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Sample records for liquid chromatography technique

  1. Characterisation of poly(vinyl alcohol) by liquid chromatography techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, E.; Warner, F.P.; Patterson, M.

    1995-12-01

    The molecular weight distribution of poly (vinyl alcohol) can be measured by aqueous size exclusion chromatography methods but the choice of eluent is critical in eliminating non size exclusion behavior. Aqueous size exclusion experiments have been carried out using a number of eluents including standard electrolytes and surfactants. The most favorable molecular size separation was obtained using 0.25% w/v sodium lauryl sulphate as eluent. Compositional distributions in copolymer systems can be assessed using high performance liquid chromatography employing a reverse phase separation mechanism. For poly (vinyl alcohol) gradient elution with water/tetrahydrofuran was found to produce a separation according to composition. Fast gradient elution (>10% tetrahydrofuran/minute) suggested abroad distribution of composition which was verified using a column packed with non-porous beads. Slower gradient elution (<1% tetrahydrofuran/minute) suggested that this was not due to a gradual composition change but rather discrete fractions of similarly hydrophobic material.

  2. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

  3. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  4. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  5. Profiling degradants of paclitaxel using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry substructural techniques.

    PubMed

    Volk, K J; Hill, S E; Kerns, E H; Lee, M S

    1997-08-15

    A rapid and systematic strategy based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) substructural techniques was utilized to elucidate the degradation products of paclitaxel, the active ingredient in Taxol. This strategy integrates, in a single instrumental approach, analytical HPLC, UV detection, full-scan electrospray MS, and MS-MS to rapidly and accurately elucidate structures of impurities and degradants. In these studies, degradants induced by acid, base, peroxide, and light were profiled using LC-MS and LC-MS-MS methodologies resulting in an LC-MS degradant database which includes information on molecular structures, chromatographic behavior, molecular mass, and MS-MS substructural information. The stressing conditions which may cause drug degradation are utilized to validate the analytical monitoring methods and serve as predictive tools for future formulation and packaging studies. Degradation products formed upon exposure to basic conditions included baccatin III, paclitaxel sidechain methyl ester, 10-deacetylpaclitaxel, and 7-epipaclitaxel. Degradation products formed upon exposure to acidic conditions included 10-deacetylpaclitaxel and the oxetane ring opened product. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide produced only 10-deacetylpaclitaxel. Exposure to high intensity ligh produced a number of degradants. The most abundant photodegradant of paclitaxel corresponded to an isomer which contains a C3-C11 bridge. These methodologies are applicable at any stage of the drug product cycle from discovery through development. This library of paclitaxel degradants provides a foundation for future development work regarding product monitoring, as well as use as a diagnostic tool for new degradation products.

  6. Simultaneous analysis for water- and fat-soluble vitamins by a novel single chromatography technique unifying supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kaori; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2014-10-03

    Chromatography techniques usually use a single state in the mobile phase, such as liquid, gas, or supercritical fluid. Chromatographers manage one of these techniques for their purpose but are sometimes required to use multiple methods, or even worse, multiple techniques when the target compounds have a wide range of chemical properties. To overcome this challenge, we developed a single method covering a diverse compound range by means of a "unified" chromatography which completely bridges supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography. In our method, the phase state was continuously changed in the following order; supercritical, subcritical and liquid. Moreover, the gradient of the mobile phase starting at almost 100% CO2 was replaced with 100% methanol at the end completely. As a result, this approach achieved further extension of the polarity range of the mobile phase in a single run, and successfully enabled the simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins with a wide logP range of -2.11 to 10.12. Furthermore, the 17 vitamins were exceptionally separated in 4min. Our results indicated that the use of dense CO2 and the replacement of CO2 by methanol are practical approaches in unified chromatography covering diverse compounds. Additionally, this is a first report to apply the novel approach to unified chromatography, and can open another door for diverse compound analysis in a single chromatographic technique with single injection, single column and single system.

  7. Recent Advance in Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Techniques for Environmental Analysis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The techniques and measurement methods developed in the Environmental Survey and Monitoring of Chemicals by Japan’s Ministry of the Environment, as well as a large amount of knowledge archived in the survey, have led to the advancement of environmental analysis. Recently, technologies such as non-target liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with micro bore column have further developed the field. Here, the general strategy of a method developed for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of environmental chemicals with a brief description is presented. Also, a non-target analysis for the identification of environmental pollutants using a provisional fragment database and “MsMsFilter,” an elemental composition elucidation tool, is presented. This analytical method is shown to be highly effective in the identification of a model chemical, the pesticide Bendiocarb. Our improved micro-liquid chromatography injection system showed substantially enhanced sensitivity to perfluoroalkyl substances, with peak areas 32–71 times larger than those observed in conventional LC/MS. PMID:26819891

  8. Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLLME) technique: A new microextraction approach for direct liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Makahleh, Ahmad; Yap, Hui Fang; Saad, Bahruddin

    2015-10-01

    A new, rapid and sensitive microextraction technique named vortex-assisted liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLLME) is proposed. The complete extraction process involves two steps. First, a vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) procedure was used to extract the analytes from a relatively large volume of sample (donor phase) to a small volume of organic solvent (intermediate phase). Next, a micro-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (µ-VALLE) was used to extract the target analytes from the intermediate phase to a smaller volume of aqueous solution (acceptor phase). The final extract (acceptor phase) can be directly injected into the high performance liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis units without any further treatments. The selection of the intermediate phase and the manipulation of pH are key parameters that ensure good extraction efficiency of the technique. The proposed technique has been successfully applied for the determination of carvedilol (used as model analyte) in biological fluid samples. The optimum extraction conditions were: toluene as intermediate phase (150 μL); pH of the donor phase, 9.5; vortex time of the VALLME, 45 s (maximum speed, 2500 rpm); 0.1M HCl (15 μL) as acceptor phase; vortexing time of the µ-VALLME, 75 s (maximum stirring speed, 2500 rpm) and salt concentration in the donor phase, 5% (w/v). Under these conditions, enrichment factors of 51- and 418-fold for VALLME step and VALLLME procedure, respectively, were achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuhs, Bradley L.; Rounds, Mary Ann

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) developed during the 1960s as a direct offshoot of classic column liquid chromatography through improvements in the technology of columns and instrumental components (pumps, injection valves, and detectors). Originally, HPLC was the acronym for high-pressure liquid chromatography, reflecting the high operating pressures generated by early columns. By the late 1970s, however, high-performance liquid chromatography had become the preferred term, emphasizing the effective separations achieved. In fact, newer columns and packing materials offer high performance at moderate pressure (although still high pressure relative to gravity-flow liquid chromatography). HPLC can be applied to the analysis of any compound with solubility in a liquid that can be used as the mobile phase. Although most frequently employed as an analytical technique, HPLC also may be used in the preparative mode.

  10. Review of online coupling of sample preparation techniques with liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jialiang; Zhang, Chengjiang; Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke

    2014-03-07

    Sample preparation is still considered as the bottleneck of the whole analytical procedure, and efforts has been conducted towards the automation, improvement of sensitivity and accuracy, and low comsuption of organic solvents. Development of online sample preparation techniques (SP) coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) is a promising way to achieve these goals, which has attracted great attention. This article reviews the recent advances on the online SP-LC techniques. Various online SP techniques have been described and summarized, including solid-phase-based extraction, liquid-phase-based extraction assisted with membrane, microwave assisted extraction, ultrasonic assisted extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluids extraction. Specially, the coupling approaches of online SP-LC systems and the corresponding interfaces have been discussed and reviewed in detail, such as online injector, autosampler combined with transport unit, desorption chamber and column switching. Typical applications of the online SP-LC techniques have been summarized. Then the problems and expected trends in this field are attempted to be discussed and proposed in order to encourage the further development of online SP-LC techniques.

  11. Liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography as alternative techniques to gas chromatography for the rapid screening of anabolic agents in urine.

    PubMed

    Desfontaine, Vincent; Nováková, Lucie; Ponzetto, Federico; Nicoli, Raul; Saugy, Martial; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-06-17

    This work describes the development of two methods involving supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample treatment followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS) for the screening of 43 anabolic agents in human urine. After evaluating different stationary phases, a polar-embedded C18 and a diol columns were selected for UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS, respectively. Sample preparation, mobile phases and MS conditions were also finely tuned to achieve highest selectivity, chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. Then, the performance of these two methods was compared to the reference routine procedure for steroid analyses in anti-doping laboratories, which combines liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). For this purpose, urine samples spiked with the compounds of interest at five different concentrations were analyzed using the three analytical platforms. The retention and selectivity of the three techniques were very different, ensuring a good complementarity. However, the two new methods displayed numerous advantages. The overall procedure was much faster thanks to high throughput SLE sample treatment using 48-well plates and faster chromatographic analysis. Moreover, the highest sensitivity was attained using UHPLC-MS/MS with 98% of the doping agents detected at the lowest concentration level (0.1ng/mL), against 76% for UHPSFC-MS/MS and only 14% for GC-MS/MS. Finally, the weakest matrix effects were obtained with UHPSFC-MS/MS with 76% of the analytes displaying relative matrix effect between -20 and 20%, while the GC-MS/MS reference method displayed very strong matrix effects (over 100%) for all of the anabolic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiresidue analysis of neonicotinoids by solid-phase extraction technique using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Chander; Kumar, Yogesh; Madan, Jyotsana; Saxena, Navneet

    2010-06-01

    For routine monitoring of pesticides, a multiresidue analysis through solid-phase extraction technique and using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in cotton seed cake (CSC) has been developed. Extraction of fortified samples was carried out with aqueous acetone under vacuum. The concentrated extract was loaded onto the solid-phase extraction units, preconditioned with acetonitrile. The extraction units were then washed with hexane and finally eluted with acetonitrile. The pesticide residues were determined using a multiresidue method by reversed-phase HPLC. The average percentage recoveries were found to range between 65.47% and 110% at spiking levels of 10 to 40 mg/kg. The method developed shows a healthy rate of recovery and can successfully be utilized for the extraction and screening of neonicotinoid residues in CSC. The detection limits for imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid using this method were found to be 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatography and immunoassay techniques for monitoring urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) as sensitive techniques for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in human urine. The method was tested using synthesized PAH conjugates as positive markers. Results showed that a PAH conjugate, S-(9,10-dihydro-9-hydroxy-10-phenanthryl)N-acetyl cysteine (PHONAC), present in HPLC effluent could be detected by ELISA at picomole levels, well below the sensitivity of the HPLC UV detector. Analyses of urine from mice dosed with phenanthrene demonstrated that a substance detected by HPLC which was not detected in ELISA tests was the principal phenanthrene metabolite. This substance was not hydrolysed by Beta-glucuronidase. PHONAC was detected by ELISA in mouse urine extracts subjected to HPLC.

  14. Post-column labeling techniques in amino acid analysis by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rigas, Pantelis G

    2013-10-01

    Amino acid analysis (AAA) has always presented an analytical challenge in terms of sample preparation, separation, and detection. Because of the vast number of amino acids, various separation methods have been applied taking into consideration the large differences in their chemical structures, which span from nonpolar to highly polar side chains. Numerous separation methods have been developed in the past 60 years, and impressive achievements have been made in the fields of separation, derivatization, and detection of amino acids (AAs). Among the separation methods, liquid chromatography (LC) prevailed in the AAA field using either pre-column or post-column labeling techniques in order to improve either separation of AAs or selectivity and sensitivity of AAA. Of the two approaches, the post-column technique is a more rugged and reproducible method and provides excellent AAs separation relatively free from interferences. This review considers current separations combined with post-column labeling techniques for AAA, comparison with the pre-column methods, and the strategies used to develop effective post-column methodology. The focus of the article is on LC methods coupled with post-column labeling techniques and studying the reactions to achieve optimum post-column derivatization (PCD) conditions in order to increase sensitivity and selectivity using various types of detectors (UV-Vis, fluorescence, electrochemical etc.) and illustrating the versatility of the PCD methods for practical analysis.

  15. Liquid Chromatography in 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

  16. Principles of Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalyar, Stephen R.

    This article reviews the basic principles of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The introductory section provides an overview of the HPLC technique, placing it in historical context and discussing the elementary facts of the separation mechanism. The next section discusses the nature of resolution, describing the two principal aspects, zone center separation and zone spreading. The third section takes a detailed look at how HPLC is used in practice to achieve a separation. It discusses the three key variables that need to be adjusted: retention, efficiency, and selectivity. A fourth section is concerned with various relationships of practical importance: flow rate, temperature, and pressure. A final section discusses future trends in HPLC.

  17. An overview to nano-scale analytical techniques: Nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Salvatore

    2017-08-01

    Nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and CEC are microfluidic techniques mainly used for analytical purposes. They have been applied to the separation and analysis of a large number of compounds, e.g., peptides, proteins, drugs, enantiomers, antibiotics, pesticides, nutraceutical, etc. Analytes separation is carried out into capillaries containing selected stationary phase. The mobile phase is moved either by a pump (nano-LC) or by an EOF, respectively. The two tools can offer some advantages over conventional techniques, e.g., high selectivity, separation efficiency, resolution, short analysis time and consumption of low volumes of mobile phase. Flow rates in the range 50-800 nL/min are usually applied. The low flow rate reduces the chromatographic dilution increasing the mass sensitivity. Special attention must be paid in avoiding peak dispersion selecting the appropriate detector, injector and tube connection. Finally due to the low flow rate these microfluidic techniques can be easily coupled with mass spectrometry. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Vapor Pressure Determination of VM Using the Denunder-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    2012 – Sep 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vapor Pressure Determination of VM Using the Denuder– Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Technique 5a... Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) Vapor pressure 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF...9 1 VAPOR PRESSURE DETERMINATION OF VM USING THE DENUDER– LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–MASS SPECTROMETRY

  19. Automated sample preparation techniques for the determination of drug enantiomers in biological fluids using liquid chromatography with chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, A; Toussaint, B; Chiap, P; Hubert, P; Crommen, J

    1999-01-01

    The determination of drug enantiomers has become of prime importance in the field of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. Liquid chromatography (LC) is one of the most frequently used techniques for achieving the separation and quantitation of the enantiomers of drug compounds. In the bioanalytical field, the integrated systems present an interesting alternative to time-consuming sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction. Solid phase extraction (SPE) on disposable cartridges, dialysis or column switching are sample preparation techniques that can be fully automated and applied to enantioselective analysis in biological fluids. The selection of the most appropriate LC mode and chiral stationary phase for enantioseparations in bioanalysis is discussed and some aspects of these automated sample preparation procedures are compared, such as selectivity, detectability, elution of the analytes from the extraction sorbent, sample volume and analyte stability.

  20. Gradient enhanced-fluidity liquid hydrophilic interaction chromatography of ribonucleic acid nucleosides and nucleotides: A "green" technique.

    PubMed

    Beilke, Michael C; Beres, Martin J; Olesik, Susan V

    2016-03-04

    A "green" hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) technique for separating the components of mixtures with a broad range of polarities is illustrated using enhanced-fluidity liquid mobile phases. Enhanced-fluidity liquid chromatography (EFLC) involves the addition of liquid CO2 to conventional liquid mobile phases. Decreased mobile phase viscosity and increased analyte diffusivity results when a liquefied gas is dissolved in common liquid mobile phases. The impact of CO2 addition to a methanol:water (MeOH:H2O) mobile phase was studied to optimize HILIC gradient conditions. For the first time a fast separation of 16 ribonucleic acid (RNA) nucleosides/nucleotides was achieved (16min) with greater than 1.3 resolution for all analyte pairs. By using a gradient, the analysis time was reduced by over 100% compared to similar separations conducted under isocratic conditions. The optimal separation using MeOH:H2O:CO2 mobile phases was compared to MeOH:H2O and acetonitrile:water (ACN:H2O) mobile phases. Based on chromatographic performance parameters (efficiency, resolution and speed of analysis) and an assessment of the environmental impact of the mobile phase mixtures, MeOH:H2O:CO2 mixtures are preferred over ACN:H2O or MeOH:H2O mobile phases for the separation of mixtures of RNA nucleosides and nucleotides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ION-pair liquid chromatography technique for the estimation of metformin in its multicomponent dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, M; Ravi, J; Ravisankar, S; Suresh, B

    2001-04-01

    A simple, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of metformin with gliclazide and glipizide present in multicomponent dosage forms. The method was carried out on Inertsil C(18) column. A mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-water containing camphor sulphonic acid (adjusted to pH 7 using 0.1 N sodium hydroxide; 75 mM) at a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1) was used for the separation. Detection was carried out at 225 nm. Tolbutamide was used as internal standard. Validation of the developed HPLC method was carried out.

  2. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  3. Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)

  4. Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)

  5. A novel fully automated on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography technique used for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in tobacco and tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dawei; Fei, Ting; Sha, Yunfei; Wang, Leijun; Li, Gang; Wu, Da; Liu, Baizhan

    2014-12-29

    In this study, a novel fully automated on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography (LC-GC) technique was reported and applied for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) in tobacco and tobacco products. Using a switching valve to isolate the capillary pre-column and the analytical column during the solvent evaporation period, the LC solvent can be completely removed and prevented from reaching the GC column and the detector. The established method was used to determinate the OCPs in tobacco samples. By using Florisil SPE column and employing GPC technique, polarity impurities and large molecule impurities were removed. A dynamic range 1-100ng/mL was achieved with detection limits from 1.5 to 3.3μg/kg. The method exhibited good repeatability and recoveries. This technology may provide an alternative way for trace analysis of complex samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of unusual phenols from Yucca schidigera bark: comparison with other analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Pizza, Cosimo

    2004-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic compounds are of interest for both medicinal and food plants. In the present work, the phenolic fraction from Yucca schidigera, a plant bearing the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) label approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, was studied. Crude extracts of Y. schidigera bark were investigated by liquid chromatography/UV spectrophotometry with diode-array detection, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), in order to develop and optimize simple and rapid techniques to determine both stilbenes and yuccaols for the purposes of quality control of collected material. With optimal LC and MS conditions, stilbenes and yuccaols were quantified with all the proposed methods and the results were compared. Sensitivity was evaluated and the results indicated that MS/MS detection in the multiple reaction monitoring mode is easily applicable to this plant and allows the rapid and direct identification and quantification of these peculiar compounds in crude plant extracts.

  7. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Experiments to Undergraduate Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Peter T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the principles of liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LCEC), an analytical technique that incorporates the advantages of both liquids chromatography and electrochemistry. Also suggests laboratory experiments using this technique. (MLH)

  8. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Experiments to Undergraduate Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Peter T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the principles of liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LCEC), an analytical technique that incorporates the advantages of both liquids chromatography and electrochemistry. Also suggests laboratory experiments using this technique. (MLH)

  9. Alternative sample-introduction technique to avoid breakthrough in gradient-elution liquid chromatography of polymers.

    PubMed

    Reingruber, Eva; Bedani, Filippo; Buchberger, Wolfgang; Schoenmakers, Peter

    2010-10-15

    Gradient-elution liquid chromatography (GELC) is a powerful tool for the characterization of synthetic polymers. However, gradient-elution chromatograms often suffer from breakthrough phenomena. Breakthrough can be averted by using a sample solvent as weak as the mobile phase. However, this approach is only applicable to polymers for which a sufficiently strong solvent exists which is at the same time a weak eluent. Finding such a solvent for a given polymer can be laborious or may even be impossible. Besides, when working with comprehensive two-dimensional LC the effluent of the first dimension is the injection solvent of the second dimension. In this case, it is not possible to avoid breakthrough by adjusting the eluent strength of the second-dimension injection solvent. Therefore, another strategy to avert breakthrough has to be implemented. In this work, we successfully avoided breakthrough in GELC by mixing the mobile phase not before, but after the autosampler. This was demonstrated measuring a blend of poly(methyl methacrylate) standards with different molecular-weights as model mixture with comprehensive two-dimensional GELC×size-exclusion chromatography. The strategy is thought to be applicable to all substances with a sufficiently strong dependence of retention on mobile-phase composition. This typically applies to large molecules (synthetic and natural polymers) and allows efficient refocusing. Unretained and barely retained substances are not refocused and therefore suffer in the proposed setup from peak broadening. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Micellar liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basova, Elena M.; Ivanov, Vadim M.; Shpigun, Oleg A.

    1999-12-01

    Background and possibilities of practical applications of micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) are considered. Various retention models in MLC, the effects of the nature and concentration of surfactants and organic modifiers, pH, temperature and ionic strength on the MLC efficiency and selectivity are discussed. The advantages and limitations of MLC are demonstrated. The performance of MLC is critically evaluated in relationship to the reversed-phase HPLC and ion-pair chromatography. The potential of application of MLC for the analysis of pharmaceuticals including that in biological fluids and separation of inorganic anions, transition metal cations, metal chelates and heteropoly compounds is described. The bibliography includes 146 references.

  11. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talcott, Stephen

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has many applications in food chemistry. Food components that have been analyzed with HPLC include organic acids, vitamins, amino acids, sugars, nitrosamines, certain pesticides, metabolites, fatty acids, aflatoxins, pigments, and certain food additives. Unlike gas chromatography, it is not necessary for the compound being analyzed to be volatile. It is necessary, however, for the compounds to have some solubility in the mobile phase. It is important that the solubilized samples for injection be free from all particulate matter, so centrifugation and filtration are common procedures. Also, solid-phase extraction is used commonly in sample preparation to remove interfering compounds from the sample matrix prior to HPLC analysis.

  12. Molecular authentication and quality control using a high performance liquid chromatography technique of Fructus Evodiae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan; Li, Shun Xiang; Cai, Guang Xian; Yue, Chun Hua; Wei, Li Jun; Zhang, Ping

    2008-02-01

    In present paper, the properties of molecular authentication combined with the fingerprints of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were validated by analyzing ten batches of Fructus Evodiae samples (the dried nearly ripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH., Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG or Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG). The results of this investigation show that the similarities of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were almost 100% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG, 97% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH., and 96% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG. The percentage of identity between the two groups of Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG and Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG is almost 96%, but the identity among the group of these three species is only 73%. The results show that Fructus Evodiae comes from three species respectively. The fingerprints of HPLC show that Fructus Evodiae revealed 20 major common peaks. And the three species have almost the same chemical constituents. ITS sequence fingerprint combining the fingerprint of HPLC can not only be developed to identify and distinguish the three species in detail, but also can be used for optimizing location where Fructus Evodiae has much higher bioactive constituents and yield.

  13. Investigation of liquid and gas chromatography techniques for separation of diastereomers of beta-(alpha-methylbenzyl) amino isobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Held, Charles B; Robbins, David K

    2003-09-01

    Cryptophycins are macrolides investigated as potential anticancer agents. These large cyclic molecules are generated via a convergent process, utilizing the coupling of several smaller fragments synthesized individually. During early synthetic development of the beta-amino acid fragment C, analytical methods are necessary for the characterization of products resulting from the various routes being studied. One route being evaluated produces (RR) and (RS) diastereomers of beta-(alpha-methylbenzyl) amino isobutyric acid as intermediates. To measure diastereomeric excess (%de), assay conditions using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary gas chromatographic (GC) techniques are explored. Derivatization methods using trifluoroacetyl- and silyl-derivatives are investigated for use with capillary GC. The results of the GC investigations are found to be only partially successful. Ion-pair HPLC is determined to be the optimal technique, utilizing pentanesulfonic acid as the counter ion to the amine group of beta-(alpha-methylbenzyl) amino isobutyric acid.

  14. Microextraction techniques coupled to liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of organic micropollutants in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Ma Esther Torres; Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2014-07-16

    Until recently, sample preparation was carried out using traditional techniques, such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), that use large volumes of organic solvents. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) uses much less solvent than LLE, although the volume can still be significant. These preparation methods are expensive, time-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Recently, a great effort has been made to develop new analytical methodologies able to perform direct analyses using miniaturised equipment, thereby achieving high enrichment factors, minimising solvent consumption and reducing waste. These microextraction techniques improve the performance during sample preparation, particularly in complex water environmental samples, such as wastewaters, surface and ground waters, tap waters, sea and river waters. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF/MS) techniques can be used when analysing a broad range of organic micropollutants. Before separating and detecting these compounds in environmental samples, the target analytes must be extracted and pre-concentrated to make them detectable. In this work, we review the most recent applications of microextraction preparation techniques in different water environmental matrices to determine organic micropollutants: solid-phase microextraction SPME, in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME). Several groups of compounds are considered organic micropollutants because these are being released continuously into the environment. Many of these compounds are considered emerging contaminants. These analytes are generally compounds that are not covered by the existing regulations and are now detected more frequently in different environmental compartments. Pharmaceuticals, surfactants, personal care products and other chemicals are considered micropollutants. These compounds must be

  15. [Optimisation of a high-efficiency liquid chromatography technique for measuring lamotrigine in human plasma].

    PubMed

    Rivas, N; Zarzuelo, A; López, F G

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimise the HPLC-UV bio-analytical method currently used by the Salamanca University Clinical Hospital for determining lamotrigine plasma levels. The developed HPLC-UV analytic technique currently in use was shown to be linear, exact and precise, and suitable for use in routine monitoring of lamotrigine levels. The drawback of this method has always been the time required for analysing samples, so our aim was to improve on that elapsed time. That improvement involved using a different chromatographic column from the one used up until now. We replaced the column that was normally used (Kromasil-100C18-5 microm-15*0.4 cm with a LiChroCART-RP18e-3 microm-5.5*0.4 cm); in both cases, a liquid-liquid extraction was performed and the same sample extraction protocol was followed. Both validation methods showed that the two column types are valid for routine lamotrigine monitoring. The decrease in retention time, in addition to a lower quantification limit and better precision and accuracy parameters obtained with the LiChorCART column, suggest that this unit is ideal for use in clinical practice because it enables a large number of determinations to be performed in less time and the greater precision of LTG measurements. Copyright © 2009 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. [THE TECHNIQUE OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR SIMULTANEOUS DIAGNOSTIC OF INHERENT HYPERPLASIA OF ADRENAL GLANDS TYPE I AND II].

    PubMed

    Dutov, A A; Nikitin, D A; Lukyanova, Yu L; Shemiakina, N A

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography making it possible simultaneously detect cortisol, cortisone and secondary steroids in serum for consequent analysis of common reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet under 240 nm. The liquid-liquid extraction from alkaline medium in diethyl ether The separation using column of 150x4.6 size ODS 3.5 mkm in isocratic mode. The eluent acetonitrile--0.02 M phosphate buffer pH 8.0--isopropanol (40:60:1). The application of proposed technique managed to separate cortisol, cortisone, dexamethasone, corticosterone, 11-desoxicortisol, testosterone, desoxicorticosterone, 17α-gidroxiprogesterone and androstendion in 20 minutes. The simplicity, reproducibility and sufficient selectivity and sensitivity of technique permit implement it in clinical practice for simultaneous diagnostic of inherent hyperplasia of adrenal glands type I and II.

  17. Development and comparison of two dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction techniques coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for the rapid analysis of bisphenol A in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuhui; Xie, Qilong; Chen, Jie; Sun, Janzhi; He, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2013-06-21

    In this study, two novel sample extraction methods for the analysis of bisphenol A (BPA) in edible oils were developed by using liquid-liquid extraction followed by a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LLE-DLLME) and reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (RP-DLLME). RP-DLLME showed a superior characteristic over LLE-DLLME and other previously reported procedures because of its easy operation, short extraction time, high sensitivity, low organic solvent consumption and waste generation. The optimized extraction conditions of RP-DLLME for 1.0 g of edible oil diluted in 4 mL of n-hexane were: extractant, 100 μL 0.2 M sodium hydroxide solution (80% methanol, v/v); extraction time, 1 min; centrifugation, 3 min. The determination of BPA was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a DAD detector. The method offered excellent linearity over a range of 0.010-0.5 μg g(-1) with a correlation coefficient of r>0.997. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability values expressed as relative standard deviation were 1.9% and 5.9%, respectively. The quantitation limit and detection limit were 6.3 and 2.5 ng g(-1). The target analyte was detected in 5 out of 16 edible oil samples. The recovery rates in real samples ranged from 89.5 to 99.7%.

  18. Simple coupled ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography and ion chromatography technique for simultaneous determination of folic acid and inorganic anions in folic acid tablets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenglian; Cao, Minyi; Wang, Nani; Muhammad, Nadeem; Wu, Shuchao; Zhu, Yan

    2018-01-15

    Folic acid plays a significant role during periods of rapid cells division and growth. Pregnant women require folic acid daily, either from dietary supplements or folic acid tablets in order to prevent fetal neural tube defects. In this work, a simple coupled ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography and ion chromatography technique was developed for simultaneous determination of folic acid and inorganic anions in folic acid tablets. A reversed-phase C18 column was used as the pretreatment column for on-line separating inorganic anions from organics. Inorganic anions were concentrated in the concentration column. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, good sensitivity and linear calibration-curves (r≥0.9992) were obtained. Low detection limits were obtained in the range of 0.0032-0.40mgL(-1) for all analytes. Repeatability results were satisfactory with relative standard deviations less than 1.50% (n=5). The developed method was utilized to analyze spiked folic acid tablet samples with good measured recoveries (92.4-107.4%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An integrated process for the recovery of high added-value compounds from olive oil using solid support free liquid-liquid extraction and chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Apostolis; Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Nikou, Theodora; Michailidis, Dimitris; Gerolimatos, Panagiotis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Hubert, Jane; Halabalaki, Maria; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Léandros

    2017-03-31

    An integrated extraction and purification process for the direct recovery of high added value compounds from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is proposed by using solid support free liquid-liquid extraction and chromatography techniques. Two different extraction methods were developed on a laboratory-scale Centrifugal Partition Extractor (CPE): a sequential strategy consisting of several "extraction-recovery" cycles and a continuous strategy based on stationary phase co-current elution. In both cases, EVOO was used as mobile phase diluted in food grade n-hexane (feed mobile phase) and the required biphasic system was obtained by adding ethanol and water as polar solvents. For the sequential process, 17.5L of feed EVOO containing organic phase (i.e. 7L of EVOO treated) were extracted yielding 9.5g of total phenolic fraction corresponding to a productivity of 5.8g/h/L of CPE column. Regarding the second approach, the co-current process, 2L of the feed oil phase (containing to 0.8L of EVOO) were treated at 100mL/min yielding 1.03g of total phenolic fraction corresponding to a productivity of 8.9g/h/L of CPE column. The total phenolic fraction was then fractionated by using stepwise gradient elution Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The biphasic solvent systems were composed of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water in different proportions (X/Y/2/3, v/v). In a single run of 4h on a column with a capacity of 1L, 910mg of oleocanthal, 882mg of oleacein, 104mg of hydroxytyrosol were successfully recovered from 5g of phenolic extract with purities of 85%, 92% and 90%, respectively. CPC fractions were then submitted to orthogonal chromatographic steps (adsorption on silica gel or size exclusion chromatography) leading to the isolation of additional eleven compounds belonging to triterpens, phenolic compounds and secoiridoids. Among them, elenolic acid ethylester was found to be new compound. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) and

  20. In vivo investigation of pharmacokinetics of model drug: comparison of near infrared technique with high-performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yueqing; Liu, Fei; Fang, Chunsheng; Qian, Zhiyu; Achilefu, Samuel

    2010-02-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy possess great potential for in vivo quantitative monitoring of drugs in animal subject. The accuracy of the measurements by near infrared technique should be evaluated by an established method. In this study, a near infrared fluorescence dye, cypate and its conjugation cypate-PEG were used as model drug for in vivo dynamic study. The pharmacokinetics of the model drug in mice subjects were investigated by near infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The results from the two techniques were compared. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated based on the acquired data by DAS software showed that there were no statistical differences between the two methods. The dynamic distribution of the model drugs in mouse model imaged by NIR image system indicated that cypate firstly accumulated in liver and was cleared from the enteron system, while cypate - PEG clearance from the urine system. Results indicated that NIR monitoring technique provide a promising quantitative way for in vivo monitoring the dynamics of drugs in animal subjects.

  1. Chemical characterization of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol constituents using gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, and paper spray-based mass spectrometry techniques.

    PubMed

    Rindelaub, Joel D; Wiley, Joshua S; Cooper, Bruce R; Shepson, Paul B

    2016-07-15

    Despite ample research into the atmospheric oxidation of α-pinene, an important precursor to biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, the identification of its reaction products, specifically organic nitrates, which impact atmospheric NOx concentrations, is still incomplete. This negatively impacts our understanding of α-pinene oxidation chemistry and its relation to air quality. Photochemical chamber experiments were conducted in conjunction with mass spectrometric techniques, including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight (HPLC/TOF), and paper spray ionization MS, to investigate products from the OH radical initiated oxidation of α-pinene under high NOx conditions. Over 30 compounds were tentatively identified, including those newly detected from photochemical chamber studies of α-pinene oxidation, pinocamphenol, fencholenic aldehyde, and α-pinene-derived nitrate isomers. α-Pinene-derived hydroxynitrate isomers were successfully detected using chromatographic methods, demonstrating, for the first time, the identification of individual first-generation organic nitrate products derived from α-pinene. The application of paper spray ionization to particle-phase compounds collected on filters represents a novel method for the direct analysis of filter samples at ambient pressure and temperature. The use of HPLC/TOF and paper spray ionization methods to identify previously unobserved α-pinene-derived products helps lower the uncertainty in α-pinene oxidation chemistry and provides new platforms that can be used to identify and quantify important atmospheric compounds that relate to air quality in a complex sample matrix, such as ambient aerosol particles. Additionally, the use of paper spray ionization for direct filter analysis is a fast, relatively inexpensive sample preparation technique that can be used to reduce sample manipulation from solvent-induced reactions. Copyright © 2016 John

  2. Quantification of 4-Methylimidazole in soft drinks, sauces and vinegars of Greek market using two liquid chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Moti, Sofia; Alegakis, Athanasios; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Goumenou, Marina; Nosyrev, Alexander E; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-09-01

    The substance 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) has raised several concerns regarding its toxicity to humans, although no harmonized classification has yet been decided. The regulatory limits for food products set by various authorities in Europe and the USA differ considerably. The purpose of the present study is to compare two liquid chromatography techniques in order to determine the levels of 4-MEI in food products from the Greek market and roughly estimate the possible exposure and relevant health risk for the consumers. A total of thirty-four samples (soft drinks, beers, balsamic vinegars, energy drinks and sauces) were collected and analyzed. The quality parameters for both analytical methodologies (linearity, accuracy, inter day precision, recovery) are presented. No detectable levels of 4-MEI are found in beers and soft drink samples, other than cola type. On the other hand, 4-MEI was detected in all cola type soft drinks (15.8-477.0 ng/ml), energy drinks (57.1%, 6.6-22.5 ng/ml) and vinegar samples (66.7%, 9.7-3034.7 ng/ml), while only one of the sauce samples was found to have a detectable level of 17.5 ng/ml 4-MEI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of turbulent-flow chromatography with automated solid-phase extraction in 96-well plates and liquid-liquid extraction used as plasma sample preparation techniques for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, D; Pickard, V; Czembor, W; Müller, C

    1999-08-27

    Turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) combined with the high selectivity and sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) is a new technique for the fast direct analysis of drugs from crude plasma. TFC in the 96-well plate format reduces significantly the time required for sample clean-up in the laboratory. For example, for 100 samples the workload for a technician is reduced from about 8 h by a manual liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) assay to about 1 h in the case of TFC. Sample clean-up and analysis are performed on-line on the same column. Similar chromatographic performance and validation results were achieved using HTLC Turbo-C18 columns (Cohesive Technologies) and Oasis HLB extraction columns (Waters). One 96-well plate with 96 plasma samples is analyzed within 5.25 h, corresponding to 3.3 min per sample. Compared to this LLE and analysis of 96 samples takes about 16 h. Two structurally different and highly protein bound compounds, drug A and drug B, were analyzed under identical TFC conditions and the assays were fully validated for the application to toxicokinetics studies (compliant with Good Laboratory Practices-GLP). The limit of quantitation was 1.00 microg/l and the linear working range covered three orders of magnitude for both drugs. In the case of drug A the quality of analysis by TFC was similar to the reference LLE assay and slightly better than automated solid-phase extraction in 96-well plates. The accuracy was -3.1 to 6.7% and the precision was 3.1 to 6.8% in the case of drug A determined for dog plasma by TFC-MS-MS. For drug B the accuracy was -3.7 to 3.5% and the precision was 1.6 to 5.4% for rat plasma, which is even slightly better than what was achieved with the validated protein precipitation assay.

  4. Environmental analyses utilizing gas and liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Grob, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the various methods of analysis, in environmental studies, which utilizes gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (HPLC), and ion chromatography (IC) is presented. In many cases the samples must be prepared for final measurement by employing other analytical techniques; eg., extraction (liquid-liquid, both micro and macro scale; solid-phase (SPE); supercritical fluid (SFE); headspace equilibration (HSGE); etc.). Details of the various methods will not be given but descriptive explanations and pertinent references will be furnished. Theoretical aspects of the various techniques will be referenced adequately for those not familiar with the methodologies. Since most of these methods are validated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) addresses where the methods may be obtained will also be given.

  5. Vortex-assisted hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction technique combined with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection for the determination of oestrogens in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peijin; Xiao, Yu; Liu, Wenjun; Wang, Juan; Yang, Yaling

    2015-04-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive and environmentally friendly method has been developed for the determination of three oestrogens (17β-estradiol (17β-E2), estrone (E1), and diethylstilbestrol (DES)) in milk samples by using vortex-assisted hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (VA-HF-LPME) and high performance liquid chromatography. Method is based on the microextraction of oestrogens from sample solution into 15 μL of nonanoic acid as extracting agent, which is placed inside the hollow fibre followed by vortex-mixing. Vortex provided effective and mild mixing of sample solution and increased the contact between analytes and boundary layers of the hollow fibre, thereby enhancing mass transfer rate and leading to high recovery of target analytes. The extraction equilibrium is achieved within 2 min. Parameters influencing the recovery were investigated and optimized. The proposed technique provided good linearity (>0.9984), repeatability (RSD = 2.56-4.38), low limits of detection (0.06-0.17 ng mL(-1)), and high enrichment factor (330). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Simple and Universal Gel Permeation Chromatography Technique for Precise Molecular Weight Characterization of Well-Defined Poly(ionic liquid)s

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hongkun; Zhong, Mingjiang; Adzima, Brian; Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2013-03-20

    Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) are an important class of technologically relevant materials. However, characterization of well-defined polyionic materials remains a challenge. Herein, we have developed a simple and versatile gel permeation chromatography (GPC) methodology for molecular weight (MW) characterization of PILs with a variety of anions. PILs with narrow MW distributions were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization, and the MWs obtained from GPC were further confirmed via nuclear magnetic resonance end group analysis.

  7. Salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction with acetonitrile: a new high throughput sample preparation technique for good laboratory practice bioanalysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Huaiqin; Kim, Elaine; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2009-04-01

    Acetonitrile, an organic solvent miscible with aqueous phase, has seen thousands of publications in the literature as an efficient deproteinization reagent. The use of acetonitrile for liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), however, has seen very limited application due to its miscibility with aqueous phase. The interest in LLE with acetonitrile has been pursued and reported in the literature by significantly lowering the temperature of the mixture or increasing the salt concentration in the mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous phase, resulting in the separation of the acetonitrile phase from aqueous phase, as observed in conventional LLE. However, very limited application of these methods has been reported. The throughput was limited. In this report, we report a new sample preparation technique, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile, for high-throughput good laboratory practice sample analysis using LCMS, Two compounds from an approved drug, Kaletra, were used to demonstrate the extractability of drugs from human plasma matrix. Magnesium sulfate was used as the salting-out reagent. Extracts were diluted and then injected into a reversed phase LC-MS/MS system directly. One 96-well plate was extracted with this new approach to evaluate multiple parameters of a good laboratory practice analytical method. Results indicate that the method is rapid, reliable and suitable for regulated bioanalysis. With minimal modification, this approach has been used for high-throughput good laboratory practice analysis of a number of compounds under development at Abbott.

  8. Application of Solid Sorbent Collection Techniques and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection to the Analysis of Explosives in Water Samples.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Methods were developed for the determination of several explosives components (nitro-organic compounds) in environmental waters. The methods are based on Porapak resin adsorption and Amberlite XAD-4 resin adsorption of the explosives are measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The technique provides a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity for these compounds in actual samples. Detection limits approach 1 microgram/l for many components.

  9. Novel one-step headspace dynamic in-syringe liquid phase derivatization-extraction technique for the determination of aqueous aliphatic amines by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Sarangapani; Shih, Hou-Kung; Chen, Ying-Fang; Hsiech, Chunming; Ponnusamy, Vinoth Kumar; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2013-06-28

    A novel one-step headspace (HS) dynamic in-syringe (DIS) based liquid-phase derivatization-extraction (LPDE) technique has been developed for the selective determination of two short-chain aliphatic amines (SCAAs) in aqueous samples using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD). Methylamine (MA) and dimethylamine (DMA) were selected as model compounds of SCAAs. In this method, a micro-syringe pre-filled with derivatizing reagent solution (9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate) in the barrel was applied to achieve the simultaneous derivatization and extraction of two methylamines evolved from alkalized aqueous samples through the automated reciprocated movements of syringe plunger. After the derivatization-extraction process, the derivatized phase was directly injected into HPLC-FLD for analysis. Parameters influencing the evolution of methylamines and the HS-DIS-LPDE efficiency, including sample pH and temperature, sampling time, as well as the composition of derivatization reagent, reaction temperature, and frequency of reciprocated plunger movements, were thoroughly examined and optimized. Under optimal conditions, detections were linear in the range of 25-500μgL(-1) for MA and DMA with correlation coefficients all above 0.995. The limits of detection (based on S/N=3) were 5 and 19ngmL(-1) for MA and DMA, respectively. The applicability of the developed method was demonstrated for the determination of MA and DMA in real water samples without any prior cleanup of the sample. The present method provides a simple, selective, automated, low cost and eco-friendly procedure to determine aliphatic amines in aqueous samples.

  10. Development of one-step hollow fiber supported liquid phase sampling technique for occupational workplace air analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detector.

    PubMed

    Yan, Cheing-Tong; Chien, Hai-Ying

    2012-07-13

    In this study, a simple and novel one-step hollow-fiber supported liquid-phase sampling (HF-LPS) technique was developed for enriched sampling of gaseous toxic species prior to chemical analysis for workplace air monitoring. A lab-made apparatus designed with a gaseous sample generator and a microdialysis sampling cavity (for HF-LPS) was utilized and evaluated to simulate gaseous contaminant air for occupational workplace analysis. Gaseous phenol was selected as the model toxic species. A polyethersulfone hollow fiber dialysis module filled with ethylene glycol in the shell-side was applied as the absorption solvent to collect phenol from a gas flow through the tube-side, based on the concentration distribution of phenol between the absorption solvent and the gas flow. After sampling, 20 μL of the extractant was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Factors that influence the generation of gaseous standards and the HF-LPS were studied thoroughly. Results indicated that at 25 °C the phenol (2000 μg/mL) standard solution injected at 15-μL/min can be vaporized into sampling cavity under nitrogen flow at 780 mL/min, to generate gaseous phenol with concentration approximate to twice the permissible exposure limit. Sampling at 37.3 mL/min for 30 min can meet the requirement of the workplace air monitoring. The phenol in air ranged between 0.7 and 10 cm³/m³ (shows excellent linearity) with recovery between 98.1 and 104.1%. The proposed method was identified as a one-step sampling for workplace monitoring with advantages of convenience, rapidity, sensitivity, and usage of less-toxic solvent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of the triacylglycerol fraction in fish oil by comprehensive liquid chromatography techniques with the support of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Beccaria, Marco; Costa, Rosaria; Sullini, Giuseppe; Grasso, Elisa; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Fish oil made from menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) can be used as a dietary supplement for the presence of high levels of the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids, viz. epentaenoic and docosahexanoic. In this work, for the first time, two different multidimensional approaches were developed and compared, in terms of peak capacity, for triacylglycerol characterization. In particular, silver ion chromatography with a silver-ion column and non-aqueous reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 column were tested in both comprehensive (stop-flow) and off-line modes. The use of mass spectra attained by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for both LC approaches, and the fatty acids methyl esters profile of menhaden oil obtained by gas chromatography analysis, greatly supported the elucidation of the triacylglycerol content in menhaden oil. The off-line approach afforded a better separation and, thus, higher peak capacity to allow identifying and semiquantifying more than 250 triacylglycerols. Such a huge number has never been reported for a menhaden oil sample.The main disadvantage of such an approach over the stop-flow one was the longer analysis time, mainly attributable to solvent exchange between the two dimensions.

  12. Recent applications of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Feng-Qing; Ge, Liya; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, an alternative liquid chromatography mode, is of particular interest in separating hydrophilic and polar ionic compounds. Compared with traditional liquid chromatography techniques, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography offers specific advantages mainly including: (1) relatively green and water-soluble mobile phase composition, which enhances the solubility of hydrophilic and polar ionic compounds; (2) no need for ion-pairing reagents and high content of organic solvent, which benefits mass spectrometry detection; (3) high orthogonality to reverse-phase liquid chromatography, well adapted to two-dimensional liquid chromatography for complicated samples. Therefore, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography has been rapidly developed in many areas over the past decades. This review summarizes the recent progress (from 2012 to July 2016) of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis, with the focus on detecting chemical drugs in various matrices, charactering active compounds of natural products and assessing biotherapeutics through typical structure unit. Moreover, the retention mechanism and behavior of analytes in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography as well as some novel hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography columns used for pharmaceutical analysis are also described.

  13. Use of high pressure liquid chromatography in the study of liquid lubricant oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.

    1982-01-01

    The general principles of classical liquid chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages are compared. Several chromatographic techniques are reviewed, and the analysis of a C-ether liquid lubricant by each technique is illustrated. An analysis by size exclusion chromatography of an ester lubricant, which had been degraded using a micro-oxidation apparatus, is illustrated to show how HPLC can be used in the study of high-temperature lubricant degradation.

  14. An evaporation-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique as a simple tool for high performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry determination of insecticides in wine.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Irina; Kanashina, Daria; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2017-08-25

    A sample pre-treatment technique based on evaporation-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (EVA-DLLME), followed by HPLC-MS/MS has been developed for the determination of organophosphate insecticides (malathion, diazinon, phosalone) in wine samples. The procedure includes the addition of mixture of organic solvents (with density higher than water), consisting of the extraction (low density) and volatile (high density) solvents, to aqueous sample followed by heating of the mixture obtained, what promotes the volatile solvent evaporation and moving extraction solvent droplets from down to top of the aqueous sample and, as a consequence, microextraction of target analytes. To initiate the evaporation process an initiator is required. It was established that hexanol (extraction solvent) and dichloromethane (volatile solvent) mixture (1:1, v/v) provides effective microextraction of the insecticides from wine samples with recovery from 92 to 103%. The conditions of insecticides' microextraction such as selection of extraction solvent, ratio of hexanol/dichloromethane and hexanol/sample, type and concentration of initiator, and effect of ethanol as one of the main components of wine have been studied. Under optimal experimental conditions the linear detection ranges were found to be 10(-7)-10(-3)gL(-1) for malathion, 10(-9)-10(-4)gL(-1) for diazinon, and 10(-6)-10(-2)gL(-1) for phosalone. The LODs, calculated from a blank test, based on 3σ, found to be 3×10(-8)gL(-1) for malathion, 3×10(-10)gL(-1) for diazinon and 3×10(-7)gL(-1) for phosalone. The advantages of EVA-DLLME are the rapidity, simplicity, high sample throughput and low cost. As an outcome, the analytical results agreed fairly well with the results obtained by a reference GC-MS method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High-performance liquid chromatography as a technique to determine protein adsorption onto hydrophilic/hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tongtong; Anselme, Karine; Sarrailh, Segolene; Ponche, Arnaud

    2016-01-30

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) setup for quantification of adsorbed proteins on various type of plane substrates with limited area (<3 cm(2)). Protein quantification was investigated with a liquid chromatography chain equipped with a size exclusion column or a reversed-phase column. By evaluating the validation of the method according to guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), all the results obtained by HPLC were reliable. By simple adsorption test at the contact of hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (polydimethylsiloxane: PDMS) surfaces, kinetics of adsorption were determined and amounts of adsorbed bovine serum albumin, myoglobin and lysozyme were obtained: as expected for each protein, the amount adsorbed at the plateau on glass (between 0.15 μg/cm(2) and 0.4 μg/cm(2)) is lower than for hydrophobic PDMS surfaces (between 0.45 μg/cm(2) and 0.8 μg/cm(2)). These results were consistent with bicinchoninic acid protein determination. According to ICH guidelines, both Reversed Phase and Size Exclusion HPLC can be validated for quantification of adsorbed protein. However, we consider the size exclusion approach more interesting in this field because additional informations can be obtained for aggregative proteins. Indeed, monomer, dimer and oligomer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were observed in the chromatogram. On increasing the temperature, we found a decrease of peak intensity of bovine serum albumin as well as the fraction of dimer and oligomer after contact with PDMS and glass surface. As the surface can act as a denaturation parameter, these informations can have a huge impact on the elucidation of the interfacial behavior of protein and in particular for aggregation processes in pharmaceutical applications.

  16. Instrument platforms for nano liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Šesták, Jozef; Moravcová, Dana; Kahle, Vladislav

    2015-11-20

    The history of liquid chromatography started more than a century ago and miniaturization and automation are two leading trends in this field. Nanocolumn liquid chromatography (nano LC) and largely synonymous capillary liquid chromatography (capillary LC) are the most recent results of this process where miniaturization of column dimensions and sorbent particle size play crucial role. Very interesting results achieved in the research of extremely miniaturized LC columns at the end of the last century lacked distinctive raison d'être and only advances in mass spectrometry brought a real breakthrough. Configuration of nano LC-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) has become a basic tool in bioanalytical chemistry, especially in proteomics. This review discusses and summarizes past and current trends in the realization of nano liquid chromatography (nano LC) platforms. Special attention is given to the mobile phase delivery under nanoflow rates (isocratic, gradient) and sample injection to the nanocolumn. Available detection techniques applied in nano LC separations are also briefly discussed. We followed up the key themes from the original scientific reports over gradual improvements up to the contemporary commercial solutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Capillary action liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Bergström, Edmund T; Goodall, David M; Myers, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Capillary action LC (caLC) is introduced as a technique using capillary action as the driving force to perform LC in capillary columns packed with HPLC type microparticulate materials. A dry packing method with centrifugal force was developed to prepare capillary columns in parallel (10 columns per 3 min) to support their disposable use in caLC. Using a digital microscope for real-time imaging and recording separations of components in a dye mixture, caLC was found to have flow characteristics similar to TLC. Based on the investigation of microparticulate HPLC silica gels of different size (1.5-10 microm) and a typical TLC grade irregular medium, Merck 60G silica, the van Deemter curves suggested molecular diffusion as the major contribution to band broadening in caLC. With Waters Xbridge 2.6 microm silica, plate heights down to 8.8 microm were obtained, comparable to those achievable in HPLC. Assisted by an image-processing method, the visual caLC separation was converted to a classical chromatogram for further data analysis and such a facility confirmed the observation of highly efficient bands.

  18. [Application of liquid chromatography in substitution of the radioimmunoassay technique in order to reduce residues generated in health services in research laboratory].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Neto, Luciane M; Sugawara, Eduardo K; Verreschi, Ieda T N

    2008-10-01

    Designing a Health Care Service Waste Management Plan, according to the RDC 306 rules, is a responsibility of all those who produce such waste. Since radioimmunoassay (RIA) is one of the most employed techniques, we studied the impact of replacing this technique by liquid chromatography (HPLC) with regard to the reduction of the radioactive residues routinely produced by the Unifesp steroid laboratory. The residues produced by the determination of serum cortisol and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone were classified, and those belonging to groups B and C were evaluated. We observed that, when RIA is used, chemical residues (group B) and radioactive waste (group C) are produced, whereas HPLC generates only chemical residues. Adequation of these techniques showed to be advantageous, by significantly reducing the time of analysis and mainly by eliminating and/or reducing the generation of radioactive waste, encouraging its application to other methodologies, as well as its adoption by other research units.

  19. [Determination of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool by accelerated solvent extraction technique and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuanmu; Huang, Shaotang; Yu, Xuejun; Gu, Xiaojun; Qiu, Yajun; Chen, Shubing; Fang, Keteng; Chen, Jun

    2009-07-01

    A method for the determination of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool was developed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues were extracted with acetonitrile saturated with n-hexane at 80 degrees C and 10.34 MPa. The extract was pretreated by a series of procedures such as freezing-lipid filtration, concentration and purification by solid-phase extraction prior to the determination with HPLC. The target analytes were separated on a Waters Atlants dC18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), gradiently eluted with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phases and detected by a photodiode array detector (DAD) at 254 nm. The linear ranges were 0.1 - 10.0 mg/L. There were good linearity between the peak areas and concentrations in the linear range for the analytes, and the correlation coefficients of diflubenzuron and triflumuron were higher than 0.9999. The limits of quantification for diflubenzuron and triflumuron were 0.05 and 0.04 mg/kg (S/N > or = 10), respectively. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for preliminary screening of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool.

  20. Application of Liquid Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Technique to Determine Ergot Alkaloids in Grain Products

    PubMed Central

    Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Roszko, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Summary A liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry-based method to determine six ergot alkaloids and their isomers is presented. The samples were cleaned on neutral alumina-based solid-phase extraction cartridges. The following method parameters were obtained (depending on the analyte and spiking level): method recovery from 63.0 to 104.6%, relative standard deviation below 18%, linear range from 1 to 325 µg/kg, linear correlation coefficient not less than 0.98. The developed analytical procedure was applied to determine the levels of ergot alkaloids in 65 samples of selected rye-based food products (flour – 34 samples, bran – 12 samples, rye – 18 samples, flakes – 1 sample). Measurable levels of alkaloids were found in majority of the analysed samples, particularly in rye flour. Additionally, alkaloids were determined in ergot sclerotia isolated from rye grains. Total content was nearly 0.01% (97.9 mg/kg). However, the alkaloid profile was dominated by ergocristine at 45.6% (44.7 mg/kg), an alkaloid not commonly found in the tested food products. Ergocorninine at 0.2% (0.2 mg/kg) was the least abundant alkaloid. PMID:27904328

  1. Direct and comprehensive analysis of ginsenosides and diterpene alkaloids in Shenfu injection by combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Liu, Lei; Gao, Wen; Liu, Ke; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Shenfu injection (SFI) is a widely used Chinese herbal formulation for cardiac diseases prepared from red ginseng and processed aconite root. Clinical observations and pharmacological effects on SFI have been well investigated. Chemical analysis and quality control studies of this formulation, however, are relatively limited, especially regarding toxic aconite alkaloids. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF MS) method was applied to comprehensive analysis of constituents in SFI. Highly sensitive MS allows direct analysis of injections without additional sample pretreatment required. Using diagnostic ions and fragmentation rules, we identified 23 trace diterpene alkaloids, nineteen ginseng saponins, one panaxytriol, and one 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in SFI. A LC-MS method with selected ion monitoring was then used to quantify 24 major alkaloids and ginsenosides. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Especially, the limits of quantification were low to 0.4-18ng/mL for diterpene alkaloids. The total concentrations of saponins and alkaloids were about 676-742μg/mL and 3-7μg/mL in five batches of SFI samples, respectively. Finally, cosine ratio and euclidean distance were introduced to evaluate the batch-to-batch reproducibility of SFI samples, and the results demonstrated high quality consistency. Global identification and quantification of complex constituents based on LC-MS promises wide applications in quality control and batch monitoring for herbal products.

  2. Simultaneous Quantitative Analysis of Olmesartan Medoxomil and Amlodipine Besylate in Plasma by High-performance Liquid Chromatography Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shah, SK; Asnani, AJ; Kawade, DP; Dangre, SC; Arora, SK; Yende, SR

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for quantification of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) and amlodipine besylate (AM) in plasma. The assay enables the measurement of OLM and AM for therapeutic drug monitoring with a minimum detectable limit of 2 ng mL. The method involves a simple, one-step extraction procedure and analytical recovery was above 50%. The separation was performed on an analytical 250 × 4.6 mm Eurospher 100-5 C18 column. The wavelength was set at 239 nm. The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile:0.05 M ammonium acetate buffer: 0.1 mL triethylamine at pH 6.8 was selected at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min. The calibration curve for the determination of OLM and AM in plasma was linear over the range 2–2500 and 8–10,000 ng mL AM and OLM. The coefficients of variation for interday and intraday assay were found to be <15%. The method can be applied to a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of OLM and AM in a combined dosage form. PMID:22754260

  3. Low thermal mass liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gu, Binghe; Cortes, Hernan; Luong, Jim; Pursch, Matthias; Eckerle, Patric; Mustacich, Robert

    2009-02-15

    A novel technique, low thermal mass liquid chromatography (LTMLC), is introduced in this study. The use of an LTM assembly that utilizes the principle of resistive wire heating and a temperature sensor to accurately deliver unprecedented heating (up to 1800 degrees C/min) or cooling (100 to approximately 200 degrees C/min) rates is reported. With the use of packed microcolumns (<0.5 mm i.d.), essentially instantaneous heat transfer from the assembly to the mobile phase was obtained. A systematic investigation was conducted to study the performance of the LTMLC technique. Both isocratic and gradient mobile phase conditions were used. For temperature control, isothermal, temperature-increasing, and temperature-decreasing gradients were applied. Three model mixtures, two of which containing neutral and acidic analytes and the other containing neutral, acidic, and basic analytes, were used to study the effect of temperature on elution time, resolution, column efficiency, and selectivity. It was found that the LTMLC experimental setup delivered reliable temperature control, as evidenced by linear van't Hoff plots for neutral and acidic compounds. The effect of temperature on the elution of basic analytes yielded nonlinear van't Hoff plots, explaining the dramatic selectivity changes observed for bases with changes in column temperature. Column efficiency generally increased with the increase in column temperature in the range of 25 to approximately 75 degrees C and decreased in the range of 75 to approximately 150 degrees C at a fixed column flow rate (3 microL/min), when extra column band broadening was taken into account. The increase in efficiency upon the increase in column temperature in the low temperature range was mainly due to the decreased mass transfer term resulting from increased analyte diffusivity. However, under even higher temperatures, the longitudinal diffusion dominated band broadening, explaining the decrease in column efficiency upon a further

  4. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOEpatents

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  5. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOEpatents

    Voigtman, Edward G.; Winefordner, James D.; Jurgensen, Arthur R.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

  6. Phytochemical and morphological characterization of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones over five developmental stages using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection, and light microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Kavalier, Adam R; Litt, Amy; Ma, Chunhui; Pitra, Nicholi J; Coles, Mark C; Kennelly, Edward J; Matthews, Paul D

    2011-05-11

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) inflorescences, commonly known as "hop cones", are prized for their terpenophenolic contents, used in beer production and, more recently, in biomedical applications. In this study we investigated morphological and phytochemical characteristics of hop cones over five developmental stages, using liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS), and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection (UHPLC-PDA) methods to quantitate 21 polyphenolics and seven terpenophenolics. Additionally, we used light microscopy to correlate phytochemical quantities with changes in the morphology of the cones. Significant increases in terpenophenolics, concomitant with glandular trichome development and associated gross morphological changes, were mapped over development to fluctuations in contents of polyphenolic constituents and their metabolic precursor compounds. The methods reported here can be used for targeted metabolic profiling of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenophenolics in hops, and are applicable to quantitation in other crops.

  7. Analysis of major antioxidants from extracts of Myrmecodia pendans by UV/visible spectrophotometer, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography/UV techniques.

    PubMed

    Engida, Adam Mekonnen; Faika, Sitti; Nguyen-Thi, Bich Thuyen; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, heat reflux extraction with ethanol/water (80:20; v/v) as the solvent was used to extract antioxidants from Myrmecodia pendans. The crude extract (CE) was fractionated using hexane and ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and aqueous fraction were collected. Antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical radical and ferric reducing power of the CE, EAF, and aqueous fraction were evaluated. EAF showed comparable antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical radical and ferric reducing power to those of the CE. UV/visible, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography were employed for identifying the major antioxidant compounds in the EAF. Three major phenolic compounds (rosmarinic acid, procyanidin B1, and polymer of procyanidin B1) were identified. The first two compounds were confirmed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography using authentic standards, but confirmation of the third compound was hampered by a lack of commercial standard. Concentrations of rosmarinic acid and procyanidin B1 in the EAF were found to be 20.688 ± 1.573 mg/g dry sample and 3.236 ± 0.280 mg/g dry sample, respectively. All these three compounds are reported for the first time in sarang semut. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. When other separation techniques fail: compound-specific carbon isotope ratio analysis of sulfonamide containing pharmaceuticals by high-temperature-liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Zhang, Lijun; Schmidt, Torsten C; Jochmann, Maik A

    2012-09-18

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CISA) of nonvolatile analytes has been enabled by the introduction of the first commercial interface to hyphenate liquid chromatography with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (LC-IRMS) in 2004, yet carbon isotope analysis of unpolar and moderately polar compounds is still a challenging task since only water as the eluent and no organic modifiers can be used to drive the separation in LC. The only way to increase the elution strength of aqueous eluents in reversed phase LC is the application of high temperatures to the mobile and stationary phases (HT-LC-IRMS). In this context we present the first method to determine carbon isotope ratios of pharmaceuticals that cannot be separated by already existing separation techniques for LC-IRMS, such as reversed phase chromatography at normal temperatures, ion-chromatography, and mixed mode chomatography. The pharmaceutical group of sulfonamides, which is generally mixed with trimethoprim in pharmaceutical products, has been chosen as probe compounds. Substance amounts as low as 0.3 μg are sufficient to perform a precise analysis. The successful applicability and reproducibility of this method is shown by the analysis of real pharmaceutical samples. The method provides the first tool to study the pharmaceutical authenticity as well as degradation and mobility of such substances in the environment by using the stable isotopic signature of these compounds.

  9. Validation of a new liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry ion-trap technique for the simultaneous determination of thirteen anticoagulant rodenticides, drugs, or natural products.

    PubMed

    Fourel, Isabelle; Hugnet, Christophe; Goy-Thollot, Isabelle; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of anticoagulant (anti-vitamin K or AVK) compounds, including rodenticides, drugs, and natural products because no published method could be found. The proposed method is based on ion-trap technology with electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) technique. Each AVK is identified by means of its retention time, precursor ion, and two product ions. Plasma samples are extracted by liquid-liquid partition on Toxi-tube B((R)). The method was validated on dog plasma and gave good results in terms of specificity, linearity, and percent recovery for the 14 AVK tested (warfarin, acenocoumarol, bromadiolone, brodifacoum, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl, dicoumarol, difenacoum, difethialone, flocoumafen, fluindione, phenindione, and tioclomarol). The limits of detection ranged from 5 to 25 ng/mL. Intraday repeatability was good, but interday repeatability was more variable though still sufficient for our diagnostic purposes. The technique was successfully applied in a series of clinical investigations to demonstrate its applicability in various animal species and gave very high sensitivity and specificity results.

  10. Fast, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Dwight R.; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoli; Carr, Peter W.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rutan, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute need to improve the separating power of liquid chromatography, especially for multi-constituent biological samples, is becoming increasingly evident. In response, over the past few years, there has been a great deal of interest in the development of two dimension liquid chromatography (2DLC). Just as 1DLC is preferred to 1DGC based on its compatibility with biological materials we believe that ultimately 2DLC will be preferred to the much more highly developed 2DGC for such samples. The huge advantage of 2D chromatographic techniques over 1D methods is inherent in the tremendous potential increase in peak capacity (resolving power). This is especially true of comprehensive 2D chromatography wherein it is possible, under ideal conditions, to obtain a total peak capacity equal to the product of the peak capacities of the first and second dimension separations. However, the very long timescale (typically several hours to tens of hours) of comprehensive 2DLC is clearly its chief drawback. Recent advances in the use of higher temperatures to speed up isocratic and gradient elution liquid chromatography have been used to decrease the time needed to do the second dimension LC separation of 2DLC to about 20 seconds for a full gradient elution run. Thus fast, high temperature LC is becoming a very promising technique. Peak capacities of over 2000 and rates of peak capacity production of nearly 1 peak/s have been achieved. In consequence, many real samples showing more than 200 peaks with signal to noise ratios of better than 10:1 have been run in total times of under 30 minutes. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive review of 2DLC, but is deliberately focused on the issues involved in doing fast 2DLC by means of elevating the column temperature; however, many issues of broader applicability will be discussed. PMID:17888443

  11. High perfomance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analyses.

    PubMed

    Nikolin, Branko; Imamović, Belma; Medanhodzić-Vuk, Saira; Sober, Miroslav

    2004-05-01

    compounds often present in concentrations much greater than those of analyte. Analiyte concentrations are often low, and in the case of drugs, the endogenous compounds are sometimes structurally very similar to the drug to be measured. The binding of drugs to the plasma protein also may occur which decreases the amount of free compound that is measured. To undertake the analyses of drugs and metabolites in body fluids the analyst is facet with several problems. The first problem is due to the complex nature of the body fluid, the drugs must be isolated by an extraction technique, which ideally should provide a relatively clean extract, and the separation system must be capable of resolving the drugs of interest from co extractives. All mentioned when we are using high performance liquid chromatography require good selections of detectors, good stationary phase, eluents and adequate program during separation. UV/VIS detector is the most versatile detector used in high performance liquid chromatography it is not always ideal since it is lack of specificity means high resolution of the analyte that may be required. UV detection is preferred since it offers excellent linearity and rapid quantitative analyses can be performed against a single standard of the drug being determined. Diode array and rapid scanning detector are useful for peak identification and monitoring peak purity but they are somewhat less sensitive then single wavelength detectors. In liquid chromatography some components may have a poor UV chromophores if UV detection is being used or be completely retained on the liquid chromatography column. Fluorescence and electrochemical detector are not only considerably more sensitive towed appropriate analytes but also more selective than UV detectors for many compounds. If at all possible fluorescence detectors are sensitive, stable, selective and easy to operate. It is selectivity shows itself in the lack of frontal components observed in plasma extract whereas

  12. The use of stable isotope labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques to simultaneously determine the oral and ophthalmic bioavailability of timolol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J D; Olah, T V; Morris, M J; Bortnick, A; Brunner, J

    1998-04-01

    Assays have been established for the quantitation of timolol and its 13C3- and 2H9-stable-isotope-labeled analogs in plasma and urine using liquid chromatography with atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. For the analysis of urine, underivatized timolol and its labeled analogs are monitored while timolol in plasma is assayed down to concentrations of 0.2 ng/mL after derivatization with phosgene. The great power of this technique is illustrated by simultaneously assaying three different species of timolol in plasma and urine obtained from dogs receiving simultaneous ophthalmic, oral, and intravenous doses of unlabeled and [2H9]- and [13C3]-labeled timolol. Thus, the ophthalmic and oral bioavailabilities of timolol are measured in a single experiment rather than as a three-phase crossover experiment. This approach yields accurate and precise analytical data, obviates intrasubject variability, and saves both analytical and animal resources.

  13. Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Technique Coupled with Mass Spectrometry Analysis to Compare the Proteomic Response to Cadmium Stress in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Visioli, Giovanna; Marmiroli, Marta; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Plants are useful in studies of metal toxicity, because their physiological responses to different metals are correlated with the metal exposure dose and chemical state. Moreover a network of proteins and biochemical cascades that may lead to a controlled homeostasis of metals has been identified in many plant species. This paper focuses on the global protein variations that occur in a Populus nigra spp. clone (Poli) that has an exceptional tolerance to the presence of cadmium. Protein separation was based on a two-dimensional liquid chromatography technique. A subset of 20 out of 126 peaks were identified as being regulated differently under cadmium stress and were fingerprinted by MALDI-TOF. Proteins that were more abundant in the treated samples were located in the chloroplast and in the mitochondrion, suggesting the importance of these organelles in the response and adaptation to metal stress. PMID:20204056

  14. Comprehensive metabolite profiling of Plantaginis Semen using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry coupled with elevated energy technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Qi, Meng; Yang, Qiming; Tong, Renchao; Wang, Rui; Bligh, S W Annie; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-05-01

    Plantaginis Semen is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat edema, hypertension, and diabetes. The commercially available Plantaginis Semen in China mainly comes from three species. To clarify the chemical composition and distinct different species of Plantaginis Semen, we established a metabolite profiling method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry coupled with elevated energy technique. A total of 108 compounds, including phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, guanidine derivatives, terpenoids, organic acids, and fatty acids, were identified from Plantago asiatica L., P. depressa Willd., and P. major L. Results showed significant differences in chemical components among the three species, particularly flavonoids. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive chemical profile of Plantaginis Semen, which could be involved into the quality control, medication guide, and developing new drug of Plantago seeds. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography technique coupled with mass spectrometry analysis to compare the proteomic response to cadmium stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Marmiroli, Marta; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Plants are useful in studies of metal toxicity, because their physiological responses to different metals are correlated with the metal exposure dose and chemical state. Moreover a network of proteins and biochemical cascades that may lead to a controlled homeostasis of metals has been identified in many plant species. This paper focuses on the global protein variations that occur in a Populus nigra spp. clone (Poli) that has an exceptional tolerance to the presence of cadmium. Protein separation was based on a two-dimensional liquid chromatography technique. A subset of 20 out of 126 peaks were identified as being regulated differently under cadmium stress and were fingerprinted by MALDI-TOF. Proteins that were more abundant in the treated samples were located in the chloroplast and in the mitochondrion, suggesting the importance of these organelles in the response and adaptation to metal stress.

  16. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestal, Marvin L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews techniques for online coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, emphasizing those suitable for application to nonvolatile samples. Also summarizes the present status, strengths, and weaknesses of various techniques and discusses potential applications of recently developed techniques for combined liquid…

  17. Extraction of three bioactive diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata: effect of the extraction techniques on extract composition and quantification of three andrographolides using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal

    2014-10-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall.ex Nees (Acanthaceae) or Kalmegh is an important medicinal plant finding uses in many Ayurvedic formulations. Diterpenoid compounds andrographolides (APs) are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and herbage of A. paniculata. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide was compared with the solid-liquid extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction with methanol, water and methanol-water as solvents. Also a rapid and validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the three biologically active compounds, AP, neoandrographolide and andrograpanin, in the extracts of A. paniculata. Under the best SFE conditions tested for diterpenoids, which involved extraction at 60°C and 100 bar, the extractive efficiencies were 132 and 22 µg/g for AP and neoandrographolide, respectively. The modifier percentage significantly affected the extraction efficiency.

  18. Comparison of air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction technique and conventional dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction for determination of triazole pesticides in aqueous samples by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar; Aghdam, Abdollah Abdollahi

    2013-07-26

    Two micro-extraction methods, air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), have been compared with each other by applying them for the analysis of five triazole pesticides (penconazole, hexaconazole, diniconazole, tebuconazole and triticonazole) in aqueous samples by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In the AALLME method, which excludes any disperser solvent, much less volume of organic solvent is used. In order to form fine and dispersed organic droplets in the aqueous phase, the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent is repeatedly aspirated and dispensed with a syringe. In the DLLME method, an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent and disperser solvent is rapidly injected by a syringe into the aqueous sample. Effect of the pertinent experimental factors on DLLME (i.e. identity and volume of the extraction and disperser solvents and ionic strength) and on AALLME (identity and volume of the extraction solvent, number of agitations, and ionic strength) were investigated. Under optimal conditions, limits of detection for the five target pesticides obtained by AALLME-GC-FID and DLLME-GC-FID ranged from 0.20 to 1.1ngmL(-1) and 1.9 to 5.9ngmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) were in the range of 1-4% and 3-5% with the enrichment factors of 449-504 and 79-143 for AALLME-GC-FID and DLLME-GC-FID, respectively. Both of the compared methods are simple, fast, efficient, inexpensive and can be applied to the analysis of the five pesticides in different aqueous samples in which penconazole and hexaconazole were found. For spiked samples, the recoveries were in the ranges of 92-105%, and 92-104% for AALLME and DLLME, respectively.

  19. Liquid phase chromatography on microchips.

    PubMed

    Kutter, Jörg P

    2012-01-20

    Over the past twenty years, the field of microfluidics has emerged providing one of the main enabling technologies to realize miniaturized chemical analysis systems, often referred to as micro-Total Analysis Systems (uTAS), or, more generally, Lab-on-a-Chip Systems (LOC) [1,2]. While microfluidics was driven forward a lot from the engineering side, especially with respect to ink jet and dispensing technology, the initial push and interest from the analytical chemistry community was through the desire to develop miniaturized sensors, detectors, and, very early on, separation systems. The initial almost explosive development of, in particular, chromatographic separation systems on microchips, has, however, slowed down in recent years. This review takes a closer, critical look at how liquid phase chromatography has been implemented in miniaturized formats over the past several years, what is important to keep in mind when developing or working with separations in a miniaturized format, and what challenges and pitfalls remain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Online enrichment ability of restricted-access column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by column switching technique for benazepril hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Rong; Xie, Hua; Yin, Qiang; Li, Xiaoyun; Jia, Zhengping; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Juanhong; Li, Wenbin

    2013-05-01

    The online enrichment ability of the restricted-access media (RAM) column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by column switching technique for benazepril hydrochloride in plasma was studied. The RAM-HPLC system consisted of an RAM column as enrichment column and a C18 column as analytical column coupled via the column switching technique. The effects of the injection volume on the peak area and the systematic pressure were studied. When the injection volume was less than 100 microL, the peak area increased with the increase of the injection volume. However, when the injection volume was more than 80 microL, the pressure of whole system increased obviously. In order to protect the whole system, 80 microL was chosen as the maximum injection volume. The peak areas of ordinary injection and the large volume injection showed a good linear relationship. The enrichment ability of RAM-HPLC system was satisfactory. The system was successfully used for the separation and detection of the trace benazepril hydrochloride in rat plasma after its administration. The sensitivity of HPLC can be improved by RAM pre-enrichment. It is a simple and economic measurement method.

  1. Development of a broad toxicological screening technique for urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hon Kit; Ho, Chung Shun; Iu, Yan Ping Heidi; Lai, Po Shan Judy; Shek, Chi Chung; Lo, Yun-Chuen; Klinke, Helene Bendstrup; Wood, Michelle

    2009-09-01

    Withdrawal of the support for the REMEDi HS drug profiling system has necessitated its replacement within our laboratories with an alternative broad toxicological screening technique. To this end, a novel method, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, was developed for the routine analysis of urine samples. Identification was achieved by comparison of acquired data to libraries containing more than 300 common drugs and metabolites, and was based on a combination of retention time, exact mass and fragmentation patterns. Validation data for the method is presented and comprised an evaluation of the following parameters: precision; transferability of the methodology between the six collaborating laboratories; specificity; extraction recovery and stability of processed samples; matrix effects and sensitivity. This paper presents the benefits of supplementary fragmentation data with particular regard to increasing specificity and confidence of identification and its usefulness with overdosed samples. The utility of the method was assessed by the parallel analysis of 30 authentic urine samples using the REMEDi HS and UPLC-TOF. The latter provided enhanced detection, leading to the identification of twice as many drugs. Furthermore it did not miss any compounds that were identified by REMEDi HS. The UPLC-TOF findings were further verified by a combination of data from three other conventional screening techniques, i.e., GC-MS, HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS.

  2. Application of microscopy technique and high-performance liquid chromatography for quality assessment of the flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. (Kuandonghua)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da; Liang, Li; Zhang, Jing; Kang, Tingguo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality control is one of the bottleneck problems limiting the application and development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In recent years, microscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques have been frequently applied in the quality control of TCM. However, studies combining conventional microscopy and HPLC techniques for the quality control of the flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. (Kuandonghua) have not been reported. Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the quality of the flower bud of T. farfara L. and to establish the relationships between the quantity of pollen grains and four main bioactive constituents: tussilagone, chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin. Materials and Methods: In this study, microscopic examination was used to quantify microscopic characteristics of the flower bud of T. farfara L., and the chemical components were determined by HPLC. The data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences statistics software. Results: The results of the analysis showed that tussilagone, chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin were significantly correlated with the quantity of pollen grains in the flower bud of T. farfara L. There is a positive correlation between them. From these results, it can be deduced that the flower bud of T. farfara L. with a greater quantity of pollen grains should be of better quality. Conclusion: The study showed that the established method can be helpful for evaluating the quality of the flower bud of T. farfara L. based on microscopic characteristic constants and chemical quantitation. PMID:26246737

  3. Simultaneous quantification of triterpenoic acids by high performance liquid chromatography method in the extracts of gum resin of Boswellia serrata obtained by different extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neha; Bhardwaj, Vikram; Singh, Samar; Ali, Sheikh Abid; Gupta, D K; Paul, Satya; Satti, Naresh K; Chandra, Suresh; Verma, Mahendra K

    2016-01-01

    Boswellia serrata, also known as Indian frankincense is a commercially important medicinal plant which has been used for hundreds of years as an Ayurvedic medicine for the attempted treatment of arthritis. It contains naturally occurring triterpenoic acids, called as boswellic acids (BA's). A highly reproducible High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet diode array detection (HPLC-UV-DAD) method was developed for the simultaneous determination and quantitative analysis of eight major triterpenoic acids in Boswellia serrata gum resin obtained by different extraction techniques. All the calibration curves exhibited good linear regression (R(2) > 0.997) within the test ranges. The established method showed good precision and overall recoveries of the boswellic acids. The eight triterpenoic acids coded as BS-1 (11-keto-beta-boswellic acid), BS-2 (3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid), BS-3 (3-keto tirucallic acid), BS-4 (3-O-acetyl-alpha-tirucallic acid), BS-5 (3-O-acetyl-beta-tirucallic acid), BS-6 (alpha-boswellic acid), BS-7 (beta-boswellic acid) and BS-8 (3-O-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid) were isolated from the processed gum resin of Boswellia serrata by column chromatography. The proposed HPLC method is simple, reliable and has been very useful for the qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of boswellic acids in the gum resin of Boswellia serrata. The proposed method allows to quantify boswellic acids in appreciable amounts by HPLC-UV (DAD) method in the extracts and the available marketed formulations.Graphical abstractIsolation & separation of eight Triterpenoic acids from Boswellia serrata.

  4. A novel fatty-acid-based in-tube dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique for the rapid determination of nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol in aqueous samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hou-Kuang; Shu, Ting-Yun; Ponnusamy, Vinoth Kumar; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2015-01-07

    In this study, a novel fatty-acid-based in-tube dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (FA-IT-DLLME) technique is proposed for the first time and is developed as a simple, rapid and eco-friendly sample extraction method for the determination of alkylphenols in aqueous samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In this extraction method, medium-chain saturated fatty acids were investigated as a pH-dependent phase because they acted as either anionic surfactants or neutral extraction solvents based on the acid-base reaction caused solely by the adjustment of the pH of the solution. A specially designed home-made glass extraction tube with a built-in scaled capillary tube was utilized as the phase-separation device for the FA-IT-DLLME to collect and measure the separated extractant phase for analysis. Nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tOP) were chosen as model analytes. The parameters influencing the FA-IT-DLLME were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detector responses of NP and 4-tOP were linear in the concentration ranges of 5-4000 μg L(-1), with correlation coefficients of 0.9990 and 0.9996 for NP and 4-tOP, respectively. The limits of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 0.7 and 0.5 μg L(-1), and the enrichment factors were 195 and 143 for NP and 4-tOP, respectively. The applicability of the developed method was demonstrated for the analysis of alkylphenols in environmental wastewater samples, and the recoveries ranged from 92.9 to 107.1%. The extraction process required less than 4 min and utilized only acids, alkalis, and fatty acids to achieve the extraction. The results demonstrated that the presented FA-IT-DLLME approach is highly cost-effective, simple, rapid and environmentally friendly in its sample preparation.

  5. Rapid determination of trace dicyandiamide in mussels from Zhejiang coast by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with isotope internal standard dilution technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Gong, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Zhou, Hua

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a rapid and accurate ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method coupled with the isotope internal standard dilution technique was established and validated to determine trace dicyandiamide (DCD) in mussels. The sample was extracted by acetonitrile, and chromatographic separations were performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH Amide column by using water-acetonitrile (9:91, v/v) as the mobile phase within 3 min. DCD was determined by using DCD-(15)N4 as an internal standard. The results showed that the recoveries were between 96.2 and 103 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 0.6-6.0 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.05 μg/kg. This method can be applied to the routine analysis for the rapid and sensitive determination of trace DCD in mussels. Overall, the data reiterate the importance of investigating the presence of DCD in marine biological samples, which can act as food quality controls for human health.

  6. Development of isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry combined with standard addition techniques for the accurate determination of tocopherols in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonhee; Jang, Eun-Sil; Kim, Byungjoo

    2013-07-17

    During the development of isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS) for tocopherol analysis in infant formula, biased measurement results were observed when deuterium-labeled tocopherols were used as internal standards. It turned out that the biases came from intermolecular H/D exchange and intramolecular H/D scrambling of internal standards in sample preparation processes. Degrees of H/D exchange and scrambling showed considerable dependence on sample matrix. Standard addition-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SA-IDMS) based on LC/MS was developed in this study to overcome the shortcomings of using deuterium-labeled internal standards while the inherent advantage of isotope dilution techniques is utilized for the accurate recovery correction in sample preparation processes. Details of experimental scheme, calculation equation, and uncertainty evaluation scheme are described in this article. The proposed SA-IDMS method was applied to several infant formula samples to test its validity. The method was proven to have a higher-order metrological quality with providing very accurate and precise measurement results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of honokiol metabolites in rats by the method of stable isotope cluster technique and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lai, Huijun; Tang, Minghai; Liu, Juan; Dong, Yinfeng; Qiu, Neng; Li, Shucai; Ma, Liang; Yang, Jianhong; Song, Hang; Zhang, Yongkui; Peng, Aihua; Chen, Lijuan

    2013-07-15

    Honokiol, a natural molecule isolated from Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils., is widely known as an antitumor agent. In present work, an analysis of in vivo biotransformation and metabolites of honokiol has been performed by a combined method based on stable isotope cluster technique with honokiol-[(13)C6]-labeled and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS). The metabolites could be easily identified by the determination of a chromatographically co-eluted pair of isotopomers (MS doublet peaks) with similar peak intensities and mass difference corresponding to that between isotope-labeled and non-isotope-labeled honokiol. A total of eighteen metabolites were detected and tentatively identified, fourteen of which were reported for the first time. The results indicated that the main metabolic pathways of honokiol in rats were hydroxylation, methylation, sulfation and glucuronidation. This study provided the first essential information on biotransformation and metabolites of honokiol in rats, which was very useful for further pharmacological and clinical studies of honokiol as a potent drug candidate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid confirmation of enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) cocaine positive urine samples by capillary gas-liquid chromatography/nitrogen phosphorus detection (GLC/NPD).

    PubMed

    Verebey, K; DePace, A

    1989-01-01

    A rapid gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method was developed for the confirmation of benzoylecgonine (BE) positive urine samples screened by the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) assay. The procedure is performed by solvent extraction of BE from 0.1 or 0.2 mL of urine, followed by an aqueous wash of the solvent and evaporation. The dried residue was derivatized with 50 microL of pentafluoropropionic anhydride and 25 microL of pentafluoropropropanol at 90 degrees C for 15 min. The derivatizing reagents were evaporated to dryness, and the derivatized BE, and cocaine if present, were reconstituted and injected into the gas chromatograph. The column was a 15-m by 0.2-mm fused silica capillary column, coated with 0.25 micron of DB-1, terminating in a nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD). Cocaine and the pentafluoro BE derivatives retention times were 3.2 and 2.6 min, respectively. Nalorphine was used as reference or internal standard with a retention time of 4.78 min. The complete procedure can be performed in approximately 1.5 h. The EMIT cutoff between positive and negative urine samples is 300 ng/mL of BE. The lower limit of sensitivity of this method is 25 ng of BE extracted from urine. Validation studies resulted in confirmation of 101 out of 121 EMIT cocaine positive urine samples that could not be confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). This represents 84% confirmation efficiency.

  9. Secondary metabolites isolation in natural products chemistry: comparison of two semipreparative chromatographic techniques (high pressure liquid chromatography and high performance thin-layer chromatography).

    PubMed

    Do, Thi Kieu Tiên; Hadji-Minaglou, Francis; Antoniotti, Sylvain; Fernandez, Xavier

    2014-01-17

    Chemical investigations on secondary metabolites in natural products chemistry require efficient isolation techniques for characterization purpose as well as for the evaluation of their biological properties. In the case of phytochemical studies, the performance of the techniques is critical (resolution and yield) since the products generally present a narrow range of polarity and physicochemical properties. Several techniques are currently available, but HPLC (preparative and semipreparative) is the most widely used. To compare the performance of semipreparative HPLC and HPTLC for the isolation of secondary metabolites in different types of extracts, we have chosen carvone from spearmint essential oil (Mentha spicata L.), resveratrol from Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson, and rosmarinic acid from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts. The comparison was based on the chromatographic separation, the purity and quantity of isolated compounds, the solvent consumption, the duration and the cost of the isolation operations. The results showed that semipreparative HPTLC can in some case offer some advantages over conventional semipreparative HPLC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-dimensional countercurrent chromatography×high performance liquid chromatography with heart-cutting and stop-and-go techniques for preparative isolation of coumarin derivatives from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Wang, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Yun-Long; Wu, Zhen; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2014-12-29

    Pure compounds isolated from complex natural plants are important for drug discovery. This study describes a novel two-dimensional hyphenation of counter-current chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (2D CCC×HPLC) with heart-cutting and stop-and-go techniques for preparative isolation of multiple targets components from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn (Umbelliferae) crude extracts in a single step. The CCC and HPLC were hyphenated via a 4-port valve equipped at the post-end of the CCC column, to heart cut the impure fractions to the 2nd dimensional HPLC for further separation. Furthermore, the stop-and-go flow scheme was applied in the 1st dimensional CCC to fit with the time constraints of the 2nd dimensional preparative HPLC. Last but not least, an optimal biphasic solvent system composed of n-heptane/acetone/water (31:50:19, v/v/v) with suitable Kd values and a higher retention of the stationary phase was chosen to separate target compounds, resulting in the improvement of the CCC column efficiency. By taking the advantages of this rationally designed system, sixteen coumarins were isolated from 1.0g of P. praeruptorum crude extract, with HPLC purity from 90.1% to 99.5%, in a single 2D separation run. More interestingly, two minor linear coumarins and one angular coumarin were isolated from P. praeruptorum Dunn for the first time. As far as we known, this is the first report on the combination of heart-cutting technique and stop-and-go protocol in 2D CCC×HPLC system, by which good separations on comprehensive matrix were achieved. We expect that this approach may have broad applications for simultaneous isolation and purification of multiple components from other complex plant-derived natural products.

  11. Application of automated serial blood sampling and dried blood spot technique with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Philip; Pham, Roger; Whitely, Carl; Soto, Marcus; Salyers, Kevin; James, Christopher; Bruenner, Bernd A

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this work was to obtain full pharmacokinetic profiles from individual mice with the use of an automated blood sampling system and dried blood spot (DBS) technique. AMG 517, a potent and selective vanilloid receptor (VR1) antagonist, was dosed to mice (n=3) intravenously and blood samples were collected using the automated blood sampling system with the "no blood waste" method. The collected blood samples were a mixture of 25 μL blood and 50 μL of heparinized saline solution. Two 15 μL aliquots were manually spotted onto a DBS card and dried at room temperature for at least 2h before being stored in zip bags with desiccant. The remaining samples (45 μL) were stored at -70°C until analysis. Both the DBS and the whole blood samples (diluted with saline (1:2, v/v)) were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The overall extraction recovery of the analyte from the dried blood spots was determined to be about 90%. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using the whole blood or the DBS concentration data were comparable, and were obtained from only 3 mice, whereas conventional sampling and analysis would have required up to 27 mice to achieve the same result. The analyte was shown to be stable in the diluted whole blood (blood:saline 1:2) at room temperature for at least 4h and in the DBS for at least 34 days when stored at room temperature. These results indicated that the automated blood sampling system and DBS collection are promising techniques to obtain full pharmacokinetic profiles from individual mice and reduce the use of animals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Hyphenated ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-Nano Quantity Analyte Detector technique for determination of compounds with low UV absorption.

    PubMed

    Olsovská, Jana; Kameník, Zdenek; Cajthaml, Tomás

    2009-07-24

    A novel universal aerosol-based detector Nano Quantity Analyte Detector--NQAD, connected with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography system is described. The detector was employed for detection of selected antibiotic compounds--macrolides (oleandomycin, erythromycin, troleandomycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin) that are hard to detect using classical UV detectors due to the lack of chromophores. The determined lowest detection limits under isocratic conditions for these compounds ranged from 3.0 to 5.4 microg/mL. The suitability of the detector connected with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography in the gradient mode was tested on a more complex mixture containing 12 antibiotics. The detector exhibited full compatibility under both the elution modes when UHPLC separations were achieved in relatively short run times.

  13. Ionic liquids in separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Berthod, A; Ruiz-Angel, M J; Carda-Broch, S

    2008-03-14

    The growing interest in ionic liquids (ILs) has resulted in an exponentially increasing production of analytical applications. The potential of ILs in chemistry is related to their unique properties as non-molecular solvents: a negligible vapor pressure associated to a high thermal stability. ILs found uses in different sub-disciplines of analytical chemistry. After drawing a rapid picture of the physicochemical properties of selected ILs, this review focuses on their use in separation techniques: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) and electrophoretic methods (CE). In LC and CE, ILs are not used as pure solvents, but rather diluted in aqueous solutions. In this situation ILs are just salts. They are dual in nature. Too often the properties of the cations are taken as the properties of the IL itself. The lyotropic theory is recalled and the effects of a chaotropic anion are pointed out. Many results can be explained considering all ions present in the solution. Ion-pairing and ion-exchange mechanisms are always present, associated with hydrophobic interactions, when dealing with IL in diluted solutions. Chromatographic and electrophoretic methods are also mainly employed for the control and monitoring of ILs. These methods are also considered. ILs will soon be produced on an industrial scale and it will be necessary to develop reliable analytical procedures for their analysis and control.

  14. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  15. [Determination of 18 pesticide residues in red wine by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry with isotope dilution technique].

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawei; Lü, Bing; Ding, Hao; Zou, Jianhong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Miao, Hong

    2014-05-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 18 pesticide residues in red wine was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) with isotope dilution technique. The red wine samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and the extracts were cleaned up with dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using the mixture of N-propyl ethylene diamine (PSA) and C18 powder as sorbent. The extracted components were separated on a BEH C18 column by gradient elution. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were operated under full scan/data dependent MS/MS (ddms2) and targeted selective ion monitoring (tSIM) by high resolution mass spectrometry, respectively. Carbendazim-D4, chlorpyrifos-D10, imidacloprid-D4, methoxyfenozide-D9, pyrimethanil-D5 and tebuconazole-D6 were used as the internal standards to reduce the matrix effects. The response of each pesticide showed a good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 microg/kg with the correlation coefficient more than 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification for the 18 pesticides in the spiked blank red wine were 0.5 microg/kg and 1.0 microg/kg, respectively. The recovery results with spiked blank red wine samples at the levels of 1 to 40 microg/kg were satisfactory with average recoveries of 85.4% - 117.9% and the RSDs of 0.5%-6.1%. The method was applied for the determination of the red wine real samples from the market. Carbendazim, imidacloprid, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole and triadimenol were detected in the samples. The results show that the method is suitable for the rapid screening and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues in red wine.

  16. A fast and innovative microextraction technique, μSPEed, followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of phenolic compounds in teas.

    PubMed

    Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Figueira, José A; Pereira, Jorge A M; Câmara, José S

    2015-12-11

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a promising solid phase microextraction technique, μSPEed, in the analysis of selected phenolic compounds from teas by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (μSPEed/UHPLC-PDA). The innovative μSPEed configuration uses 3-μm sorbent particles tightly packed in a disposable needle equipped with a pressure-driven valve to withdraw samples in a single direction. The system was operated by the electronic pipette eVol® and different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, as the nature of sorbent, pH, loading and elution conditions, and solvents were optimized. The best extracting conditions were obtained by loading twice 100μL of tea samples through the PS/DVB-RP sorbent and eluting with 50μL of acidified MeOH 95%. The following chromatographic separation was carried out in an Acquity C18 BEH capillary column using a gradient of 0.1% FA and acetonitrile. The optimized μSPEed/UHPLC-PDA methodology is selective and specific and was properly validated for 8 phenolic compounds widely reported in different teas. Overall, an excellent analytical performance was obtained in the 0.2-20μg/L linear dynamic range (LDR), with very low limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), ranging between 3.5-16.8ng/mL and 10.6-50.6ng/mL, respectively, high recoveries (89.3-103.3%), good precision (RSD<5%) and negligible matrix effect. The methodology was used to assess the target polyphenols concentration in several tea samples. Rutin and quercetin-3-glucoside were the most abundant phenolics in all tea samples analysed and, with exception of naringenin and cinnamic acid, which are present in high amounts in the investigated citric teas, remain phenolic compounds are present in trace levels.

  17. Drug analysis by direct liquid introduction micro liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Henion, J D; Maylin, G A

    1980-03-01

    The analytical capabilities of a micro high performance liquid chromatograph interfaced to an unchanged quadrupole mass spectrometer are presented. Continuous monitoring of the total micro liquid chromatographic effluent allows full scan chemical ionization mass spectra of from one to five nanograms of drugs and their metabolites to be recorded. The interface is a simple, inexpensive device which can be assembled from commercially available components. An eight microliter per minute flow rate of the micro liquid chromatographic eluant allows separation and identification of biologically important substances not amenable to gas chromatography mass spectrometry techniques. The sensitivity of micro liquid chromatography mass spectrometry performed as described is comparable with gas chromatography mass spectrometry and is achieved by introducing the total micro liquid chromatographic effluent into the chemical ionization ion source of the mass spectrometer. Selected ion monitoring provides 20 pg detection limits of phenothiazine tranquilizers injected on column.

  18. Comparison of green sample preparation techniques in the analysis of pyrethrins and pyrethroids in baby food by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Mateus Henrique; Ccanccapa-Cartagena, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Godoy, Helena Teixeira; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-05-12

    A new selective and sensitive liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous analysis of natural pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids residues in baby food. In this study, two sample preparation methods based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) and salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) were optimized, and then, compared regarding the performance criteria. Appropriate linearity in solvent and matrix-based calibrations, and suitable recoveries (75-120%) and precision (RSD values≤16%) were achieved for selected analytes by any of the sample preparation procedures. Both methods provided the analytical selectivity required for the monitoring of the insecticides in fruit-, cereal- and milk-based baby foods. SALLE, recognized by cost-effectiveness, and simple and fast execution, provided a lower enrichment factor, consequently, higher limits of quantification (LOQs) were obtained. Some of them too high to meet the strict legislation regarding baby food. Nonetheless, the combination of ultrasound and DLLME also resulted in a high sample throughput and environmental-friendly method, whose LOQs were lower than the default maximum residue limit (MRL) of 10μgkg(-1) set by European Community for baby foods. In the commercial baby foods analyzed, cyhalothrin and etofenprox were detected in different samples, demonstrating the suitability of proposed method for baby food control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High-throughput method for macrolides and lincosamides antibiotics residues analysis in milk and muscle using a simple liquid-liquid extraction technique and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Jank, Louise; Martins, Magda Targa; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Campos Motta, Tanara Magalhães; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara

    2015-11-01

    A fast and simple method for residue analysis of the antibiotics classes of macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and spiramycin) and lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) was developed and validated for cattle, swine and chicken muscle and for bovine milk. Sample preparation consists in a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with acetonitrile, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS), without the need of any additional clean-up steps. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed by acidified acetonitrile and water. The method was fully validated according the criteria of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation parameters such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, specificity, reproducibility, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were evaluated. All calculated values met the established criteria. Reproducibility values, expressed as coefficient of variation, were all lower than 19.1%. Recoveries range from 60% to 107%. Limits of detection were from 5 to 25 µg kg(-1).The present method is able to be applied in routine analysis, with adequate time of analysis, low cost and a simple sample preparation protocol.

  20. Analysis of polymethacrylate additive by liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Fialko, M.M.; Lupanova, N.A.; Mishina, G.Y.; Urman, D.G.

    1983-11-01

    This paper recommends replacing the process of extraction with acetone for determining the content of active substance in polymethacrylate viscosity index improvers and pour-point depressants with liquid chromatography, which offers a more thorough analysis of the contents. An example of the separation process and anlysis is given.

  1. Elucidation of Flavonoids from Carissa congesta, Polyalthia longifolia, and Benincasa hispida Plant Extracts by Hyphenated Technique of Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Gaurav M.; Nalawade, Vivek V.; Mukadam, Aaditi S.; Chaskar, Pratip K.; Zine, Sandeep P.; Somani, Rakesh R.; Une, Hemant D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carissa congesta (CC), Polyalthia longifolia (PL), and Benincasa hispida (BH) are economically important plants. Objective: Current research encompasses identification of quercetin and rutin and their analogues by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) from the selected plant species. Materials and Methods: Fresh roots, leaves, and seeds of CC, PL, and BH plants respectively were shade-dried followed by extraction and elucidation of rutin and quercetin by LC-MS. Results: Structural elucidation of CC, PL, and BH extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids such as quercetin (m/z 301) and rutin (m/z 610) as the parent ions along with presence of close analogues such as quercetin-O-hexoside, Vicenin 2, quercetin-3-O-xyloside/arabinoside, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were identified as fragments. Conclusions: Thus, CC, PL, and BH extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids belonging to the class of flavonols such as rutin and quercetin. SUMMARY Quercetin and rutin were identified from CC roots, PL leaves and BH seeds by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy.Quercetin was characterized at (m/z 301) and rutin (m/z 610) as the parent ion peaks.Analogues such as quercetin-O-hexoside, Vicenin 2 and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were identified as fragments. PMID:27695269

  2. High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Video Fluorometry. Part I. Instrumentation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video...PERIOD COVERED High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video .. / Fluorometry. Part I. Instrumentation. . Interim/ echnicaliepart,. 6. PERFORMING ORG...34Entered SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS OlAGE (When Data Entered) II1| III I I I I E I II ... .. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  3. Recent advances in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of traditional chinese medicine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities in liquid chromatography. This paper reviews recen...

  4. Recent development of ionic liquid stationary phases for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Xu, Guowang

    2015-11-13

    Based on their particular physicochemical characteristics, ionic liquids have been widely applied in many fields of analytical chemistry. Many types of ionic liquids were immobilized on a support like silica or monolith as stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Moreover, different approaches were developed to bond covalently ionic liquids onto the supporting materials. The obtained ionic liquid stationary phases show multi-mode mechanism including hydrophobic, hydrophilic, hydrogen bond, anion exchange, π-π, and dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, they could be used in different chromatographic modes including ion-exchange, RPLC, NPLC and HILIC to separate various classes of compounds. This review mainly summarizes the immobilized patterns and types of ionic liquid stationary phases, their retention mechanisms and applications in the recent five years.

  5. A robust micro-electrospray ionization technique for high-throughput liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry proteomics using a sanded metal needle as an emitter.

    PubMed

    Guzzetta, Andrew W; Thakur, Rohan A; Mylchreest, Iain C

    2002-01-01

    A 60 microm internal diameter (i.d.) stainless-steel needle was adapted to the orthogonal ESI probe ( microESI) of a commercial ion trap mass spectrometer, and used for capillary liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) protein identification experiments. The modification allows for the use of nitrogen sheath gas which helps in the nebulization at LC flow rates exceeding 500 nL/min and eliminates problems caused by liquid junctions commonly used to initiate nanospray ionization (NSI). A comparison is made between the performance of a 75 microm i.d. column with a 15 microm pulled glass tip using a liquid junction, and that of a 150 microm i.d. column using the new microESI device. The combination of the 150 microm i.d. column and microESI gave sensitivity close to that of NSI (250 attomoles horse heart myoglobin digest on column), and proved to be more robust than the standard pulled glass tips of similar i.d. No evidence of metal needle catalyzed oxidation of methionine was observed during analysis of the tetrapeptide MRFA under a range of test conditions. Phosphorylated peptides in a beta-casein tryptic digest were also successfully identified using the microESI interface with a steel needle. In addition it was found that a mild sanding of the metal needle tip improved spray performance. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Csaba Horvath and preparative liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-07-01

    Few chromatographers have been interested in furthering preparative liquid chromatography. The pioneers, Tswett, Kuhn and Lederer, A.J.P. Martin, Tiselius, isolated fractions but as an intermediate step in the analysis of their samples. The progress in electronics and sensors, and in their miniaturization has lead to the paradoxical situation that the analysts never see the transient pure fractions that their detector quantitates. Yet, over the last 25 years, preparative liquid chromatography has become an important industrial process for the separation, the extraction, and/or the purification of many pharmaceuticals or pharmaceutical intermediates, including pure enantiomers, purified peptides and proteins, compounds that are manufactured at the relatively large industrial scale of a few kilograms to several hundred tons per year. This development that has strongly affected the modern pharmaceutical industry is mainly due to the pioneering work of Csaba Horvath. His work in preparative HPLC was critical at both the practical and the theoretical levels. He was the first scientist in modern times to pay serious attention to the relationships between the curvature of the equilibrium isotherms, the competitive nature of nonlinear isotherms, and the chromatographic band profiles of complex mixtures. The thermodynamics of multi-component phase equilibria and mass transfer kinetics in chromatography attracted his interest and were the focus of ground-breaking contributions. He investigated displacement chromatography, an old method invented by Tiselius that Csaba was first to implement in HPLC. This choice was explained by the essential characteristic of displacement chromatography, in that it delivers fractions that can be far more concentrated than the feed. Remarkably, once the basics of nonlinear chromatography had been mastered in his group, most of the applications that were studied by his coworkers dealt with peptides of various sizes and with proteins. Thus, all

  7. Fiber Bragg grating photoacoustic detector for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxin; Loock, Hans-Peter; Kozin, Igor; Pedersen, David

    2008-11-01

    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) are known to be sensitive acoustic transducers and have previously been used for the photoacoustic detection of small solid samples. Here, we demonstrate the use of an FBG as an on-line detector for liquid chromatography. The FBG was inserted into a silica capillary and the photoacoustic response from the effluent was generated by a 10 ns pulsed laser. The acoustic pulse was quantified by the FBG through a characteristic change in the reflection spectrum. Good repeatability and linear response were obtained over three orders of magnitude (R(2) > 0.99), and the limit of detection of Coumarin 440 was determined to be 5 microM. The technique was successfully coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and applied to on-line analysis of a three-compound solution. Photoacoustic detection in liquid chromatography using FBGs is a label-free method, which can be applied to the detection of any chromogenic compound irrespective of its fluorogenic properties. It is a simple, inexpensive, and inherently micron-sized technique, insensitive to electromagnetic interference.

  8. Nano-liquid chromatography applied to enantiomers separation.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Salvatore

    2017-02-24

    This paper presents the state of the art concerning the separation of chiral compounds by means of nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). The enantiomers' separation and determination are a subject of fundamental importance in various application fields such as pharmaceutical industry, biomedicine, food, agrochemical etc. Nano-LC is a miniaturized chromatographic technique offering some advantages over conventional ones such as low consumption of mobile phase, sample volume and amount of chiral stationary phase, reduced costs etc. This is reported in the first part of the paper illustrating the features of the nano-LC. In addition, chiral resolution methods are briefly illustrated. Some chiral selectors, used in high-performance liquid chromatography have also been applied in nano-LC including cyclodextrins, glycopeptide antibiotics, modified polysaccharides etc. This is discussed in the second part of the review. Finally some examples of the applications available in literature are reported.

  9. Spillage detector for liquid chromatography systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, M. J.; Fulton, D. S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A spillage detector device for use in conjunction with fractionation of liquid chromatography systems which includes a spillage recieving enclosure beneath the fractionation area is described. A sensing device having a plurality of electrodes of alternating polarity is mounted within the spillage recieving enclosure. Detection circuitry, responsive to conductivity between electrodes, is operatively connected to the sensing device. The detection circuitry feeds into the output circuitry. The output circuit has relaying and switching circuitry directed to a solenoid, an alarm system and a pump. The solenoid is connected to the pliable conduit of the chromatography system. The alarm system comprises an audio alarm and a visual signal. A 115-volt power system interconnected with the pump, the solenoid, the sensing device, and the detection and output circuitry.

  10. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography MS/MS method for the determination of parabens in compost from sewage sludge: comparison of the efficiency of two extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Villalba, Julio César; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Dorival-García, Noemí; Camino-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Cantarero, Samuel; Vílchez, José Luis

    2013-08-01

    The efficiency of two extraction techniques--ultrasound-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction--are compared and evaluated in the determination of parabens in compost samples. The extraction parameters for each technique were accurately optimized. The selected compounds were detected and quantified using ultra-performance LC MS/MS, operating in negative ESI and in SRM mode. The analytes were separated in less than 5 min. Ethylparaben (ring-(13)C6 labeled) was used as an internal standard. Two selective, sensitive, and accurate analytical methods were developed and validated. The LODs of the methods ranged from 3 to 7 ng/g and the LOQs from 10 to 23 ng/g, while inter- and intraday variability was under 6% in all cases. The methods were validated separately by using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 94.0 to 105.0%. Compost samples were taken from different composting plants. Although the statistical comparison demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the two extraction techniques, the method based on pressurized liquid extraction was more sensitive than the ultrasound extraction based method.

  11. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography in food analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernal, José; Ares, Ana M; Pól, Jaroslav; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2011-10-21

    The use of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) in food analysis in the last decade is reviewed. The HILIC mechanism is briefly discussed, but main emphasis is put on the use of HILIC for separation of different food matrices. The food matrices are divided into food of animal origin and related products, vegetables, fruits and related compounds, and other food-related matrices. A list on important applications is provided for each category including experimental conditions and a brief summary of the results. The 100 references included will provide the reader a comprehensive overview and insight into HILIC applications to food analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolism, distribution, and excretion of deoxynivalenol with combined techniques of radiotracing, high-performance liquid chromatography ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and online radiometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dan; Huang, Lingli; Pan, Yuanhu; Wu, Qinghua; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenli; Li, Juan; Wang, Liye; Yuan, Zonghui

    2014-01-08

    Dispositions of deoxynivalenol (DON) in rats and chickens were investigated, using a radiotracer method coupled with a novel γ-accurate radioisotope counting (γ-ARC) radio-high-performance liquid chromatography ion trap time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (radio-HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS) system. 3β-(3)H-DON was chemically synthesized and orally administrated to both sexes of rats and chickens as single or multiple doses. The results showed that DON was widely distributed and quickly eliminated in all tissues. The highest concentration was found in the gastrointestinal tract at 6 h post-administration. Substantially lower levels were detected in the kidney, liver, heart, lung, spleen, and brain. Three new metabolites were identified tentatively as 10-deoxynivalenol-sulfonate, 10-deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1)-sulfonate, and deoxynivalenol-3α-sulfate. Deoxynivalenol-3α-sulfate was a major metabolite in chickens, while the major forms in rats were DOM-1 and DON. Additionally, a higher excretion rate in urine was observed in female rats than in male rats. The differences in metabolite profiles and excretion rates, which suggested diverse ways to detoxify, may relate to the different tolerances in different genders or species.

  13. Determination of perfluorinated surfactants in surface water samples by two independent analytical techniques: liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and 19F NMR.

    PubMed

    Moody, C A; Kwan, W C; Martin, J W; Muir, D C; Mabury, S A

    2001-05-15

    Perfluorinated surfactants are an important class of specialty chemicals that have received recent attention as a result of their persistence in the environment. Two analytical methods for the determination of perfluorinated surfactants in aqueous samples were developed in order to investigate a spill of 22000 L of fire retardant foam containing perfluorinated surfactants into Etobicoke Creek (Toronto, Ontario). With the first method, aliquots of surface water (0.2-200 mL) were preconcentrated using solid-phase extraction. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was employed for identification and quantification of each perfluorinated surfactant. Total perfluorinated surfactant concentrations in surface water samples ranged from 0.011 to 2270 microg/L, and perfluorooctanesulfonate was the predominant surfactant observed. Interestingly, perfluorooctanoate was detected in surface water sampled upstream of the spill. A second method employing 19F NMR was developed for the determination of total perfluorinated surfactant concentrations in aqueous samples (2-100 mL). By 19F NMR, the surface water concentrations ranged from nondetect (method detection limit, 10 microg/L for a 100-mL sample) to 17000 microg/L. These methods permit comprehensive evaluation of aqueous samples for the presence of perfluorinated surfactants and have applicability to other sample matrixes.

  14. Differentiation between isomeric oxidative metabolites of a piperidine-containing drug by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with stable-isotope tracer technique.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koji; Jingu, Shigeji; Ogawa, Naoyoshi; Higuchi, Shohei

    2002-02-01

    This report describes the application of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to differentiation of hydroxylations and N-oxidations and of two different aliphatic hydroxylations in the investigation of the metabolism of pibutidine hydrochloride, a novel H2 antagonist, the structure of which includes a piperidine ring. Pibutidine metabolites in urine samples from adult male volunteers after oral administration of pibutidine hydrochloride were separated by reversed-phase LC and ionized using an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. A hydroxylated form of pibutidine was distinguished from the N-oxide by comparison of their product ion spectra, although their mass-to-charge ratios of protonated molecules were identical. Further, two hydroxylated compounds were present in rat microsomal incubation mixtures with pibutidine. The distinction between their positions of hydroxylation (beta- and gamma-carbon hydroxylation) on the piperidine ring was studied using [piperidine-2H10] pibutidine as incubation substrate. The production of the beta-hydroxylated form was accompanied by the elimination of three 2H, resulting from a mechanism including the formation of iminium/enamine. The participation of the iminium ion intermediate in the beta-hydroxylation was confirmed by the observation that a cyanide adduct of pibutidine was formed instead of the beta-hydroxylated form when another incubation was performed in the presence of cyanide.

  15. Comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Stephanie; O'Brien, Stacey; Szewczak, Angelica; Tremeau-Cayel, Lauriane; Rowe, Walter F; McCord, Bruce; Lurie, Ira S

    2017-09-01

    A comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones has been conducted. Nine different mixtures of bath salts were analyzed in this study. The three different chromatographic techniques were examined using a general set of controlled synthetic cathinones as well as a variety of other synthetic cathinones that exist as positional isomers. Overall 35 different synthetic cathinones were analyzed. A variety of column types and chromatographic modes were examined for developing each separation. For the ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography separations, analyses were performed using a series of Torus and Trefoil columns with either ammonium formate or ammonium hydroxide as additives, and methanol, ethanol or isopropanol organic solvents as modifiers. Ultra high performance liquid chromatographic separations were performed in both reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatographic modes using SPP C18 and SPP HILIC columns. Gas chromatography separations were performed using an Elite-5MS capillary column. The orthogonality of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was examined using principal component analysis. For the best overall separation of synthetic cathinones, the use of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography in combination with gas chromatography is recommended. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/visible photodiode array analysis of selected colchicum species.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Al-Serini, Ala'a; Qasaymeh, Rana M; Ma'aya'h, Amani S; Tawaha, Khaled; El-Elimat, Tamam; Alali, Feras Q

    2012-01-01

    An in-house strategy to dereplicate colchicinoid alkaloids was recently developed by our team. It aimed at quickly identifying Colchicum constituents using LC-MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy) and LC-UV/Vis PDA (liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/ visible photodiode array) techniques. In this project, our goal was to validate the developed method through analysing the alkaloid-rich fractions of three Colchicum species that had been previously studied phytochemically using the traditional bioactivity-guided fractionation methodology. The analysed species were Colchicum tauri Siehe ex Stefanoff, Colchicum stevenii Kunth, and Colchicum tunicatum Feinbr., all belonging to the family Colchicaceae. In addition to identifying the compounds previously isolated and characterized by the traditional methodology, the new strategy succeeded in tentatively identifying a set of known compounds, but new to the species.

  17. High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Video Fluorometry. Part II. Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY /VIDEO FLUOROMETRY. PART...REP«T_N&:-ŗ/ High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video Fluorometry» Part II. Applications« by | Dennis C./Shelly* Michael P./Vogarty and...Data EnlirtdJ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE t. REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. T1TI.F (and Submit) lP-^fffsyva High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  18. A practical strategy for characterization of the metabolic profile of chiral drugs using combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques: application to tetrahydropalmatine enantiomers and their metabolites in rat urine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinying; Dong, Xin; Le, Jian; Wen, Jun; Lin, Zebin; Liu, Yinli; Lou, Ziyang; Chai, Yifeng; Hong, Zhanying

    2014-06-01

    The characterization and quantification of the metabolites of chiral drugs still remain a great challenge due to the complexity of the metabolites and most of them are not commercially available. In this study, a practical approach based on the combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques has been proposed for the evaluation of metabolism profiles and urinary excretion kinetics of chiral drugs and their metabolites. Racemic tetrahydropalmatine (rac-THP), a biologically active ingredient isolated from a traditional Chinese herb Rhizoma Corydalis, was chosen as the model chiral drug. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was applied to characterize the metabolites of THP enantiomers in rat urine after administration of (+)-THP or (-)-THP. Accurate mass measurement was used to determine the elemental composition of metabolites and thus to confirm the proposed structures of these metabolites. More than 30 potential metabolites were found in rat urine, most of which were identified for the first time, and the metabolic pathways in vivo were involved in demethylation, oxidation, glucuronide conjugation and sulfation, etc. And the tridesmethlyzed metabolite and didesmethlyzed coupled with oxidation metabolite were found only in (+)-THP treated rats. Afterwards, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ/MS) assay was developed and validated for the determination of the urine level of THP enantiomers and their metabolites. Semi-quantification of three phase I metabolites and two phase II metabolites were performed. Enantiomeric (-/+) cumulative urinary excretion ratios of THP and its five metabolites were obtained, which indicated the stereoselective aspects of metabolites of THP enantiomers in vivo. The study demonstrated the enormous potential of this strategy for the qualitative characterization, quantitative assay and the stereoselectivity of chiral drugs and their

  19. High-pressure liquid chromatography: A brief introduction and its application in analyzing the degradation of a C-ether (Thio-ether) liquid lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The general principles of classical liquid chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages are compared. Several chromatographic techniques are reviewed, and the analytical separation of a C-ether liquid lubricant by each technique is illustrated. A practical application of HPLC is then demonstrated by analyzing a degraded C-ether liquid lubricant from full scale, high temperature bearing tests.

  20. Separation of biological proteins by liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Imran; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y.; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Rakesh; Sharma, Bhavtosh

    2010-01-01

    After the success of human genome project, proteome is a new emerging field of biochemistry as it provides the knowledge of enzymes (proteins) interactions with different body organs and medicines administrated into human body. Therefore, the study of proteomics is very important for the development of new and effective drugs to control many lethal diseases. In proteomics study, analyses of proteome is essential and significant from the pathological point of views, i.e., in several serious diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and aging, heart diseases and also for plant biology. The separation and identification of proteomics is a challenging job due to their complex structures and closely related physico-chemical behaviors. However, the recent advances in liquid chromatography make this job easy. Various kinds of liquid chromatography, along with different detectors and optimization strategies, have been discussed in this article. Besides, attempts have been made to include chirality concept in proteomics for understanding mechanism and medication of various disease controlled by different body proteins. PMID:23960722

  1. Carbon nanotubes-A resin for electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brammen, Markus; Fraga-García, Paula; Berensmeier, Sonja

    2017-03-01

    Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography is a special form of ion exchange chromatography in which the separation process is controlled by applying an electric potential to the stationary phase. This form of chromatography has so far only been applied in research studies. The present study shows that multiwalled carbon nanotubes are an effective resin material for an electrochemically modulated chromatography process. The experiments are carried out in a newly designed column that enables the packing of nanomaterials. We investigate the influence of the applied potential on the retention and elution of maleic acid, determine the dynamic binding capacity, and calculate the utilization degree of the electrical charge in the adsorption process. Moreover, the stability of the resin and the membrane over more than 200 working hours are presented. In addition to the stability, their sturdiness and inexpensive price are important qualities that make multiwalled carbon nanotubes interesting for application as the stationary phase in an electrochemically driven process. The investigated chromatography technique represents a promising separation process for future applications as a preparative step in biotechnology as well as other life science fields.

  2. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C18 cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C18 column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7–7.4% and 1.5–8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals. PMID:22312251

  3. Determination of tocopherol and tocotrienol content of Greek barley varieties under conventional and organic cultivation techniques using validated reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Tsochatzis, Emmanouil D; Bladenopoulos, Konstantinos; Papageorgiou, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Tocotrienols and tocopherols (tocols) are important phytochemical compounds with antioxidant activity and potential benefits for human health. Among cereals, barley is a good source of tocols. In the present study the effect of two cultivation methods, organic and conventional, on the tocol content in 12 Greek barley varieties was investigated. A validated reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method (RP-HPLC) with fluorescence detection (excitation at 292 nm, emission at 335 nm) was applied along with direct solvent extraction with acetonitrile at a 1:30 (w/v) sample/solvent ratio for tocol quantification. The results showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two cultivation methods (except for δ-tocopherol) as well as among varieties. In the case of organic cultivation the four homologues of tocotrienol (α-, β + γ- and δ-) increased, by 3.05-37.14% for α-tocotrienol, 15.51-41.09% for (β + γ)-tocotrienol and 30.45-196.61% for δ-tocotrienol, while those of tocopherol (α- and β + γ- but not δ-) decreased, by 5.90-36.34% for α-tocopherol and 2.84-46.49% for (β + γ)-tocopherol. A simple correlation analysis between tocols revealed a good correlation between (β + γ)-tocotrienol and δ-tocotrienol. Although there was a significant decrease in the important α-tocopherol in the varieties studied under organic cultivation, there was an overall increase in tocotrienol content. The cultivation method (organic or conventional) had an important effect on tocotrienol and tocopherol concentrations in barley. An overall increase in total tocol content and a clear increment in the tocotrienol/tocopherol ratio were observed. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Use of multiresponse statistical techniques to optimize the separation of diosmin, hesperidin, diosmetin and hesperitin in different pharmaceutical preparations by high performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD.

    PubMed

    Sammani, Mohamad Subhi; Clavijo, Sabrina; Portugal, Lindomar; Suárez, Ruth; Seddik, Hassan; Cerdà, Víctor

    2017-05-15

    A new method for the separation and determination of four flavonoids: hesperidin (HES), diosmin (DIO), hesperitin (HTIN), and diosmetin (DTIN) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-DAD detection. Multivariate statistics (2(k) full factorial and Box Behnken Designs) has been used for the multiresponse optimization of the chromatographic separation, which was completed in 22min, and carried out on a symmetry® C18 column (250×3mm; 5µm) as stationary phase. Separation was conducted by gradient elution mode using a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and water pH: 2.5 (CH3COOH), as mobile phase. Analytes were separated setting the column at 22°C, with a flow rate of 0.58mLmin(-1) and detected at 285nm. Under the optimized conditions, the flavonoids showed retention times of: 8.62, 11.53, 18.55 and 19.94min for HES, DIO, HTIN and DTIN, respectively. Limits of detection and quantification were <0.0156µgmL(-1) and <0.100µgmL(-1), respectively. Linearity was achieved with good correlation coefficients values (r(2)=0.999; n=5). Intra-day and inter-day precision were found to be less than 3.44% (n=7). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine the target flavonoids in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory recoveries (between 95.2% and 107.9%), demonstrating that should also find application in the quality control, as well as in the pharmacokinetic studies of these drugs.

  5. Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a post-column derivatization technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C(18) cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C(18) column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0-6.8% and 2.0-7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7-7.4% and 1.5-8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals.

  6. Isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for sensitive quantification of human insulin in serum using derivatization-technique.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yohei; Kinumi, Tomoya; Takatsu, Akiko

    2017-08-30

    An isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method for measuring insulin levels in human serum was developed using C-terminal-derivatization method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The carboxyl groups of Glu-C-cleavage products were derivatized with 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine to increase MS/MS sensitivity and IDMS quantification, resulting in increases in LC-MS/MS peak areas of derivatized Glu-C-cleavage products of human insulin by ∼23-(A5-17 peptide) to 49-fold(B14-21 peptide), respectively, as compared with results observed in the absence of derivatization. Separation was achieved on a C18 column by gradient elution at 0.3 mL/min, with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and water. Validation studies of target peptides (B1-13 peptide and B14-21 peptide) revealed a linear response in the range of 0.05 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL (regression coefficient, r(2) = 0.9987 and 0.9988, respectively), a relative standard deviation within and between days of <8.6%, and spike and recovery test results indicating mean recoveries ranging from 100.2% to 106.6%. Comparison with an established commercial immunoassay showed high correlation (r(2) = 0.9943 and 0.9944, B1-13 peptide and B14-21 peptide, respectively) at serum concentrations of between 0.20 ng/mL and 1.51 ng/mL. These findings suggested that this IDMS-based approach was able to quantify human serum insulin with high sensitivity and precision in the reference interval and indicated a potential for determining serum-insulin reference-measurement procedures to allow traceable measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement techniques for liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hernández, D.; Richter, T.; Otte, D.; Buchenau, D.; Krauter, N.; Wondrak, T.

    2017-07-01

    The measurement of flow properties of liquid metals, such as flow rate, flow structure and gas distribution, is a challenging task due to the opaqueness, the high temperatures (e. g. 1500 °C for liquid steel or liquid silicon) and the corrosiveness of those fluids. In this paper, a short review about the recent developments of measurement techniques in the framework of the Helmholtz Alliance Liquid Metal Technologies (LIMTECH) is presented. It focuses on the development of contactless inductive measurement techniques exploiting the high electrical conductivity of those melts. These measurement techniques include the contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT), which is able to reconstruct the mean three-dimensional velocity structure in liquid melts, local Lorentz force velocimetry (local LFV), which enables the local assessment of flows close to the wall, and inductive methods for bubble detection, which are based on mutual inductance tomography (MIT). Additionally, a short overview of contactless inductive flow rate measurement techniques is given. Furthermore, an ultrasound technique called ultrasound transit-time technique (UTTT) will be presented which enables the measurement of position and size of bubbles in large vessels.

  8. [Applications of fast and ultra performance liquid chromatography in the analysis of Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jianliang; Li, Ping

    2009-09-01

    The analysis of chemical components of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) is one of the most critical issues not only for screening and analyzing the bioactive components but also for controlling their quality. However, due to the complexity of the chemical constituents of CHMs, it is difficult to separate them on column within a short time. In the recent, the fast and ultra performance liquid chromatography, including ultra high pressure liquid chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography based on the monolithic columns and high temperature liquid chromatography, are of particular interest because of the high resolution and fast analytical speed provided by these techniques. This overview covers the principle and separation characteristics of these techniques, as well as their applications in Chinese herbal medicines.

  9. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Profiling of Histones

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaodan; Jacob, Naduparambil K.; Amunugama, Ravindra; Lucas, David M.; Knapp, Amy R.; Ren, Chen; Davis, Melanie E.; Marcucci, Guido; Parthun, Mark R.; Byrd, John C.; Fishel, Richard A.; Freitas, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe the use of reverse-phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (RP-LC-MS) to simultaneously characterize variants and post-translationally modified isoforms for each histone. The analysis of intact proteins significantly reduces the time of sample preparation and simplifies data interpretation. LC-MS analysis and peptide mass mapping have previously been applied to identify histone proteins and to characterize their post-translational modifications. However, these studies provided limited characterization of both linker histones and core histones. The current LC-MS analysis allows for the simultaneous observation of all histone PTMs and variants (both replacement and bulk histones) without further enrichment, which will be valuable in comparative studies. Protein identities were verified by the analysis of histone H2A species using RPLC fractionation, AU-PAGE separation and nano-LC-MS/MS. PMID:17254850

  10. Combination of multivariate curve resolution and multivariate classification techniques for comprehensive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array absorbance detection fingerprints analysis of Salvia reuterana extracts.

    PubMed

    Hakimzadeh, Neda; Parastar, Hadi; Fattahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-24

    In this study, multivariate curve resolution (MCR) and multivariate classification methods are proposed to develop a new chemometric strategy for comprehensive analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array absorbance detection (HPLC-DAD) fingerprints of sixty Salvia reuterana samples from five different geographical regions. Different chromatographic problems occurred during HPLC-DAD analysis of S. reuterana samples, such as baseline/background contribution and noise, low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), asymmetric peaks, elution time shifts, and peak overlap are handled using the proposed strategy. In this way, chromatographic fingerprints of sixty samples are properly segmented to ten common chromatographic regions using local rank analysis and then, the corresponding segments are column-wise augmented for subsequent MCR analysis. Extended multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) is used to obtain pure component profiles in each segment. In general, thirty-one chemical components were resolved using MCR-ALS in sixty S. reuterana samples and the lack of fit (LOF) values of MCR-ALS models were below 10.0% in all cases. Pure spectral profiles are considered for identification of chemical components by comparing their resolved spectra with the standard ones and twenty-four components out of thirty-one components were identified. Additionally, pure elution profiles are used to obtain relative concentrations of chemical components in different samples for multivariate classification analysis by principal component analysis (PCA) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN). Inspection of the PCA score plot (explaining 76.1% of variance accounted for three PCs) showed that S. reuterana samples belong to four clusters. The degree of class separation (DCS) which quantifies the distance separating clusters in relation to the scatter within each cluster is calculated for four clusters and it was in the range of 1.6-5.8. These results are then

  11. Gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography of natural steroids.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Mitamura, K; Higashi, T

    2001-11-23

    This review article underlines the importance of gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and their hyphenated techniques using mass spectrometry (MS) for the determination of natural steroids, especially in human biological fluids. Steroids are divided into eight categories based on their structures and functions, and recent references using the above methodologies for the analysis of these steroids are cited. GC and GC-MS are commonly used for the determination of volatile steroids. Although HPLC is a widely used analytical method for the determination of steroids including the conjugated type in biological fluids, LC-MS is considered to be the most promising one for this purpose because of its sensitivity, specificity and versatility.

  12. Nano-liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Gama, Mariana Roberto; Collins, Carol H; Bottoli, Carla B G

    2013-08-01

    Miniaturized separation techniques have emerged as environmentally friendly alternatives to available separation methods. Nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC), microchip devices and nano-capillary electrophoresis are miniaturized methods that minimize reagent consumption and waste generation. Furthermore, the low levels of analytes, especially in biological samples, promote the search for more highly sensitive techniques; coupled to mass spectrometry, nano-LC has great potential to become an indispensable tool for routine analysis of biomolecules. This short review presents the fundamental aspects of nano-LC analytical instrumentation, discussing practical considerations and the primary differences between miniaturized and conventional instrumentation. Some theoretical aspects are discussed to better explain both the potential and the principal limitations of nano-LC. Recent pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of this separation technique are also presented to indicate the satisfactory performance for complex matrices, especially for proteomic analysis, that is obtained with nano-LC.

  13. Trends in High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Cultural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Degano, Ilaria; La Nasa, Jacopo

    2016-04-01

    The separation, detection and quantitation of specific species contained in a sample in the field of Cultural Heritage requires selective, sensitive and reliable methods. Procedures based on liquid chromatography fulfil these requirements and offer a wide range of applicability in terms of analyte types and concentration range. The main applications of High Performance Liquid Chromatography in this field are related to the separation and detection of dyestuffs in archaeological materials and paint samples by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with suitable detectors. The relevant literature will be revised, with particular attention to sample treatment strategies and future developments. Reversed phase chromatography has also recently gained increasing importance in the analysis of lipid binders and lipid materials in archaeological residues: the main advantages and disadvantages of the new approaches will be discussed. Finally, the main applications of ion chromatography and size exclusion chromatography in the field of Cultural Heritage will be revised in this chapter.

  14. Enhanced-fluidity liquid chromatography using mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/strong cation-exchange retention mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Beres, Martin J; Olesik, Susan V

    2015-07-06

    The potential of enhanced-fluidity liquid chromatography, a subcritical chromatography technique, in mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/strong cation-exchange separations is explored, using amino acids as analytes. The enhanced-fluidity liquid mobile phases were prepared by adding liquefied CO2 to methanol/water mixtures, which increases the diffusivity and decreases the viscosity of the mixture. The addition of CO2 to methanol/water mixtures resulted in increased retention of the more polar amino acids. The "optimized" chromatographic performance (achieving baseline resolution of all amino acids in the shortest amount of time) of these methanol/water/CO2 mixtures was compared to traditional acetonitrile/water and methanol/water liquid chromatography mobile phases. Methanol/water/CO2 mixtures offered higher efficiencies and resolution of the ten amino acids relative to the methanol/water mobile phase, and decreased the required isocratic separation time by a factor of two relative to the acetonitrile/water mobile phase. Large differences in selectivity were also observed between the enhanced-fluidity and traditional liquid mobile phases. A retention mechanism study was completed, that revealed the enhanced-fluidity mobile phase separation was governed by a mixed-mode retention mechanism of hydrophilic interaction/strong cation-exchange. On the other hand, separations with acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mobile phases were strongly governed by only one retention mechanism, either hydrophilic interaction or strong cation exchange, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hydrazine Determination in Sludge Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    G. Elias; G. A. Park

    2006-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method using ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed to detect and quantify hydrazine in a variety of environmental matrices. The method was developed primarily for sludge samples, but it is also applicable to soil and water samples. The hydrazine in the matrices was derivatized to their hydrazones with benzaldehyde. The derivatized hydrazones were separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a reversed-phase C-18 column in an isocratic mode with methanol-water (95:5, v/v), and detected with UV detection at 313 nm. The detection limit (25 ml) for the new analytical method is 0.0067 mg ml-1of hydrazine. Hydrazine showed low recovery in soil samples because components in soil oxidized hydrazine. Sludge samples that contained relatively high soil content also showed lower recovery. The technique is relatively simple and cost-effective, and is applicable for hydrazine analysis in different environmental matrices.

  16. Analysis of nitroguanidine in Aqueous Solutions by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) with electrochemical Detection and Voltammetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    The nitroguanidine was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection at a hanging miercury drop electrode...previously reported on the application of solid sorbent collection techniques to the analysis of several explosives in water by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

  17. Liquid Chromatography Applied to Space System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinot, Pauline; Chazalnoel, Pascale; Geffroy, Claude; Sternberg, Robert; Carbonnier, Benjamin

    Searching for signs of past or present life in our Solar System is a real challenge that stirs up the curiosity of scientists. Until now, in situ instrumentation was designed to detect and determine concentrations of a wide number of organic biomarkers. The relevant method which was and still is employed in missions dedicated to the quest of life (from Viking to ExoMars) corresponds to the pyrolysis-GC-MS. Along the missions, this approach has been significantly improved in terms of extraction efficiency and detection with the use of chemical derivative agents (e.g. MTBSTFA, DMF-DMA, TMAH…), and in terms of analysis sensitivity and resolution with the development of in situ high-resolution mass spectrometer (e.g. TOF-MS). Thanks to such an approach, organic compounds such as amino acids, sugars, tholins or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were expected to be found. However, while there’s a consensus that the GC-MS of Viking, Huygens, MSL and MOMA space missions worked the way they had been designed to, pyrolysis is much more in debate (Glavin et al. 2001; Navarro-González et al. 2006). Indeed, (1) it is thought to remove low levels of organics, (2) water and CO2 could interfere with the detection of likely organic pyrolysis products, and (3) only low to mid-molecular weight organic molecules can be detected by this technique. As a result, researchers are now focusing on other in situ techniques which are no longer based on the volatility of the organic matter, but on the liquid phase extraction and analysis. In this line, micro-fluidic systems involving sandwich and/or competitive immunoassays (e.g. LMC, SOLID; Parro et al. 2005; Sims et al. 2012), micro-chip capillary electrophoreses (e.g. MOA; Bada et al. 2008), or nanopore-based analysis (e.g. BOLD; Schulze-Makuch et al. 2012) have been conceived for in situ analysis. Thanks to such approaches, molecular biological polymers (polysaccharides, polypeptides, polynucleotides, phospholipids, glycolipids

  18. Implementations of two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Guiochon, Georges A; Marchetti, Nicola; Mriziq, Khaled S; Shalliker, R. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Today scientists must deal with complex samples that either cannot be adequately separated using one-dimensional chromatography or that require an inordinate amount of time for separation. For these cases we need two-dimensional chromatography because it takes far less time to generate a peak capacity n{sub c} twice in a row than to generate a peak capacity n{sub c}{sup 2} once. Liquid chromatography has been carried out successfully on thin layers of adsorbents and along tubes filled with various adsorbents. The first type of separation sorts out the sample components in a physical separation space that is the layer of packing material. The analysis time is the same for all the components of the sample while their migration distance increases with decreasing retention. The resolution between two components having a certain separation factor (a) increases with increasing migration distance, i.e., from the strongly to the weakly retained compounds. In the second type of separation, the sample components are eluted from the column and separated in the time space, their migration distances are all the same while their retention times increase from the unretained to the strongly retained compounds. Separation efficiency varies little with retention, as long as the components are eluted from the column. We call these two types of separation the chromatographic separations in space (LC{sup x}) and the chromatographic separations in time (LC{sup t}), respectively. In principle, there are four ways to combine these two modes and do two-dimensional chromatographic separations, LC{sup t} x LC{sup t}, LC{sup x} x LC{sup t}, LC{sup t} x LC{sup x}, and LC{sup x} x LC{sup x}. We review, discuss and compare the potential performance of these combinations, their advantages, drawbacks, problems, perspectives and results. Currently, column-based combinations (LC{sup t} x LC{sup t}) are the most actively pursued. We suggest that the combination LC{sup x} x LC{sup t} shows exceptional

  19. Cortisol production rates measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban, N.V.; Yergey, A.L. )

    1990-04-01

    Cortisol production rates (FPRs) in physiologic and pathologic states in humans have been investigated over the past 30 years. However, there has been conflicting evidence concerning the validity of the currently accepted value of FPRs in humans (12 to 15 mg/m2/d) as determined by radiotracer methodology. The present study reviews previous methods proposed for the measurement of FPRs in humans and discusses the applications of the first method for the direct determination of 24-hour plasma FPRs during continuous administration of a stable isotope, using a thermospray high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The technique is fast, sensitive, and, unlike gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, does not require derivatization, allowing on-line detection and quantification of plasma cortisol after a simple extraction procedure. The results of determination of plasma FPRs by stable tracer/mass spectrometry are directly in units of mass/time and, unlike radiotracer methods, are independent of any determination of volume of distribution or cortisol concentration. Our methodology offers distinct advantages over radiotracer techniques in simplicity and reliability since only single measurements of isotope ratios are required. The technique was validated in adrenalectomized patients. Circadian variations in daily FRPs were observed in normal volunteers, and, to date, results suggest a lower FRP in normal children and adults than previously believed. 88 references.

  20. Optimized determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by ultrasound-assisted liquid-liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    He, Kuang; Lv, YuanCai; Chen, YuanCai

    2014-10-01

    A method based on ultrasound-assisted liquid-liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography has been optimized for the determination of six polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners. The optimal condition relevant to the extraction was first investigated, more than 98.7 ± 0.7% recovery was achieved with dichloromethane as extractant, 5 min extraction time, and three cycles of ultrasound-assisted liquid-liquid extraction. Then multiple function was employed to optimize polybrominated diphenyl ether detection conditions with overall resolution and chromatography signal area as the responses. The condition chosen in this experiment was methanol/water 93:7 v/v, flow rate 0.80 mL/min, column temperature 30.0°C. The optimized technique revealed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9962 over a concentration range of 1-100 μg/L) and repeatability (relative standard deviation < 6.3%). Furthermore, the detection limit (S/N = 3) of the method were ranged from 0.02 to 0.13 μg/L and the quantification limit (S/N = 10) ranged from 0.07 to 0.35 μg/L. Finally, the proposed method was applied to spiked samples and satisfactory results were achieved. These results indicate that ultrasound-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was effective to identify and quantify the complex polybrominated diphenyl ethers in effluent samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Structural analysis of amorphous phosphates using high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, B.C.; Boatner, L.A.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; McCallum, J.C.; Ramey, J.O.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    Determining the atomic-scale structure of amorphous solids has proven to be a formidable scientific and technological problem for the past 100 years. The technique of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provides unique detailed information regarding the structure of partially disordered or amorphous phosphate solids. Applications of the experimental technique of HPLC to phosphate solids are reviewed, and examples of the type of information that can be obtained with HPLC are presented. Inorganic phosphates encompass a large class of important materials whose applications include: catalysts, ion-exchange media, solid electrolytes for batteries, linear and nonlinear optical components, chelating agents, synthetic replacements for bone and teeth, phosphors, detergents, and fertilizers. Phosphate ions also represent a unique link between living systems and the inorganic world.

  2. Determination of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in wheat and barley using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: on-line clean-up versus conventional sample preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Nathanail, Alexis V; Sarikaya, Ebru; Jestoi, Marika; Godula, Michal; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2014-12-29

    In this study, we compared the performance of conventional sample preparation techniques used in mycotoxin analyses against automated on-line sample clean-up for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its conjugated derivative, deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-glucoside (D3G), in cereal grains. Blank wheat and barley samples were spiked with DON and D3G, extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (84:16, v/v) and processed by one of the following: extract and shoot, MycoSep(®) 227 clean-up columns, MycoSep 227 with an additional acetonitrile elution step and centrifugal filtration, followed by analysis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Based on method performance characteristics and poor recoveries (<30%) obtained for the polar D3G with some techniques, the extract and shoot approach was chosen for the inter-laboratory method comparison study. Thus, the same spiked samples were analysed in parallel by another laboratory with an in-house validated on-line sample clean-up method, utilising TurboFlow™ chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Method validation was performed by determination of specificity, linearity, recovery, intra-day precision and the limits of detection and quantification. Matrix-matched linearity (R(2)>0.985) was established in the range of 100-1600 and 20-320μg/kg for DON and D3G, respectively. Average recoveries (%RSD) were acceptable with both methods for wheat and barley, ranging between 73% and 102% (3-12%) for DON and 72% and 98% (1-10%) for D3G. The benefit of using automated sample clean-up in comparison to extract and shoot is the ability to inject directly pure extracts into the mass spectrometer, offering faster analyses and improved sensitivity with minimum system maintenance.

  3. A generalized theory of chromatography and multistep liquid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhkov, V. P.; Boitsov, V. N.

    2017-03-01

    A generalized theory of chromatography and multistep liquid extraction is developed. The principles of highly efficient processes for fine preparative separation of binary mixture components on a fixed sorbent layer are discussed.

  4. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Vitamin A: A Quantitative Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohman, Ove; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Experimental procedures are provided for the quantitative determination of Vitamin A (retinol) in food products by analytical liquid chromatography. Standard addition and calibration curve extraction methods are outlined. (SK)

  5. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Vitamin A: A Quantitative Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohman, Ove; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Experimental procedures are provided for the quantitative determination of Vitamin A (retinol) in food products by analytical liquid chromatography. Standard addition and calibration curve extraction methods are outlined. (SK)

  6. Instrumentation for hand-portable liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sonika; Plistil, Alex; Simpson, Robert S; Liu, Kun; Farnsworth, Paul B; Stearns, Stanley D; Lee, Milton L

    2014-01-31

    Liquid chromatography (LC) has lagged behind gas chromatography (GC) in developments related to hand-portable instrumentation. In this work, a new battery-operated (24V DC) nano-flow pumping system with a stop-flow injector was developed and integrated with an on-column UV-absorption detector (254nm) that was reduced in size to an acceptable weight and power usage for field operation. The pumping system, which includes nano-flow pump, stepper motor and high-pressure valve weighs only 1.372kg (3lbs) and can generate up to 110.32MPa (16,000psi) pressure. A major advantage of this pump is that it does not employ a splitter, since it was specifically designed for capillary column use. The volume capacity of the pump is 24μL, and a sample volume as low as 10nL can be injected. Flow rate calibration (300nL to 6.12μL per min) was performed, and an accuracy >99.94% was obtained. The percent injection carry-over was found to be low (RSD 0.31%), which makes it practical for quantitative analysis. The detector linear range and limit of detection (LOD) were determined using sodium anthraquinone-2-sulfonate. A linear regression coefficient (R) of 0.9996 was obtained for a plot of log peak area versus log concentration over the range of 3.2μM to 6.5mM, and the LOD (S/N=3) was found to be 7.8fmol (0.13μM). The short term noise of the detector is comparable to commercially available detectors (∼10(-5)AU). In this work, the system was tested in the laboratory using regular line power (120V AC) with an AC to DC adapter. Reversed-phase isocratic separations were performed using a 15.5cm×75μm i.d. fused silica capillary column containing a monolithic stationary phase synthesized from 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate. Good retention time repeatability (RSD 0.09-0.74%) was obtained for a mixture containing an unretained marker (i.e., uracil) and a homologous series of alkyl benzenes.

  7. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  8. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  9. Quantification of amino acid ionic liquids using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fei; Wu, Kangkang; Nie, Zhou; Ding, Li; Liu, Qian; Yuan, Jinbin; Guo, Manli; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2008-10-24

    Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) containing imidazolium cations and amino acid (AA) anions, were synthesized and applied as task-specific ionic liquids. A sensitive and fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was established for the quantitative analysis of 20 AAILs. Using ion pairing-reversed phase liquid chromatography technique, heptafluorobutyric acid was used as ion-pairing reagent to increase the retention of AAILs. Based on the zwitterionity of amino acid, this method was proposed to determine both the cation and the anion of AAILs simultaneously. The limit of detection of this method is down to 1-15ng/mL and the analysis time is less than 15min. According to the analytical data of seven selected AAILs, we found that the content of amino acid anion is always lower than that of butyl methyl imidazolium cation in AAILs. Moreover, the molar ratio of imidazolium cation to amino acid anion is dependent on the chemical property of the amino acid. These results supplied useful information on the interaction of imidazolium cation with acidic, basic, neutral and non-polar amino acids in AAILs.

  10. Chromatography

    MedlinePlus

    Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. Chemical compounds are chemicals that are ... of chemical compound. There are different kinds of chromatography. These include gas, high pressure liquid, or ion ...

  11. Comparison of information-dependent acquisition, SWATH, and MS(All) techniques in metabolite identification study employing ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Chen, Yuping; Subramanian, Raju

    2014-01-21

    Sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis is a powerful and essential tool for metabolite identification in drug discovery and development. An MS(2) (or tandem, MS/MS) mass spectrum is acquired from the fragmentation of a precursor ion by multiple methods including information-dependent acquisition (IDA), SWATH (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra), and MS(All) (also called MS(E)) techniques. We compared these three techniques in their capabilities to produce comprehensive MS(2) data by assessing both metabolite MS(2) acquisition hit rate and the quality of MS(2) spectra. Rat liver microsomal incubations from eight test compounds were analyzed with four methods (IDA, MMDF (multiple mass defect filters)-IDA, SWATH, or MS(All)) using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-qudrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF MS) platform. A combined total of 227 drug-related materials (DRM) were detected from all eight test article incubations, and among those, 5% and 4% of DRM were not triggered for MS(2) acquisition with IDA and MMDF-IDA methods, respectively. When the same samples were spiked to an equal volume of blank rat urine (urine sample), the DRM without MS(2) acquisition increased to 29% and 18%, correspondingly. In contrast, 100% of DRM in both matrixes were subjected to MS(2) acquisition with either the SWATH or MS(All) method. However, the quality of the acquired MS(2) spectra decreased in the order of IDA, SWATH, and MS(All) methods. An average of 10, 9, and 6 out of 10 most abundant ions in MS(2) spectra were the real product ions of DRM detected in microsomal samples from IDA, SWATH, and MS(All) methods, respectively. The corresponding numbers declined to 9, 6, and 3 in the urine samples. Overall, IDA-based methods acquired qualitatively better MS(2) spectra but with a lower MS(2) acquisition hit rate than the other two methods. SWATH outperformed the MS(All) method

  12. Exploring the potentialities of an improved ultrasound-assisted quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe-based extraction technique combined with ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for determination of Zearalenone in cereals.

    PubMed

    Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Camacho, Irene; Câmara, José S

    2015-08-21

    Zearalenone (ZEA), a secondary metabolite from Fusarium graminearum fungi that invade crops and grow during blooming in moist cool field conditions, is a nonsteroidal oestrogen, biologically very potent, although hardly toxic. Different analytical methods, among which a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) strategy, combined with or liquid chromatography, have been proposed for ZEA determination in foods. However, this extraction procedure has the disadvantage of using large amount of organic solvents, partitioning salts and sample volume, which limits the technique application on the fields where the sample amount is critical. Therefore in this work an improved sample preparation step based on the original QuEChERS (O-QuEChERS) approach, the μ-QuEChERS, combined with ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) and ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis with fluorescence detection (FLR) is proposed for the sensitive and high-throughput quantification of ZEA in cereals. The proposed analytical strategy, μ-QuEChERSUSAE, uses up to 32 times lower amounts of partitioning salts, lower sample amount and lower extraction solvents, in comparison with O-QuEChERS technique. The performance of the analytical approach was assessed by studying the selectivity, specificity, limits of detection and quantification, linear dynamic range, matrix effect and precision. Good linearity (r(2)>0.99) was achieved for ZEA, and limits of detection (LOD=3.4μgkg(-1)) and limits of quantification (LOQ=4.7μgkg(-1)) were found below the tolerance levels set by European Commission. Good recoveries were obtained with different spiked concentrations, ranged from 80.2% to 109.7%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5.0%. The comparison of the analytical performance of the proposed μ-QuEChERSUSAE with O-QuEChERS showed the powerful ability of the proposed strategy since it gives comparable results but using lower amounts of sample, partitioning

  13. Amphetamines analysis in wastewaters - method performance of solid phase extraction - higher performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry techniques (SPE-HPLC MS/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Mustapha, Aliru Olajide; Ajao, Usman L

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many articles have reported different levels and distribution of amphetamine hitherto detected in biological fluids now appreciably found in aquatic environment at ng/L levels. Identification and measurement of amphetamine and its metabolites in surface and sewage waters using higher performance liquid chromatographic methodologies in the literatures now on current trend have provided information that are of scientific interest and effectively replaced immunological methods which only suggest the presence of these substances. Active research on both distribution and impacts of this important drug of abuse and related metabolites in the wastewaters are on-going. PMID:27857670

  14. Determination of tetraalkyllead compounds in gasoline by liquid chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messman, J.D.; Rains, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometry (LC-AAS) hybrid analytical technique is presented for metal speciation measurements on complex liquid samples. The versatility and inherent metal selectivity of the technique are Illustrated by the rapid determination of five tetraalkyllead compounds in commercial gasoline. Separation of the individual tetraalkyllead species is achieved by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using an acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The effluent from the liquid Chromatograph Is introduced directly into the aspiration uptake capillary of the nebulizer of an air/acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Spectral interferences due to coeluting hydrocarbon matrix constituents were not observed at the 283.3-nm resonance line of lead used for analysis. Detection limits of this LC-AAS hydrid analytical technique, based on a 20-??L injection, are approximately 10 ng Pb for each tetraalkyllead compound.

  15. Protein identification using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry is an efficient technique for the identification of peptides on the basis of their fragmentation pattern (MS/MS scan). It can generate individual spectra for each peptide, thereby creating a powerful tool for protein identification on the basis of peptide characterization. This important advance in automatic data acquisition has allowed an efficient association between liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and the use of nanocolumns and nanoelectrospray ionization has dramatically increased the efficiency of this method. Now large sets of peptides can be identified at a femtomole level. At the end of the process, batch processing of the MS/MS spectra produces peptide lists that identify purified proteins or protein mixtures with high confidence.

  16. High performance liquid chromatography characteristic spectrum of artificial musk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Xiao, Xuan; Zhang, Nan-Ping; Xiao, Xin-Yue; Zhang, Shu; Wei, Feng; Yu, De-Quan

    2014-12-01

    To determine the high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)characteristic spectrum of artificial musk. HPLC was performed on a HiQ Sil C18 analytical column(4.6 mm×250 mm)with the mobile phase of methanol/water(90:10 v/v);the detection wavelength was 254 nm and the column temperature was maintained at 25 ℃. The similarities among 10 batches of artificial musk samples were anlysised in accordance with the System for Evaluating the Similarities among the Chromatographic Fingerprints of Traditional Chinese Drugs,which is recommended by Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. The similarities among these 10 batches of artificial musk ranged between 0.999 and 1.000. HPLC is a convenient,accurate and reliable technique for establishing the specific spectum of artificial musk and therefore can be used for the quality control of this product.

  17. Identification of Explosives from Porous Materials: Applications Using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.; Elias, G.; Schmitt, N. C.; Rae, C.

    2010-06-01

    High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography techniques are well documented and widely used for the detection of trace explosives from organic solvents. These techniques were modified to identify and quantify explosives extracted from various materials taken from people who had recently handled explosives. Documented techniques were modified to specifically detect and quantify trace levels of the military explosives, RDX, TNT, and PETN from denim, colored flannel, vinyl, and canvas extracted in methanol and filtered using no additional sample cleanup of the sample extract prior to analysis. The filtered methanol extracts were injected directly into several different column types and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection and/or gas chromatography using electron capture detection. This paper describes general screening methods that were used to determine the presence of explosives (RDX, TNT, and PETN) in unknown samples of denim, colored flannel, vinyl and canvas in addition to techniques that have been optimized for quantification of each explosive from the substrate extracts.

  18. Vortex and air assisted liquid-liquid microextraction as a sample preparation method for high-performed liquid chromatography determinations.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Heydari, Rouhollah; Alimoradi, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    A novel, simple and sensitive method based on vortex and air assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VAALLME) technique coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for quantitative analysis of β-naphthol, naphthalene and anthracene as model analytes. Unlike the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), dispersive solvent and centrifuging step were eliminated in proposed technique. In this technique, extraction solvent was dispersed into the aqueous sample solution by using vortex. Phase separation was achieved via motion of air bubbles from the bottom to top of the extraction tube, which promoted the analytes transfer into the supernatant organic phase. Influential parameters on the extraction efficiency such as type and volume of extraction solvent, salt type and its concentration, vortex and aeration times, and sample pH were evaluated and optimized. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9947) and precision (RSD<5.0%) in the working concentration ranges. The limit of detection (LOD) for β-naphthol, naphthalene and anthracene were 10, 5.0 and 0.5 ng mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 97.0-102.0% with RSD values ranging from 2.2 to 5.2%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the differentially expressed low molecular weight peptides in human serum via an N-terminal isotope labeling technique combining nano-liquid chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leng, Jiapeng; Zhu, Dong; Wu, Duojiao; Zhu, Tongyu; Zhao, Ningwei; Guo, Yinlong

    2012-11-15

    Peptidomics analysis of human serum is challenging due to the low abundance of serum peptides and interference from the complex matrix. This study analyzed the differentially expressed (DE) low molecular weight peptides in human serum integrating a DMPITC-based N-terminal isotope labeling technique with nano-liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC/MALDI-MS). The workflow introduced a [d(6)]-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine-2-isothiocyanate (DMPITC)-labeled mixture of aliquots from test samples as the internal standard. The spiked [d(0)]-DMPITC-labeled samples were separated by nano-LC then spotted on the MALDI target. Both quantitative and qualitative studies for serum peptides were achieved based on the isotope-labeled peaks. The DMPITC labeling technique combined with nano-LC/MALDI-MS not only minimized the errors in peptide quantitation, but also allowed convenient recognition of the labeled peptides due to the 6 Da mass difference. The data showed that the entire research procedure as well as the subsequent data analysis method were effective, reproducible, and sensitive for the analysis of DE serum peptides. This study successfully established a research model for DE serum peptides using DMPITC-based N-terminal isotope labeling and nano-LC/MALDI-MS. Application of the DMPITC-based N-terminal labeling technique is expected to provide a promising tool for the investigation of peptides in vivo, especially for the analysis of DE peptides under different biological conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Bisphenol A, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol determination in serum by Hybrid Solid Phase Extraction-Precipitation Technology technique tailored to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-04-01

    A rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, 4-t-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol in human blood serum. For the first time, the electrospray ionization (ESI) parameters of probe position, voltage potential, sheath gas flow rate, auxiliary gas flow rate, and ion transfer tube temperature were thoroughly studied and optimized for each phenol by a univariate approach. As a consequence, low instrumental limits of detection were reported, demonstrating at 0.2 ng/mL (in solvent matrix) excellent injection repeatability (RSD<14.5%) and a confirmation peak for all target phenols. Extraction and purification of serum was performed by the novel Hybrid Solid Phase Extraction-Precipitation Technology technique (Hybrid SPE-PPT). The limits of detection in human blood serum were 0.80, 1.3 and 1.4 ng/mL for BPA, 4-t-OP and 4-NP, respectively.

  1. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of multiple bioactive constituents in fruit extracts of Myristica fragrans and its marketed polyherbal formulations using a polarity switching technique.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Renu; Rameshkumar, Koranappallil Bahuleyan; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-05-01

    Fruits of Myristica fragrans Houtt. are the source of two valuable spices: nutmeg and mace, traditionally used for its flavoring and medicinal properties and found as an ingredient in many marketed polyherbal formulations and food products. In this study, a sensitive and efficient ultra high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the rapid determination of 16 bioactive constituents in different parts of the fruit of M. fragrans and its marketed polyherbal formulations using a polarity switching technique. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Aquity UPLC BEH C18 column in 9.4 min. Quantitative analysis was performed using multiple reaction monitoring mode with continuous polarity switching in a single analysis. The developed method was found to be accurate with overall recovery in the range from 95.95 to 102.07% (RSD ≤ 1.91%), precise (RSD ≤ 1.98%), and linear (r(2) ≥ 0.9992) over the concentration range of 0.1-200 ng/mL. Quantitative analysis indicated that the total content of the 16 bioactive constituents was highest in the mace of M. fragrans. Thus, this rapid and sensitive method could be utilized as a promising reference method for the quality control of M. fragrans and its marketed herbal formulations/food products.

  2. Thermal modulation for multidimensional liquid chromatography separations using low-thermal-mass liquid chromatography (LC).

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Matthias; Pursch, Matthias; Eckerle, Patric; Luong, Jim; Desmet, Gert

    2011-09-15

    We report on a proof-of-principle experiment with a novel thermal modulation device with potential use in two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) systems. It is based on the thermal desorption concept used in two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) systems. Preconcentration of neutral analytes eluting from the first dimension column is performed in a capillary "trap" column packed with highly retentive porous graphitic carbon particles, placed in an aluminum low-thermal-mass LC heating sleeve. Remobilization of the trapped analytes is achieved by rapidly heating the trap column, by applying temperature ramps up to +1200 °C/min. Compared to the nonmodulated signal, the presented thermal modulator yielded narrow peaks, and a concentration enhancement factor up to 18 was achieved. With a thermally modulated LC separation of an epoxy resin, it is shown that when the thermal modulation is applied periodically, the trapped and concentrated molecules can be released periodically and that the modulating interface can both serve as a preconcentration device and as an injector for the second dimension column of an LC × LC setup. Because of the thermal modulation, a high-molecular-weight epoxy resin could be adequately separated and the different fractions were identified with a GPC analysis, as well as an offline second dimension LC analysis.

  3. Group type analysis of asphalt by column liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Yang, J.; Xue, Y.; Li, Y.

    2008-07-01

    An improved analysis method for characterization of asphalt was established. The method is based on column chromatography technique. The asphalts were separated into four groups: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, quantitatively. About 0.1 g of sample was required in each analysis. About 20 mL of n-heptanes was used to separate out saturates first. Then about 35 mL of n-heptanes/dichloromethane (.5, v/v) mixture was used to separate out aromatics. About 30 mL of dichloromethane/tetrahydrofuran (1/3, v/v) mixture was used to separate out resin. The quality of the separation was confirmed by infrared spectra (IR) and {sup 1}H NMR analysis. The model compounds, tetracosan for saturates, dibenz(o)anthracen for aromatics, and acetanilide for resins were used for verification. The IR and {sup 1}H NMR analysis of the prepared fractions from the column liquid chromatography were in good agreement that of pure reagents.

  4. Identification of Explosives from Porous Materials: Applications Using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    C.J. Miller; G. Elias; N.C. Schmitt; C. Rae

    2010-06-01

    High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography techniques are well documented and widely used for the detection of trace explosives from organic solvents. These techniques were modified to specifically identify and quantify explosives extracted from various materials taken from people who had recently handled explosives. Documented techniques were modified to specifically detect and quantify RDX, TNT, and PETN from denim, colored flannel, vinyl, and canvas extracted in methanol using no sample cleanup prior to analysis. The methanol extracts were injected directly into several different column types and analyzed by HPLC-UV and/or GC-ECD. This paper describes general screening methods that were used to determine the presence of explosives in unknown samples and techniques that have been optimized for quantification of each explosive from the substrate extracts.

  5. Carbon nanotube reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction: a novel extraction technique for the measurement of caffeic acid in Echinacea purpurea herbal extracts combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Golsefidi, Mazyar Ahmadi; Saify, Ali; Tanha, Ali Akbar; Rezaeifar, Zohre; Alian-Nezhadi, Zahra

    2010-04-23

    A new design of hollow fiber solid-liquid phase microextraction (HF-SLPME) was developed for the determination of caffeic acid in medicinal plants samples as Echinacea purpure. The membrane extraction with sorbent interface used in this research is a three-phase supported liquid membrane consisting of an aqueous (donor phase), organic solvent/nano sorbent (membrane) and aqueous (acceptor phase) system operated in direct immersion sampling mode. The multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersed in the organic solvent is held in the pores of a porous membrane supported by capillary forces and sonification. It is in contact with two aqueous phases: the donor phase, which is the aqueous sample, and the acceptor phase, usually an aqueous buffer. All microextraction experiments were supported using an Accurel Q3/2 polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (600 microm I.D., 200 microm wall thicknesses, and 0.2 microm pore size). The experimental setup is very simple and highly affordable. The hollow fiber is disposable, so single use of the fiber reduces the risk of cross-contamination and carry-over problems. The proposed method allows the very effective and enriched recuperation of an acidic analyte into one single extract. In order to obtain high enrichment and extraction efficiency of the analyte using this novel technique, the main parameters were optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity (0.0001-50 microg/L), repeatability, low limits of detection (0.00005 microg/L) and excellent enrichment (EF=2108). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Some Analgesic Compounds: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results are provided for an experiment demonstrating techniques of solvent selection, gradient elution, pH control, and ion-pairing in the analysis of an analgesic mixture using reversed-phase liquid chromatography on an octadecylsilane column. Although developed using sophisticated/expensive equipment, less…

  7. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Some Analgesic Compounds: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results are provided for an experiment demonstrating techniques of solvent selection, gradient elution, pH control, and ion-pairing in the analysis of an analgesic mixture using reversed-phase liquid chromatography on an octadecylsilane column. Although developed using sophisticated/expensive equipment, less…

  8. Towards Chip Scale Liquid Chromatography and High Throughput Immunosensing

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Jing

    2000-09-21

    This work describes several research projects aimed towards developing new instruments and novel methods for high throughput chemical and biological analysis. Approaches are taken in two directions. The first direction takes advantage of well-established semiconductor fabrication techniques and applies them to miniaturize instruments that are workhorses in analytical laboratories. Specifically, the first part of this work focused on the development of micropumps and microvalves for controlled fluid delivery. The mechanism of these micropumps and microvalves relies on the electrochemically-induced surface tension change at a mercury/electrolyte interface. A miniaturized flow injection analysis device was integrated and flow injection analyses were demonstrated. In the second part of this work, microfluidic chips were also designed, fabricated, and tested. Separations of two fluorescent dyes were demonstrated in microfabricated channels, based on an open-tubular liquid chromatography (OT LC) or an electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) format. A reduction in instrument size can potentially increase analysis speed, and allow exceedingly small amounts of sample to be analyzed under diverse separation conditions. The second direction explores the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a signal transduction method for immunoassay analysis. It takes advantage of the improved detection sensitivity as a result of surface enhancement on colloidal gold, the narrow width of Raman band, and the stability of Raman scattering signals to distinguish several different species simultaneously without exploiting spatially-separated addresses on a biochip. By labeling gold nanoparticles with different Raman reporters in conjunction with different detection antibodies, a simultaneous detection of a dual-analyte immunoassay was demonstrated. Using this scheme for quantitative analysis was also studied and preliminary dose-response curves from an immunoassay of a

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography of oligoguanylates at high pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stribling, R.; Deamer, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Because of the stable self-structures formed by oligomers of guanosine, standard high-performance liquid chromatography techniques for oligonucleotide fractionation are not applicable. Previously, oligoguanylate separations have been carried out at pH 12 using RPC-5 as the packing material. While RPC-5 provides excellent separations, there are several limitations, including the lack of a commercially available source. This report describes a new anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography method using HEMA-IEC BIO Q, which successfully separates different forms of the guanosine monomer as well as longer oligoguanylates. The reproducibility and stability at high pH suggests a versatile role for this material.

  10. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography for polyphenol analysis in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Cacciola, Francesco; Farnetti, Sara; Dugo, Paola; Marriott, Philip John; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are a class of plant secondary metabolites that are recently drawing a special interest because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. As they are characterized by an enormous structural variability, the identification of these molecules in food samples is a difficult task, and sometimes having only a limited number of commercially available reference materials is not of great help. One-dimensional liquid chromatography is the most widely applied analytical approach for their analysis. In particular, the hyphenation of liquid chromatography to mass spectrometry has come to play an influential role by allowing relatively fast tentative identification and accurate quantification of polyphenolic compounds at trace levels in vegetable media. However, when dealing with very complex real-world food samples, a single separation system often does not provide sufficient resolving power for attaining rewarding results. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography is a technique of great analytical impact, since it offers much higher peak capacities than separations in a single dimension. In the present review, we describe applications in the field of comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography for polyphenol analysis in real-world food samples. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography applications to nonfood matrices fall outside the scope of the current report and will not be discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Determination of free and liposomal amphotericin B in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy with solid phase extraction and protein precipitation techniques.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Niranjan M; Gangrade, Manish G; Kekare, Maharudra B; Vaidya, Vikas V

    2010-02-01

    Amphotericin B is available in various drug delivery systems such as cholesteryl sulfate complex, as lipid complex, and as liposomal formulation. The separation and measurement of free drug (drug which is not bound with liposomal lipids) and liposomal drug (drug which is entrapped in liposomes) in the human plasma after injection of liposomal Amphotericin B is of prime importance due to toxicity concerns. A robust, specific and sensitive method has been developed to effectively separate and then quantify the free drug and liposomal drug, present in human plasma. This method utilizes solid phase extraction Oasis HLB cartridges, which retains the free drug and the liposomal Amphotericin B was eluted from the cartridge in first step. The eluted liposomal Amphotericin B was then extracted from lipids by protein precipitation method using 2% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in acetonitrile. After separation and extraction, the quantification of free and liposomal fractions of Amphotericin B was performed by HPLC-MS-MS technique. The chromatographic separation was performed using Chromolith Performance RP 18e column. The mobile phase composed of 5 mM ammonium acetate, methanol and acetonitrile and a gradient elution program was used. The calibration curves were found to be linear for free Amphotericin B (0.25-15.0 microg/ml) and liposomal Amphotericin B (1.0-100.0 microg/ml). The recovery was about 96% for free Amphotericin B and about 92% for liposomal Amphotericin B. Recoveries were consistent over the linearity ranges defined. The intra-batch and inter-batch accuracy and precision fulfilled the international requirements. The stability of free and liposomal Amphotericin B was assessed under different storage conditions.

  12. Micro-polarimeter for high performance liquid chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward E.; Steenhoek, Larry E.; Woodruff, Steven D.; Kuo, Jeng-Chung

    1985-01-01

    A micro-polarimeter interfaced with a system for high performance liquid chromatography, for quantitatively analyzing micro and trace amounts of optically active organic molecules, particularly carbohydrates. A flow cell with a narrow bore is connected to a high performance liquid chromatography system. Thin, low birefringence cell windows cover opposite ends of the bore. A focused and polarized laser beam is directed along the longitudinal axis of the bore as an eluent containing the organic molecules is pumped through the cell. The beam is modulated by air gap Faraday rotators for phase sensitive detection to enhance the signal to noise ratio. An analyzer records the beams's direction of polarization after it passes through the cell. Calibration of the liquid chromatography system allows determination of the quantity of organic molecules present from a determination of the degree to which the polarized beam is rotated when it passes through the eluent.

  13. Gradient chromatofocusing high-performance liquid chromatography. II. Theoretical aspects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Anderson, D J

    1997-02-21

    This article is Part II of a series describing a newly-developed gradient chromatofocusing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Theoretical aspects of the technique are discussed. In gradient chromatofocusing, the column pH gradient with respect to column distance can be varied without necessarily affecting the outlet pH gradient with respect to time. Factors influencing the value of the slope of the column pH gradient are identified through derived equations and a computer simulation model. A newly-identified parameter is introduced, column travel time, which can be uniquely varied in gradient chromatofocusing. Experiments show increased conversion of fibrinogen to denatured forms with increased column travel time. Another unique aspect of gradient chromatofocusing is that the mobile phase buffer concentration can be manipulated without necessarily affecting the outlet pH gradient slope, giving the technique expanded versatility for optimizing the separation. In the present work, the pIapparent for fibrinogen is found to increase with increased mobile phase buffer concentration.

  14. Applying Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jessie W.; Patev, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Presents three experiments to introduce students to different kinds of chromatography: (1) paper chromatography; (2) gel filtration chromatography; and (3) reverse-phase liquid chromatography. Written in the form of a laboratory manual, explanations of each of the techniques, materials needed, procedures, and a glossary are included. (PVD)

  15. Molecular simulation studies of reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Rebecca K; Rafferty, Jake L; Eggimann, Becky L; Siepmann, J Ilja; Schure, Mark R

    2013-04-26

    Over the past 20 years, molecular simulation methods have been applied to the modeling of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). The purpose of these simulations was to provide a molecular-level understanding of: (i) the structure and dynamics of the bonded phase and its interface with the mobile phase, (ii) the interactions of analytes with the bonded phase, and (iii) the retention mechanism for different analytes. However, the investigation of chromatographic systems poses significant challenges for simulations with respect to the accuracy of the molecular mechanics force fields and the efficiency of the sampling algorithms. This review discusses a number of aspects concerning molecular simulation studies of RPLC systems including the historical development of the subject, the background needed to understand the two prevalent techniques, molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) methods, and the wealth of insight provided by these simulations. Examples from the literature employing MD approaches and from the authors' laboratory using MC methods are discussed. The former can provide information on chain dynamics and transport properties, whereas the latter techniques are uniquely suited for the investigation of phase and sorption equilibria that underly RPLC retention, and both can be used to elucidate the bonded-chain conformations and solvent distributions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring stevioside in soju by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ni, Fan; Ammann, Jeffrey; Mabud, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    A method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV absorption detection was developed to monitor stevioside in soju, a distilled spirits product that is commercially available. The method uses a single-step dilution for sample preparation. It completely eliminates the time-consuming process of solid-phase extraction. A method using HPLC/mass spectrometry was optimized to confirm the identities of stevioside and other related impurities, including rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, and dulcoside. The method was validated. The validation parameters included range (10.1-1007.3 ppm), precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness, system suitability, and intermediate precision. Stevioside standard solutions at 6 concentration levels were prepared for the validation work, including the tests for precision, linearity, and accuracy. The solutions were prepared in triplicate for each concentration. The relative standard deviation for the precision test was <3% for all 6 concentration levels. The correlation coefficient for the linearity within the concentration range was determined to be > 0.999. The average recovery ranged from 95.7 to 101.1% for the soju samples spiked with stevioside standard. The detection limit for stevioside was estimated at 75 ppb. The method was used to screen several soju samples; no detectable stevioside was found in the samples.

  17. Determination of Caffeine in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNunzio, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the equipment, procedures, and results for the determination of caffeine in beverages by high performance liquid chromatography. The method is simple, fast, accurate, and, because sample preparation is minimal, it is well suited for use in a teaching laboratory. (JN)

  18. An Inexpensive Liquid Chromatography Apparatus for Undergraduate Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamish, Malcolm; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, low-pressure liquid chromatography pump, slurry filler, stainless steel columns, and injector system suitable for the undergraduate laboratory or routine analysis. Includes sectional diagram of the pump and construction diagram of the preparative columns. (Author/SK)

  19. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-based Quantitative Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Qian, Weijun; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-07-22

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based quantitative proteomics has become increasingly applied for a broad range of biological applications due to growing capabilities for broad proteome coverage and good accuracy in quantification. Herein, we review the current LC-MS-based quantification methods with respect to their advantages and limitations, and highlight their potential applications.

  20. Quantification of Tea Flavonoids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jessica D.; Niemeyer, Emily D.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify flavonoid levels in a variety of commercial teas. Specifically, this experiment analyzes a group of flavonoids known as catechins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds commonly found in many foods and beverages, including green and black…

  1. Mallow carotenoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mallow (corchorus olitorius) is a green vegetable, which is widely consumed either fresh or dry by Middle East population. This study was carried out to determine the contents of major carotenoids quantitatively in mallow, by using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a Bis...

  2. Quantification of Tea Flavonoids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jessica D.; Niemeyer, Emily D.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify flavonoid levels in a variety of commercial teas. Specifically, this experiment analyzes a group of flavonoids known as catechins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds commonly found in many foods and beverages, including green and black…

  3. LCEC: The Combination of Liquid Chromatography and Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Peter T.

    1983-01-01

    Use of combined liquid chromatography and finite-current electrochemistry (LCEC) procedures are discussed. Also discusses the relationship between electroactivity and molecular structure, selectivity in LCEC, and LCEC applications. Because of its selectivity and low detection limits, the procedures are most often applied in biomedical and…

  4. Quantitative determination of phenol by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Musto, J D; Sane, J N; Warner, V D

    1977-08-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography was used with a 5-micrometer silica gel column to quantitate the phenol in phenolated calamine lotion USP and a commercial antiseptic solution. This method requires less than 10 min/assay, and other compounds present in the products analyzed did not interfere.

  5. An Inexpensive Liquid Chromatography Apparatus for Undergraduate Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamish, Malcolm; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, low-pressure liquid chromatography pump, slurry filler, stainless steel columns, and injector system suitable for the undergraduate laboratory or routine analysis. Includes sectional diagram of the pump and construction diagram of the preparative columns. (Author/SK)

  6. Multichannel Detection in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A linear photodiode array is used as the photodetector element in a new ultraviolet-visible detection system for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using a computer network, the system processes eight different chromatographic signals simultaneously in real-time and acquires spectra manually/automatically. Applications in fast HPLC…

  7. Multichannel Detection in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A linear photodiode array is used as the photodetector element in a new ultraviolet-visible detection system for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using a computer network, the system processes eight different chromatographic signals simultaneously in real-time and acquires spectra manually/automatically. Applications in fast HPLC…

  8. Determination of Caffeine in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNunzio, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the equipment, procedures, and results for the determination of caffeine in beverages by high performance liquid chromatography. The method is simple, fast, accurate, and, because sample preparation is minimal, it is well suited for use in a teaching laboratory. (JN)

  9. Assay of aspartylglycosylaminase by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, V; Mononen, I

    1990-10-01

    An aspartylglycosylaminase assay based on high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the substrate aspartylglucosamine and product aspartate is described. Aspartylglucosamine and aspartate are derivatized with phenylisothiocyanate and resolved by reverse-phase chromatography. The detection limit for the compounds is 2 pmol. The method can be used for analysis of aspartylglycosylaminase activity in crude cell extracts and tissue samples.

  10. Purification of porcine proinsulin by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Parman, A U; Rideout, J M

    1983-02-04

    A procedure has been developed for purification of porcine proinsulin by high-performance liquid chromatography from a preparation obtained as a side product during the Sephadex G-50 gel filtration of an impure porcine insulin preparation. Reversed-phase chromatography was carried out on octadecylsilica as the stationary phase with graded mixtures of acetonitrile or methanol-acetonitrile and phosphate buffer pH 2.4 as the mobile phase. The crude preparation separated into five different groups of proteins, the proinsulin-containing peak being identified by the co-eluting internal proinsulin marker. After purification by conventional procedures (separation, pooling, freeze drying, desalting, reprecipitation and drying) this peak fraction was rechromatographed by high-performance liquid chromatography (for final purification) to give a single peak protein which had identical electrophoretic mobility to that of commercial porcine proinsulin, and which converted to a protein with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of porcine insulin.

  11. Neuere Chromatographie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostettmann, K.

    1983-04-01

    Besides high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which is now a well-established and currently used technique, several emerging methods for the isolation and separation of natural products are receiving considerable attention. Centrifugal thin-layer chromatography is a very rapid technique, but limited in resolution. Of special interest are the recently developed support-free liquid-liquid chromatography methods such as droplet counter-current chromatography (DCCC) and rotation locular counter-current chromatography (RLCC). This latter method was applied to the separation of the enantiomers of (±)-norephedrine.

  12. Analysis of Whiskey by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry: An Upper Division Analytical Chemistry Experiment Guided by Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Janel E.; Zimmerman, Laura B.; Gardner, Michael A.; Lowe, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of whiskey samples prepared by a green microextraction technique, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), before analysis by a qualitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method, is described as a laboratory experiment for an upper division instrumental methods of analysis laboratory course. Here, aroma compounds in…

  13. Analysis of Whiskey by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry: An Upper Division Analytical Chemistry Experiment Guided by Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Janel E.; Zimmerman, Laura B.; Gardner, Michael A.; Lowe, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of whiskey samples prepared by a green microextraction technique, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), before analysis by a qualitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method, is described as a laboratory experiment for an upper division instrumental methods of analysis laboratory course. Here, aroma compounds in…

  14. Analysis of Free Fatty Acids on the Fingertips by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-20

    This investigation studied the efficiency of high performance liquid chromatography in the determination of free fatty acids present on the...utilized to eliminate the microbial contamination. The high performance liquid chromatography provided excellent separation of skin fatty acids for

  15. Harmonization of the quantitative determination of volatile fatty acids profile in aqueous matrix samples by direct injection using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques: Multi-laboratory validation study.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael; Cacho, Jesús A; Mumme, Jan; Mohedano, Ángel F; Battimelli, Audrey; Bolzonella, David; Schuit, Anthony D; Noguerol-Arias, Joan; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Peñuela, Gustavo A; Muehlenberg, Jana; Sambusiti, Cecilia

    2015-09-25

    The performance parameters of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) measurements were assessed for the first time by a multi-laboratory validation study among 13 laboratories. Two chromatographic techniques (GC and HPLC) and two quantification methods such as external and internal standard (ESTD/ISTD) were combined in three different methodologies GC/ESTD, HPLC/ESTD and GC/ISTD. Linearity evaluation of the calibration functions in a wide concentration range (10-1000mg/L) was carried out using different statistical parameters for the goodness of fit. Both chromatographic techniques were considered similarly accurate. The use of GC/ISTD, despite showing similar analytical performance to the other methodologies, can be considered useful for the harmonization of VFAs analytical methodology taking into account the normalization of slope values used for the calculation of VFAs concentrations. Acceptance criteria for VFAs performance parameters of the multi-laboratory validation study should be established as follows: (1) instrument precision (RSDINST≤1.5%); (2) linearity (R(2)≥0.998; RSDSENSITIVITY≤4%; REMAX≤8%; REAVER≤ 3%); (3) precision (RSD≤1.5%); (4) trueness (recovery of 97-103%); (5) LOD (≤3mg/L); and (6) LOQ (10mg/L).

  16. Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

  17. Separation of parent homopolymers from polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene triblock copolymers by means of liquid chromatography: 1. comparison of different methods.

    PubMed

    Rollet, Marion; Pelletier, Bérengère; Altounian, Anaïs; Berek, Dusan; Maria, Sébastien; Beaudoin, Emmanuel; Gigmes, Didier

    2014-03-04

    Separation of parent homopolymers, polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide), from the triblock copolymer polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene was investigated by means of liquid chromatography techniques. Overall suitability was evaluated and compared for size exclusion chromatography, (SEC), liquid chromatography under critical conditions of enthalpic interactions (LC CC), and liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of desorption (LC LCD). Among these techniques, LC LCD was the only one able to fully separate block copolymers from both their parent homopolymers in one single run. The efficiency of the separation was proven by (1)H NMR analysis of previously collected fractions.

  18. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds from a...

  19. 21 CFR 862.2260 - High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High pressure liquid chromatography system for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2260 High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A high pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2260 - High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High pressure liquid chromatography system for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2260 High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A high pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds from a...

  2. 21 CFR 862.2260 - High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High pressure liquid chromatography system for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2260 High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A high pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate...

  3. Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY N"m A.R. TURNER AND A. WHITE...TO biEPROOU.; AND SELL THIS REPORT Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography A.R...8217/......... .. Availability Cooes Dist Avaiardlo A-i Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  4. Strategies for metabolite profiling based on liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Saurina, Javier; Sentellas, Sonia

    2017-02-15

    This paper aims at covering the principal strategies based on liquid chromatography (LC) for metabolite profiling in the field of drug discovery and development. The identification of metabolites generated in the organism is an important task during the early stages of preclinical research to define the most proper strategy for optimizing, adjusting metabolic clearance and minimizing bioactivation. An early assessment of the metabolite profile may be critical since metabolites can contribute to pharmacological and/or toxicological effects. The study of metabolites first involves their synthesis/generation and their further characterization and structural elucidation. For such a purpose, both in vitro and in vivo methods are commonly used for the generation of the corresponding metabolites. Next, analytical methods are used to tackle identification and characterization studies. Among the arsenal of techniques available in our labs, we will focus on LC, especially coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), as one of the most powerful approaches for metabolite identification, characterization and quantification. Here, the topic of metabolite profiling based on LC will be addressed and representative examples of different possibilities will be discussed.

  5. A Fiber Optic Colorimeter For Liquid Phase Chromatography Of Aminoacids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, S.; Tambosso, T.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid phase chromatography is a well known technique routinely used in analytical chemistry for assays and measurements of aminoacids 1,2. Basically, the solution is pumped at high pressure in a long capillary tube (the chromatographic column) to fraction out the constituents, is mixed to a suitable reactant (usually ninhydrine) so as to develop a spectral absorbance, and is finally analyzed in a flow cell by a colorimeter. With ninhydrine, the reaction product is DIDA (diketo-hydrindilidene-diketolhydrin diamine) which exhibits absorbance peaks at 440 nm (blue) and 570 nm (yellow) in a proportion dependent on the specific aminoacid (Fig. 1), while the amplitude of peaks is proportional to the aminoacid concentration in view of Lambert-Beer law. Besides the two measurement channels of absorbance, either of which or the sum of which is taken as the output signal, a third channel at the wavelength 690 nm at which DIDA is transparent (Ar = 0), is used internally as the reference to the first two. Thus, the colorimeter is actually a spectrophotometer with two fixed-wavelength channels, each referenced in wavelength. In this paper, we report on the design and engineering of a colorimeter aimed to medium/high performances, high reliability and low cost. Use of fiber optics as the beamsplitter of the optical channels is shown to give substantial advantages.

  6. Optimizing heterosurface adsorbent synthesis for liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoslovskii, S. Yu.; Serdan, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural and geometric parameters of a silica matrix (SM) for the synthesis of heterosurface adsorbents (HAs) are optimized. Modification is performed by shielding the external surfaces of alkyl-modified silica (AS) using human serum albumin and its subsequent crosslinking. The structural and geometric characteristics of the SM, AS, and HA are measured via low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. It is found that the structural characteristics of AS pores with diameters D < 6 nm do not change during HA synthesis, while the volume of pores with diameters of 6 nm < D < 9 nm shrinks slightly due to the adsorption of albumin in the pore orifices. It is established that the volume of pores with diameters D > 9 nm reduces significantly due to adsorption of albumin. It is concluded that silica gel with a maximum pore size distribution close to 5 nm and a minimal proportion of pores with D > 9 nm is optimal for HA synthesis; this allows us to achieve the greatest similarity between the chromatographic retention parameters for HA and AS. The suitability of the synthesized adsorbents for analyzing drugs in biological fluids through direct sample injection is confirmed by chromatography. It was found that the percentage of the protein fraction detected at the outlet of the chromatographic column is 98%.

  7. The analysis of aqueous mixtures using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Steven

    1999-02-12

    The focus of this dissertation is the use of chromatographic methods coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) for the determination of both organic and inorganic compounds in aqueous solutions. The combination of liquid chromatography (LC) methods and ES-MS offers one of the foremost methods for determining compounds in complex aqueous solutions. In this work, LC-ES-MS methods are devised using ion exclusion chromatography, reversed phase chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, as well as capillary electrophoresis (CE). For an aqueous sample, these LC-ES-MS and CE-ES-MS techniques require no sample preparation or analyte derivatization, which makes it possible to observe a wide variety of analytes as they exist in solution. The majority of this work focuses on the use of LC-ES-MS for the determination of unknown products and intermediates formed during electrochemical incineration (ECI), an experimental waste remediation process. This report contains a general introduction to the project and the general conclusions. Four chapters have been removed for separate processing. Titles are: Chapter 2: Determination of small carboxylic acids by ion exclusion chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometry; Chapter 3: Electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone in aqueous media using a quaternary metal oxide electrode in the absence of a soluble supporting electrolyte; Chapter 4: The determination of electrochemical incineration products of 4-chlorophenol by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry; and Chapter 5: Determination of small carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray mass spectrometry.

  8. Evaluation of the rotating disk sorptive extraction technique with polymeric sorbent for multiresidue determination of pesticides in water by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Donato, Filipe F; Bandeira, Nelson M G; Dos Santos, Gabriel C; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2017-09-22

    The use of pesticides has been associated with the increase of productivity of crops and control of vectors that cause diseases. However, excessive use of these compounds can cause human health and environmental problems, especially regarding to water resources. In this work, a method for multiresidue determination of 62 pesticides in surface water using the rotating disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) technique for sample preparation and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for analysis was optimized and validated. The parameters time and rotational disk velocity for the extraction step, types and amounts of sorbents, sample pH, ionic strength, time and velocity of the rotating disk in the desorption step, as well different desorption solvents were evaluated. The best results were obtained using 50mL of sample, acidified at pH 2.0, and 2.5g of sodium chloride. The selected velocity of rotation in the extraction step was 1600rpm for 80min. Inside the disk cavity, a small amount (20mg) of the polymeric sorbent Oasis(®) HLB was used. The desorption step was performed immerging the disk in 3mL of methanol and rotating the disk at 1600rpm for 60min. Procedural calibration curves showed linearity between 0.05 or 0.1-2μgL(-1), with r(2)>0.99 for all compounds. The method presented practical limit of quantification of 0.05 or 0.1μgL(-1) and suitable accuracy and precision, with recoveries from 70.1 to 119.9% and RSD≤20% for the levels 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 2μgL(-1). The validated method was applied to surface water samples from different river and residues of atrazine, azoxystrobin, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, propoxur, simazine and tebuconazole were found in the range of 0.06-0.35μgL(-1). The results indicate that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of pesticide residues in surface water, allowing an easy and simultaneously preparation of several samples with low material consumption

  9. Determination of febuxostat in human plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lukram, Ojikumar; Parmar, Shivaji; Hande, Amit

    2013-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the determination of febuxostat in human plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used for the extraction of febuxostat from human plasma using trandolapril as the internal standard (IS). Chromatography was performed on a ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) BEH C18, 50 mm X 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm particle size column, with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (in a 25:75 ratio), followed by detection using mass spectrometry. The method involves a simple reversed isocratic chromatography condition and mass spectrometry detection, which enables detection at sub-microgram levels. The method was validated and the lower limit of quantification for febuxostat was found to be 0.075 µg/ml. The mean recovery for febuxostat ranged from 100.9 to 106.5%. This method increased the sensitivity and selectivity; resulting in high-throughput analysis of febuxostat using commercially available IS for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, and bioequivalence studies, with a chromatographic run time of 1.5 min only. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Amino acids as chiral selectors in enantioresolution by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Ravi; Dixit, Shuchi

    2012-08-01

    Amino acids are unique in terms of their structural features and multidimensional uses. With their simple structures and the ready availability of both enantiomers, amino acids not only serve as a chiral pool for synthesis but also provide an inexpensive pool for resolution studies. There has been no attempt to review the application of amino acids as chiral selectors for chromatographic enantioresolution of pharmaceuticals and other compounds. The present paper deals with application of l-amino acids and complexes of l-amino acids with a metal ion, particularly Cu(II), as an impregnating reagent in thin-layer chromatography or as a chiral ligand exchange reagent or a chiral mobile phase additive in both thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Enantiomeric resolution of β-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, amino acids (and their derivatives) and certain other compounds is discussed.

  11. Standard Flow Liquid Chromatography for Shotgun Proteomics in Bioenergy Research

    PubMed Central

    González Fernández-Niño, Susana M.; Smith-Moritz, A. Michelle; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Adams, Paul D.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Petzold, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the bioenergy field has realized significant achievements that have encouraged many follow on efforts centered on biosynthetic production of fuel-like compounds. Key to the success of these efforts has been transformational developments in feedstock characterization and metabolic engineering of biofuel-producing microbes. Lagging far behind these advancements are analytical methods to characterize and quantify systems of interest to the bioenergy field. In particular, the utilization of proteomics, while valuable for identifying novel enzymes and diagnosing problems associated with biofuel-producing microbes, is limited by a lack of robustness and limited throughput. Nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled to high-mass accuracy, high-resolution mass spectrometers has become the dominant approach for the analysis of complex proteomic samples, yet such assays still require dedicated experts for data acquisition, analysis, and instrument upkeep. The recent adoption of standard flow chromatography (ca. 0.5 mL/min) for targeted proteomics has highlighted the robust nature and increased throughput of this approach for sample analysis. Consequently, we assessed the applicability of standard flow liquid chromatography for shotgun proteomics using samples from Escherichia coli and Arabidopsis thaliana, organisms commonly used as model systems for lignocellulosic biofuels research. Employing 120 min gradients with standard flow chromatography, we were able to routinely identify nearly 800 proteins from E. coli samples; while for samples from Arabidopsis, over 1,000 proteins could be reliably identified. An examination of identified peptides indicated that the method was suitable for reproducible applications in shotgun proteomics. Standard flow liquid chromatography for shotgun proteomics provides a robust approach for the analysis of complex samples. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to validate the standard

  12. Evaluation of surface excess isotherms in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vajda, Péter; Felinger, Attila; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-05-24

    Methods are proposed to calculate surface excess isotherms and to use them to derive adsorption isotherms in liquid chromatography. The consequences of these methods are discussed. The excess isotherm of isopropyl alcohol from its aqueous solutions on a C18 adsorbent was obtained using the minor disturbance method. The slope of the inflection tangent of the excess isotherm provides the position of the plane separating the adsorbed layer and the bulk phase, from which the adsorption isotherm was derived. At low concentrations of isopropyl alcohol, frontal analysis was used to derive the adsorption isotherm on the same adsorbent using an independent method. The isotherm was thus derived from both frontal analysis data and the minor disturbance method. The results obtained are compared. Our results show that the use of the same concentration unit for the calculation and the representation of the data is the only correct way to calculate the excess isotherms in practical applications of liquid chromatography.

  13. Analysis of selected ionic liquid cations by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stepnowski, Piotr; Mrozik, Wojciech

    2005-02-01

    The chromatographic behavior of 8 ionic liquids - 7 homologues of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium - has been investigated with a strong cation exchange adsorbent. In particular, the dependence of the retention properties of these solutes on mobile phase composition, pH, and buffer concentration was evaluated with the aim of optimizing and improving the selectivity and retention of solute separation. While using the SCX stationary phase, several interactions occurred with varying strengths, depending on the mobile phase composition. Cation exchange, nonspecific hydrophobic interactions, and adsorption chromatography behavior were observed. Reversed phase chromatography occurred at low concentrations of acetonitrile, electrostatic and adsorption interactions at higher organic modifier concentrations. Elevated buffer concentrations lowered the retention factors without affecting the selectivity of ionic liquids. Obtained results were further compared to the chromatographic behaviour of ionic liquids in the reversed phase system. All analyzed ionic liquids follow reversed-phase behavior while being separated. Much lower selectivity in the range of highly hydrophilic compounds is obtained. This suggests preferred use of ion chromatography for separation and analysis of compounds below 4 carbon atoms in the alkyl side chain.

  14. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid... pressure. The device may include accessories such as columns, gases, column supports, and liquid...

  15. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid... pressure. The device may include accessories such as columns, gases, column supports, and liquid...

  16. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid... pressure. The device may include accessories such as columns, gases, column supports, and liquid...

  17. Principles and Applications of Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, James J

    2009-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is now a routine technique with the development of electrospray ionisation (ESI) providing a simple and robust interface. It can be applied to a wide range of biological molecules and the use of tandem MS and stable isotope internal standards allows highly sensitive and accurate assays to be developed although some method optimisation is required to minimise ion suppression effects. Fast scanning speeds allow a high degree of multiplexing and many compounds can be measured in a single analytical run. With the development of more affordable and reliable instruments, LC-MS is starting to play an important role in several areas of clinical biochemistry and compete with conventional liquid chromatography and other techniques such as immunoassay. PMID:19224008

  18. Determination of aminocresol isomers by high-speed liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, H; Kito, M

    Aminocresol isomers (4-hydroxy-m-toluidine [II], 3-hydroxy-p-toluidine [II], 2-hydroxy-p-toluidine [III]) and p-aminophenol have been separated and determined by a high-speed liquid Chromatographie method. Since this method is applicable in aqueous media, it was used to investigate the suitability of a haemin-cysteine system as a model for the cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase system, by determination of the [I], [II], [III] and p-aminophenol formed.

  19. Determination of serotonin released from coffee wax by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kele, M; Ohmacht, R

    1996-04-12

    A simple hydrolysis and extraction method was developed for the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) from a coffee wax sample obtained from decaffeination of coffee beans. The recoverable amount of serotonin was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with gradient elution and UV detection, using the standard addition method. Different type of basic deactivated chromatographic columns were used for the separation.

  20. Analysis of chemically synthesized oleoylethanolamide by gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thabuis, Clémentine; Tissot-Favre, Delphine; Bezelgues, Jean-Baptiste; Martin, Jean-Charles; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Dionisi, Fabiola; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2008-08-22

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is known to potentially have beneficial biological effects on weight management by controlling food intake and activating lipid catabolism. In biological fluids, OEA and other endogenously biosynthesized fatty acid ethanolamides are usually analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The present study provides analytical method to routinely assess the quality of OEA prepared for biological studies by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The preparation of OEA for biomedical studies can be performed by N-acylation of oleic acid/esters or using oleoyl chloride. In the present study, OEA was prepared by transamidation of triolein. The analysis of the synthesized OEA has been performed by gas-liquid chromatography of its trimethylsilyl ether (TMS) derivatives. Free OEA cannot be analyzed as such because dehydration of the ethanolamide moiety promptly happens in the GLC injection. This thermal degradation reaction gives rise to the formation of an oxazoline derivative. The TMS moiety prevents the reaction, and the structure of the formed derivative was assessed by mass spectrometry. We show here that OEA prepared for biological studies can be routinely analyzed by GLC after TMS derivative preparation.

  1. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Define Sortase Cleavage Products.

    PubMed

    Duong, Andrew; Koteva, Kalinka; Sexton, Danielle L; Elliot, Marie A

    2016-01-01

    Sortase enzymes have specific endopeptidase activity, cleaving within a defined pentapeptide sequence at the C-terminal end of their protein substrates. Here, we describe how monitoring sortase cleavage activity can be achieved using peptide substrates. Peptide cleavage can be readily analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), which allows for the precise definition of cleavage sites. This technique could be used to analyze the peptidase activity of any enzyme, and identify sites of cleavage within any peptide.

  2. RECENT ADVANCES IN ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huilian; Liu, Min; Chen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities. This paper reviews recent developments in UHPLC in the separation and identification, fingerprinting, quantification, and metabolism of traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, the combination of UHPLC with MS has improved the efficiency of the analysis of these materials. PMID:25045170

  3. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  4. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  5. Liquid to liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of hainanmycin in feed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze Ping; Shen, Jian Zhong; Linhardt, Robert J; Jiang, Hui; Cheng, Lin Li

    2017-03-01

    Hainanmycin is a new veterinary polyether antibiotic and has few sensitive analytical method in present days. In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) relying on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection was developed for analysis of hainanmycin in animal feed. Feed samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and purified by two steps of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) to get rid of water solvable matrix and lipids one by one. The final simple was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The LC mobile phase was composed of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and 0.1% formic acidified acetonitrile by gradient elution. Average recoveries ranged from 74.22% to 87.85%, as determined by spiking with 2.0 (LOQ) ∼2500μgkg(-1) of hainanmycin. The inter-day and intra-day coefficient of variation was 9.21% to 11.77% and 7.67% to 13.49%, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.36μgkg(-1) and 2.0μgkg(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Thermal expansion pump for capillary high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qian; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2010-02-01

    A thermal expansion pump (TEP) based on a principle of liquid thermal expansion for capillary high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. The novel pump is capable of generating a continuous flow at high pressure for constant and stable delivery of binary solvents from nanoliters to microliters per minute without splitting. Theoretical equations for controlling fluidic output of this pump have been established and validated by a series of experiments. Factors affecting flow rate, such as density discrepancy, liquid compressibility, and mass loss in output, were taken into account. An assembly of the pump system employing two groups of thermal expansion pumps (TEPs) working in turns were fabricated, and a controlling strategy for the pump system to maintain a continuous delivery without pressure fluctuation even at switching points was also developed. Both isocratic and gradients of binary solvent delivery by the TEPs were performed. Reproducibility and standard deviation at different flow rates were determined. A capillary high-performance liquid chromatography (micro-HPLC) system consisting of the TEPs, an injection valve, a homemade packed capillary column (20 cm x 100 microm i.d. with 5 microm C18), and a laser-induced fluorescence detector was set up, and sample separations were carried out. Results of RSD = 4% for flow and RSD = 2% for retention times at 500 nL/min were achieved. Such a pump system has almost no moving parts except for the solvent switches. Its overall costs of manufacture and running are very low. It is proven that the TEPs system has great potential and competitive capabilities in capillary liquid chromatography.

  7. Liquid crystal quantitative temperature measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Wu, Zongshan

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative temperature measurement using wide band thermochromic liquid crystals is an “area” thermal measurement technique. This technique utilizes the feature that liquid crystal changes its reflex light color with variation of temperature and applies an image capturing and processing system to calibrate the characteristic curve of liquid crystal’s color-temperature. Afterwards, the technique uses this curve to measure the distribution of temperature on experimental model. In this paper, firstly, each part of quantitative temperature measurement system using liquid crystal is illustrated and discussed. Then the technique is employed in a long duration hypersonic wind tunnel, and the quantitative result of the heat transfer coefficient along laminar plate is obtained. Additionally, some qualitative results are also given. In the end, comparing the experimental results with reference enthalpy theoretical results, a conclusion of thermal measurement accuracy is drawn.

  8. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography: ion chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for separation of low-molar-mass organic acids.

    PubMed

    Brudin, Stella S; Shellie, Robert A; Haddad, Paul R; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2010-10-22

    In the work presented here a novel approach to comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography is evaluated. Ion chromatography is chosen for the first-dimension separation and reversed-phase liquid chromatography is chosen for the second-dimension separation mode. The coupling of these modes is made possible by neutralising the first-dimension effluent, containing KOH, prior to transfer to the second-dimension reversed-phase column. A test mixture of 24 low-molar-mass organic acids is used for optimisation of the system. Three food and beverage samples were analysed in order to evaluate the developed methodology, the resulting two-dimensional separation is near-orthogonal, the set-up is simple and all instrumental components are available commercially. The method proved to be robust and suitable for the analysis of wine, orange juice and yogurt.

  9. A solid phase microextraction coating based on ionic liquid sol-gel technique for determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene in water samples using gas chromatography flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ali; Vatani, Hossein

    2013-07-26

    Ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbents for head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) were developed for the extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene (BTEX) compounds from water samples in ultra-trace levels. The analytes were subsequently analyzed with gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Three different coating fibers were prepared including: poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), coating prepared from poly(dimethylsiloxane) in the presence of ionic liquid as co-solvent and conditioned at a higher temperature than decomposition temperature of ionic liquid (PDMS-IL-HT) and coating prepared from poly(dimethylsiloxane) in the presence of ionic liquid as co-solvent and conditioned at a lower temperature than decomposition temperature of ionic liquid (PDMS-IL-LT). Prepared fibers demonstrate many advantages such as high thermal and chemical stabilities due to the chemical bonding of the coatings with the silanol groups on the fused-silica surface fiber. These fibers have shown long life time up to 180 extractions. The scanning electron micrographs of the fibers surfaces revealed that addition of ionic liquid into the sol solution during the sol-gel process increases the fiber coating thickness, affects the form of fiber structure and also leaves high pores in the fiber surface that cause high surface area and therefore increases sample capacity of the fibers. The important parameters that affect the extraction efficiency are desorption temperature and time, sample volume, extraction temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salt effect. Therefore these factors were investigated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the dynamic linear range with PDMS-IL-HT, PDMS and PDMS-IL-LT fibers were 0.3-200,000; 50-200,000 and 170-150,000pgmL(-1) and the detection limits (S/N=3) were 0.1-2 and 15-200 and 50-500pgmL(-1), and limit of quantifications (S/N=10) were 0.3-8 and 50-700 and 170-1800, respectively. The relative

  10. Electrically assisted capillary liquid chromatography using a silica monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Bergström, Edmund T; Goodall, David M

    2010-04-09

    A silica monolithic capillary column was linked to an open capillary of the same internal diameter via a Teflon sleeve to form a duplex column to investigate the combination of chromatography and electrophoresis in the mode of electrically assisted capillary liquid chromatography (eCLC). Using a commercial CE instrument with an 8.5 cm long, 100 microm i.d. reversed phase silica monolithic section and a window 1.5 cm beyond the end of this in a 21.5 cm open section, a minimum plate height of 9 microm was obtained in capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) mode at a low driving pressure of 50 psi. In eCLC mode, high speed and high resolution separations of acidic and basic compounds were achieved with selectivity tuning based on the flexible combination of pressure (0-100 psi) and voltage. Taking advantage of the excellent permeability of silica monolithic columns, use of a step flow gradient enabled elution of compounds with different charge state. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ortiz, A; Salcedo, J; Barile, D; Bunyatratchata, A; Moreno, F J; Martin-García, I; Clemente, A; Sanz, M L; Ruiz-Matute, A I

    2016-01-08

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2-0.6min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8-1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40°C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315mgL(-1) for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251mgL(-1) for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO.

  12. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Ortiz, A.; Salcedo, J.; Barile, D.; Bunyatratchata, A.; Moreno, F.J.; Martin-García, I.; Clemente, A.; Sanz, M.L.; Ruiz-Matute, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2–0.6 min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8–1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40 °C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315 mg L−1 for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251 mg L−1 for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO. PMID:26427327

  13. A study of some practical aspects of high temperature liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Berta, Renáta; Babják, Mónika; Gazdag, Mária

    2011-02-20

    In the pharmaceutical industry fast and efficient separation techniques play an increasing role among analytical methods because the samples to be investigated grow both in complexity and number, and there is an increasing time pressure to complete the analysis. Reducing the analysis time without decreasing the efficiency is possible using higher pressures, elevated temperatures, smaller particle sizes, or a combination of these approaches. Recently developed chromatographic techniques such as the UHPLC (ultra high performance liquid chromatography) and HTLC (high temperature liquid chromatography) are highly promising in meeting these demands. In this study, high temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC) with a zirconia-based column and temperatures elevated up to 150°C was used. We investigated the chromatographic behaviour of a steroid active pharmaceutical ingredient (levonorgestrel) and its structurally related impurities as model compounds. The effect of the temperature in the range of 50-150°C and the flow-rate in the range of 0.5-3.0 ml/min, and using methanol as an organic modifier, were studied for optimisation of the separation method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies improving dried blood spot analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ramisetti Nageswara

    2014-08-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS), a micro blood sampling technique, has recently gained interest in drug discovery and development due to its inherent advantages over the conventional whole blood, plasma or serum sample collection. Since the regulatory authorities have agreed to the use of blood as an acceptable biological matrix for drug exposure measurements, its applications have been extended not only to therapeutic drug monitoring but also to toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic studies. The pharmaceutical industry is keen to promote DBS as a prominent tool in bioanalytical applications due to the financial, ethical and organizational issues involved in clinical trials. This could be accomplished due to the latest advances in modern analytical technology, particularly liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present review discusses some of the emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies in improving DBS analysis for its innovative applications in the development of new drugs.

  15. [Measurement of proinsulin, insulin and C-peptide in human blood by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Povazhenko, A A; Ryzhova, T I; Kozyreva, E V

    1997-09-01

    The technique of measuring insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide in human blood by high-pressure liquid chromatography is described. Donors, subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance, and patients with type I diabetes were examined. The main advantage of the method over radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay is the possibility of simultaneous differentiated measurement of human insulin and animal hormone administered parenterally, and separation of insulin and its precursor on the basis of difference in molecular weight and charge of molecules. The results indicate that patients with type I diabetes retain the secretion of endogenous insulin, although its level is appreciably lower than in healthy donors, and the structure of its molecules is heterogeneous, which is proven by a biphasic chromatographic peak. Inhibition of proinsulin transformation into insulin is one probable mechanism of impairment of glucose tolerance. High-pressure liquid chromatography can be used at clinical laboratories for examinations of diabetics.

  16. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography: fundamental aspects of compression and decompression heating.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, R K; Zhou, W

    2008-03-01

    Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography is an emerging technique for carrying out rapid and highly efficient separations. Unfortunately, one of the simplifying assumptions made in conventional high-performance liquid chromatography, incompressibility of the mobile phase, is not valid when higher and higher pressures are used. Rather, both compression and decompression of the eluent must be considered in terms of both heating and changes in the solvent's structure. The first of these problems, eluent heating during the compression and decompression cycles, which occurs in the pump and column, respectively, are considered in terms of a combined first principle-empirical approach that is solved (i.e., an analytic solution obtained from the resulting integral equation) using 0.01 Bar pressure steps. The approach is used to estimate compression and decompression heating for methanol and water.

  17. Analysis of macrolide antibiotics, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in food, biological and environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Macrolides are a group of antibiotics that have been widely used in human medical and veterinary practices. Analysis of macrolides and related compounds in food, biological, and environmental matrices continue to be the focus of scientists for the reasons of food safety, pharmacokinetic studies, and environmental concerns. This article presents an overview on the primary biological properties of macrolides and their associated analytical issues, including extraction, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), method validation, and measurement uncertainty. The main techniques that have been used to extract macrolides from various matrices are solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Conventional liquid chromatography (LC) with C18 columns plays a dominant role for the determination of macrolides, whereas ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) along with sub-2 microm particle C18 columns reduces run time and improves sensitivity. Mass spectrometry (MS), serving as a universal detection technique, has replaced ultraviolet (UV), fluorometric, and electrochemical detection for multi-macrolide analysis. The triple-quadrupole (QqQ), quadrupole ion trap (QIT), triple-quadrupole linear ion trap, time-of-flight (TOF), and quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometers are current choices for the determination of macrolides, including quantification, confirmation, identification of their degradation products or metabolites, and structural elucidation. LC or UPLC coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode (LC/MS/MS) is the first choice for quantification. UPLC-TOF or UPLC-QqTOF has been recognized as an emerging technique for accurate mass measurement and unequivocal identification of macrolides and their related compounds.

  18. Overview of online two-dimensional liquid chromatography based on cell membrane chromatography for screening target components from traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Saqib; Han, Shengli; Xie, Xiaoyu; Wang, Sicen; Aziz, Muhammad Majid

    2017-01-01

    Cell membrane chromatography is a simple, specific, and time-saving technique for studying drug-receptor interactions, screening of active components from complex mixtures, and quality control of traditional Chinese medicines. However, the short column life, low sensitivity, low column efficiency (so cannot resolve satisfactorily mixture of compounds), low peak capacity, and inefficient in structure identification were bottleneck in its application. Combinations of cell membrane chromatography with multidimensional chromatography such as two-dimensional liquid chromatography and high sensitivity detectors like mass have significantly reduced many of the above-mentioned shortcomings. This paper provides an overview of the current advances in online two-dimensional-based cell membrane chromatography for screening target components from traditional Chinese medicines with particular emphasis on the instrumentation, preparation of cell membrane stationary phase, advantages, and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches. The last section of the review summarizes the applications of the online two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography based cell membrane chromatography reported since its emergence to date (2010-June 2016).

  19. Ionic liquid-based air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of five fungicides in juice samples.

    PubMed

    You, Xiangwei; Chen, Xiaochu; Liu, Fengmao; Hou, Fan; Li, Yiqiang

    2018-01-15

    A novel and simple ionic liquid-based air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction technique combined with high performance liquid chromatography was developed to analyze five fungicides in juice samples. In this method, ionic liquid was used instead of a volatile organic solvent as the extraction solvent. The emulsion was formed by pulling in and pushing out the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent repeatedly using a 10mL glass syringe. No organic dispersive solvent was required. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were 0.4-1.8μgL(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The limits of quantification (LOQs) set as the lowest spiking levels with acceptable recovery in juices were 10μgL(-1), except for fludioxonil whose LOQ was 20μgL(-1). The proposed method was applied to determine the target fungicides in juice samples, and acceptable recoveries ranging from 74.9% to 115.4% were achieved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. MEMS Liquid and Gas Chromatography for Miniaturized Planetary In Situ Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, R. D.; Bae, B.; Willis, P. A.; Noell, A. C.; Scianmarello, N.; Tai, Y.-C.

    2016-10-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology to reduce the size, mass and power of the three classical chromatographic technologies: gas chromatography (GC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  1. Purification of pituitary autoantigen by column liquid chromatography and chromatofocusing

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Jakub; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Bączyk, Maciej; Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pituitary autoantibodies can be determined both in patients with pituitary disease as well as patients with autoimmune endocrine diseases. The purpose of the study was to isolate and purify pituitary autoantigen using sera of patients and the microsomal fraction of the pituitary. Material and methods To isolate a pituitary autoantigen, patient sera were used, which showed a strong immune response to pituitary antigens. Pituitary microsomal fractions were prepared from pituitary tissue homogenates. In the study, sera of patients with pituitary disease, Addison and Graves’ disease were used. The initial stages were carried out by affinity chromatography on CN -Br sepharose column whereas purification was continued by column liquid chromatography on AcA54 Ultrogel. Chromatofocusing was performed by Polybuffer exchanger PBE 94. Results 125I-labeled pituitary antigens after isolation appeared in column chromatography in three peaks. The first peak contained 50-70 kDa proteins, the second peak – 17 to 22 kDa proteins and the third peak contains 125-iodides. Three fractions obtained from filtration on Ultrogel were separated in a polyacrylamide gel. In the first peak two bands 67 and 55 kDa appeared. The second peak contained low molecular weight substances, and the third peak contained 125I. The first peak from Ultrogel was isolated by chromatofocusing – the first peak with pH 5.9 and the second one with pH 4.9. Conclusions Isolation and purification of pituitary autoantigen with the use of column liquid chromatography and chromatofocusing resulted in obtainment of two antigenic proteins of specific gravity of 67 and 55 kDa. PMID:26155099

  2. Purification of pituitary autoantigen by column liquid chromatography and chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Gut, Paweł; Fischbach, Jakub; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Bączyk, Maciej; Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary autoantibodies can be determined both in patients with pituitary disease as well as patients with autoimmune endocrine diseases. The purpose of the study was to isolate and purify pituitary autoantigen using sera of patients and the microsomal fraction of the pituitary. To isolate a pituitary autoantigen, patient sera were used, which showed a strong immune response to pituitary antigens. Pituitary microsomal fractions were prepared from pituitary tissue homogenates. In the study, sera of patients with pituitary disease, Addison and Graves' disease were used. The initial stages were carried out by affinity chromatography on CN -Br sepharose column whereas purification was continued by column liquid chromatography on AcA54 Ultrogel. Chromatofocusing was performed by Polybuffer exchanger PBE 94. (125)I-labeled pituitary antigens after isolation appeared in column chromatography in three peaks. The first peak contained 50-70 kDa proteins, the second peak - 17 to 22 kDa proteins and the third peak contains (125)-iodides. Three fractions obtained from filtration on Ultrogel were separated in a polyacrylamide gel. In the first peak two bands 67 and 55 kDa appeared. The second peak contained low molecular weight substances, and the third peak contained (125)I. The first peak from Ultrogel was isolated by chromatofocusing - the first peak with pH 5.9 and the second one with pH 4.9. Isolation and purification of pituitary autoantigen with the use of column liquid chromatography and chromatofocusing resulted in obtainment of two antigenic proteins of specific gravity of 67 and 55 kDa.

  3. Analysis of radioactive mixed hazardous waste using derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Lerner, B.D.; Bean, R.M.; Grant, K.E.; Lucke, R.B.; Mong, G.M.; Clauss, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    Six samples of core segments from Tank 101-SY were analyzed for chelators, chelator fragments, and several carboxylic acids by derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components detected were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitroso-iminodiacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid. The chelator of highest concentration was ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in all six samples analyzed. Liquid chromatography was used to quantitate low molecular weight acids including oxalic, formic, glycolic, and acetic acids, which are present in the waste as acid salts. From 23 to 61% of the total organic carbon in the samples analyzed was accounted for by these acids.

  4. Identification of mycobacteria by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, W R; Jost, K C; Kilburn, J O

    1991-01-01

    Mycolic acids extracted from saponified mycobacterial cells were examined as p-bromophenacyl esters by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Standard HPLC patterns were developed for species of Mycobacterium by examination of strains from culture collections and other well-characterized isolates. Relative retention times of peaks and peak height comparisons were used to develop a differentiation scheme that was 98% accurate for the species examined. A rapid, cost-effective HPLC method which offers an alternative approach to the identification of mycobacteria is described. PMID:1774251

  5. Gas-liquid chromatography in lunar organic analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) is a powerful and sensitive method for the separation and detection of organic compounds at nanogram levels. The primary requirement for successful analyses is that the compounds of interest must be volatile under the chromatographic conditions employed. Nonvolatile organic compounds must be converted to volatile derivatives prior to analysis. The derivatives of choice must be both amenable to chromatographic separation and be relatively stable. The condition of volatility necessitates the development of efficient derivatization reactions for important groups of compounds as amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleosides, etc. Trimethylsilylation and trifluoroacetylation represent specific areas of recent prominence. Some relevant practical aspects of GLC are discussed.

  6. Fluorescent high-performance liquid chromatography assay for lipophilic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thomas J

    2011-12-01

    A new ultrasensitive fluorescent derivatization procedure for chromatographic analysis of primary, secondary, and nonpolar tertiary alcohols is described. The procedure uses Bodipy FL in basic dichloromethane solution with Mukaiyama's reagent (2-chloro-1-methylpyridinium iodide) to form highly fluorescent ester derivatives that can be separated by silica normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Rhodamine WT and Oregon green 488 were also useful derivatization reagents. The detection limit for detection of cholesterol and bryostatin by Bodipy FL was less than 1fmol. The reaction conditions are gentle enough that low concentrations of unstable alcohols such as bryostatin 1 can be measured. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Training software for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Reijenga, J C

    2000-12-01

    A computer simulation program of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for training purposes. Experimental retention values of 75 organic compounds on a reversed-phase column at four different percentages of organic modifiers were reduced to a two-parameter retention model with the modifier content as variable. Modifiers used were acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran. Isocratic and programmed solvent composition were included together with the usual experimental parameters available in modern HPLC equipment, such as UV diode array and refractive index detection. Instrument specifications were made variable within wide ranges. Detailed dispersion data were made available as tabulated output.

  8. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of antibiotic susceptibility disks.

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, R B; Waysek, E H; Cort, W M

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of antibiotic susceptibility disks by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was investigated. Methods are presented for the potency determination of mecillinam, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cephalothin alone and in various combinations. Good agreement between HPLC and microbiological data is observed for potency determinations with recoveries of greater than 95%. Relative standard deviations of lower than 2% are recorded for each HPLC method. HPLC methods offer improved accuracy and greater precision when compared to the standard microbiological methods of analysis for susceptibility disks. PMID:507793

  9. Gas-liquid chromatography in lunar organic analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) is a powerful and sensitive method for the separation and detection of organic compounds at nanogram levels. The primary requirement for successful analyses is that the compounds of interest must be volatile under the chromatographic conditions employed. Nonvolatile organic compounds must be converted to volatile derivatives prior to analysis. The derivatives of choice must be both amenable to chromatographic separation and be relatively stable. The condition of volatility necessitates the development of efficient derivatization reactions for important groups of compounds as amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleosides, etc. Trimethylsilylation and trifluoroacetylation represent specific areas of recent prominence. Some relevant practical aspects of GLC are discussed.

  10. Size distributions of gold nanoclusters studied by liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    WILCOXON,JESS P.; MARTIN,JAMES E.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.

    2000-05-23

    The authors report high pressure liquid chromatography, (HPLC), and transmission electron microscopy, (TEM), studies of the size distributions of nanosize gold clusters dispersed in organic solvents. These metal clusters are synthesized in inverse micelles at room temperature and those investigated range in diameter from 1--10 nm. HPLC is sensitive enough to discern changes in hydrodynamic volume corresponding to only 2 carbon atoms of the passivating agent or metal core size changes of less than 4 {angstrom}. The authors have determined for the first time how the total cluster volume (metal core + passivating organic shell) changes with the size of the passivating agent.

  11. Coupling of nanoflow liquid chromatography to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: real-time liquid chromatography run mapping on a MALDI plate.

    PubMed

    Nägele, Edgar; Vollmer, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The major obstacle in the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) instruments in the analysis of complex proteome samples is the lack of a direct coupling of a highly resolving separation technique with the mass spectrometer itself. To overcome this drawback, a spotting device for capillary and nanoflow liquid chromatography (LC) with a special liquid deposition principle for lowest volumes was developed. The instrument is able to perform MALDI spotting in real time in order to deposit the LC run on the MALDI plate, and therefore couples the high resolution power of nano-RP-HPLC separation directly with MALDI-MS. This work describes the development and optimization of a method for spotting with online matrix addition, and illustrates its use in the analysis of a complex proteome sample.

  12. Metabolomic Strategies Involving Mass Spectrometry Combined with Liquid and Gas Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Aline Soriano; Cruz, Elisa Castañeda Santa; Sussulini, Alessandra; Klassen, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Amongst all omics sciences, there is no doubt that metabolomics is undergoing the most important growth in the last decade. The advances in analytical techniques and data analysis tools are the main factors that make possible the development and establishment of metabolomics as a significant research field in systems biology. As metabolomic analysis demands high sensitivity for detecting metabolites present in low concentrations in biological samples, high-resolution power for identifying the metabolites and wide dynamic range to detect metabolites with variable concentrations in complex matrices, mass spectrometry is being the most extensively used analytical technique for fulfilling these requirements. Mass spectrometry alone can be used in a metabolomic analysis; however, some issues such as ion suppression may difficultate the quantification/identification of metabolites with lower concentrations or some metabolite classes that do not ionise as well as others. The best choice is coupling separation techniques, such as gas or liquid chromatography, to mass spectrometry, in order to improve the sensitivity and resolution power of the analysis, besides obtaining extra information (retention time) that facilitates the identification of the metabolites, especially when considering untargeted metabolomic strategies. In this chapter, the main aspects of mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) are discussed, and recent clinical applications of LC-MS and GC-MS are also presented.

  13. Chiral separation of pharmaceutical compounds using electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.

    1999-02-12

    This research explores the application of a new technique, termed electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC), to the chiral separations of pharmaceutical compounds. The introduction section provides a literature review of the technique and its applications, as well as brief overview of the research described in each of the next two chapters. Chapter 2 investigates the EMLC-based enantiomeric separation of a group of chiral benzodiazepines with β-cyclodextrin as a chiral mobile phase additive. Chapter 3 demonstrates the effects of several experimental parameters on the separation efficiency of drug enantiomers. The author concludes with a general summary and possible directions for future studies. Chapters 2 and 3 are processed separately.

  14. Determination of histamine in tomatoes by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bolygo, E; Cooper, P A; Jessop, K M; Moffatt, F

    2000-01-01

    The histamine level in tomato fruits and pastes was determined by 2 orthogonal techniques as a means of comparing accuracy. Close statistical agreement was found between assays for free histamine by capillary electrophoresis (with UV absorbance detection), and for the dansyl derivative by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC). Both techniques have adequate sensitivity for the analysis of endogenous histamine in tomatoes, but LC/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was more sensitive by at least an order of magnitude, down to a level of 0.05 mg/kg.

  15. Recent advances on ionic liquid uses in separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Berthod, A; Ruiz-Ángel, M J; Carda-Broch, S

    2017-09-22

    The molten organic salts with melting point below 100°C, commonly called ionic liquids (ILs) have found numerous uses in separation sciences due to their exceptional properties as non molecular solvents, namely, a negligible vapor pressure, a high thermal stability, and unique solvating properties due to polarity and their ionic character of molten salts. Other properties, such as viscosity, boiling point, water solubility, and electrochemical window, are adjustable playing with which anion is associated with which cation. This review focuses on recent development of the uses of ILs in separation techniques actualizing our 2008 article (same authors, J. Chromatogr. A, 1184 (2008) 6-18) focusing on alkyl methylimidazolium salts. These developments include the use of ILs in nuclear waste reprocessing, highly thermally stable ILs that allowed for the introduction of polar gas chromatography capillary columns able to work at temperature never seen before (passing 300°C), the use of ILs in liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, and the introduction of tailor-made ILs for mass spectrometry detection of trace anions at the few femtogram level. The recently introduced deep eutectic solvents are not exactly ILs, they are related enough so that their properties and uses in countercurrent chromatography are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of a Jet Fuel Metal Deactivator by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    column packings, and sensitive low dead volume detectors have catapulted HPLC into a rapidly maturing and valuable complement to gas chromatography ...be a gas or liquid; and a stationary phase, which may be either a liquid or a solid. The form of chromatography used in this research was partition...AFWAL-TR-82-21 28 1 1- 0 • DETERMINATION OF A JET FUEL METAL DEACTIVATOR BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Paul C. Hayes, Jr. Fuels Branch

  17. Determination of Selected Colored Smokes on Glass Fiber Discs by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) F F_ n.ipl’prifl. Alan R...GROUP SUB-GROUP High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Analytical IMethod, 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone, 2-(2 - _ quinolinyl)-1,3...weights, low vapor pressures and low thermal stability. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) appears to be the analytical method of choice

  18. Dynamic modification of separations using electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Deinhammer, R.S.; Ting, E.Y.; Porter, M.D. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA )

    1995-01-15

    A new method for modifying and fine-tuning liquid chromatographic separations without manipulating the mobile phase composition is discussed. This method, termed electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC), is based on the electrochemical manipulation of the capacity factors (k' values) of analytes both prior to and during their elution from a column packed with nonporous glassy carbon (GC) spheres. The GC spheres are connected as the working electrode in the three-electrode electrochemical cell. Improvements in the separation of a mixture of aromatic sulfonates (ASFs) obtained at open circuit are demonstrated by the application of several fixed voltages (E[sub app]) as well as voltage and charge ramps to the column. A comparison of these separations to those obtained at various mobile phase combinations suggests that EMLC offers some potentially useful differences in retention that are not easily gained through compositional alterations of the mobile phase. 53 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Analysis of beechwood creosote by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ogata, N; Baba, T

    1989-12-01

    Compounds in beechwood creosote were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 22 major constituents were identified. Of these, 19 were phenolic compounds, i. e., guaiacol, phenol, two cresol isomers, four methylguaiacol (creosol) isomers, six xylenol isomers, two trimethylphenol isomers, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-ethyl-5-methylguaiacol, and 4-propylguaiacol. The remaining three were hitherto unpredicted five-membered ring compounds, i. e., 3-methyl-2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one, and 3-ethyl-2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one. The relative quantities of these compounds were also compared with those obtained by high-resolution high-performance liquid chromatography. This report probably represents the first extensive analysis of beechwood creosote.

  20. Differentiation of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) from different regions in China using gas and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenjiang; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2015-02-01

    In this study, complex substances such as Mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) samples from different growing regions in China were analyzed for phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and for the volatile aroma compounds by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Chemometrics methods, e.g. principal component analysis, back-propagation artificial neural networks, and partial least squares discriminant analysis, were applied to resolve complex chromatographic profiles of Mint samples. A total of 49 aroma components and 23 phenolic compounds were identified in 79 Mint samples. Principal component analysis score plots from gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection data sets showed a clear distinction among Mint from three different regions in China. Classification results showed that satisfactory performance of prediction ability for back-propagation artificial neural networks and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The major compounds that contributed to the discrimination were chlorogenic acid, unknown 3, kaempherol 7-O-rutinoside, salvianolic acid L, hesperidin, diosmetin, unknown 6 and pebrellin in Mint according to regression coefficients of the partial least squares discriminant analysis model. This study indicated that the proposed strategy could provide a simple and rapid technique to distinguish clearly complex profiles from samples such as Mint. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Identification of polychlorinated styrene compounds in heron tissues by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reichel, W L; Prouty, R M; Gay, M L

    1977-01-01

    Unknown compounds detected in Ardea herodias tissues are identified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as residues of octachlorostyrene. Heptachlorostyrene and hexachlorostyrene were tentatively identified.

  2. Identification of polychlorinated styrene compounds in heron tissues by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichel, W.L.; Prouty, R.M.; Gay, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Unknown compounds detected in Ardea herodias tissues are identified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as residues of octachlorostyrene. Heptachlorostyrene and hexachlorostyrene were tentatively identified.

  3. [Determination of sildenafil and vardenafil in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Kang, Shaoying; Xu, Minjie; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2005-07-01

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the simultaneous determination of sildenafil and vardenafil in human plasma. The effects of extraction solvent, the volume of organic solvent, dropsize of acceptor phase, stirring rate and extraction time on the enrichment factors of analytes were investigated. The optimized experimental conditions, 300 microL toluene as the organic phase, 2 microL 0.2 mol/L HCl as the acceptor phase, 600 r/min of the stirring rate, and 40 min of the extraction time, were gotten. Under these conditions, high enrichment factors were obtained. The linear range of studied analytes was from 5 microg/L to 1.0 mg/L. The relative standard deviation was lower than 5%. The limits of detection were 1 microg/L for sildenafil and 0.5 microg/L for vardenafil at signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The method with little solvent consumption may provide high analyte preconcentration and excellent sample clean-up, and it is a sensitive and suitable method for simultaneous determination of the above two substances in human plasma.

  4. Applications of liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry in analytical toxicology: a review.

    PubMed

    Hoja, H; Marquet, P; Verneuil, B; Lotfi, H; Pénicaut, B; Lachâtre, G

    1997-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), after long-term development that has introduced seven major interfacing techniques, is finally suitable for application in the field of analytical toxicology. Various compound classes can be analyzed, and sensitivities for more or less polar analytes that are as good as or better than those of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry can be obtained with modern interfaces. In addition, because ionization is often softer than classical electron impact, some LC-MS interfaces are able to handle fragile species that are otherwise not amenable to MS. This review is intended to present LC-MS to less familiarized readers and to give an extensive overview of the application of the different coupling techniques to doping agents, drugs of abuse, forensic analysis, toxic compounds of various nature, and several toxicologically relevant therapeutic drugs. Experimental parameters such as the interfaces used, ionization methods, detection limits, and experimental details for exemplary applications are given.

  5. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in soil by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhonghua; Liu, Yu; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a rapid and sensitive sample pretreatment technique for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in soil samples is developed by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection. Experimental conditions, including the kind of extraction and disperser solvent and their volumes, the extraction time, and the salt addition, are investigated, and the following experiment factors are used: 20 µL chlorobenzene as the extraction solvent; 1.0 mL acetonitrile as the disperser solvent; no addition of salt; and an extraction time of 1 min. Under the optimum conditions, the linearities for the three target OPPs (ethoprophos, chlorpyriphos, and profenofos) are obtained by five points in the concentration range of 2.5-1500 µg/kg, and three replicates are used for each point. Correlation coefficients vary from 0.9987 to 0.9997. The repeatability is tested by spiking soil samples at a concentration level of 5.0 µg/kg. The relative standard deviation (n = 3) varied between 2.0% and 6.6%. The limits of detection, based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, range from 200 to 500 pg/g. This method is applied to the analysis of the spiked samples S1, S2, and S3, which are collected from the China Agriculture University's orchard, lawn, and garden, respectively. The recoveries for each target analyte are in the range between 87.9% and 108.0%, 87.4% and 108.0%, and 86.7% and 107.2%, respectively.

  6. General theory of peak compression in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice

    2016-02-12

    A new and general expression of the peak compression factor in liquid chromatography is derived. It applies to any type of gradients induced by non-uniform columns (stationary) or by temporal variations (dynamic) of the elution strength related to changes in solvent composition, temperature, or in any external field. The new equation is validated in two ideal cases for which the exact solutions are already known. From a practical viewpoint, it is used to predict the achievable degree of peak compression for curved retention models, retained solvent gradients, and for temperature-programmed liquid chromatography. The results reveal that: (1) curved retention models affect little the compression factor with respect to the best linear strength retention models, (2) gradient peaks can be indefinitely compressed with respect to isocratic peaks if the propagation speed of the gradient (solvent or temperature) becomes smaller than the chromatographic velocity, (3) limitations are inherent to the maximum intensity of the experimental intrinsic gradient steepness, and (4) dynamic temperature gradients can be advantageously combined to solvent gradients in order to improve peak capacities of microfluidic separation devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adaway, Joanne E; Keevil, Brian G; Owen, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical laboratory medicine has seen the introduction and evolution of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in routine clinical laboratories over the last 10-15 years. There still exists a wide diversity of assays from very esoteric and highly specialist manual assays to more simplified kit-based assays. The technology is not static as manufacturers are continually making improvements. Mass spectrometry is now commonly used in several areas of diagnostics including therapeutic drug monitoring, toxicology, endocrinology, paediatrics and microbiology. Some of the most high throughput analyses or common analytes include vitamin D, immunosuppressant monitoring, androgen measurement and newborn screening. It also offers flexibility for the measurement of analytes in a variety of different matrices which would prove difficult with immunoassays. Unlike immunoassays or high-pressure liquid chromatography assays using ultraviolet or fluorescence detection, mass spectrometry offers better specificity and reduced interferences if attention is paid to potential isobaric compounds. Furthermore, multiplexing, which enables multiple analytes to be measured with the same volume of serum is advantageous, and the requirement for large sample volumes is decreasing as instrument sensitivity increases. There are many emerging applications in the literature. Using mass spectrometry to identify novel isoforms or modified peptides is possible as is quantification of proteins and peptides, with or without protein digests. Future developments by the manufacturers may also include mechanisms to improve the throughput of samples and strategies to decrease the level of skill required by the operators.

  8. Translational value of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of drug metabolism and transport and considerations in selecting appropriate techniques.

    PubMed

    Al Feteisi, Hajar; Achour, Brahim; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Barber, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters play an important role in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and, consequently, they influence drug efficacy and toxicity. Quantification of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in various tissues is therefore essential for comprehensive elucidation of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Recent advances in liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have improved the quantification of pharmacologically relevant proteins. This report presents an overview of mass spectrometry-based methods currently used for the quantification of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, mainly focusing on applications and cost associated with various quantitative strategies based on stable isotope-labeled standards (absolute quantification peptide standards, quantification concatemers, protein standards for absolute quantification) and label-free analysis. In mass spectrometry, there is no simple relationship between signal intensity and analyte concentration. Proteomic strategies are therefore complex and several factors need to be considered when selecting the most appropriate method for an intended application, including the number of proteins and samples. Quantitative strategies require appropriate mass spectrometry platforms, yet choice is often limited by the availability of appropriate instrumentation. Quantitative proteomics research requires specialist practical skills and there is a pressing need to dedicate more effort and investment to training personnel in this area. Large-scale multicenter collaborations are also needed to standardize quantitative strategies in order to improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic models.

  9. Application of ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomic techniques to analyze the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of organophosphate pesticides on rat urine profile.

    PubMed

    Du, Longfei; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wei; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Yurong; Zhang, Yuqiu; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2013-07-01

    In previously published articles, we evaluated the toxicity of four organophosphate (OP) pesticides (dichlorvos, dimethoate, acephate, and phorate) to rats using metabonomic technology at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Results show that a single pesticide elicits no toxic response. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to a mixture of the above four pesticides (at their corresponding NOAEL) can lead to joint toxic action in rats using the same technology. Pesticides were administered daily to rats through drinking water for 24 weeks. The above mixture of the four pesticides showed joint toxic action at the NOAEL of each pesticide. The metabonomic profiles of rats urine were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The 16 metabolites statistically significantly changed in all treated groups compared with the control group. Dimethylphosphate and dimethyldithiophosphate exclusively detected in all treated groups can be used as early, sensitive biomarkers for exposure to a mixture of the OP pesticides. Moreover, exposure to the OP pesticides resulted in increased 7-methylguanine, ribothymidine, cholic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, and indoxyl sulfate levels, as well as decreased hippuric acid, creatinine, uric acid, gentisic acid, C18-dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, suberic acid, and citric acid. The results indicated that a mixture of OP pesticides induced DNA damage and oxidative stress, disturbed the metabolism of lipids, and interfered with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Ensuring food safety requires not only the toxicology test data of each pesticide for the calculation of the acceptable daily intake but also the joint toxic action.

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction as an on-line clean-up technique for rapid amperometric screening and alternative liquid chromatography for confirmation of paraquat and diquat in olive oil samples.

    PubMed

    Zougagh, M; Bouabdallah, M; Salghi, R; Hormatallah, A; Rios, A

    2008-09-12

    A rapid and simple method for the direct screening of paraquat (PQ) and diquat (DQ) in olive oil samples is proposed. The sample screening method involves supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (clean-up followed by the extraction of the analytes) followed by continuous flow electrochemical detection. Those samples for which the total concentration is close to or above the threshold limit established by the Columbian Society for Social Protection (0.05 microg g(-1)) are subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) with diode array detection (DAD). This confirmation method allows the determination of PQ and DQ in the range between 0.04 and 1.0 microg g(-1), with average relative standard deviations lower than 3.5%, and 0.003 and 0.002 microg g(-1) detection limits for PQ and DQ, respectively. The proposed arrangement opens up interesting prospects for the direct determination of polar pesticides in complex samples with a good throughput and a high level of automation.

  11. Comparison of microwave-assisted and heat reflux extraction techniques for the extraction of ten major compounds from Zibu Piyin Recipe using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiying; Zhan, Libin; Zhang, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction and efficient ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry were previously used to quickly extract and simultaneously quantify ginsenoside Rf, Ro, and Rd, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg2 , 20(R)-ginsenoside-Rg2 , tanshinone IIA, cryptotanshinone, dihydrotanshinone I, lithospermic acid, and osthole from Zibu Piyin Recipe. We here showed that heat reflux extraction provides higher extraction efficiency of these target compounds but is more time consuming. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of water/0.5% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min, and detection was performed by positive and negative ion multiple-reaction monitoring mode. All analytes showed good linearity (r, 0.9989-0.9999) within the test range, with a limit of detection of 0.002-0.180 μg/mL. The overall intra- and interday variations of the ten compounds were ≤2.9%, and the accuracy was evaluated using a recovery test at three concentrations and was in the range 97.61-103.18% (RSD ≤ 4.25%). The analytical results showed remarkable differences in the concentrations of the ten compounds extracted from Zibu Piyin Recipe by microwave-assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction. These findings provide important information for determining the quality of Zibu Piyin Recipe.

  12. Comparison of liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography mobile phases for enantioselective separations on polysaccharide stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Khater, Syame; Lozac'h, Marie-Anne; Adam, Isabelle; Francotte, Eric; West, Caroline

    2016-10-07

    Analysis and production of enantiomerically pure compounds is a major topic of interest when active pharmaceutical ingredients are concerned. Enantioselective chromatography has become a favourite both at the analytical and preparative scales. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are dominating the scene and are often seen as complementary techniques. Nowadays, for economic and ecologic reasons, SFC may be preferred over normal-phase HPLC (NPLC) as it allows significant reductions in solvent consumption. However, the transfer of NPLC methods to SFC is not always straightforward. In this study, we compare the retention of achiral molecules and separation of enantiomers under supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide with ethanol or isopropanol) and liquid normal-phase (heptane with ethanol or isopropanol) elution modes with polysaccharide stationary phases in order to explore the differences between the retention and enantioseparation properties between the two modes. Chemometric methods (namely quantitative structure-retention relationships and discriminant analysis) are employed to compare the results obtained on a large set of analytes (171 achiral probes and 97 racemates) and gain some understanding on the retention and separation mechanisms. The results indicate that, contrary to popular belief, carbon dioxide - solvent SFC mobile phases are often weaker eluents than liquid mobile phases. It appears that SFC and NPLC elution modes provide different retention mechanisms. While some enantioseparations are unaffected, facilitating the transfer between the two elution modes, other enantioseparations may be drastically different due to different types and strength of interactions contributing to enantioselectivity.

  13. Surface diffusion in reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Miyabe, Kanji; Guiochon, Georges A

    2010-01-01

    More than 40 years ago, Giddings pointed out in 'Dynamics of Chromatography' that surface diffusion should become an important research topic in the kinetics of chromatographic phenomena. However, few studies on surface diffusion in adsorbents used in chromatography were published since then. Most scientists use ordinary rate equations to study mass transfer kinetics in chromatography. They take no account of surface diffusion and overlook the significant contributions of this mass transfer process to chromatographic behavior and to column efficiency at high mobile phase flow rate. Only recently did the significance of surface diffusion in separation processes begin to be recognized in connection with the development of new techniques of fast flow, high efficiency chromatography. In this review, we revisit the reports on experimental data on surface diffusion and introduce a surface-restricted molecular diffusion model, derived as a first approximation for the mechanism of surface diffusion, on the basis of the absolute rate theory. We also explain how this model accounts for many intrinsic characteristics of surface diffusion that cannot properly be explained by the conventional models of surface diffusion.

  14. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of Perfluorinated Surfactants in Fish Liver by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Naomi L.; Martin, Jonathan W.; Ye, Yun; Mabury, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that provides students a hands-on introduction to the specific techniques of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and electrospray ionization is presented. The students can thus practice the analytical principles of sample extraction, detection, quantification, and quality control using a fresh fish…

  15. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of Perfluorinated Surfactants in Fish Liver by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Naomi L.; Martin, Jonathan W.; Ye, Yun; Mabury, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that provides students a hands-on introduction to the specific techniques of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and electrospray ionization is presented. The students can thus practice the analytical principles of sample extraction, detection, quantification, and quality control using a fresh fish…

  16. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography for thiamine determination in foods.

    PubMed

    Viñas, Pilar; López-García, Ignacio; Bravo-Bravo, María; Briceño, Marisol; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2012-05-01

    A miniaturized dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure coupled to liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorimetric detection was evaluated for the preconcentration and determination of thiamine (vitamin B(1)). Derivatization was carried out by chemical oxidation of thiamine with 5 × 10(-5) M ferricyanide at pH 13 to form fluorescent thiochrome. For DLLME, 0.5 mL of acetonitrile (dispersing solvent) containing 90 μL of tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent) was rapidly injected into 10 mL of sample solution containing the derivatized thiochrome and 24% (w/v) sodium chloride, thereby forming a cloudy solution. Phase separation was carried out by centrifugation, and a volume of 20 μL of the sedimented phase was submitted to LC. The mobile phase was a mixture of a 90% (v/v) 10 mM KH(2)PO(4) (pH 7) solution and 10% (v/v) acetonitrile at 1 mL min(-1). An amide-based stationary phase involving a ligand with amide groups and the endcapping of trimethylsilyl was used. Specificity, linearity, precision, recovery, and sensitivity were satisfactory. Calibration graph was carried out by the standard additions method and was linear between 1 and 10 ng mL(-1). The detection limit was 0.09 ng mL(-1). The selectivity of the method was judged from the absence of interfering peaks at the thiamine elution time for blank chromatograms of unspiked samples. A relative standard deviation of 3.2% was obtained for a standard solution containing thiamine at 5 ng mL(-1). The esters thiamine monophosphate and thiamine pyrophosphate can also be determined by submitting the sample to successive acid and enzymatic treatments. The method was applied to the determination of thiamine in different foods such as beer, brewer's yeast, honey, and baby foods including infant formulas, fermented milk, cereals, and purees. For the analysis of solid samples, a previous extraction step was applied based on an acid hydrolysis with trichloroacetic acid. The reliability of the procedure was

  17. Purification of flavonoids from licorice using an off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Fu, Yanhui; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Mei; Jin, Yu

    2016-07-01

    An orthogonal (71.9%) off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method coupled with effective sample pretreatment was developed for separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. Most of the nonflavonoids were firstly removed using a self-made Click TE-Cys (60 μm) solid-phase extraction. In the first dimension, an industrial grade preparative chromatography was employed to purify the crude flavonoids. Click TE-Cys (10 μm) was selected as the stationary phase that provided an excellent separation with high reproducibility. Ethyl acetate/ethanol was selected as the mobile phase owing to their excellent solubility for flavonoids. Flavonoids co-eluted in the first dimension were selected for further purification using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Multiple compounds could be isolated from one normal-phase fraction and some compounds with bad resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography could be prepared in this two-dimensional system owing to the orthogonal separation. Moreover, this two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was beneficial for the preparation of relatively trace flavonoid compounds, which were enriched in the first dimension and further purified in the second dimension. Totally, 24 flavonoid compounds with high purity were obtained. The results demonstrated that the off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was effective for the preparative separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice.

  18. Determination of prostaglandin analogs in cosmetic products by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, James B; Zhou, Wanlong; Wang, Perry G; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2014-09-12

    A method was developed and validated for the determination of 16 prostaglandin analogs in cosmetic products. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Efficient, Rugged, Safe) liquid-liquid extraction method, typically used for pesticide residue analysis, was utilized as the sample preparation technique. The prostaglandin analogs were chromatographically separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Thirty-one cosmetic products were surveyed, and 13 products were determined to contain a prostaglandin analog with amounts ranging from 27.4 to 297μg/g. The calculated concentrations for the cosmetic products were in a similar range when compared to the concentrations of three different prostaglandin analog-containing prescription products.

  19. Simultaneous quantification of chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and application of the technique to comparative pharmacokinetic studies of Radix et Rhei Rhizoma extract alone and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Li; Xing, Jiangwa; Poh, Yanhong; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao Chang

    2015-02-01

    Most herbal medicines are prescribed in combination based on the theory of TCM to obtain synergistic effects or diminish the possible adverse reactions. Compatibility refers to the combination of two or more herbs based on the clinical settings and the properties of herbs. Chrysophanol and physcion are the main effective compounds in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction which is the combination of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata and Radix et Rhizoma Asari. However, chrysophanol and physcion are difficult to detect in vivo because of their low concentration and interference from endogenous compounds. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass method to simultaneously quantify chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma, in order to better understand the pharmacokinetics and compatibility mechanism of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction for the first time. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for the quantitation at [M-H](-)m/z 253.0→m/z 225.1 for chrysophanol, [M-H](-) for m/z 283.1→m/z 240.0 physcion and [M-H](-)m/z 239.0→m/z 211.0 for IS. The analytes were separated on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) column within a total running time of 6.5min using a mixture of 3mM ammonium acetate in water and methanol (95:5, v/v) with a time program flow gradient according to the "plus gradient chromatography" theory. The inclusion of the ammonium acetate in the UFLC mobile phase dramatically improved the detection limit of the tested compounds and decreased the interference by matrix effects, which have been referred to as "LC-electrolyte effects". Finally, we demonstrated the application of a validated method in a comparative pharmacokinetic study of rats receiving an oral dose of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction or Radix et Rhei Rhizoma, the monarch drug in the prescription. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed

  20. Nanoparticle Analysis by Online Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography combining Hydrodynamic Chromatography and Size-Exclusion Chromatography with Intermediate Sample Transformation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles have become indispensable in modern society with a wide array of applications ranging from waterborne coatings to drug-carrier-delivery systems. While a large range of techniques exist to determine a multitude of properties of these particles, relating physicochemical properties of the particle to the chemical structure of the intrinsic polymers is still challenging. A novel, highly orthogonal separation system based on comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) has been developed. The system combines hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) in the first-dimension to separate the particles based on their size, with ultrahigh-performance size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) in the second dimension to separate the constituting polymer molecules according to their hydrodynamic radius for each of 80 to 100 separated fractions. A chip-based mixer is incorporated to transform the sample by dissolving the separated nanoparticles from the first-dimension online in tetrahydrofuran. The polymer bands are then focused using stationary-phase-assisted modulation to enhance sensitivity, and the water from the first-dimension eluent is largely eliminated to allow interaction-free SEC. Using the developed system, the combined two-dimensional distribution of the particle-size and the molecular-size of a mixture of various polystyrene (PS) and polyacrylate (PACR) nanoparticles has been obtained within 60 min. PMID:28745485

  1. Determination of pyrrolnitrin and derivatives by gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hamill, R L; Sullivan, H R; Gorman, M

    1969-09-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic technique was applied to the separation of pyrrolnitrin and its derivatives. The simultaneous use of a flame detector and an electron capture detector made possible the distinction between the nitro derivatives of pyrrolnitrin and the other metabolites. The metabolites could be readily quantitated with the electron capture detector, offering a much more sensitive assay than the flame detector.

  2. Enantioselective high performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography separation of spirocyclic terpenoid flavor compounds.

    PubMed

    Schaffrath, Mathias; Weidmann, Verena; Maison, Wolfgang

    2014-10-10

    Chiral spirocyclic terpenoids are abundant natural flavors with significant impact particularly on the food industry. Chromatographic methods for analytical and preparative separation of these compounds are therefore of high interest to natural product chemists in academia and industry. Gas chromatography on chiral stationary phases is currently the standard method for the separation of volatile terpenoids, limiting the scale to analytical quantities. We report herein high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) protocols for the chiral separation of several racemic spirocyclic terpenoids such as the important flavors theaspirane and vitispirane. A screening of mobile phases and 16 commercially available chiral stationary phases (CSPs) largely based on polysaccharides led to identification of protocols for the separation of all terpenoids tested. SFC methods were found to be particularly useful for the separation of these spirocyclic flavors due to the volatility and low polarity of the compounds. The reported chiral HPLC and SFC protocols are scalable alternatives to gas chromatographic separations of volatile terpenoid flavors.

  3. Comprehensive characterization of Stevia rebaudiana using two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qing; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Xiuli; Liu, Yanfang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2012-07-01

    Two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (2D-RPLC/HILIC) system was successfully applied for comprehensive characterization of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana. The experiments were performed in offline mode using an XCharge C18 column in first dimension and an XAmide column in second dimension. In first dimension, preliminary separation of Stevia aqueous extract was accomplished and 30 fractions were collected. Then fractions 1-20 were selected for further purification and 13 compounds with high purity were obtained in second dimension. Comprehensive characterization of these compounds was completed by determination of their retention time, accurate molecular weight, diagnostic fragmentation ions, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As a result, all nine known steviol glycosides, as well as other four steviol glycosides were fully purified. The result demonstrated that this procedure is an effective approach for the preparative separation and comprehensive characterization of steviol glycosides in Stevia. This 2D-RPLC/HILIC method will be a promising tool for the purification of low-abundance compounds from natural products.

  4. Comparison of liquid chromatography-microchip/mass spectrometry to conventional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of steroids.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Linda; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Saarelainen, Taija; Paviala, Jenni; Ketola, Raimo A; Auriola, Seppo; Poutanen, Matti; Kostianen, Risto

    2012-04-06

    The feasibility of a microfluidic-based liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric system (HPLC-Chip/ESI/MS) was studied and compared to a conventional narrow-bore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric (LC-ESI/MS) system for the analysis of steroids. The limits of detection (LODs) for oxime derivatized steroids, expressed as concentrations, were slightly higher with the HPLC-Chip/MS system (50-300 pM) using an injection volume of 0.5 μL than with the conventional LC-ESI/MS (10-150 pM) using an injection volume of 40 μL. However, when the LODs are expressed as injected amounts, the sensitivity of the HPLC-Chip/MS system was about 50 times higher than with the conventional LC-ESI/MS system. The results indicate that the use of HPLC-Chip/MS system is clearly advantageous only in the analysis of low-volume samples. Both methods showed good linearity and good quantitative and chromatographic repeatability. In addition to the instrument comparisons with oxime derivatized steroids, the feasibility of the HPLC-Chip/MS system in the analysis of non-derivatized and oxime derivatized steroids was compared. The HPLC-Chip/MS method developed for non-derivatized steroids was also applied to the quantitative analysis of 15 mouse plasma samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation between ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for characterizing natural dyestuffs.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; van Bommel, Maarten; Hallett, Jessica

    2013-11-29

    An evaluation was undertaken of ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) in comparison to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for characterizing natural dyes in cultural heritage objects. A new UHPLC method was optimized by testing several analytical parameters adapted from prior UHPLC studies developed in diverse fields of research. Different gradient elution programs were tested on seven UHPLC columns with different dimensions and stationary phase compositions by applying several mobile phases, flow rates, temperatures, and runtimes. The UHPLC method successfully provided more improved data than that achieved by the HPLC method. Indeed, even though carminic acid has shown circa 146% higher resolution with HPLC, UHPLC resulted in an increase of 41-61% resolution and a decrease of 91-422% limit of detection, depending on the dye compound. The optimized method was subsequently assigned to analyse 59 natural reference materials, in which 85 different components were ascribed with different physicochemical properties, in order to create a spectral database for future characterization of dyes in cultural heritage objects. The majority of these reference samples could be successfully distinguished with one single method through the examination of these compounds' retention times and their spectra acquired with a photodiode array detector. These results demonstrate that UHPLC analyses are extremely valuable for the acquisition of more precise chromatographic information concerning natural dyes with complex mixtures of different and/or closely related physicochemical properties, essential for distinguishing similar species of plants and animals used to colour cultural heritage objects.

  6. Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects.

    PubMed

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Leśko, Marek; Cavazzini, Alberto; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-07-03

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 °C and a difference of 2 °C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (τs) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in τs which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study.

  7. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of hallucinogenic indoles psilocin and psilocybin in "magic mushroom" samples.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Tooru; Nishikawa, Mayumi; Katagi, Munehiro; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2005-03-01

    Accurate and sensitive analytical methods for psilocin (PC) and psilocybin (PB), tryptamine-type hallucinogens contained in "magic mushrooms," were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The chromatographic separation on an ODS column and mass spectral information gave complete discrimination between PC and PB without derivatization. The mass spectrometric detection had a high sensitivity, and the tandem mass spectrometric detection provided more specificity and accuracy, as well as high sensitivity. The detection limits ranged from 1 to 25 pg by LC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode, and the intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were estimated to be 4.21-5.93% by LC-MS-MS in the selected reaction monitoring mode. By applying the present LC-MS-MS technique to four real samples, the contents of PC and PB were found to vary over a wide range (0.60-1.4 and 0.18-3.8 mg/g dry wt. for PC and PB, respectively) between samples.

  8. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of Peucedanum praeruptorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Li, Jia-Fu; Jian, Ya-Mei; Wu, Zhen; Fang, Mei-Juan; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2015-03-27

    A new on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC × RPLC) system was developed for the separation of complicated natural products. It was based on the use of a silica gel packed medium-pressure column as the first dimension and an ODS preparative HPLC column as the second dimension. The two dimensions were connected with normal-phase (NP) and reversed-phase (RP) enrichment units, involving a newly developed airflow assisted adsorption (AAA) technique. The instrument operation and the performance of this NPLC × RPLC separation method were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of ethanol extract from the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum. In total, 19 compounds with high purity were obtained via automated multi-step preparative separation in a short period of time using this system, and their structures were comprehensively characterized by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. Including two new compounds, five isomers in two groups with identical HPLC and TLC retention values were also obtained and identified by 1D NMR and 2D NMR. This is the first report of an NPLC × RPLC system successfully applied in an on-line preparative process. This system not only solved the interfacing problem of mobile-phase immiscibility caused by NP and RP separation, it also exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods.

  9. Fully automatable two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-reversed phase liquid chromatography with online tandem mass spectrometry for shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Kong, Ricky P W; Li, Guohui; Lam, Maggie P Y; Law, C H; Lee, Simon M Y; Lam, Herman C; Chu, Ivan K

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a fully automatable two-dimensional liquid chromatography platform for shotgun proteomics analyses based on the online coupling of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) - using a nonionic type of TSKgel Amide 80 at either pH 6.8 (neutral) or 2.7 (acidic) - with conventional low-pH reversed-phase chromatography. Online coupling of the neutral-pH HILIC and reversed phase chromatography systems outperformed the acidic HILIC-reversed phase chromatography combination, resulting in 18.4% (1914 versus 1617 nonredundant proteins) and 41.6% (12,989 versus 9172 unique peptides) increases in the number of identified peptides and proteins from duplicate analyses of Rat pheochromocytoma lysates. Armed with this optimized HILIC-reversed phase liquid chromatography platform, we identified 2554 nonredundant proteins from duplicate analyses of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae lysate, with the detected protein abundances spanning from approximately 41 to 10(6) copies per cell, which contained up to approximately 2092 different validated protein species with a dynamic range of concentrations of up to approximately 10(4) . This present study establishes a fully automated platform as a promising methodology to enable online coupling of different hydrophilic HILIC and reversed phase chromatography systems, thereby expanding the repertoire of multidimensional liquid chromatography for shotgun proteomics.

  10. Ultrafast Chiral Chromatography as the Second Dimension in Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Experiments.

    PubMed

    Barhate, Chandan L; Regalado, Erik L; Contrella, Nathan D; Lee, Joon; Jo, Junyong; Makarov, Alexey A; Armstrong, Daniel W; Welch, Christopher J

    2017-03-21

    Chromatographic separation and analysis of complex mixtures of closely related species is one of the most challenging tasks in modern pharmaceutical analysis. In recent years, two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has become a valuable tool for improving peak capacity and selectivity. However, the relatively slow speed of chiral separations has limited the use of chiral stationary phases (CSPs) as the second dimension in 2D-LC, especially in the comprehensive mode. Realizing that the recent revolution in the field of ultrafast enantioselective chromatography could now provide significantly faster separations, we herein report an investigation into the use of ultrafast chiral chromatography as a second dimension for 2D chromatographic separations. In this study, excellent selectivity, peak shape, and repeatability were achieved by combining achiral and chiral narrow-bore columns (2.1 mm × 100 mm and 2.1 mm × 150 mm, sub-2 and 3 μm) in the first dimension with 4.6 mm × 30 mm and 4.6 mm × 50 mm columns packed with highly efficient chiral selectors (sub-2 μm fully porous and 2.7 μm fused-core particles) in the second dimension, together with the use of 0.1% phosphoric acid/acetonitrile eluents in both dimensions. Multiple achiral × chiral and chiral × chiral 2D-LC examples (single and multiple heart-cutting, high-resolution sampling, and comprehensive) using ultrafast chiral chromatography in the second dimension are successfully applied to the separation and analysis of complex mixtures of closely related pharmaceuticals and synthetic intermediates, including chiral and achiral drugs and metabolites, constitutional isomers, stereoisomers, and organohalogenated species.

  11. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  12. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in metabolomics research: mass analyzers in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupling.

    PubMed

    Forcisi, Sara; Moritz, Franco; Kanawati, Basem; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Lehmann, Rainer; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2013-05-31

    The present review gives an introduction into the concept of metabolomics and provides an overview of the analytical tools applied in non-targeted metabolomics with a focus on liquid chromatography (LC). LC is a powerful analytical tool in the study of complex sample matrices. A further development and configuration employing Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is optimized to provide the largest known liquid chromatographic resolution and peak capacity. Reasonably UHPLC plays an important role in separation and consequent metabolite identification of complex molecular mixtures such as bio-fluids. The most sensitive detectors for these purposes are mass spectrometers. Almost any mass analyzer can be optimized to identify and quantify small pre-defined sets of targets; however, the number of analytes in metabolomics is far greater. Optimized protocols for quantification of large sets of targets may be rendered inapplicable. Results on small target set analyses on different sample matrices are easily comparable with each other. In non-targeted metabolomics there is almost no analytical method which is applicable to all different matrices due to limitations pertaining to mass analyzers and chromatographic tools. The specifications of the most important interfaces and mass analyzers are discussed. We additionally provide an exemplary application in order to demonstrate the level of complexity which remains intractable up to date. The potential of coupling a high field Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS), the mass analyzer with the largest known mass resolving power, to UHPLC is given with an example of one human pre-treated plasma sample. This experimental example illustrates one way of overcoming the necessity of faster scanning rates in the coupling with UHPLC. The experiment enabled the extraction of thousands of features (analytical signals). A small subset of this compositional space could be mapped into a mass

  13. Investigating the Retention Mechanisms of Liquid Chromatography Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mary E.; Musial, Beata A.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.; Ca, Diep

    2009-01-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) experiments for the undergraduate analytical laboratory course often illustrate the application of reversed-phase LC to solve a separation problem, but rarely compare LC retention mechanisms. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography instrument may be beyond what some small colleges can purchase. Solid-phase…

  14. Investigating the Retention Mechanisms of Liquid Chromatography Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mary E.; Musial, Beata A.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.; Ca, Diep

    2009-01-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) experiments for the undergraduate analytical laboratory course often illustrate the application of reversed-phase LC to solve a separation problem, but rarely compare LC retention mechanisms. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography instrument may be beyond what some small colleges can purchase. Solid-phase…

  15. Applications of nanomaterials in liquid chromatography: opportunities for separation with high efficiency and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengxiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2006-08-01

    During recent decades, great efforts have been made to improve the chemical stability, selectivity, and separation efficiency of stationary phases in liquid chromatography. Significant progress has been achieved, especially after the introduction of nanomaterials into separation science. This review covers the applications of nanomaterials playing various roles in liquid chromatography. Future possibilities for developing nanomaterial-based stationary phases are also discussed.

  16. Derivatization reagents in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santa, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) is one of the most prominent analytical techniques owing to its inherent selectivity and sensitivity. In LC/ESI-MS/MS, chemical derivatization is often used to enhance the detection sensitivity. Derivatization improves the chromatographic separation, and enhances the mass spectrometric ionization efficiency and MS/MS detectability. In this review, an overview of the derivatization reagents which have been applied to LC/ESI-MS/MS is presented, focusing on the applications to low molecular weight compounds.

  17. Mapping protein abundance patterns in the brain using voxelation combined with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Smith, Desmond J.

    2010-02-01

    Voxelation creates expression atlases by high-throughput analysis of spatially registered cubes or voxels harvested from the brain. The modality independence of voxelation allows a variety of bioanalytical techniques to be used to map abundance. Protein expression patterns in the brain can be obtained using liquid chromatography (LC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS). Here we describe the methodology of voxelation as it pertains particularly to LC-MS proteomic analysis: sample preparation, instrumental set up and analysis, peptide identification and protein relative abundance quantitation. We also briefly describe some of the advantages, limitations and insights into the brain that can be obtained using combined proteomic and transcriptomic maps

  18. Mapping Protein Abundance Patterns in the Brain Using Voxelation Combined with Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.; Smith, Desmond J.

    2009-01-01

    Voxelation creates expression atlases by high-throughput analysis of spatially registered cubes or voxels harvested from the brain. The modality independence of voxelation allows a variety of bioanalytical techniques to be used to map abundance. Protein expression patterns in the brain can be obtained using liquid chromatography (LC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS). Here we describe the methodology of voxelation as it pertains particularly to LC-MS proteomic analysis: sample preparation, instrumental set up and analysis, peptide identification and protein relative abundance quantitation. We also briefly describe some of the advantages, limitations and insights into the brain that can be obtained using combined proteomic and transcriptomic maps. PMID:19654045

  19. High-throughput multiclass method for antibiotic residue analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chico, J; Rúbies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2008-12-12

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the residue analysis of 39 antibiotics (tetracyclines, quinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides and macrolides) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The method combines an effective extraction technique, which uses water-methanol as extracting solvent, with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, allowing both confirmation and quantification in a single chromatographic run. The multiresidue method has been validated in chicken muscle matrix according to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC. It has been implemented as a routine method in a Public Health Laboratory, instead of the five plates test and LC methods previously used.

  20. Application of Inverse Liquid Chromatography for Surface Characterization of Biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Adamska, Katarzyna; Kadlec, Karol; Voelkel, Adam

    In the present study, a novel approach for surface characterization of ceramic biomaterials is proposed. Two ceramic biomaterials-hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate-were examined by means of inverse liquid chromatography. The Abraham LFER model was applied for physicochemical characteristics of the surface. Different compounds, characterized by different polarity and different donor-acceptor properties of functional group, were used as test solutes. The chromatographic experiments were carried out with two compositions of the mobile phase: pure acetonitrile (MeCN) and the mixture of acetonitrile and water in 80:20 ratio (MeCN/H2O). Thus, the influence of mobile phase on sorption properties of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate surface was also discussed.

  1. A rapid liquid chromatography determination of free formaldehyde in cod.

    PubMed

    Storey, Joseph M; Andersen, Wendy C; Heise, Andrea; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Lohne, Jack; Thomas, Terri; Madson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A rapid method for the determination of free formaldehyde in cod is described. It uses a simple water extraction of formaldehyde which is then derivatised with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form a sensitive and specific chromophore for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detection. Although this formaldehyde derivative has been widely used in past tissue analysis, this paper describes an improved derivatisation procedure. The formation of the DNPH formaldehyde derivative has been shortened to 2 min and a stabilising buffer has been added to the derivative to increase its stability. The average recovery of free formaldehyde in spiked cod was 63% with an RSD of 15% over the range of 25-200 mg kg(-1) (n = 48). The HPLC procedure described here was also compared to a commercial qualitative procedure - a swab test for the determination of free formaldehyde in fish. Several positive samples were compared by both methods.

  2. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography for crude plant extract profiling.

    PubMed

    Eugster, Philippe J; Guillarme, Davy; Rudaz, Serge; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems operating at very high pressures and using sub-2 microm packing columns have allowed a remarkable decrease in analysis time and increase in peak capacity, sensitivity, and reproducibility compared to conventional HPLC. This technology has rapidly been widely accepted by the analytical community and is being gradually applied to various fields of plant analysis such as QC, profiling and fingerprinting, dereplication, and metabolomics. For many applications, an important improvement of the overall performances has been reported. In this review, the basic principles of UHPLC are summarized, and practical information on the type of columns used and phase chemistry available is provided. An overview of the latest applications to natural product analysis in complex mixtures is given, and the potential and limitations as well as some new trends in the development of UHPLC are discussed.

  3. Recent developments in liquid-phase separation techniques for metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Ramautar, Rawi; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-04-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive analysis of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples such as cells, body fluids and tissues. Comprehensive profiling of metabolites in complex sample matrices with the current analytical toolbox remains a huge challenge. Over the past few years, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) have emerged as powerful complementary analytical techniques in the field of metabolomics. This Review provides an update of the most recent developments in LC-MS and CE-MS for metabolomics. Concerning LC-MS, attention is paid to developments in column technology and miniaturized systems, while strategies are discussed to improve the reproducibility and the concentration sensitivity of CE-MS for metabolomics studies. Novel interfacing techniques for coupling CE to MS are also considered. Representative examples illustrate the potential of the recent developments in LC-MS and CE-MS for metabolomics. Finally, some conclusions and perspectives are provided.

  4. Liquid chromatography of active principles in Sophora flavescens root.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Yi, Changqing; Yang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiaoru

    2004-12-05

    Herbal medicines were one of the major resources for healthcare in earlier stages, and some traditional herbal medicines have been in use for more than 2000 years. Currently, they are attracting more and more attention of the modern pharmaceutical industry, as scientists has become aware that herbs have almost infinite resources for medicine development. This review provides an overview of the analytical approaches applied in the researches concentrated on various aspects of the matrine-type alkaloids in Sophora flavescens root. Emphasis will be laid on the analytical processes of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), as well as gas chromatography (GC) methods. The sample extraction, separation and detection have been summarized. In addition, the applications of chromatographic determinations are introduced for the main matrine-type alkaloids in S. flavescens root, such as matrine, sophoridine, sophocarpine, lehmannine, sophoramine, oxymartine, oxysophocarpine, cytosine and aloperine. The advantages and limitations of HPLC, CE and GC methods in the analytical applications of the alkaloids are also discussed.

  5. Quantitative analysis of aromatics for synthetic biology using liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lai, Bin; Plan, Manuel R; Averesch, Nils J H; Yu, Shiqin; Kracke, Frauke; Lekieffre, Nicolas; Bydder, Sarah; Hodson, Mark P; Winter, Gal; Krömer, Jens O

    2017-01-01

    The replacement of petrochemical aromatics with bio-based molecules is a key area of current biotechnology research. To date, a small number of aromatics have been produced by recombinant bacteria in laboratory scale while industrial production still requires further strain development. While each study includes some distinct analytical methodology to quantify certain aromatics, a method that can reliably quantify a great number of aromatic products and relevant pathway intermediates is needed to accelerate strain development. In this study, we developed a robust reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method to quantify a wide range of aromatic metabolites present in host microorganisms using the shikimate pathway, which is the major metabolic pathway for biosynthesis of aromatics. Twenty-three metabolites can be quantified precisely with the optimized method using standard HPLC equipment and UV detection, with the mobile phase used for chromatography also compatible with mass spectrometry (MS). The limit of quantification/detection is as low as 10(-10) to 10(-13) mol, respectively, which makes this method feasible for quantification of intracellular metabolites. This method covers most metabolic routes for aromatics biosynthesis, it is inexpensive, robust, simple, precise and sensitive, and has been demonstrated on cell extracts from S. cerevisiae genetically engineered to overproduce aromatics. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Gradient chromatofocusing high-performance liquid chromatography. I. Practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Anderson, D J

    1997-02-21

    In this work, a versatile method for generating linear pH gradients using weak anion-exchange HPLC has been developed, which is termed gradient chromatofocusing high-performance liquid chromatography. This method utilizes a linear external pH gradient generated in the mobile phase entering the column (inlet pH gradient), superimposed on an internally-generated pH gradient within the column (column pH gradient), which results from the buffering action of the ion exchanger on the mobile phase and vice versa. The method shows significant advantages over conventional chromatofocusing, including: decreased expense due to the use of common buffer components, ease of adjusting the slope of the pH gradient produced at the outlet of the column (outlet pH gradient) through the manipulation of the inlet pH gradient and the ability of using high concentration buffers in the mobile phase. Chromatography of fibrinogen degradation products was done using gradient chromatofocusing. Bandwidths comparable to conventional chromatofocusing were obtained in the separation of fibrinogen degradation products.

  7. Reliability of the retention factor estimations in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Escuder-Gilabert, L; Bermúdez-Saldaña, J M; Villanueva-Camañas, R M; Medina-Hernández, M J; Sagrado, S

    2004-04-16

    The retention factor is one of the most universally used parameters in chromatography. However, large differences in the experimental retention factor values are observed when the same compound is injected in a given stationary/mobile phase system under intermediate precision conditions. Conventional protocols for estimating retention factors have problems that mainly arise from difficulties in the hold-up time measurements and the omission of the existence of extra-column times by practicing chromatographers. In the present paper, three different approaches for estimating retention factors are tested: (i) classical retention factor estimations based on the gross hold-up time, (ii) based on the real hold-up time (taking into account the extra-column time), and (iii) a new approach that uses 'relative' retention factors based on the use of an external standard. Assays are performed in micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) under intermediate precision conditions (different days, equipments, columns lengths, and mobile phase flow rates). The reliability of the three approaches tested is evaluated by means of precision studies, analysis of factors affecting retention factors, and uncertainty calculations. The approach based on 'relative' retention factors was found to be the most precise, reliable, and robust strategy for estimating retention factors.

  8. Modern Aspects Of Fluorometric Detection In Liquid-Phase Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Bernard; Garnier, Jean P.; Dreux, Claude

    1983-10-01

    Recent advances are described in the combined use of fluorometric derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for clinical chemistry determinations. Derivatives (especially dansyl derivatives) can be formed prior to chromatography in the case of estrogens, amino acids, and catecholamines. In post-column reactions, we preferred to use air-segmented reactions as they conform better to all the optimized chromatographic and spectrofluorometric parameters. Fluorescent derivatives produced from cate-cholamines, tryptophan and its metabolites, hydroxyindoles, tryptamine, amino acids, sugars, polyamines, and other substances are often sufficiently sensitive to be detected in picogram quantities by HPLC. Their reaction principle and some of their applications to samples are described. Recently, chemical excitation of fluorophore-like dansyl amino acid was proposed as a detection system for HPLC. By a post-column reaction, a fluorophore can be made to emit light by its reaction with trichlorophenyl oxalate (TCPO) and hydrogen peroxide. The detection limit of this system is about 10 fmol for each dansyl amino acid. Application of this new reaction to catecholamines opens up new prospects for fluorometric detection.

  9. Determination of void volume in normal phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Wu, Di; Lucy, Charles A

    2014-01-10

    Void volume is an important fundamental parameter in chromatography. Little prior discussion has focused on the determination of void volume in normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC). Various methods to estimate the total void volume are compared: pycnometry; minor disturbance method based on injection of weak solvent; tracer pulse method; hold-up volume based on unretained compounds; and accessible volume based on Martin's rule and its descendants. These are applied to NPLC on silica, RingSep and DNAP columns. Pycnometry provides a theoretically maximum value for the total void volume and should be performed at least once for each new column. However, pycnometry does not reflect the volume of adsorbed strong solvent on the stationary phase, and so only yields an accurate void volume for weaker mobile phase conditions. 1,3,5-Tri-t-butyl benzene (TTBB) results in hold-up volumes that are convenient measures of the void volume for all eluent conditions on charge-transfer columns (RingSep and DNAP), but is weakly retained under weak eluent conditions on silica. Injection of the weak mobile phase component (hexane) may be used to determine void volume, but care must be exercised to select the appropriate disturbance feature. Accessible volumes, that are determined using a homologous series, are always biased low, and are not recommended as a measure of the void volume. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of unsaturated organic compounds by a monolithic silica column embedded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Morisato, Kei; Hasegawa, George; Moitra, Nirmalya; Kiyomura, Tsutomu; Kurata, Hiroki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2015-08-01

    The optimization of a porous structure to ensure good separation performances is always a significant issue in high-performance liquid chromatography column design. Recently we reported the homogeneous embedment of Ag nanoparticles in periodic mesoporous silica monolith and the application of such Ag nanoparticles embedded silica monolith for the high-performance liquid chromatography separation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, the separation performance remains to be improved and the retention mechanism as compared with the Ag ion high-performance liquid chromatography technique still needs to be clarified. In this research, Ag nanoparticles were introduced into a macro/mesoporous silica monolith with optimized pore parameters for high-performance liquid chromatography separations. Baseline separation of benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene was achieved with the theoretical plate number for analyte naphthalene as 36,000 m(-1). Its separation function was further extended to cis/trans isomers of aromatic compounds where cis/trans stilbenes were chosen as a benchmark. Good separation of cis/trans-stilbene with separation factor as 7 and theoretical plate number as 76,000 m(-1) for cis-stilbene was obtained. The trans isomer, however, is retained more strongly, which contradicts the long- established retention rule of Ag ion chromatography. Such behavior of Ag nanoparticles embedded in a silica column can be attributed to the differences in the molecular geometric configuration of cis/trans stilbenes.

  11. [Assay of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime in plasma and urine by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, F; Vinçon, G; Bouchet, J L; Jarry, C; Albin, H

    1984-01-01

    The authors propose an assay technique for cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime in the plasma and urine, using high performance liquid chromatography. The proteins are precipitated by adding propanol-2 to 100 microliter of plasma or urine. After centrifugation, the supernatant is extracted by a mixture of chloroform and isoamyl alcohol. The cephalosporins remain in the superior aqueous phase and a fraction of this phase is injected into the chromatograph. The cefotaxime, desacetylcefotaxime and cephaloridine (internal standard) are separated on a Radial Pak C 18 column by ion-binding chromatography. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of distilled water and acetonitrile (830/170, V/V) with the addition of an ampoule of Pic A (tetrabutylammonium phosphate). This rapid, specific and sensitive micro-method can be used for the assay of these antibiotics in adults and children, for therapeutic monitoring and for pharmacokinetic studies.

  12. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: An Emerging Technology in the Toxicology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan Victoria; Wei, Bin; Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Yanhua; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    In the last decade, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has seen enormous growth in routine toxicology laboratories. LC-MS/MS offers significant advantages over other traditional testing, such as immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodologies. Major strengths of LC-MS/MS include improvement in specificity, flexibility, and sample throughput when compared with other technologies. Here, the basic principles of LC-MS/MS technology are reviewed, followed by advantages and disadvantages of this technology compared with other traditional techniques. In addition, toxicology applications of LC-MS/MS for simultaneous detection of large panels of analytes are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of sucrose in equine serum using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS).

    PubMed

    D'Arcy-Moskwa, E; Weston, L; Noble, G N; Raidal, S L

    2011-11-15

    Mucosal integrity may be objectively assessed by determination of the absorption of exogenous substances such as sucrose. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) have been reported for the accurate quantification of low concentrations of sucrose in serum. LC/MS offered the advantage of high sensitivity and mass selectivity without the need for extensive sample derivatization required for GC/MS methods. However, the high polarity and non-volatile nature of the sucrose molecule renders LC/MS techniques challenging. Previously published reports lacked sufficient detail to permit replication of methodology. Problems encountered with existing protocols included poor peak resolution and weak fragmentation of the parent molecule. This communication describes a LC/MS protocol developed to provide improved resolution and product detection.

  14. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of chlorophenols in wine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yingying; Hu, Shibin; Liu, Shuhui

    2014-12-01

    A novel procedure of sample preparation combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is introduced for the analysis of highly chlorinated phenols (trichlorophenols, tetrachlorophenols, and pentachlorophenol) in wine. The main features of the proposed method are (i) low-toxicity diethyl carbonate as extraction solvent to selectively extract the analytes without matrix effect, (ii) the combination of salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction to achieve an enrichment factor of 334-361, and (iii) the extract is analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography to avoid derivatization. Under the optimum conditions, correlation coefficients (r) were >0.997 for calibration curves in the range 1-80 ng/mL, detection limits and quantification limits ranged from 0.19 to 0.67 and 0.63 to 2.23 ng/mL, respectively, and relative standard deviation was <8%. The method was applied for the determination of chlorophenols in real wines, with recovery rates in the range 82-104%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Simultaneous determination of several phytohormones in natural coconut juice by hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunli; Hu, Bin

    2009-11-06

    A simple, selective, sensitive and inexpensive method of hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for the determination of four acidic phytohormones (salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), (+/-) abscisic acid (ABA) and (+/-) jasmonic acid (JA)) in natural coconut juice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of liquid phase microextraction (LPME) as a sample pretreatment technique for the simultaneous analysis of several phytohormones. Using phenetole to fill the pores of hollow fiber as the organic phase, 0.1molL(-1) NaOH solution in the lumen of hollow fiber as the acceptor phase and 1molL(-1) HCl as the donor phase, a simultaneous preconcentration of four target phytohormones was realized. The acceptor phase was finally withdrawn into the microsyringe and directly injected into HPLC for the separation and quantification of the target phytohormones. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency of four phytohormones by HF-LLLME were optimized with orthogonal design experiment, and the data was analyzed by Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) software. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors for SA, IAA, ABA and JA were 243, 215, 52 and 48, with the detection limits (S/N=3) of 4.6, 1.3, 0.9ngmL(-1) and 8.8 microg mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=7) were 7.9, 4.9, 6.8% at 50ngmL(-1) level for SA, IAA, ABA and 8.4% at 500 microg mL(-1) for JA, respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of the method, the developed method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of several phytohormones in five natural coconut juice samples, and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 88.3-119.1%.

  16. Limonene in Arizona liquid systems used in countercurrent chromatography. I Physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Faure, Karine; Bouju, Elodie; Suchet, Pauline; Berthod, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Limonene is a biorenewable cycloterpene solvent derived from orange peel waste. Its potential as a "green" solvent to replace heptane was recently evaluated. Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a preparative separation technique using biphasic liquid systems. One liquid phase is the mobile phase; the other liquid phase is the stationary phase held in place by centrifugal fields. A particular range of special proportions of the heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water system is called the Arizona (AZ) liquid system when the heptane/ethyl acetate ratio is exactly the same as the methanol/water ratio. A continuous polarity decrease is obtained between the most polar A composition (ethyl acetate/water or 0/1/0/1 v/v) and the least polar Z composition (heptane/methanol or 1/0/1/0 v/v), replacing heptane by limonene and methanol by ethanol produce biphasic liquid systems much more environmentallyfriendly than the original AZ compositions. The chemical compositions of the two liquid phases of 12 AZ limonene/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water proportions were fully determined by Karl-Fisher titration of water and by gas chromatography for the organic solvents. The results were compared with the compositions of the corresponding AZ mixtures containing heptane and methanol. Significant differences in ethyl acetate and ethanol distribution between phases of the two systems with identical volume proportions were established. The ratio of the upper phase over the lower phase volumes and the phase density difference are important in CCC, there are also significant differences between the classic and "green" AZ systems that are discussed.

  17. Pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to determine pharmaceuticals in mussels.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Mireia; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Fontanals, Núria

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method based on pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction with a mixed-mode Oasis(®) MAX sorbent as cleanup, followed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of seven widely used pharmaceuticals in mussel species. The optimization of the pressurized liquid extraction and the solid-phase extraction parameters is described. The method provided extraction recoveries ranging from 61 to 90%, and limits of detection ranging from 2 to 50 ng/g (dry weight). The repeatability and reproducibility of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, were lower than 15 and 19%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of mussel samples from different locations. The analyses showed that salicylic acid was present in mussels at concentrations up to 177 ng/g (dry weight). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Determination of descriptors for fragrance compounds by gas chromatography and liquid-liquid partition.

    PubMed

    Karunasekara, Thushara; Poole, Colin F

    2012-04-27

    Retention factors on a minimum of eight stationary phases at various temperatures by gas-liquid chromatography and liquid-liquid partition coefficients for five totally organic biphasic systems were combined to estimate descriptors for 28 fragrance compounds with an emphasis on compounds that are known or potential allergens. The descriptors facilitated the estimation of several properties of biological and environmental interest (sensory irritation threshold, odor detection threshold, nasal pungency threshold, skin permeability from water, skin-water partition coefficients, octanol-water partition coefficients, absorption by air particles, adsorption by diesel soot particles, air-water partition coefficients, and adsorption by film water). The descriptors are suitable for use in the solvation parameter model and facilitate the estimation of a wide range of physicochemical, chromatographic, biological, and environmental properties using existing models.

  19. Steroid profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for adrenal diseases.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jeffrey G; Matthew, Susan; Auchus, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    The ability to measure steroid hormone concentrations in blood and urine specimens is central to the diagnosis and proper treatment of adrenal diseases. The traditional approach has been to assay each steroid hormone, precursor, or metabolite using individual aliquots of serum, each with a separate immunoassay. For complex diseases, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and adrenocortical cancer, in which the assay of several steroids is essential for management, this approach is time consuming and costly, in addition to using large amounts of serum. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry profiling of steroid metabolites in urine has been employed for many years but only in a small number of specialized laboratories and suffers from slow throughput. The advent of commercial high-performance liquid chromatography instruments coupled to tandem mass spectrometers offers the potential for medium- to high-throughput profiling of serum steroids using small quantities of sample. Here, we review the physical principles of mass spectrometry, the instrumentation used for these techniques, the terminology used in this field and applications to steroid analysis.

  20. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Charles C.; Taylor, Larry T.

    1986-01-01

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  1. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

    1985-01-04

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  2. Determination of Pyrrolnitrin and Derivatives by Gas-Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, Robert L.; Sullivan, Hugh R.; Gorman, Marvin

    1969-01-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic technique was applied to the separation of pyrrolnitrin and its derivatives. The simultaneous use of a flame detector and an electron capture detector made possible the distinction between the nitro derivatives of pyrrolnitrin and the other metabolites. The metabolites could be readily quantitated with the electron capture detector, offering a much more sensitive assay than the flame detector. PMID:5373671

  3. A sensitive microextraction by packed sorbent-based methodology combined with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography as a powerful technique for analysis of biologically active flavonols in wines.

    PubMed

    Silva, Catarina L; Gonçalves, João L; Câmara, José S

    2012-08-20

    A new approach based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and reversed-phase high-throughput ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method that uses a gradient elution and diode array detection to quantitate three biologically active flavonols in wines, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol, is described. In addition to performing routine experiments to establish the validity of the assay to internationally accepted criteria (selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy), experiments are included to assess the effect of the important experimental parameters such as the type of sorbent material (C2, C8, C18, SIL, and C8/SCX), number of extraction cycles (extract-discard), elution volume, sample volume, and ethanol content, on the MEPS performance. The optimal conditions of MEPS extraction were obtained using C8 sorbent and small sample volumes (250μL) in five extraction cycle and in a short time period (about 5min for the entire sample preparation step). Under optimized conditions, excellent linearity (R(values)(2)>0.9963), limits of detection of 0.006μgmL(-1) (quercetin) to 0.013μgmL(-1) (myricetin) and precision within 0.5-3.1% were observed for the target flavonols. The average recoveries of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol for real samples were 83.0-97.7% with relative standard deviation (RSD, %) lower than 1.6%. The results obtained showed that the most abundant flavonol in the analyzed samples was myricetin (5.8±3.7μgmL(-1)). Quercetin (0.97±0.41μgmL(-1)) and kaempferol (0.66±0.24μgmL(-1)) were found in a lower concentration. The optimized MEPS(C8) method was compared with a reverse-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using as sorbent a macroporous copolymer made from a balanced ratio of two monomers, the lipophilic divinylbenzene and the hydrophilic N-vinylpyrrolidone (Oasis HLB) were used as reference. MEPS(C8) approach offers an attractive alternative for analysis of flavonols in wines, providing a number of

  4. Modeling of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography: Analytical solutions and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E

    2015-08-07

    In closed-loop recycling (CLR) chromatography, the effluent from the outlet of a column is directly returned into the column through the sample feed line and continuously recycled until the required separation is reached. To select optimal operating conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture, an appropriate mathematical description of the process is required. This work is concerned with the analysis of models for the CLR separations. Due to the effect of counteracting mechanisms on separation of solutes, analytical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand and optimize chromatographic processes. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the CLR counter-current (liquid-liquid) chromatography (CCC). The equilibrium dispersion and cell models were used to describe the transport and separation of solutes inside a CLR CCC column. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations. Several possible CLR chromatography methods for the binary and complex mixture separations are simulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyphenated and comprehensive liquid chromatography × gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mourão, Marta P B; Denekamp, Ilse; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Kolk, Arend H J; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2016-03-25

    Tuberculosis is one of the world's most emerging public health problems, particularly in developing countries. Chromatography based methods have been used to tackle this epidemic by focusing on biomarker detection. Unfortunately, interferences from lipids in the sputum matrix, particularly cholesterol, adversely affect the identification and detection of the marker compounds. The present contribution describes the serial combination of normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) with thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (THM-GC-MS) to overcome the difficulties of biomarker evaluation. The in-series combination consists of an LC analysis where fractions are collected and then transferred to the THM-GC-MS system. This was either done with comprehensive coupling, transferring all the fractions, or with hyphenated interfacing, i.e. off-line multi heart-cutting, transferring only selected fractions. Owing to the high sensitivity and selectivity of LC as a sample pre-treatment method, and to the high specificity of the MS as a detector, this analytical approach, NPLC × THM-GC-MS, is extremely sensitive. The results obtained indicate that this analytical set-up is able to detect down to 1 × 10(3) mycobacteria/mL of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain 124, spiked in blank sputum samples. It is a powerful analytical tool and also has great potential for full automation. If further studies demonstrate its usefulness when applied blind in real sputum specimens, this technique could compete with the current smear microscopy in the early diagnosis of tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Three dimensional liquid chromatography coupling ion exchange chromatography/hydrophobic interaction chromatography/reverse phase chromatography for effective protein separation in top-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Valeja, Santosh G; Xiu, Lichen; Gregorich, Zachery R; Guner, Huseyin; Jin, Song; Ge, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To address the complexity of the proteome in mass spectrometry (MS)-based top-down proteomics, multidimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC) strategies that can effectively separate proteins with high resolution and automation are highly desirable. Although various MDLC methods that can effectively separate peptides from protein digests exist, very few MDLC strategies, primarily consisting of 2DLC, are available for intact protein separation, which is insufficient to address the complexity of the proteome. We recently demonstrated that hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) utilizing a MS-compatible salt can provide high resolution separation of intact proteins for top-down proteomics. Herein, we have developed a novel 3DLC strategy by coupling HIC with ion exchange chromatography (IEC) and reverse phase chromatography (RPC) for intact protein separation. We demonstrated that a 3D (IEC-HIC-RPC) approach greatly outperformed the conventional 2D IEC-RPC approach. For the same IEC fraction (out of 35 fractions) from a crude HEK 293 cell lysate, a total of 640 proteins were identified in the 3D approach (corresponding to 201 nonredundant proteins) as compared to 47 in the 2D approach, whereas simply prolonging the gradients in RPC in the 2D approach only led to minimal improvement in protein separation and identifications. Therefore, this novel 3DLC method has great potential for effective separation of intact proteins to achieve deep proteome coverage in top-down proteomics.

  7. Improvement of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons determination in edible oil by liquid-liquid-gas chromatography with dual detection.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Mineral oils, which are mainly composed of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons, are widespread food contaminants. Liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection represents the method of choice to determine these two families. However, despite the high selectivity of this technique, the presence of olefins (particularly squalene and its isomers) in some samples as in olive oils, does not allow the correct quantification of the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons fraction, requiring additional off-line tools to eliminate them. In the present research, a novel on-line liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography method is described for the determination of hydrocarbon contamination in edible oils. Two different liquid chromatography columns, namely a silica one (to retain the bulk of the matrix) and a silver-ion one (which better retains the olefins), were coupled in series to obtain the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons hump free of interfering peaks. Furthermore, the use of a simultaneous dual detection, flame ionization detector and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allowed us not only to quantify the mineral oil contamination, but also to evaluate the presence of specific markers (i.e. hopanes) to confirm the petrogenic origin of the contamination. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A Method for the Quantitation of Trace Levels of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Urine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY by...for the sample cleanup and concentration, followed by separation by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography . EXPERIMENTAL Materials...DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE IN URINE BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY 4. AUTHORS (Last name, first name, middle initial. If military, show rank, e.g.

  9. Determination of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), Ethanol (ETOH), Formamide (F) and Glycerol/Formal (GF) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC...Classification) (U) Determination of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), Ethanol, (ETOH), Formamide (F), and Glycerol/ Formal (GF) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC...and 5). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was the analytical method of choice for analyzing DMSO, ethanol, formamide and

  10. Determination of 5-Bromo-2’-Deoxyuridine (BrdU) in Well Water by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC...Securrty Classification) Determination of 5-Bromo-2’-Deoxyuridine (BrdU) in Well Water by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (hPLC) 12. PERSONAL...PLOT OF BrdU STABILITY VERSUS TIME ....................... 10 ii DETERMINATION OF 5-BROMO-2’-DEOXY-URIDINE (BrdU) IN WELL WATER BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

  11. Identification of New Metabolites of Bacterial Transformation of Indole by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. SPG transformed indole completely in the presence of an additional carbon source. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-glyoxylic acid, and indole-3-aldehyde as biotransformation products. This is the first report of the formation of indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-glyoxylic acid, and indole-3-aldehyde from indole by any bacterium. PMID:25548566

  12. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, Diana

    1997-06-24

    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  13. Safety concerns in ultrahigh pressure capillary liquid chromatography using air-driven pumps.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yanqiao; Maynes, Daniel R; Lee, Milton L

    2003-04-04

    Ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is an emerging technique which utilizes pressures higher than 10,000 p.s.i. to overcome the flow resistance imposed when using very small particles as packing materials in fused-silica capillary columns (1 p.s.i.=6894.76 Pa). This technique has demonstrated exceptionally high separation speeds and chromatographic efficiencies. However, safety is a concern when extremely high pressures are used. In this study, the safety aspects of capillary column rupture during operation were identified and carefully evaluated. First, liquid jets may be formed as a result of blow-out of the on-column frits or from rupture of the capillary at or near the column inlet. Second, incorrect installation of the capillary at the injector, failure of the ferrule used in the capillary connection, or rupture of the capillary can produce high speed projectiles of silica particles or column fragments. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory to produce liquid (water) jets and capillary projectiles using a UHPLC system, and the power density, an important parameter describing water jets in industrial practice, was calculated. Experimental results were in accordance with theoretical calculations. Both indicated that water jets and capillary projectiles under ultrahigh pressures might lead to skin penetration under limited conditions. The use of a plexiglass shroud to cover an initial length of the installed capillary column can eliminate any safety-related concerns about liquid jets or capillary projectiles.

  14. Characterization of rhamnolipids by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Beate; Engelen, Jeannine; Tiso, Till; Blank, Lars Mathias; Hayen, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are surface-active agents with a broad application potential that are produced in complex mixtures by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis from fermentation broth is often characterized by laborious sample preparation and requires hyphenated analytical techniques like liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to obtain detailed information about sample composition. In this study, an analytical procedure based on chromatographic method development and characterization of rhamnolipid sample material by LC-MS as well as a comparison of two sample preparation methods, i.e., liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, is presented. Efficient separation was achieved under reversed-phase conditions using a mixed propylphenyl and octadecylsilyl-modified silica gel stationary phase. LC-MS/MS analysis of a supernatant from Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 pVLT33_rhlABC grown on glucose as sole carbon source and purified by solid-phase extraction revealed a total of 20 congeners of di-rhamnolipids, mono-rhamnolipids, and their biosynthetic precursors 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) with different carbon chain lengths from C8 to C14, including three rhamnolipids with uncommon C9 and C11 fatty acid residues. LC-MS and the orcinol assay were used to evaluate the developed solid-phase extraction method in comparison with the established liquid-liquid extraction. Solid-phase extraction exhibited higher yields and reproducibility as well as lower experimental effort.

  15. Microfluidic liquid chromatography system for proteomic applications and biomarker screening.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Iulia M; Trisiripisal, Phichet; Sarvaiya, Hetal A

    2006-08-01

    A microfluidic liquid chromatography (LC) system for proteomic investigations that integrates all the necessary components for stand-alone operation, i.e., pump, valve, separation column, and electrospray interface, is described in this paper. The overall size of the LC device is small enough to enable the integration of two fully functional separation systems on a 3 in. x 1 in. glass microchip. A multichannel architecture that uses electroosmotic pumping principles provides the necessary functionality for eluent propulsion and sample valving. The flow rates generated within these chips are fully consistent with the requirements of nano-LC platforms that are routinely used in proteomic applications. The microfluidic device was evaluated for the analysis of a protein digest obtained from the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. The cytosolic protein extract was processed according to a shotgun protocol, and after tryptic digestion and prefractionation using strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX), selected sample subfractions were analyzed with conventional and microfluidic LC platforms. Using similar experimental conditions, the performance of the microchip LC was comparable to that obtained with benchtop instrumentation, providing an overlap of 75% in proteins that were identified by more than two unique peptides. The microfluidic LC analysis of a protein-rich SCX fraction enabled the confident identification of 77 proteins by using conventional data filtering parameters, of 39 proteins with p < 0.001, and of 5 proteins that are known to be cancer-specific biomarkers, demonstrating thus the potential applicability of these chips for future high-throughput biomarker screening applications.

  16. Analysis of aromatic amines in water samples by liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with hollow fibers and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Limian; Zhu, Lingyan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2002-07-19

    Liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (LLLME) with hollow fibers in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied as a rapid and sensitive quantitative method for the detection of four aromatic amines (3-nitroaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline and 3,4-dichloroaniline) in environmental water samples. The preconcentration procedure was induced by the pH difference inside and outside the hollow fiber. The target compounds were extracted from 4-ml aqueous sample (donor solution, pH approximately 13) through a microfilm of organic solvent (di-n-hexyl ether), immobilized in the pores of a hollow fiber (1.5 cm length x 0.6 mm I.D.), and finally into 4 microl of acid acceptor solution inside the fiber. After a prescribed period of time, the acceptor solution inside the fiber was withdrawn into the microsyringe and directly injected into the HPLC system for analysis. Factors relevant to the extraction procedure were studied. Up to 500-fold enrichment of analytes could be obtained under the optimized conditions (donor solution: 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution with 20% sodium chloride and 2% acetone; organic phase: di-n-hexyl ether; acceptor solution: 0.5 M hydrochloric acid and 500 mM 18-crown-6 ether; extraction time of 30 min; stirring at 1,000 rev./min). The procedure also served as a sample clean-up step. The influence of humic acid on the extraction efficiency was also investigated, and more than 85% relative recoveries of the analytes at two different concentrations (20 and 100 microg/l) were achieved at various concentration of humic acid. This technique is a low cost, simple and fast approach to the analysis of polar compounds in aqueous samples.

  17. Liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with automated movement of the acceptor and the donor phase for the extraction of phenoxyacetic acids prior to liquid chromatography detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Chiang; Melwanki, Mahaveer B; Huang, Shang-Da

    2006-02-03

    A simple liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with automated movement of the acceptor and the donor phase (LLLME/AMADP) technique is described for the quantitative determination of five phenoxyacetic acids in water using a disposable and ready to use hollow fiber. The target compounds were extracted from the acidified sample solution (donor phase) into the organic solvent residing in the pores of the hollow fiber and then back extracted into the alkaline solution (acceptor phase) inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The fiber was held by a conventional 10-microl syringe. The acceptor phase was sandwiched between the plunger and a small volume of the organic solvent (microcap). The acceptor solution was repeatedly moved in and out of the hollow fiber assisted by a programmable syringe pump. This repeated movement provides a fresh acceptor phase to come in-contact with the organic phase and thus enhancing extraction kinetics leading to high enrichment of the analytes. The microcap separates the aqueous acceptor phase and the donor phase in addition of being partially responsible for mass transfer of the analytes from donor solution (moving in and out of the hollow fiber from the open end of the fiber) to the acceptor solution. Separation and quantitative analyses were then performed using liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 280 nm. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency viz. type of organic solvent used for immobilization in the pores of the hollow fiber, extraction time, stirring speed, effect of sodium chloride, and concentration of donor and acceptor phases were studied. Repeatability (RSD, 3.2-7.4%), correlation coefficient (0.996-0.999), detection limit (0.2-2.8 ng ml(-1)) and enrichment factors (129-240) were also investigated. Relative recovery (87-101%) and absolute recoveries (4.6-13%) have also been calculated. The developed method was applied for the analysis of river water.

  18. Extensive database of liquid phase diffusion coefficients of some frequently used test molecules in reversed-phase liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Song, Huiying; Vanderheyden, Yoachim; Adams, Erwin; Desmet, Gert; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2016-07-15

    Diffusion plays an important role in all aspects of band broadening in chromatography. An accurate knowledge of molecular diffusion coefficients in different mobile phases is therefore crucial in fundamental column performance studies. Correlations available in literature, such as the Wilke-Chang equation, can provide good approximations of molecular diffusion under reversed-phase conditions. However, these correlations have been demonstrated to be less accurate for mobile phases containing a large percentage of acetonitrile, as is the case in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. A database of experimentally measured molecular diffusion coefficients of some 45 polar and apolar compounds that are frequently used as test molecules under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed-phase conditions is therefore presented. Special attention is given to diffusion coefficients of polar compounds obtained in large percentages of acetonitrile (>90%). The effect of the buffer concentration (5-10mM ammonium acetate) on the obtained diffusion coefficients is investigated and is demonstrated to mainly influence the molecular diffusion of charged molecules. Diffusion coefficients are measured using the Taylor-Aris method and hence deduced from the peak broadening of a solute when flowing through a long open tube. The validity of the set-up employed for the measurement of the diffusion coefficients is demonstrated by ruling out the occurrence of longitudinal diffusion, secondary flow interactions and extra-column effects, while it is also shown that radial equilibration in the 15m long capillary is effective.

  19. Isolation of Xanthomegnin from Penicillium viridicatum by Preparative High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, R. E.; Grove, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for the production and purification of xanthomegnin from Penicillium viridicatum (NRRL 6430) cultured on rice at 15°C for 29 days. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography afforded 440 mg of crystalline xanthomegnin per kg of rice. PMID:6881966

  20. Isolation and identification of the metolachlor stereoisomers using high-performance liquid chromatography, polarimetric measurements, and enantioselective gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Müller, M D; Poiger, T; Buser, H

    2001-01-01

    Because of the presence of two chiral elements (an asymmetrically substituted carbon and a chiral axis), the herbicide metolachlor consists of four stereoisomers stable at ambient temperature with aSS-, aRS-, aSR-, and aRR-configurations (aSS, the isomer with aS,1'S-configuration, etc.). Metolachlor, initially introduced into the market as the racemic product containing all four stereoisomers, is currently being replaced worldwide by S-metolachlor, the product enantiomerically enriched with the herbicidally active 1'S-isomers (aSS, aRS). The isomer-specific analysis of metolachlor requires not only enantioselective ("chiral") analytical techniques but also suitable reference compounds. In this study, two of the four metolachlor isomers were isolated from rac-metolachlor in enantio- (ee > 98%) and diastereomerically pure forms by a combination of achiral and chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The two isomers were identified as the aSS- and the aRR-isomers by polarimetric measurements, in reference to previous data. The two isomers were then thermally equilibrated to 1:1 mixtures of the aSS/aRS and aRR/aSR diastereomers, respectively, so that analytical data of all four metolachlor isomers became available; they were then used to identify these isomers in technical products by chiral high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The kinetics of the thermally induced interconversion of the atropisomers was studied and the consequences, such as for GC analysis, are discussed. A comparison of on-column and split/splitless injection indicated that the latter technique results in significant isomerization prior to separation and, therefore, cannot be used for accurate isomer analysis.

  1. Dual reductive/oxidative electrochemistry/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: Towards peptide and protein modification, separation and identification.

    PubMed

    Büter, Lars; Frensemeier, Lisa M; Vogel, Martin; Karst, Uwe

    2017-01-06

    A new hyphenated technique based on on-line dual (oxidative and reductive) electrochemistry coupled to liquid chromatography and high resolution electrospray mass spectrometry is presented. Two liquid streams are combined, with one containing a disulfide, which is reduced to the respective thiol in an electrochemical cell based on a titanium working electrode. The other stream contains phenol, which is electrochemically activated to benzoquinone on a boron-doped diamond working electrode. Upon combination of the two streams, a Michael addition takes places, leading to the covalent coupling of thiol to quinone. In continuous flow, the reaction mixture is transferred into an injection valve and the products are separated by reversed phase liquid chromatography and detected by electrospray-high resolution mass spectrometry. Proof of concept is demonstrated for low molecular mass disulfides and peptides, but further optimization will be required in future work to achieve efficient protein labelling.

  2. Isopropylammonium Formate as a Mobile Phase Modifier for Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Matthew P.; Zhou, Ling; Camp, Suzanne E.; Danielson, Neil D.

    2012-01-01

    Isopropylammonium formate (IPAF), a new alkylammonium formate (AAF) room temperature ionic liquid, has been synthesized from isopropylamine and formic acid and characterized as an organic solvent mobile phase replacement for reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC). Characterization of IPAF solvent properties in water such as pH, conductivity, and viscosity, as well as its synthesis, is described. The LC polarity (P′) and the solvent strength (S) parameters are determined to be 6.0 and 2.4, respectively, similar to those same parameters for methanol and acetonitrile. Application of this RTIL is demonstrated as an organic solvent replacement for reversed-phase LC to separate a test mixture of niacinamide, acetophenone and p-nitroaniline. The van Deemter plot profile for several columns of different dimensions, particle size, pore size and stationary phase are compared using an IPAF–water mobile phase. At flow rates above 2 mL/min, on-line mixing of the viscous IPAF with water appears not to be uniform. A flattening of the van Deemter profile is noted for particularly short (50 mm) wide bore (4.6 mm) columns packed with larger particles (10 µm). Small particle longer columns likely facilitated mixing at the beginning of the column generating typical linearly increasing van Deemeter curves. IPAF has been further shown as a function of temperature to be a non-denaturing modifier solvent for the separation of the protein cytochrome c from tryptophan compared to methanol. This is important to show, because the semi-preparative separation of native proteins using AAF mobile phases is the long-term goal of this research program. PMID:22718743

  3. Liquid Tunable Microlenses based on MEMS techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xuefeng; Jiang, Hongrui

    2013-01-01

    The recent rapid development in microlens technology has provided many opportunities for miniaturized optical systems, and has found a wide range of applications. Of these microlenses, tunable-focus microlenses are of special interest as their focal lengths can be tuned using micro-scale actuators integrated with the lens structure. Realization of such tunable microlens generally relies on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in tunable liquid microlenses. The underlying physics relevant to these microlenses are first discussed, followed by description of three main categories of tunable microlenses involving MEMS techniques, mechanically driven, electrically driven, and those integrated within microfluidic systems. PMID:24163480

  4. Rapid determination of some psychotropic drugs in complex matrices by tandem dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Alireza; Fahimi, Ebrahim; Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Boutorabi, Leila

    2017-03-15

    Simple and rapid determinations of some psychotropic drugs in some pharmaceutical wastewater and human plasma samples were successfully accomplished via the tandem dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (TDLLME-HPLC-UV). TDLLME of the three psychotropic drugs clozapine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine was easily performed through two consecutive dispersive liquid-liquid microextractions. By performing this convenient method, proper sample preconcentrations and clean-ups were achieved in just about 7min. In order to achieve the best extraction efficiency, the effective parameters involved were optimized. The optimal experimental conditions consisted of 100μL of CCl4 (as the extraction organic solvent), and the pH values of 13 and 2 for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively. Under these optimum experimental conditions, the proposed TDLLME-HPLC-UV technique provided a good linearity in the range of 5-3000ngmL(-1) for the three psychotropic drugs with the correlation of determinations (R(2)s) higher than 0.996. The limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) obtained were 5.0ngmL(-1) and 1.0-1.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Also the proper enrichment factors (EFs) of 96, 99, and 88 for clozapine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine, respectively, and good extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations below 9.3%, n=5) were obtained.

  5. New method for determining total dietary fiber by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, K; Matsuda, I; Katta, Y; Tsuji, K; Ohkuma, K; Matsuda, I; Katta, Y; Tsuji, K

    2000-01-01

    The molecular weight limit of water-soluble dietary fiber (SDF) determined by the Prosky method was studied by liquid chromatography (LC). It was confirmed that only SDF with an average degree of polymerization of 12 or higher can be determined by the Prosky method. Total dietary fiber (TDF) was determined by 2 additional methods using LC. In the first method, the total quantity of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and high molecular weight SDF (HMSDF) was determined according to the modified Prosky method (MES-TRIS buffer-based). The quantitatively collected final filtrate was analyzed by LC for the quantity of low molecular weight SDF (LMSDF), and the 2 quantities were totaled to obtain TDF. TDF values thus determined for rice, polished or unpolished, soybean flour, and pressed barley were higher than those determined by the Prosky method by approximately 6, 3.5, and 3.5%, respectively. In the second method, direct determination by LC analysis was done on samples after enzymatic treatment according to the Prosky method. Results showed that the determination of LMSDF, in particular, was highly accurate and more effective. In both of these methods, the quantity of LMSDF was determined from its chromatographic peak area ratio to glucose as an internal standard, which was produced by hydrolysis.

  6. Determination of patulin in apple juice by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Iha, Maria Helena; Sabino, Myrna

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed and validated in-house for the determination of patulin (PAT), a toxic mold metabolite, in apple juice. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate-hexane and analyzed by liquid chromatography equipped with a C18 column and diode array detector. The mobile phase used for the quantification was water-ethanol, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The method showed a mean recovery of 84.8%, the relative standard deviation obtained in the precision study was <7.7%, the quantification and detection limits were 7 and 3 microg/L, respectively, and the linear range for PAT in apple juice was 2.6-650 microg/L. The ruggedness was evaluated by an intralaboratory experiment, in which 5 factors were studied, and only one was found to influence the observed results. The developed method is fast, practical, and simple; the solvents (except hexane) and reagents used were nontoxic. The results of the validation confirmed the efficiency of the method, which is sensitive enough to be used in studies required to quantify PAT in apple juice.

  7. Determination of sulfite in foods by headspace liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.F.; Chadha, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfite was determined in a variety of foods by liquid chromatography (LC) after the samples were mixed with a solution containing mannitol, FeSO/sub 4/, and Na/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, adjusted to pH 11, and left to stand for 15 min at room temperature. An aliquot of the mixture was placed in a headspace vial and mixed with 50% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. After 15 min, a portion of the headspace was removed with a syringe containing LC mobile phase without acetonitrile. The syringe was shaken and an aliquot of the solution was analyzed on an anion exchange column with a mobile phase of 0.03M methane sulfonate (pH 10.8) containing 5% acetonitrile. Sulfite was detected amperometrically (glassy carbon electrode) at +0.7 V. The method was successfully compared to the FDA-modified Monier-Williams procedure for a variety of foods. Minimum detectable levels were about 1 ..mu..g/g, based on a 15 g sample.

  8. Analysis of Cordyceps by multi-column liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengming; Li, Shaoping

    2017-03-01

    Cordyceps is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been used in China for hundreds of years. In the present study a multi-column liquid chromatography (MC-LC) system was developed for the qualitative analysis of macromolecules and micromolecules in Cordyceps. The MC-LC system includes a size exclusion pre-column, a size exclusion column (SEC) and a reversed phase column (RP) which were controlled by column-switching valves. The sample was separated by the size exclusion pre-column into two fractions (macromolecules and micromolecules). These fractions were further separated on SEC and RP columns, respectively. A diode array detector (DAD) and a mass spectrometer (MS) were used to detect the components. This MC-LC method was utilized for analysis of Cordyceps samples. Two macromolecular peaks and 15 micromolecular peaks were found in Cordyceps, and 11 of the micromolecular peaks were identified as adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP), phenylalanine, uridine, hypoxanthine, inosine, guanine, guanosine, deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate (dAMP), adenosine, adenine and cordycepin (or its isomer). This method is useful for quality control of Cordyceps.

  9. Determination of neomycin in animal tissues by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Reid, J A; MacNeil, J D

    1999-01-01

    Tissue samples are digested under hot alkaline conditions after initial conditioning at room temperature with phosphate-buffered saline. The cooled digest is deproteinated with concentrated perchloric acid. After centrifugation and pH adjustment, the clear supernatant is applied to an ion-exchange cartridge, and after the cartridge is washed, the neomycin is eluted with dilute perchloric acid. This eluate is derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate prior to liquid chromatography using a wide-pore spherical silica C4 column and fluorescence detection. Recovery and repeatability are calculated from tissue extract standard calibration curves produced from the same assay. Recoveries ranged from 80 to 120% for fortifications of 0.25-1.00 mg/kg for muscle tissue and from 80 to 100% for fortifications of 0.50-10.0 mg/kg for kidney tissue. Limits of quantitation were 0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg, respectively, for muscle and kidney tissues. Limits of detection were 0.125 and 0.20 mg/kg, respectively, for muscle and kidney tissues.

  10. Gas-liquid chromatography of fecal neutral steriods.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, K O; Gehrke, C W; Rogers, I T; Flynn, M A; Hentges, D J

    1977-05-21

    A method is described for the analysis of fecal neutral steriods with a dual-column gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) system. After saponification of the fecal slurry, the neutral steroids were extracted with hexane. The GLC separation of the compounds and quantitation were achieved by simultaneous injection of the derivatized and derivatized aliquots of the extract onto dual colmuns under identical conditions. The neutral steroids of interest were than identified by matching the retention times with those of known standards, and identification was confirmed by use of an interfaced GLC high-resolution mass spectrometry system. The detection limit was 0.003 mg of steroid/g of fecal slurry. The pricision of the method is illustrated by a relative standard diviation of 2-10% and a recovery of neutral steroids from 73-96%. The method was applied to the determination of fecal neutral steroids in a "High protein diet in colon cancer study". A considerably larger level of coprostanone than of coprostanol was observed. Data on neutral steroids in fecal samples from subjects on different diets are the subject of a separate publication.

  11. Are analysts doing method validation in liquid chromatography?

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Angel, M J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C; Berthod, A; Carda-Broch, S

    2014-08-01

    Method validation is being applied in the reported analytical methods for decades. Even before this protocol was defined, authors already somehow validated their methods without full awareness. They wished to assure the quality of their work. Validation is an applied approach to verify that a method is suitable and rugged enough to function as a quality control tool in different locations and times. The performance parameters and statistical protocols followed throughout a validation study vary with the source of guidelines. Before single laboratory validation, an analytical method should be fully developed and optimized. The purpose of the validation is to confirm performance parameters that are determined during method development, and it should provide information on how the method will perform under routine use. An unstable method may require re-validation. Further method development and optimization will be needed if validation results do not meet the accepted performance standards. When possible, the validation protocol should also be conducted as a collaborative study by multiple laboratories, on different instruments, reagents, and standards. At this point, it would be interesting to know how people are validating their methods. Are they evaluating all defined validation parameters? Are they indicating the followed guidelines? Is re-validation really currently used? Is validation performed by a single laboratory, or is it a collaborative work by several laboratories? Is it an evolving discipline? In this survey, we will try to answer these questions focused to the field of liquid chromatography.

  12. Chromatographic analysis of olopatadine in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maksić, Jelena; Jovanović, Marko; Rakić, Tijana; Popović, Igor; Ivanović, Darko; Jančić-Stojanović, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, chromatographic analysis of active substance olopatadine hydrochloride, which is used in eye drops as antihistaminic agent, and its impurity E isomer by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and application of design of experiments (DoE) methodology are presented. In addition, benzalkonium chloride is very often used as a preservative in eye drops. Therefore, the evaluation of its chromatographic behavior in HILIC was carried out as well. In order to estimate chromatographic behavior and set optimal chromatographic conditions, DoE methodology was applied. After the selection of important chromatographic factors, Box-Behnken design was utilized, and on the basis of the obtained models factor effects were examined. Then, multi-objective robust optimization is performed aiming to obtain chromatographic conditions that comply with several quality criteria simultaneously: adequate and robust separation of critical peak pair and maximum retention of the first eluting peak. The optimal conditions are identified by using grid point search methodology. The experimental verification confirmed the adequacy of the defined optimal conditions. Finally, under optimal chromatographic conditions, the method was validated and applicability of the proposed method was confirmed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Separation of microcystins and nodularins by ultra performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Spoof, Lisa; Neffling, Milla-Riina; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2009-11-15

    Four ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) columns with different reversed-phase characteristics were tested in the chromatographic separation of 10 microcystins and three nodularins, cyanobacterial peptide toxins. The columns had been designed by the manufacturer to withstand the ultra-high pressure generated by sub-2microm stationary phase particles and the Waters ACQUITY UPLC system in ultra-fast separations. The gradient mobile phase consisted of water and acetonitrile, both acidified with trifluoroacetic acid, with three gradient rise times: 1, 1.5 and 2min. The UV detection of the toxins was performed by a photodiode array detector. The chromatographic performance was evaluated both visually and by calculating chromatographic parameters such as capacity factor, resolution, peak width at half height, selectivity and peak asymmetry. The best chromatographic performance as judged by visual inspection was given by the ACQUITY BEH Shield RP18 and ACQUITY BEH Phenyl columns. The BEH Shield RP18 column showed excellent selectivity and resolution of chosen peak pairs considered as critical. A further advantage of the UPLC system was the high sample throughput with a total analysis time of 3.12min (injection-to-injection) equalling to 461 separations per 24h.

  14. Liquid chromatography of hydrocarbonaeous quaternary amines on cyclodextrin bonded silica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of n-alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDAC) were resolved into homologous components by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a cyclodextrin-bonded silica stationary phase. With a few exceptions, results from this study are similar to those obtained from traditional reversed-phase HPLC. It was found that the presence of electrolytes in aqueous mobile phases is not a critical factor in determining the success of HPLC separation. Under normal HPLC conditions, a mobile phase consisting of either methanol–water (50:50) or acetonitrile–water (30:70) was employed for obtaining adequate resolution of the quaternary ammonium mixtures. Although the percent organic modifier–water profiles were similar to those in previous studies with these compounds, resolution (R) and selectivity (α) parameters were found to be quite susceptible to changes in the mobile phase solvent composition. The retention behavior of the cationic analytes in the homologous series is consistent with the hydrophobic-interaction concept proposed for the retention mechanism via dominant inclusion complex formation. Several electrolytes were chosen for a study of the counter ion effect on the chromatographic characteristics of ABDAC components. Among the electrolytes examined, the perchlorate ion was found most likely to act as an ion-pairing counter ion for ammonium cations in the HPLC system studied. A correlation study established linear relationships between the chain length of ABDAC and the logarithmic capacity factor (k2). The analytical utility of the HPLC method was demonstrated by the analysis of various unknown mixtures.

  15. [Detecting methamphetamine and amphetamine with high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Liao, Lin-chuan; Chen, Li-li; Yan, You-yi; Yang, Lin; Hou, Jun-hong; Chen, Yu

    2007-11-01

    To establish a method for detecting methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AMP) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both MA and AMP were isolated on a C18 column and methanol-phosphate buffer (0.015 mol/L NaH2PO4) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The 190-360 nm ultraviolet spectrum was examined, with 215 nm as the detection wavelength. The MA and AMP were well isolated and determined. The MA determined by the HPLC had good linearity with the real value at the range from 1.4 to 270 microg/mL (R2=1), with an average recovery rate of 102.5%. The detectable Limit was 0.73 microg/mL (S/N > or =3). The AMP determined by the HPLC had a good linearity with the real value at the range from 0.9 to 580 microg/mL (R2 = 0.9999), with an average recovery rate of 101.7%. The detectable limit was 0.52 microg/mL (S/N > or =3). Both intra-day and inter-day precisions expressed by relative standard deviations of the MA and AMP were less than 2.4%. This is a simple, rapid and accurate method for detecting methamphetamine and amphetamine.

  16. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with alcohol as a weak eluent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Ostovic, Judy; Chen, Emily X; Cauchon, Nina

    2009-03-20

    There has been a significant increase of interest in polar compound separation by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), in which acetonitrile is mostly used as a weak eluent. Although replacing acetonitrile with alcohols as organic modifiers has been previously reported, the separation mechanism was poorly understood. In this paper we explored the separation mechanism through the method development for the analysis of the trace amounts of polar and basic hydrazines, which were genotoxic in nature. Separation parameters such as the type and concentration of alcohol, acid modifier, and buffer in mobile phase as well as the choice of stationary phase and column temperature were studied. The data indicated that both electrostatic and hydrophilic interactions contributed to the retention and separation of the hydrazines. The results presented here provide insight into the adjustment of the retention and separation of analytes in HILIC mode with alcohol as a weak eluent. The optimized HILIC method coupled with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND) is simple and sensitive (reporting limit at 0.02%) and was applied to simultaneous analysis of hydrazine and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in a pharmaceutical intermediate.

  17. Simultaneous determination of cyclodol and diprazin by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Makharadze, R; Adeishvili, L; Chelidze, T; Imnadze, N; Nizharadze, N

    2009-11-01

    Ciklodol (trihexyphenidil)--the central and peripheral m-cholinoblocker is currently used with other antipsychotic drugs such as phenotiazines and tricycle antidepressants. For the purpose of simultaneous determination of ciklodol and diprazine, were selected two methods of analysis: Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). During development of TLC method was studied the 10 visualizing system and 24 mobile systems. For individual or simultaneous determination of ciklodol and diprazine were recommended the following solvents' systems: 1. Toluene-acetone-ethanole-25%NH(4)OH (45:45: 7.5:2.5), 2. Hexane-ethyl acetate (15:5), 3. Chloroform-heptene-25%NH(4)OH (16:3:3), 4. Ethylacetate-hexane (10:10), 5. Acetonitrile-metanol (10:10) and 6.Heptene-chloroform-ethanol-25% NH(4)OH (5:10:3:1). As visualizing systems were chosen: Iodine vapors, blacklight (UV254) and reagent of FNP. Reagent of FNP gives colored spot just with diprazine and it is also could be used for separation of both objects in simultaneous analysis. Developed HPLC method of simultaneous determination of ciklodol and diprazine: like mobile phase is recommended: Acetonitril- 0.05M KH(2)PO4 (55:45) (v/v) +H(3)PO(4) (pH3.5), column EC250 x 4.6mm, with solid phase Nucleosil, flow rate 1ml/min, sample volume 40 microl. In given conditions, the retention time of ciklodol is 6.005min and diprazine 7.227min. Developed method of simultaneous determination and separation of ciklodol and diprazine in respective mixtures could be successfully applied as in the pharmaceutical, as well in the chemical-toxicological laboratories.

  18. Determination of triazine herbicides in juice samples by microwave-assisted ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Su, Rui; Li, Dan; Wu, Lijie; Han, Jing; Lian, Wenhui; Wang, Keren; Yang, Hongmei

    2017-07-01

    A novel microextraction method, termed microwave-assisted ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, has been developed for the rapid enrichment and analysis of triazine herbicides in fruit juice samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Instead of using hazardous organic solvents, two kinds of ionic liquids, a hydrophobic ionic liquid (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) and a hydrophilic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), were used as the extraction solvent and dispersion agent, respectively, in this method. The extraction procedure was induced by the formation of cloudy solution, which was composed of fine drops of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dispersed entirely into sample solution with the help of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. In addition, an ion-pairing agent (NH4 PF6 ) was introduced to improve recoveries of the ionic liquid phase. Several experimental parameters that might affect the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linearity for determining the analytes was in the range of 5.00-250.00 μg/L, with the correlation coefficients of 0.9982-0.9997. The practical application of this effective and green method is demonstrated by the successful analysis of triazine herbicides in four juice samples, with satisfactory recoveries (76.7-105.7%) and relative standard deviations (lower than 6.6%). In general, this method is fast, effective, and robust to determine triazine herbicides in juice samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Column design, retention processes, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, En -Yi

    1997-10-08

    This work describes the continued development of a new separation technique, electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC), from column design, retention mechanisms to pharmaceutical applications. The introduction section provides a literature review of the technique as well as a brief overview of the research in each of the chapters. This section is followed by four chapters which investigate the issues of EMLC column design, the retention mechanism of monosubstituted aromatic compounds, and the EMLC-based applications to two important classes of pharmaceutical compounds (i.e., corticosteroids and benzodiazepines). These four sections have been removed to process separately for inclusion on the database. The dissertation concludes with a general summary, a prospectus, and a list of references cited in the General Introduction. 32 refs.

  20. High performance liquid chromatography study of complex oxygenated alkane mixtures from organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafut-Pettibone, Alicia J.; Klems, Joseph P.; McGivern, W. Sean

    2013-05-01

    The composition of secondary organic aerosol particles is of primary importance both in identifying particle sources and in determining physical parameters, such as cloud condensation nucleus propensity. Further, measurements of composition are valuable in determining the chemistry of formation and aging. In this work, we describe the application of a recently-developed derivatization technique to a complex synthetic organic aerosol derived from the photolysis of 1-iodooctane. The technique utilizes high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to both ultravioletvisible (UV/VIS) spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) to determine the overall distribution of hydroxyl (OH), non-acid carbonyl (C=O), and carboxylic acid (COOH) moieties as well as the specific identities of chromatographically separated products. This composition data will then be used to constrain models of the particle formation mechanisms.

  1. Recent advances of liquid chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry in clinical and forensic toxicology - An update.

    PubMed

    Remane, Daniela; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Peters, Frank T

    2016-09-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a well-established and widely used technique in clinical and forensic toxicology as well as doping control especially for quantitative analysis. In recent years, many applications for so-called multi-target screening and/or quantification of drugs, poisons, and or their metabolites in biological matrices have been developed. Such methods have proven particularly useful for analysis of so-called new psychoactive substances that have appeared on recreational drug markets throughout the world. Moreover, the evolvement of high resolution MS techniques and the development of data-independent detection modes have opened new possibilities for applications of LC-(MS/MS) in systematic toxicological screening analysis in the so called general unknown setting. The present paper will provide an overview and discuss these recent developments focusing on the literature published after 2010.

  2. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in in vitro drug metabolite screening.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Ari; Turpeinen, Miia; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2009-02-01

    A combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has proven its status as the most powerful analytical tool for screening and identifying drug metabolites in modern drug discovery. These techniques have become irreplaceable for drug metabolism laboratories, providing high amounts of information from a wide variety of samples. This review focuses on the most common and useful applications of these techniques when working on in vitro metabolism, more specifically with screening and identification of chemically stable or reactive metabolites formed via biotransformation reactions. Matching specific tasks and suitable instruments is a recurring consideration; for many reasons, the time-of-flight or orbitrap mass spectrometry provides clearly increased efficiency in metabolite profiling compared to other types of mass spectrometry.

  3. Indirect fluorometric detection techniques on thin layer chromatography and effect of ultrasound on gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Yinfa, Ma.

    1990-12-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a broadly applicable separation technique. It offers many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), such as easily adapted for two-dimensional separation, for whole-column'' detection and for handling multiple samples, etc. However, due to its draggy development of detection techniques comparing with HPLC, TLC has not received the attention it deserves. Therefore, exploring new detection techniques is very important to the development of TLC. It is the principal of this dissertation to present a new detection method for TLC -- indirect fluorometric detection method. This detection technique is universal sensitive, nondestructive, and simple. This will be described in detail from Sections 1 through Section 5. Section 1 and 3 describe the indirect fluorometric detection of anions and nonelectrolytes in TLC. In Section 2, a detection method for cations based on fluorescence quenching of ethidium bromide is presented. In Section 4, a simple and interesting TLC experiment is designed, three different fluorescence detection principles are used for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. A laser-based indirect fluorometric detection technique in TLC is developed in Section 5. Section 6 is totally different from Sections 1 through 5. An ultrasonic effect on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis is investigated. 262 refs.

  4. Combining Laser Ablation/Liquid Phase Collection Surface Sampling and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient pressure transmission geometry laser ablation with a liquid phase sample collection method for surface sampling and ionization with subsequent mass spectral analysis. A commercially available autosampler was adapted to produce a liquid droplet at the end of the syringe injection needle while in close proximity to the surface to collect the sample plume produced by laser ablation. The sample collection was followed by either flow injection or a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extracted components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the analytical utility of this coupling, thin films of a commercial ink sample containing rhodamine 6G and of mixed isobaric rhodamine B and 6G dyes on glass microscope slides were analyzed. The flow injection and HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed successful laser ablation, capture and, with HPLC, the separation of the two compounds. The ablated circular area was about 70 m in diameter for these experiments. The spatial sampling resolution afforded by the laser ablation, as well as the ability to use sample processing methods like HPLC between the sample collection and ionization steps, makes this combined surface sampling/ionization technique a highly versatile analytical tool.

  5. Determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals by pressurized liquid extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Rangel, M; Delgado-Zamarreño, M M; Sánchez-Pérez, A; Carabias-Martínez, R

    2007-03-28

    A rapid analytical method including pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) has been developed for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. The pressurized liquid extraction parameters were optimized in order to maximize the extraction efficiency. The use of methanol as extraction solvent at a temperature of 50 degrees C and a pressure of 110 bar, using one cycle of extraction with a static time of 5 min, provided the best results. A good LC separation was achieved using a C(18) column and a solution of 6.0 mM ammonia in methanol/water (97:3, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min(-1). MS coupling with an ESI interface in the negative ion mode was used as the detection technique. In the present work, it is shown that the addition of a base to the mobile phase is required to enhance the ionization of tocopherols and tocotrienols in negative ion mode electrospray ionization. The applicability of the method to cereal samples was confirmed. The reproducibility of the procedure was good, with relative standard deviations in the 6-10% range. The recoveries of added tocopherols from cereal samples ranged from 91 to 109%.

  6. How to separate ionic liquids: use of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mixed mode phases.

    PubMed

    Lamouroux, C; Foglia, G; Le Rouzo, G

    2011-05-20

    This chromatographic study deals with the development of a convenient and versatile method to separate Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Different modes of chromatography were studied. The study attempts to answer the following question: "what were the most important interactions for the separation of ionic liquids?". The results show that the essential interactions to assure a good retention of RTILs are the ionic ones and that hydrophobic interactions play a role in the selectivity of the separation. The separation of five imidazolium salt with a traditional diol columns in Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) was demonstrated. It shows that neutral diol grafted column allows an important retention that we assume is due to the capability of diol to develop a thick layer of water. Furthermore, stationary phase based on mixed interaction associating ion exchange and hydrophobic properties were studied. Firstly, it will be argued that it is possible to separate RTILs with a convenient retention and resolution according to a reverse phase elution with the Primesep columns made of a brush type long alkyl chain with an embedded negatively charged functional group. Secondly, a sucessful separation of RTILs in HILIC mode with a mixed phase column containing a cationic exchanger and a hydrophobic octyl chain length will be demonstrated.

  7. On-line hyphenation of centrifugal partition chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography for the fractionation of flavonoids from Hippophaë rhamnoides L. berries.

    PubMed

    Michel, Thomas; Destandau, Emilie; Elfakir, Claire

    2011-09-09

    Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC), a liquid-liquid preparative chromatography using two immiscible solvent systems, benefits from numerous advantages for the separation or purification of synthetic or natural products. This study presents the on-line hyphenation of CPC-Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (CPC-ELSD) with High Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV (HPLC-UV) for the fractionation of flavonols from a solvent-free microwave extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae) berries. An Arizona G system was used for the fractionation of flavonoids by CPC and a fused core Halo C18 column allowed the on-line analyses of collected fractions by HPLC. The on-line CPC/HPLC procedure allowed the simultaneous fractionation step at preparative scale combined with the HPLC analyses which provide direct fingerprint of collected fractions. Thus the crude extract was simplified and immediate information on the composition of fractions could be obtained. Furthermore, this methodology reduced the time of post-fractionation steps and facilitated identification of main molecules by Mass Spectrometry (MS). Rutin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-rhamnoside, quercetin and isorhamnetin were identified. CPC-ELSD/HPLC-UV could be considered as a high-throughput technique for the guided fractionation of bioactive natural products from complex crude extracts.

  8. Screening of drugs and toxic compounds with liquid chromatography-linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, François-Ludovic; Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Duretz, Bénédicte; Deporte, Didier; Lachatre, Gérard; Marquet, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    In clinical and forensic toxicology, general unknown screening is used to detect and identify exogenous compounds. In this study, we aimed to develop a comprehensive general unknown screening method based on liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. After solid-phase extraction, separation was performed using gradient reversed-phase chromatography. The mass spectrometer was operated in the information-dependent acquisition mode, switching between a survey scan acquired in the Enhanced Mass Spectrometry mode with dynamic subtraction of background noise and a dependent scan obtained in the enhanced product ion scan mode. The complete cycle time was 1.36 s. A library of 1000 enhanced product ion-tandem mass spectrometry spectra in positive mode and 250 in negative mode, generated using 3 alternated collision tensions during each scan, was created by injecting pure solutions of drugs and toxic compounds. Comparison with HPLC-diode array detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of 36 clinical samples showed that linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry could identify most of the compounds (94% of the total). Some compounds were detected only by 1 of the other 2 techniques. Specific clinical cases highlighted the advantages and limitations of the method. A unique combination of new operating modes provided by hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometers and new software features allowed development of a comprehensive and efficient method for the general unknown screening of drugs and toxic compounds in blood or urine.

  9. Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography: Theoretical investigations and applications from the perspectives of chromatography and interfacial electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) employs a conductive material as both a stationary phase for chromatographic separations and as a working electrode for performing electrochemistry experiments. This dual functionality gives EMLC the capacity to manipulate chromatographic separations by changing the potential applied (Eapp) to the stationary phase with respect to an external reference. The ability to monitor retention as a function of Eapp provides a means to chromatographically monitor electrosorption processes at solid-liquid interfaces. In this dissertation, the retention mechanism for EMLC is examined from the perspective of electrical double layer theory and interfacial thermodynamics. From the chromatographic data, it is possible to determine the interfacial excess (Λ) of a solute and changes in interfacial tension (dγ) as a function of both Eapp and the supporting electrolyte concentration. Taken together, these two experimentally manipulated parameters can be examined within the context of the Gibbs adsorption equation to delineate the contribution of a variety of interfacial properties, including the charge of solute on the stationary phase and the potential of zero charge (PZC), to the mechanism behind EMLC-based retention. The chromatographic probing of interfacial phenomena is complemented by electroanalytical experiments that exploit the ability to monitor the electronic current flowing through an EMLC column. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry of an EMLC column are used to determine the electronic performance characteristics of an EMLC column. An electrochemical flow injection analysis of a column is provided in which the current required to maintain a constant Eapp is monitored and provides a way to examine the influence that acetonitrile and supporting electrolyte composition, flow rate, column backpressure, and ionic strength have on the structure of electrified interfaces.

  10. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of steroid hormones in oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Bond, A M; Heritage, I D; Briggs, M H

    1984-12-19

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection is studied for the determination of both progestogenic and oestrogenic components of oral contraceptive formulations. The applicability of the assay is demonstrated for a number of different progestogen-oestrogen combinations in both conventional tablet and novel "paper" formulations. The results show that the method developed is a versatile technique for the routine assay of these pharmaceutical formulations.

  11. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  12. HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF SELECTED ORGANIC PEROXIDES WITH OXIDATIVE AMPEROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with oxidative amperometric detection was optimized for the determination of several organic peroxides in drinking water under ideal conditions.The determinations were performed under isocratic conditions using acetonitrile an...

  13. HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF SELECTED ORGANIC PEROXIDES WITH OXIDATIVE AMPEROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with oxidative amperometric detection was optimized for the determination of several organic peroxides in drinking water under ideal conditions.The determinations were performed under isocratic conditions using acetonitrile an...

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF POLAR DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A qualitative method using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization followed by analysis with liquid chromatography (LC)/negative ion-electrospray mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for identifying polar aldehydes and ketones in ozonated drinking water. This method offe...

  15. Qualitative Analysis of Analgesic Tablets: An Experiment Employing High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Rodney W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the qualitative analysis of several over-the-counter analgesic tablets. Background information, procedures used (including high pressure liquid chromatography), and typical student results are included. (JN)

  16. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of dolichols and polyprenols, lipid sugar carriers across evolution*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ziqiang; Eichler, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Across evolution, dolichols and polyprenols serve as sugar carriers in biosynthetic processes that include protein glycosylation and lipopolysaccharide biogenesis. Liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry offers a powerful tool for studying dolichols and polyprenols in their alcohol or glycan-modified forms in members of all three domains of life. In the following, recent examples of the how different versions of this analytical approach, namely reverse phase liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring, normal phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and normal phase liquid chromatography-precursor ion scan detection have respectively served to address novel aspects of dolichol or polyprenol biology in Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipodomics and Imaging Mass Spectrometry. PMID:21570481

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF POLAR DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A qualitative method using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization followed by analysis with liquid chromatography (LC)/negative ion-electrospray mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for identifying polar aldehydes and ketones in ozonated drinking water. This method offe...

  18. Qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones by the method of high-efficiency liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Yanotovskii, M.T.; Mogilevskaya, M.P.; Obol'nikova, E.A.; Kogan, L.M.; Samokhvalov, G.I.

    1986-07-10

    A method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones CoQ/sub 6/-CoQ/sub 10/, using high-efficiency reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Tocopherol acetate was used as the internal standard.

  19. Preparation of pure microbiological samples for pyrolysis gas-liquid chromatography studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Bacterial samples were prepared for pyrolysis gas-liquid chromatography using cells grown on membrane filters. Pyrochromatograms were reproducible when cells harvested from the filters were pyrolyzed without being washed.

  20. Preparation of pure microbiological samples for pyrolysis gas-liquid chromatography studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Bacterial samples were prepared for pyrolysis gas-liquid chromatography using cells grown on membrane filters. Pyrochromatograms were reproducible when cells harvested from the filters were pyrolyzed without being washed.

  1. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  2. Exploring the possibilities of cryogenic cooling in liquid chromatography for biological applications: a proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Eghbali, Hamed; Sandra, Koen; Tienpont, Bart; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Sandra, Pat; Desmet, Gert

    2012-02-21

    The possibilities to use cryogenic cooling to trap components in liquid chromatography was investigated. In a first step, van 't Hoff plots were measured with a reversed-phase column using the temperature control unit of a conventional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system to gain insight in the retention behavior of proteins at low temperatures. It was estimated that retention factors in the range of k = 10(4) could be achieved at T = -20 °C for lysozyme, indicating that temperature is a usable parameter to trap components in LC. In a next step, trapping experiments were carried out on a nano-LC system, equipped with a UV-detector, using a commercial reversed-phase column. An in-house built setup, allowing cooling of a segment of the column down to temperatures below T = -20 °C, was used to trap components. Experiments were conducted under isocratic and gradient conditions with methanol as organic solvent. It is demonstrated that, by thermally trapping and elution of components, an enhanced S/N ratio and decreased peak widths can be obtained. At the same time, a significant increase in pressure drop occurs during the cooling process. Limitations and benefits of the technique are further discussed.

  3. Degradation study of enniatins by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A B; Meca, G; Font, G; Ferrer, E

    2013-12-15

    Enniatins A, A1, B and B1 (ENs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. and are normal contaminants of cereals and derivate products. In this study, the stability of ENs was evaluated during food processing by simulation of pasta cooking. Thermal treatments at different incubation times (5, 10 and 15 min) and different pH (4, 7 and 10) were applied in an aqueous system and pasta resembling system (PRS). The concentrations of the targeted mycotoxins were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. High percentages of ENs reduction (81-100%) were evidenced in the PRS after the treatments at 5, 10 and 15 min of incubation. In contrast to the PRS, an important reduction of the ENs was obtained in the aqueous system after 15 min of incubation (82-100%). In general, no significant differences were observed between acid, neutral and basic solutions. Finally, several ENs degradation products were identified using the technique of liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

  4. Liquid chromatography-fluorescence and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection of tryptophan degradation products of a recombinant monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Christine; Ponniah, Gomathinayagam; Cheng, Guilong; Kita, Adriana; Neill, Alyssa; Kori, Yekaterina; Liu, Hongcheng

    2016-03-01

    Light exposure is one of several conditions used to study the degradation pathways of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Tryptophan is of particular interest among the 20 amino acids because it is the most photosensitive. Tryptophan degradation forms several products, including an even stronger photosensitizer and several reactive oxygen species. The current study reports a specific peptide mapping procedure to monitor tryptophan degradation. Instead of monitoring peptides using UV 214 nm, fluorescence detection with an excitation wavelength of 295 nm and an emission wavelength of 350 nm was used to enable specific detection of tryptophan-containing peptides. Peaks that decreased in area over time are likely to contain susceptible tryptophan residues. This observation can allow further liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis to focus only on those peaks to confirm tryptophan degradation products. After confirmation of tryptophan degradation, susceptibility of tryptophan residues can be compared based on the peak area decrease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Philip John

    1996-04-23

    This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

  6. Determination of metal ions in tea samples using task-specific ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Werner, Justyna

    2016-04-01

    Task-specific ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was used for the preconcentration of cadmium(II), cobalt(II), and lead(II) ions in tea samples, which were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography with UV detection. The proposed method of preconcentration is free of volatile organic compounds, which are often used as extractants and dispersing solvents in classic techniques of microextraction. A task-specific ionic liquid trioctylmethylammonium thiosalicylate was used as an extractant and a chelating agent. Ultrasound was used to disperse the ionic liquid. After microextraction, the phases were separated by centrifugation, and the ionic liquid phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into the liquid chromatograph. Selected microextraction parameters, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the pH of the sample, the duration of ultrasound treatment, the speed and time of centrifugation, and the effect of ionic strength, were optimized. Under optimal conditions an enrichment factor of 200 was obtained for each analyte. The limits of detection were 0.002 mg/kg for Cd(II), 0.009 mg/kg for Co(II), and 0.013 mg/kg for Pb(II). The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by an analysis of the Certified Reference Materials (INCT-TL-1, INCT-MPH-2) with the recovery values in the range of 90-104%.

  7. Determination of ink photoinitiators in packaged beverages by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sagratini, Gianni; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cristalli, Gloria; Giardiná, Dario; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Volpini, Rosaria; Zuo, Yanting; Vittori, Sauro

    2008-06-20

    A new analytical method, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) techniques, was developed for the determination in packaged food beverages of five ink photoinitiator residues: 2-isopropylthioxanthone (ITX), benzophenone, 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EHDAB), 1-hydroxycyclohexyl-1-phenyl ketone (IRGACURE 184) and ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDAB). Samples were extracted from selected beverages (milk, fruit juices and wine) and relative packagings, using n-hexane and dichloromethane, respectively, purified on solid-phase extraction (SPE) silica gel cartridges, and then analyzed in GC/MS and LC/MS. The recovery percentages, obtained spiking the beverage samples at concentrations of 4 and 10 microgl(-1) with a standard mixture of photoinitiators, were in the range 42-108% (milk), 50-84% (wine), and 48-109% (fruit juices). The repeatability of the method was assessed in all cases by the % of correlation value, that was lower than 19%. The lowest limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs), obtained using GC/MS, were in the range 0.2-1 and 1-5 microgl(-1), respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of forty packaged food beverages (milk, fruit juices and wine samples). The most significant contamination was that of benzophenone, found in all samples in a concentration range of 5-217mugl(-1). Its presence was confirmed by an LC/Atmospheric-Pressure PhotoIonization (APPI)/MS/MS analysis. The photoinitiator (EHDAB) was found in eleven out of forty beverages in a concentration range of 0.13-0.8 microgl(-1). Less important was the ITX contamination, found in three out of forty samples in a range 0.2-0.24 microgl(-1). The work proposes a new method to analyze ink photoinitiator residues in polycoupled carton packaging and in contained food beverages.

  8. Separation of anionic oligosaccharides by high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1986-10-01

    The authors have developed methods for rapid fractionation of anionic oligosaccharides containing sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ion-exchange HPLC on amine-bearing columns (Micropak AX-10 and AX-5) at pH 4.0 is utilized to separate anionic oligosaccharides bearing zero, one, two, three, or four charges, independent of the identity of the anionic moieties (sulfate and/or sialic acid). Ion-exchange HPLC at pH 1.7 allows separation of neutral, mono-, di-, and tetrasialylated, monosulfated, and disulfated oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides containing three sialic acid residues and those bearing one each of sulfate and sialic acid, however, coelute at pH 1.7. Since the latter two oligosaccharide species separate at pH 4.0, analysis at pH 4.0 followed by analysis at pH 1.7 can be utilized to completely fractionate complex mixtures of sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides. Ion-suppression amine adsorption HPLC has previously been shown to separate anionic oligosaccharides on the basis of net carbohydrate content (size). In this study they demonstrate the utility of ion-suppression amine adsorption HPLC for resolving sialylated oligosaccharide isomers which differ only in the linkages of sialic acid residues (..cap alpha..2,3 vs ..cap alpha..2,6) and/or location of ..cap alpha..2,3- and ..cap alpha..2,6-linked sialic acid moieties on the peripheral branches of oligosaccharides. These two methods can be used in tandem to separate oligosaccharides, both analytically and preparatively, based on their number, types, and linkages of anionic moieties.

  9. Liquid chromatography method to determine polyamines in thermosetting polymers.

    PubMed

    Dopico-García, M S; López-Vilariño, J M; Fernández-Martínez, G; González-Rodríguez, M V

    2010-05-14

    A simple, robust and sensitive analytical method to determine three polyamines commonly used as hardeners in epoxy resin systems and in the manufacture of polyurethane is reported. The studied polyamines are: one tetramine, TETA (triethylenetetramine), and two diamines, IPDA (Isophorone diamine) and TCD-diamine (4,7-methano-1H-indene-5,?-dimethanamine, octahydro-). The latter has an incompletely defined structure, and, as far as we know, has not been previously determined by other methods. All three polyamines contain primary amines; TETA also contains secondary amines. The analytical method involves derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate, used for the first time for these compounds, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with a fluorescence (FL) detector (lambda excitation 248nm, lambda emision 395nm). The HPLC-DAD-LTQ Orbitrap MS was used in order to provide structural information about the obtained derivatized compounds. The hybrid linear ion trap LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer has been introduced in recent years and provides a high mass accuracy. The structures of the derivatized analytes were identified from the protonated molecular ions [M+H](+) and corresponded to the fully labelled analytes. The following analytical parameters were determined for the method using the HPLC-FL: linearity, precision (2.5-10%), instrumental precision intraday (0.8-1.5%) and interday (2.9-6.3%), and detection limits (0.02-0.14mgL(-1)). The stability of stock solutions and derivatized compounds was also investigated. The method was applied to determine the amine free content in epoxy resin dust collected in workplaces.

  10. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-09-18

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Utility of liquid chromatography/fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/thermospray mass spectrometry for structure identification of metabolites of a fluorinated herbicide.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, H; Chott, R C; Solsten, R T

    1992-09-01

    This study demonstrates a useful application of on-line microbore high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fast atom bombardment (FAB) and thermospray (TSP) mass spectrometry techniques for identification of metabolites from the in vitro metabolism of an experimental Monsanto herbicide: 2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl-N-[2-methyl-6- (trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acetamide, 'chloroacetanilide'. The microbore HPLC FAB technique on a high-resolution sector mass spectrometer accelerated identification of polar metabolites from the in vitro metabolism study of the herbicide. It provided good chromatographic resolution and excellent FAB sensitivity with strong protonated molecular ions. Scanning high-resolution LC/FAB mass spectrometry also provided molecular formulae for structural elucidation of unknown metabolites. Sample purification and concentration were minimized. Identification of less polar metabolites was carried out using LC/TSP mass spectrometry with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. LC/TSP mass spectrometry provided useful structural information for both polar and less polar metabolites because their spectra showed more fragmentation than FAB spectra. Glutathione conjugation was the major reaction observed during in vitro incubation of the herbicide. Oxidation of the chloroacetanilide by rat liver enzymes was also a significant metabolic reaction. Seven metabolites were identified, of which four were glutathione conjugates.

  12. Separation of stereoisomers of several furan derivatives by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, supercritical fluid chromatography, and liquid chromatography using chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Hiroko F; Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Kazunori; Shirao, Mika; Matsumoto, Yohichiro; Honda, Toshio; Seyama, Yoshiyuki

    2002-11-15

    The direct separation of several stereoisomers (enantiomers and geometrical isomers) of furan derivatives, important intermediates for the synthesis of physiologically active natural products, was achieved using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a per-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, supercritical fluid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography with a tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) of cellulose or amylose for the chiral stational phases, respectively. The temperature dependence of the peak resolution (Rs) and the retention factor (k) over the range of 110-130 degrees was studied using crotyl furfuryl ether in gas chromatography. Successive increases in the Rs value and of the difference between the k value of the E-isomer and the k value of the Z-isomer were observed when the gradient temperature was decreased. The per-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin column was suitable for use with volatile furan ethers whose molecular masses are between 150 and 180. In conclusion, the separation of thermally unstable furan derivatives was accomplished using supercritical fluid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography.

  13. Development of an on-line mixed-mode gel liquid chromatography×reversed phase liquid chromatography method for separation of water extract from Flos Carthami.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Qing; Tang, Xu; Li, Jia-Fu; Wu, Yun-Long; Sun, Yu-Ying; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Xiu-Min; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2017-10-13

    A novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method by coupling mixed-mode gel liquid chromatography (MMG-LC) with reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was developed. A mixture of 17 reference compounds was used to study the separation mechanism. A crude water extract of Flos Carthami was applied to evaluate the performance of the novel 2D-LC system. In the first dimension, the extract was eluted with a gradient of water/methanol over a cross-linked dextran gel Sephadex LH-20 column. Meanwhile, the advantages of size exclusion, reversed phase partition and adsorption separation mechanism were exploited before further on-line reversed phase purification on the second dimension. This novel on-line mixed-mode Sephadex LH-20×RPLC method provided higher peak resolution, sample processing ability (2.5mg) and better orthogonality (72.9%) versus RPLC×RPLC and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)×RPLC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a mixed-mode Sephadex LH-20×RPLC separation method with successful applications in on-line mode, which might be beneficial for harvesting targets from complicated medicinal plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplets followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of duloxetine in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Suh, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Hee Joo; Kang, Myunghee; Hur, Yeoun; Lee, Sun Neo; Yang, Dong-Hyug; Han, Sang Beom

    2013-03-05

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) technique was developed for the determination of duloxetine in human plasma samples by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). During the extraction procedure, plasma protein was precipitated by using a mixture of zinc sulfate solution and acetonitrile. After the protein precipitation step, duloxetine in an alkaline sample solution was quickly extracted by DLLME-SFO with 50 μL of 1-undecanol (extractant). Disperser was unnecessary because the small amount of remaining acetonitrile, which acts as a protein precipitating reagent, was also employed as a disperser; therefore, organic solvent consumption was reduced as much as possible. The emulsion was centrifuged and then fine droplets were floated to the top of the sample solution. The floated droplets were solidified in an ice bath and easily transferred. Various DLLME-SFO parameters such as extractant type, extractant amount, ionic strength, pH and extraction time were optimized. The chromatographic separation of duloxetine was carried out using ethanol as mobile phase. Validation of the method was performed with respect to linearity, intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision, limit of quantification (LOQ), and recovery. Calibration curves for duloxetine showed good linearity with correlation coefficients (r²) higher than 0.99. The method showed good precision and accuracy, with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation less than 15% (LOQ: less than 20%) at all concentrations. The recovery was carried out following the standard addition procedure with yields ranging from 59.6 to 65.5%. A newly developed environmentally friendly method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of duloxetine in human plasma and was shown to be an alternative green approach compared with the conventional solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and dispersive

  15. Evaluation of a silicon oxynitride hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column in saccharide and glycoside separations.

    PubMed

    Wan, Huihui; Sheng, Qianying; Zhong, Hongmin; Guo, Xiujie; Fu, Qing; Liu, Yanfang; Xue, Xingya; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-01

    The retention characteristics of a silicon oxynitride stationary phase for carbohydrate separation were studied in hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode. Four saccharides including mono-, di-, and trisaccharides were employed to investigate the effects of water content and buffer concentration in the mobile phase on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography retention. For the tested saccharides, the silicon oxynitride column demonstrated excellent performance in terms of separation efficiency, hydrophilicity, and interesting separation selectivity for carbohydrates compared to the bare silica stationary phase. Finally, the silicon oxynitride hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column was employed in the separation of complex samples of fructooligosaccharides, saponins, and steviol glycoside from natural products. The resulting chromatograms demonstrated good separation efficiency and longer retention compared with silica, which further confirmed the advantages and potential application of silicon oxynitride stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Isolation of Gregatin A from Phialophora gregata by Preparative High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Scott L.; Peterson, Robert E.; Gray, Lynn E.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed for the production and purification of gregatin A from Phialophora gregata NRRL 13198 cultured on rice at 20°C for 28 days. Liquid extraction followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography afforded 247.0 mg of crystalline gregatin A per kg of rice. PMID:16346936

  17. Detailed molecular characterization of castor oil ethoxylates by liquid chromatography multistage mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Andreas; van Velde, Jan W; Heeren, Ron M A; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-10-07

    The molecular characterization of castor oil ethoxylates (CASEOs) was studied by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) mass spectrometry (MS) and multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The developed RPLC method allowed the separation of the various CASEO components, and especially, the baseline separation of multiple nominal isobars (same nominal mass) and isomers (same exact mass). MS and MS(n) were used for the determination and structure elucidation of various structures and for the discrimination of the isobars and isomers. Different ionization techniques and adduct ions were also tested for optimization of the MS detection and the MS(n) fragmentation. A unique fragmentation pathway of ricinoleic acid is proposed, which can be used as a marker of the polymerization process and the topology of ethoxylation in the CASEO. In addition, characteristic neutral losses of ricinoleic acid reveal its (terminal or internal) position in the molecule.

  18. Predicting human intestinal absorption in the presence of bile salt with micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Waters, Laura J; Shokry, Dina S; Parkes, Gareth M B

    2016-10-01

    Understanding intestinal absorption for pharmaceutical compounds is vital to estimate the bioavailability and therefore the in vivo potential of a drug. This study considers the application of micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) to predict passive intestinal absorption with a selection of model compounds. MLC is already known to aid prediction of absorption using simple surfactant systems; however, with this study the focus was on the presence of a more complex, bile salt surfactant, as would be encountered in the in vivo environment. As a result, MLC using a specific bile salt has been confirmed as an ideal in vitro system to predict the intestinal permeability for a wide range of drugs, through the development of a quantitative partition-absorption relationship. MLC offers many benefits including environmental, economic, time-saving and ethical advantages compared with the traditional techniques employed to obtain passive intestinal absorption values. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Mycolic Acid Analysis by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Identification of Mycobacterium Species

    PubMed Central

    Butler, W. Ray; Guthertz, Linda S.

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiologic agent of tuberculosis and can be accurately detected by laboratories using commercial genetic tests. Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) causing other mycobacterioses can be difficult to identify. The identification processes are confounded by an increasing diversity of newly characterized NTM species. The ubiquitous nature of NTM, combined with their potential to be opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised as well as nonimmunodeficient patients, further complicates the problem of their identification. Since clinical case management varies depending on the etiologic agent, laboratories must identify the species in a timely manner. However, only a few identification methods can detect the species diversity within the Mycobacterium genus. Over the last decade, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the mycolic acids has become an accepted method for identification of mycobacteria. In this review, we assess its development and usefulness as an identification technique for Mycobacterium species. PMID:11585782

  20. Current Applications of Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry in Pharmaceutical Discovery After a Decade of Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Bradley L.; Berna, Michael J.; Eckstein, James A.; Ott, Lee W.; Chaudhary, Ajai K.

    2008-07-01

    Current drug discovery involves a highly iterative process pertaining to three core disciplines: biology, chemistry, and drug disposition. For most pharmaceutical companies the path to a drug candidate comprises similar stages: target identification, biological screening, lead generation, lead optimization, and candidate selection. Over the past decade, the overall efficiency of drug discovery has been greatly improved by a single instrumental technique, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Transformed by the commercial introduction of the atmospheric pressure ionization interface in the mid-1990s, LC/MS has expanded into almost every area of drug discovery. In many cases, drug discovery workflow has been changed owing to vastly improved efficiency. This review examines recent trends for these three core disciplines and presents seminal examples where LC/MS has altered the current approach to drug discovery.

  1. Enzymatic determination of phosphate in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D K; Danielson, N D

    1983-06-24

    A selective assay for orthophosphate in complex matrices was developed based on the nucleoside phosphorylase catalyzed conversion of inosine and orthophosphate of hypoxanthine. The enzyme reaction was using only 0.28 units/assay was allowed to proceed for 30 min before quenching. Separation of inosine and hypoxanthine was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Quantitation of the hypoxanthine peak was found to be linear with orthophosphate up to 30 micrograms/g. A detection limit of 0.75 ppm could be obtained after dialysis of the commercial enzyme. Interference studies showed that the enzymatic assay unlike the colorimetric molybdate-blue technique was essentially unaffected by complex matrices such as serum, urine, polyphosphates, and phosphoesters.

  2. New insights into liquid chromatography for more eco-friendly analysis of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Heba

    2016-10-01

    Greening the analytical methods used for analysis of pharmaceuticals has been receiving great interest aimed at eliminating or minimizing the amount of organic solvents consumed daily worldwide without loss in chromatographic performance. Traditional analytical LC techniques employed in pharmaceutical analysis consume tremendous amounts of hazardous solvents and consequently generate large amounts of waste. The monetary and ecological impact of using large amounts of solvents and waste disposal motivated the analytical community to search for alternatives to replace polluting analytical methodologies with clean ones. In this context, implementing the principles of green analytical chemistry (GAC) in analytical laboratories is highly desired. This review gives a comprehensive overview on different green LC pathways for implementing GAC principles in analytical laboratories and focuses on evaluating the greenness of LC analytical procedures. This review presents green LC approaches for eco-friendly analysis of pharmaceuticals in industrial, biological, and environmental matrices. Graphical Abstract Green pathways of liquid chromatography for more eco-friendly analysis of pharmaceuticals.

  3. A simple high-pressure liquid chromatography cotinine assay: validation of smoking status in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Greaves, R; Trotter, L; Brennecke, S; Janus, E

    2001-07-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a significant public health issue, and studies of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce maternal smoking require accurate measurement of smoking status. This study addresses some key issues in improvement of the effectiveness and efficiency of chemical validation of smoking status using a simplified high-pressure liquid chromatography urine cotinine method. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation trial and from non-pregnant volunteers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Analysis of ETS samples produced a maximum cotinine of 28 microg/mmol creatinine, which was established as the cut-off point for this method. This method is a relatively fast and inexpensive technique with which to analyse large batches of cotinine samples and can reliably measure smoking status.

  4. Application of Pre-Column Labeling Liquid Chromatography for Canine Plasma-Free Amino Acid Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kazuo; Hirao, Yoshiko; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Murahata, Yusuke; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Ito, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) levels are a useful metric for diagnosing cancer and providing a prognosis. However, the use of analysis of PFAA levels has been limited in the veterinary medicine field. We addressed the application of liquid chromatography (LC) using a pre-column labeling technique for analysis of canine PFAA levels. This method significantly shortened the analysis time relative to conventional methods. No diurnal fluctuations were detected at 9:00 AM in most PFAA levels, and food intake increased the levels of some PFAAs, including valine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and proline. These results indicate that LC with pre-column labeling is useful for measuring canine PFAA levels, for which time of day and interval after food intake must be taken into consideration. PMID:26771650

  5. Isolation and purification of glycoconjugates from complex biological sources by recycling high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Alley, William R; Mann, Benjamin F; Hruska, Vlastimil; Novotny, Milos V

    2013-11-05

    Among of the most urgent needs of the glycobiology community is to generate libraries of pure carbohydrate standards. While many oligosaccharides have recently been synthesized, some glycans of biomedical importance are still missing in existing collections or are available in only limited amounts. To address this need, we demonstrate the use of the relatively unexplored technique of recycling high-performance liquid chromatography (R-HPLC) to isolate and purify glycoconjugates from several natural sources. We were able to routinely achieve purities greater than 98%. In several cases, we were able to obtain isomerically pure substances, particularly for glycans with different positional isomerism. These purified substances can then be used in different analytical applications, for example, as standards for mass spectrometry (MS) and capillary-based separations. Moreover, using a bifunctional aromatic amine, the same derivatization agent can be used to enable UV detection of oligosaccharides during their purification and link the isolated molecules to functionalized surfaces and potentially create glycan arrays.

  6. Measurement of serum pralidoxime methylsulfate (Contrathion) by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Houzé, Pascal; Borron, Stephen W; Scherninski, François; Bousquet, Bernard; Gourmel, Bernard; Baud, Frédéric

    2005-01-05

    Pralidoxime methylsulfate (Contrathion) is widely used to treat organophosphate poisoning. Despite animal and human studies, the usefulness of Contrathion therapy remains a matter of debate. Therapeutic dosage regimens need to be clarified and availability of a reliable method for plasma pralidoxime quantification would be helpful in this process. We here describe a high-performance liquid chromatography technique with electrochemical detection to measure pralidoxime concentrations in human serum using guanosine as an internal standard. The assay was linear between 0.25 and 50 microg mL(-1) with a quantification limit of 0.2 microg mL(-1). The analytical precision was satisfactory, with variation coefficients lower 10%. This assay was applied to the analysis of a serum from an organophosphorate poisoned patient and treated by Contrathion infusions (100 and 200 mg h(-1)) after a loading dose (400 mg).

  7. Determination of amprolium in feed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Mauro, C; Ferro, G L; Amato, G; Abete, M C

    2008-12-15

    As a consequence of the finding of veterinarian drugs in food European Community banned several compounds like coccidiostats as amprolium (APL). This antibiotic has been used as a preventive and clinical anticoccidial drug in chicken. The 2005/187/CE, 2005/925/EC Recommendations ban the use of amprolium as additive in chicken feed. For this reason a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to detect amprolium in chicken feed following the European community proposed technique (1999/27/EC) for sample preparation. Cause the validation is required for the analytical methods used in feed official control, this method was validated according to 2004/882/EC Regulation.

  8. Determination of lipid hydroperoxides in serum iodometry and high performance liquid chromatography compared.

    PubMed

    Wieland, E; Schettler, V; Diedrich, F; Schuff-Werner, P; Oellerich, M

    1992-06-01

    It is postulated that lipid peroxidation plays a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Efforts have therefore been made to develop reliable and practicable procedures for quantifying lipid peroxidation products such as lipid hydroperoxides in biological specimens. An iodometric cholesterol colour reagent (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) can be used to measure lipid hydroperoxides in isolated low density lipoproteins without lipid extraction. This method has been validated with respect to its analytical performance and suitability for serum samples by comparing it with a high performance liquid chromatography technique. The method was found to have acceptable performance characteristics with aqueous fatty acid hydroperoxide solutions (linoleic acid) and isolated low density lipoproteins, but it cannot be applied to native serum samples without extraction of lipids.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolysis by paraoxonases.

    PubMed

    Teiber, John F; Draganov, Dragomir I

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian paraoxonases (PONs) are a unique, highly conserved family of calcium-dependent esterases consisting of PON1, PON2, and PON3. The PONs can hydrolyze the lactone ring of a range of N-acyl-L: -homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signaling molecules, rendering them inactive. This chapter describes a method that utilizes high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection for determining the rate of AHL hydrolysis in cell lysates, tissue homogenates, serum, and with purified proteins. Also described are the techniques used to prepare cell culture lysates and tissue homogenates for analysis and the use of class-specific enzyme inhibitors to determine the contribution of PONs to AHL hydrolysis in the samples.

  10. Hydrocarbon group type determination in jet fuels by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are given for the analysis of some jet and diesel fuel samples which were prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes. Thirty-two samples of varying chemical composition and physical properties were obtained. Hydrocarbon types in these samples were determined by fluorescent indicator adsorption (FIA) analysis, and the results from three laboratories are presented and compared. Recently, rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been proposed for hydrocarbon group type analysis, with some suggestion for their use as a replacement of the FIA technique. Two of these methods were used to analyze some of the samples, and these results are also presented and compared. Two samples of petroleum-based Jet A fuel are similarly analyzed.

  11. Determination of macrolide antibiotics in meat and fish using pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Berrada, Houda; Borrull, Francesc; Font, Guillermina; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2008-10-24

    We developed a method for determining the quantities of seven macrolide antibiotics in meat and fish by using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-(ESI)MS). The PLE was optimized with regard to solvents, temperature, pressure, extraction time and number of cycles. The optimum conditions were: methanol as the extraction solvent; a temperature of 80 degrees C; a pressure of 1500psi; an extraction time of 15min; 2 cycles; a flush volume of 150% and a purge time of 300s. All recoveries for macrolide antibiotics were over 77% at 200mug/kg, except for erythromycin, which was 58%. The repeatability and reproducibility on days in between, expressed as %RSD (n=12), were lower than 10% and 12%, respectively. The quantification limits of all compounds were 25mug/kg of dry weight of animal muscle except for troleandomycin (50mug/kg). The method was applied to determine the pharmaceuticals in real samples taken from 18 meat and fish samples. The results showed that PLE is quantitative short time consuming technique, with use of smaller initial sample sizes. Greater specificity and selectivity in extraction and increased potential for automation were shown.

  12. Determination of Levetiracetam in Human Plasma by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug that is clinically effective in generalized and partial epilepsy syndromes. The use of this drug has been increasing in clinical practice and intra- or -interindividual variability has been exhibited for special population. For this reason, bioanalytical methods are required for drug monitoring in biological matrices. So this work presents a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DLLME-GC-MS) for LEV quantification in human plasma. However, due to the matrix complexity a previous purification step is required. Unlike other pretreatment techniques presented in the literature, for the first time, a procedure employing ultrafiltration tubes Amicon® (10 kDa porous size) without organic solvent consumption was developed. GC-MS analyses were carried out using a linear temperature program, capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier gas. DLLME optimized parameters were type and volume of extraction and dispersing solvents, salt addition, and vortex agitation time. Under chosen parameters (extraction solvent: chloroform, 130 μL; dispersing solvent: isopropyl alcohol, 400 μL; no salt addition and no vortex agitation time), the method was completely validated and all parameters were in agreement with the literature recommendations. LEV was quantified in patient's plasma sample using less than 550 μL of organic solvent. PMID:27830105

  13. Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities on chromatography. Directions for preparing leaf pigment extracts using alcohol are given, and paper chromatography and thin-layer chromatography are described as modifications of the basic principles of chromatography. (KHR)

  14. Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities on chromatography. Directions for preparing leaf pigment extracts using alcohol are given, and paper chromatography and thin-layer chromatography are described as modifications of the basic principles of chromatography. (KHR)

  15. Preparation and evaluation of surface-bonded tricationic ionic liquid silica as stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2015-05-29

    Two tricationic ionic liquids were prepared and then bonded onto the surface of supporting silica materials through "thiol-ene" click chemistry as new stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography. The obtained columns of tricationic ionic liquids were evaluated respectively in the reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) mode and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode, and possess ideal column efficiency of 80,000 plates/m in the RPLC mode with naphthalene as the test solute. The tricationic ionic liquid stationary phases exhibit good hydrophobic and shape selectivity to hydrophobic compounds, and RPLC retention behavior with multiple interactions. In the HILIC mode, the retention and selectivity were evaluated through the efficient separation of nucleosides and bases as well as flavonoids, and the typical HILIC retention behavior was demonstrated by investigating retention changes of hydrophilic solutes with water volume fraction in mobile phase. The results show that the tricationic ionic liquid columns possess great prospect for applications in analysis of hydrophobic and hydrophilic samples.

  16. High-pressure liquid chromatography of aromatic amines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis made on commercially available liquid chromatograph demonstrates high-pressure liquid chromatographic conditions for separation of approximately 50 aromatic amines ranging from simple aniline derivatives to complex multiring di- and tri-amines.

  17. Systematic evaluation of matrix effects in hydrophilic interaction chromatography versus reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Periat, Aurélie; Kohler, Isabelle; Thomas, Aurélien; Nicoli, Raul; Boccard, Julien; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Schappler, Julie; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-03-25

    Reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is the gold standard technique in bioanalysis. However, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) could represent a viable alternative to RPLC for the analysis of polar and/or ionizable compounds, as it often provides higher MS sensitivity and alternative selectivity. Nevertheless, this technique can be also prone to matrix effects (ME). ME are one of the major issues in quantitative LC-MS bioanalysis. To ensure acceptable method performance (i.e., trueness and precision), a careful evaluation and minimization of ME is required. In the present study, the incidence of ME in HILIC-MS/MS and RPLC-MS/MS was compared for plasma and urine samples using two representative sets of 38 pharmaceutical compounds and 40 doping agents, respectively. The optimal generic chromatographic conditions in terms of selectivity with respect to interfering compounds were established in both chromatographic modes by testing three different stationary phases in each mode with different mobile phase pH. A second step involved the assessment of ME in RPLC and HILIC under the best generic conditions, using the post-extraction addition method. Biological samples were prepared using two different sample pre-treatments, i.e., a non-selective sample clean-up procedure (protein precipitation and simple dilution for plasma and urine samples, respectively) and a selective sample preparation, i.e., solid phase extraction for both matrices. The non-selective pretreatments led to significantly less ME in RPLC vs. HILIC conditions regardless of the matrix. On the contrary, HILIC appeared as a valuable alternative to RPLC for plasma and urine samples treated by a selective sample preparation. Indeed, in the case of selective sample preparation, the compounds influenced by ME were different in HILIC and RPLC, and lower and similar ME occurrence was generally observed in RPLC vs. HILIC for urine and plasma samples

  18. Accelerated solvent extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the sensitive determination of phenols in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Xing, Han-Zhu; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-05-01

    A method combining accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the first time as a sample pretreatment for the rapid analysis of phenols (including phenol, m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) in soil samples. In the accelerated solvent extraction procedure, water was used as an extraction solvent, and phenols were extracted from soil samples into water. The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique was then performed on the obtained aqueous solution. Important accelerated solvent extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction parameters were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the new method provided wide linearity (6.1-3080 ng/g), low limits of detection (0.06-1.83 ng/g), and excellent reproducibility (<10%) for phenols. Four real soil samples were analyzed by the proposed method to assess its applicability. Experimental results showed that the soil samples were free of our target compounds, and average recoveries were in the range of 87.9-110%. These findings indicate that accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a sample pretreatment procedure coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is an excellent method for the rapid analysis of trace levels of phenols in environmental soil samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Thermospray liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry of thiol radioprotective agents: Characteristics spectra. Scientific report

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L.; Buchner, J.; Pizzitola, V.; Blakeley, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Ethiofos (S-2(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid or WR-2721) is currently being evaluated in clinical radiotherapy trials (Kligerman et al., 1980) because of its potential for enhancing the efficacy of radiotherapy (Kligerman et al., 1980; Yuhas and Storer, 1969). For proper drug usage and pharmacological studies, it is necessary to assess the stability of the aminothiol and the presence of impurities or decomposition products. In addition, monitoring the plasma levels of WR-2721 and its metabolites should improve the therapeutic usefulness of WR-2721. Several high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodologies have been developed that are applicable for routine analysis of aminothiols and endogeneous cellular thiols (Newton et al., 1981; Swynnerton et al., 1984). One of these methodologies, electrochemical detection, permits the simultaneous detection of the free thiol and the disulfides (Swynnerton et al. 1984). Mass spectrometry (MS) is a sensitive technique that can confirm purity and provide useful structural information. Using a thermospray interface, samples can be introduced into the mass spectrometer from a liquid chromatograph (LC) (Vestal, 1984). The interface thermally nebulizes the eluant into a high-pressure region of the mass spectrometer where a variety of soft-ionization techniques may be used to ionize the analyte molecules. The feasibility of LC coupled to MS-detection was studied for the analysis of thiol-containing radioprotective agents, including glutathione, WR-2721, and WR-1065, the dephosphorylated sulfhydryl form of WR-2721, which has been shown to be its active radioprotective metabolite (Calabro-Jones et al., 1983).

  20. Ionic liquids as novel stationary phases in gas liquid chromatography: inverse or normal isotope effect?

    PubMed

    Schmarr, Hans-Georg; Slabizki, Petra; Müntnich, Sabrina; Metzger, Carmen; Gracia-Moreno, Elisa

    2012-12-28

    The separation of deuterated and non-deuterated compounds in gas liquid partitioning chromatography (GLC) on silicone type stationary phase usually results in the inverse isotope effect. With ionic liquids (ILs) as stationary phase, however, this may show a totally different nature. The inverse isotope effect, in which heavier (deuterated) isotopic compounds (isotopologues) elute earlier, is to be expected when van der Waals (London) dispersion forces play a dominant role in the solute-stationary phase interaction. Such (apolar) interactions seem to play only a minor role when ILs are the stationary phases, leading to only a marginal inverse isotope effect, e.g. for the separation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and its [(2)H(5)]-isotopologue on 1,12-di(tripropylphosphonium) dodecane bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl) amide (commercialized as SLB-IL59, Supelco). Indeed, with the most polar stationary phase available (commercialized as SLB-IL111; Supelco), this separation showed a normal isotope effect. Further examples are presented and the nature of the isotope effect observed is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Crosslinked polymeric ionic liquids as solid-phase microextraction sorbent coatings for high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Honglian; Merib, Josias; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-03-18

    Neat crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coatings for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) compatible with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reported for the first time. Six structurally different PILs were crosslinked to nitinol supports and applied for the determination of select pharmaceutical drugs, phenolics, and insecticides. Sampling conditions including sample solution pH, extraction time, desorption solvent, desorption time, and desorption solvent volume were optimized using design of experiment (DOE). The developed PIL sorbent coatings were stable when performing extractions under acidic pH and remained intact in various organic desorption solvents (i.e., methanol, acetonitrile, acetone). The PIL-based sorbent coating polymerized from the IL monomer 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl) imidazolium chloride [VC10OHIM][Cl] and IL crosslinker 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylimidazolium) dodecane dichloride [(VBIM)2C12] 2[Cl] exhibited superior extraction performance compared to the other studied PILs. The extraction efficiency of pharmaceutical drugs and phenolics increased when the film thickness of the PIL-based sorbent coating was increased while many insecticides were largely unaffected. Satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.2 to 2 μg L(-1) for the target analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recovery of analytes in real water samples, including tap water and lake water, with recoveries varying from 50.2% to 115.9% and from 48.8% to 116.6%, respectively.

  2. Orthogonal separation on one beta-cyclodextrin column by switching reversed-phase liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jia-tao; Guo, Zhi-mou; Shi, Hui; Gu, Jiang-ping; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xin-miao

    2010-06-15

    A dual retention combined with reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) has been observed on beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) bonded stationary phase. A typical U-shaped retention curve was achieved owing to dual retention mechanism. Based on this observation, a beta-CD column can be operated under reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) modes. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) analysis can be realized on just a beta-CD column by switching these two different separation modes. In this study, off-line 2D-LC analysis for a natural product was carried out to prove the orthogonal separation between RP-LC and HILIC modes on a Click beta-CD column. Herba Hedyotis Diffusae, the whole grass of Hedyotis Diffusae wild was extracted with water, pretreated with macroporous resin and then first separated at RP-LC mode on the Click beta-CD column to obtain successive fractions, which were then reanalyzed at HILIC mode on the same Click beta-CD column. The result proved that both separation modes on the Click beta-CD column have good retention and peak shape, and these two separation modes have good orthogonality. 2D-LC analysis revealed abundant information in the natural product. Especially numerous minor components were enriched and separated. The mobile phase used in RP-LC and HILIC modes can be same and the switch between these two separation modes is easily realized by changing the ratio of the acetonitrile and water. Hence the mobile phase in this 2D-LC system is completely compatible. This advantage makes this combination is an appropriate 2D-LC method for the solutes having retention at both separation modes.

  3. Characterization of synthetic dyes by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography combining ion-exchange chromatography and fast ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pirok, Bob W J; Knip, Jitske; van Bommel, Maarten R; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2016-03-04

    In the late 19th century, newly invented synthetic dyes rapidly replaced the natural dyes on the market. The characterization of mixtures of these so-called early synthetic dyes is complicated through the occurrence of many impurities and degradation products. Conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography does not suffice to obtain fingerprints with sufficient resolution and baseline integrity. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) is employed in this study, with ion-exchange chromatography in the first dimension and fast ion-pair liquid chromatography in the second. Retention in the first dimension is largely determined by the number of charges, while the selection of a small ion-pair reagent (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) in the second dimension causes retention to be largely determined by the molecular structure of the dye. As a result, there is a high degree of orthogonality of the two dimensions, similar to the values typically encountered in GC×GC. The proposed LC×LC method shows a theroretical peak capacity of about 2000 in an analysis time of about three hours. Clear, informative fingerprints are obtained that open a way to a more efficient characterization of dyes used in objects of cultural heritage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Ionic Liquids in High Performance Reversed-Phase Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye; Tian, Minglei; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids, considered “green” chemicals, are widely used in many areas of analytical chemistry due to their unique properties. Recently, ionic liquids have been used as a kind of novel additive in separation and combined with silica to synthesize new stationary phase as separation media. This review will focus on the properties and mechanisms of ionic liquids and their potential applications as mobile phase modifier and surface-bonded stationary phase in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Ionic liquids demonstrate advantages and potential in chromatographic field. PMID:19582220

  5. Partition coefficients of organic compounds in new imidazolium based ionic liquids using inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Revelli, Anne-Laure; Mutelet, Fabrice; Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2009-06-05

    Partition coefficients of organic compounds in four ionic liquids: 1-ethanol-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-ethanol-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate were measured using inverse gas chromatography from 303.3 to 332.55K. The influence of gas-liquid and gas-solid interfacial adsorption of different solutes on ionic liquids was also studied. Most of the polar solutes were retained largely by partition while light hydrocarbons were retained predominantly by interfacial adsorption on the ionic liquids studied in this work. The solvation characteristics of the ionic liquids were evaluated using the Abraham solvation parameter model.

  6. Using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and liquid chromatography for determination of guaifenesin enantiomers in human urine.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Mehdi; Farhadi, Khalil; Abdollahpour, Assem

    2011-11-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient method, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector, has been developed for the determination of guaifenesin (GUA) enantiomers in human urine samples after an oral dose administration of its syrup formulation. Urine samples were collected during the time intervals 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 h and concentration and ratio of two enantiomers was determined. The ratio of R-(-) to S-(+) enantiomer concentrations in urine showed an increase with time, with R/S ratios of 0.66 at 2 h and 2.23 at 6 h. For microextraction process, a mixture of extraction solvent (dichloromethane, 100 μL) and dispersive solvent (THF, 1 mL) was rapidly injected into 5.0 mL diluted urine sample for the formation of cloudy solution and extraction of enantiomers into the fine droplets of CH(2)Cl(2). After optimization of HPLC enantioselective conditions, some important parameters, such as the kind and volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, extraction time, temperature, pH, and salt effect were optimized for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction process. Under the optimum extraction condition, the method yields a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 10 to 2000 ng/mL for target analytes. LOD was 3.00 ng/mL for both of the enantiomers. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Applications of electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Separations of aromatic amino acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Li

    1998-03-27

    The research in this thesis explores the separation capabilities of a new technique termed electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The thesis begins with a general introduction section which provides a literature review of this technique as well as a brief background discussion of the two research projects in each of the next two chapters. The two papers which follow investigate the application of EMLC to the separation of a mixture of aromatic amino acids and of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The last section presents general conclusions and summarizes the thesis. References are compiled in the reference section of each chapter. The two papers have been removed for separate processing.

  8. Combination of saponification and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shammugasamy, Balakrishnan; Ramakrishnan, Yogeshini; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2013-07-26

    A simple sample preparation technique coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. The sample preparation procedure involved a small-scale hydrolysis of 0.5g cereal sample by saponification, followed by the extraction and concentration of tocopherols and tocotrienols from saponified extract using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). Parameters affecting the DLLME performance were optimized to achieve the highest extraction efficiency and the performance of the developed DLLME method was evaluated. Good linearity was observed over the range assayed (0.031-4.0μg/mL) with regression coefficients greater than 0.9989 for all tocopherols and tocotrienols. Limits of detection and enrichment factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.11μg/mL and 50 to 73, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 8.9% and the recoveries were around 85.5-116.6% for all tocopherols and tocotrienols. The developed DLLME method was successfully applied to cereals: rice, barley, oat, wheat, corn and millet. This new sample preparation approach represents an inexpensive, rapid, simple and precise sample cleanup and concentration method for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous determination of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuangjiao; Liu, Liangliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhou, Dayun; Kuang, Meng; Fang, Dan; Yang, Weihua; Wei, Shoujun; Xiao, Aiping; Ma, Lei

    2016-08-01

    A simple, rapid, organic-solvent- and sample-saving pretreatment technique, called dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was developed for the determination of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants from edible oils before high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The entire procedure was composed of a two-step microextraction and a centrifugal process and could be finished in about 5 min, only consuming only 25 mg of sample and 1 mL of the organic solvent for each extraction. The influences of several important parameters on the microextraction efficiency were thoroughly investigated. Recovery assays for oil samples were spiked at three concentration levels, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, and provided recoveries in the 86.3-102.5% range with a relative standard deviation below 3.5%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions for the analysis were less than 3.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in different oil samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. Thus, the developed method represents a viable alternative for the quality control of synthetic phenolic antioxidant concentrations in edible oils.

  10. Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Organophosphate Esters in Aqueous Samples

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Haiying; Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Luo, Donghui; Lu, Yujing; Yang, Bao

    2014-01-01

    A new technique was established to identify eight organophosphate esters (OPEs) in this work. It utilised dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction in combination with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The type and volume of extraction solvents, dispersion agent, and amount of NaCl were optimized. The target analytes were detected in the range of 1.0–200 µg/L with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9982 to 0.9998, and the detection limits of the analytes were ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 µg/L (S/N = 3). The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by identifying OPEs in aqueous samples that exhibited spiked recoveries, which ranged between 48.7% and 58.3% for triethyl phosphate (TEP) as well as between 85.9% and 113% for the other OPEs. The precision was ranged from 3.2% to 9.3% (n = 6), and the interprecision was ranged from 2.6% to 12.3% (n = 5). Only 2 of the 12 selected samples were tested to be positive for OPEs, and the total concentrations of OPEs in them were 1.1 and 1.6 µg/L, respectively. This method was confirmed to be simple, fast, and accurate for identifying OPEs in aqueous samples. PMID:24616613

  11. Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of furfurals and patulin in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2014-03-01

    A fast and simple solvent microextraction technique using salting out-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (salting out-VALLME) was developed for the extraction of furfurals (2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)) and patulin (PAT) in fruit juice samples. The optimum extraction conditions for 5 mL sample were: extraction solvent, 1-hexanol; volume of extractant, 200 µL; vortex time, 45 s; salt addition, 20%. The simultaneous determination of the furfurals and PAT were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The separation was performed using ODS Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm i.d × 250 mm, 5 μm) under gradient elution. The detection wavelengths used for all compounds were 280 nm except for 3-F (210 nm). The furfurals and PAT were successfully separated in less than 9 min. Good linearities (r(2)>0.99) were obtained within the range 1-5000 μg L(-1) for all compounds except for 3-F (10-5000 µg L(-1)) and PAT (0.5-100 μg L(-1)). The limits of detection (0.28-3.2 µg L(-1)) were estimated at S/N ratio of 3. The validated salting out-VALLME-HPLC method was applied for the analysis of furfurals and PAT in fruit juice samples (apple, mango and grape).

  12. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of clozapine and chlorpromazine in urine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Xiong, Chaomei; Ruan, Jinlan; Su, Zou

    2011-04-01

    A simple method has been proposed for the determination of clozapine (CLZ) and chlorpromazine (CPZ) in human urine by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). All important variables influencing the extraction efficiency, such as pH, types of the extraction solvent and the disperser solvent and their volume, ionic strength and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) of the method were 13 and 39 ng/mL for CLZ, and 2 and 6 ng/mL for CPZ, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the targets were less than 5.1% (C=0.100 μg/mL, n=9). Good linear behaviors over the tested concentration ranges were obtained with the values of R (2)>0.999 for the targets. The absolute extraction efficiencies of CLZ and CPZ from the spiked blank urine samples were 98.3% and 97.8%, respectively. The applicability of the technique was validated by analyzing urine samples and the mean recoveries for spiked urine samples ranged from 93.3% to 105.0%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of CLZ and CPZ in real human urine.

  13. Ion pair-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography as a new method for determining five folate derivatives in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Nojavan, Yones; Kamankesh, Marzieh; Shahraz, Farzaneh; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2015-05-01

    A novel technique for simultaneous determination of five folate derivatives in various food matrices was developed by ion pair-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IP-DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the proposed method, N-methyl-N,N-dioctyloctan-1-ammonium chloride (aliquat-336) was used as an ion-pair reagent. Effective variables of microextraction process were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1-200 ng g(-1) with correlation coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.98. The relative standard deviation for the seven analyses was 5.2-7.4%. Enrichment factors for the five folates ranged between 108-135. Limits of detection were 2-4.1 ng g(-1). A comparison of this method with other methods described that the new proposed method is rapid and accurate, and gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for determining five folate derivatives. The newly developed method was successfully applied for the determination of five folate derivatives in wheat flour, egg yolk and orange juice samples.

  14. Separation of Nitration By-Products in Commercial-Grade Trinitro-Toluene by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    MRL-TN-464 SEPARATION OF NITRATION BY-PRODUCTS IN COMMERCIAL-GRADE TITR-TOLUENE BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Peter J. Sanders ABSTRACT...UNCLASSIFIED TITLE SEPARATION OF NITRATION BY-PRODUCTS IN COMMERCIAL-GRADE TRXNITRO-TOLUENE BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AUTHOR(S...PRODUCTS IN COMMERCIAL-GRADE TRINITRO-TOLUENE BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY 16 INTRODUCTION Fbr some time, a need has existed for the

  15. A chemometric approach to characterization of ionic liquids for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    González-Álvarez, Jaime; Mangas-Alonso, Juan José; Arias-Abrodo, Pilar; Gutiérrez-Álvarez, María Dolores

    2014-05-01

    A chemometric study was carried out to characterize three ionic liquid types (ILs) with hexacationic imidazolium, polymeric imidazolium, and phosphonium cationic cores, using a range of contra-anions such as halogens, thiocyanate, boron anions, triflate, and bistriflimide. The solvation parameter model developed by Abraham et al., unsupervised techniques as cluster analysis (CA), and supervised techniques as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), step-LDA, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and multivariate regression techniques as discriminant partial least squares (D-PLS), or multiple linear regression (MLR) were used to characterize the functionalized ILs above. CA established two main groups of phases, those with an acidic H-bond and those with basic ones. Once detected, the two natural groups, a linear and quadratic delimiters with good classification (>96 %) and prediction (>92 %) capacities were computed. The use of step-LDA technique allowed us to establish that a, b, and s solvation parameters were the most discriminant variables. These variables were used for modeling purposes, and a D-PLS and MLR models were constructed using a binary response. The explained variance of categorical variable by the model validated by cross-validation was 65 %, and 94.5 % of ILs were correctly predicted. IL characterization carried out would allow the appropriate selection of phases for gas chromatography (GC).

  16. Quality evaluation of moluodan concentrated pill using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting coupled with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lingyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a fast and effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to obtain a fingerprint chromatogram and quantitative analysis simultaneously of four indexes including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, albiflorin and paeoniflorin of the traditional Chinese medicine Moluodan Concentrated Pill. The method was performed by using a Waters X-bridge C18 reversed phase column on an Agilent 1200S high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with diode array detection. The mobile phase of the high-performance liquid chromatography method was composed of 20 mmol/L phosphate solution and acetonitrile with a 1 mL/min eluent velocity, under a detection temperature of 30°C and a UV detection wavelength of 254 nm. After the methodology validation, 16 batches of Moluodan Concentrated Pill were analyzed by this high-performance liquid chromatography method and both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results were achieved by similarity analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results of these three chemometrics were in good agreement and all indicated that batch 10 and batch 16 showed significant differences with the other 14 batches. This suggested that the developed high-performance liquid chromatography method could be applied in the quality evaluation of Moluodan Concentrated Pill.

  17. Separation of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene using multidimensional high-temperature liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, K N; Macko, T; Brüll, R; Remerie, K; Tacx, J; Garg, P; Ginzburg, A

    2016-04-08

    Functionalization addresses a property gap of polyolefins and opens new perspectives due to improved surface properties in applications like composites (e.g., glass fiber reinforced polypropylene) and anti-corrosive coatings for metals. Various techniques have been developed to characterize functionalized polyolefins, yet no analytical approach addressing their chemical heterogeneity exists. Using High Temperature Size Exclusion Chromatography (HT-SEC) coupled to infrared spectroscopy we could show for two model samples of polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA), differing in their nominal MA content, that the grafting density increases with decreasing molar mass. Crystallization Analysis Fractionation (CRYSTAF) does not enable to separate these samples according to their composition to the extent required. Yet, when using High Temperature High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HT-HPLC), with either silica gel or Mica as stationary phase and a gradient mobile phase, a deformulation into a grafted and a non-grafted fraction could be achieved. This was confirmed by analyzing the eluted fractions by infrared spectroscopy. Hyphenating the separation according to composition with a separation according to molar mass (HT-HPLC x HT-SEC) enabled for the first time to reveal the bivariate distribution of PP-g-MA with regard to the molar mass and composition. Using on-line infrared detection quantitative information on the compositional and molar mass parameters of the individual fractions could be obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High sensitivity measurement of amino acid isotope enrichment using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Hans M H; Wijnands, Karolina A P; Bessems, Babs A F M; Olde Damink, Steven W; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Poeze, Martijn

    2012-09-15

    Measurement of the incorporation or conversion of infused stable isotope enriched metabolites in vivo such as amino acids plays a key role in metabolic research. Specific routes are frequently probed in knockout mouse models limiting the available amount of sample. Although less precise as compared to combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (C-IRMS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques are therefore often the method of choice to measure isotopic enrichment of target metabolites. However, under conditions of metabolic depletion, the precision of these systems becomes limiting. In this paper, studies were performed to enhance the sensitivity and precision of isotope enrichment measurements using LC-MS. Ion-statistics and resolution were identified as critical factors for this application when using a linear trap mass spectrometer. The combination with an automated pre-column derivatization and a carefully selected solvent mix allowed us to measure isotopic enrichments down to 0.005% at plasma concentrations as low as 5 μmol/l, an improvement by a factor of 100 compared to alternative methods. The resulting method now allowed measurement of the in vivo conversion of the amino acid arginine into citrulline as a marker for the production of nitric oxide in an in vivo murine endotoxemia model with depleted plasma levels of arginine and citrulline.

  19. Systematic comparison of sensitivity between hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Periat, Aurélie; Boccard, Julien; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Rudaz, Serge; Guillarme, Davy

    2013-10-18

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) appears as a promising strategy to increase sensitivity with electrospray ionization source (ESI/MS). In the present study, peak heights, background noises and signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) obtained with HILIC-MS/MS and RPLC-MS/MS conditions were systematically compared using a dataset of 56 basic drugs possessing diverse physico-chemical properties. Various mobile phase conditions were investigated, including different pH (3 and 6 in HILIC; 3, 6 and 9 in RPLC) and flow rates (300, 600 and 1000μL/min). The average gain in sensitivity obtained between HILIC and RPLC was equal to 7 and 10 at pH 3 and 6, respectively. However, this value was not reliable, since it was altered by a few compounds possessing an "extreme" behaviour (gain in sensitivity from 100-fold to >8000-fold better). Then, the median gain in sensitivity, equal to 4 in our case, whatever the pH, should be considered. For about 90% of the tested compounds and analytical conditions, the best S/N was systematically attained under HILIC mode. Thanks to PCA representation, it was shown that the basic compounds with pKa between 6 and 8 generally had the best sensitivity in HILIC at pH 6, while the best sensitivity for basic analytes possessing pKa higher than 8 was usually obtained in HILIC at pH 3. As previously reported, the sensitivity gain in HILIC vs. RPLC was explained by the difference in acetonitrile concentration at elution (in average 29% ACN in RPLC and 82% ACN in HILIC at pH 6) leading to better analytes' desolvation. However, it seems that this high proportion of solvent also favourably influenced the ionization by modifying pH and pKa. Indeed the weakest bases of our training set of compounds (pKa between 2 and 5) showed an unexpectedly strong gain in sensitivity, between 20 and 100-fold in comparison to RPLC. These results prove that the ionic character of analytes in solution (i.e., pKa and pH) and the ionization mechanism (i.e., proton

  20. The bridge between thin layer chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: The realization of liquid thin layer chromatography-mass spectrometry (LTLC-MS).

    PubMed

    Li, Yafeng; Wang, Jianing; Zhan, Lingpeng; Wleklinski, Michael; Wang, Jiyun; Xiong, Caiqiao; Liu, Huihui; Zhou, Yueming; Nie, Zongxiu

    2016-08-19

    The combination of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) has been studied for decades, but for most cases MS detection is done after TLC separation is finished. Here, an online simultaneous TLC-MS analysis system, liquid thin layer chromatography-mass spectrometry (LTLC-MS), is developed which successfully synchronize TLC separation process and MS detection process like GC-MS and HPLC-MS do. And there's no need to use specially designed TLC, just regular TLC plates are enough. LTLC-MS method is composed of a newly developed ambient ionization method, glow discharge-matrix assisted infrared desorption ionization (GD-MAIRDI), and forced-flow TLC (FFTLC) technique, which guarantees the MS detection process does not disturb the TLC separation process throughout the whole analysis. The whole LTLC-MS analysis only need two steps and less than 15min. Mixtures as well as the two main components of a pain relief pills have been successfully analyzed by LTLC-MS. This proof of concept study opens up new possibilities of combining TLC with MS, and will further broaden the application abilities of TLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of liquid handling techniques in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of experiments dealing with protein crystal growth and also with growth of crystals from solution require complicated fluid handling procedures including filling of empty containers with liquids, mixing of solutions, and stirring of liquids. Such procedures are accomplished in a straight forward manner when performed under terrestrial conditions in the laboratory. However, in the low gravity environment of space, such as on board the Space Shuttle or an Earth-orbiting space station, these procedures sometimes produced entirely undesirable results. Under terrestrial conditions, liquids usually completely separate from the gas due to the buoyancy effects of Earth's gravity. Consequently, any gas pockets that are entrained into the liquid during a fluid handling procedure will eventually migrate towards the top of the vessel where they can be removed. In a low gravity environment any folded gas bubble will remain within the liquid bulk indefinitely at a location that is not known a priori resulting in a mixture of liquid and vapor.

  2. Isolation and purification of six iridoid glycosides from gardenia jasminoides fruit by medium-pressure liquid chromatography combined with macroporous resin chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Liu, Hui; Shen, Lifeng; Yao, Lan; Ma, Yinlian; Yu, Dingrong; Chen, Jianhong; Li, Puling; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Cun

    2015-12-01

    Gardeniae fructus is one of the most frequently used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, a process for the enrichment of six iridoid glycosides from Gardeniae fructus was developed using medium-pressure liquid chromatography combined with macroporous resin and reversed-phase chromatography. The purities of different fractions from Gardeniae fructus were assessed using quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography. After fractionation using HPD-100 column chromatography, a 30% ethanol fraction was selected based on high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry qualitative analysis to separate and purify. Based on the orientation analysis results, six compounds-deacetyl asperulosidic acid methyl ester, gardenoside, ixoroside, scandoside methyl ester, genipin-1-O-β-d-gentiobioside, and geniposide-were successfully isolated and purified in three to four combined steps from Gardeniae fructus. The purities of these compounds were found by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis to be 97.9, 98.1, 95.5, 96.3, 97.1, and 98.7%, respectively. Moreover, their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The separation process was highly efficient, rapid, and accurate, making it a potential approach for the large-scale production of iridoids in the laboratory and providing several marker compounds for quality control. This procedure may be meaningful for the purification of other natural products used in traditional Chinese medicine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ESCi)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with novel mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) (MS(E)) data collection technique: determination and pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and biliary excretion study of ergone in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Yong; Cheng, Xian-Long; Wei, Feng; Bai, Xu; Lin, Rui-Chao

    2012-07-01

    Ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (ergone) has been proved to have novel antitumor effects on HepG2 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and biliary excretion of ergone in rats following a single oral administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). The levels of ergone in plasma, tissues, and bile were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ESCi)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with novel mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) (MS(E)) data collection technique method. The results show ergone was distributed and eliminated from rat plasma and in non-linear pharmacokinetics from a dose range of 5-20 mg/kg. The ergone was found to distribute widely in the internal organs, with tissue concentrations in order of lungs, spleen, liver, intestine, kidneys, heart, stomach, parorchis, teasticles, and brain. At 12 h after dosing, the tissue concentrations in the organs were markedly decreased. The lungs, spleen, and liver were the dominant organs with high tissue concentrations that might be the primary sites for metabolism and elimination of ergone. Total recoveries of ergone within 24 h in bile were 34.14%.

  4. Hyphenated techniques in speciation analysis of polyoxometalates: identification of individual [PMo12-xVxO40](-3-x) (x = 1-3) in the reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma.

    PubMed

    Shuvaeva, O V; Zhdanov, A A; Romanova, T E; Abramov, P A; Sokolov, M N

    2017-03-14

    Unambiguous identification of polyoxometalate (POM) species generated in self-assembly reactions in solution is rather problematic due to close similarity of their properties such as solubility and spectral characteristics. The situation is made more complex by protonation equilibria (which can change their analytical signals) and the lack of individual compounds to serve as standards for individual members of these mixtures. In the present work a new approach to the study of such POMs has been suggested, taking molybdovanadates [PMo12-xVxO40](-3-x) as a model. The key feature of this approach consists of generation of so-called "conditional model systems" that include most of the expected components of a mixture formed by self-assembly, tracked down by reliable detection techniques, e.g., (51)V NMR-spectroscopy in this particular case. Then the proposed composition of the mixture is verified and corrected by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-AES).

  5. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Technique for detecting liquid metal leaks

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.

    1979-01-01

    In a system employing flowing liquid metal as a heat transfer medium in contact with tubular members containing a working fluid, i.e., steam, liquid metal leaks through the wall of the tubular member are detected by dislodging the liquid metal compounds forming in the tubular member at the leak locations and subsequently transporting the dislodged compound in the form of an aerosol to a detector responsive to the liquid metal compound. In the application to a sodium cooled tubular member, the detector would consist of a sodium responsive device, such as a sodium ion detector.

  7. Analysis of small carbohydrates in several bioactive botanicals by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Serban; Scott, Wayne; Zhu, Jeff

    2015-11-01

    Bioactive botanicals contain natural compounds with specific biological activity, such as antibacterial, antioxidant, immune stimulating, and taste improving. A full characterization of the chemical composition of these botanicals is frequently necessary. A study of small carbohydrates from the plant materials of 18 bioactive botanicals is further described. The study presents the identification of the carbohydrate using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis that allows detection of molecules as large as maltotetraose, after changing them into trimethylsilyl derivatives. A number of carbohydrates in the plant (fructose, glucose, mannose, sucrose, maltose, xylose, sorbitol, and myo-, chiro-, and scyllo-inositols) were quantitated using a novel liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric technique. Both techniques involved new method developments. The gas chromatography with mass spectrometric analysis involved derivatization and separation on a Rxi(®)-5Sil MS column with H2 as a carrier gas. The liquid chromatographic separation was obtained using a hydrophilic interaction type column, YMC-PAC Polyamine II. The tandem mass spectrometer used an electrospray ionization source in multiple reaction monitoring positive ion mode with the detection of the adducts of the carbohydrates with Cs(+) ions. The validated quantitative procedure showed excellent precision and accuracy allowing the analysis in a wide range of concentrations of the analytes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Recent advances in liquid and gas chromatography methodology for extending coverage of the metabolome.

    PubMed

    Haggarty, Jennifer; Burgess, Karl Ev

    2017-02-01

    The metabolome is the complete complement of metabolites (small organic biomolecules). In order to comprehensively understand the effect of stimuli on a biological system, it is important to detect as many of the metabolites within that system as possible. This review briefly describes some new advances in liquid and gas chromatography to improve coverage of the metabolome, including the serial combination of two columns in tandem, column switching and different variations of two-dimensional chromatography. Supercritical fluid chromatography could provide complimentary data to liquid and gas chromatography. Although there have been many recent advancements in the field of metabolomics, it is evident that a combination, rather than a single method, is required to approach full coverage of the metabolome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for acidic herbicides and metabolites analysis in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Fauvelle, Vincent; Mazzella, Nicolas; Morin, Soizic; Moreira, Sylvia; Delest, Brigitte; Budzinski, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    Theoretical papers and environmental applications of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) have been published for a wide range of analytes, but to our knowledge, no study focused on acidic herbicides (e.g., triketones, phenoxy acids, sulfonylurea, and acidic metabolites of chloroacetanilides). Matrix effects are the main obstacle to natural sample analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) via an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. Therefore, we paid particular attention on limiting interference by (i) adapting the emerging HILIC technique, which is generally considered more sensitive than conventional reversed phase liquid chromatography and (ii) optimizing the solid phase extraction (SPE) step using a design of experiment. A rapid and reliable off line SPE-HILIC-ESI-MS/MS method was thus developed for the quantification of acidic herbicides in fresh water, with limits of quantifications (LOQs) ranging from 5 to 22 ng L(-1). Then, the analysis of freshwater samples highlighted the robustness of the method, and the importance of the chloroacetanilides metabolites among the studied analytes.

  10. Detection of AGXT bgene mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for diagnosis of hyperoxaluria type 1.

    PubMed

    Pirulli, D; Giordano, M; Lessi, M; Spanò, A; Puzzer, D; Zezlina, S; Boniotto, M; Crovella, S; Florian, F; Marangella, M; Momigliano-Richiardi, P; Savoldi, S; Amoroso, A

    2001-06-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder of glyoxylate metabolism, caused by a deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase, which is encoded by a single copy gene (AGXT. The aim of this research was to standardize denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, a new, sensitive, relatively inexpensive, and automated technique, for the detection of AGXT mutation. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze in blind the AGXT gene in 20 unrelated Italian patients with primary hyperoxaluria type I previously studied by other standard methods (single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing) and 50 controls. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography allowed us to identify 13 mutations and the polymorphism at position 154 in exon I of the AGXT gene. Hence the method is more sensitive and less time consuming than single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for the detection of AGXT mutations, thus representing a useful and reliable tool for detecting the mutations responsible for primary hyperoxaluria type 1. The new technology could also be helpful in the search for healthy carriers of AGXT mutations amongst family members and their partners, and for screening of AGXT polymorphisms in patients with nephrolithiasis and healthy populations.

  11. POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

  12. POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

  13. Amino Acid Analyses of the Antarctic CM2 Meteorites ALH 83100 and LEW 90500 Using Liquid Chromatography-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Aubrey, A. D.; Botta, O.; Doty, J. H., III; Bada, J. L.

    2006-03-01

    Amino acids and their enantiomeric abundances were measured in the CM meteorites ALH 83100, LEW 90500 and Murchison using a new liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry technique. ALH 83100 has an amino acid distribution that is distinct from other CM2 meteorites.

  14. Utilization of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for characterization of 8-O-methylbostrycoidin production by species of the fungus Fusarium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pigment, 8-O-methylbostrycoidin is a polyketide metabolite produced by multiple species of the fungus Fusarium that infects plant crops, including maize. A technique was developed for the analysis of 8-O-methylbostrycoidin by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionizat...

  15. Mass spectral investigations on toxins. 9. Application of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques for the detection and quantification of macrocyclic trichothecenes in Brazilian plant samples. Technical report, March-July 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Beck, D.J.; Isensee, R.K.; Jarvis, B.B.

    1988-04-01

    Trichothecenes are toxic, fungal metabolites that have been associated with human health hazards, farm-product, livestock, and other animal losses for decades. Allegedly, these metabolites were also used as chemical warfare agents. Recently, the growth of trichothecene-producing fungi was detected also in U.S. urban environments. Thus, the development of rapid, specific, sensitive, and accurate methods for analyzing these toxins in environmental, agricultural, and biological samples has become vital. The large number of trichothecenes present and their polar and labile properties pose a great challenge in developing a common methodology to analyze all the derivatives of interest. Thermally labile, polar, toxic roridins and biologically active baccharinoids were separated over a reverse phase, high-performance liquid-chromatographic column and effectively ionized under thermospray ionization conditions. The mass spectra indicated the formation of corresponding molecular ion-ammonium adducts in great abundance. Experiments designed for monitoring specific ions of these analytes at predesignated intervals were used to accurately analyze these macrocyclic trichothecenes in real, crude samples. A synthetically modified macrocyclic trichothecene, 8-ketoverrucarin A, was used as the internal standard for detecting and quantifying these compounds. The minimum detectable limits were from 1 to 2 nanograms.

  16. Determination of eight synthetic dyes in foodstuffs by green liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Afsharimanesh, Mahdi; Moghaddam, Ghazaleh; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Pirhadi, Elham; Zamani Mazdeh, Fatemeh; Kanan, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Eight synthetic food colours were analysed by green liquid chromatography. Green liquid chromatography is an environmentally friendly technique which does not use organic solvents in the extraction procedure or in the chromatographic method. Analysis was carried out for the following colours: tartrazine (E102), indigotine (E132), Quinoline Yellow (E104), Ponceau 4R (E124), Sunset Yellow (E110), Brilliant Blue (E133), Allura Red (E129) and carmoisine (E122) in four different foods: cookies, coloured rice, saffron and fruit juice. The method was performed on an Eurospher-100 C8 (5 μm, 4.6 × 250 mm) column with ultraviolet (UV)-VIS detection and validated by determining the calibration lines, measurement of recovery, precision, and limits of quantification and detection (LODs and LOQs). LOD ranged from 0.04 mg kg⁻¹ for E102 to 1.00 mg kg⁻¹ for E122; LOQ ranged from 0.06 mg kg⁻¹ for E102 to 1.12 mg kg⁻¹ for E122. The levels of colours in foods were compared with Iranian National Standards, but only 7.5% of cookies, 30% of coloured rice, 8% of saffron and 12% of juice samples were in compliance with these standards. Tartrazine is prohibited in Iran, but it was found as the most prevalent food colour in the samples analysed. The results of these tests confirmed that HPLC avoiding the use of organic solvents is a suitable method and can be used for quantitative analyses or screening of food samples for synthetic food colours.

  17. Purification of Bovine Hemoglobin via Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Dimino, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Bovine hemoglobin (bHb) was purified from bovine red blood cells (bRBCs) via anion exchange chromatography preceded by dialysis. This is a fast and effective way to obtain bHb from bRBCs using Q Sepharose XL, a strong anion exchange resin. This resin had double the binding capacity for bHb compared to three other anion exchange resins that were studied in this work. Methemoglobin levels remained below 2% with bHb concentrations between 0.7 and 1.7 mM. The high purity of bHb was confirmed via SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography. PMID:17581802

  18. Progressing the analysis of Improvised Explosive Devices: Comparative study for trace detection of explosive residues in handprints by Raman spectroscopy and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Félix; de la Ossa, Mª Ángeles Fernández; Gilchrist, Elizabeth; Barron, Leon; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Concerning the dreadful global threat of terrorist attacks, the detection of explosive residues in biological traces and marks is a current need in both forensics and homeland security. This study examines the potential of Raman microscopy in comparison to liquid chromatography (ion chromatography (IC) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)) to detect, identify and quantify residues in human handmarks of explosives and energetic salts commonly used to manufacture Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) including dynamite, ammonium nitrate, single- and double-smokeless gunpowders and black powder. Dynamite, ammonium nitrate and black powder were detected through the identification of the energetic salts by Raman spectroscopy, their respective anions by IC, and organic components by RP-HPLC. Smokeless gunpowders were not detected, either by Raman spectroscopy or the two liquid chromatography techniques. Several aspects of handprint collection, sample treatment and a critical comparison of the identification of compounds by both techniques are discussed. Raman microscopy and liquid chromatography were shown to be complementary to one another offering more comprehensive information for trace explosives analysis.

  19. Monodisperse microbeads of hypercrosslinked polystyrene for liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyurupa, M. P.; Blinnikova, Z. K.; Il'in, M. M.; Davankov, V. A.; Parenago, O. O.; Pokrovskii, O. I.; Usovich, O. I.

    2015-11-01

    Monodisperse styrene-divinylbenzene (1 wt %) copolymer microbeads are obtained via the elaborate method of high-productivity precipitation polymerization. The crosslinking of this copolymer with chloromethyl methyl ether in the presence of Friedel-Crafts catalyst yields porous hypercrosslinked polymers with degrees of crosslinking that range from 200 to 500%. Microbead sorbents are shown to be suited for selective stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography.

  20. The differentiation and assay of vitamins D2 and D3 by gas–liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Murray, T. K.; Day, K. C.; Kodicek, E.

    1966-01-01

    1. A method is described for the differentiation and determination of as little as 0·2μg. of vitamins D2 and D3 by gas–liquid chromatography. 2. The vitamins are converted by treatment with antimony trichloride into isovitamins D2 and D3, which show single, separate peaks on gas–liquid chromatography, unlike the unmodified vitamins, which give twin peaks due to the formation of pyro and isopyro derivatives. 3. Since isovitamins D2 and D3 remain together in all steps of the procedure except during gas–liquid chromatography, one may be used as an internal standard for the other. 4. The use of an internal standard reduces the importance of loss during sample preparation and increases precision. 5. The application of the method to biological materials is demonstrated. PMID:4287184

  1. Plasma lipid analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Kudoh, Shinobu; Sato, Taka-Aki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-06-01

    A novel method for the analysis of endogenous lipids and related compounds was developed employing hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with carbamoyl stationary phase achieved clear separation of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, ceramide, and mono-hexsosyl ceramide groups with good peak area repeatability (RSD% < 10) and linearity (R(2) > 0.99). The established method was applied to human plasma assays and a total of 117 endogenous lipids were successfully detected and reproducibly identified. In addition, we investigated the simultaneous detection of small polar metabolites such as amino and organic acids co-existing in the same biological samples processed in a single analytical run with lipids. Our results show that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is a useful tool for human plasma lipidome analysis and offers more comprehensive metabolome coverage.

  2. Frozen-Plug Technique for Liquid-Oxygen Plumbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaskey, C. E. " Mac" ; Lobmeyer, Dennis; Nagy, Zoltan; Peltzer, Rich

    2005-01-01

    A frozen-plug technique has been conceived as a means of temporarily blocking the flow of liquid oxygen or its vapor through a tube or pipe. The technique makes it possible to perform maintenance, repair, or other work on downstream parts of the cryogenic system in which the oxygen is used, without having to empty an upstream liquid-oxygen reservoir and, hence, without wasting the stored liquid oxygen and without subjecting the reservoir to the stresses of thermal cycling.

  3. Toward Sensitive and Accurate Analysis of Antibody Biotherapeutics by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Remarkable methodological advances in the past decade have expanded the application of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of biotherapeutics. Currently, LC/MS represents a promising alternative or supplement to the traditional ligand binding assay (LBA) in the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and toxicokinetic studies of protein drugs, owing to the rapid and cost-effective method development, high specificity and reproducibility, low sample consumption, the capacity of analyzing multiple targets in one analysis, and the fact that a validated method can be readily adapted across various matrices and species. While promising, technical challenges associated with sensitivity, sample preparation, method development, and quantitative accuracy need to be addressed to enable full utilization of LC/MS. This article introduces the rationale and technical challenges of LC/MS techniques in biotherapeutics analysis and summarizes recently developed strategies to alleviate these challenges. Applications of LC/MS techniques on quantification and characterization of antibody biotherapeutics are also discussed. We speculate that despite the highly attractive features of LC/MS, it will not fully replace traditional assays such as LBA in the foreseeable future; instead, the forthcoming trend is likely the conjunction of biochemical techniques with versatile LC/MS approaches to achieve accurate, sensitive, and unbiased characterization of biotherapeutics in highly complex pharmaceutical/biologic matrices. Such combinations will constitute powerful tools to tackle the challenges posed by the rapidly growing needs for biotherapeutics development. PMID:25185260

  4. Recent development in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and emerging technologies for metabolite identification.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Wang, Guangji; Xie, Lin; Sheng, Longsheng

    2011-05-01

    Metabolism studies play a pivotal role in drug discovery and development since the active metabolites is critical to toxicological profile, efficacy and designing new drug candidates. From the instrumentation standpoint, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has secured a central analytical technique for metabolite identification with the continuous developments and improvements in LC and MS technologies. Recently, a wide range of experimental strategies and post acquisition data processing and mining modes have emerged driven by the need to identify and characterize metabolites at ever increasing sensitivity and in ever more complex samples. In this article, the classical and practical mass spectrometry-based techniques, such as low resolution MS (quadruple, ion trap, linear ion trap, etc), high resolution MS (time-of-flight, hybrid time-of-flight instruments, Qrbitrap, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS, etc) and corresponding post acquisition data processing and mining modes (precursor ion filtering, neutral loss filtering, mass defect filter, isotope-pattern-filtering, etc) are described comprehensively. In addition, this review is also devote to discuss several novel MS technologies (ambient ionization techniques, ion mobility MS, imaging MS, LC/MNR/MS, etc) that hold additional promise for the advancement of metabolism studies. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of protein biotherapeutics with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qu, Miao; An, Bo; Shen, Shichen; Zhang, Ming; Shen, Xiaomeng; Duan, Xiaotao; Balthasar, Joseph P; Qu, Jun

    2017-11-01

    In the last decade, the advancement of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) techniques has enabled their broad application in protein characterization, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Owing to certain important merits of LC/MS techniques (e.g., high selectivity, flexibility, and rapid method development), LC/MS assays are often deemed as preferable alternatives to conventional methods (e.g., ligand-binding assays) for the analysis of protein biotherapeutics. At the discovery and development stages, LC/MS is generally employed for two purposes absolute quantification of protein biotherapeutics in biological samples and qualitative characterization of proteins. For absolute quantification of a target protein in bio-matrices, recent work has led to improvements in the efficiency of LC/MS method development, sample treatment, enrichment and digestion, and high-performance low-flow-LC separation. These advances have enhanced analytical sensitivity, specificity, and robustness. As to qualitative analysis, a range of techniques have been developed to characterize intramolecular disulfide bonds, glycosylation, charge variants, primary sequence heterogeneity, and the drug-to-antibody ratio of antibody drug conjugate (ADC), which has enabled a refined ability to assess product quality. In this review, we will focus on the discussion of technical challenges and strategies of LC/MS-based quantification and characterization of biotherapeutics, with the emphasis on the analysis of antibody-based biotherapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and ADCs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 36:734-754, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of the botanical authenticity and phytochemical profile of black cohosh products by high-performance liquid chromatography with selected ion monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bei; Kronenberg, Fredi; Nuntanakorn, Paiboon; Qiu, Ming-Hua; Kennelly, Edward J

    2006-05-03

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L., syn. Cimicifuga racemosa L.) has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause, but the botanical authenticity of most products containing black cohosh has not been evaluated, nor is manufacturing highly regulated in the United States. In this study, 11 black cohosh products were analyzed for triterpene glycosides, phenolic constituents, and formononetin by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection and a new selected ion monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Three of the 11 products were found to contain the marker compound cimifugin and not cimiracemoside C, thereby indicating that these plants contain Asian Actaea instead of black cohosh. One product contained both black cohosh and an Asian Actaea species. For the products containing only black cohosh, there was significant product-to-product variability in the amounts of the selected triterpene glycosides and phenolic constituents, and as expected, no formononetin was detected.

  7. Hard modeling methods for the curve resolution of data from liquid chromatography with a diode array detector and on-flow liquid chromatography with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wasim, Mohammad; Brereton, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Hard modeling methods have been performed on data from high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (LC-DAD) and on-flow liquid chromatography with 1H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (LC-NMR). Four methods have been used to optimize parameters to model concentration profiles, three of which belong to classical optimization methods (the simplex method of Nelder-Mead, sequential quadratic programming approach, and Levenberg-Marquardt method), and the fourth is the application of genetic algorithms using real-value encoding. Only classical methods worked well for LC-DAD data, while all of the methods produced good results when LC-NMR data were divided into small spectral windows of peak clusters and parameters were optimized over each window.

  8. Determination of muscimol and ibotenic acid in Amanita mushrooms by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takemi; Kishi, Tohru

    2007-06-01

    A reliable analytical method was developed for the quantification and identification of muscimol (MUS) and ibotenic acid (IBO), the toxic constituents of Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina. MUS and IBO were extracted from mushrooms by aqueous methanol and derivatized with dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl). After extraction with ethyl acetate and evaporation of the solvent, the residue was ethylated with 1.25 M hydrogen chloride in ethanol. The resulting derivatives were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and identified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 25-2500 ppm for MUS and 40-2500 ppm for IBO, respectively. This method was successfully applied to identify and quantify MUS and IBO in Amanita mushrooms naturally grown and circulated in the drug market.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. root.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibing; Cao, Bocheng; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Qiu, Fangping

    2015-02-01

    The ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed and applied to the extraction of four tanshinones, including dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. root. High performance liquid chromatography was applied to the separation and determination of the analytes. The ionic liquid was used as extraction solvent and target analytes were extracted with help of ultrasound. Then, ion-pairing agent was added into the sample solution, which resulted in the formation of water-insoluble ionic liquid in the solution. The phase separation was performed by centrifugation. The extraction, concentration and purification of target analytes were performed simultaneously. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of ionic liquid, sample amount, the size of sample particle, pH value of extraction medium, extraction temperature, extraction time, amount of ion-pairing agent and centrifuging time, were investigated and optimized. The calibration curves showed good linear relationship (r>0.9997). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.052-0.093 and 0.17-0.31 μg mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries were between 70.45% and 94.23% with relative standard deviations lower than 5.31%. The present method is free of volatile organic solvents, and represents lower expenditures of sample, extraction time and solvent, compared with UAE and HRE. There was no obvious difference in the extraction yields of active constitutions obtained by the three extraction methods.

  10. Fluorimetric assay for ornithine decarboxylase by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, K; Kai, M; Kohashi, K; Ohkura, Y

    1980-12-05

    A highly sensitive method for the assay of ornithine decarboxylase in sample solutions prepared from rat tissue homogenate is described which employs high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Putrescine formed from ornithine under the optimal conditions for the enzyme reaction is treated by Cellex P column chromatography for clean-up and converted into the fluorescamine derivative in the presence of cupric ion which inhibits the reaction of interfering amines with fluorescamine. The derivative is separated by reversed-phase chromatography on LiChrosorb RP-18 with linear gradient elution. The lower limit of detection for putrescine formed enzymatically is 5 pmol.

  11. Clinical Proteomics: Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Purification Systems.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has become a routine powerful technology in clinical proteomic studies for protein identification, protein characterization and the discovery of biomarkers. In this chapter, we describe two protocol methods to analyze clinical patient samples using a resin based depletion column followed by either protein In-gel enzymatic digestion or protein in-solution enzymatic digestion and then analysis by one-dimensional reverse-phase chromatography or two-dimensional strong cation exchange (SCX)-reverse-phase chromatography (RPC).

  12. High-performance liquid affinity chromatography: rapid immunoanalysis of transferrin in serum.

    PubMed

    Ohlson, S; Gudmundsson, B M; Wikström, P; Larsson, P O

    1988-10-01

    We describe a new method for quantitatively measuring substances of clinical interest by high-performance liquid affinity chromatography (HPLAC). As a model system we selected analysis for transferrin in human serum with immobilized antibodies in a high-performance liquid chromatographic system. SelectiSpher-10 Activated Tresyl columns (5 or 10 x 0.5 cm) were used for in situ coupling of polyclonal antibodies to transferrin. The amount of transferrin eluted was determined by integrating the eluted peak at 280 nm. The whole analytical procedure--including injection of sample, washing, elution, and analysis of data--takes only 7 min. We characterized the HPLAC system for analysis of transferrin in several ways: intra-assay CV approximately 3%; inter-assay CV 2-9%; linear response up to 1 mg/mL column volume; detection limit approximately 3 micrograms; analytical recovery 98% +/- 2%; purity of eluted sample greater than 95% (SDS-PAGE). The HPLAC method was compared with "rocket" immunoelectrophoresis, a commonly used method of analysis for transferrin, and there was excellent correlation between the two methods (r = 0.96, n = 60). Benefits of this HPLAC technique include high precision, rapid analysis, and simplified sample handling.

  13. Comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for analysis of toad skin.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Fu; Yan, Xia; Wu, Yun-Long; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2017-04-15

    An analytical two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC × RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed thermal evaporation assisted adsorption (TEAA) interface. This novel TEAA interface with heating temperature above solvent boiling point allowed fast removal of organic NPLC solvent and successfully solved the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved rapid on-line solvent exchange between the two dimensions within a short modulation time of 190 s and was applied in the analysis of an extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans. This is the first time to realize the on-line comprehensive analysis of a moderate polar natural product by coupling NPLC with reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). To be highlighted, with the TEAA interface, the 2D NPLC × RPLC system provided excellent resolution and orthogonality (75.2%), when compared with that of 2D RPLC × RPLC.

  14. [Simultaneous determination of three antioxidants BHA, BHT and TBHQ in food by liquid chromatography and gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Fang, Congrong; Yang, Dajin

    2013-01-01

    To develop a method for determining 3 kinds of antioxidants in food in same time with HPLC and GC. Firstly, extracted fat with petroleum ether, then extracted antioxidants with 13 ml methnol, centrifuged, repeated the above procedure twice, combined the extracts, next evaporated to 5 ml, constanted volume to 10 ml, then kepted in freezer (- 1h), lastly, the supernatant injected into high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Gas chromatography (GC) which had been optimized condition. The limits of quantitation for BHA,BHT and TBHQ were 0.002, 0.010 and 0.002g/kg respectively in HPLC, The limits of quantitation for BHA, BHT and TBHQ were 0.003, 0.002 and 0.005 g/kg respectively in GC, The mean recoveries at the two spiked levels were 82.8% - 109.0%. There were no significant difference between HPLC and GC. The method can be used to determine the antioxidants in food accurately and sensitively, the comparative results are constant between liquid and gas chromatography.

  15. Determination of statin drugs in hospital effluent with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and quantification by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ayrton F; Frank, Carla da S; Altissimo, Joseline; de Oliveira, Júlia A; da Silva, Daiane S; Reichert, Jaqueline F; Souza, Darliana M

    2017-08-24

    Statins are classified as being amongst the most prescribed agents for treating hypercholesterolaemia and preventing vascular diseases. In this study, a rapid and effective liquid chromatography method, assisted by diode array detection, was designed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of atorvastatin (ATO) and simvastatin (SIM) in hospital effluent samples. The solid phase extraction (SPE) of the analytes was optimized regarding sorbent material and pH, and the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), in terms of pH, ionic strength, type and volume of extractor/dispersor solvents. The performance of both extraction procedures was evaluated in terms of linearity, quantification limits, accuracy (recovery %), precision and matrix effects for each analyte. The methods proved to be linear in the concentration range considered; the quantification limits were 0.45 µg L(-1) for ATO and 0.75 µg L(-1) for SIM; the matrix effect was almost absent in both methods and the average recoveries remained between 81.5-90.0%; and the RSD values were <20%. The validated methods were applied to the quantification of the statins in real samples of hospital effluent; the concentrations ranged from 18.8 µg L(-1) to 35.3 µg L(-1) for ATO, and from 30.3 µg L(-1) to 38.5 µg L(-1) for SIM. Since the calculated risk quotient was ≤192, the occurrence of ATO and SIM in hospital effluent poses a potential serious risk to human health and the aquatic ecosystem.

  16. Analysis of drugs of abuse in human plasma by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fernández, P; Regenjo, M; Bermejo, A M; Fernández, A M; Lorenzo, R A; Carro, A M

    2015-04-01

    Opioids and cocaine are widely used at present, both for recreational purposes and as drugs of abuse. This raises the need to develop new analytical methods specifically designed for the simultaneous detection of several drugs of abuse in biological samples. In this work, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was assessed as a new sample treatment for the simultaneous extraction of morphine (MOR), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE) and methadone (MET) from human plasma. Preliminary assays were done before developing an experimental design based on a Uniform Network Doehlert which allowed the optimum extraction conditions to be identified, namely: a volume of extractant solvent (chloroform) and dispersant solvent (acetonitrile) of 220 µl and 3.2 ml, respectively; 0.2 g of NaCl as a salting-out additive; pH 10.6 and ultrasound stirring for 3.5 min. The resulting extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA), using an XBridge® RP18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size). Calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range 0.1-10 µg ml⁻¹, and detection limits ranged from 13.9 to 28.5 ng ml⁻¹. Precision calculated at three different concentration levels in plasma was included in the range 0.1-6.8% RSD. Recoveries of the five drugs were all higher than 84% on average. Finally the proposed method was successfully applied to 22 plasma samples from heroin, cocaine and/or methadone users, and the most frequently detected drug was benzoylecgonine, followed by methadone, cocaine and morphine.

  17. Determination of five antiarrhythmic drugs in human plasma by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jouyban, Abolghasem; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Fazeli-Bakhtiyari, Rana

    2015-03-01

    A fast and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of five antiarrhythmic drugs (metoprolol, propranolol, carvedilol, diltiazem, and verapamil) in human plasma samples. It involves dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of the desired drugs from 660 µL plasma and separation using isocratic elution with UV detection at 200 nm. The complete separation of all analytes was achieved within 7 min. Acetonitrile (as disperser solvent) resulting from the protein precipitation procedure was mixed with 100 µL dichloromethane (as an extraction solvent) and rapidly injected into 5 mL aqueous solution (pH 11.5) containing 1% (w/v), NaCl. After centrifugation, the sedimented phase containing enriched analytes was collected and evaporated to dryness. The residue was re-dissolved in 50 µL de-ionized water (acidified to pH 3) and injected into the HPLC system for analysis. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors and extraction recoveries ranged between 4.4-10.8 and 33-82%, respectively. The suggested method was linear (r(2) ≥0.997) over a dynamic range of 0.02-0.80 µg mL(-1) in plasma. The intra- and inter-days relative standard deviation (RSD%) and relative error (RE%) values of the method were below 20%, which shows good precision and accuracy. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of real plasma samples obtained from the patients treated with these drugs.

  18. Comprehensive Profiling of Phytohormones in Honey by Sequential Liquid-Liquid Extraction Coupled with Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Cai, Wen-Jing; Yu, Lei; Ding, Jun; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2017-01-25

    Honey exhibits various nutritional and medicinal functions, which are highly related to the active components; thus, the exploration of new compounds in honey is of great importance. Because honey is a byproduct of flower nectar, which is rich in phytohormones, the existence of phytohormones in honey is anticipated. In this research, a method for comprehensive profiling of 49 phytohormones in honey was developed by sequential liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Good linearities for 49 phytohormones were obtained with correlation coefficients (R) larger than 0.9913. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.2-628.2 pg/mL. Satisfied reproducibility and reliability were achieved by evaluation of the intra- and interday precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 15.8% and relative recoveries ranging from 80.4 to 123.7%. The method was further applied to analyze the phytohormones in 14 monofloral raw honey samples and 3 commercial honey samples. The existence of 34 phytohormones was confirmed, including 14 cytokinins (CKs), 8 gibberellins (GAs), 5 brassinosteroids (BRs), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonoyl-leucine (JA-Leu), and jasmonoyl-phenylalanine (JA-Phe). In addition, the content and species of phytohormones varies in different kinds of honey. The study is beneficial to fully illustrate the phytohormone profile of honey and contributive to elucidate the mechanism of its nutritional and medicinal functions.

  19. Identification of Unknown Contaminants in Water Samples from ISS Employing Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) is a powerful technique for identifying unknown organic compounds. For non-volatile or thermally unstable unknowns dissolved in liquids, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is often the variety of MS/MS used for the identification. One type of LC/MS/MS that is rapidly becoming popular is time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. This technique is now in use at the Johnson Space Center for identification of unknown nonvolatile organics in water samples from the space program. An example of the successful identification of one unknown is reviewed in detail in this paper. The advantages of time-of-flight instrumentation are demonstrated through this example as well as the strategy employed in using time-of-flight data to identify unknowns.

  20. Use of Chromatography Techniques to Separate a Mixture of Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, W.

    1976-01-01

    Explains the separation of the constituents of mixtures on one piece of chromatography paper. The example presented involves a vitamin C tablet, a disprin tablet, and a glucose tablet. Outlined are two methods for separating the constituents. (GS)

  1. Use of Chromatography Techniques to Separate a Mixture of Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, W.

    1976-01-01

    Explains the separation of the constituents of mixtures on one piece of chromatography paper. The example presented involves a vitamin C tablet, a disprin tablet, and a glucose tablet. Outlined are two methods for separating the constituents. (GS)

  2. Novel mesoporous carbonaceous materials: Synthesis, characterization and applications in liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuojiang

    The ability to control the porous structure in carbonaceous materials has been significantly improved in the past decade due to the appearance of new synthetic routes and novel templating materials. In this dissertation, novel mesoporous carbonaceous materials with controlled structural and surface properties were prepared and investigated using low temperature nitrogen adsorption, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and other analytical techniques. The performance of these novel mesoporous carbons in liquid chromatography was also investigated. Carbons with extremely high mesoporosity were synthesized by using mesophase pitch and polyacrylonitrile as precursors in the silica gel templating method, which led to a dramatic reduction of microporosity and high carbonization yield. The most important achievement of this dissertation is the initiation of a colloidal imprinting technique, in which spherical pores were created in the particles of mesophase pitch by using silica colloids of proper size. This method allows us to prepare carbons with uniform spherical pores in the range of 7--70 nm and narrow pore size distribution, filling the pore size gap between carbons templated with ordered silicas and colloidal silica crystals. The introduction of air stabilization further improved the ability to control the pore development at a given stage in the imprinting process. For the first time, carbon particles with mesoporous shell/nonporous core structure were obtained. In this way, carbons with controlled pore size, surface area, pore volume and particle size were synthesized. Moreover, the colloidal imprinting technique was extended to a more general imprinting concept, in which porous particles were used to obtain carbon particles having ordered or disordered structure on their surface. Graphitization of the imprinted carbons provided carbonaceous materials of tailored mesopores and graphitic structure. Also, this high-temperature treatment removed surface functional

  3. Microwave-assisted ionic liquid homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of anthraquinones in Rheum palmatum L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibing; Hu, Jianxue; Du, Hongxia; He, Shuang; Li, Qing; Zhang, Hanqi

    2016-06-05

    The microwave-assisted ionic liquid homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction (MA-IL-HLLME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the determination of anthraquinones, including aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion in root of Rheum palmatum L. Several experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, including amount of sample, type and volume of ionic liquid, volume and pH value of extraction medium, microwave power and extraction time, concentration of NH4PF6 as well as centrifugal condition were optimized. When 140μL of ionic liquid ([C8MIM][BF4]) was used as an extraction solvent, target analytes can be extracted from sample matrix in one minute with the help of microwave irradiation. The MA-IL-HLLME is simple and quick. The calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r>0.9984). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.026 and 0.051-0.088μgmL(-1), respectively. The spiked recovery for each analyte was in the range of 81.13-93.07% with relative standard deviations lower than 6.89%. The present method is free of volatile organic solvents, and represents lower expenditures of sample, extraction time and solvent, compared with ultrasonic and heat reflux extraction. The results indicated that the present method can be successfully applied to the determination of anthraquinones in medicinal plant.

  4. [Determination of five triazine herbicides in infant milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Yao, Di; Li, Na; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the determination of five triazine herbicides in infant milk powders. The ionic liquid was used as microextraction solvent. The separation of the herbicides was performed on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column using acetonitrile and water as mobile phases in gradient mode. The effects of homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction conditions on the experimental results were investigated in detail. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the calibration curves for determining the analytes were linear and the correlation coefficients were ≥ 0.9992. The limits of detection for cyanazine, desmetryn, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and dimethametryn were 12.1, 13.8, 11.8, 14.6 and 13.7 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of the analytes spiked in four infant milk powders ranged from 92.2% to 103.2% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6%. This method is sensitive, simple, and suitable for the determination of triazine herbicides in milk powder samples.

  5. Simultaneous liquid-liquid microextraction/methylation for the determination of haloacetic acids in drinking waters by headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cardador, M J; Serrano, A; Gallego, M

    2008-10-31

    A novel analytical method that combines simultaneous liquid-liquid microextraction/methylation and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water was reported. A mechanistic model on the basis of mass transfer with chemical reaction in which methylation of HAAs was accomplished in n-pentane-water (150 microl-10 ml) two-phase system with a tetrabutylammonium salt as phase transfer catalyst was proposed. Derivatisation with dimethylsulphate was completed in 3 min by shaking at room temperature. The methyl ester derivatives and the organic phase were completely volatilised by static headspace technique, being the gaseous phase analysed. Parameters related to the extraction/methylation and headspace generation of HAAs were studied and the results were compared with methyl haloacetate standards to establish the yield of each step. The thermal instability of HAAs, by degradation to their respective halogenated hydrocarbon by decarboxylation, and the possible hydrolysation of the methyl esters were rigorously controlled in the whole process to obtain a reliable and robust method. The proposed method yielded detection limits very low which ranges from 0.02 to 0.4 microg l(-1) and a relative standard deviation of ca. 7.5%. Finally, the method was validated with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) method 552.2 for the analysis of HAAs in drinking and swimming pool water samples containing concentrations of HAAs that must be higher than 10 microg l(-1) due to the fact that this method is less sensitive than the proposed one.

  6. Quantitative determination of penicillin V and amoxicillin in feed samples by pressurised liquid extraction and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Benito-Peña, E; Urraca, J L; Moreno-Bondi, M C

    2009-02-20

    A rapid and simple method is proposed for the routine determination of amoxicillin (AMOX) and penicillin V (PENV) in swine feedingstuffs. The method is based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (PLE-HPLC-UV) for antibiotic analysis. Parameters affecting PLE procedure, such as temperature, solvent composition, number of extraction cycles and sample cell size, were evaluated in order to achieve the highest extraction efficiency. The optimised method employed 11mL extraction cells, acetonitrile-water mixtures (25:75, v/v) for AMOX and (50:50, v/v) for PENV, as extraction solvent, 102.07atm of extraction pressure, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature, 5min of static time and 60% flush volume of the cell size. Extracts were filtered and directly analysed by HPLC-DAD/UV without further clean-up. Mean recovery rates for feed samples fortified with 200-500mgkg(-1) of both antibiotics were 86% for AMOX (RSD< or =6%) and 95% for PENV (RSD< or =3%). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of a commercial medicated swine feedingstuff, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained using mechanical shaking or ultrasonic extraction combined with solid phase extraction (UE-SPE), previously applied in the literature for feed analysis. The extraction efficiencies were evaluated by statistical comparison (analysis of variance, ANOVA-single factor) of the results obtained using the different extraction methods. Compared to the alternative techniques, PLE offers several practical advantages: easy to perform, fast, savings in solvent volume and in time, all steps are fully automated and further clean-up is not necessary for penicillin analysis.

  7. Direct liquid sample introduction for flow injection analysis and liquid chromatography with inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, K.E.; Rice, G.W.; Fassel, V.A.

    1984-02-01

    The coupling of flow injection analysis (FIA) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) offers new and attractive approaches for the determination of elemental concentrations in a wide variety of sample matrices. One of the most attractive features that FIA offers is a rapid and precise means of automating sample introduction into an ICP for simultaneous, multielement analysis at the trace, minor, and major constituent level with minimal sample consumption. The utilization of the ICP as a detector for HPLC retains most of the advantages of FIA-ICP, while providing the analyst with a powerful and versatile means of compound separation. This added dimension becomes particularly important when metal speciation is of primary interest, rather than total metal content. To date, the coupling of FIA and HPLC to the ICP has only been accomplished using conventional cross-flow, concentric, or Babington-type pneumatic nebulizers. Limits of detection under these conditions have generally been observed to be poorer when compared to conventional continuous sample flow conditions. These limitations have been attributed to the large dead-volume and the sample losses associated with conventional nebulizers and band broadening of eluents from FIA transfer tubing or HPLC columns prior to entering the nebulizer unit. In an effort to resolve these difficulties, a microconcentric nebulizer has been developed which is inserted directly into the tip of a conventional sample introduction tube of an ICP torch. Preliminary data on the potential utility of direct liquid sample introduction into the ICP are presented. 12 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  8. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  9. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  10. Using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector to quantify exhaled leukotriene B4 level in nonatopic adults.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Yan, Dah-Chin; Tseng, Hui-Yun; Lee, Jian-Tao; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of the chemical method to analyze exhaled breath condensate (EBC) leukotriene B4 (LTB4) level in humans. High-performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector was applied to quantify the inflammatory biomarker. The LTB4 concentration in the concentrated pooled EBC samples was 1.19 ng/μL, and the average LTB4 concentration of each EBC sample was 15.38 ng/μL. This analytical technique was feasible to evaluate the levels of inflammatory mediators such as LTB4 in human EBCs without any complicated sample pretreatment processes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of patulin in apple juice using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    PubMed

    Takino, Masahiko; Daishima, Shigeki; Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and the recently introduced atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of patulin in clear apple juice. A column switching technique for on-line extraction of clear apple juice was developed. The parameters investigated for the optimization of APPI were the ion source parameters fragmentor voltage, capillary voltage, and vaporizer temperature, and also mobile phase composition and flow rate. Furthermore, chemical noise and signal suppression of analyte signals due to sample matrix interference were investigated for both APCI and APPI. The results indicated that APPI provides lower chemical noise and signal suppression in comparison with APCI. The linear range for patulin in apple juice (correlation coefficient >0.999) was 0.2-100 ng mL(-1). Mean recoveries of patulin in three apple juices ranged from 94.5 to 103.2%, and the limit of detection (S/N = 3), repeatability and reproducibility were 1.03-1.50 ng mL(-1), 3.9-5.1% and 7.3-8.2%, respectively. The total analysis time was 10.0 min.

  12. Analysis of plant nucleotide sugars by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ito, Jun; Herter, Thomas; Baidoo, Edward E K; Lao, Jeemeng; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E; Michelle Smith-Moritz, A; Adams, Paul D; Keasling, Jay D; Usadel, Björn; Petzold, Christopher J; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the intricate metabolic processes involved in plant cell wall biosynthesis is limited by difficulties in performing sensitive quantification of many involved compounds. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is a useful technique for the analysis of hydrophilic metabolites from complex biological extracts and forms the basis of this method to quantify plant cell wall precursors. A zwitterionic silica-based stationary phase has been used to separate hydrophilic nucleotide sugars involved in cell wall biosynthesis from milligram amounts of leaf tissue. A tandem mass spectrometry operating in selected reaction monitoring mode was used to quantify nucleotide sugars. This method was highly repeatable and quantified 12 nucleotide sugars at low femtomole quantities, with linear responses up to four orders of magnitude to several 100pmol. The method was also successfully applied to the analysis of purified leaf extracts from two model plant species with variations in their cell wall sugar compositions and indicated significant differences in the levels of 6 out of 12 nucleotide sugars. The plant nucleotide sugar extraction procedure was demonstrated to have good recovery rates with minimal matrix effects. The approach results in a significant improvement in sensitivity when applied to plant samples over currently employed techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Straightforward single-calibrant quantification of seized designer drugs by liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence nitrogen detection.

    PubMed

    Rasanen, Ilpo; Kyber, Marianne; Szilvay, Ilmari; Rintatalo, Janne; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-04-01

    Sixty-one different psychoactive substances were quantified by liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence nitrogen detection (LC-CLND) in 177 samples, using a single secondary standard (caffeine), in a trial concerning the quantitative purity assessment of drug-related material seized by the police in 2011-2012 and customs in 2011-2013 in Finland. The substances found were predominantly substituted phenethylamines, cathinones, tryptamines and synthetic cannabinoids, which were identified by appropriate methods prior to submitting the samples for quantification by LC-CLND. The equimolarity and expanded uncertainty of measurement by LC-CLND were on average 95% and 13%, respectively, based on 16 different substances. The median (mean) purity of stimulant/hallucinogenic drug samples seized at the border was 92.9% (87.6%) and in the street 82.0% (64.5%). The corresponding figures for powdery synthetic cannabinoid samples seized at the border and in the street were 99.0% (96.8%) and 90.0% (92.2%), respectively. There was generally only one active drug to be quantified in each sample. Seized herbal samples contained 0.15-9.2% of between one and three components. LC-CLND was found to be suitable for quantification of the nitrogen-containing drugs encountered in the study, showing sufficient N-equimolarity for both stimulant/hallucinogenic drugs and synthetic cannabinoids. The technique possesses great potential as a standard technique in forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sources of Variability in Chlorophyll Analysis by Fluorometry and by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Chapter 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanHeukelem, Laurie; Thomas, Crystal S.; Glibert, Patricia M.

    2001-01-01

    The need for accurate determination of chlorophyll a (chl a) is of interest for numerous reasons. From the need for ground-truth data for remote sensing to pigment detection for laboratory experimentation, it is essential to know the accuracy of the analyses and the factors potentially contributing to variability and error. Numerous methods and instrument techniques are currently employed in the analyses of chl a. These methods range from spectrophotometric quantification, to fluorometric analysis and determination by high performance liquid chromatography. Even within the application of HPLC techniques, methods vary. Here we provide the results of a comparison among methods and provide some guidance for improving the accuracy of these analyses. These results are based on a round-robin conducted among numerous investigators, including several in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) and HyCODE Programs. Our purpose here is not to present the full results of the laboratory intercalibration; those results will be presented elsewhere. Rather, here we highlight some of the major factors that may contribute to the variability observed. Specifically, we aim to assess the comparability of chl a analyses performed by fluorometry and HPLC, and we identify several factors in the analyses which may contribute disproportionately to this variability.

  15. On-line solid-phase extraction for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lucci, Paolo; Núñez, Oscar

    2014-10-01

    Public concern about pesticides in food and water has increased dramatically in the last two decades. In order to guarantee consumers' health and safety, analytical methods that could provide fast and reliable answers without compromising accuracy and precision are required. Sample treatment is probably the most tedious and time-consuming step in many analytical procedures and, despite the significant advances in chromatographic separations and mass spectrometry techniques, sample treatment is still one of the most important parts of the analytical process for achieving good analytical results. Therefore, over the last years, considerable efforts have been made to simplify the stage and to develop fast, accurate, and robust methods that allow the determination of a wide range of pesticides without compromising the integrity of the extraction process. This review article intends to give a short overview of recently developed on-line solid-phase extraction, preconcentration, and clean-up procedures for the determination of pesticides in complex matrices by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques.

  16. Fractionation of particulate glycogen and bound enzymes using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vardanis, A

    1990-05-15

    During a study aimed at the specificity of binding of phosphorylase and glycogen synthase to glycogen particles we investigated the separation of these particles with the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography using several media. The technique allowed relatively rapid fractionations with little, if any, loss of enzyme activity. The basis of some separations was molecular weight of the particle. Of the molecular exclusion media used, Superose 6 had an exclusion limit large enough to accommodate most glycogens but excluded mouse liver and bovine liver glycogen particles. Toyopearl HW-75 F was a medium that could accommodate liver glycogen and gave us reasonably well-defined separation of the particles that carried phosphorylase and glycogen synthase. Separations on ion-exchange columns, that were obviously based on the overall charge of proteins associated with the glycogen particles, were not very effective in terms of allowing the separation of different types of particle. Of all the media used the hydrophobic interaction column was best in terms of separating what appeared to be distinct populations of particles that had definite preferences in terms of binding phosphorylase and glycogen synthase. As expected, these separations were based on the hydrophobic interaction of the proteins associated with the glycogen particles, since particles that had been deproteinized by a cold water extraction procedure did not bind to the column.

  17. Sources of Variability in Chlorophyll Analysis by Fluorometry and by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Chapter 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanHeukelem, Laurie; Thomas, Crystal S.; Glibert, Patricia M.

    2001-01-01

    The need for accurate determination of chlorophyll a (chl a) is of interest for numerous reasons. From the need for ground-truth data for remote sensing to pigment detection for laboratory experimentation, it is essential to know the accuracy of the analyses and the factors potentially contributing to variability and error. Numerous methods and instrument techniques are currently employed in the analyses of chl a. These methods range from spectrophotometric quantification, to fluorometric analysis and determination by high performance liquid chromatography. Even within the application of HPLC techniques, methods vary. Here we provide the results of a comparison among methods and provide some guidance for improving the accuracy of these analyses. These results are based on a round-robin conducted among numerous investigators, including several in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) and HyCODE Programs. Our purpose here is not to present the full results of the laboratory intercalibration; those results will be presented elsewhere. Rather, here we highlight some of the major factors that may contribute to the variability observed. Specifically, we aim to assess the comparability of chl a analyses performed by fluorometry and HPLC, and we identify several factors in the analyses which may contribute disproportionately to this variability.

  18. Determination of explosives in environmental water samples by solid-phase microextraction-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Beaulieu, Chantale; Deschamps, Stéphane; Paquet, Louise; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-09-10

    When explosives are present in natural aqueous media, their concentration is usually limited to trace levels. A preconcentration step able to remove matrix interferences and to enhance sensitivity is therefore necessary. In the present study, we evaluated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique for the recovery of nine explosives from aqueous samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Several parameters, including adsorption and desorption time, coating type, rate of stirring, salt addition, and pH, were optimized to obtain reproducible data with good accuracy. Carbowax coating was the only adsorbent found capable of adsorbing all explosives including nitramines. Method detection limits (MDL) were found to range from 1 to 10 microg/L, depending on the analyte. SPME/HPLC-UV coupling was then applied to the analysis of natural ocean and groundwater samples and compared to conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE/HPLC-UV). Excellent agreement was observed between both techniques, but with an analysis time around five times shorter, SPME/HPLC-UV was considered to be applicable for quantitative analysis of explosives.

  19. DETERMINATION OF CARBENDAZIM IN WATER BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE IMMUNOAFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY ON-LINE WITH HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH DIODE-ARRAY OR MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automated method for the determination of carbendazim in water that combines high-performance immunoaffinity chromatography (HPIAC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the reversed-phase mode, and detection by either UV-Vis diode array detector (DAD) spectroscopy...

  20. DETERMINATION OF CARBENDAZIM IN WATER BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE IMMUNOAFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY ON-LINE WITH HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH DIODE-ARRAY OR MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automated method for the determination of carbendazim in water that combines high-performance immunoaffinity chromatography (HPIAC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the reversed-phase mode, and detection by either UV-Vis diode array detector (DAD) spectroscopy...