modifier concentrations was <60 bar, and only exceeded 250 bar at near double optimum flow and 65% modifier. Peak widths were mostly just over 0.01 min (20 Hz) wide. There was a loss of efficiency when the injection volume was increased. The chromatograph was shown to have extremely low extra-column dispersion, on the order of 5-10 μL(2), which is also the lowest reported in an SFC, in spite of using standard components. This is likely due to turbulent flow in the tubing and fittings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Determination of seven biothiols in rice by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection with pre-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rong; Cao, Zhaoyun; Mou, Renxiang; Li, Zhengxiang; Chen, Mingxue

    2015-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization (HPLC-FLD) has been developed for the determination of seven biothiols including Cys, GSH, and phytochelatins (PCs: PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5 and PC6) in rice. The samples were ultrasonically extracted with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) containing 6. 3 mmol/L diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and then the seven biothiols were derivatized with monobromobimane (mBrB) as derivatization agent in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine propanesulfonic acid (HEPPS) buffer solution (pH 8.0). The separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with gradient elution of 0.1% TFA solution (the pH value was adjusted to 2.5 with hydrochloric acid) and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection was performed at 380 nm for excitation and 470 nm for emission. The calibration curves of the seven biothiols showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.7-100.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) > or = 0.9991. The limits of detection were 0.03-0.20 mg/L. The recoveries of standard addition were in the range of 89.26%-99.42% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 2.05%-5.87%. The method is sensitive, accurate, reproducible and suitable for the simultaneous determination of Cys, GSH, PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5 and PC6 in rice.

  5. Effects of extra-column band spreading, liquid chromatography system operating pressure, and column temperature on the performance of sub-2-microm porous particles.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Kenneth J; Neue, Uwe D; Grumbach, Eric S; Diehl, Diane M

    2009-08-07

    The effects of extra-column band spreading, LC system operating pressure, and separation temperature were investigated for sub-2-microm particle columns using both a conventional HPLC system as well as a UPLC system. The contributions of both volume- and time-based extra-column effects were analyzed in detail. In addition, the performance difference between columns containing 2.5 and 1.7-microm particles (same stationary phase) was studied. The performance of these columns was compared using a conventional HPLC system and a low dead volume UPLC system capable of routine operation up to 1000 bar. The system contribution to band spreading and the pressure limitations of the conventional HPLC system were found to be the main difficulties that prevented acceptable performance of the sub-2-microm particle columns. Finally, an increase in operating temperature needs to be accompanied by an increase in flow rate to prevent a loss of separation performance. Thus, at a fixed column length, an increase in temperature is not a substitute for the need for very high operating pressures.

  6. Acylhydrazone bond dynamic covalent polymer gel monolithic column online coupling to high-performance liquid chromatography for analysis of sulfonamides and fluorescent whitening agents in food.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Luo, Xialin; Wei, Tianfu; Hu, Yufei; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2017-10-13

    A new dynamic covalent polymer (DCP) gel was well designed and constructed based on imine chemistry. Polycondensation of 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide via Schiff-base reaction resulted in an acylhydrazone bond gel (AB-gel) DCP. AB-gel DCP had three-dimensional network of interconnected nanoparticles with hierarchically porous structure. AB-gel DCP was successfully fabricated as a monolithic column by an in-situ chemical bonding method for online enrichment and separation purpose with excellent permeability. AB-gel DCP based monolithic column showed remarkable adsorption affinity towards target analytes including sulfonamides (SAs) and fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) due to its strong π-π affinity, hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding interaction. Then, AB-gel DCP based monolithic column was applied for online separation and analysis of trace SAs and FWAs in food samples coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sulfathiazole (ST) and sulfadimidine (SM2) in one positive weever sample were actually found and determined with concentrations of 273.8 and 286.3μg/kg, respectively. 2,5-Bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene (FWA184) was actually quantified in one tea infusion sample with the concentration of 268.5ng/L. The spiked experiments suggested the good recoveries in range of 74.5-110% for SAs in weever and shrimp samples with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9.7% and in range of 74.0-113% for FWAs in milk and tea infusion samples with RSDs less than 9.0%. AB-gel DCP monolithic column was proved to be a promising sample preparation medium for online separation and analysis of trace analytes in food samples with complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymethacrylate monolithic and hybrid particle-monolithic columns for reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jandera, Pavel; Urban, Jirí; Skeríková, Veronika; Langmaier, Pavel; Kubícková, Romana; Planeta, Josef

    2010-01-01

    We prepared hybrid particle-monolithic polymethacrylate columns for micro-HPLC by in situ polymerization in fused silica capillaries pre-packed with 3-5microm C(18) and aminopropyl silica bonded particles, using polymerization mixtures based on laurylmethacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate (co)polymers for the reversed-phase (RP) mode and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) zwitterionic (co)polymers for the hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mode. The hybrid particle-monolithic columns showed reduced porosity and hold-up volumes, approximately 2-2.5 times lower in comparison to the pure monolithic columns prepared in the whole volume of empty capillaries. The elution volumes of sample compounds are also generally lower in comparison to packed or pure monolithic columns. The efficiency and permeability of the hybrid columns are intermediate in between the properties of the reference pure monolithic and particle-packed columns. The chemistries of the embedded solid particles and of the interparticle monolithic moiety in the hybrid capillary columns contribute to the retention to various degrees, affecting the selectivity of separation. Some hybrid columns provided improved separations of proteins in comparison to the reference particle-packed columns in the reversed-phase mode. Zwitterionic hybrid particle-monolithic columns show dual mode retention HILIC/RP behaviour depending on the composition of the mobile phase and allow separations of polar compounds such as phenolic acids in the HILIC mode at lower concentrations of acetonitrile and, often in shorter analysis time in comparison to particle-packed and full-volume monolithic columns.

  8. Rapid isolation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids using monolithic high performance liquid chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Peter; Wijesundera, Chakra

    2013-06-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids are important bio-active fatty acids in fish oils. Monolithic HPLC columns both in the polymeric cation exchange (silver-ion) and RP formats were compared with corresponding packed columns for the isolation of these acids from tuna oil ethyl esters. Monolithic columns in both formats enabled rapid (typically 5-10 min) separations compared with packed columns (30 min). Polymeric monolithic silver-ion disc column rapidly furnished mixtures of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic esters (90% purity) within 5-10 min, but was unable to resolve individual esters. A preparative version of the same column (80 mL bed volume) enabled isolation (>88% purity) of 100 mg quantities of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic esters from esterified tuna oil within 6 min. Baseline separation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic esters was achieved on all RP columns. The results show that there is potential to use polymeric monolithic cation exchange columns for scaled-up preparation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic ester concentrates from fish oils. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Automation of nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for proteome analysis by using a strong cation exchange trap column.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaogang; Feng, Shun; Tian, Ruijun; Han, Guanghui; Jiang, Xinning; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2007-02-01

    An approach was developed to automate sample introduction for nanoflow LC-MS/MS (microLC-MS/MS) analysis using a strong cation exchange (SCX) trap column. The system consisted of a 100 microm id x 2 cm SCX trap column and a 75 microm id x 12 cm C18 RP analytical column. During the sample loading step, the flow passing through the SCX trap column was directed to waste for loading a large volume of sample at high flow rate. Then the peptides bound on the SCX trap column were eluted onto the RP analytical column by a high salt buffer followed by RP chromatographic separation of the peptides at nanoliter flow rate. It was observed that higher performance of separation could be achieved with the system using SCX trap column than with the system using C18 trap column. The high proteomic coverage using this approach was demonstrated in the analysis of tryptic digest of BSA and yeast cell lysate. In addition, this system was also applied to two-dimensional separation of tryptic digest of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 for large scale proteome analysis. This system was fully automated and required minimum changes on current microLC-MS/MS system. This system represented a promising platform for routine proteome analysis.

  10. Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and ampicillin in eggs by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection using pre-column derivatization.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kaizhou; Jia, Longfei; Xu, Dong; Guo, Huisheng; Xie, Xing; Huang, Yuping; Chen, Xuesen; Bao, Wenbin; Dai, Guojun; Wang, Jinyu

    2012-08-01

    A sensitive and robust method is presented for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin (AMO) and ampicillin (AMP) in eggs by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (RP-HPLC-FLD). This method used a simple liquid-liquid extraction of the samples with acetonitrile and dichloromethane as precipitation of proteins and extraction solvent. AMO and AMP reacted with salicylaldehyde to form fluorescent derivatives, which were then analyzed with RP-HPLC-FLD. Separation was carried out on an Athena C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate, adjusted to pH 5.5 by 2M potassium hydroxide and acetonitrile. The detector response was linear over the tested concentration range from 5.0 to 800 ng/mL for AMO and AMP. The recovery values ranged from 78.4 to 88.7% for AMO and from 77.6 to 82.0% for AMP. The limits of detection were 1.2 for AMO and 0.4 µg/kg for AMP. The limits of quantification were 3.9 for AMO and 1.5 µg/kg for AMP. The corresponding intra-day and inter-day variation (relative standard deviation) were found to be less than 9.6 and 14.8%, respectively.

  11. Automation of nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for proteome and peptide profiling analysis by using a monolithic analytical capillary column.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaogang; Dong, Jing; Wang, Fangjun; Feng, Shun; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2008-04-01

    An automated nano-LC-MS/MS platform without trap column was established, which only used a 20 cm lauryl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate (LMA-EDMA) monolithic capillary column to allow preconcentration and separation of peptides. The monolithic column had the advantages of good permeability and low backpressure resulting in higher flow rates for capillary columns. Tryptic digests of bovine albumin and yeast protein extract were tested using the monolithic column system. High proteomic coverage using this approach were demonstrated in this study. Furthermore, peptide samples extracted from mouse liver were separated by using the monolithic column system combined with size-exclusion chromatography prefractionation. This monolithic column system might be a promising alternative for the automated system previously using a trap column for routine proteome and peptide profiling analysis.

  12. Optimization of post-column reactor radius in capillary high performance liquid chromatography Effect of chromatographic column diameter and particle diameter.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongjuan; Weber, Stephen G

    2006-04-28

    A post-column reactor consisting of a simple open tube (Capillary Taylor Reactor) affects the performance of a capillary LC in two ways: stealing pressure from the column and adding band spreading. The former is a problem for very small radius reactors, while the latter shows itself for large reactor diameters. We derived an equation that defines the observed number of theoretical plates (N(obs)) taking into account the two effects stated above. Making some assumptions and asserting certain conditions led to a final equation with a limited number of variables, namely chromatographic column radius, reactor radius and chromatographic particle diameter. The assumptions and conditions are that the van Deemter equation applies, the mass transfer limitation is for intraparticle diffusion in spherical particles, the velocity is at the optimum, the analyte's retention factor, k', is zero, the post-column reactor is only long enough to allow complete mixing of reagents and analytes and the maximum operating pressure of the pumping system is used. Optimal ranges of the reactor radius (a(r)) are obtained by comparing the number of observed theoretical plates (and theoretical plates per time) with and without a reactor. Results show that the acceptable reactor radii depend on column diameter, particle diameter, and maximum available pressure. Optimal ranges of a(r) become narrower as column diameter increases, particle diameter decreases or the maximum pressure is decreased. When the available pressure is 4000 psi, a Capillary Taylor Reactor with 12 microm radius is suitable for all columns smaller than 150 microm (radius) packed with 2-5 microm particles. For 1 microm packing particles, only columns smaller than 42.5 microm (radius) can be used and the reactor radius needs to be 5 microm.

  13. Optimization of post-column reactor radius in capillary high performance liquid chromatography Effect of chromatographic column diameter and particle diameter

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongjuan; Weber, Stephen G.

    2006-01-01

    A post-column reactor consisting of a simple open tube (Capillary Taylor Reactor) affects the performance of a capillary LC in two ways: stealing pressure from the column and adding band spreading. The former is a problem for very small radius reactors, while the latter shows itself for large reactor diameters. We derived an equation that defines the observed number of theoretical plates (Nobs) taking into account the two effects stated above. Making some assumptions and asserting certain conditions led to a final equation with a limited number of variables, namely chromatographic column radius, reactor radius and chromatographic particle diameter. The assumptions and conditions are that the van Deemter equation applies, the mass transfer limitation is for intraparticle diffusion in spherical particles, the velocity is at the optimum, the analyte’s retention factor, k′, is zero, the post-column reactor is only long enough to allow complete mixing of reagents and analytes and the maximum operating pressure of the pumping system is used. Optimal ranges of the reactor radius (ar) are obtained by comparing the number of observed theoretical plates (and theoretical plates per time) with and without a reactor. Results show that the acceptable reactor radii depend on column diameter, particle diameter, and maximum available pressure. Optimal ranges of ar become narrower as column diameter increases, particle diameter decreases or the maximum pressure is decreased. When the available pressure is 4000 psi, a Capillary Taylor Reactor with 12 μm radius is suitable for all columns smaller than 150 μm (radius) packed with 2–5 μm particles. For 1 μm packing particles, only columns smaller than 42.5 μm (radius) can be used and the reactor radius needs to be 5 μm. PMID:16494886

  14. Determination of the polar drug dimiracetam in human plasma and serum by column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Torchio, L; Lombardi, F; Visconti, M; Doyle, E

    1995-04-07

    A sensitive and fully automated column-switching HPLC method was developed for the determination of a novel cognition enhancer, dimiracetam, in human plasma and serum. A sample of plasma was ultrafiltered and then directly injected onto a first mu Bondapak C18 column. The sample was eluted with water. The portion of the eluate (heart-cut) from this column containing the drug was selected and loaded on a second mu Bondapak C18 column and eluted with water. During the elution of the second column, the first column was automatically rinsed with water-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) and then equilibrated for a new injection. The total analysis time for each sample was 35 min. This corresponded to a 30% decrease in analysis time compared with the time that would have been needed with a simple run with two mu Bondapak C18 columns assembled in series. Ultraviolet detection at 200 nm was used to monitor the eluate. The method was fully validated over the quantitation range 27 ng/ml-15 micrograms/ml. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analysis of serum samples from a study performed in human healthy volunteers.

  15. 1.1 μm superficially porous particles for liquid chromatography: part II: column packing and chromatographic performance.

    PubMed

    Blue, Laura E; Jorgenson, James W

    2015-02-06

    The predicted advantages of superficially porous particles over totally porous particles are decreased eddy dispersion, longitudinal diffusion, and resistance to mass transfer contributions to the theoretical plate height. While sub-2 micron superficially porous particles are commercially available, further improvements in performance are predicted by decreasing the particle diameter and decreasing the porous layer thickness. 1.1 μm superficially porous particles with 187Å pores have been synthesized using a layer-by-layer method tuned for production of smaller diameter particles. Following synthesis, these particles were packed into 30 μm i.d. capillary columns and their chromatographic performance evaluated using electrochemical detection. Based on the initial studies, the column efficiency did not meet theory, but was similar to the commercially available products tested. It is believed that the column packing process plays a critical role in the sub-par column performance. To determine if column efficiency could be predicted by solvent-particle interactions, in-solution optical microscopy and sedimentation velocity of particles in various slurry solvents were investigated and compared to column performance. Aggregating slurry solvents, such as methanol were found to produce columns with increased efficiency. The hmin for a column packed with an acetone slurry and a methanol slurry at 3mg/mL were found to be 6.3 and 3.5, respectively. Increasing the slurry concentration to 25mg/mL further improved the efficiency, producing a column with an hmin of 2.6. These efficiency results were accurately predicted by in-solution optical microscopy.

  16. New silica gel-based monolithic column for nano-liquid chromatography, used in the HILIC mode.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel G C; Bottoli, Carla B G; Collins, Carol H

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and chromatographic and morphologic characterization of two monolithic silica nano-columns (50 µm i.d.) prepared by sol-gel processes, using hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mode separations to evaluate their performance. Two types of monoliths were prepared by varying the precursors (tetraethoxysilane or a tetraethoxysilane-methyltrimethoxysilane mixture) and by changing the type of catalyst (urea and acetic acid or ammonium hydroxide). The monoliths were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The columns were tested for the separation of several mixtures, with the organically modified silica (ormosil) column successfully separating two challenging mixtures using HILIC conditions.

  17. The application of phospholipid removal columns and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry for quantification of multi-class antibiotics in aquaculture samples.

    PubMed

    Reinholds, Ingars; Pugajeva, Iveta; Perkons, Ingus; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2016-09-05

    In this study a robust and sensitive method based on a proposed sample purification procedure, using zirconia-coated Phree™ columns and analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry are presented for the assessment of multi-class antibiotics in farmed fish species. The sample preparation procedure benefited from combined precipitation of proteins and selective removal of phospholipids by Phree™ columns, resulting in a high sensitivity of the method (LOQ 0.3-9mgkg(-1)). The in-house validation results (precision, repeatability, decision limit CCα, detection capability CCβ, etc.) indicate that the elaborated method is fully suitable for the analysis of the main classes of antibiotics in accordance with the European Union (EU) Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method was applied to the analysis of antibiotics in trout and sturgeon samples obtained from the local inland aquacultures in Latvia. The results revealed the presence of two antibiotics (enrofloxacin and trimethoprim) in 12 out of the 20 analysed fish samples at concentrations (0.33-12.2μgkg(-1)) below the MRLs, thus causing no acute risks to consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Determination of netilmicin in rat plasma by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and pre-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaojuan; Peng, Jingdong; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Limin; Dai, Yongkuang

    2009-11-01

    A new, simple and sensitive method based on pre-column derivatization by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described for the separation and quantification of netilmicin in plasma, using 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) as the derivatization reagent. Its pharmacokinetics is also presented. The derivatization modes and chromatographic conditions were optimized. The separation was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C8 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with a mixture of water-acetonitrile (15:85, v/v) as mobile phase and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The excitation wavelength was 265 nm and the emission wavelength was 315 nm. The linear range was 0.045-8.88 mg/L and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9993. The limit of detection (LOD) (S/N = 3) was about 0.01 mg/L, and the limit of quantification was 0.03 mg/L (3LOD) for netilmicin. The relative standard deviation was less than 3% for intra-day assay (n = 5) and 3.5% for inter-day assay (n = 5) and the relative recovery was in the range of 96.62%-100.84% (n = 3). The plasma volume of 30 microL was sufficient for the determination of netilmicin. The method provides a reliable bioanalytical methodology to carry out netilmicin pharmacokinetics in rat plasma.

  19. Determination of amphetamine and related compounds in urine using on-line derivatization in octadecyl silica columns with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P; Sevillano-Cabeza, A

    1996-04-26

    A method for the determination of amphetamine and related compounds in urine based on on-line derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) and high-performance liquid chromatography is described. Derivatization is performed in a 20 x 2.1 mm I.D. column packed with a Hypersil ODS C18, 30 micron stationary phase, which is also used for sample clean-up and enrichment of the analytes. Next, the derivatized analytes are transferred to a LiChrospher 100 RP-C18 (5 micron, 125 x 4 mm I.D.) analytical column for their separation and quantification, using reversed-phase conditions and fluorescence detection. The described assay was applied to the determination of norephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, amphetamine, phenylpropylamine and methamphetamine at concentrations of 0.5-10.0 micrograms/ml. Analyte conversions were about 55-96% of those obtained by the off-line derivatization mode under similar conditions, resulting in limits of detection in the 5-25 ng/ml range.

  20. Determination of cobalt, nickel and iron at trace level in natural water samples by in-column chelation-reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hol, Aysen; Divrikli, Umit; Elci, Latif

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the utilization of 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) as a chelating reagent for in-column derivatization and the determination of trace Co, Fe, and Ni ions by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. A good separation of Co, Fe, and Ni chelates were achieved by using an Inertsil ODS-3 column and a mobile phase, consisted of methanol-THF-water mixture (50:5:45) containing ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) and PAR. After full optimization, good repeatability of retention times (relative standard deviation (RSD) < 0.05%) and peak areas (RSD < 1.7%) was achieved as well as a good linearity (r (2) > 0.9991). The detection limits (S/N = 3), expressed as micrograms per liter, were 0.50 (Co), 9.07 (Fe), and 2.00 (Ni). The applicability and the accuracy of the developed method were estimated by the analysis of spiked water samples and certified reference material BCR 715 wastewater-SRM.

  1. Determination of ortho-phenylphenol residues in lemon rind by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection using a microbore column.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan; Kotani, Akira; Hakamata, Hideki; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2004-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive method has been developed for determining ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) in lemon rind by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection using a microbore column (microHPLC-ECD). Based on the voltammetric behavior of OPP, microHPLC-ECD was established using a CAPCELL PAK C-18 UG 120 microbore ODS column, 17 mM acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.0)/acetonitrile (60/40, v/v) as a mobile phase and an applied potential at +0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The current peak height was found to be linearly related to the amount of OPP injected from 3.4 pg to 1.7 ng (r > 0.999). The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 3.4 pg (20 fmol), which was 100 times greater in terms of sensitivity when compared to conventional HPLC with UV detection. Standard OPP at 0.425 ng was detected with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.9% (n = 10). The OPP contents in several lemon samples were determined by the present method. The recoveries of OPP from lemon rind exceeded 98% with an RSD (n = 5) of less than 3.01%.

  2. Enhancing capillary liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of biogenic amines by pre-column derivatization with 7-fluoro-4-nitrobenzoxadiazole.

    PubMed

    Song, Yaru; Quan, Zhe; Evans, Joseph L; Byrd, Edward A; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a capillary liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) determination of biogenic amines enhanced by pre-column derivatization with 7-fluoro-4-nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD-F). Biogenic amines including tryptamine, N-methylsalsolinol, histamine, and agmatine were studied. The biogenic NBD-amine derivatives could be quantitatively enriched in-line on 20 x 0.25 mm capillary columns packed in-house with 5 microm C(8) silica particles. In an electrospray ionization (ESI) source these derivatives were ionized effectively, and collision-induced dissociation (CID) produced predominant characteristic ions allowing sensitive MS/MS detection. Agmatine, a potential neurotransmitter/modulator, was taken as a reference compound to study the analytical figures of merit of the procedure. The detection limit of agmatine was estimated to be 0.6 ng/mL (signal-to-noise (S/N) = 3). A linear calibration curve in the range 15-1000 ng/mL agmatine with an r value of 0.9997 was obtained. Tissue samples of rat brain, stomach, and intestine were analyzed. Minimum sample pre-treatment was needed. Each analysis was accomplished within ca. 12 min. The concentration of agmatine was found to be 0.246, 3.31, and 0.058 microg/g wet tissue in the brain, stomach, and intestine, respectively.

  3. Monolithic metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al)-polymethacrylate composite column for the reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography separation of small aromatics.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Kareem; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed Yacine; Aqel, Ahmad; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    A monolithic capillary column containing a composite of metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al) incorporated into hexyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate was prepared to enhance the separation of mixtures of small aromatic compounds by using capillary liquid chromatography. The addition of 10 mg/mL MIL-53(Al) microparticles increased the micropore content in the monolithic matrix and increased the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area from 26.92 to 85.12 m(2) /g. The presence of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate moieties within the structure of MIL-53(Al) as an organic linker greatly influenced the separation of aromatic mixtures through π-π interactions. High-resolution separation was obtained for a series of alkylbenzenes (with resolution factors in the range 0.96-1.75) in less than 8 min, with 14 710 plates/m efficiency for propylbenzene, using a binary polar mobile phase of water/acetonitrile in isocratic mode. A reversed-phase separation mechanism was indicated by the increased retention factor and resolution as the water percentage in the mobile phase increased. A stability study on the composite column showed excellent mechanical stability under various conditions. The higher resolution and faster separation observed at increased temperature indicated an exothermic separation, whereas the negative values for the free energy change of transfer indicated a spontaneous process. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Direct aqueous injection-liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization for determination of N-methylcarbamoyloximes and N-methylcarbamates in finished drinking water: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Edgell, K W; Biederman, L A; Longbottom, J E

    1991-01-01

    An interlaboratory method validation study was conducted on EPA Method 531.1, Measurement of N-Methylcarbamoyloximes and N-Methylcarbamates in Water by Direct Aqueous Injection HPLC with Post Column Derivatization, to determine the precision and mean recovery for determination of 10 carbamate pesticide compounds in reagent water and in finished drinking waters. The study design was based on Youden's nonreplicate plan for collaborative tests of analytical methods. The waters were spiked with 10 carbamate pesticides at 6 concentration levels, as 3 Youden pairs. Eight laboratories analyzed the samples by direct aqueous injection, with separation by reverse-phase liquid chromatography and post-column hydrolysis of the carbamates and carbamoyloximes to methylamine, followed by reaction of the methylamine with o-phthalaldehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol using fluorescence detection. Results were analyzed using an EPA computer program, which measured precision and recovery for each of the 10 compounds and compared the performance of the method between water types. The method was acceptable for all analytes tested. After removal of a nonrepresentative data set for aldicarb sulfoxide, no matrix effects were observed; the statistics for the pooled drinking waters were not significantly different from the statistics for the reagent waters. The method has been adopted official first action by AOAC.

  5. Differentiation of cyclosporin A from isocyclosporin A by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with post-column addition of divalent metal salt.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2014-03-15

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) rearranges to its isomer isocyclosporin A (isoCsA) upon acid hydrolysis and also during ionization in the ion source of the mass spectrometer. It has been reported that both compounds could not be differentiated by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources and ambiguously differentiated by using other sources. In order to analyze these compounds which are common fungal metabolites, it is relevant to develop a simple method for their differentiation. CsA and isoCsA were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) with post-column addition of metal ion solutions in a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. Mass spectra of CsA obtained upon post-column addition of solutions of Ca(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) showed complexes between cyclosporin and the metal, including [2CsA + Me](2+) and [CsA-H + Me](+). These complexes were not observed in the spectra of isoCsA. The same results were observed at different metal concentrations. Differentiation via metal complexation in positive ion mode LC/ESI-MS was performed to simultaneously distinguish CsA and its isomer isoCsA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Analysis of rice leaves proteomes by liquid chromatography-tandem, mass spectrometry based on the purification using a novel affinity detergent removal spin column].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaolin; Gong, Jiadi; Chen, Mingxue; Yu, Shasha; Bian, Yingfang; Cao, Zhaoyun

    2014-11-01

    A purification method was established for the analysis of proteomes in rice leaves based on a novel detergent removal spin column (DRSC). The proteins were extracted by phenol protein extraction method followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) lysis. The lysate was purified by the detergent removal spin column and the enzymolytic peptides were detected by the nanoflow liquid chromatography-hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (nanoLC-LTQ/Orbitrap). In terms of SDS removal efficiencies and protein identification, the method of DRSC was compared with those of filter aided sample preparation (FASP) and acetone precipitation. As a result, there were good efficiencies ( > 95%) of SDS removal for the three methods. With the DRSC purification strategy, 563 proteins were identified from rice leaves, while only 196 and 306 proteins were identified by FASP and acetone precipitation procedures respectively, in spite of certain complementarities among these identified proteins by the three methods. DRSC is suitable for proteins with various relative molecular masses and pI values. However, there were similar losses of proteins with different relative molecular masses and pI values with the other two methods. Using the established method, 588 proteins were identified by once injection analysis. According to the molecular functions, 296 proteins with at least two identified peptides can be classified into eight categories with binding activity, enzyme activity, transporter activity, inhibitor activity, structural constitute, catalytic activity, other and unknown functions. The method provides technical reference for conducting rice proteomes.

  7. Fluorescence determination of N-acetylaspartic acid in the rat cerebrum homogenate using high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column fluorescence derivatization.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Takeshi; Arai, Kotaro; Tomiya, Masayuki; Mitsuhashi, Shogo; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Santa, Tomofumi; Imai, Kazuhiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2008-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid (NAA) is an endogenous compound, and its brain concentration is suggested to be altered in neurological disorders. In the present study, a fluorescence determination method for NAA was developed by employing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with pre-column fluorescence derivatization using 4-N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl-7-N-(2-aminoethyl)amino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-ED). Using methylsuccinic acid as the internal standard, a linear calibration curve for NAA was constructed in the range 125-1000 microM (n=3). The detection limit on the column was approximately 5.0 fmol (signal-to-noise ratio 3). The proposed HPLC method was applied to determine NAA in the rat cerebrum homogenate. Cerebrum NAA was successfully determined using 10 microL of the homogenate, and the validation data for the proposed HPLC method demonstrated satisfactory results. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 1.1-7.0 and -8.1-6.3%, respectively. The concentration of NAA in the male rat cerebrum (13 weeks old) was 84 +/-4.6 nmol/mg protein (n = 3) [corrected]. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A new strategy based on cholesterol-functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high-performance liquid chromatography with cholesterol column.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhihong; Yuan, Jinbin; Zhu, Genhua; Zou, Ying; Chen, Chunyan; Yang, Shaolei; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2013-05-30

    This study reported for the first time the use of cholesterol-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@Chol) for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in traditional Chinese medicine samples (TCMs) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection. The method was efficient, environmentally friendly, and fast. The solvent consumption of the proposed column is only half of the conventional column but with higher efficiency. Influencing factors, including sorbent amount, desorption solvent, sample volume and extraction time, were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity (R(2)>0.991) was obtained over the range of 5-400 ng g(-1), with limits of detection (LOD) 0.75, 0.50, 1.0, 0.56, 0.60, 0.84 and 0.80 ng g(-1) for anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(k)fluoranthene, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Robust method for the analysis of phytochelatins in rice by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry based on polymeric column materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shasha; Bian, Yingfang; Zhou, Rong; Mou, Renxiang; Chen, Mingxue; Cao, Zhaoyun

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive and robust high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of glutathione and phytochelatins from rice was developed. Homogenized samples were extracted with water containing 100 mM dithiothreitol, and solid-phase extraction using polymer anion exchange resin was employed for sample purification. Chromatography was performed on a polymeric column with acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 300 μL/min. The limit of quantitation was 6-100 nM. This assay showed excellent linearity for both glutathione and phytochelatins over physiological normal ranges, with correlation coefficients (r) > 0.9976. Recoveries for four biothiols were within the range of 76-118%, within relative standard deviations less than 15%. The intraday precision (n = 7) was 2.1-13.3%, and the interday precision over 15 days was 4.3-15.2%. The optimized method was applied to analyze tissue samples from rice grown using nutrient solutions with three different cadmium concentrations (0, 50, and 100 μM). With increasing cadmium concentrations, the content of phytochelatin 2 and phytochelatin 3 in rice roots increased, in contrast to most phytochelatins, and the content of glutathione in rice stems and roots decreased significantly. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Considerations for the use of ultra-high pressures in liquid chromatography for 2.1mm inner diameter columns.

    PubMed

    Broeckhoven, K; Desmet, G

    2017-07-12

    The current contribution investigates the effects of viscous heat dissipation in chromatographic columns (with an emphasis on so-called narrow bore columns with an inner diameter of 2.1mm) using numerical simulations of the temperature and velocity profiles and the resulting band broadening, for the first time at operating pressures up to 2000bar. When operating columns under well-thermostatted conditions to maintain a constant temperature of the mobile phase, a dramatic increase in plate heights can be observed that voids any advantage one could expect from the possibility to use smaller particles offered by the increased pressure limit. It is also clearly demonstrated that, even when the column is not temperature controlled, the backflow of heat along the wall can causes a significant loss in performance under standard operating conditions in a still air oven. It is found that for operating pressure above 1250bar, a significant (relative to the typical column performance) contribution to the observed plate height will be caused by viscous heating effects, which increases with increasing temperature dependency of the retention factor. In addition, unprecedented experimental measurements of the temperature effects at an operating pressure up to 2600bar were performed on a 10cm long, 2.1mm ID column showing a dramatic temperature increase up to 60°C relative to the inlet temperature when using methanol as a mobile phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass transfer mechanism in liquid chromatography columns packed with shell particles: would there be an optimum shell structure?

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2010-12-24

    The mass transfer mechanisms in columns packed with old (55 μm Zipax and 5 μm Poroshell) and recently commercialized shell particles (2.7 μm Halo-C(18) and Kinetex-C(18)) were investigated from a physico-chemical point of view. Combining a model of diffusion in heterogeneous packed beds (effective medium theory) with values of the heights equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETPs derived from the first and second central moments of the elution profiles) and of the peak variances provided by the peak parking method, we demonstrate that columns packed with current shell particles perform better than those packed with fully porous particles in resolving low molecular weight compounds because the eddy diffusion term of the van Deemter equation of the former is markedly smaller. The calculation of eddy diffusion in column beds suggests that the smaller A terms are due to smaller trans-column velocity bias in columns packed with shell particles. We also show that the mass transfer of large molecules (e.g., proteins) is faster when the internal volume accessible to the analyte increases. Therefore, it is suggested that shell particles made of concentric layers with average pore sizes increasing with increasing diameter would provide columns with higher efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of 3 m open tubular capillary columns with a zwitterionic polymeric porous layer for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Zhu, Manman; Zhang, Lingyi; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-10-01

    A 3 m zwitterionic polymeric porous layer open tubular column (3 m × 25 μm id × 375 μm od) with a polymeric porous layer thickness of 4 μm was fabricated by the copolymerization of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide and N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide). The effects of the diameter of the capillary, reaction temperature, and polymerization time on the preparation of the open tubular column were investigated. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the zwitterionic layer was observed to be rough and throughout the fused-silica capillary homogenously, which increased the phase ratio. The separation of neutral, basic, and acidic compounds demonstrates the strong hydrophilicity of the poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide coating. In addition, the poly[2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide porous layer open tubular column was applied for the analysis of flavonoids from the rootstalk of licorice, revealing the potential in separating complex samples. The relative standard deviation of retention time for run-to-run (n = 5), day-to-day (n = 3), and column-to-column (n = 3) of toluene, N,N-dimethylformamide, formamide, and thiourea were below 1.2%, exhibiting good repeatability.

  13. A workflow for column interchangeability in liquid chromatography using modeling software and quality-by-design principles.

    PubMed

    Kormány, Róbert; Tamás, Katalin; Guillarme, Davy; Fekete, Szabolcs

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop a generic workflow to evaluate the chromatographic resolution in a large design space and easily find some replacement column for the method. To attain this objective from a limited number of initial experiments, modern LC modeling software (Drylab) was employed to study the behaviour of the compounds and visually compare the parts of design spaces obtained with different columns, where a given criterion of critical resolution is fullfilled. A zone of robust space can then easily be found by overlapping design spaces. By using 50×2.1mm columns packed with sub-2μm fully porous particles (UHPLC), the resolution in the entire design space can be modeled on the basis of only 2-3h experimental work per column. To demonstrate the applicability of the developed procedure, amlodipine and its related pharmacopeia impurities were selected as a case study. It was demonstrated that two columns from different providers (Waters Acquity HSS C18, Thermo Hypersil Gold C18) can be interchanged, providing a sufficient resolution at the same working point and a high degree of robustness around this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cold column trapping-cloud point extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for preconcentration and determination of curcumin in human urine.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Marzieh; Hashemi, Payman; Nazari, Fariba

    2014-05-15

    A cold column trapping-cloud point extraction (CCT-CPE) method coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for preconcentration and determination of curcumin in human urine. A nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, was used as the extraction medium. In the proposed method, a low surfactant concentration of 0.4% v/v and a short heating time of only 2min at 70°C were sufficient for quantitative extraction of the analyte. For the separation of the extraction phase, the resulted cloudy solution was passed through a packed trapping column that was cooled to 0 °C. The temperature of the CCT column was then increased to 25°C and the surfactant rich phase was desorbed with 400μL ethanol to be directly injected into HPLC for the analysis. The effects of different variables such as pH, surfactant concentration, cloud point temperature and time were investigated and optimum conditions were established by a central composite design (response surface) method. A limit of detection of 0.066mgL(-1) curcumin and a linear range of 0.22-100mgL(-1) with a determination coefficient of 0.9998 were obtained for the method. The average recovery and relative standard deviation for six replicated analysis were 101.0% and 2.77%, respectively. The CCT-CPE technique was faster than a conventional CPE method requiring a lower concentration of the surfactant and lower temperatures with no need for the centrifugation. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of curcumin in human urine samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Determination of 11 sulfonamide residues in aquaculture water and sediments by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghua; Sun, Zhenzhong; Huang, Xueling; Guo, Xia; Sun, Jianhua

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of 11 sulfonamide compounds in aquaculture water and sediments by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with post-column derivatization. The filtered water sample was purified and concentrated with HLB cartridge, while the sediment sample was extracted with a mixture of methanol and EDTA-McIlvaine buffer (1:1, v/v), and then purified and enriched through HLB solid-phase extraction. The sulfonamides were separated on a C18 column by HPLC and on-line derivatized with a fluorescamine and detected with a fluorescence detector. The parameters of post-column derivatization system were optimized, and the fluorescamine solution concentration, velocity of reagent solution and reaction temperature were 0.2 g/L, 0.15 mL/min and 50 °C, respectively. The calibration curves of the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-1.0 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients (r2) all above 0.99995. The recoveries were 79.3%-100.7% and 74.6%-95.3% with RSD values of 2.2%-11.0% and 2.6%-10.3% for the 11 sulfonamides in aquaculture water and sediments, respectively. The respective limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) were 0.9-5.5 ng/L and 0.3-1.3 µg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) were 3.0-18.1 ng/L and 1.0-4.4 µg/kg. The method can be applied to the determination of sulfonamides in the aquaculture environment, and it has a good practicability.

  16. Coupled-column liquid chromatography combined with postcolumn photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection for the determination of herbicides in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Mughari, Ahmed R; Galera, María Martínez; Vázquez, Piedad Parrilla; Valverde, Rosario Santiago

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the application of coupled-column LC-photochemically induced fluorimetry-fluorescence detection (LC-LC-PIF-FD), demonstrating its potential for the quantitative and selective detection of six herbicides, including propanil and the phenylureas monuron, monolinuron, chlorotoluron, diuron and neburon in groundwater samples. An AQUASIL C18 50 x 4.6 mm(2) id column coupled to an AQUASIL C18 150 x 4.6 mm(2) id column for analyte clean-up and determination were used, respectively. A simple SPE with Cl8 cartridges was carried out, yielding average recoveries between 80 and 112% (n = 6) with RSDs between 0.5 and 9%. The LODs ranged from 0.0083 to 0.0833 microg/L in the groundwater samples.

  17. Impact of the column hardware volume on resolution in very high pressure liquid chromatography non-invasive investigations.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin

    2015-11-13

    The impact of the column hardware volume (≃ 1.7 μL) on the optimum reduced plate heights of a series of short 2.1 mm × 50 mm columns (hold-up volume ≃ 80-90 μL) packed with 1.8 μm HSS-T3, 1.7 μm BEH-C18, 1.7 μm CSH-C18, 1.6 μm CORTECS-C18+, and 1.7 μm BEH-C4 particles was investigated. A rapid and non-invasive method based on the reduction of the system dispersion (to only 0.15 μL(2)) of an I-class Acquity system and on the corrected plate heights (for system dispersion) of five weakly retained n-alkanophenones in RPLC was proposed. Evidence for sample dispersion through the column hardware volume was also revealed from the experimental plot of the peak capacities for smooth linear gradients versus the corrected efficiency of a weakly retained alkanophenone (isocratic runs). The plot is built for a constant gradient steepness irrespective of the applied flow rates (0.01-0.30 mL/min) and column lengths (2, 3, 5, and 10 cm). The volume variance caused by column endfittings and frits was estimated in between 0.1 and 0.7 μL(2) depending on the applied flow rate. After correction for system and hardware dispersion, the minimum reduced plate heights of short (5 cm) and narrow-bore (2.1mm i.d.) beds packed with sub-2 μm fully and superficially porous particles were found close to 1.5 and 0.7, respectively, instead of the classical h values of 2.0 and 1.4 for the whole column assembly.

  18. Determination of Myo-Inositol in Infant, Pediatric, and Adult Formulas by Liquid Chromatography-Pulsed Amperometric Detection with Column Switching: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.18.

    PubMed

    Butler-Thompson, Linda D; Jacobs, Wesley A; Schimpf, Karen J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.18, Myo-Inositol (Free and Bound as Phosphatidylinositol) in Infant and Pediatric Formulas and Adult Nutritionals, was collaboratively studied. With this method free myo-inositol and phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol are extracted using two different sample preparation procedures, separated by ion chromatography using a combination of Dionex Carbo Pac PA1 and MA1 columns with column switching, and detected with pulsed amperometry using a gold electrode. Free myo-inositol is extracted from samples with dilute hydrochloric acid and water. Phosphatidylinositol is extracted from samples with chloroform and separated from other fats with silica SPE cartridges. Myo-inositol is then released from the glycerol backbone with concentrated acetic and hydrochloric acids at 120°C. During this collaborative study, nine laboratories from five different countries analyzed blind duplicates of nine infant and pediatric nutritional formulas for both free and phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol, and one additional laboratory only completed the free myo-inositol analyses. The method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for free myo-inositol plus phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol for all the matrixes analyzed. SMPRs for repeatability were ≤5% RSD at myo-inositol concentrations of 2-68 mg/100 g ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. SMPRs for reproducibility were ≤8% RSD in products with myo-inositol concentrations ranging from 2 to 68 mg/100 g RTF liquid. During this collaborative study, repeatability RSDs ranged from 0.51 to 3.22%, and RSDs ranged from 2.66 to 7.55% for free myo-inositol plus phosphatidylinositol bound myo-inositol.

  19. Enhancing detection sensitivity in gradient liquid chromatography via post-column refocusing and strong-solvent remobilization.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Jelle; Desmet, Gert; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2016-07-15

    We developed earlier the post-column refocusing strategy for isocratic separations, which employs trapping target analytes after an analytical separation and additionally focusing them using a strong remobilization solvent prior to detection, and have now extended it to high-speed gradient LC. A gradient separation of antibiotics and its metabolites, applying a linear aqueous acetonitrile gradient from 2 to 65% (v/v) ACN containing 0.1% FA in 10min, performed on an analytical column was selected as an application. Eluted heart-cut fractions were directed from the analytical silica C18 column to a trap column packed with Hypercarb particles. The remobilization of the target analytes was performed in back-flush mode using solvent mixtures tuned to maximize the solvent strength by mixing isopropanol into the remobilization solvent containing acetonitrile. Additionally, a viscosity-calibration experiment showed that the viscosity difference between trapping and remobilization solvents should be smaller than 0.15mPa·s to prevent viscous fingering. To keep the viscosity difference below this limit, during the gradient separation performed on the analytical column, the composition of the remobilization solvent was changed in time. An empirical equation is provided that allows for the selection of the optimal remobilization-solvent composition. To maximize the signal enhancement, the loading time of target analytes on the trap column should be optimized. Peak dispersion was further minimized by applying a flow rate that corresponded to the optimal van-Deemter flow rate of the trap column (20μL/min). Finally, decreasing the diameter of the trap column from 1mm to 0.3mm led to a significant enhancement of the detection sensitivity with more than one order of magnitude. Using an optimized trap configuration and elution/remobilization conditions, a signal enhancement of a factor of 14 was achieved for sulfaguanidine (early-eluting compound in the gradient separation) and 7

  20. Simultaneous identification and quantification of tetrodotoxin in fresh pufferfish and pufferfish-based products using immunoaffinity columns and liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mengmeng; Wu, Haiyan; Jiang, Tao; Tan, Zhijun; Zhao, Chunxia; Zheng, Guanchao; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we established a comprehensive method for simultaneous identification and quantification of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in fresh pufferfish tissues and pufferfish-based products using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS). TTX was extracted by 1% acetic acid-methanol, and most of the lipids were then removed by freezing lipid precipitation, followed by purification and concentration using immunoaffinity columns (IACs). Matrix effects were substantially reduced due to the high specificity of the IACs, and thus, background interference was avoided. Quantitation analysis was therefore performed using an external calibration curve with standards prepared in mobile phase. The method was evaluated by fortifying samples at 1, 10, and 100 ng/g, respectively, and the recoveries ranged from 75.8%-107%, with a relative standard deviation of less than 15%. The TTX calibration curves were linear over the range of 1-1 000 μg/L, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/g and a quantification limit of 1 ng/g. Using this method, samples can be further analyzed using an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment, in the positive mode, from a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry injection, which can provide an extra level of confirmation by matching the full product ion spectra acquired for a standard sample with those from an enhanced product ion (EPI) library. The scheduled multiple reaction monitoring method enabled TTX to be screened for, and TTX was positively identified using the IDA and EPI spectra. This method was successfully applied to analyze a total of 206 samples of fresh pufferfish tissues and pufferfish-based products. The results from this study show that the proposed method can be used to quantify and identify TTX in a single run with excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, and is suitable for the analysis of complex matrix pufferfish samples.

  1. Simultaneous identification and quantification of tetrodotoxin in fresh pufferfish and pufferfish-based products using immunoaffinity columns and liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mengmeng; Wu, Haiyan; Jiang, Tao; Tan, Zhijun; Zhao, Chunxia; Zheng, Guanchao; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we established a comprehensive method for simultaneous identification and quantification of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in fresh pufferfish tissues and pufferfish-based products using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS). TTX was extracted by 1% acetic acid-methanol, and most of the lipids were then removed by freezing lipid precipitation, followed by purification and concentration using immunoaffinity columns (IACs). Matrix effects were substantially reduced due to the high specificity of the IACs, and thus, background interference was avoided. Quantitation analysis was therefore performed using an external calibration curve with standards prepared in mobile phase. The method was evaluated by fortifying samples at 1, 10, and 100 ng/g, respectively, and the recoveries ranged from 75.8%-107%, with a relative standard deviation of less than 15%. The TTX calibration curves were linear over the range of 1-1 000 μg/L, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/g and a quantification limit of 1 ng/g. Using this method, samples can be further analyzed using an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment, in the positive mode, from a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry injection, which can provide an extra level of confirmation by matching the full product ion spectra acquired for a standard sample with those from an enhanced product ion (EPI) library. The scheduled multiple reaction monitoring method enabled TTX to be screened for, and TTX was positively identified using the IDA and EPI spectra. This method was successfully applied to analyze a total of 206 samples of fresh pufferfish tissues and pufferfish-based products. The results from this study show that the proposed method can be used to quantify and identify TTX in a single run with excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, and is suitable for the analysis of complex matrix pufferfish samples.

  2. Integration of uniform porous shell layers in very long pillar array columns using electrochemical anodization for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Manly; Op De Beeck, Jeff; Maeno, Katsuyuki; Sukas, Sertan; Thienpont, Hugo; Ottevaere, Heidi; Gardeniers, Han; Desmet, Gert; De Malsche, Wim

    2014-02-07

    Electrochemical anodization has been applied to grow porous shell layers of 300 nm (30 nm pores) in 5 μm diameter pillar array columns (PACs) with a spacing of 2.5 μm. Using turn structures preceded and followed by the flow distributor structures recently introduced by our group and filled with radially elongated pillars, columns with quasi unlimited channel lengths could be conceived. The uniformity of the porous PAC was assessed by determining local plate heights along the channel, which appeared to be constant. Minimal (absolute) plate heights (H) between 4 and 6 μm were obtained at optimal flow rates when imposing increasing retention factors. Upon measuring the surface area involved in chromatographic retention as an indicator of the available surface area, an increase in the surface area by a factor of about 30 compared to that of non-anodized pillars was found. On reconfiguring a commercial HPLC instrument to enable on-chip injections, 90% of the performance (expressed in theoretical plates) could be maintained for a 1 m column, while for a 25 cm column severe losses were still observed. As the corresponding pressure drop for optimal operation of retained components is on the order of 10 bar per m only, portable and cheaper HPLC devices with high efficiencies become realistically conceivable.

  3. Determination of neotame in beverages, cakes and preserved fruits by column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dajing; Chen, Bo

    2010-09-01

    A column-switching HPLC method for the determination of neotame in beverages, cakes and preserved fruits was developed. After pre-treatment using a Waters Oasis HLB cartridge, the sample solution was separated on two C(18) columns using a column-switching technique with a six-port valve. UV detection was performed at 210 nm. The effects of eluent composition and eluate volume on the retention and elution of neotame on SPE cartridge were investigated. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and has good reproducibility. RSD was lower than 5% (n = 5). The calibration curve of neotame was in the range 5-100 microg/ml with good linearity (r(2) = 0.999). Because neotame was concentrated 10 times from an original sample to a sample solution by solid-phase extraction (SPE), the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.5 mg/kg. The recovery yields of neotame spiked in foods was >92% with a coefficient of variation <3.2%. The proposed column-switching HPLC method can be successfully used to determine neotame in routine inspection work.

  4. Exploring better column selectivity choices in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography using quality by design principles.

    PubMed

    Kormány, Róbert; Molnár, Imre; Rieger, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    An older method for amlodipine was reworked with the goal to reduce the analysis time of 60min below 6min. To select the best column for short and robust analysis, 9 different UHPLC column chemistries were investigated using 3-dimensional resolution spaces based on 12 experiments using modelling software. The main variables used were gradient time (tG), temperature (T) and the pH of eluent A. The best critical resolution was calculated and located in a 3-dimensional space in an automated fashion and the corresponding best experiments were carried out. The work (9×12=108 runs) was finished with an UHPLC instrument in less than 24h. The comparison between predictions and real experiments showed an excellent correlation with differences typically less than 0.04min (<3s) in average, although the set points were located at quite different conditions on gradient times, pH's and temperatures for the individual columns. All columns could perform the required baseline separation at their individual best working points with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid and sensitive determination of amprolium in chicken plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column reaction.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, K; Koike, R; Shirakura, A; Sasaki, N; Machida, Y

    1997-06-06

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible reversed-phase HPLC assay was developed for the determination of amprolium (APL) in chicken plasma. Protein in plasma sample was precipitated with 0.33 M perchloric acid and supernatant solution was injected into the HPLC system. Following the chromatographic separation of APL and the beclotiamine (I.S.) on a C18 column, the derivatives of APL and I.S. were formed by post-column reaction and detected by fluorescence detection (excitation at 400 nm, emission at 460 nm). The method showed excellent precision, accuracy and speed with a detection limit of 2 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-assay variance of this method were less than 11.2%. This method has been successfully applied to plasma determinations after oral administration of APL to chicken.

  6. System maps for retention of small neutral compounds on a superficially porous particle column in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Atapattu, Sanka N; Poole, Colin F; Praseuth, Mike B

    2016-10-14

    The system constants of the solvation parameter model are used to prepare system maps for the retention of small neutral molecules on the ocadecylsiloxane-bonded silica superficially porous particle stationary phase (Kinetex C18) for aqueous-organic solvent mobile phases containing 10-70% (v/v) methanol or acetonitrile. A comparison of the system constants with eight commercially available octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica columns for the same separation conditions confirms that the general retention properties of Kinetex C-18 are similar to totally porous octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica stationary phases and that method transfer should be no more difficult than that usually observed when substituting one octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica column for another.

  7. Stage-frit: A straightforward sub-2 μm nano-liquid chromatography column fabrication for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Yueh; Hsiao, He-Hsuan

    2015-07-30

    In this work we demonstrated a facile method for the fabrication of C18 coordination polymer gel in a capillary, called stage-frit, which was efficiently applied to pack sub-2 μm C18 beads into the capillary by a high pressure bomb for the online separation of proteolytic peptides. The back pressure of the column with 10 cm × 75 μm i.d. is regularly lower than 170 bar at a flow rate of 300 nl/min, which could be operated on a common nanoLC system instead of nanoUPLC system due to the good permeability, low back pressure and high mechanical stress of the frit that will totally reduce the cost for the purchase of instrument. The stage-frit allows long-term continuous flow of the solvent and no significant beads loss or pressure instability was observed during the period. The repeatability of retention time for fifteen BSA tryptic peaks was found to be less than 1.08% (RSD) in six time nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS experiments. The average full width at half maximum (FWHM) of peptide peaks is 5.87 s. The sub-2 μm stage-frit nanoLC column showed better sensitivity than the commercial available for large scale proteomic analysis of total tissue proteins from human spleen. The number of identified peptides is approximately 0.4-fold and 0.2-fold higher than that obtained by utilizing commercial columns packed with 3 μm and 1.8 μm C18 materials, respectively. In the field of analytical chemistry, particularly the use of nanoLC systems, stage-frit nanoLC column offers a great potential for the separation of complex mixtures.

  8. Fast speciation of mercury in seawater by short-column high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma spectrometry after on-line cation exchange column preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Yu; Gong, Di-Rong; Han, Yi; Wei, Chao; Duan, Tai-Cheng; Chen, Hang-Ting

    2012-01-15

    A simple and fast method for trace speciation analysis of mercury (Hg(2+)), methylmercury (MeHg(+)) and ethylmercury (EtHg(+)) in seawater has been developed by short-column high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) after on-line cation-exchange column (CEC) preconcentration. The analytes were firstly adsorbed on the CEC without any extraneous reagent, and then were eluted rapidly (within seconds) and completely with a very low concentration of l-cysteine solution, which provides the conveniency for the on-line coupling of the preconcentration method and detection technique. To our best knowledge, it is for the first time to employ the CEC preconcentration technique to trap all of the three mercury species simultaneously at their positive charged status for the purpose of speciation analysis. Under the optimized conditions, a very high preconcentration factor up to 1250 has been obtained with 30mL sample solution, which leads to the very low detection limits of 0.042ngL(-1) for Hg(2+), 0.016ngL(-1) for MeHg(+) and 0.008ngL(-1) for EtHg(+) (as Hg), respectively. With the established method, three seawater samples were also analyzed, and all the three mercury species have been found in each sample, albeit at a very low concentration. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Liquid chromatography post-column oxidation (PCOX) method for the determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    van de Riet, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Ryan S; Muggah, Patricia M; Rourke, Wade A; MacNeil, James D; Quilliam, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen laboratories participated in a collaborative study to evaluate method performance parameters of a liquid chromatographic method of analysis for paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), soft shell clams (Mya arenaria), sea scallops (Placopectin magellanicus), and American oysters (Crassostrea virginicus). The specific analogs tested included saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, gonyautoxins-1 to -5, decarbamoyl-gonyautoxins-2 and -3, decarbamoyl-saxitoxin, and N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2 and -3. This instrumental technique has been developed as a replacement for the current AOAC biological method (AOAC Official Method 959.08) and an alternative to the pre-column oxidation LC method (AOAC Official Method 2005.06). The method is based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection (excitation 330 nm and emission 390 nm). The shellfish samples used in the study were prepared from the edible tissues of clams, mussels, oysters, and scallops to contain concentrations of PST representative of low, medium, and high toxicities and with varying profiles of individual toxins. These concentrations are approximately equivalent to 1/2 maximum level (ML), ML, or 2xML established by regulatory authorities (0.40, 0.80, and 1.60 mg STX diHCl eq/kg, respectively). Recovery for the individual toxins ranged from 104 to 127%, and recovery of total toxin averaged 116%. Horwitz Ratio (HorRat) values for individual toxins in the materials included in the study were generally within the desired range of 0.3 to 2.0. For the estimation of total toxicity in the test materials, the reproducibility relative standard deviation ranged from 4.6 to 20%. A bridging study comparing the results from the study participants using the post-column oxidation (PCOX) method with the results obtained in the study director's laboratory on the same test materials using the accepted reference method, the mouse bioassay (MBA; AOAC Official

  10. An ultra-sensitive method for the analysis of perfluorinated alkyl acids in drinking water using a column switching high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dasu, Kavitha; Nakayama, Shoji F; Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Mills, Marc A; Wright, J Michael; Ehrlich, Shelley

    2017-04-21

    In epidemiological research, it has become increasingly important to assess subjects' exposure to different classes of chemicals in multiple environmental media. It is a common practice to aliquot limited volumes of samples into smaller quantities for specific trace level chemical analyses. A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in small volumes (10mL) of drinking water using off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-treatment followed by on-line pre-concentration on a WAX column before analysis on column-switching high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In general, large volumes (100-1000mL) have been used for the analysis of PFAAs in drinking water. The current method requires approximately 10mL of drinking water concentrated by using an SPE cartridge and eluted with methanol. A large volume injection of the extract was introduced on to a column-switching HPLC-MS/MS using a mix-mode SPE column for the trace level analysis of PFAAs in water. The recoveries for most of the analytes in the fortified laboratory blanks ranged from 73±14% to 128±5%. The lowest concentration minimum reporting levels (LCMRL) for the 14 PFAAs ranged from 0.59 to 3.4ng/L. The optimized method was applied to a pilot-scale analysis of a subset of drinking water samples from an epidemiological study. These samples were collected directly from the taps in the households of Ohio and Northern Kentucky, United States and the sources of drinking water samples are both surface water and ground water, and supplied by different water distribution facilities. Only five PFAAs, perfluoro-1-butanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro-1- -hexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoro-n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluoro-n-octanoic acid (PFOA) are detected above the LCMRL values. The median concentrations of these five PFAAs detected in the samples was ≤4.1ng/L with PFOS at 7.6ng

  11. Simultaneous determination of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyadenosine in DNA using online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Teichert, Friederike; Verschoyle, Richard D; Kaur, Balvinder; Vives, Montserrat; Sharma, Ricky A; Steward, William P; Gescher, Andreas J; Farmer, Peter B

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive and reliable methods are required for the assessment of oxidative DNA damage, which can result from reactive oxygen species that are generated endogenously from cellular metabolism and inflammatory responses, or by exposure to exogenous agents. The development of a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method is described, that utilises online column-switching valve technology for the simultaneous determination of two DNA adduct biomarkers of oxidative stress, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine (8-oxodA). To allow for the accurate quantitation of both adducts the corresponding [(15)N(5)]-labelled stable isotope internal standards were synthesised and added prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA samples to 2'-deoxynucleosides. The method required between 10 and 40 microg of hydrolysed DNA on-column for the analysis and the limit of detection for both 8-oxodG and 8-oxodA was 5 fmol. The analysis of calf thymus DNA treated in vitro with methylene blue (ranging from 5 to 200 microM) plus light showed a dose-dependent increase in the levels of both 8-oxodG and 8-oxodA. The level of 8-oxodG was on average 29.4-fold higher than that of 8-oxodA and an excellent linear correlation (r = 0.999) was observed between the two adducts. The influence of different DNA extraction procedures for 8-oxodG and 8-oxodA levels was assessed in DNA extracted from rat livers following dosing with carbon tetrachloride. The levels of 8-oxodG and 8-oxodA were on average 2.9 (p = 0.018) and 1.4 (p = 0.018) times higher, respectively, in DNA samples extracted using an anion-exchange column procedure than in samples extracted using a chaotropic procedure, implying artefactual generation of the two adducts. In conclusion, the online column-switching LC/MS/MS SRM method provides the advantages of increased sample throughput with reduced matrix effects and concomitant ionisation

  12. High-resolution ultrahigh-pressure long column reversed-phase liquid chromatography for top-down proteomics

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolić, Nikola; Piehowski, Paul D.; ...

    2017-01-05

    Separation of proteoforms for global intact protein analysis (i.e. top-down proteomics) has lagged well behind what is achievable for peptides in traditional bottom-up proteomic approach and is becoming a true bottle neck for top-down proteomics. We report use of long (≥1 M) columns containing short alkyl (C1-C4) bonded phases to achieve high-resolution RPLC for separation of proteoforms. At a specific operation pressure limit (i.e., 96.5 MPa or 14 K psi used in this work), column length was found to be the most important factor for achieving maximal resolution separation of proteins when 1.5–5 μm particles were used as packings andmore » long columns provided peak capacities greater than 400 for proteoforms derived from a global cell lysate with molecular weights below 50 kDa. Furthermore, we chromatographed larger proteoforms (50–110 kDa) on long RPLC columns and detected by MS; however, they cannot be identified yet by tandem mass spectrometry. Our experimental data further demonstrated that long alkyl (e.g., C8 and C18) bonded particles provided high-resolution RPLC for <10 kDa proteoforms, not efficient for separation of global proteoforms. Reversed-phase particles with porous, nonporous, and superficially porous surfaces were systematically investigated for high-resolution RPLC. Pore size (200–400 Å) and the surface structure (porous and superficially porous) of particles was found to have minor influences on high-resolution RPLC of proteoforms. RPLC presented herein enabled confident identification of ~900 proteoforms (1% FDR) for a low-microgram quantity of proteomic samples using a single RPLC–MS/MS analysis. The level of RPLC performance attained in this work is close to that typically realized in bottom-up proteomics, and broadly useful when applying e.g., the single-stage MS accurate mass tag approach, but less effective when combined with current tandem MS. Finally, our initial data indicate that MS detection and fragmentation

  13. Determination of organic peroxides by liquid chromatography with on-line post-column ultraviolet irradiation and peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mitsuhiro; Inoue, Keiyu; Thara, Ayuko; Kishikawa, Naoya; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2003-02-14

    A HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide with peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) detection following on-line UV irradiation. Organic peroxides [i.e., benzoyl peroxide (BP), tert.-butyl hydroperoxide (BHP), tert.-butyl perbenzoate (BPB), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP)] were UV irradiated (254 nm, 15 W) to generate hydrogen peroxide, which was determined by PO-CL detection. The conditions for UV irradiation and PO-CL detection were optimized by a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Generation of hydrogen peroxide from peroxides with on-line UV irradiation also was confirmed by the FIA system by incorporating an enzyme column reactor immobilized with catalase. The separation of four organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide by HPLC was accomplished isocratically on an ODS column within 30 min. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) were 1.1 microM for hydrogen peroxide, 6.8 microM for BP, 31.3 microM for BHP, 7.5 microM for BPB and 1.3 microM for CHP. The proposed method was applied to the determination of BP in wheat flour.

  14. Measuring Ochratoxin A Concentrations in Coffee Beverages with Immunoaffinity Columns and Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ling; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and validated a method for measuring concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee beverages, not coffee beans. The new method involved extraction using immunoaffinity columns and ultra-performance LC (UPLC)-MS/MS using isotope-dilution techniques. The combination of a fused-core column and UPLC significantly shortened chromatographic time to 3 min compared to reported UPLC methods. The method was sensitive, with an LOD and LOQ of 0.52 and 1.73 pg/mL, respectively. Quantitative intraday (n = 4) and interday (n = 4) biases and RSD were both below 15%. The OTA levels in 40 samples of freshly brewed coffee from chain stores, 24 samples of canned ready-to-drink coffee, and 6 beverages made from instant coffee granules ranged from 1.60 to 93.2 pg/mL (90% positive), 6.00 to 131 pg/mL (100% positive), and 21.8 to 59.0 pg/mL (100% positive), respectively. Based on published tolerable daily intake, men and women in Taiwan should consume no more than 6.3 and 5.1 fifteen gram packages of instant coffee per day, respectively. Specific suggestions were not made for brewed coffee and canned coffee because of their large variation in OTA concentrations. This study should be more relevant to actual human exposure than those studying OTA in green, roasted, and ground coffee beans alone.

  15. Fast analysis of isoflavones by high-performance liquid chromatography using a column packed with fused-core particles.

    PubMed

    Manchón, N; D'Arrigo, M; García-Lafuente, A; Guillamón, E; Villares, A; Ramos, A; Martínez, J A; Rostagno, M A

    2010-10-15

    The recent development of fused-core technology in HPLC columns is enabling faster and highly efficient separations. This technology was evaluated for the development of an fast analysis method for the most relevant soy isoflavones. A step-by-step strategy was used to optimize temperature (25-50°C), flow rate (1.2-2.7 mL/min), mobile phase composition and equilibration time (1-5 min). Optimized conditions provided a method for the separation of all isoflavones in less than 5.8 min and total analysis time (sample-to-sample) of 11.5 min. Evaluation of chromatographic performance revealed excellent reproducibility, resolution, selectivity, peak symmetry and low limits of detection and quantification levels. The use of a fused-core column allows highly efficient, sensitive, accurate and reproducible determination of isoflavones with an outstanding sample throughout and resolution. The developed method was validated with different soy samples with a total isoflavone concentration ranging from 1941.53 to 2460.84 μg g(-1) with the predominant isoflavones being isoflavone glucosides and malonyl derivatives. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C18 cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C18 column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7–7.4% and 1.5–8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals. PMID:22312251

  17. [Simultaneous determination of erdosteine and its active metabolite in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with pre-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ma, Zhi-Yu; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2013-03-01

    A sensitive, rapid and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method with pre-column derivatization was developed for the simultaneous determination of erdosteine and its thiol-containing active metabolite in human plasma. Paracetamol and captopril were chosen as the internal standard of erdosteine and its active metabolite, respectively. Aliquots of 100 microL plasma sample were derivatized by 2-bromine-3'-methoxy acetophenone, then separated on an Agilent XDB-C18 (50 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 1.8 microm) column using 0.1% formic acid methanol--0.1% formic acid 5 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate as mobile phase, in a gradient mode. Detection of erdosteine and its active metabolite were achieved by ESI MS/MS in the positive ion mode. The linear calibration curves for erdosteine and its active metabolite were obtained in the concentration ranges of 5-3 000 ng x mL(-1) and 5-10 000 ng x mL(-1), respectively. The lower limit of quantification of erdosteine and its active metabolite were both 5.00 ng x mL(-1). The pharmacokinetic results of erdosteine and its thiol-containing active metabolite showed that the area under curve (AUC) of the thiol-containing active metabolite was 6.2 times of that of erdosteine after a single oral dose of 600 mg erdosteine tables in 32 healthy volunteers, The mean residence time (MRT) of the thiol-containing active metabolite was (7.51 +/- 0.788) h, which provided a pharmacokinetic basis for the rational dosage regimen.

  18. Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a post-column derivatization technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C(18) cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C(18) column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0-6.8% and 2.0-7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7-7.4% and 1.5-8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals.

  19. [Determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn by high performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hongyan; Yang, Lili; Ma, Liyan

    2012-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection with post-column derivatization method was developed to detect fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in corn. Several factors, such as the pH of derivatization buffer, concentration and flow rate of derivatization reagents, excitation wavelength, emission wavelength, which affected the detection of fumonisins were optimized. The separation was performed on a ZORBAX SB C18 column operated at 40 degrees C with the gradient elution by two mobile phases of 0.1 mol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution (pH 3.3) and methanol at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The derivatization was performed at ambient temperature. The o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The results showed that the optimum conditions were pH 10.5 of the derivatization reagent, OPA concentration at 2 g/L, and excitation wavelength of 335 nm, emission wavelength of 440 nm. The linear plots of FB1 and FB2 were obtained between 0.2 to 20 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients above 0.999 for both FB1 and FB2. The limits of detection of fumonisins B1 and B2 were 0.02 mg/kg. The mean recoveries at the three spiked levels of 0.1 - 4.0 mg/kg were 82.5% - 89.8%. This method is accurate, simple, rapid and suitable for the determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn.

  20. Development of an automated on-line pre-column derivatization procedure for sensitive determination of histamine in food with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jin-Feng; Fang, Ke-Teng; Xie, Dong-Hua; Ding, Bin; Yin, Ju-Yi; Cui, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2008-10-31

    An improved sensitive method was developed and validated for the determination of histamine in food samples by using automated on-line pre-column derivatization coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). o-Phthaldialdehyde (OPA) was adopted as derivatization reagent, and a "sandwich" (OPA+histamine+OPA) aspiration mode for the automated on-line pre-column derivatization was found to efficiently enhance the method sensitivity and precision. Histamine in food samples was efficiently extracted with a methanol-phosphate buffer solution (50:50, v/v) at 60 degrees C for 30 min, and purified with Waters Oasis MCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The limit of quantification for this method is 0.2 mg/kg, which is very sensitive for histamine determination. With the "sandwich" injection program, 3.7% of relative standard deviation (RSD) was achieved by five replicative determinations of a sample blank spiked with 0.25 mg/kg histamine standard. Histamine in food samples such as fumitory skipjack and mackerel was analyzed with relative recoveries over 95% at spiking level of 150 mg/kg, as well as canned tuna fish and cheese with relative recoveries up to 98% at spiking levels of 0.50 and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively. The proposed method was validated with a sample from the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) as a standard certified material; and the results (140+/-6 mg/kg) agreed well with the assigned value (139 mg/kg).

  1. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Pre-column Derivatization for Determination of Oxidized Glutathione Level in Rats Exposed to Paraquat.

    PubMed

    Hami, Zahra; Amini, Mohsen; Kiani, Amir; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important antioxidants that plays an essential role in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which oxidizes to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Paraquat (PQ), awidely used herbicide, causes pulmonary injury with the productionof ROS. Excessive ROS accumulation as a consequence of PQ exposure are frequently targeted by GSH thereby oxidative stress leads to depletion of cellular GSH by transforming of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). A precise method of measuring of GSSG concentration in plasma as indicator of oxidative stress is needed. Some analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis have been used for determination of GSSG concentration. In the present study, a new HPLC method with fluorescence detection based on derivatization of the amine group of glutathione with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) was developed. Male Wistar albino rats exposed to different doses of PQ (20-60 mg/kg) and control group were used and after protein precipitation, their plasma was subjected to derivatization with FMOC in the presence of borate buffer. The derivatized samples were injected to HPLC system with C18 column, mobile phase consisting of methanol and phosphate buffer, λem= 315 nm, λex= 260 nm. Among all experimental groups, the rats which received 60 mg/kg PQ, showed a significant increase in the amount of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared to the control group. In this study, the applied derivatization and HPLC method made it possible to measure small amounts of glutathione in plasma using a precise and sensitive technique.

  2. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Pre-column Derivatization for Determination of Oxidized Glutathione Level in Rats Exposed to Paraquat

    PubMed Central

    Hami, Zahra; Amini, Mohsen; Kiani, Amir; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important antioxidants that plays an essential role in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which oxidizes to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Paraquat (PQ), awidely used herbicide, causes pulmonary injury with the productionof ROS. Excessive ROS accumulation as a consequence of PQ exposure are frequently targeted by GSH thereby oxidative stress leads to depletion of cellular GSH by transforming of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). A precise method of measuring of GSSG concentration in plasma as indicator of oxidative stress is needed. Some analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis have been used for determination of GSSG concentration. In the present study, a new HPLC method with fluorescence detection based on derivatization of the amine group of glutathione with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) was developed. Male Wistar albino rats exposed to different doses of PQ (20-60 mg/kg) and control group were used and after protein precipitation, their plasma was subjected to derivatization with FMOC in the presence of borate buffer. The derivatized samples were injected to HPLC system with C18 column, mobile phase consisting of methanol and phosphate buffer, λem= 315 nm, λex= 260 nm. Among all experimental groups, the rats which received 60 mg/kg PQ, showed a significant increase in the amount of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared to the control group. In this study, the applied derivatization and HPLC method made it possible to measure small amounts of glutathione in plasma using a precise and sensitive technique. PMID:24523771

  3. C18 silica packed capillary columns with monolithic frits prepared with UV light emitting diode: usefulness in nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Giovanni; Fanali, Salvatore

    2012-04-06

    In this paper the potential of fused silica capillaries packed with RP18 silica particles entrapped with monolithic frits using both nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was investigated. Frits were prepared after removing a short part of the polyimide layer on the capillary wall and irradiating the polymerization mixture with an UV-light emitter diode (LED) at 370 nm. The capillary, was rotated during the polymerization procedure in order to obtain a homogeneous monolith. The distance of the LED from the capillary and the exposure time to UV light were studied in order to obtain frits with good porosity and high robustness. A mixture containing five alkylbenzenes was selected as sample and analyzed by both nano-LC and CEC. The standard mixture was baseline separated with good efficiency in the range 78,000-93,000 and 99,000-113,000 plates/m in nano-LC and CEC, respectively. The columns resulted to be very robust and the prepared monolithic frits allowed working with backpressure as high as 400 bar (nano-LC). In addition high voltages were applied in CEC (25-30 kV) without bubbles formation in absence of pressure assistance during runs.

  4. Application of solid-phase microextraction for determination of pyrethroids in groundwater using liquid chromatography with post-column photochemically induced fluorimetry derivatization and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, P Parrilla; Mughari, Ahmed R; Galera, M Martínez

    2008-04-25

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a rapid and simple analytical technique which uses coated fused-silica fibers to extract analytes from aqueous samples. This study develops a method of SPME analysis for seven pyrethroids, including fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, permethrin, tau-fluvalinate and bifenthrin in groundwater samples using high performance liquid chromatography combined with post-column photochemically induced fluorimetry derivatization and fluorescence detection (SPME-LC-PIF-FD). To perform the SPME, a 60 microm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used for the extraction of the pesticides from groundwater samples. The main factors affecting the SPME process, such as extraction time, stirring rate, extraction temperature, pH and the desorption process were studied. The use of photochemically induced fluorescence for detection improved sensitivity and selectivity. The limits of quantification (LOQs) obtained in the matrix, with respect to EURACHEM Guidance, varied between 0.03 and 0.075 microgL(-1). Relative recoveries ranged from 92 to 109% and relative standard deviations values ranged from 2 to 9%.

  5. Ultra-trace-level determination of polar pesticides and their transformation products in surface and estuarine water samples using column liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steen, R J; Hogenboom, A C; Leonards, P E; Peerboom, R A; Cofino, W P; Brinkman, U A

    1999-10-01

    A method is developed for the determination of polar pesticides and their transformation products [atrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, hydroxyatrazine, diuron, 3,4-dichlorophenylmethylurea, 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DPU), monuron, bentazone, anthranil-isopropylamide, chloridazon, metolachlor] in surface, estuarine and sea water samples at the low ng/l level. Solid-phase extraction is combined off-line with column liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The applicability of two solid-phase materials, i.e., LiChrolut EN cartridges and graphitized carbon black extraction disks, is evaluated. The influence of the organic solvent used in gradient LC, as well as the amount of co-extracted humic material on the ESI process is studied. The eluotropic strength of the organic solvent was found to have a distinct effect on the sensitivity of ESI-MS if coupled with LC gradient separations. Methanol gave much better results than acetonitrile and phenylurea compounds are more susceptible to solvent changes than triazines. Co-extracted humic material causes signal suppression in ESI-MS-MS detection. The degree of suppression depends upon the sample pH and the nature of the samples, i.e., surface or estuarine water. Detection limits in LC-ESI-MS-MS ranged from 0.2 to 2 ng/l, with the exception of DPU (8 ng/l). The applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by analyzing surface and estuarine water.

  6. Fast simultaneous determination of prominent polyphenols in vegetables and fruits by reversed phase liquid chromatography using a fused-core column.

    PubMed

    Martí, Raúl; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Roselló, Salvador

    2015-02-15

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with photodiode array detection has been developed enabling the joint determination of 17 prominent flavonoids and phenolic acids in vegetables and fruits. A multi-segmented gradient program using a fused-core column for the separation of several phenolic classes (phenolic acids and flavonoids) has been optimised. The influence of extraction conditions (sample freeze-drying, ultrasound extraction, solvent composition and extraction time) has been also optimised using response surface methodology with tomato samples as a model. Complete recoveries (76-108%) were obtained for the phenolic compounds present in tomato. The developed method provided satisfactory repeatability in terms of peak area (RSD<2.9%) and retention time (RSD<0.2%) both for standards and real samples. Detection limits ranged between 3 and 44μgkg(-1) for the detected polyphenols. This method is recommended for routine analysis of large number of samples typical of production quality systems or plant breeding programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aflatoxin M1 determination in yoghurt produced in Guilan province of Iran using immunoaffinity column and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mahsa; Tabari, Khashayar; Tabari, Orod

    2013-02-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the presence and levels of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) in 120 natural yoghurt samples consisting of 80 samples of commercial and 40 samples of traditional yoghurt in Guilan province in the north of Iran. The occurrence and concentration range of AFM(1) in samples were determined by immunoaffinity column extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of yoghurts showed that all the samples were contaminated with AFM(1) in concentration levels ranging from 4.2 to 78.9 ng/kg. In general, 16 samples (13.33%) had higher AFM(1) level than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/kg) accepted by European Union, but the contamination level was lower than 500 ng/kg in all the samples, which is accepted by Codex Alimentarius and National Standard. The concentration of AFM(1) in 26 samples (21.66) was lower than 10 ng/kg. The range of contamination of AFM(1) was comparatively higher in traditional yoghurt (average concentration of 32.9 ng/kg) than that in commercial yoghurt (average concentration of 21.6 ng/kg; p < 0.01). Because yoghurt is the most popular dairy product consumed in Iran, the AFM(1) contamination is a serious problem for public health. This study reports the data of a first survey on the presence of AFM1 in yoghurt in Guilan, Iran.

  8. Analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants and their metabolites in plasma, urine and bile by liquid chromatography with a strong cation-exchange column-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko T; Miyauchi, Seiji; Kamo, Naoki

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop and validate a method for analysing amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) and their metabolites in plasma, urine and bile by liquid chromatography with a strong cation-exchange column-tandem mass spectrometry, and to apply it to the pharmacokinetic study of ATSs. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, ketamine and their main metabolites, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, amphetamine and norketamine, were simultaneously quantified by the new method (50-5000 ng/ml). The coefficients of variation and the percent deviations for the eight compounds were in the range of 0.2 to 5.3% and -9.4 to +12.8%, respectively. The recoveries were over 90% in all biological samples tested. This method was effective for the separation and the identification of ATSs and their main metabolites having amine moieties in plasma, urine and bile, and was applicable to pharmacokinetic analysis of methamphetamine, ketamine and their main metabolites in biological samples. This analytical method should be useful for the pharmacokinetic analysis of ATSs.

  9. Fused-core silica column ultra performance liquid chromatography – ion trap tandem mass spectrometry for determination of global DNA methylation status1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ill; Fortin, Marie C.; Richardson, Jason R.; Buckley, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, play key roles in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. More recently, global DNA methylation levels have been documented to be altered in several diseases, including cancer, and as the result of exposure to environmental toxicants. Based on the potential use of global DNA methylation status as a biomarker of disease status and exposure to environmental toxicants, we sought to develop a rapid, sensitive, and precise analytical method for the quantitative measurement of global DNA methylation status using ultra performance liquid chromatography with detection by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Using a fused-core silica column, 2′-deoxyguanosine (2dG) and 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine (5mdC) were resolved in less than 1 minute, with detection limits of 0.54 and 1.47 fmol for 5mdC and 2dG respectively. The accuracy of detection was 95% or above and the day-to-day coefficient of variations was found to be 3.8%. The method was validated by quantification of global DNA methylation status following treatment of cells with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine, which reduced DNA methylation from 3.1% in control cells to 1.1% in treated cells. The sensitivity and high throughput of this method rend it suitable for large scale analysis of epidemiological or clinical DNA samples. PMID:20950581

  10. A Method for Simultaneous Determination of 20 Fusarium Toxins in Cereals by High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry with a Pentafluorophenyl Column

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Masayoshi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Harayama, Koichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 20 Fusarium toxins (nivalenol, fusarenon-X, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, fumonisin B3, fumonisin A1, fumonisin A2, fumonisin A3, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol) in cereals. The separation of 20 Fusarium toxins with good peak shapes was achieved using a pentafluorophenyl column, and Orbitrap MS was able to detect accurately from cereal matrix components within ±0.77 ppm. The samples were prepared using a QuEChERS kit for extraction and a multifunctional cartridge for purification. The linearity, repeatability, and recovery of the method were >0.9964, 0.8%–14.7%, and 71%–106%, respectively. Using this method, an analysis of 34 commercially available cereals detected the presence of deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, fumonisin B3, fumonisn A1, fumonisin A2, fumonisin A3, and zearalenone in corn samples with high concentration and frequency. Trichothecenes was detected from wheat samples with high frequency; in particular, the concentration of deoxynivalenol was high. Conversely, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol were not detected in any of the samples. PMID:26008230

  11. A method for simultaneous determination of 20 Fusarium toxins in cereals by high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry with a pentafluorophenyl column.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masayoshi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Harayama, Koichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-05-14

    A high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 20 Fusarium toxins (nivalenol, fusarenon-X, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, fumonisin B3, fumonisin A1, fumonisin A2, fumonisin A3, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol) in cereals. The separation of 20 Fusarium toxins with good peak shapes was achieved using a pentafluorophenyl column, and Orbitrap MS was able to detect accurately from cereal matrix components within ±0.77 ppm. The samples were prepared using a QuEChERS kit for extraction and a multifunctional cartridge for purification. The linearity, repeatability, and recovery of the method were >0.9964, 0.8%-14.7%, and 71%-106%, respectively. Using this method, an analysis of 34 commercially available cereals detected the presence of deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, fumonisin B3, fumonisn A1, fumonisin A2, fumonisin A3, and zearalenone in corn samples with high concentration and frequency. Trichothecenes was detected from wheat samples with high frequency; in particular, the concentration of deoxynivalenol was high. Conversely, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol were not detected in any of the samples.

  12. A column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitation of 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid and 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid in Chinese smokers.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hongwei; Xiong, Wei; Gao, Na; Zhang, Xiaotao; Tang, Gangling; Hu, Qingyuan

    2012-11-01

    The acrylonitrile metabolites 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) and 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid (HEMA) have been determined in human urine using an automated column-switching procedure. A diluted sample was centrifuged just prior to being injected into a reusable precolumn packed with a restricted access material and coupled to a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. This method achieved satisfactory reproducibility and accuracy. Average intra- and interday variations (% relative standard deviations) ranged from 2.4 to 3.8% for CEMA and from 2.7 to 10.5% for HEMA. The limits of quantification were 0.003 and 0.099ng/ml for CEMA and HEMA, respectively. It was used to study the uptake of acrylonitrile from smoke constituents by both nonsmokers and smokers of different tar yield cigarettes under ISO 3308 smoking condition. Metabolite concentrations in smoker urine samples were approximately 12 times higher compared with those in nonsmokers for CEMA and 3 times higher for HEMA. Urinary CEMA levels show a clear dose-response relationship with daily cigarette consumption and urinary cotinine. CEMA can also discriminate between smokers of different ISO cigarettes. Because HEMA is not specific, it is only slightly related to smoking and acrylonitrile exposure. The validated biomarker CEMA will continue to be useful for studies of acrylonitrile uptake by smokers.

  13. Determination of hemocoagulase agkistrodon in a pharmaceutical preparation by high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Suyuan; Wang, Chaozhong; Li, Jing; Liang, Chenggang; Wang, Fengshan

    2013-07-01

    Currently, there is no analytical method for the quantification of hemocoagulase agkistrodon (HCA) in pharmaceutical preparations. This study presents a pre-column derivatization method for the quantification of HCA, a compound extracted from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus, in a pharmaceutical preparation (trade name Suling). In the proposed method, 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate was used to tag the HCA substrate, and the derivatives were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Complete and homogeneous derivatization of HCA was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The specificity of the method was validated by forced degradation, and interference was assessed using a placebo. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, the calibration curve was linear over a range of 10 to 500 ng/mL, featuring a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification of the method were 0.57 and 1.6 ng/mL, respectively. The percentage recovery of HCA in quality control samples ranged from 97.49 to 99.15%. Overall, this novel method can be applied to the quantitative determination of HCA in pharmaceutical preparations.

  14. Simultaneous determination of anionic and nonionic surfactants in commercial laundry wastewater and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor effluent by online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Motteran, Fabrício; Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Silva, Edson L; Varesche, Maria Bernadete A

    2017-02-15

    This study presents a new method developed for the simultaneous determination of anionic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate - LAS, 4 homologs) and nonionic surfactant (linear alcohol ethoxylate - LAE) in commercial laundry wastewater. The surfactants were identified and quantified using online column-switching solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ten and three transitions (m/z) were identified for LAS and LAE, respectively. The detection and quantification limits were 75 and 200μg/L for LAS, respectively, and 75μg/L for LAE. This method was applied to the determination of the surfactants in the influent and effluent of an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor that was used for the treatment of commercial laundry wastewater. After 480days of operation with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18h, the removal of 45.9±5.6% LAS and 99.2±4.3% LAE from an influent with surfactant concentrations of 26.1±12.9mg/L and 23.8±6.8mg/L, respectively, was obtained. Under these conditions, the breakage of longer-chain LAS homologs with the release of carbon units was observed with an increase in the number of shorter homolog chains. This SPE online sample treatment method is simple, fast and effective for the analysis of both surfactants. This technique is pioneering in its simultaneous measurement of two surfactant categories in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors.

  15. Determination of histamine in wines with an on-line pre-column flow derivatization system coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    García-Villar, Natividad; Saurina, Javier; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago

    2005-09-01

    A new rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determining histamine in red wine samples, based on continuous flow derivatization with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS), is proposed. In this system, samples are derivatized on-line in a three-channel flow manifold for reagent, buffer and sample. The reaction takes place in a PTFE coil heated at 80 degrees C and with a residence time of 2.9 min. The reaction mixture is injected directly into the chromatographic system, where the histamine derivative is separated from other aminated compounds present in the wine matrix in less than ten minutes. The HPLC procedure involves a C18 column, a binary gradient of 2% acetic acid-methanol as a mobile phase, and UV detection at 305 nm. Analytical parameters of the method are evaluated using red wine samples. The linear range is up to 66.7 mg L(-1) (r = 0.9999), the precision (RSD) is 3%, the detection limit is 0.22 mg L(-1), and the average histamine recovery is 101.5% +/- 6.7%. Commercial red wines from different Spanish regions are analyzed with the proposed method.

  16. [Determination of twenty free amino acids in flue-cured tobacco leaves using ultra performance liquid chromatography-single quadruple mass spectrometry and pre-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Li, Haoli; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhang, Junjie; Fu, Jiajun; Wang, Ying; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2013-12-01

    Free amino acids in flue-cured tobacco leaves were investigated using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-single quadruple mass spectrometry detection and pre-column derivatization method. The validation results showed that the method could meet the analytical requirements. A total of 138 tobacco leaf samples were collected from 14 provinces in China in 2011 in which the free amino acids were determined. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the contents of free amino acids in different growing regions ranged from 28.50%-94.20%, and those of asparagine and glutamine were over 80%. The RSDs of the contents of free amino acids in full aroma tobacco leaves were larger than those in fresh aroma and medium aroma tobacco leaves. The principal component analysis (PCA) and non-parameter Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. The free amino acids of the same aroma type grown in different regions or different aroma types in the same province showed great variation. The contents of free amino acids of full aroma tobacco grown in Southeast region were much lower than those in Huanghuai region. The contents of free amino acids in Hunan province were much lower than the average contents. The results showed that free amino acids in flue-cured tobacco leaves were affected by the growing region.

  17. Determination of 40 synthetic food colors in drinks and candies by high-performance liquid chromatography using a short column with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, N; Ichihashi, K

    2008-02-15

    Forty synthetic food colors were determined in drinks and candies by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The following food colors were analyzed within 19 min using a short analytical column (50 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 1.8 microm) at 50 degrees C with gradient elution: Ponceau 6R, Tartrazine, Fast yellow AB, Amaranth, Indigotine, Naphthol yellow S, Chrysoine, Ponceau 4R, Sunset yellow FCF, Red 10B, Orange G, Acid violet 7, Brilliant black PN, Allura red AC, Yellow 2G, Red 2G, Uranine, Fast red E, Green S, Ponceau 2R, Azorubine, Orange I, Quinoline yellow, Martius yellow, Ponceau SX, Ponceau 3R, Fast green FCF, Eosine, Brilliant blue FCF, Orange II, Orange RN, Acid blue 1, Erythrosine, Amido black 10B, Acid red 52, Patent blue V, Acid green 9, Phloxine B, Benzyl violet 4B, and Rose bengal. The recoveries of these compounds added to soft drinks and candies at 5 microg/g ranged from 76.6 to 115.0%, and relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) were within 6.0%. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 microg/g, respectively.

  18. Rapid determination of 12 antibiotics and caffeine in sewage and bioreactor effluent by online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Tomita, Inês N; Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a column-switching solid-phase extraction online-coupled to a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 12 antibiotics (7 sulfonamides and 5 fluoroquinolones) and caffeine detected in the sewage and effluent of a pilot anaerobic reactor used in sewage treatment. After acidification and filtration, the samples were directly injected into a simple and conventional LC system. Backflush and foreflush modes were compared based on the theoretical plates and peak asymmetry observed. The method was tested in terms of detection (MDL) and quantification limit (MQL), linearity, relative recovery, and precision intra- and inter-day in lab-made sewage samples. The method presented suitable figures of merit in terms of detection, varying from 8.00 × 10(-5) to 6.00 × 10(-2) ng (0.800 up to 600 ng L(-1); caffeine) with direct injection volume of only 100 μL and 13 min of total analysis time (sample preparation and chromatographic run). When the method was applied in the analysis of sewage and effluent of the anaerobic reactor (n = 15), six antibiotics and caffeine were detected in concentrations ranging from 0.018 to 1097 μg L(-1). To guarantee a reliable quantification, standard addition was used to overcome the matrix effect.

  19. Phosphoproteome of crab-eating macaque cerebral cortex characterized through multidimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with tandem anion/cation exchange columns.

    PubMed

    Quan, Quan; Feng, Jinwen; Lui, Leong-Ting; Shi, Tieliu; Chu, Ivan K

    2017-05-19

    A fully automated online multidimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC) platform featuring high-/low-pH reversed-phase (RP) dimensions and two other complementary-strong anion exchange (SAX) and strong cation exchange (SCX), respectively-chromatographic separations in tandem, with conventional offline titanium dioxide pre-enrichment, has been applied for the first global phosphopeptide identification from the macaque cerebral cortex in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors. Phosphorylation data interpretation, including site determination, and network construction have been performed: 14,338 distinct phosphopeptides in 7572 non-redundant phosphosites at 1% FDR were identified with 784 novel phosphorylation sites when mapping into the two most-curated public phosphorylation databases, PhosphoSitePlus (PSP) and Phospho.ELM (ELM), using probability-based placements. The net charges of both extremely acidic and basic phosphopeptides depend largely on the pH of the solvent, in turn impacting their retention and subsequent fractionation; the inclusion of the complementary SAX and SCX column chemistries after the high-pH RP dimension allowed effective retention and separation of net-negatively and -positively charged phosphopeptides, thereby leading to extended anionic and cationic phosphopeptide coverage from basophilic and acidophilic kinase substrates. A valuable protein interaction network of known and predicted motifs kinases was constructed from 3064 confident phosphorylation sites in the non-human primate's brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Ro 48-3656 in rat plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Comparison of 1.5-microm nonporous silica to 3.5-microm porous silica analytical columns.

    PubMed

    Paasch, B D; Lin, Y S; Porter, S; Modi, N B; Barder, T J

    1997-12-19

    We describe a method for measuring Ro 48-3656 in EDTA rat plasma by neutral pH, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a 1.5-microm nonporous silica, C18 analytical column and UV absorbance detection to support pharmacokinetic studies. We also describe a comparison of the 1.5-microm nonporous silica C18 column versus 3.5-microm porous silica C18 columns. The final method using the 1.5-microm nonporous silica column demonstrated good precision (of both quantification and retention time), accuracy and recovery, linearity of dilution and limit of quantification (40 ng/ml Ro 48-3656 using a 20 microl injection). Samples of neat EDTA rat plasma were prepared by ultrafiltration followed by direct injection onto the HPLC column.

  1. Non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Patrick R.; Wheeler, David R.

    2007-09-25

    A non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column comprises a planar substrate having a plurality of through holes, a top lid and a bottom lid bonded to opposite surfaces of the planar substrate, and inlet and outlet ports for injection of a sample gas and elution of separated analytes. A plurality of such planar substrates can be aligned and stacked to provide a longer column length having a small footprint. Furthermore, two or more separate channels can enable multi-channel or multi-dimensional gas chromatography. The through holes preferably have a circular cross section and can be coated with a stationary phase material or packed with a porous packing material. Importantly, uniform stationary phase coatings can be obtained and band broadening can be minimized with the circular channels. A heating or cooling element can be disposed on at least one of the lids to enable temperature programming of the column.

  2. Determination of ochratoxin A in Capsicum spp. (paprika and chili) by immunoaffinity column cleanup and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kunsagi, Zoltan; Stroka, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in Capsicum spp. (paprika and chili) was conducted according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry harmonized protocol. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by an immunoaffinity column cleanup. The determination is carried out by RP-HPLC coupled with a fluorescence detector. The study involved 21 participants representing a cross-section of research, private, and official control laboratories from 14 European Union (EU) Member States and Singapore. Mean recoveries reported ranged from 83.7 to 87.5%. The RSD for repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 1.7 to 14.3%. The RSD for reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 9.1 to 27.5%, reflecting HorRat values from 0.4 to 1.3 according to the Horwitz function modified by Thompson. The correction for recovery of results from naturally contaminated samples further improved the reproducibility of the method. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for each matrix, and it conforms to requirements set by current EU legislation.

  3. A liquid chromatography method using a monolithic column for the determination of corticoids in animal feed and animal feeding water.

    PubMed

    Muñiz-Valencia, R; Ceballos-Magaña, S G; Gonzalo-Lumbreras, R; Santos-Montes, A; Izquierdo-Hornillos, R

    2008-08-01

    An HPLC-DAD method for determining corticoids in calf feed and in animal feeding water samples using a monolithic column has been developed and validated. The method optimization included the study of binary mobile phases of water and acetonitrile. The optimum separation was achieved at 40 degrees C, with acetonitrile:H(2)O 29:71 v/v used as mobile phase and a 3 ml/min flow-rate, which resulted in their separation in about 5 min. Two reported sample procedures were applied to feed and for animal feeding water samples prior to HPLC. Method validation was carried out according to the EU criteria established for quantitative screening methods. The results indicate that this method is highly specific, reproducible and accurate. The proposed method was found to be robust and unaffected by small variations in the extraction procedure and in HPLC conditions. The developed method for the determination of corticoids in feed and water samples was also found to be suitable for different kinds of feeds and waters.

  4. Determination of sulphonamides in animal tissues by high performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization of 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qiong-Hui; Xie, Meng-Xia; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jin; Song, Jia; Gao, Hui; Han, Jie

    2007-11-01

    A novel approach for simultaneous determination of 12 sulphonamides (sulphadiazine, sulphamethazine, sulphathiazole, sulphadimethoxine, sulphamerazine, sulphapyridine, sulphamethoxazole, suphamethizole, sulphaquinoxaline, sulphameter, sulphamonomethoxine, and sulphachloropyridazine) in animal tissues (swine muscle and liver, chicken muscle, beef muscle) by HPLC with UV detection has been developed. A pre-column derivatization of the sulphonamide compounds with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) has been proposed and the reaction conditions have been optimized. The FMOC-sulphonamide derivatives were purified by SPE with silica gel as solid support prior to HPLC separation. The limits of detection for the sulphonamide compounds were greatly improved after the derivatization and purification step for the derivatives. Sulphonamide residues in animal tissues were extracted by acetonitrile and purified by solid phase extraction with C(18) as the solid support. The method developed has high sensitivity and good repeatability, and the average recoveries for most of the sulphonamides at various spiking levels were above 70% with relative standard deviations below 13.7%. The limits of detection for most sulphonamides can reach 3-5 microg/kg.

  5. Chemical Profiling Assisted Quality Assessment of Gentianae macrophyllae by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Using a Fused-Core Column.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Hu, Huiling; Ren, Guiyou; Liu, Haiping; Qu, Yan; Hua, Wan; Wang, Zhanguo

    2015-09-01

    A fast and sensitive HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis was utilized to assist the quality assessment of Gentianae macrophyllae radix (Qinjiao). Seventy-six peaks were separated and detected on a fused-core column with 35 min. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the chromatographic data showed that the 17 batches of Qinjiao could be well categorized into three groups, which were closely related to the origins of them. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) exhibited that the quality differentiation might be explained by at least four components, in which, gentiopicroside (GE), loganic acid (LA), swertiamarin (SA) were characterized by external reference, one of them was unidentified in this work. The content levels of GE, LA and SA were more relevant to comprehensive quality of Qinjiao than the ones of shanzhiside methyl ester and sweroside was confirmed by the PLS prediction models through analyzing the relevance of the chemical profiling to the levels of them. The present study not only indicated that GE, LA, SA and one unidentified compound were the rational markers to represent the comprehensive quality of Qinjiao but also demonstrated the power of chemical profiling platform in the quality assessment of Chinese medicine herbals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Micellar liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basova, Elena M.; Ivanov, Vadim M.; Shpigun, Oleg A.

    1999-12-01

    Background and possibilities of practical applications of micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) are considered. Various retention models in MLC, the effects of the nature and concentration of surfactants and organic modifiers, pH, temperature and ionic strength on the MLC efficiency and selectivity are discussed. The advantages and limitations of MLC are demonstrated. The performance of MLC is critically evaluated in relationship to the reversed-phase HPLC and ion-pair chromatography. The potential of application of MLC for the analysis of pharmaceuticals including that in biological fluids and separation of inorganic anions, transition metal cations, metal chelates and heteropoly compounds is described. The bibliography includes 146 references.

  7. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talcott, Stephen

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has many applications in food chemistry. Food components that have been analyzed with HPLC include organic acids, vitamins, amino acids, sugars, nitrosamines, certain pesticides, metabolites, fatty acids, aflatoxins, pigments, and certain food additives. Unlike gas chromatography, it is not necessary for the compound being analyzed to be volatile. It is necessary, however, for the compounds to have some solubility in the mobile phase. It is important that the solubilized samples for injection be free from all particulate matter, so centrifugation and filtration are common procedures. Also, solid-phase extraction is used commonly in sample preparation to remove interfering compounds from the sample matrix prior to HPLC analysis.

  8. Liquid Chromatography with a Fluorimetric Detection Method for Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Tetrodotoxin Based on a Porous Graphitic Carbon Column

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Veronica; Botana, Ana M.; Alvarez, Mercedes; Antelo, Alvaro; Botana, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) traditionally have been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization and always with a silica-based stationary phase. This technique resulted in different methods that need more than one run to analyze the toxins. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recently found in bivalves of northward locations in Europe due to climate change, so it is important to analyze it along with PST because their signs of toxicity are similar in the bioassay. The methods described here detail a new approach to eliminate different runs, by using a new porous graphitic carbon stationary phase. Firstly we describe the separation of 13 PST that belong to different groups, taking into account the side-chains of substituents, in one single run of less than 30 min with good reproducibility. The method was assayed in four shellfish matrices: mussel (Mytillus galloprovincialis), clam (Pecten maximus), scallop (Ruditapes decussatus) and oyster (Ostrea edulis). The results for all of the parameters studied are provided, and the detection limits for the majority of toxins were improved with regard to previous liquid chromatography methods: the lowest values were those for decarbamoyl-gonyautoxin 2 (dcGTX2) and gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) in mussel (0.0001 mg saxitoxin (STX)·diHCl kg−1 for each toxin), decarbamoyl-saxitoxin (dcSTX) in clam (0.0003 mg STX·diHCl kg−1), N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (C1 and C2) in scallop (0.0001 mg STX·diHCl kg−1 for each toxin) and dcSTX (0.0003 mg STX·diHCl kg−1 ) in oyster; gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) showed the highest limit of detection in oyster (0.0366 mg STX·diHCl kg−1). Secondly, we propose a modification of the method for the simultaneous analysis of PST and TTX, with some minor changes in the solvent gradient, although the detection limit for TTX does not allow its use nowadays for regulatory purposes. PMID:27367728

  9. The use of partially porous particle columns for the routine, generic analysis of biological samples for pharmacokinetic studies in drug discovery by reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mallett, David N; Ramírez-Molina, César

    2009-01-15

    Recent years have seen the introduction of new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) instruments and columns that are capable of achieving high resolution, high speed liquid chromatographic separations at back pressures up to 1000 bar, so-called ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) is gaining widespread use for this purpose, and for this approach to be successful a generically applicable, robust column is required. Here, data are presented showing the robustness of a partially porous 2.7 microm diameter particle material in this application and the accuracy and precision of an assay for a typical pharmaceutical in plasma. This stationary phase material is evaluated for performance and compared with other materials frequently used for similar analyses using a test mix currently used routinely in our laboratories to assess the performance of UHPLC-MS/MS systems. The partially porous material demonstrates similar resolving power to sub-2 microm materials under the ballistic gradient chromatography conditions employed and exhibits excellent resilience over the analysis of thousands of protein precipitated plasma extracts. It is suggested that this stationary phase material can be an invaluable tool in generic, high throughput assays for pharmaceutical bioanalysts.

  10. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of flavonoid glycosides in pigeon pea leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector with pentafluorophenyl column.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Fu, Yu-jie; Zu, Yuan-gang; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-jian; Li, Chun-ying; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Zuo-fu

    2012-11-01

    In this study, an ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector with a pentafluorophenyl column for the extraction and quantification of eight flavonoid glycosides in pigeon pea leaves is described. Compared with conventional extraction methods, ILMAE is a more effective and environment friendly method for the extraction of nature compounds from herbal plants. Nine different types of ionic liquids with different cations and anions were investigated. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation had significant effects on the extraction of flavonoid glycosides, and 1.0 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4MIM]Br) solution was selected as solvent. In addition, the extraction procedures were also optimized using a series of single-factor experiments. The optimum parameters were obtained as follows: extraction temperature 60°C, liquid-solid ratio 20:1 mL/g and extraction time 13 min. Moreover, an HPLC method using pentafluorophenyl column was established and validated. Good linearity was observed with the regression coefficients (r(2)) more than 0.999. The limit of detection (LODs) (S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (LOQs) (S/N = 10) for the components were less than 0.41 and 1.47 μg/mL, respectively. The inter- and intraday precisions that were used to evaluate the reproducibility and relative standard deviation (RSD) values were less than 4.57%. The recoveries were between 97.26 and 102.69%. The method was successfully used for the analysis of samples of pigeon pea leaves. In conclusion, the developed ILMAE-HPLC-diode array detector using pentafluorophenyl column method can be applied for quality control of pigeon pea leaves and related medicinal products. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A strategy for efficient discovery of new natural compounds by integrating orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis: Its application in Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium and Panax notoginseng to characterize 437 potential new ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-zhi; Ye, Min; Qiao, Xue; Liu, Chun-fang; Miao, Wen-juan; Bo, Tao; Tao, Hai-yan; Guo, De-an

    2012-08-20

    To discover new natural compounds from herbal medicines tends to be more and more difficult. In this paper, a strategy integrating orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis was proposed, and was applied for rapid discovery of new ginsenosides from Panax ginseng (PG), Panax quinquefolium (PQ), and Panax notoginseng (PN). The ginsenosides extracts were fractionated by MCI gel×silica gel orthogonal column chromatography. The fractions were then separated on a C(18) HPLC column, eluted with a three-component mobile phase (CH(3)CN/CH(3)OH/3mM CH(3)COONH(4)H(2)O), and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The structures of unknown ginsenosides were elucidated by analyzing negative and positive ion mass spectra, which provided complementary information on the sapogenins and oligosaccharide chains, respectively. A total of 623 comprising 437 potential new ginsenosides were characterized from the ethanol extracts of PG, PQ and PN. New acylations, diversified saccharide chains and C-17 side chains constituted novelty of the newly identified ginsenosides. An interpretation guideline was proposed for structural characterization of unknown ginsenosides by LC/MS. To confirm reliability of this strategy, two targeted unknown trace ginsenosides were obtained in pure form by LC/MS-guided isolation. Based on extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis and other techniques, they were identified as 3-O-[6-O-(E)-butenoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20(S)-protopanaxadiol-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (named ginsenoside IV) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,12β,20(S),24(R)-tetra hydroxy-dammar-25-ene-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (ginsenoside V), respectively. The fully established structures were consistent with the MS-oriented structural elucidation. This study expanded our understanding on ginsenosides of Panax species, and the

  12. High-throughput method for the analysis of ethylenethiourea with direct injection of hydrolysed urine using online on-column extraction liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Eva; Maxe, Margaretha; Littorin, Margareta; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenethiourea (ETU) is of major toxicological concern, since in experimental animal studies, ETU has shown a large spectrum of adverse effects. High occupational exposure can be found among agricultural workers or during manufacturing of ethylenbisdithiocarbamates (EBDC). For the general public, sources of environmental exposure may be residues of ETU in commercial products, food and beverages. For the determination of ETU in human urine we present a high-throughput online on-column extraction liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method using direct injection of hydrolysed urine samples. This method is simple, user- and environmentally friendly and all sample preparation is performed in 96-well plates. A labelled ETU internal standard was used for quantification. The method showed a good sensitivity with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.5ng ETU/mL urine and the calibration curve was linear in the range 0.25-200ng ETU/mL urine. The within-run, between-run and between-batch precision was between 6% and 13%. Alkaline hydrolysis considerably increased the levels of ETU indicating a potential conjugate. The method was applied in an experimental dermal exposure study in humans, with sample concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 5.0ng ETU/mL urine. The excretion in urine was 10% of the applied dose. The elimination profile seemed to differ between the two individuals. The results show an estimated half-life of ETU between 34 and 72h. Although the experiment is limited to two individuals, the data provide valuable and new information regarding the toxicokinetics of ETU after dermal exposure.

  13. Vitamin D analysis in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with C(30) reversed phase column and UV detection--easy and acetonitrile-free.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2011-04-08

    Two physiologically important forms of vitamin D exist: vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3), which by liver based hydroxylase enzymes are converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3), respectively. These hydroxylated metabolites of vitamin D are measured in plasma to assess the vitamin D status of animals and humans. Therefore cheap and reliable analytical methods are very much in demand in nutritional and physiological research. After saponification and extraction of plasma or serum samples the current method uses reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography on a C(30) column and with UV detection at 265nm for quantifying vitamin D(2), vitamin D(3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3). The method proved versatile with respect to plasma lipid content, sample amount, and plasma concentration of the vitamin D metabolites as it was tested using plasma from six different species: cattle, pigs, poultry, mink, horses, and humans. In cattle plasma recoveries were between 86.6 and 101.0%, within day error between 0.9 and 5.9%, and between day error between 0.2 and 1.7%. However, depending on species and sample amount error percentages varied. When running the method on standard reference material® 972 "Vitamin D in human serum" from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (Gaithersburg, USA) the results for 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations were within the boundaries provided by NIST, reflected by Z-scores between 0.1 and 0.9. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Simultaneous determination of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium residues in tea by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with pre-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Chen, Xiaoquan; Xiao, Haijun; Liu, Binqiu

    2015-10-01

    A method was developed for the determination of glyphosate (GLY) and glufosinate-ammonium (GLUF) in tea using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with ultrapure water and dichloromethane for 30 min under ultrasonication, followed by a simple cleanup with a C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and then GLY and GLUF were derivatized using 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer for 2 h. The derivatives of GLY and GLUF were separated on a Waters C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) in a gradient elution mode, and finally detected with positive electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS ) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The quantification analysis was performed by external standard method. The method showed a good linearity (r > 0. 990) in the range of 0.003 125-0.1 mg/L. The limits of detection (LODs) of GLY and GLUF were 0.03 mg/kg. At the spiked levels of 0.375, 1.5 and 4.5 mg/kg, the recoveries of GLY and GLUF were 87.37%-99.11% and 81.44% -86.17% respectively, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 6) of GLY and GLUF were 0.68%-1.35% and 1.01%-2.33%, respectively. This method is simple, rapid and characterized with acceptable sensitivity and accuracy to meet the requirements for the analysis of GLY and GLUF simultaneously in tea.

  15. Direct aqueous determination of glyphosate and related compounds by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using reversed-phase and weak anion-exchange mixed-mode column.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chunyan; Morse, David; Morra, Franca; Zhao, Xiaoming; Yang, Paul; Nunn, Brian

    2011-08-19

    Analysis of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate and its related compounds is quite challenging. Tedious and time-consuming derivatization is often required for these substances due to their high polarity, high water solubility, low volatility and molecular structure which lacks either a chromophore or fluorophore. A novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method has been developed for the determination of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glufosinate using a reversed-phase and weak anion-exchange mixed-mode Acclaim® WAX-1 column. Aqueous environmental samples are directly injected and analyzed in 12 min with no sample concentration or derivatization steps. Two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) channels are monitored in the method for each target compound to achieve true positive identification, and ¹³C, ¹⁵N-glyphosate is used as an internal standard to carry out isotope dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) measurement for glyphosate. The instrument detection limits (IDLs) for glyphosate, AMPA and glufosinate are 1, 2 and 0.9 μg/L, respectively. Linearity of the detector response with a minimum coefficient of determination (R² value (R² > 0.995) was demonstrated in the range of ∼10 to 10³ μg/L for each analytes. Spiked drinking water, surface water and groundwater samples were analyzed using this method and the average recoveries of analytes in three matrices ranged from 77.0 to 102%, 62.1 to 101%, 66.1 to 93.7% while relative standard deviation ranged from 6.3 to 10.2%, 2.7 to 14.8%, 2.9 to 10.7%, respectively. Factors that may affect method performance, such as metal ions, sample preservation, and storage time, are also discussed. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enantioselective determination of 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in human plasma by liquid chromatography on a teicoplanin-based chiral column coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diao, Xingxing; Ma, Zhiyu; Lei, Peng; Zhong, Dafang; Zhang, Yifan; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2013-11-15

    A novel and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to determine the exposure of 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) enantiomers in human plasma. The NBP enantiomers were extracted from human plasma using methyl tert-butyl ether. The baseline separation of R-(+)-NBP and S-(-)-NBP was achieved within 11.0min using a teicoplanin-based Astec Chirobiotic T column (250mm×4.6mm i.d., 5μm) under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The selection of the chiral stationary phase and the effect of the mobile phase composition on the resolution of the enantiomers were discussed. The selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, recovery, and stability were evaluated under optimized conditions. The LC-MS/MS method using 200μL of human plasma was linear over the concentration range of 5.00-400ng/mL for each enantiomer. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for both enantiomers was 5.00ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay precision values of the replicated quality control samples were within 8.0% for each enantiomer. The mean accuracy values for the quality control samples were within ±6.1% of the nominal values for R-(+)-NBP and S-(-)-NBP. No chiral inversion was observed during sample storage, preparation, and analysis. The method proved suitable for enantioselective pharmacokinetic studies of NBP after an oral administration of a therapeutic dose of racemic NBP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitive mercury speciation by reversed-phase column high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection after solid-phase extraction using 6-mercaptopurine and dithizone.

    PubMed

    Hashemi-Moghaddam, Hamid; Saber-Tehrani, Mohamad

    2008-01-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method was developed for preconcentration of inorganic and organic mercury compounds followed by reversed-phase column high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with UV-visible detection. The method was based on the reaction of mercury with 6-mercaptopurine and solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the complex on an octadecylsilane (C18) cartridge. The complex was then treated with ammoniacal dithizone solution, and the complexes of inorganic and organic mercury with dithizone were eluted by methanol. The speciation analysis of methylmercury (MeHg), phenylmercury (PhHg), and inorganic Hg (II) was carried out by RP-HPLC. Some experimental variables that influence the SPE and derivatization, such as pH, chelating and derivatizing agent concentration, and surfactant addition, were investigated. The calibration graphs of MeHg, PhHg, and Hg (II) were linear [correlation coefficient (r) > 0.999] from the detection limits (0.12, 0.16, and 0.14 ng) to 8.5, 6.0, and 6.7 ng Hg, respectively. By applying the SPE procedure, a 100-fold concentration of the sample was obtained. The procedure was applied to sea water and tuna fish samples. The method's accuracy was investigated by using tuna fish certified reference material BCR 464 and by spiking the samples with different amounts of MeHg, PhHg, and Hg (II). The average recoveries of MeHg, PhHg, and Hg (II) from spiked samples (0.1-2.0 microg/L Hg) were 96 +/- 4, 98 +/- 3, and 104 +/- 4%, respectively.

  18. 1,4-Anthraquinone: A new useful pre-column reagent for the determination of N-acetylcysteine and captopril in pharmaceuticals by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Rita; Morigi, Rita

    2017-09-05

    1,4-Anthraquinone (ANQ) is proposed as a novel pre-column reagent for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and captopril (CAP) in pharmaceutical formulations. The derivatization reactions were carried out at room temperature: NAC at pH 8 for 1min, while CAP at pH 7.5 for 20min. Both reactions reached completeness at a reagent to thiol molar ratio of about 2.5. The synthesised derivatives were characterized by (1)H NMR and IR. The chromatographic separations were performed on a C18 Phenomenex Synergi Fusion 4μm (250mm×4.6mm I.D.) stainless steel column with detection at λ=300nm. The mobile phase consisted of methanol/triethylammonium (TEA) phosphate buffer (pH 3; 0.05mol/L) 75:25 (v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.4mL/min for NAC and 88:12 (v/v), at a flow-rate of 0.6mL/min for CAP. The validation parameters (linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, specificity and stability) were highly satisfactory. Linear response was observed (determination coefficient ≥0.9996). Detection limits were about 8 and 18ng/mL for NAC and CAP, respectively. Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was ≤1.58%, for thiol to internal standard (IS) peak area ratio and ≤0.33%, for thiol and IS retention times (tR), without significant differences between intra- and inter-day data. Thiol recovery studies were satisfactory (99.50%) with R.S.D. ≤0.56%. The results highlight the high sensitivity of the method and the remarkable reactivity and selectivity of the reagent towards the thiol function. The developed method is suitable for the quality control of both thiols in commercial products. The method can be applied in any analytical laboratory not requiring a sophisticated instrumentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method with post-column derivatization for the detection of aflatoxins in cereals and grains.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Iqbal, Javed; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Shamsuddin, Zuzzer Ali; Jamil, Khalid

    2016-06-01

    A novel, reliable and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with post-column derivatization was developed and validated. The HPLC method was used for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) in various cereals and grains. Samples were extracted with 80:20 (v/v) methanol:water and purified using C18 (40-63 μm) solid-phase extraction cartridges. AFs were separated using a LiChroCART-RP-18 (5 μm, 250 × 4.0 mm(2)) column. The mobile phase consisted of methanol:acetonitrile:buffer (17.5:17.5:65 v/v) (pH 7.4) delivered at the flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) The fluorescence of each AF was detected at λex = 365 nm and λem = 435 nm. All four AFs were properly resolved within the total run time of 20 min. The established method was extensively validated as a final verification of the method development by the evaluation of selectivity (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9994), precision (average SD ≤ 2.79), accuracy (relative mean error ≤ -5.51), robustness (p < 0.0080), ruggedness (p < 0.0100) and average recoveries (89.2-97.8%). The limits of quantification of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 0.080, 0.073, 0.062 and 0.066 ng g(-1), respectively. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of AFs in 45 samples comprising rice (n = 20), wheat (n = 15) and maize (n = 10). The results showed that 65% of rice, 20% of wheat and 80% of maize samples were found contaminated with AFs. Thus, according to the achieved results, it is suggested that the newly developed HPLC method could be effectively applied for the routine analysis of the AFs in different cereals and grains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Hair analysis of histamine after fluorescence labeling by column-switching reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and application to human hair.

    PubMed

    Toyo'oka, Toshimasa; Suzuki, Ayako; Fukushima, Takeshi; Kato, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    Sensitive determination of histamine (HA) in hair was carried out by column-switching reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). HA was labeled with excess amounts of 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-F) at 60 degrees C for 30 min in a mixture of 0.1 M borax (pH 9.3) and acetonitrile (CH(3)CN). The resulting DBD-HA derivative was roughly separated by a Mightysil RP-18 GP (100 x 2mm i.d., 3 microm) with an acidic mobile phase containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. DBD-HA in the fraction flowing due to a position change in the six-port column-switching valve was then completely separated by a Wakopak Navi C30 (150 x 2mm i.d., 5 microm) with 20 mM AcONH(4)-CH(3)CN (8:2). The mass spectrometer was operated in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for the product ion (m/z 292) obtained from MS-MS measurement using the protonated molecular ion [M+H](+) (m/z 337) as the precursor ion. Good linearity was achieved from the calibration curve obtained by plotting peak area ratios of the internal standard (HA-d(4)) against the injected amounts of HA (1.66-16.6 pmol, r(2)=0.999). The coefficients of variation, at 1.66- and 16.6-pmol injections, were 5.6 and 3.7%, respectively (n=6). Furthermore, the detection limit was 0.167 pmol. The efficiency of the recommended procedure was identified from the determination in the rat hair root after intraperitoneal administration of HA. The proposed method was applied to HA determination in the hair shaft of Dark Agouti rats and healthy volunteers. The variations in the concentrations in 1mg of hair shaft were 0.80-1.84 pmol (mean+/-SD=1.33+/-0.33, n=12) in rats and 0.94-72.3 pmol (17.2+/-21.5, n=16) in humans. The determination of HA in the plasma of rats and humans was also performed successfully by this method. Because the proposed method provides good precision and trace detection of HA in hair, the analytical technique

  1. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xihui; Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Chu, Xianfeng; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up. Through optimizing the sample pretreatment procedures and chromatographic conditions, good linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9993), low limit of detection (0.5-0.8 μg/kg), and satisfactory recovery (83.54-94.44%) expressed the good reliability and applicability of the established method in various traditional Chinese medicines. Moreover, the aptamer-affinity column, prepared in-house, showed an excellent feasibility owing to its specific identification of ochratoxin A in various kinds of selected traditional Chinese medicines. The maximum adsorption amount and applicability value were 188.96 ± 10.56 ng and 72.3%, respectively. The matrix effects were effectively eliminated, especially for m/z 404.2→358.0 of ochratoxin A. The application of the developed method for screening the natural contamination levels of ochratoxin A in 25 random traditional Chinese medicines on the market in China indicated that only eight samples were contaminated with low levels below the legal limit (5.0 μg/kg) set by the European Union. This study provided a preferred choice for the rapid and accurate monitoring of ochratoxin A in complex matrices.

  2. Temperature-based on-column solute focusing in capillary liquid chromatography reduces peak broadening from pre-column dispersion and volume overload when used alone or with solvent-based focusing.

    PubMed

    Groskreutz, Stephen R; Horner, Anthony R; Weber, Stephen G

    2015-07-31

    On-column focusing is essential for satisfactory performance using capillary scale columns. On-column focusing results from generating transient conditions at the head of the column that lead to high solute retention. Solvent-based on-column focusing is a well-known approach to achieve this. Temperature-assisted on-column focusing (TASF) can also be effective. TASF improves focusing by cooling a short segment of the column inlet to a temperature that is lower than the column temperature during the injection and then rapidly heating the focusing segment to the match the column temperature. A troublesome feature of an earlier implementation of TASF was the need to leave the capillary column unpacked in that portion of the column inside the fitting connecting it to the injection valve. We have overcome that problem in this work by packing the head of the column with solid silica spheres. In addition, technical improvements to the TASF instrumentation include: selection of a more powerful thermo-electric cooler to create faster temperature changes and electronic control for easy incorporation into conventional capillary instruments. Used in conjunction with solvent-based focusing and with isocratic elution, volumes of paraben samples (esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) up to 4.5-times the column liquid volume can be injected without significant bandspreading due to volume overload. Interestingly, the shapes of the peaks from the lowest volume injections that we can make, 30nL, are improved when using TASF. TASF is very effective at reducing the detrimental effects of pre-column dispersion using isocratic elution. Finally, we show that TASF can be used to focus the neuropeptide galanin in a sample solvent with elution strength stronger than the mobile phase. Here, the stronger solvent is necessitated by the need to prevent peptide adsorption prior to and during analysis.

  3. Silica-based monolithic columns with mixed-mode reversed-phase/weak anion-exchange selectivity principle for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Raquel; Lubda, Dieter; Leitner, Alexander; Bicker, Wolfgang; Maier, Norbert M; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the synthesis, chromatographic characterization, and performance evaluation of analytical (100 x 4.6 mm id) and semipreparative (100 x 10 mm id) monolithic silica columns with mixed-mode RP/weak anion-exchange (RP/WAX) surface modification. The monolithic RP/WAX columns were obtained by immobilization of N-(10-undecenoyl)-3-aminoquinuclidine onto thiol-modified monolithic silica columns (Chromolith) by a radical addition reaction. Their chromatographic characterization by Engelhardt and Tanaka tests revealed slightly lower hydrophobic selectivities than C-8 phases, as well as higher polarity and also improved shape selectivity than RP-18e silica rods. The surface modification enabled separation by both RP and anion-exchange chromatography principles, and thus showed complementary selectivities to the RP-18e monoliths. The mixed-mode monoliths have been tested for the separation of peptides and turned out to be particularly useful for hydrophilic acidic peptides, which are usually insufficiently retained on RP-18e monolithic columns. Compared to a corresponding particulate RP/WAX column (5 microm, 10 nm pore diameter), the analytical RP/WAX monolith caused lower system pressure drops and showed, as expected, higher efficiency (e.g. by a factor of about 2.5 lower C-term for a tetrapeptide). The upscaling from the analytical to semipreparative column dimension was also successful.

  4. Direct probing of chromatography columns by laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuffin, V. L.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments of this research project from 1 Sep. 1989 to 28 Feb. 1993. During this period, we have accomplished all of the primary scientific objectives of the research proposal: (1) constructed and evaluated a laser-induced fluorescence detection system that allows direct examination of the chromatographic column, (2) examined nonequilibrium processes that occur upon solute injection and elution, (3) examined solute retention in liquid chromatography as a function of temperature and pressure, (4) examined solute zone dispersion in liquid chromatography as a function of temperature and pressure, and (5) developed appropriate theoretical models to describe these phenomena. In each of these studies, substantial knowledge has been gained of the fundamental processes that are responsible for chromatographic separations. In addition to these primary research objectives, we have made significant progress in three related areas: (1) examined pyrene as a fluorescent polarity probe in supercritical fluids and liquids as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) developed methods for the class-selective identification of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-derived fluids by microcolumn liquid chromatography with fluorescence quenching detection, and (3) developed methods for the determination of saturated and unsaturated (including omega-3) fatty acids in fish oil extracts by microcolumn liquid chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection. In these studies, the advanced separation and detection techniques developed in our laboratory are applied to practical problems of environmental and biomedical significance.

  5. Direct probing of chromatography columns by laser-induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    McGuffin, V.L.

    1992-12-07

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments of this research project from September 1, 1989 to February 28, 1993. During this period, we have accomplished all of the primary scientific objectives of the research proposal: (1) constructed and evaluated a laser-induced fluorescence detection system that allows direct examination of the chromatographic column, (2) examined nonequilibrium processes that occur upon solute injection and elution, (3) examined solute retention in liquid chromatography as a function of temperature and pressure, (4) examined solute zone dispersion in liquid chromatography as a function of temperature and pressure, and (5) developed appropriate theoretical models to describe these phenomena. In each of these studies, substantial knowledge has been gained of the fundamental processes that are responsible for chromatographic separations. In addition to these primary research objectives, we have made significant progress in three related areas: (1) examined pyrene as a fluorescent polarity probe insupercritical fluids and liquids as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) developed methods for the class-selective identification of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-derived fluids by microcolumn liquid chromatography with fluorescence quenching detection, and (3) developed methods for the determination of saturated and unsaturated (including omega-3) fatty acids in fish oil extracts by microcolumn liquid chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection. In these studies, the advanced separation and detection techniques developed in our laboratory are applied to practical problems of environmental and biomedical significance.

  6. Separation of intact proteins on γ-ray-induced polymethacrylate monolithic columns: A highly permeable stationary phase with high peak capacity for capillary high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Simone, Patrizia; Pierri, Giuseppe; Foglia, Patrizia; Gasparrini, Francesca; Mazzoccanti, Giulia; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Ursini, Ornella; Ciogli, Alessia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Polymethacrylate-based monolithic capillary columns, prepared by γ-radiation-induced polymerization, were used to optimize the experimental conditions (nature of the organic modifiers, the content of trifluoroacetic acid and the column temperature) in the separation of nine standard proteins with different hydrophobicities and a wide range of molecular weights. Because of the excellent permeability of the monolithic columns, an ion-pair reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry method has been developed by coupling the column directly to the mass spectrometer without a flow-split and using a standard electrospray interface. Additionally, the high working flow and concomitant high efficiency of these columns allowed us to employ a longer column (up to 50 cm) and achieve a peak capacity value superior to 1000. This work is motivated by the need to develop new materials for high-resolution chromatographic separation that combine chemical stability at elevated temperatures (up to 75°C) and a broad pH range, with a high peak capacity value. The advantage of the γ-ray-induced monolithic column lies in the batch-to-batch reproducibility and long-term high-temperature stability. Their proven high loading capacity, recovery, good selectivity and high permeability, moreover, compared well with that of a commercially available poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monolithic column, which confirms that such monolithic supports might facilitate analysis in proteomics.

  7. Normal-Phase Open Column versus Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Separation of Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b from their Diastereomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment involving the separation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from their diastereomers. Reasons why the experiment can be easily integrated into most laboratory curricula where high-performance liquid chromatography capabilities exist are given. (JN)

  8. Normal-Phase Open Column versus Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Separation of Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b from their Diastereomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment involving the separation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from their diastereomers. Reasons why the experiment can be easily integrated into most laboratory curricula where high-performance liquid chromatography capabilities exist are given. (JN)

  9. Ultra-Trace Analysis of Nine Macrolides, including Tulathromycin A (Draxxin), in Edible Animal Tissues with Mini-Column Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analysis of 9 macrolides is presented, including tulathromycin A (Draxxin), in beef, poultry and pork muscle with a simple multi-residue extraction and analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The extraction method inv...

  10. Low thermal mass liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gu, Binghe; Cortes, Hernan; Luong, Jim; Pursch, Matthias; Eckerle, Patric; Mustacich, Robert

    2009-02-15

    A novel technique, low thermal mass liquid chromatography (LTMLC), is introduced in this study. The use of an LTM assembly that utilizes the principle of resistive wire heating and a temperature sensor to accurately deliver unprecedented heating (up to 1800 degrees C/min) or cooling (100 to approximately 200 degrees C/min) rates is reported. With the use of packed microcolumns (<0.5 mm i.d.), essentially instantaneous heat transfer from the assembly to the mobile phase was obtained. A systematic investigation was conducted to study the performance of the LTMLC technique. Both isocratic and gradient mobile phase conditions were used. For temperature control, isothermal, temperature-increasing, and temperature-decreasing gradients were applied. Three model mixtures, two of which containing neutral and acidic analytes and the other containing neutral, acidic, and basic analytes, were used to study the effect of temperature on elution time, resolution, column efficiency, and selectivity. It was found that the LTMLC experimental setup delivered reliable temperature control, as evidenced by linear van't Hoff plots for neutral and acidic compounds. The effect of temperature on the elution of basic analytes yielded nonlinear van't Hoff plots, explaining the dramatic selectivity changes observed for bases with changes in column temperature. Column efficiency generally increased with the increase in column temperature in the range of 25 to approximately 75 degrees C and decreased in the range of 75 to approximately 150 degrees C at a fixed column flow rate (3 microL/min), when extra column band broadening was taken into account. The increase in efficiency upon the increase in column temperature in the low temperature range was mainly due to the decreased mass transfer term resulting from increased analyte diffusivity. However, under even higher temperatures, the longitudinal diffusion dominated band broadening, explaining the decrease in column efficiency upon a further

  11. Spectrofluorometry, thin layer chromatography, and column high-performance liquid chromatography determination of rabeprazole sodium in the presence of its acidic and oxidized degradation products.

    PubMed

    Osman, Afaf Osman; Osman, Afaf; Osman, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop validated stability-indicating spectrofluorometric, TLC-densitometric, and HPLC methods for the determination of rabeprazole sodium and its degradation products. The first method was based on measuring the fluorescence intensity of the drug at 416 and 311 nm for the emission and at 320 and 274 nm for the excitation for acid and oxidized solutions, respectively. The second method was based on the separation of the drug from its acidic and oxidized degradation products followed by densitometric measurement of the intact drug spot at 284 nm. The separation was carried out on Fluka TLC sheets of silica gel 60 F254 using isopropyl alcohol--30% ammonia (80 + 2, v/v) mobile phase. The third method was based on HPLC separation of rabeprazole sodium from its acidic and oxidized degradation products on a reversed-phase Waters Nova-Pak C18 column using 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate-methanol-acetonitrile (5 + 3 + 2, v/v/v) pH 7 +/- 0.2 mobile phase. The proposed procedures were successfully applied for the determination of rabeprazole sodium in pure form, laboratory-prepared mixtures, tablet, and expired batch. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of a reported method and validated according to United States Pharmacopeia guidelines. Two main acidic degradation products of the drug were separated and subjected to IR spectrometry and MS to confirm their structures, and the schemes for their formation were elucidated.

  12. Stability-indicating high-performance column liquid chromatography and high-performance thin-layer chromatography methods for the determination of olopatadine hydrochloride in tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Susheel John; Kumar, A Manikanta; Ravi, Thengungal Kochupappy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes two simple, specific, accurate, and precise methods for estimation of olopatadine hydrochloride (OLO) in tablet dosage form. The first method is a stability-indicating isocratic RP-HPLC method. The analysis is performed on an RP-18 column using 0.1% orthophosphoric acid (adjusted to pH 4.5 with triethylamine)-acetonitrile (75 + 25, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Paracetamol (PAR) was selected as the internal standard. Retention times of OLO and PAR were 11.30 +/- 0.02 and 4.70 +/- 0.03 min, respectively. For the HPTLC method, precoated silica gel 60 F254 aluminum sheets were used as the stationary phase; the mobile phase was methanol-chloroform-ammonia (8 + 2 + 0.1, v/v/v). The detection of the analyte band was carried out at 301 nm, and its Rf value was 0.46 +/- 0.03. The analytical methods were validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 0.1-1 microg/mL and 0.1-0.9 microg/band for HPLC and HPTLC, respectively.

  13. Analytical approach to determining human biogenic amines and their metabolites using eVol microextraction in packed syringe coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method with hydrophilic interaction chromatography column.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Synakiewicz, Anna; Stachowicz-Stencel, Teresa; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of biogenic amines (BAs) in different human samples provides insight into the mechanisms of various biological processes, including pathological conditions, and thus may be very important in diagnosing and monitoring several neurological disorders and cancerous tumors. In this work, we developed a simple and fast procedure using a digitally controlled microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of biogenic amines, their precursors and metabolites in human plasma and urine samples. The separation of 12 low molecular weight and hydrophilic molecules with a wide range of polarities was achieved with hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) column without derivatization step in 12 min. MEPS was implemented using the APS sorbent in semi-automated analytical syringe (eVol(®)) and small volume of urine and plasma samples, 5 0µL and 100 μL, respectively. We evaluated important parameters influencing MEPS efficiency, including stationary phase selection, sample pH and volume, number of extraction cycles, and washing and elution volumes. In optimized MEPS conditions, the analytes were eluted by 3 × 50 μL of methanol with 0.1% formic acid. The chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on XBridge Amide™ BEH analytical column (3.0mm × 100 mm, 3.5 µm) using gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of phase A: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in water pH 3.0 and phase B: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in acetonitrile pH 3.0. The LC-HILIC-MS method was validated and, in optimum conditions, presented good linearity in concentration range within 10-2000 ng/mL for all the analytes with a determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.999 for plasma and urine samples. Method recovery ranged within 87.6-104.3% for plasma samples and 84.2-98.6% for urine samples. The developed method utilizing polar APS sorbent along with polar HILIC column was applied for

  14. Characterizing gaseous flow in submicron chromatography columns.

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Chung-Nin Channy

    2003-05-01

    Enormous interest exists to develop the next generation of an integrated microsystem for chemical and biological analysis ({mu}ChemLab{trademark}) and to further reduce the volume of the system. One approach is to scale down the size of critical components and to explore any pumping mechanism that can minimize the power requirement. Since the majority of the pumping requirement is to overcome the wall resistance in the gas chromatography (GC) column, our attention is to study the gas flow in this GC column. As the column dimension decreases, the gaseous flow will go from a continuum regime into a non-continuum regime; i.e., slip, transition, and free molecular regimes. Thus it is very important to well characterize the gaseous flow in submicron columns and to understand its flow behavior. Specifically, in this study, our focus is to investigate the effects of viscosity, rarefaction, and compressibility as the column dimension decreases. Both theoretical predictions and experimental results will be presented.

  15. Principles of Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalyar, Stephen R.

    This article reviews the basic principles of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The introductory section provides an overview of the HPLC technique, placing it in historical context and discussing the elementary facts of the separation mechanism. The next section discusses the nature of resolution, describing the two principal aspects, zone center separation and zone spreading. The third section takes a detailed look at how HPLC is used in practice to achieve a separation. It discusses the three key variables that need to be adjusted: retention, efficiency, and selectivity. A fourth section is concerned with various relationships of practical importance: flow rate, temperature, and pressure. A final section discusses future trends in HPLC.

  16. The fabrication of monolithic capillary column based on poly (bisphenol A epoxy vinyl ester resin-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and its applications for the separation of small molecules in high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wenjing; Wang, Lijuan; Bai, Ligai; Yang, Gengliang

    2013-07-05

    A new polymeric monolith was synthesized in fused-silica capillary by in situ polymerization technique. In the polymerization, bisphenol A epoxy vinyl ester resin (VER) was used as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the crosslinking monomer, 1,4-butanediol, 1-propanol and water as the co-porogens, and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. The conditions of polymerization have been optimized. Morphology of the prepared poly (VER-co-EDMA) monolith was investigated by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM); pore properties were assayed by mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption. The optimized poly (VER-co-EDMA) monolith showed a uniform structure, good permeability and mechanical stability. Then, the column was used as the stationary phase of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate the mixture of benzene derivatives. The best column efficiency achieved for phenol was 235790 theoretical plates per meter. Baseline separations of benzene derivatives and halogenated benzene compounds under optimized isocratic mode conditions were achieved with high column efficiency. The column showed good reproducibility: the relative standard deviation (RSD) values based on the retention times (n=3) for run-to-run, column-to-column and batch-to-batch were less than 0.98, 1.68, 5.48%, respectively. Compared with poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monolithic column, the proposed monolith exhibited more efficiency in the separation of small molecules.

  17. Analysis of carbohydrates in drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography with a dynamically modified amino column and evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Ding, M Y

    2000-12-22

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with a dynamically modified amino column and evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was established for the direct analysis of the carbohydrates in some drinks. A separation column (Zorbax Rx-SIL, 250 mm x 4.6 mm I.D., 5 microm, Hewlett-Packard, USA) which was modified by ethylenediamine and a guard column (Zorbax Rx-SIL, 12.5 mm x 4.6 mm I.D., 5 microm) were used. The mobile phase was a mixture of water-acetonitrile (1:2.6, v/v) containing 0.03% (v/v) ethylenediamine. Regression equations revealed linear relationship (correlation coefficients=0.996-0.999) between the mass of carbohydrates injected and the carbohydrates peak areas detected by ELSD. The detection limits of ELSD (S/N=3) were between 0.2 and 1.2 microg for different carbohydrates. This method is simple and sensitive.

  18. Determination of naftopidil enantiomers in rat plasma using chiral solid phases and pre-column derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiawen; Zhang, Yunying; Yuan, Mu; Sun, Yinxiang

    2012-10-15

    Two bioanalytical HPLC methods (chiral solid phases (CSPs) HPLC and pre-column derivatization HPLC) were developed and validated for the determination of naftopidil enantiomers in rat plasma. Analytes were extracted from biomaterials by liquid-liquid extraction. The pre-column derivatization HPLC method employed (+)-diacetyl-L-tartaric anhydride (DATAN) as the pre-column derivatization reagent, and subsequent separation of diastereomers was conducted on an Agilent Hypersil ODS column with a mixture of methanol-acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 4.1; 20 mM) (40:30:30, v/v/v) flowing at 1 mL/min as the mobile phase. The CSPs HPLC method utilized a Chiralpak IA column with a mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-acetate buffer (pH 5.3; 5 mM) (50:25:25, v/v/v) flowing at 0.5 mL/min. In both methods, the analytes were monitored using a fluorescence detector with an excitation wavelength of 290 nm and an emission wavelength of 340 nm. Both methods were consistent (RSD<15% by the derivatization method and<10% by the CSPs method) and linear (r>9950). Compared to the pre-column derivatization method, the CSPs method had lower quantification limits (10.6/9.6 ng/mL of (+)-/(-)-naftopidil by derivatization method and 1.1/1.8 ng/mL of (+)-/(-)-naftopidil by CSPs method), and was simpler to carry out. The validated CSPs method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of naftopidil enantiomers in rats, which showed that pharmacokinetic parameters of (+)- and (-)-NAF after intravenous administration of (±)-NAF were similar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of co-administrated opioids and benzodiazepines in urine using column-switching solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lingjuan; Wang, Rong; Liang, Chen; Teng, Xiaomei; Jiang, Fengli; Zeng, Libo; Ye, Haiying; Ni, Chunfang; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Rao, Yulan; Zhang, Yurong

    2015-05-22

    Co-administration of opioids with benzodiazepines is very common around the world. A semi-automated method was developed for the determination of four opioids and two benzodiazepines as well as their metabolites (including glucuronide metabolites) in human urine, based on on-line column-switching-solid-phase extraction (CS-SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The CS-SPE was performed by loading 200μL of urine sample to an Oasis HLB cartridge. Detection was achieved using a LC-MS/MS system equipped with an electrospray ionization source (ESI). For unequivocal identification and confirmation, two selected reaction monitoring transitions were registered for each compound, and no co-elution of interferences was observed at the expected retention time. Significant ion suppressions were observed for most analytes during chromatographic runs, but isotope-labeled internal standards (ISs) were used and found to be useful to compensate for the determination error caused by the matrix effect. The assay's linearity ranged from 1-20ng/mL to 800-1000ng/mL for 23 compounds, except for lorazepam (LOR), whose linearity was in the range of 1-100ng/mL. This method showed to be precise and accurate. The relative standard deviation (RSD) % values of within-run precision, between-run precision and total precision were not greater than 10.4% (n=3), 12.9% (n=5) and 15.1% (n=15), respectively. Accuracy values were in the range of 87.5-110%. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.2ng/mL to 5ng/mL, and limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1ng/mL to 20ng/mL. The method was applied to the assay of 12 samples from forensic cases, which exemplified the co-administration of benzodiazepines (BZDs) by some heroin abusers. This method was of high sensitivity, selectivity and reliability, minimum sample manipulation, semi-automation, and fairly high throughput (analysis time per sample was 20min). The method developed will be useful for the detection of co

  20. Determination of semduramicin in poultry feed additive, premixture and compound feed by liquid chromatography and UV spectrophotometric detection after post-column derivatisation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Ursula; Serano, Federica; de la Huebra, María José González; von Holst, Christoph

    2012-03-05

    A new, simple and fit for purpose method based on liquid chromatography with UV spectrophotometric detection and post-column derivatisation (LC-UV-PCD) for the determination of semduramicin in poultry compound feed, premixtures and feed additive as well as its discrimination from other coccidiostats in poultry compound feed has been developed and single-laboratory validated. The concentration levels of the target analyte at which the validation experiments have been carried out varied between 12.8 and 51.3 mg kg(-1) in compound feed, covering the authorised levels of semduramicin according to European Union legislation. Furthermore, the method has been validated for a premixture sample containing semduramicin at 3 g kg(-1) and the feed additive containing semduramicin at 51 g kg(-1). The method developed involved a simple extraction of the coccidiostats with acetonitrile from the feed samples followed by a filtration of the supernatants. The resulting supernatants were submitted to chromatographic analysis. When analysing the feed additive and the premixture samples, the extraction solution was appropriately diluted prior to LC-UV-PCD analysis. The analytes were quantified through an external calibration curve prepared with pure semduramicin standards. The relative standard deviations for repeatability and for intermediate precision varied from 2.4 to 8.8% and from 2.6 to 8.8%, respectively, and the values for the relative recovery rate ranged from 89 to 95%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were estimated to be below 1 mg kg(-1) and 3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the results showed a comparable performance profile, when using methyl isobutyl ketone instead of acetonitrile as extraction solvent.Based on the obtained method performance characteristics, the method is considered suitable for the determination of semduramicin in poultry compound feed at authorised level, in premixtures and in the feed additive, hence allowing the

  1. Pre-column incubation followed by fast liquid chromatography analysis for rapid screening of natural methylglyoxal scavengers directly from herbal medicines: case study of Polygonum cuspidatum.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dan; Zhu, Jia-Xiao; Wu, An-Guo; Xu, You-Hua; Duan, Ting-Ting; Zheng, Zhao-Guang; Wang, Ru-Shang; Li, Dan; Zhu, Quan

    2013-04-19

    Methylglyoxal (MGO), a very reactive metabolite of glucose, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases associated with diabetes, and it has been validated as an attractive target for them. In the present study, a simple and effective method, namely pre-column incubation followed by fast high performance liquid chromatography based on superficially porous particles (shell), coupled with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS(n)), was proposed for rapid and high-throughput screening of natural MGO scavengers directly from the crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine which was used for treatment of diabetic complications. The hypothesis is that upon reaction with MGO, the peak areas of components with MGO scavenging potency in the chromatogram will be significantly reduced or disappear, and the structural characterization could be achieved by UHPLC-DAD-MS(n) hyphenated technique. First of all, 12 compounds in P. cuspidatum were well separated within shorter time (~12 min) than previous methods and identified, and two of them, i.e. 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene-3-O-(6″-galloyl)-glucoside (3) and emodin-8-O-(6'-malonyl)-glucoside (8) were firstly reported ingredients. After incubation with MGO, four stilbene derivatives were demonstrated to possess potential MGO trapping activities. Furthermore, it was proved that both polydatin (piceid) and resveratrol exhibited effective MGO-trapping capacity by UHPLC analysis, and they could significantly inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the human serum albumin (HSA)-MGO assay, indicating that they were potential candidate agents for delaying and preventing diabetic complications. Additionally, MGO trapping mechanism exploration by UHPLC-MS(n) showed that the positions 2 and 4 of the A ring of stilbene were major active sites for trapping MGO to form both mono- and di-MGO adducts, however, the

  2. Determination of clarithromycin in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography after pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Bahareh

    2007-05-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of clarithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, in human serum using pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) is described. The method involved liquid-liquid extraction of the drug and an internal standard (amantadine) followed by pre-column derivatization of the analytes with FMOC-Cl. A mixture of 0.05 M phosphate buffer containing triethylamine (2 mL L(-1); pH 3.8) and methanol (17:83, v/v) was used as mobile phase and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shimpack CLC-ODS column. The eluate was monitored by a fluorescence detector with respective excitation and emission wavelengths of 265 and 315 nm. The analytical method was linear over the concentration range of 0.025-10 microg mL(-1) of clarithromycin in human serum with a limit of quantification of 0.025 microg mL(-1). The assay is sensitive enough to measure drug levels obtained in human single dose studies. In the present method, sensitivity and run time of analysis have been improved, and successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of three different clarithromycin preparations in 12 healthy volunteers.

  3. Selective extraction and analysis of catecholamines in rat blood microdialysate by polymeric ionic liquid-diphenylboric acid-packed capillary column and fast separation in high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinguang; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2015-08-28

    Concentration of blood catecholamines (CAs) is linked to a host of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and stenocardia. The matrix interferences and low concentration require tedious sample pretreatment methods before quantitative analysis by the gold standard method of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD). Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been widely used as the pretreatment technique. Here, a facile polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-diphenylboric acid (DPBA)-packed capillary column was prepared to selectively extract dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NE) and epinephrine (E) prior to their quantitative analysis by a fast separation in HPLC-ECD method, while microdialysis sampling method was applied to get the analysis sample. Parameters that influenced desorption efficiency, such as pH, salt concentration, acetonitrile content and wash time, were examined and optimized. The proposed method, combining microdialysis sampling technique, SPE and HPLC-ECD system, was successfully applied to detect CAs in rat blood microdialysate with high sensitivity and selectivity in small sample volumes (5-40μl) and a short analysis time (8min), yielding good reproducibility (RSD 6.5-7.7%) and spiked recovery (91-104.4%).

  4. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid... pressure. The device may include accessories such as columns, gases, column supports, and liquid...

  5. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid... pressure. The device may include accessories such as columns, gases, column supports, and liquid...

  6. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid... pressure. The device may include accessories such as columns, gases, column supports, and liquid...

  7. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  8. Automated analysis of fluvoxamine in rat plasma using a column-switching system and ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shicheng; Shinkai, Norihiro; Kakubari, Ikuhiro; Saitoh, Hideo; Noguchi, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Takashi; Yamauchi, Hitoshi

    2008-12-01

    We have established a robust, fully automated analytical method for the analysis of fluvoxamine in rat plasma using a column-switching ion-pair high-performance chromatography system. The plasma sample was injected onto a precolumn packed with Shim-pack MAYI-ODS (50 microm), where the drug was automatically purified and enriched by on-line solid-phase extraction. After elution of the plasma proteins, the analyte was back-flushed from the precolumn and then separated isocratically on a reversed-phase C18 column (L-column ODS) with a mobile phase (acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid, 36:64, v/v) containing 2 mM sodium 1-octanesulfonate. The analyte was monitored by a UV detector at a wavelength of 254 nm. The calibration line for fluvoxamine showed good linearity in the range of 5-5000 ng/mL (r > 0.999) with the limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL (RSD = 6.51%). Accuracy ranged from -2.94 to 4.82%, and the within- and between-day precision of the assay was better than 8% across the calibration range. The analytical sensitivity and accuracy of this assay is suitable for characterization of the pharmacokinetics of orally-administered fluvoxamine in rats.

  9. Simultaneous determination of ampicillin and sulbactam by liquid chromatography: post-column reaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite using an active hollow-fibre membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Haginaka, J; Nishimura, Y

    1990-10-26

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ampicillin (ABPC) and sulbactam (SBT) in serum and urine. The method involves separation of ABPC and SBT from the background components of serum and urine on a C18 column, post-column reaction with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite using an active hollow-fibre membrane reactor, and detection at 270 nm. At ABPC and SBT concentrations of 10 and 5 micrograms/ml in urine and serum samples, the precisions (relative standard deviations) were 0.9-2.5% (n = 8). The detection limits were 20 and 5 ng for ABPC and SBT, respectively, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  10. Post-column reaction for simultaneous analysis of chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet by high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Meinertz, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet were readily separated and detected by a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The chromatic and leuco forms of the dyes were separated within 11 min on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.05 M acetic acid in water (19%) and methanol (81%). A reaction chamber, containing 10% PbO2 in Celite 545, was placed between the column and the spectrophotometric detector to oxidize the leuco forms of the dyes to their chromatic forms. Chromatic and leuco malachite green were quantified by their absorbance at 618 nm; and chromatic and leuco Crystal Violet by their absorbance at 588 nm. Detection limits for chromatic and leuco forms of both dyes ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 ng. A linear range of 1 to 100 ng was established for both forms of the dyes.

  11. Instrument platforms for nano liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Šesták, Jozef; Moravcová, Dana; Kahle, Vladislav

    2015-11-20

    The history of liquid chromatography started more than a century ago and miniaturization and automation are two leading trends in this field. Nanocolumn liquid chromatography (nano LC) and largely synonymous capillary liquid chromatography (capillary LC) are the most recent results of this process where miniaturization of column dimensions and sorbent particle size play crucial role. Very interesting results achieved in the research of extremely miniaturized LC columns at the end of the last century lacked distinctive raison d'être and only advances in mass spectrometry brought a real breakthrough. Configuration of nano LC-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) has become a basic tool in bioanalytical chemistry, especially in proteomics. This review discusses and summarizes past and current trends in the realization of nano liquid chromatography (nano LC) platforms. Special attention is given to the mobile phase delivery under nanoflow rates (isocratic, gradient) and sample injection to the nanocolumn. Available detection techniques applied in nano LC separations are also briefly discussed. We followed up the key themes from the original scientific reports over gradual improvements up to the contemporary commercial solutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous determination of neutral and acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewater by high-performance liquid chromatography-post-column photochemically induced fluorimetry.

    PubMed

    González-Barreiro, C; Lores, M; Casais, M C; Cela, R

    2003-04-18

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of acidic and neutral pharmaceutical active compound (PhACs) residues in wastewater has been developed based on the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and photochemically induced fluorimetry. The photoderivatization conditions for each particular PhAC have been assessed. Off-line optimization of the HPLC separation for both neutral and acidic compounds has been utilised and evaluated. Detection limits in the low ng/ml range have been achieved without sample pretreatment. By applying the developed analytical method combined with solid-phase extraction to real wastewater samples an enrichment factor of approximately two orders of magnitude can be obtained.

  13. Methodology for optimally sized centrifugal partition chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Sébastien; Marchal, Luc; Jérémy Meucci; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Legrand, Jack; Foucault, Alain

    2015-04-03

    Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) is a separation process based on the partitioning of solutes between two partially miscible liquid phases. There is no solid support for the stationary phase. The centrifugal acceleration is responsible for both stationary phase retention and mobile phase dispersion. CPC is thus a process based on liquid-liquid mass transfer. The separation efficiency is mainly influenced by the hydrodynamics of the phases in each cell of the column. Thanks to a visualization system, called "Visual CPC", it was observed that the mobile phase can flow through the stationary phase as a sheet, or a spray. Hydrodynamics, which directly governs the instrument efficiency, is directly affected during scale changes, and non-linear phenomena prevent the successful achievement of mastered geometrical scale changes. In this work, a methodology for CPC column sizing is proposed, based on the characterization of the efficiency of advanced cell shapes, taking into account the hydrodynamics. Knowledge about relationship between stationary phase volume, cell efficiency and separation resolution in CPC allowed calculating the optimum cell number for laboratory and industrial scale CPC application. The methodology is highlighted with results on five different geometries from 25 to 5000 mL, for two applications: the separation of alkylbenzene by partitioning with heptane/methanol/water biphasic system; and the separation of peptides by partitioning with n-butanol/acetic acid/water (4/1/5) biphasic system. With this approach, it is possible to predict the optimal CPC column length leading to highest productivity.

  14. Novel on-line column extraction apparatus coupled with binary peak focusing for high-performance liquid chromatography determination of rifampicin in human plasma: a strategy for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Peng, Min; Long, Minghui; Qiu, Ximin; Yang, Liping

    2014-12-01

    In order to develop a method that is completely suitable for the routine therapeutic drug monitoring, a sensitive and fully automated on-line column extraction apparatus in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography allowing binary peak focusing was developed and validated for the determination of rifampicin in human plasma. Rifapentine was used as an internal standard. The analytical cycle started with the injection of 100 μL of the sample pretreated by protein precipitation in a Venusil SCX extraction column. After the elution, the analytes were transferred and concentrated in an Xtimate C18 trap column. Finally, the trapped analytes were separated by an Xtimate C18 analytical column and were analyzed by an ultraviolet detector at 336 nm. With this new strategy, continuous on-line analysis of the compounds was successfully performed. The method showed excellent performance for the analysis of rifampicin in plasma samples, including calibration curve linearity (All r were larger than 0.9996), sensitivity (lowest limit of quantification was 0.12 μg/mL), method accuracy (within 6.6% in terms of relative error), and precision (relative standard deviations of intra- and interday precision were less than 7.8%). These results demonstrated that the simple, reliable, and automatic method based on on-line column extraction and binary peak focusing is a promising approach for therapeutic drug monitoring in complex biomatrix samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Development of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection system with a single column and liquid nitrogen-free for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengtang; Mu, Yujing; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Sheng, Jiujiang; Quan, Jiannong

    2016-01-04

    A liquid nitrogen-free GC-FID system equipped with a single column has been developed for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons. The system is consisted of a cooling unit, a sampling unit and a separation unit. The cooling unit is used to meet the temperature needs of the sampling unit and the separation unit. The sampling unit includes a dehydration tube and an enrichment tube. No breakthrough of the hydrocarbons was detected when the temperature of the enrichment tube was kept at -90 °C and sampling volume was 400 mL. The separation unit is a small round oven attached on the cooling column. A single capillary column (OV-1, 30 m × 0.32 mm I.D.) was used to separate the hydrocarbons. An optimal program temperature (-60 ∼ 170 °C) of the oven was achieved to efficiently separate C2-C12 hydrocarbons. There were good linear correlations (R(2)=0.993-0.999) between the signals of the hydrocarbons and the enrichment amount of hydrocarbons, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the hydrocarbons were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppbv for sampling volume of 400 mL. Field measurements were also conducted and more than 50 hydrocarbons from C2 to C12 were detected in Beijing city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of a beta-cyclodextrin sulfate-immobilized precolumn to selective on-line enrichment and separation of heparin-binding proteins by column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ishimura, K; Fukunaga, K; Irie, T; Uekama, K; Ohta, T; Nakamura, H

    1997-05-09

    A column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system which consisted of a beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) sulfate-immobilized hydrophilic vinyl-polymer gel precolumn and a reversed-phase analytical column was developed for the selective on-line enrichment and separation of heparin-binding proteins. Of 15 proteins investigated, 10 proteins having heparin-binding activity were retained on the beta-CD sulfate precolumn almost quantitatively, in contrast 5 proteins having no heparin-binding activity were not retained. Calibration graphs for basic fibroblast growth factor constructed at various sample volumes were nearly identical, indicating that the protein could be enriched by this system. The system was successfully used for the selective separation of lysozyme in egg white. The beta-CD sulfate-immobilized precolumn showed no loss of analytical performance over 2 years during which about 400 samples were analysed.

  17. Ionic liquids monolithic columns for protein separation in capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-Cui; Deng, Qi-Liang; Fang, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hui-Lin; Wu, Jian-Hua; Pan, Ming-Fei; Wang, Shuo

    2013-12-04

    A series of ionic liquids (ILs) monolithic capillary columns based on 1-vinyl-3-octylimidazolium (ViOcIm(+)) were prepared by two approaches ("one-pot" approach and "anion-exchange" approach). The effects of different anions (bromide, Br(-); tetrafluoroborate, BF4(-); hexafluorophosphate, PF6(-); and bis-trifluoromethanesulfonylimide, NTf2(-)) on chromatography performance of all the resulting columns were investigated systematically under capillary electrochromatography (CEC) mode. The results indicated that all these columns could generate a stable reversed electroosmotic flow (EOF) over a wide pH range from 2.0 to 12.0. For the columns prepared by "one-pot" approach, the EOF decreased in the order of ViOcIm(+)Br(-)>ViOcIm(+)BF4(-)>ViOcIm(+)PF6(-)>ViOcIm(+)NTf2(-) under the same CEC conditions; the ViOcIm(+)Br(-) based column exhibited highest column efficiencies for the test small molecules; the ViOcIm(+)NTf2(-) based column possessed the strongest retention for aromatic hydrocarbons; and baseline separation of four standard proteins was achieved on ViOcIm(+)NTf2(-) based column corresponding to the highest column efficiency of 479,000 N m(-1) for cytochrome c (Cyt c). These results indicated that the property of ILs based columns could be tuned successfully by changing anions, which gave these columns potential to separate both small molecules and macro biomolecules.

  18. Recent applications of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Feng-Qing; Ge, Liya; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, an alternative liquid chromatography mode, is of particular interest in separating hydrophilic and polar ionic compounds. Compared with traditional liquid chromatography techniques, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography offers specific advantages mainly including: (1) relatively green and water-soluble mobile phase composition, which enhances the solubility of hydrophilic and polar ionic compounds; (2) no need for ion-pairing reagents and high content of organic solvent, which benefits mass spectrometry detection; (3) high orthogonality to reverse-phase liquid chromatography, well adapted to two-dimensional liquid chromatography for complicated samples. Therefore, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography has been rapidly developed in many areas over the past decades. This review summarizes the recent progress (from 2012 to July 2016) of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis, with the focus on detecting chemical drugs in various matrices, charactering active compounds of natural products and assessing biotherapeutics through typical structure unit. Moreover, the retention mechanism and behavior of analytes in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography as well as some novel hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography columns used for pharmaceutical analysis are also described.

  19. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organophosphate pesticides in whole water by continuous liquid-liquid extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jha, Virendra K.; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 organophosphate pesticide degradates from natural-water samples is described. Compounds are extracted from water samples with methylene chloride using a continuous liquid-liquid extractor for 6 hours. The solvent is evaporated using heat and a flow of nitrogen to a volume of 1 milliliter and solvent exchanged to ethyl acetate. Extracted compounds are determined by capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator derived method detection limits in three water-matrix samples ranged from 0.003 to 0.009 microgram per liter. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds in three different matrices at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration in each matrix. Mean recoveries of most method compounds spiked in surface-water samples ranged from 54 to 137 percent and those in ground-water samples ranged from 40 to 109 percent for all pesticides. Recoveries in reagent-water samples ranged from 42 to 104 percent for all pesticides. The only exception was O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate, which had variable recovery in all three matrices ranging from 27 to 79 percent. As a result, the detected concentration of O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate in samples is reported in this method with an estimated remark code. Based on the performance issue, two more compounds, disulfoton and ethion monoxon, also will be reported in this method with an estimated remark code. Estimated-value compounds, which are ?E-coded? in the data base, do not meet the performance criteria for unqualified quantification, but are retained in the method because the compounds are important owing to high use or potential environmental effects and because analytical performance has been consistent and reproducible.

  20. Simultaneous determination of fat-soluble vitamins and provitamins in dairy products by liquid chromatography with a narrow-bore column.

    PubMed

    Blanco, D; Fernández, M P; Gutiérrez, M D

    2000-03-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D2, D3, E and K1, retinyl acetate, retinyl palmitate, tocopherol acetate, ergosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol in milk and butter. Narrow-bore columns are recommended because this alternative provides a good separation and efficiency, plus greater economy and sensitivity. Detection limits for individual vitamins range from 0.14 to 6.9 ng. All vitamins are separated in less than 33 min. For the simultaneous determination of these vitamins and provitamins we use two sample pre-treatment methods, a liquid-liquid extraction with hexane or a solid-phase extraction with a C18 cartridge. Recovery studies show good results for all solutes (84-108% and 85-108% for milk and butter, respectively) and the intra-day coefficients of variations range from 1.6 to 4.5%. These methods permit the simple determination of fat-soluble vitamins using a small sample volume.

  1. Monitoring of ethanol during fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate by on-line microdialysis sampling, column liquid chromatography, and an alcohol biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, T.; Gorton, L.; Jarskog, H.; Marko-Varga, G. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry); Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Meinander, N.; Olsson, L. . Dept. of Applied Microbiology)

    1994-07-01

    During a 70-h fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate, the ethanol produced was monitored on-line using a microdialysis probe as an in situ sampling device. The dialysate components were then separated in a column liquid chromatographic system and the ethanol was selectively detected by an amperometric alcohol biosensor. The result was compared with two off-line analysis methods: one chromatographic method with refractive index (RI) detection and one enzymatic method based on spectrophotometric detection. The two methods based on enzymes were shown to give lower values than the chromatographic method based on RI detection, which is discussed in terms of selectivity. The investigated on-line setup was found to be a flexible system for monitoring of fermentations, allowing a sampling frequency of at least 12 h[sup [minus]1] and with a delay between sampling and detection of less than 5 min.

  2. Monitoring of ethanol during fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate by on-line microdialysis sampling, column liquid chromatography, and an alcohol biosensor.

    PubMed

    Buttler, T; Gorton, L; Jarskog, H; Marko-Varga, G; Hahn-Hägerdal, B; Meinander, N; Olsson, L

    1994-07-01

    During a 70-h fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate, the ethanol produced was monitored on-line using a microdialysis probe as an in situ sampling device. The dialysate components were then separated in a column liquid chromatographic system and the ethanol was selectively detected by an amperometric alcohol biosensor. The result was compared with two off-line analysis methods: one chromatographic method with refractive index (RI) detection and one enzymatic method based on spectrophotometric detection. The two methods base on enzymes were shown to give lower values than the chromatographic method based on RI detection, which is discussed n terms of selectivity. The investigated on-line setup was found to be a flexible system for monitoring of fermentations, allowing a sampling frequency of at least 12 h(-1) and with a delay between sampling and detection of less than 5 min.

  3. Automated determination of total captopril in urine by liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization coupled to on-line solid phase extraction in a sequential injection manifold.

    PubMed

    Karakosta, Theano D; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Themelis, Demetrius G

    2012-01-15

    The present study reports a new liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of the anti-hypertension drug captopril (CAP) in human urine. After its separation from the sample matrix in a reversed phase HPLC column, CAP reacts with the thiol-selective reagent ethyl-propiolate (EP) in a post-column configuration and the formed thioacrylate derivative is detected at 285 nm. Automated 4-fold preconcentration of the analyte prior to analysis was achieved by an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) step using a sequential injection (SI) manifold. The Oasis HLB SPE cartridges offered quantitative recoveries and effective sample cleaning by applying a simple SPE protocol. The limits of detection and quantitation were 10 μg L(-1) and 35 μg L(-1) respectively. The percent recoveries for the analysis of human urine samples ranged between 90 and 96% and 95 and 104% using aqueous and matrix matched calibration curves respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of isoflavones in soy bits by fast column high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-visible diode-array detection.

    PubMed

    Klejdus, Borivoj; Mikelová, Radka; Petrlová, Jitka; Potesil, David; Adam, Vojtech; Stiborová, Marie; Hodek, Petr; Vacek, Jan; Kizek, René; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2005-08-19

    A fast determination of isoflavones (genistin, genistein, daidzein, daidzin, glycitin, glycitein, ononin, formononetin, sissotrin and biochanin A) by HPLC/UV-vis-DAD working at 254 nm is described. An Atlantis dC18 fast reversed-phase chromatographic column (20 mm x 2.1 mm, 3 microm particle size) was used at a flow rate 0.35 ml min(-1) of a mobile phase consisted from 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid (A) at pH 3.75 and methanol. (B). A linear gradient profile was used for separation at the column temperature 36 degrees C. Limits of detection (LODs for 3 S/N criterion) per sample injection (5 microl) ranged from 166.2 to 17.0 fmol (9.4-1.1 ng ml(-1) for biochanin A and genistin, respectively. The recoveries 96-106% were obtained for the different concentrations of the isoflavones (RSDs 2-8%). The pressurized liquid extraction/HPLC/UV-vis-DAD method was used for the determination of the isoflavones in soy bits (28-962 microg g(-1) dry weight). The proposed procedure is faster (ca. 8 min) without loosing its separation efficiency (up to 10 isoflavonoids can be determined) and sensitivity (tens to hundreds fmol).

  5. High-performance liquid chromatography of N-terminal tyrosine-containing oligopeptides by pre-column fluorescence derivatization with hydroxylamine, cobalt (II) and borate reagents.

    PubMed

    Nakano, M; Kai, M; Ohno, M; Ohkura, Y

    1987-12-18

    A pre-column fluorescence derivatization method is described for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of N-terminal tyrosine-containing oligopeptides involving methionine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin. The peptides are converted into fluorescent derivatives by heating in a weakly alkaline medium (pH 8.5) containing hydroxylamine, cobalt(II) ion and borate. The derivatives are separated on a reversed-phase column (TSKgel ODS-120T) by gradient elution of acetonitrile in a mobile phase containing borate buffer (pH 8.5) and tetra-n-butylammonium chloride, and then determined by fluorimetry. The derivatization provides a single fluorescent product for each N-terminal tyrosine-containing oligopeptide, but does not allow the production of fluorescent derivatives for peptides having no tyrosyl residue at the N-terminal. The method is selective and sensitive; the lower limits of detection for the N-terminal tyrosine-containing oligopeptides tested were 140-310 fmol per 100 microliters injected.

  6. An Inexpensive Liquid Chromatography Apparatus for Undergraduate Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamish, Malcolm; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, low-pressure liquid chromatography pump, slurry filler, stainless steel columns, and injector system suitable for the undergraduate laboratory or routine analysis. Includes sectional diagram of the pump and construction diagram of the preparative columns. (Author/SK)

  7. An Inexpensive Liquid Chromatography Apparatus for Undergraduate Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamish, Malcolm; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, low-pressure liquid chromatography pump, slurry filler, stainless steel columns, and injector system suitable for the undergraduate laboratory or routine analysis. Includes sectional diagram of the pump and construction diagram of the preparative columns. (Author/SK)

  8. High-performance liquid chromatofocusing and column affinity chromatography of in vitro 14C-glycated human serum albumin. Demonstration of a glycation-induced anionic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Vidal, P; Deckert, T; Hansen, B; Welinder, B S

    1989-08-04

    High-performance liquid chromatofocusing of human serum albumin (HSA) after in vitro glycation with purified [14C]glucose has shown that with increasing glycation time a progressive increase in two major anionic fractions (pI 4.8 and 4.65) occurs, while the pI 4.9 fraction decreases in parallel. As early as after 5 days of glycation time, the [14C]glucose content in the anionic fractions was markedly higher than in the pI 4.9 fraction. After 10 and 15 days of glycation, a considerable heterogeneity of 10-15 components could be demonstrated. In addition, phenyl-boronic acid (PBA) affinity chromatography was applied and an enrichment of the more glycated species could be obtained using this method. We conclude that, in contrast to previous reports, glycation of HSA induces anionic heterogeneity (in accordance with the theoretically expected loss of positively charged amino groups) and, although the efficiency in separating non-glycated from monoglycated HSA was found to be very low, an enrichment of these anionic species can be achieved using PBA affinity chromatography.

  9. Multi-residue analytical method for the determination of endocrine disruptors and related compounds in river and waste water using dual column liquid chromatography switching system coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gorga, Marina; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damià

    2013-06-21

    The present study describes a novel, fully automated method, based on column switching using EQuan™ columns for an integrated sample preconcentration and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-LC-MS/MS). The method allows the unequivocal identification and quantification of the most relevant environmental endocrine disruptors compounds (EDCs) and compounds suspected to be EDCs, such as natural and synthetic estrogens and their conjugates, antimicrobials, parabens, bisphenol A, alkylphenolic compounds, benzotriazoles, and organophosphorus flame retardants, in surface river water and wastewater samples. Applying this technique, water samples were directly injected into the chromatographic system and the target compounds were concentrated into the loading column. Thereafter, the analytes were transferred into the analytical column for subsequent detection by MS-MS (QqQ). A comparative study employing three types of columns, with different chemical modifications, was performed in order to determine the optimal column that allowed maximum retention and subsequent elution of the analytes. Using this new optimized methodology a fast and easy online methodology for the analysis of EDCs in surface river water and wastewater with low limits of quantification (LOQ) was obtained. LOQs ranged from 0.008 to 1.54 ng/L for surface river water and from 0.178/0.364 to 12.5/25.0 ng/L (except for alkylphenol monoethoxylates) for effluent/influent waste water. Moreover, employing approximately 1h, a complete analysis was performed which was significant improvement in comparison to other methods reported previously. This method was used to track the presence and fate of target compounds in the Ebro River which is the most important river in Spain whose intensive agricultural and industrial activities concentrate mainly close to the main cities in the basin, deteriorating soil and water quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simple determination of L-hydroxyproline in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung tissues of rats using non-extractive high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with novel synthetic 9-acetylimidazol-carbazole.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yan; Zhao, Juanjuan; Shi, Yanan; Chen, Caiyun; Chen, Xiangming; Lv, Changjun

    2017-08-05

    L-Hydroxyproline (L-Hyp) is an important biomarker for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The quantitative methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization typically requires complicated derivatization conditions and obtains unstable derivatives. Here, a novel derivatization reagent, 9-acetylimidazol-carbazole, was synthesized for the first time to efficiently and rapidly label the amino groups of L-Hyp. The high-performance liquid chromatography method with pre-column derivatization was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6×250mm, 5μm). The product was measured using fluorescence detection at excitation and emission wavelengths of 232 and 370nm, respectively. The method was validated in specificity, linearity, limit of detection (66.7 fmol), limit of quantification (333.3fmol), intra-day precision (0.75%), inter-day precision (3.82%), stability (3.15%), and recovery (90.7-109.4%). The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of L-Hyp in the lung tissues of healthy and IPF rats. The results showed that the concentration of L-Hyp (3.64mg/g) in the IPF model was significantly higher than the concentration (2.33mg/g) in the healthy control group with P<0.01. This is a new method for the determination of L-Hyp and can be used for other amino acid-related studies in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Evaluation of mobile phase characteristics on three zwitterionic columns in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode for liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry based untargeted metabolite profiling of Leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Watson, David G; Wang, Lijie; Westrop, Gareth D; Coombs, Graham H; Zhang, Tong

    2014-10-03

    It has been reported that HILIC column chemistry has a great effect on the number of detected metabolites in LC-HRMS-based untargeted metabolite profiling studies. However, no systematic investigation has been carried out with regard to the optimisation of mobile phase characteristics. In this study using 223 metabolite standards, we explored the retention mechanisms on three zwitterionic columns with varied mobile phase composition, demonstrated the interference from poor chromatographic peak shapes on the output of data extraction, and assessed the quality of chromatographic signals and the separation of isomers under each LC condition. As expected, on the ZIC-cHILIC column the acidic metabolites showed improved chromatographic performance at low pH which can be attributed to the opposite arrangement of the permanently charged groups on this column in comparison with the ZIC-HILIC column. Using extracts from the protozoan parasite Leishmania, we compared the numbers of repeatedly detected LC-HRMS features under different LC conditions with putative identification of metabolites not amongst the standards being based on accurate mass (±3ppm). Besides column chemistry, the pH of the mobile phase plays a key role in not only determining the retention mechanisms of solutes but also the output of the LC-HRMS data processing. Fast evaporation of ammonium carbonate produced less ion suppression in ESI source and consequently improved the detectability of the metabolites in low abundance in comparison with other ammonium salts. Our results show that the combination of a ZIC-pHILIC column with an ammonium carbonate mobile phase, pH 9.2, at 20mM in the aqueous phase or 10mM in both aqueous and organic mobile phase components, provided the most suitable LC conditions for LC-HRMS-based untargeted metabolite profiling of Leishmania parasite extracts. The signal reliability of the mass spectrometer used in this study (Exactive Orbitrap) was also investigated.

  12. Using a box instead of a column for process chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raja

    2016-10-14

    Columns with relatively short bed-height to diameter ratios are frequently used for process-scale chromatography applications such as biopharmaceutical purification. Non-uniform flow distribution within such columns could result in broad and poorly resolved eluted peaks, which could in turn affect purity, recovery and productivity of the process. Different strategies centered on improved column header design have been proposed for addressing this problem. This paper describes a radically different approach, i.e. the use of a chromatography box (or chromato-box) instead of a column, for addressing the challenges posed by flow mal-distribution in process-scale, packed-bed chromatography devices. The design of the chromatography box devices used in this study is based on a laterally-fed membrane chromatography (or LFMC) device, that has been described and discussed in several recent papers. The performances of two chromatography box devices were compared with their equivalent columns in terms of sharpness and asymmetry of flow-through and eluted peaks, number of theoretical plates per metre, and peak resolution in binary and ternary protein separations. In each of the above comparisons, the chromatography box devices performed better than their equivalent columns, clearly indicating their potential as an alternative in process-scale chromatography applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column with integrated nanoelectrospray ionization emitter for determination of perfluoroalkyl acids by nano-liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Ou, Junjie; Wei, Yinmao; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Zhongshan; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid fluorous monolithic column was simply prepared via photo-initiated free radical polymerization of an acrylopropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (acryl-POSS) and a perfluorous monomer (2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-dodecafluoroheptyl acrylate) in UV-transparent fused-silica capillaries within 5min. The physical characterization of hybrid fluorous monolith, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement was performed. Chromatographic performance was also evaluated by capillary liquid chromatography (cLC). Due to the fluorous-fluorous interaction between fluorous monolith and analytes, fluorobenzenes could well be separated, and the column efficiencies reached 86,600-92,500plates/m at the velocity of 0.87mm/s for alkylbenzenes and 51,900-76,000plates/m at the velocity of 1.10mm/s for fluorobenzenes. Meanwhile, an approach to integrate nanoelectrospray ionization (ESI) emitter with hybrid fluorous monolithic column was developed for quantitative determination of perfluoroalkyl acids by nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The integration design could minimize extracolumn volume, thus excluding undesirable peak broadening and improving separation performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography assay for on-line determination of catecholamines in adrenal gland by direct injection on an ISRP column.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, A; Toledo-Pinto, E A; Menezes, M L; Pereira, O C M

    2004-11-01

    In the present research, assays were improved for the determination of catecholamines in adrenal gland. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was employed for quantitative analysis. The method involved direct injection of acid extract on to a serum albumin dimethylocadecyl-silane (HSA-C18) and the utilization of phosphate buffer (pH = 3.0): methanol (97:3 v/v), 0.025 g heptanosulfonic acid and 0.0025 g EDTA as mobile phase. The detection was obtained using an electrochemical detector L-ECD-6A-Shimadzu with a potential of the 85 mV. Identification was based on retention time. Quantification was performed by automatic peak-area determination. The detection limit is equal to 0.5 ng ml(-1). The HPLC method with electrochemical detection proposed here permits good separation of catecholamines in samples of adrenal gland from rats. The method has various advantages: fast, high precision and good selectivity and do not require sample treatment. The immobilization stress during 5 min did not provoke alteration in catecholamines contains in rat adrenal gland, due to the short time of the stress exposure. This study shows that the catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) adrenal increased significantly after the acute immobilization stress during 30 min as compared to control group. This increase probably is due to the emotional component of the immobilization stress. In conclusion, our studies suggest an effective participation of the adrenal glands to maintain the homeostasis of organism to the stressful conditions.

  15. Validation of a method based on triglycerides for the detection of low percentages of hazelnut oil in olive oil by column liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    García-González, Diego L; Viera-Macías, María; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Morales, Maria T; Aparicio, Ramón

    2007-01-01

    The difference between theoretical and empirical triglyceride content is a powerful tool to detect the presence of any vegetable oil in olive oil. The current drawback of the method is the separation between equivalent carbon number ECN42 compounds, which affects the reliability of the method and, hence, its cutoff limit. The determination of the triglyceride profile by liquid chromatography using propionitrile as the mobile phase has recently been proposed to improve their quantification, together with a mathematical algorithm whose binary response determines the presence or absence of hazelnut oil. Twenty-one laboratories from 9 countries participated in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the performance characteristics of the whole analytical method. Participants analyzed 12 samples in duplicate, split into 3 intercomparison studies. Statistically significant differences due to the experimental conditions were found in some laboratories, which were detected as outliers by use of Cochran's and Grubbs' tests. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for repeatability and reproducibility were determined following the AOAC Guidelines for Collaborative Studies. The analytical properties of the method were determined by means of the sensitivity (0.86), selectivity (0.94), and reliability (72%) for a cutoff limit of 8% (probability 94%).

  16. Analysis of benzalkonium chloride in the effluent from European hospitals by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column ion-pairing and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kümmerer, K; Eitel, A; Braun, U; Hubner, P; Daschner, F; Mascart, G; Milandri, M; Reinthaler, F; Verhoef, J

    1997-07-11

    A highly reproducible and specific method for the analysis of the quaternary ammonium compound, benzalkonium chloride, in effluents from European hospitals is presented. Benzalkonium chloride was extracted with end-capped RP-18 solid-phase cartridges and was selectively eluted. The resulting solution was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After elution from the analytical column of the HPLC system, 9,10-dimethoxyanthracene-2-sulfonate was added continuously as a fluorescence marker, forming a hydrophobic ion-pair with benzalkonium chloride. The ion-pair was analyzed by fluorescence detection. The method was applied to highly complex effluent samples from different sized European hospitals. The measured concentrations were between 0.05 and 6.03 mg/l. The amounts emitted per bed and year were 4.5-362 g and did not correlate with the size of the hospital. The total amounts were 2.6-909 kg/year.

  17. Separation of enantiomers of chiral weak acids with polysaccharide-based chiral columns and aqueous-organic mobile phases in high-performance liquid chromatography: Typical reversed-phase behavior?

    PubMed

    Matarashvili, Iza; Ghughunishvili, Darejan; Chankvetadze, Lali; Takaishvili, Nino; Khatiashvili, Tamar; Tsintsadze, Maia; Farkas, Tivadar; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

    2017-02-03

    When polysaccharide-based chiral columns are used in combination with aqueous-organic mobile phases for the separation of enantiomers in high-performance liquid chromatography the separation mode is commonly called "reversed-phase" in analogy to achiral separations. In several earlier and recent studies on neutral and basic chiral analytes it was shown by our and other groups that due to multiple type of interactions involved in selector-selectand binding and enantioselective recognition with polysaccharide derivatives, the above mentioned separation system may not always behave like a reversed-phase system. In the present study additional examples of non-reversed-phase behavior are described for the first time for weak acidic chiral analytes. In addition, the reversal of enantiomer elution order was observed again for the first time for several analytes based on water-content in the mobile phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous determination of 13 carotenoids by a simple C18 column-based ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography method for carotenoid profiling in the astaxanthin-accumulating Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Lao, Yong Min; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Huai Jin; Cai, Zhong Hua

    2017-03-10

    A simple ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method for rapidly and simultaneously identifying thirteen carotenoids in Haematococcus pluvialis was developed in this study. The method is capable of effectively separating two astaxanthin isomers, two ζ-carotene isomers, and three phytoene isomers on two simple C18 columns within 9 and 12min only by using methanol and acetonitrile, respectively. To our best knowledge, this is the rapidest method for these carotenoid isomers, currently. Using this method, carotenoid profiling in the astaxanthin-accumulating H. pluvialis under environmental stresses was successfully carried out. Results indicated that carotenoid biosynthesis was differentially perturbed by environmental stresses, indicating that this simple and rapid method is suitable to not only bacterial but also algal samples, with potential applications for a wide range of samples from plant to animal. Finally, possible reasons for the elution order of carotenoids were studied.

  19. Sensitive fluorimetric determination of gentamicin sulfate in biological matrices using solid-phase extraction, pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stead, D A; Richards, R M

    1996-01-26

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of gentamicin in bacterial culture medium or plasma with increased sensitivity and improved separation of the C1 component. Gentamicin was extracted from the biological matrix with high efficiency using carboxypropyl (CBA)-bonded silica. Derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) followed by C18 reversed-phase chromatography allowed the fluorimetric detection of gentamicins C1, C1a and C2. A fourth component, considered to be gentamicin C2a, was partially resolved from the C2 peak. Optimal conditions for the extraction and derivatization of gentamicin are described. The detection limit was below 50 micrograms/l, the assay was linear to 5 mg/l and showed good reproducibility. It is concluded that pre-column derivatization with FMOC-Cl substantially improves the analysis of gentamicin compared with present methods based on reaction with o-phthaldialdehyde.

  20. RpeakChrom: Novel R package for the automated characterization and optimization of column efficiency in high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Peris-Díaz, Manuel David; Alcoriza-Balaguer, Maria Isabel; García-Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Santonja, Francisco; Sentandreu, Enrique; Lahoz, Agustín

    2017-06-30

    Characterization of chromatographic columns using the traditional van Deemter method is limited by the necessity of calculating extra-column variance, issue particularly relevant when modeling asymmetrical peaks eluted from monolithic columns. A novel R package that implements Parabolic Variance Modified Gaussian approach for accurate peak modeling, van Deemter equation and two alternatives approaches, based on van Deemter, has been developed to calculate the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP). To assess package capabilities conventional packed reverse-phase and monolithic HPLC columns were characterized. Peaks eluted from the monolithic column showed a high value of factor asymmetry due, in part, to the contribution of extra-column factors. Such deviation can be circumvented by the two alternatives approaches implemented in the R-package. Furthermore, increased values of eddy diffusion and mass transfer kinetics terms in HETP were observed for the packed column, while accuracy was below 9% in all cases. These results showed the usefulness of the R-package for both modeling chromatographic peaks and assessing column efficiency. The RpeakChrom package could become a helpful tool for testing new stationary phases during column development and to evaluate column during its lifetime. This R tool is freely available from CRAN (https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=RpeakChrom). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Capillary action liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Bergström, Edmund T; Goodall, David M; Myers, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Capillary action LC (caLC) is introduced as a technique using capillary action as the driving force to perform LC in capillary columns packed with HPLC type microparticulate materials. A dry packing method with centrifugal force was developed to prepare capillary columns in parallel (10 columns per 3 min) to support their disposable use in caLC. Using a digital microscope for real-time imaging and recording separations of components in a dye mixture, caLC was found to have flow characteristics similar to TLC. Based on the investigation of microparticulate HPLC silica gels of different size (1.5-10 microm) and a typical TLC grade irregular medium, Merck 60G silica, the van Deemter curves suggested molecular diffusion as the major contribution to band broadening in caLC. With Waters Xbridge 2.6 microm silica, plate heights down to 8.8 microm were obtained, comparable to those achievable in HPLC. Assisted by an image-processing method, the visual caLC separation was converted to a classical chromatogram for further data analysis and such a facility confirmed the observation of highly efficient bands.

  2. Determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginseng and other botanical roots by immunoaffinity column cleanup and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Oles, Carolyn; D'Ovidio, Kathleen; Rader, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds and are common contaminants of many important food crops, such as grains, nuts, and spices. Some mycotoxins are found in fruits, vegetables, and botanical roots. These contaminants have a broad range of toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. The public health concerns related to both acute and chronic effects of mycotoxins in animals have prompted more than 100 countries to establish regulatory limits for some of the well-known mycotoxins, such as the aflatoxins (AFL). Our research focused on method development for 2 of these toxins, AFL and ochratoxin A (OTA), in ginseng and other selected botanical roots. Methods using an immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation, and fluorescence detection were modified and evaluated. Two types of IAC cleanup were evaluated: IAC for AFL, and IAC for both AFL and OTA. Three derivatization techniques to enhance the fluorescence of the AFL were compared: precolumn trifluoroacetic acid, postcolumn bromination, and postcolumn ultraviolet irradiation. No derivatization was needed for OTA. Results for AFL using the single analyte IAC cleanup and the 3 derivatization techniques were all comparable for ginseng and for other roots such as ginger, licorice, and kava-kava. Recoveries of added AFL for ginseng at levels from 2 to 16 ng/g were about 80%. Using IAC cleanup for both AFL and OTA recoveries of added AFL for ginseng at 4-16 ng/g were about 70%, and for ginger, licorice, and kava-kava were about 60%. Recoveries of added OTA for ginseng, ginger, and echinacea at 4 ng/g were about 55%.

  3. Determination of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Ginseng and Other Botanical Roots by Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Oles, Carolyn; D’Ovidio, Kathleen; Rader, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds and are common contaminants of many important food crops, such as grains, nuts, and spices. Some mycotoxins are found in fruits, vegetables, and botanical roots. These contaminants have a broad range of toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. The public health concerns related to both acute and chronic effects of mycotoxins in animals have prompted more than 100 countries to establish regulatory limits for some of the well-known mycotoxins, such as the aflatoxins (AFL). Our research focused on method development for 2 of these toxins, AFL and ochratoxin A (OTA), in ginseng and other selected botanical roots. Methods using an immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation, and fluorescence detection were modified and evaluated. Two types of IAC cleanup were evaluated: IAC for AFL, and IAC for both AFL and OTA. Three derivatization techniques to enhance the fluorescence of the AFL were compared: precolumn trifluoroacetic acid, postcolumn bromination, and postcolumn ultraviolet irradiation. No derivatization was needed for OTA. Results for AFL using the single analyte IAC cleanup and the 3 derivatization techniques were all comparable for ginseng and for other roots such as ginger, licorice, and kava-kava. Recoveries of added AFL for ginseng at levels from 2 to 16 ng/g were about 80%. Using IAC cleanup for both AFL and OTA recoveries of added AFL for ginseng at 4–16 ng/g were about 70%, and for ginger, licorice, and kava-kava were about 60%. Recoveries of added OTA for ginseng, ginger, and echinacea at 4 ng/g were about 55%. PMID:16792061

  4. Determination of histamine in microdialysis samples from rat brain by microbore column liquid chromatography following intramolecular excimer-forming derivatization with pyrene-labeling reagent.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Fumio; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Yoshitake, Shimako; Fuxe, Kjell; Kehr, Jan

    2003-07-15

    This paper describes a sensitive and selective liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for determination of histamine in brain microdialysis samples from awake rats. Samples containing histamine (10 microl) were derivatized with 20 microl of the reagent consisting of 3 mM 4-(1-pyrene)butyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (PSE), 3 mM potassium carbonate and acetonitrile (1:1:18, v/v), thereafter 20 microl volume was injected onto the microbore column packed with C18 silica gel. The histamine derivative contained two pyrene moieties, which generated intramolecular excimer fluorescence (450-540 nm) and allowed clear discrimination from the monomer fluorescence (360-420 nm) emitted by PSE itself. The separation of histamine-pyrene derivative was achieved within 25 min, the detection limit (S/N=3) was 0.3 fmol histamine in 20 microl injected. The basal extracellular levels of histamine collected in 10-min fractions (fmol per 10 microl, mean+/-S.D., not corrected for recovery, n=10 rats) were 35.45+/-4.56 (hypothalamus), 9.05+/-1.56 (prefrontal cortex), 7.83+/-0.86 (hippocampus) and 6.54+/-0.66 (striatum). The voltage-sensitive release of histamine was evaluated by perfusing the probes with high (100 mM) concentration of potassium ions or with sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 microM), and the calcium-dependent release was tested by perfusion with calcium-free Ringer solution. These data, together with physiologically induced increase of extracellular histamine in four examined brain regions during forced swimming demonstrate that this method is suitable for high-sensitive determination of neuronally released histamine under various pharmacological and physiological conditions.

  5. Quantification of endogenous brassinosteroids in plant by on-line two-dimensional microscale solid phase extraction-on column derivatization coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Wu, Dapeng; Shen, Zheng; Duan, Chunfeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2013-07-05

    An on-line two-dimensional microscale solid phase extraction (2DμSPE)-on column derivatization (OCD)-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for quantification of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant tissues. Five BRs with widest distribution in plant species and high bioactivity (24-epibrassinolide, 24-epicastasterone, 6-deoxo-24-epicastasterone, teasterone and typhastero) were selected as target analytes. 2DμSPE column packed sequentially with phenyl boronic acid silica sorbent (the first dimension) and C18 silica sorbent (the second dimension) was used to selectively extract and enrich BRs by 110-146 times. OCD was carried out on the second dimension of 2DμSPE column with m-aminophenylboronic acid (m-APBA) as a derivatization reagent, enhancing the sensitivity of MS/MS to BRs by 13-8437 times. It was also found that pre-trap of derivatization reagent on the C18 section of 2DμSPE column could increase reaction efficiency by 3-10 times. The whole process time of the on-line system was less than 30min. The detection limits of the method for five BRs were between 1.4 and 6.6pg with RSDs less than 10%. Endogeneous BRs in tomato leaves were analyzed by using this method. Owing to the high selectivity of this on-line 2DμSPE system, BRs in plant extracts could be quantified using matrix-free standard calibration method with relative recoveries in the range of 80-124%.

  6. Mass transfer resistance in narrow-bore columns packed with 1.7 microm particles in very high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2010-07-30

    Surprisingly, the mass transfer kinetic properties of columns packed with superficially porous particles are markedly different from those of columns packed with fully porous particles. The performances of 2.1mmx150mm columns packed with a new type of sub-2microm particles, the superficially porous 1.7microm Kinetex-C(18), and with the classical 1.7microm BEH-C(18) fully porous particles were measured and are discussed. The sample was naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene; the use of different mobile phase compositions allowed a comparison between data measured with retention factors of k(') approximately 2 and k(') approximately 20. The minimum reduced height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) of the two columns were similar, at h(min)=2.0. However, this minimum HETP was observed at a markedly shorter reduced linear velocity for the column packed with totally porous particles, between 5 and 7 for BEH, than for the one packed with shell particles, between 8 and 10 for Kinetex. This result is explained by the combination of (1) a 35% smaller B term for the Kinetex column than for the BEH column, due to the 37% lower porous volume of the former; (2) a larger reduced A term for the Kinetex column (1.6), showing a relatively poorly packed column with significant trans-column velocity biases than for the BEH column (ca. 1.0); and (3) a much lesser dependance of the efficiency on the mobile phase velocity at high velocities for the Kinetex than for the BEH column, when these columns are placed in the oven of the instrument under still-air conditions. The heat friction affects significantly more the efficiency of the BEH column than that of the Kinetex column. This unexpected result is accounted for by the three times smaller heat conductivity of the BEH bed (lambda(BEH) approximately 0.25 W/m/K) than that of the Kinetex bed (lambda(Kinetex) approximately 0.75W/m/K).

  7. Selectivity comparisons of monolithic silica capillary columns modified with poly(octadecyl methacrylate) and octadecyl moieties for halogenated compounds in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Soonthorntantikul, Wasura; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun; Ikegami, Tohru; Tanaka, Nobuo; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2009-07-31

    Stationary phase selectivities for halogenated compounds in reversed-phase HPLC were compared using C18 monolithic silica capillary columns modified with poly(octadecyl methacrylate) (ODM) and octadecyl moieties (ODS). The preferential retention of halogenated benzenes on ODM was observed in methanol/water and acetonitrile/water mobile phases. In selectivity comparison of selected analytes on ODM and ODS, greater selectivities for halogenated compounds were obtained with respect to alkylbenzenes on an ODM column, while similar selectivities were observed with a homologous series of alkylbenzenes on ODM and ODS columns. These data can be explained by greater dispersive interactions by more densely packed octadecyl groups on the ODM polymer coated column together with the contribution of carbonyl groups in ODM side chains. For the positional isomeric separation of dihalogenated benzenes (ortho-, meta-, para-), the ODM column also provided better separation of these isomers for the adjacently eluted isomers that cannot be completely separated on an ODS column in the same mobile phase. These results imply that the ODM column can be used as a better alternative to the ODS column for the separation of other halogenated compounds.

  8. Chromatographic selectivity of poly(alkyl methacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic columns for polar aromatic compounds by pressure-driven capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Wang, Chih-Chieh; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2016-10-05

    In this study, divinylbenzene (DVB) was used as the cross-linker to prepare alkyl methacrylate (AlMA) monoliths for incorporating π-π interactions between the aromatic analytes and AlMA-DVB monolithic stationary phases in capillary LC analysis. Various AlMA/DVB ratios were investigated to prepare a series of 30% AlMA-DVB monolithic stationary phases in fused-silica capillaries (250-μm i.d.). The physical properties (such as porosity, permeability, and column efficiency) of the synthesized AlMA-DVB monolithic columns were investigated for characterization. Isocratic elution of phenol derivatives was first employed to evaluate the suitability of the prepared AlMA-DVB columns for small molecule separation. The run-to-run (0.16-1.20%, RSD; n = 3) and column-to-column (0.26-2.95%, RSD; n = 3) repeatabilities on retention times were also examined using the selected AlMA-DVB monolithic columns. The π-π interactions between the aromatic ring and the DVB-based stationary phase offered better recognition on polar analytes with aromatic moieties, which resulted in better separation resolution of aromatic analytes on the AlMA-DVB monolithic columns. In order to demonstrate the capability of potential environmental and/or food safety applications, eight phenylurea herbicides with single benzene ring and seven sulfonamide antibiotics with polyaromatic moieties were analyzed using the selected AlMA-DVB monolithic columns.

  9. A Better Method for Filling Pasteur Pipet Chromatography Columns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruekberg, Ben

    2006-01-01

    An alternative method for the preparation of Pasteur pipet chromatography columns is presented that allows the column to be filled with solvent without bubbles and allows greater control of fluid flow while the materials to be separated are added. Students are required to wear gloves and goggles and caution should be used while handling glass…

  10. A Better Method for Filling Pasteur Pipet Chromatography Columns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruekberg, Ben

    2006-01-01

    An alternative method for the preparation of Pasteur pipet chromatography columns is presented that allows the column to be filled with solvent without bubbles and allows greater control of fluid flow while the materials to be separated are added. Students are required to wear gloves and goggles and caution should be used while handling glass…

  11. Combining micro dry column chromatography and mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Dry column chromatography principles applied in microscale produce technique to minimize time in preparing and analyzing colorless constituents of soluble mixtures. Glass pipette microcolumns filled with finely sieved adsorbents permit capillary attraction and separation in 3 to 15 minutes. Technique is adaptable to gas chromatography.

  12. Using active flow technology columns for high through-put and efficient analyses: The drive towards ultra-high through-put high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectral detection.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Danijela; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2015-11-20

    The performance of active flow technology chromatography columns in parallel segmented flow mode packed with 5 μm Hypersil GOLD particles was compared to conventional UHPLC columns packed with 1.9 μm Hypersil GOLD particles. While the conventional UHPLC columns produced more theoretical plates at the optimum flow rate, when separations were performed at maximum through-put the larger particle size AFT column out-performed the UHPLC column. When both the AFT column and the UHPLC column were operated such that they yielded the same number of theoretical plates per separation, the separation on the AFT column was twice as fast as that on the UHPLC column, with the same level of sensitivity and at just 70% of the back pressure. Furthermore, as the flow velocity further increased the performance gain on the AFT column compared to the UHPLC column improved. An additional advantage of the AFT column was that the flow stream at the exit of the column was split in the radial cross section of the peak profile. This enables the AFT column to be coupled to a flow limiting detector, such as a mass spectrometer. When operated under high through-put conditions separations as fast as six seconds, using mobile phase flow rates in the order of 5-6 mL/min have been recorded.

  13. Comparison of monolithic and microparticulate columns for reversed-phase liquid chromatography of tryptic digests of industrial enzymes in cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Beneito-Cambra, M; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Ramis-Ramos, G; Lindner, W; Lämmerhofer, M

    2011-10-14

    Enzymes of several classes used in the formulations of cleaning products were characterized by trypsin digestion followed by HPLC with UV detection. A polymeric monolithic column (ProSwift) was used to optimize the separation of both the intact enzymes and their tryptic digests. This column was adequate for the quality control of raw industrial enzyme concentrates. Then, monolithic and microparticulate columns were compared for peptide analysis. Under optimized conditions, the analysis of tryptic digests of enzymes of different classes commonly used in the formulation of cleaning products was carried out. Number of peaks, peak capacity and global resolution were obtained in order to evaluate the chromatographic performance of each column. Particulate shell-core C18 columns (Kinetex, 2.6 μm) showed the best performance, followed by a silica monolithic column (Chromolith RP-18e) and the conventional C18 packings (Gemini, 5 μm or 3 μm). A polymeric monolithic column (ProSwift) gave the worst performances. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to the characterization of the enzymes present in spiked detergent bases and commercial cleaners.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of poly(alkyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic columns for separating polar small molecules by capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Wu, Yu-Ru; Lin, Tzuen-Yeuan; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2015-04-29

    In this study, methacrylic acid (MAA) was incorporated with alkyl methacrylates to increase the hydrophilicity of the synthesized ethylene dimethacrylate-based (EDMA-based) monoliths for separating polar small molecules by capillary LC analysis. Different alkyl methacrylate-MAA ratios were investigated to prepare a series of 30% alkyl methacrylate-MAA-EDMA monoliths in fused-silica capillaries (250-μm i.d.). The porosity, permeability, and column efficiency of the synthesized MAA-incorporated monolithic columns were characterized. A mixture of phenol derivatives is employed to evaluate the applicability of using the prepared monolithic columns for separating small molecules. Fast separation of six phenol derivatives was achieved in 5 min with gradient elution using the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column. In addition, the effect of acetonitrile content in mobile phase on retention factor and plate height as well as the plate height-flow velocity curves were also investigated to further examine the performance of the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column. Moreover, the applicability of prepared polymer-based monolithic column for potential food safety applications was also demonstrated by analyzing five aflatoxins and three phenicol antibiotics using the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column.

  15. Instrument contributions to resolution and sensitivity in ultra high performance liquid chromatography using small bore columns: comparison of diode array and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Stephan; Miller, Christine A; van de Goor, Tom; Dittmann, Monika M

    2015-01-16

    UHPLC with DAD-UV detection or in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a robust and widely applicable platform for high sensitivity analyses of many types of chemical compounds. The majority of users employ narrow bore columns with 2.1mm internal diameter (ID) typically exhibiting very high efficiencies (>200,000 plates/m). This ultimately sets stringent demands upon the chromatographic system as the separation efficiency can be compromised by external contributions to dispersion caused by connection capillaries, auto-sampler and/or the detection device. Sample limited applications often use reduced column diameters down to capillary- or even nano-column format. Capillary (ID≤0.5mm) or small-bore columns (ID≤1mm) can be a good compromise between system robustness and enhanced sensitivity. Yet in this case, extra-column dispersion gains additional importance due to reduced peak volumes. To design an optimized system configuration for specific column dimensions and applications it is crucial to understand the dispersion contributions of individual extra-column components. This was subject to many studies done within our group and by others. Here, we employed a fully optimized UHPLC/UV system to investigate the contribution to peak dispersion obtained from columns ranging from capillary to narrow bore (0.3, 0.5, 1, 2.1mm) using a set of small molecules that were analyzed in gradient mode. Further UV detection was replaced by a triple quadrupole (QQQ) MS in order to evaluate its contribution to band broadening. In this context the impact of column-ID upon MS sensitivity when interfaced with an Agilent Jet Stream source was investigated. Data obtained from our test suite of compounds shows mostly mass-sensitive behavior of this advanced electrospray technology.

  16. Analysis of bovine milk caseins on organic monolithic columns: an integrated capillary liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach for the study of time-dependent casein degradation.

    PubMed

    Pierri, Giuseppe; Kotoni, Dorina; Simone, Patrizia; Villani, Claudio; Pepe, Giacomo; Campiglia, Pietro; Dugo, Paola; Gasparrini, Francesco

    2013-10-25

    Casein proteins constitute approximately 80% of the proteins present in bovine milk and account for many of its nutritional and technological properties. The analysis of the casein fraction in commercially available pasteurized milk and the study of its time-dependent degradation is of considerable interest in the agro-food industry. Here we present new analytical methods for the study of caseins in fresh and expired bovine milk, based on the use of lab-made capillary organic monolithic columns. An integrated capillary high performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (Cap-LC-HRMS) approach was developed, exploiting the excellent resolution, permeability and biocompatibility of organic monoliths, which is easily adaptable to the analysis of intact proteins. The resolution obtained on the lab-made Protein-Cap-RP-Lauryl-γ-Monolithic column (270 mm × 0.250 mm length × internal diameter, L × I.D.) in the analysis of commercial standard caseins (αS-CN, β-CN and κ-CN) through Cap-HPLC-UV was compared to the one observe using two packed capillary C4 columns, the ACE C4 (3 μm, 150 mm × 0.300 mm, L × I.D.) and the Jupiter C4 column (5 μm, 150 mm × 0.300 mm, L × I.D.). Thanks to the higher resolution observed, the monolithic capillary column was chosen for the successive degradation studies of casein fractions extracted from bovine milk 1-4 weeks after expiry date. The comparison of the UV chromatographic profiles of skim, semi-skim and whole milk showed a major stability of whole milk towards time-dependent degradation of caseins, which was further sustained by high-resolution analysis on a 50-cm long monolithic column using a 120-min time gradient. Contemporarily, the exact monoisotopic and average molecular masses of intact αS-CN and β-CN protein standards were obtained through high resolution mass spectrometry and used for casein identification in Cap-LC-HRMS analysis. Finally, the proteolytic degradation of β-CN in skim milk

  17. [Preparation of 1-(2-naphthyl) -3-methyl-5-pyrazolone as pre-column derivatization reagent for the determination of saccharides using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiwei; Liu, Lingjun; Hu, Baojun; Sheng, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2008-03-01

    Eight saccharides were derivatized using 1-(2-naphthyl)-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (NMP) as pre-column derivatizing reagent, and separated on a reversed-phase Hypersil ODS 2 column (4.6 mm x 200 mm, 5 microm), by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with a gradient elution, detected by a diode array detector (DAD), and identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in positive ion mode. NMP reacted with reductive saccharides easily in the presence of 17% ammonia water at 70 degrees C. All linear correlation coefficients for saccharide derivatives were over 0.998 5. The detection limits (at signal-to-noise of 3:1) were 0.58 - 1.1 pmol for saccharide derivatives. The characteristic fragment ions, especially m/z 473, from the cleavage of NMP-labeled saccharides exhibited high regularity for the identification of the composition of saccharide mixture. The established method is sensitive and repeatable for the determination of saccharides.

  18. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions.

  19. Simple determination of o-phenylphenol in skin lotion by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with 4-(N-chloroformylmethyl-N-methylamino)-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Yasuhiko; Konno, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    o-Phenylphenol (OPP) in skin lotion was quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with 4-(N-chloroformylmethyl-N-methylamino)-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-COCl) in borate buffer (pH 8.5) at room temperature for 2 min. The column [150 mm x 3.0 mm internal diameter (i.d.)], which contained 5 μm particles of C18 packing material, was eluted at room temperature (flow rate: 0.5 ml/min) with mobile phase prepared by addition of acetonitrile (550 ml) to 450 ml of Milli-Q water containing trifluoroacetic acid (0.1 v/v%). 2-Hydroxyfluorene was used as an internal standard. The retention times of NBD-CO-OPP and NBD-CO-IS derivatives were 16.2 and 22.2 min, respectively. The calibration plot was linear in the range of 0.01-0.2 μg/ml with an r2 value of 0.9960, and the lower limit of detection was 0.003 μg/ml (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1; absolute amount of 12 pg/20 μl injection). The coefficient of variation was less than 8.8%. Contents of OPP in three skin lotions were determined with the present system, and the recovery from spiked samples was satisfactory.

  20. Evaluation of the chiral recognition properties and the column performances of three chiral stationary phases based on cellulose for the enantioseparation of six dihydropyridines by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia; Tang, Jing; Yuan, Xiaowei; Guo, Xingjie; Zhao, Longshan

    2017-03-28

    Separations of six dihydropyridine enantiomers on three commercially available cellulose-based chiral stationary phases (Chiralcel OD-RH, Chiralpak IB, and Chiralpak IC) were evaluated with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The best enantioseparation of the six chiral drugs was obtained with a Chiralpak IC (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) column. Then the influence of the mobile phase including an alcohol-modifying agent and alkaline additive on the enantioseparation were investigated and optimized. The optimal mobile phase conditions and maximum resolution for every analyte were as follows respectively: n-hexane/isopropanol (85:15, v/v) for nimodipine (R = 5.80) and cinildilpine (R = 5.65); n-hexane/isopropanol (92:8, v/v) for nicardipine (R = 1.76) and nisoldipine (R = 1.92); and n-hexane/isopropanol/ethanol (97:2:1, v/v/v) for felodipine (R = 1.84) and lercanidipine (R = 1.47). Relative separation mechanisms are discussed based on the separation results, and indicate that the achiral parts in the analytes' structure showed an important influence on the separation of the chiral column.

  1. Characterization of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Brazilian petroleum derivatives using ionic liquid capillary columns in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Cappelli Fontanive, Fernando; Souza-Silva, Érica Aparecida; Macedo da Silva, Juliana; Bastos Caramão, Elina; Alcaraz Zini, Claudia

    2016-08-26

    Diesel and naphtha samples were analyzed using ionic liquid (IL) columns to evaluate the best column set for the investigation of organic sulfur compounds (OSC) and nitrogen(N)-containing compounds analyses with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry detector (GC×GC/TOFMS). Employing a series of stationary phase sets, namely DB-5MS/DB-17, DB-17/DB-5MS, DB-5MS/IL-59, and IL-59/DB-5MS, the following parameters were systematically evaluated: number of tentatively identified OSC, 2D chromatographic space occupation, number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and OSC co-elutions, and percentage of asymmetric peaks. DB-5MS/IL-59 was chosen for OSC analysis, while IL59/DB-5MS was chosen for nitrogen compounds, as each stationary phase set provided the best chromatographic efficiency for these two classes of compounds, respectively. Most compounds were tentatively identified by Lee and Van den Dool and Kratz retention indexes, and spectra-matching to library. Whenever available, compounds were also positively identified via injection of authentic standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of individual homologues and total content of benzalkonium chloride by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a short butyl column.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangzhu; Xiao, Kang Ping; Rustum, Abu M

    2009-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides that usually contains C-10, C-12, C-14, and C-16 homologues), commonly known as BKC, is used as a bacteriostatic agent in many household, food, and drug products. In this paper, we report a simple, rapid, robust, and stability-indicating reversed-phase HPLC method using a short butyl (C4) column for the simultaneous determination of each individual homologue content, as well as the total concentration of individual homologues in commercial bulk raw material batches of BKC samples. The chromatographic separation was performed on a 5 cm ACE C4 column with mobile phase consisting of water, acetonitrile, and potassium chloride. Even though using a short column can potentially cause some challenges to resolving certain critical pairs of peaks, we have successfully separated all of the analyte peaks (including those from stressed, degraded products) on a short column using an optimal mobile phase.

  3. Efficiency gain limits of the parallel segmented inlet and outlet flow concept in analytical liquid chromatography columns suffering from radial transcolumn packing density gradients.

    PubMed

    Broeckhoven, Ken; Desmet, Gert

    2012-10-05

    The maximal gain in efficiency that can be expected from the use of the segmented column end fittings that were recently introduced to alleviate the effect of transcolumn packing density gradients has been quantified and generalized using numerical computations of the band broadening process. It was found that, for an unretained compound in a column with a parabolic packing density gradient, the use of a segmented inlet or a segmented outlet allows to eliminate about 60-100% of the plate height contribution (H(tc)) originating from a parabolic transcolumn velocity gradient in a d(c)=4.6 mm column. In a d(c)=2.1 mm column, these percentages change from 10 to 100%. Using a combined segmented in- and outlet, H(tc) can be reduced by about 90-100% (d(c)=4.6 mm column) or 20-100% (d(c)=2.1 mm column). The strong variation of these gain percentages is due to fact that they depend very strongly on the column length and the flow rate. Dimensionless graphs have been established that allow to directly quantify the effect for each specific case. It was also found that, in agreement with one's physical intuition, trans-column velocity profiles that are more flat in the central region benefit more from the concept than sharp, parabolic-like profiles. The gain margins furthermore tend to become smaller with increasing retention and increasing diffusion coefficient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relative importance of column and adsorption parameters on the productivity in preparative liquid chromatography II: Investigation of separation systems with competitive Langmuir adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Forssén, Patrik; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2014-06-20

    In this study we investigated how the maximum productivity for commonly used, realistic separation system with a competitive Langmuir adsorption isotherm is affected by changes in column length, packing particle size, mobile phase viscosity, maximum allowed column pressure, column efficiency, sample concentration/solubility, selectivity, monolayer saturation capacity and retention factor of the first eluting compound. The study was performed by generating 1000 random separation systems whose optimal injection volume was determined, i.e., the injection volume that gives the largest achievable productivity. The relative changes in largest achievable productivity when one of the parameters above changes was then studied for each system and the productivity changes for all systems were presented as distributions. We found that it is almost always beneficial to use shorter columns with high pressure drops over the column and that the selectivity should be greater than 2. However, the sample concentration and column efficiency have very limited effect on the maximum productivity. The effect of packing particle size depends on the flow rate limiting factor. If the pumps maximum flow rate is the limiting factor use smaller packing, but if the pressure of the system is the limiting factor use larger packing up to about 40μm.

  5. Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene column for two-stationary phase separations by counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Quan, Kai-jun; Huang, Xin-yi; Li, Xiao-ting; Wang, Gao-hong; Liu, Yan-juan; Duan, Wen-da; Di, Duo-long

    2015-11-27

    To improve the separation capability of CCC, a novel solid-liquid two-stationary phases CCC (ASP-CCC) column was prepared employing graphene oxide (GO) conjugated poly-dopamine (PD) coating (GO/PD) as auxiliary stationary phase (ASP). The results of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that nanostructured GO and PD were successfully grafted on the inner wall of the PTFE column. Three alkaloid compounds were selected as the target analytes to evaluate the performance of the novel column. Because of the intermolecular force (hydrogen bond, electrostatic interaction and π-π interaction) between the ASP and model compounds, three analytes were well separated with this novel ASP-CCC column. Additionally, the novel column exhibited higher stationary phase retention ratio, about 8%, than original column without changing the chromatographic condition. Furthermore, the eluotropic sequence of analytes on novel column was in accordance with that in the original column. This suggested that the novel column is a CCC column with auxiliary stationary phase (ASP) in its own right, and the present separation mode is the combination of partition chromatography and adsorption chromatography.

  6. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of small molecules on a porous poly (trimethylol propane triacrylate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Bai, Xiaomei; Wei, Dan; Yang, Gengliang

    2014-01-10

    A porous monolith was prepared by in situ free-radical polymerization using N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) as functional monomers, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as crosslinking agent. The chemical group of the monolith was assayed by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) method and the morphology of optimized monolithic column was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical strength and permeability have been studied in detail as well. The run-to-run and column-to-column reproducibility of the retention times were less than 0.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Furthermore, the influence of temperature and mobile phase composition on the separation of aromatic compounds was investigated. The results indicated that poly (trimethylol propane triacrylate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-ethylenedimethacrylate) (TMPTA-co-NIPAAm-co-EDMA) monolithic column not only had high porosity and strong rigidity, but also was a promising tool for analyzing small molecule compounds with a short analysis time by controlling the column temperature.

  7. High perfomance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analyses.

    PubMed

    Nikolin, Branko; Imamović, Belma; Medanhodzić-Vuk, Saira; Sober, Miroslav

    2004-05-01

    compounds often present in concentrations much greater than those of analyte. Analiyte concentrations are often low, and in the case of drugs, the endogenous compounds are sometimes structurally very similar to the drug to be measured. The binding of drugs to the plasma protein also may occur which decreases the amount of free compound that is measured. To undertake the analyses of drugs and metabolites in body fluids the analyst is facet with several problems. The first problem is due to the complex nature of the body fluid, the drugs must be isolated by an extraction technique, which ideally should provide a relatively clean extract, and the separation system must be capable of resolving the drugs of interest from co extractives. All mentioned when we are using high performance liquid chromatography require good selections of detectors, good stationary phase, eluents and adequate program during separation. UV/VIS detector is the most versatile detector used in high performance liquid chromatography it is not always ideal since it is lack of specificity means high resolution of the analyte that may be required. UV detection is preferred since it offers excellent linearity and rapid quantitative analyses can be performed against a single standard of the drug being determined. Diode array and rapid scanning detector are useful for peak identification and monitoring peak purity but they are somewhat less sensitive then single wavelength detectors. In liquid chromatography some components may have a poor UV chromophores if UV detection is being used or be completely retained on the liquid chromatography column. Fluorescence and electrochemical detector are not only considerably more sensitive towed appropriate analytes but also more selective than UV detectors for many compounds. If at all possible fluorescence detectors are sensitive, stable, selective and easy to operate. It is selectivity shows itself in the lack of frontal components observed in plasma extract whereas

  8. Preparation and evaluation of a novel monolithic column containing double octadecyl chains for reverse-phase micro high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qianqian; Liu, Chusheng; Liu, Zhenghua; Zhou, Zhengyin; Chen, Weijia; Wang, Qiqin; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2014-06-06

    A novel reverse-phase monolithic stationary phase containing double long alkyl chains was prepared based on the thermally initiated co-polymerization of 3-methylacryloyl-3-oxapropyl-3-(N,N-dioctadecylcarbamoyl)-propionate (AOD) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol as the selected porogens. The polymerization was carefully optimized and good permeability, stability and column efficiency were observed for the final monolithic columns. The column also showed good long term stability and reproducibility. The methylene selectivity demonstrates typical reversed phase characteristics. The optimized poly (AOD-co-EDMA) monolith exhibited good selectivity for a range of non-polar test analytes such as PAHs, tocopherols and alkylphenones. A good separation of intact proteins was also observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sum of ranking differences to rank stationary phases used in packed column supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    West, Caroline; Khalikova, Maria A; Lesellier, Eric; Héberger, Károly

    2015-08-28

    The identification of a suitable stationary phase in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a major source of difficulty for those with little experience in this technique. Several protocols have been suggested for column classification in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and SFC. However, none of the proposed classification schemes received general acceptance. A fair way to compare columns was proposed with the sum of ranking differences (SRD). In this project, we used the retention data obtained for 86 test compounds with varied polarity and structure, analyzed on 71 different stationary phases encompassing the full range in polarity of commercial packed columns currently available to the SFC chromatographer, with a single set of mobile phase and operating conditions (carbon dioxide-methanol mobile phase, 25°C, 150bar outlet pressure, 3ml/min). First, a reference column was selected and the 70 remaining columns were ranked based on this reference column and the retention data obtained on the 86 analytes. As these analytes previously served for the calculation of linear solvation energy relationships (LSER) on the 71 columns, SRD ranks were compared to LSER methodology. Finally, an external comparison based on the analysis of 10 other analytes (UV filters) related the observed selectivity to SRD ranking. Comparison of elution orders of the UV filters to the SRD rankings is highly supportive of the adequacy of SRD methodology to select similar and dissimilar columns.

  10. Differential coulometric oxidation following post column-switching high pressure liquid chromatography for fluorescence measurement of unmetabolized folic acid in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Steven W; Ayling, June E

    2013-11-08

    Although many countries have fortified their grain supplies with folic acid (FA) to decrease the incidence of neural tube defects, others have not due to concerns that this synthetic folate might have some adverse effects. Persistent unmetabolized FA has been found even in plasma from fasted subjects. To facilitate measurement of low levels of folic acid in human plasma, post-column coulometric oxidative cleavage was used to convert poorly fluorescent FA into a highly fluorescent compound determined to be 6-formyl-pterin. To minimize sample work-up and maximize recovery, column-switching HPLC transferred a window of eluate containing the FA from the first column (C8) onto a second column (phenyl-hexyl). The pH of two mobile phases were adjusted to be above and then below a pK of the FA α-carboxyl group, thus promoting separation from compounds coeluting from the C8-column. This permitted sample preparation using only a simple high recovery protein precipitation. Definitive identification of FA in human plasma was accomplished by duplicate injections of sample with the electrochemical voltage set above and below its half-potential. The LOD (S/N=3) was 0.10 nM. The intra- and inter-assay CV's were 2.3% and 5%, respectively. Comparison of these results with those obtained by HPLC/MS/MS with stable isotope internal standard showed a slope of 1.00 ± 0.019. This simple, sensitive, and repeatable assay facilitates a more thorough investigation of the response of various human populations to folic acid intake. Post-column differential coulometric electrochemistry can expand the variety of compounds amenable to fluorescence detection.

  11. Development of an in vitro liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to evaluate stereo and chemical stability of new drug candidates employing immobilized artificial membrane column.

    PubMed

    Cannazza, Giuseppe; Battisti, Umberto M; Carrozzo, Marina M; Cazzato, Addolorata S; Braghiroli, Daniela; Parenti, Carlo; Troisi, Luigino

    2014-10-10

    A stopped-flow HPLC method was developed to evaluate configurational and chemical stability of pharmaceutical compounds employing immobilized artificial membranes (IAM) column to simulate conditions that pharmaceutical compounds will meet in vivo. The method was applied to recent developed chiral 5-arylbenzothiadiazine derivatives possessing high positive allosteric modulatory (PAM) activity on AMPA receptor. In particular the stopped-flow HPLC method developed used a chiral column to separate single enantiomer of the compounds that are forced into an IAM column where configurational and chemical stability was evaluated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2 and 6.8 at 37.5 °C) to simulate in vivo conditions. The results were compared to those obtained by dynamic and off-column methods to evaluate the effects of stationary phases on kinetic constant of enantiomerization and hydrolysis. The results suggested that the phospholipids environment of IAM stationary phases, which mimes biological membrane, greatly influence the hydrolysis process increasing the chemical stability of tested compounds while no influence on enantiomerization kinetic was observed. Therefore it is possible to suppose that 5-arylbenzothiadiazine derivatives should not hydrolysed in vivo while they should rapidly racemized in aqueous solvents. The method could represents a rapid and value tool to predict chemical and configurational stability of new chemical entities to decrease the number of animal studies.

  12. Silica-supported polymeric monolithic column with a mixed mode of hydrophilic and strong cation-exchange interactions for microcolumn liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hang; Zhang, Xinyue; Li, Zhen; Liu, Zhaobin; Li, Jinxiang

    2017-02-01

    A novel sulfonic acid group containing hydrophilic strong cation-exchange monolith was prepared by in situ coating 5 μm bare silica particles with the copolymers of glycidyl methacrylate and pentaerythritol triacrylate and further sulfonating the prepared polymer matrix with Na2 SO3 inside a 150 μm id capillary. The preparation conditions were investigated, and the method was described in detail. The prepared column was characterized by comparing with its counterparts reported previously in terms of matrix morphology, preparation reproducibility, permeability, swelling-shrinking behavior, mechanical stability, hydrophilicity, binding capacity, and column efficiency. The swelling-shrinking behavior of the present column in solvents of different polarities was negligible, the hydrophobicity could be suppressed at the acetonitrile concentrations higher than 40% v/v, and the binding capacities were 256 μequiv/mL and 20.1 mg/mL for Cu(2+) and lysozyme, respectively. The minimum theoretical plate heights were 8, 10, and 13 μm, and the values of the C term in van Deemter equation were 9, 12, and 35 ms for the test analytes of Na(+) , thiourea, and cytidine 5'-monophosphate, respectively. This column exhibited an excellent performance in the separations of monovalent inorganic cations, uncharged polar, and charged polar compounds. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Comparison of performance of high-performance liquid chromatography columns packed with superficially and fully porous 2.5 μm particles using kinetic plots.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, Ameriga; Cabooter, Deirdre; Bellazzi, Guido; Tramarin, Davide; Allieri, Brigida; Rottigni, Alessandro; Desmet, Gert

    2010-12-01

    A recently introduced 2.5 μm fully porous support (Kromasil Eternity) is compared with three different brands of superficially porous material (Kinetex, Halo and Poroshell 120) by means of the kinetic plot method using pharmaceutical compounds from GlaxoSmithKline as probe molecules. The kinetic plot method immediately shows the range of plate numbers wherein a support performs better than another. Results from experiments carried out at pH 4.5 and 8.0 are presented in order to assess the pH stability of the tested phases. Moreover, since all supports are able to withstand pressures higher than 400 bar, they have been evaluated both on HPLC and UHPLC instrumentation. True average particle sizes were determined by SEM images taken from loose stationary phases. Kinetex outperforms the other columns in HPLC conditions for practically relevant efficiencies, but shows poor packing quality in the 100×2.1-mm format. Kromasil is advantageous for simple and fast separations on short columns both in HPLC and in UHPLC conditions. Halo achieves the highest efficiencies of all columns at the lowest pressure cost and shows a noticeable lower axial diffusion. Poroshell 120 has the best packing quality reproducibility across the tested formats. All columns preserve their performance at high pH.

  14. Reliability of simulated robustness testing in fast liquid chromatography, using state-of-the-art column technology, instrumentation and modelling software.

    PubMed

    Kormány, Róbert; Fekete, Jenő; Guillarme, Davy; Fekete, Szabolcs

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of simulated robustness testing using commercial modelling software (DryLab) and state-of-the-art stationary phases. For this purpose, a mixture of amlodipine and its seven related impurities was analyzed on short narrow bore columns (50×2.1mm, packed with sub-2μm particles) providing short analysis times. The performance of commercial modelling software for robustness testing was systematically compared to experimental measurements and DoE based predictions. We have demonstrated that the reliability of predictions was good, since the predicted retention times and resolutions were in good agreement with the experimental ones at the edges of the design space. In average, the retention time relative errors were <1.0%, while the predicted critical resolution errors were comprised between 6.9 and 17.2%. Because the simulated robustness testing requires significantly less experimental work than the DoE based predictions, we think that robustness could now be investigated in the early stage of method development. Moreover, the column interchangeability, which is also an important part of robustness testing, was investigated considering five different C8 and C18 columns packed with sub-2μm particles. Again, thanks to modelling software, we proved that the separation was feasible on all columns within the same analysis time (less than 4min), by proper adjustments of variables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fast, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Dwight R.; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoli; Carr, Peter W.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rutan, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute need to improve the separating power of liquid chromatography, especially for multi-constituent biological samples, is becoming increasingly evident. In response, over the past few years, there has been a great deal of interest in the development of two dimension liquid chromatography (2DLC). Just as 1DLC is preferred to 1DGC based on its compatibility with biological materials we believe that ultimately 2DLC will be preferred to the much more highly developed 2DGC for such samples. The huge advantage of 2D chromatographic techniques over 1D methods is inherent in the tremendous potential increase in peak capacity (resolving power). This is especially true of comprehensive 2D chromatography wherein it is possible, under ideal conditions, to obtain a total peak capacity equal to the product of the peak capacities of the first and second dimension separations. However, the very long timescale (typically several hours to tens of hours) of comprehensive 2DLC is clearly its chief drawback. Recent advances in the use of higher temperatures to speed up isocratic and gradient elution liquid chromatography have been used to decrease the time needed to do the second dimension LC separation of 2DLC to about 20 seconds for a full gradient elution run. Thus fast, high temperature LC is becoming a very promising technique. Peak capacities of over 2000 and rates of peak capacity production of nearly 1 peak/s have been achieved. In consequence, many real samples showing more than 200 peaks with signal to noise ratios of better than 10:1 have been run in total times of under 30 minutes. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive review of 2DLC, but is deliberately focused on the issues involved in doing fast 2DLC by means of elevating the column temperature; however, many issues of broader applicability will be discussed. PMID:17888443

  16. Quantification of cyclamate and cyclohexylamine in urine samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid pre-column derivatization.

    PubMed

    Casals, I; Reixach, M; Amat, J; Fuentes, M; Serra-Majem, L

    1996-10-25

    An HPLC isocratic method with pre-column derivatization and UV detection for the quantification of cyclamate and cyclohexylamine in urine samples is described. The method requires very little sample preparation. Free cyclohexylamine is analysed in a first run and subsequently cyclamate is analysed as cyclohexylamine, after the simple process of oxidation of the sample by means of hydrogen peroxide. Cycloheptylamine is used as internal standard. Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) appears to be a good reagent for the pre-column derivatization. The time per run is 15 min; the coefficients of variation of the assays range from 1.1 to 5.5%; the limits of detection are 0.09 and 0.11 ppm for cyclohexylamine and cyclamate anion, respectively. The system described has always performed efficiently, with a high degree of stability, in daily routine work.

  17. Determination of indinavir in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Yeh, K C

    1999-10-29

    A rapid, sensitive and robust sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of indinavir in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma is described. Indinavir and the internal standard were isolated from CSF or plasma samples by cation-exchange solid-phase extraction with SCX cartridges, while the chromatographic separation was adopted from a previous method, using a cyano column connected by a switching valve to a C18 column. UV detection was set at 210 nm. The standard curve was linear over the concentration range of 2 to 2000 ng/ml in CSF and 5 to 2000 ng/ml in plasma. The intra-day coefficients of variation at all concentration levels were < or = 5.9%. The inter-day consistency was assessed by running QC samples during each daily run. The coefficients of variation for quality control samples in both matrixes were < or = 6.1%. The method has been utilized to support clinical pharmacokinetic studies.

  18. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids and synephrine in dietary supplements by column-switching cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with scanning-wavelength ultraviolet and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Richard A; Gay, Martha L

    2003-09-10

    An HPLC method with on-line cleanup coupled to the separation column is described for determination of (-)-norephedrine, (+)-norpseudoephedrine, (-)-ephedrine, (+)-pseudoephedrine, (-)-N-methylephedrine, (+)-N-methylpseudoephedrine, and (+/-)-synephrine in finished dietary supplement products. Test portions were extracted in acidified aqueous acetone. A filtered aliquot was cleaned up on a strong cation exchange (SCX) precolumn that later was automatically coupled to the SCX analytical column. Measurement was by full-scan UV spectra for confirmation of identity by spectral matching and real-time integration of three wavelength signals for multiple quantitation. (+/-)-Synephrine was also quantitated by native fluorescence. Recovery averaged 95-100%. Determination of the major ingredients (-)-ephedrine, (+)-pseudoephedrine, and (+/-)-synephrine compared favorably to findings by an independent LC-MS analysis for a set of 25 samples. The results of a survey were reported for total ephedrine alkaloid and synephrine content and were compared to content declaration, for approximately 48 finished products.

  19. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Rounds, M A; Nielsen, S S

    1993-10-29

    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  20. Enantioseparation of N-derivatized amino acids by micro-liquid chromatography/laser induced fluorescence detection using quinidine-based monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huihui; Wang, Qiqin; Ruan, Meng; Peng, Kun; Zhu, Peijie; Crommen, Jacques; Han, Hai; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-03-20

    A novel carbamoylated quinidine based monolith, namely poly(O-9-[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethylcarbamoyl]-10,11-dihydroquinidine-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(MQD-co-EDMA)), was prepared for the micro-LC enantioseparation of N-derivatized amino acids. The influence of the mobile phase composition, including the organic modifier proportion, the apparent pH and the buffer concentration, on the enantioresolution of N-derivatized amino acids was systematically investigated. Satisfactory column performance in terms of permeability, efficiency and reproducibility was obtained in most cases. The majority of the enantiomers of the tested N-protected amino acids, including 3,5-DNB, 3,5-DClB, FMOC, 3,5-DMB, p-NB, m-ClB, p-ClB and B derivatives, could be baseline separated on the poly(MQD-co-EDMA) monolithic column within 25min. A self-assembled laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detector was employed to improve sensitivity when analyzing 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD) derivatives of amino acids. Ten NBD-derivatized amino acids, including arginine and histidine whose enantioseparation on quinidine carbamate based CSPs has not been reported so far, were enantioresolved on the poly(MQD-co-EDMA) monolith column. It is worth noting that the d-enantiomers of NBD-derivatized amino acids eluted first, except in the case of glutamic acid. The LOD values obtained with the LIF detector were comparable to those reported using conventional LC-FL methods. The prepared poly(MQD-co-EDMA) monolithic column coupled with the LIF detector opens up interesting perspectives to the determination of trace D-amino acids in biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rounds, M. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  2. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rounds, M. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  3. Column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for identification of heroin metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Katagi, M; Nishikawa, M; Tatsuno, M; Miki, A; Tsuchihashi, H

    2001-02-10

    In order to prove heroin (DAM) use, a simple, rapid and sensitive analytical method has been established by combining semi-microcolumn HPLC, a column switching technique and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Urine samples were directly introduced to the system, and endogenous urinary constituents were removed by using on-line column switching solid-phase extraction with a strong cation-exchange (SCX) cartridge column (2.0 mm I.D. x 10 mm). Heroin and its metabolites enriched on the top of the column were then successfully analyzed with excellent separation by use of a SCX semi-microcolumn (1.5 mm I.D. x 150 mm), accompanied by ESI mass spectral detection. The proposed conditions are as follows: mobile phase, 10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.0)-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) (for main separation) and 30 mM ammonium acetate (for trapping); flow-rates, 120 microl/min (for main separation) and 200 microl/min (for trapping); capillary voltage, +4.5 kV; cone voltage, 50 V. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using protonated molecular ions (m/z 370 for DAM, m/z 328 for MAM and m/z 286 for MOR) over the concentration ranges from 10 to 1000 ng/ml for morphine (MOR) and 1-100 ng/ml for DAM and 6-acetylmorphine (MAM). The detection limits were 0.1-3 ng/ml. Upon applying the scan mode, 2-30 ng/ml were the detection limits. The present HPLC-ESI-MS method was successfully applied to the determination of opiates in users' urine samples.

  4. Quantitative determination of phenol by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Musto, J D; Sane, J N; Warner, V D

    1977-08-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography was used with a 5-micrometer silica gel column to quantitate the phenol in phenolated calamine lotion USP and a commercial antiseptic solution. This method requires less than 10 min/assay, and other compounds present in the products analyzed did not interfere.

  5. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of polyacetylenes and polyenes in Echinacea pallida by using a monolithic reversed-phase silica column.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Federica; Calò, Samuele; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2007-05-11

    In this study, a RP-HPLC method for the analysis of polyacetylenes and polyenes in Echinacea pallida roots and phytopharmaceuticals was developed. The reference compounds used for quantification were isolated from the plant material and their structures were determined on the basis of the analysis of UV, IR, NMR and MS data. The complete structure elucidation of three compounds, namely 8-hydroxy-tetradec-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one (1), tetradec-(8Z)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one (6) and pentadec-(8Z)-en-2-one (9) is described. In the analysis of the n-hexane extracts of E. pallida roots, the comparison between conventional and monolithic columns showed that the elution order in both cases is identical and the selectivity is equivalent. However, the retention times achieved by the monolithic column are shorter, resulting in a faster separation (20 min). Therefore, the analyses were carried out on a Chromolith Performance RP-18e (100 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.), with a gradient mobile phase composed by H(2)O and ACN at the flow rate of 2 mL/min. The column was thermostatted at 20 degrees C. The photodiode array detector monitored the eluent at 210 nm. The validation procedure confirmed that this technique affords reliable analysis of these components and is appropriate for the quality control of complex matrices, such as E. pallida roots and phytopharmaceuticals.

  6. Rapid determination of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in Cynara scolymus L. by ultra-fast liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry based on a fused core C18 column.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Dai, Zhiyuan; Lu, Yanbin

    2010-10-01

    An ultra-fast high-performance LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis and quantification of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, including chlorogenic acid, 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cynarin) and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads and leaves. The rapid separation (less than 4  min) was achieved based on a Halo fused core C18-silica column (50  mm × 2.1  mm id, 2.7  μm). The target compounds were detected and quantified by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The calibration function is linear from 0.06 to 2800  ng/mL for chlorogenic acid, 0.3-3000  ng/mL for cynarin and 0.24-4800  ng/mL for 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 92.1 to 113.2% with RSDs ≤6.5%. Moreover, four batches of artichoke head and leaf extracts were analyzed using the established method. The results indicated that the Halo fused core column provided much faster separations and higher sample throughput without sacrificing column ruggedness and reliability, and triple-quadrupole MS provided extraordinarily lower LOQs for most of the target analytes. Comparing to conventional quantitative approaches, the established method was fast, sensitive and reliable for the determination of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in artichoke.

  7. High Speed Gradient Elution Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography of Bases in Buffered Eluents Part I: Retention Repeatability and Column Reequilibration

    PubMed Central

    Schellinger, Adam P.; Stoll, Dwight R.; Carr, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the run-to-run repeatability of the retention times of both non-ionizable and basic compounds chromatographed using buffered eluents. The effect of flow rate, organic modifier and other additives, buffer type/concentration, stationary phase type, batch-to-batch preparation of the initial eluent, gradient time, sample type and intra-day changes on retention repeatability were examined. We also assessed the effect of column storage solvent conditions on the inter-day repeatability. Although retention repeatability is strongly influenced by many parameters (flow rate, solvent compressibility compensation, precision of temperature control, and buffer/stationary phase type), our primary finding is that with a reasonable size column (15 cm by 4.6 mm (i.d.)) two column volumes of reequilibration with initial eluent suffices to provide acceptable repeatability (no worse than 0.004 min) for both non-ionizable and basic analytes under a wide variety of conditions. Under ideal conditions (e.g. the right buffer, flow rate, etc.) it is possible to obtain truly extraordinary repeatability often as good as 0.0004 minutes. These absolute fluctuations in retention translate to worst case changes in resolution of 0.2 units and average changes of only 0.02 units. PMID:18294643

  8. High-performance liquid chromatography with contactless conductivity detection for the determination of peptides and proteins using a monolithic capillary column.

    PubMed

    Kubán, Pavel; Hauser, Peter C

    2007-12-28

    Gradient programs were applied to the determination of peptides and proteins in HPLC with contactless conductivity detection. A monolithic capillary column was used for the fast and sensitive determination of the biochemical species in acidic mobile phases consisting of acetic acid or trifluoroacetic acid in various concentrations of acetonitrile in water. The drift in baseline, which is caused by conductivity changes during the elution program, was minimized by careful optimization of the composition of the mobile phase and remaining drift was removed by computational baseline normalization. The flow rate from a conventional HPLC pump was reduced to a flow rate suitable for capillary systems using a pre-column flow splitter and a final total flow rate of 1.65 microl/min was used for all capillary HPLC separations. The contactless conductivity detector was positioned directly on the outlet capillary of the separation column and positively charged peptides and proteins were determined as sharp and symmetrical peaks. Detection limits in a concentration range from 3.7 x 10(-8) to 5.1 x 10(-7)M and a reproducibility of peak areas and peak heights between 2.3% and 7.3% were achieved for all biochemical species tested.

  9. Development and Characterization of a Novel Plug and Play Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Source That Automates Connections between the Capillary Trap, Column, and Emitter*

    PubMed Central

    Bereman, Michael S.; Hsieh, Edward J.; Corso, Thomas N.; Van Pelt, Colleen K.; MacCoss, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the development and characterization of a novel, vendor-neutral ultra-high pressure-compatible (∼10,000 p.s.i.) LC-MS source. This device is the first to make automated connections with user-packed capillary traps, columns, and capillary emitters. The source uses plastic rectangular inserts (referred to here as cartridges) where individual components (i.e. trap, column, or emitter) can be exchanged independent of one another in a plug and play manner. Automated robotic connections are made between the three cartridges using linear translation powered by stepper motors to axially compress each cartridge by applying a well controlled constant compression force to each commercial LC fitting. The user has the versatility to tailor the separation (e.g. the length of the column, type of stationary phase, and mode of separation) to the experimental design of interest in a cost-effective manner. The source is described in detail, and several experiments are performed to evaluate the robustness of both the system and the exchange of the individual trap and emitter cartridges. The standard deviation in the retention time of four targeted peptides from a standard digest interlaced with a soluble Caenorhabditis elegans lysate ranged between 3.1 and 5.3 s over 3 days of analyses. Exchange of the emitter cartridge was found to have an insignificant effect on the abundance of various peptides. In addition, the trap cartridge can be replaced with minimal effects on retention time (<20 s). PMID:23422586

  10. Column temperature as an active variable in the isocratic, normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation of lipophilic metabolites of nonylphenol ethoxylates.

    PubMed

    Babay, Paola A; Gettar, Raquel T; Magallanes, Jorge F; Becquart, Elena T; Thiele, Björn; Batistoni, Daniel A

    2007-07-20

    Normal-phase separation of technical grade nonylphenol (t-NP, about 90% 4-nonylphenol), 4-nonylphenol mono-ethoxylate (4-NP1EO) and 4-nonylphenol di-ethoxylate (4-NP2EO) was assessed, with the inclusion of column temperature as an active variable. The compound 2,4,6-trimethylphenol was evaluated for use as internal standard. Isocratic elution with 2-propanol/hexanes mixtures from an amino-silica column and spectrometric UV detection at 277 nm were employed. Technical nonylphenol presented a significant contribution from unknown substances that eluted with retention times similar to that of 4-NP1EO. GC-MS analysis of the unknowns allowed to identify them as isomers of 2-NP. The response of the system to joint variations in flow rate, eluent composition and column temperature was investigated by means of Doehlert statistical experimental design. A model for retention of the analytes as a function of the experimental variables was proposed, and separation selectivity was studied. Selection of the optimal working zone was made through desirability function (D) calculations. Potential co-elution of 2-NP isomers with 4-NP1EO was considered when optimizing the separation. The occurrence of a restricted region of the experimental space where baseline resolution of analytes, associated impurities and internal standard results feasible (D not equal to 0) is apparent.

  11. [Preparation and applications of a supported liquid-liquid extraction column with a composite diatomite material].

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianmin; Ma, Zhishuang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yongzun; Li, Youxin

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and special supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) column was developed with a composite diatomite material. The SLE column was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with acidic, neutral and alkaline compounds dissolved in water. Furthermore, some real complex samples were also analyzed by HPLC with the SLE method. The recoveries of benzoic acid (acidic), p-nitroaniline (alkaline) and 4-hydroxy-benzoic methyl ester (neutral) treated by the SLE column were 90.6%, 98.1% and 97.7%. However, the recoveries of the three compounds treated by traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method were 71.9%, 81.9% and 83.9%. The results showed that the SLE technique had higher recoveries than the traditional LLE method. The spiked recoveries of the complex samples, such as benzoic acid in Sprite and dexamethasone acetate, chlorphenamine maleate, indomethacin in bovine serum, were between 80% and 110% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%. For biological specimen, the results could be accepted. Meantime, many disadvantages associated with traditional LLE method, such as emulsion formation, didn't occur using SLE column. The SLE column technique is a good sample preparation method with many advantages, such as rapid, simple, robust, easily automated, high recovery and high-throughput, which would be widely used in the future.

  12. Column precipitation chromatography: an approach to quantitative analysis of eigencolloids.

    PubMed

    Breynaert, E; Maes, A

    2005-08-01

    A new column precipitation chromatography (CPC) technique, capable of quantitatively measuring technetium eigencolloids in aqueous solutions, is presented. The CPC technique is based on the destabilization and precipitation of eigencolloids by polycations in a confined matrix. Tc(IV) colloids can be quantitatively determined from their precipitation onto the CPC column (separation step) and their subsequent elution upon oxidation to pertechnetate by peroxide (elution step). A clean-bed particle removal model was used to explain the experimental results.

  13. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Dichrostachys Cinerea W and Arn leaves by a thin layer chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, M; Periyanayagam, K; Kavitha, K; Akilandeshwari, K

    2013-04-01

    The leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea are used as laxative, diuretic, painkiller. It is also used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, boils, oedema, gout, veneral diseases and nasopharyngeal affections, etc. The Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves were performed by standard chemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) by using various solvent systems, and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC). Two compounds were isolated by column chromatography and one of the compounds was identified by various spectral studies. Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves showed the presence of Carbohydrates, proteins, Glycosides, Saponins, Tannins, Aminoacids and Terpenoids. The TLC and HPTLC fingerprint of ethanolic extract were studied and various fractions were isolated by column chromatography and one of the fraction contain β-amyrin glucoside which was confirmed by Infra Red[IR] Spectroscopy, (1)H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), C-(13) NMR and Mass spectroscopic (MS) studies.

  14. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Dichrostachys Cinerea W and Arn leaves by a thin layer chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, M.; Periyanayagam, K.; Kavitha, K.; Akilandeshwari, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea are used as laxative, diuretic, painkiller. It is also used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, boils, oedema, gout, veneral diseases and nasopharyngeal affections, etc. Materials and Methods: The Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves were performed by standard chemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) by using various solvent systems, and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC). Two compounds were isolated by column chromatography and one of the compounds was identified by various spectral studies. Result: Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves showed the presence of Carbohydrates, proteins, Glycosides, Saponins, Tannins, Aminoacids and Terpenoids. The TLC and HPTLC fingerprint of ethanolic extract were studied and various fractions were isolated by column chromatography and one of the fraction contain β-amyrin glucoside which was confirmed by Infra Red[IR] Spectroscopy, 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), C-13 NMR and Mass spectroscopic (MS) studies. PMID:24991072

  15. A rapid method for the determination of vitamin E forms in tissues and diet by high-performance liquid chromatography using a normal-phase diol column.