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Sample records for liquid hand soap

  1. Foam soap is not as effective as liquid soap in eliminating hand microbial flora.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Nicolette; Morgan, Margie; Equils, Ozlem

    2017-07-01

    Foam soaps are aerosolized liquid soaps dispensed through a special pump mechanism. Currently there are no studies comparing liquid soap with foam soap in regard to efficacy of reducing hand microbial burden. In 3 separate experiments and with 2 different brands of foam soap, it was observed that nonantimicrobial foam soap was not as effective in reducing hand bacterial load as the liquid soap. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human health risk assessment of chloroxylenol in liquid hand soap and dishwashing soap used by consumers and health-care professionals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Lisa J; Rodricks, Joseph D; Turnbull, Duncan; DeLeo, Paul C; Nash, J Frank; Quiñones-Rivera, Antonio; Carlson, Pete A

    2016-10-01

    A quantitative human risk assessment of chloroxylenol was conducted for liquid hand and dishwashing soap products used by consumers and health-care workers. The toxicological data for chloroxylenol indicate lack of genotoxicity, no evidence of carcinogenicity, and minimal systemic toxicity. No observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) were established from chronic toxicity studies, specifically a carcinogenicity study that found no cancer excess (18 mg/kg-day) and studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity (100 mg/kg-day). Exposure to chloroxylenol for adults and children was estimated for two types of rinse-off cleaning products, one liquid hand soap, and two dishwashing products. The identified NOAELs were used together with exposure estimates to derive margin of exposure (MOE) estimates for chloroxylenol (i.e., estimates of exposure over NOAELs). These estimates were designed with conservative assumptions and likely overestimate exposure and risk (i.e., highest frequency, 100% dermal penetration). The resulting MOEs ranged from 178 to over 100, 000, 000 indicating negligibly small potential for harm related to consumer or health-care worker exposure to chloroxylenol in liquid soaps used in dish washing and hand washing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of liquid soap vs. chlorhexidine gluconate for the removal of Clostridium difficile from bare hands and gloved hands.

    PubMed

    Bettin, K; Clabots, C; Mathie, P; Willard, K; Gerding, D N

    1994-11-01

    To compare liquid soap versus 4% chlorhexidine gluconate in 4% alcohol for the decontamination of bare or gloved hands inoculated with an epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile. C difficile (6.7 log10 colony-forming units [CFU], 47% spores), was seeded onto bare or latex gloved hands of ten volunteers and allowed to dry. Half the volunteers initially washed with soap and half with chlorhexidine, followed by the other agent 1 week later. Cultures were done with Rodac plates at three sites on the hand: finger/thumbtips, the palmar surfaces of the fingers, and the palm. Statistical comparison was by paired Student's t test. On bare hands, soap and chlorhexidine did not differ in residual bacterial counts on the finger/thumbtips (log10 CFU, 2.0 and 2.1, P = NS) and fingers (log10 CFU, 2.4 and 2.5, P = NS). Counts were too high on bare palms to quantitate. On gloved hands, soap was more effective than chlorhexidine on fingers (log10 CFU 1.3 and 1.7, P < .01) and palms (log10 CFU 1.5 and 2.0, P < .01), but not finger/thumbtips (log10 CFU 1.6 with each, P = NS). Residual C difficile counts were lower on gloved hands than bare hands (P < 0.01 to < 0.0001). The two agents did not differ significantly in residual counts of C difficile on bare hands, but on gloved hands residual counts were lower following soap wash than following chlorhexidine wash. These observations support the use of either soap or chlorhexidine as a handwash for removal of C difficile, but efficacy in the prevention of C difficile transmission must be determined by prospective clinical trials.

  4. [Microbiological characteristics of selected liquid soaps for hands washing].

    PubMed

    Tyski, Stefan; Bocian, Ewa; Zawistowska, Anna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Kruszewska, Hanna; Grzybowska, Wanda; Zareba, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    According to common belief, supported by the authority of the World Health Organization - WHO, the common (social) hand washing is the simplest, cheapest and the most effective way of reduction the hospital-acquired infections. For this purpose products of"liquid soaps", present in a large number on the market, are most often applied. Microbiological status (microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity) of"liquid soaps" available on the Polish market is not known, because relevant routinely studies have not been performed. Only the antibacterial and / or antifungal activity of certain formulations is sometimes assessed, especially when the manufacturer suggests the standardized application of the products for surgical or hygienic procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality, especially microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity of the selected hands washing products, presents on the Polish market. The 12 selected commercial products, available on the market in Poland, dedicated for hands washing were included into study. Microbiological purity test was carried out in accordance with the Polish Pharmacopoeia (FP) monograph (FP monograph numbers correspond to numbers of the European Pharmacopoeia monograph- Ph. Eur.) No 2.6.12 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: microbial enumaration tests", and the monograph of FP No. 2.6.13 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: test for specified microorganisms". The following physico-chemical properties of soaps were examined: the pH of the formulations was measured according to the monograph FP No. 2.2.3. "Potentiometric determination of pH", the density of products was assayed according to the monograph FPNo. 2.2.5. "Relative density" and determination the water activity was performed by monograph FP No 2.9.39 "Water-solid interactions: determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and of water activity". Next, antibacterial and antifungal

  5. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengbo; Yuen, Yvonne; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Disinfection is an essential measure for interrupting human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants due to the absence of a practicable cell culture system for these viruses. The purpose of this study was to screen sodium hypochlorite and ethanol for efficacy against Norwalk virus (NV) and expand the studies to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial liquid soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer for the inactivation of NV on human finger pads. Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) both with and without a prior RNase treatment. In suspension assay, sodium hypochlorite concentrations of >or=160 ppm effectively eliminated RT-qPCR detection signal, while ethanol, regardless of concentration, was relatively ineffective, giving at most a 0.5 log(10) reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA. Using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard finger pad method and a modification thereof (with rubbing), we observed the greatest reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA with the antibacterial liquid soap treatment (0.67 to 1.20 log(10) reduction) and water rinse only (0.58 to 1.58 log(10) reduction). The alcohol-based hand sanitizer was relatively ineffective, reducing the genomic copies of NV cDNA by only 0.14 to 0.34 log(10) compared to baseline. Although the concentrations of genomic copies of NV cDNA were consistently lower on finger pad eluates pretreated with RNase compared to those without prior RNase treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the promise of alcohol-based sanitizers for the control of pathogen transmission, they may be relatively ineffective against the HuNoV, reinforcing the need to develop and evaluate new products against this important group of viruses.

  6. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    PubMed

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting.

  7. The importance of soap selection for routine hand hygiene in hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Ojajärvi, J.

    1981-01-01

    Five different types of liquid soap were studied in hospital wards, each during two months' use. Altogether 1306 finger print samples were taken from the hands of the staff by sampling twice a week and the acceptability of the soaps was measured by a questionnaire. During the use of different soaps only slight differences were found in the numbers of total bacteria or in the occurrence of Staph. aureus and gram-negative bacilli on the hands. During the use of the emulsion-type product studied, several persons who had dermatological problems had lower mean bacterial counts of the fingers than during the use of the other soaps. This soap was also favourably accepted by the staff. After over one year's use of pine oil soap and alcohol, the staff of the hospital was satisfied with the method. However, several persons with skin problems admitted to not using soap or alcohol. The considerable differences found in the acceptability of soaps imply that for use in hospital the choice of a soap acceptable to the nursing staff is important in promoting proper hand hygiene. PMID:7240731

  8. Bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Carrie A; Campbell, Esther J; Maxwell, Sheri L; Gerba, Charles P; Dolan, Michael J; Arbogast, James W; Macinga, David R

    2011-05-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log(10) CFU/ml of Serratia marcescens, an average of 5.28 log(10) CFU remained on each hand after washing, and 2.23 log(10) CFU was transferred to an agar surface. In an elementary-school-based field study, Gram-negative bacteria on the hands of students and staff increased by 1.42 log(10) CFU per hand (26-fold) after washing with soap from contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers. In contrast, washing with soap from dispensers with sealed refills significantly reduced bacteria on hands by 0.30 log(10) CFU per hand (2-fold). Additionally, the mean number of Gram-negative bacteria transferred to surfaces after washing with soap from dispensers with sealed-soap refills (0.06 log(10) CFU) was significantly lower than the mean number after washing with contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers (0.74 log(10) CFU; P < 0.01). Finally, significantly higher levels of Gram-negative bacteria were recovered from students (2.82 log(10) CFU per hand) than were recovered from staff (2.22 log(10) CFU per hand) after washing with contaminated bulk soap (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that washing with contaminated soap from bulk-soap-refillable dispensers can increase the number of opportunistic pathogens on the hands and may play a role in the transmission of bacteria in public settings.

  9. Bacterial Hand Contamination and Transfer after Use of Contaminated Bulk-Soap-Refillable Dispensers▿†

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Carrie A.; Campbell, Esther J.; Maxwell, Sheri L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Dolan, Michael J.; Arbogast, James W.; Macinga, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log10 CFU/ml of Serratia marcescens, an average of 5.28 log10 CFU remained on each hand after washing, and 2.23 log10 CFU was transferred to an agar surface. In an elementary-school-based field study, Gram-negative bacteria on the hands of students and staff increased by 1.42 log10 CFU per hand (26-fold) after washing with soap from contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers. In contrast, washing with soap from dispensers with sealed refills significantly reduced bacteria on hands by 0.30 log10 CFU per hand (2-fold). Additionally, the mean number of Gram-negative bacteria transferred to surfaces after washing with soap from dispensers with sealed-soap refills (0.06 log10 CFU) was significantly lower than the mean number after washing with contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers (0.74 log10 CFU; P < 0.01). Finally, significantly higher levels of Gram-negative bacteria were recovered from students (2.82 log10 CFU per hand) than were recovered from staff (2.22 log10 CFU per hand) after washing with contaminated bulk soap (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that washing with contaminated soap from bulk-soap-refillable dispensers can increase the number of opportunistic pathogens on the hands and may play a role in the transmission of bacteria in public settings. PMID:21421792

  10. Nosocomial Serratia marcescens infections associated with extrinsic contamination of a liquid nonmedicated soap.

    PubMed

    Sartor, C; Jacomo, V; Duvivier, C; Tissot-Dupont, H; Sambuc, R; Drancourt, M

    2000-03-01

    To determine the role of nonmedicated soap as a source of Serratia marcescens nosocomial infections (NIs) in hospital units with endemic S marcescens NI and to examine the mechanisms of soap colonization. University-affiliated tertiary-care hospitals. A prospective case-control study and an environmental investigation were performed to assess the relationship between S marcescens NIs in hospital units and S marcescens-contaminated soap. Soap-bottle use and handwashing practices were reviewed. Cultures of healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands were obtained before and after hand washing with soap. 5 of 7 hospital units with S marcescens NIs had soap bottles contaminated with S marcescens, compared to 1 of 14 other units (P=.006). After hand washing with an S marcescens-contaminated soap pump, HCWs' hands were 54 times more likely to be contaminated with S marcescens (P<.001). Extrinsic contamination of a non-medicated liquid soap by S marcescens resulted in handborne transmission of S marcescens NIs by HCWs in our setting. This finding led to the application of strict guidelines for nonmedicated soap use and to the reinforcement of alcoholic hand disinfection.

  11. Recommendations and requirements for soap and hand rub dispensers in healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel; Christiansen, Bärbel; Exner, Martin; Martiny, Heike; Sorger, Arno; Suchomel, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most important measures to prevent transmission of infectious agents and plays a major role in prevention of infection in any type of healthcare setting. While requirements for the efficacy of hand disinfectants are defined in European testing norms such as the EN 1500 for hygienic hand disinfection or EN 12791 for surgical hand preparation, no specific recommendations for hand rub dispensers and liquid soap dispensers have been given yet. Therefore, the intention of the present recommendation on soap and hand rub dispensers in healthcare facilities is to close this gap and to enhance future improvement of dispenser functionality and design. Regardless of manufacture and design of a hand rub or liquid soap dispensers the following requirements shall be met in healthcare facilities:Triggering the dispenser must be possible without using hands. Sensor- or elbow-operated dispensers both fulfill this requirement. Dispensers must be only refillable in a modality where the content, be it a hand rub or liquid soap, cannot be contaminated. This is achieved best by using replaceable cartridge systems. Refilling through "top-up" must not be possible. The disperser should allow usage of different types of cartridges made by different manufacturers. Dispensers must be operated and maintained such that a microbial contamination of the pump nozzle may easily be avoided. It must be possible to identify the products used in a dispenser easily and without any manipulation. Identifying the type of product, be it a hand rub or a liquid soap, as well as reading the product's name and critical manufacturers' warnings must be possible at any time. The disperser must allow identification of the level of the used product without any further manipulation at any time. The design of the dispenser must allow easy cleaning and disinfection the outside and inside of the dispenser. The manufacturer of the dispenser must provide the user with information on applicable

  12. Effectiveness of Liquid Soap and Hand Sanitizer against Norwalk Virus on Contaminated Hands▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengbo; Yuen, Yvonne; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Disinfection is an essential measure for interrupting human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants due to the absence of a practicable cell culture system for these viruses. The purpose of this study was to screen sodium hypochlorite and ethanol for efficacy against Norwalk virus (NV) and expand the studies to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial liquid soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer for the inactivation of NV on human finger pads. Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) both with and without a prior RNase treatment. In suspension assay, sodium hypochlorite concentrations of ≥160 ppm effectively eliminated RT-qPCR detection signal, while ethanol, regardless of concentration, was relatively ineffective, giving at most a 0.5 log10 reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA. Using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard finger pad method and a modification thereof (with rubbing), we observed the greatest reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA with the antibacterial liquid soap treatment (0.67 to 1.20 log10 reduction) and water rinse only (0.58 to 1.58 log10 reduction). The alcohol-based hand sanitizer was relatively ineffective, reducing the genomic copies of NV cDNA by only 0.14 to 0.34 log10 compared to baseline. Although the concentrations of genomic copies of NV cDNA were consistently lower on finger pad eluates pretreated with RNase compared to those without prior RNase treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the promise of alcohol-based sanitizers for the control of pathogen transmission, they may be relatively ineffective against the HuNoV, reinforcing the need to develop and evaluate new products against this important group of viruses. PMID:19933337

  13. Intrinsic Klebsiella pneumoniae contamination of liquid germicidal hand soap containing chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Steven E; Walczak, Mary A; Malcolm, Sharon; Hameed, Rizwanullah

    2004-10-01

    We describe intrinsic contamination with Klebsiella pneumoniae occurring during the manufacture of germicidal hand soap, labeled as containing 2% chlorhexidine, used throughout a 350-bed community medical center. A 3-year retrospective study failed to find evidence of increased incidence of clinical isolates of this strain.

  14. [Identification of bacterial contamination in liquid soap for hospital use].

    PubMed

    Caetano, Joselany Afio; Lima, Maria Alzete; Di Ciero Miranda, Maira; Serufo, José Carlos; Ponte, Paulo Roberto Lins

    2011-03-01

    This study performed a bacteriological analysis of the liquid soap in dispensers that health professionals use for hand washing. This exploratory, cross-sectional study was developed at the hospitalization units of a medium-sized hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2007. Fifty-nine liquid soap dispensers were analyzed, of which 33 contained the following microorganisms: Burkholderia cepacia (14), Pseudomonas putidas (9), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3), Enterobacter clocae (2), and Pseudomonas luteola (2). The units with the largest number of contaminated samples were the surgical (n=7) and the dermatological clinics (n=4). Contamination was also found in an original flask of the same lot of liquid soap used to fill up the dispensers. In conclusion, there is a need to regulate and control the quality of these products in the production lines as well as during use in hospital services, mainly because they are used to prevent hospital infection.

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Klebsiella oxytoca Isolates Originating from a Highly Contaminated Liquid Hand Soap Product.

    PubMed

    Hammerl, J A; Lasch, P; Nitsche, A; Dabrowski, P W; Hahmann, H; Wicke, A; Kleta, S; Al Dahouk, S; Dieckmann, R

    2015-07-23

    In 2013, contaminated liquid soap was detected by routine microbiological monitoring of consumer products through state health authorities. Because of its high load of Klebsiella oxytoca, the liquid soap was notified via the European Union Rapid Alert System for Dangerous Non-Food Products (EU-RAPEX) and recalled. Here, we present two draft genome sequences and a summary of their general features. Copyright © 2015 Hammerl et al.

  16. The pH of commonly available soaps, liquid cleansers, detergents and alcohol gels.

    PubMed

    Boonchai, Waranya; Iamtharachai, Pacharee

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) of a cleanser certainly has an impact on skin condition. Dermatologists always need to recommend a cleanser to patients with hand dermatitis or sensitive skin; particularly during the outbreak of swine (AH1N1 virus) influenza, frequent hand washing and alcohol gel cleansing were greatly recommended. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pH of various commonly available cleansers and alcohol gels on the market to assess patient comfort in using such products and to make good recommendations to our patients. Multiple brands of liquid cleansers, dishwashing liquids, soaps, laundry detergents, and alcohol gels commonly available on the market were assessed for pH by using a pH meter and pH-indicator strips. The pH assessment imitated real-life conditions by diluting each cleanser with tap water and then comparing the changed pH. The pH levels of liquid cleansers, dishwashing liquids, a beauty bar, and alcohol gels were acidic to neutral and compatible with normal skin pH. Most bar soaps, baby soaps, and powdered laundry detergents had a pH in the alkali range. The pH of concentrated cleansers was slightly different from that of their dissolved forms. Regarding the antiseptic property and pH of the cleansers, alcohol gels with moisturizers appeared to be the best hand cleansers to recommend to our patients.

  17. Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.

    PubMed

    Chattman, Marisa; Gerba, Sheri L; Maxwell, Charles P

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers.

  18. A community-randomised controlled trial promoting waterless hand sanitizer and handwashing with soap, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Yushuf Sharker, M A; Yeasmin, Farzana; Unicomb, Leanne; Sirajul Islam, M

    2010-12-01

    To pilot two intensive hand hygiene promotion interventions, one using soap and one using a waterless hand sanitizer, in low-income housing compounds in Dhaka, Bangladesh and assess subsequent changes in handwashing behaviour and hand microbiology. Fieldworkers randomized 30 housing compounds: 10 received handwashing promotion with free soap, 10 received handwashing promotion with free waterless hand sanitizer and 10 were non-intervention controls. Fieldworkers assessed handwashing behaviour by structured observation and collected hand rinse specimens. At baseline, compound residents washed their hands with soap 26% of the time after defecation and 30% after cleaning a child's anus but <1% at other times. Compared with baseline, residents of soap intervention compounds were much more likely to wash their hands with soap after faecal contact (85-91%), before preparing food (26%) and before eating (26%). Compounds that received waterless hand sanitizer cleansed their hands more commonly than control compounds that used soap (10.4%vs. 2.3%), but less commonly than soap intervention compounds used soap (25%). Post-intervention hand rinse samples from soap and sanitizer compounds had lower concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria compared with baseline and control compounds. Waterless hand sanitizer was readily adopted by this low-income community and reduced hand contamination but did not improve the frequency of handwashing compared with soap. Future deployments of waterless hand sanitizers may improve hand hygiene more effectively by targeting settings where soap and water is unavailable. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Microbial flora of in-use soap products.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, M E

    1984-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the in-use bacterial load of two bar soaps with and without antibacterials and two liquid soaps in five different locations over a 1-week period. Of the 25 samples taken from each soap, 92 to 96% of samples from bar soaps were culture positive as compared to 8% of those from liquid soaps. Bacterial populations ranged from 0 to 3.8 log CFU per sample for bar soaps and from 0 to 2.0 log CFU per sample for liquid soaps. The mean bacterial populations per sample were 1.96 and 2.47 log CFU for the two bar soaps, and 0.08 and 0.12 log CFU for the two liquid soaps. The difference in bacterial population between bar soaps and liquid soaps was statistically significant (P = 0.005). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated on three occasions from bar soaps but not from liquid soaps. S. aureus was isolated twice from the exterior of the plastic dispensers of liquid soap but not from the soap itself. Gram-negative bacteria were cultured only from soaps containing antibacterials. Bacterial populations on bar soaps were not high compared with bacterial populations on hands, and the flora was continually changing without evidence of a carrier state. PMID:6486782

  20. The Effect of Antibacterial Formula Hand Cleaners on the Elimination of Microbes on Hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    : The purpose of this project is to find out which one of the antibacterial hand cleanser (antibacterial bar soap, antibacterial liquid hand soap, and liquid hand sanitizer) is more effective in eliminating microbes. If antibacterial- formula liquid hand soap is used on soiled hands, then it will be more effective in eliminating microbes. Germs are microorganisms that cause disease and can spread from person-to-person. Bacteria are a kind of microbe, an example of which is Transient Flora that is often found on hands. Hand washing prevents germs from spreading to others. During the procedure, swabs were used to take samples before and after the soiled hands had been washed with one of the antibacterial hand cleansers. Nutrient Easygel was poured into petri dishes to harden for 1 day, and then samples were swabbed on the gel. The Petri dishes were placed in an incubator for 24 hours, and then data was recorded accordingly. The antibacterial liquid hand soap was sufficient in eliminating the majority of bacteria. The hands had 65% of the bacteria on them, and after the liquid hand soap was used only 37% of the bacteria remained.

  1. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  2. Hand soap contamination by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a tertiary care hospital: no evidence of impact on patients.

    PubMed

    Blanc, D S; Gomes Magalhaes, B; Abdelbary, M; Prod'hom, G; Greub, G; Wasserfallen, J B; Genoud, P; Zanetti, G; Senn, L

    2016-05-01

    During an environmental investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intensive care units, the liquid hand soap was found to be highly contaminated (up to 8 × 10(5)cfu/g) with this pathogen. It had been used over the previous five months and was probably contaminated during manufacturing. To evaluate the burden of this contamination on patients by conducting an epidemiological investigation using molecular typing combined with whole genome sequencing (WGS). P. aeruginosa isolates from clinical specimens were analysed by double locus sequence typing (DLST) and compared with isolates recovered from the soap. Medical charts of patients infected with a genotype identical to those found in the soap were reviewed. WGS was performed on soap and patient isolates sharing the same genotype. P. aeruginosa isolates (N = 776) were available in 358/382 patients (93.7%). Only three patients (0.8%) were infected with a genotype found in the soap. Epidemiological investigations showed that the first patient was not exposed to the soap, the second could have been exposed, and the third was indeed exposed. WGS showed a high number of core single nucleotide polymorphism differences between patients and soap isolates. No close genetic association was observed between soap and patient isolates, ruling out the hypothesis of transmission. Despite a highly contaminated soap, the combined investigation with DLST and WGS ruled out any impact on patients. Hand hygiene performed with alcohol-based solution for >15 years was probably the main reason. However, such contamination represents a putative reservoir of pathogens that should be avoided in the hospital setting. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Single treatment with ethanol hand rub is ineffective against human rhinovirus--hand washing with soap and water removes the virus efficiently.

    PubMed

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Korpela, Terttu; Simonen-Tikka, Marja-Leena; Amiryousefi, Ali; Ziegler, Thedi; Roivainen, Merja; Hovi, Tapani

    2012-03-01

    Ethanol-containing hand rubs are used frequently as a substitute for hand washing with water and soap. However, not all viruses are inactivated by a short term rubbing with alcohol. The capacity of a single round of instructed and controlled hand cleaning with water and soap or ethanol-containing hand rub, respectively, was tested for removal of human rhinovirus administered onto the skin of healthy volunteers on the back of the hands. Hand washing with soap and water appeared to be much more efficient for removing rhinoviruses from skin than rubbing hands with an ethanol-containing disinfectant. After washing with soap and water the virus was detected in 3/9 (33.3%) test persons from the left hand and 1/9 (11.1%) cases from the right hand, whereas the virus was detected invariably by real-time RT-PCR from both hands after cleaning with alcohol hand rub (P-value <0.01). Both substances evaluated clinically were also tested in vitro for virucidal efficacy against Human rhinovirus2 (HRV2) using a standardized assay. Both tested substances were poor within the contact time used in the hand-cleaning test. In conclusion, thorough and conventional hand washing with water and soap can clean efficiently hands contaminated with the virus responsible for an extensive share of common cold episodes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Isolation of Raoultella planticola from refillable antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers in a dental setting

    PubMed Central

    Tomlin, Nancy; Ruby, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Liquid antimicrobial soaps are commonly used in the dental healthcare setting for hand washing to minimize the potential spread of infectious agents to healthcare workers (HCW) and patients. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible bacterial contamination of antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers located in two institutional comprehensive dental care clinics. Methods Fourteen soap dispensers and original stock containers were sampled. A 1 ml aliquot was diluted in 10 ml of phosphate buffer (Tween 80). Serial dilutions were plated in duplicate on neutralizing agar and incubated for 7 days. Molecular identification was performed using 500 bp comparisons of 16S rDNA sequencing. Taq PCR was performed with sequence specific primers for Raoultella species. Results Bacterial growth was observed at 18 hours for 57% (8/14) of soap dispenser samples. Bacterial densities ranged from 4 ×102–6 ×109 CFU/mL. Original commercial containers exhibited no growth. Isolates were identified as Raoultella (Klebsiella) planticola. Conclusions This is the first study indicating recovery of R. planticola from antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers. R. planticola is a recognized environmental opportunistic pathogen that potentially poses a health concern. Practical Implications These findings indicate compliance problems with infection prevention recommendations and support the CDC’s recommendation that dispensers should not be “topped off”. High bacterial loads of R. planticola are inconsistent with infection control practices and are a concern since transmission and possible infection to the HCW or the patient may occur. PMID:25819655

  5. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ∼ 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P < 0.05) in E. aerogenes (0.5 log CFU greater reduction) was observed with soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) reductions were observed with paper towel drying compared with air (0.5 log CFU greater reductions). Used paper towels may contain high bacterial levels (>4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause.

  6. Quantitative assessment of risk reduction from hand washing with antibacterial soaps.

    PubMed

    Gibson, L L; Rose, J B; Haas, C N; Gerba, C P; Rusin, P A

    2002-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have estimated that there are 3,713,000 cases of infectious disease associated with day care facilities each year. The objective of this study was to examine the risk reduction achieved from using different soap formulations after diaper changing using a microbial quantitative risk assessment approach. To achieve this, a probability of infection model and an exposure assessment based on micro-organism transfer were used to evaluate the efficacy of different soap formulations in reducing the probability of disease following hand contact with an enteric pathogen. Based on this model, it was determined that the probability of infection ranged from 24/100 to 91/100 for those changing diapers of babies with symptomatic shigellosis who used a control product (soap without an antibacterial ingredient), 22/100 to 91/100 for those who used an antibacterial soap (chlorohexadine 4%), and 15/100 to 90/100 for those who used a triclosan (1.5%) antibacterial soap. Those with asymptomatic shigellosis who used a non-antibacterial control soap had a risk between 49/100,000 and 53/100, those who used the 4% chlorohexadine-containing soap had a risk between 43/100,000 and 51/100, and for those who used a 1.5% triclosan soap had a risk between 21/100,000 and 43/100. The adequate washing of hands after diapering reduces risk and can be further reduced by a factor of 20% by the use of an antibacterial soap. Quantitative risk assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of household sanitizing agents and low risk outcomes.

  7. Preference and compliance of waterless hand-hygiene products versus soap and water.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michele P; Sullivan, Stefanie; Gilmore, Jenny; Rashid, Robert G

    2003-09-01

    To compare handwashing using traditional antimicrobial soap and water with two antimicrobial waterless hand-hygiene products for personal preference and compliance. Fifty dental and dental hygiene students were randomly chosen to participate in the study. All subjects were anonymously observed prior to the introduction of the waterless products for handwashing compliance using soap and water for 1 week. All subjects were then instructed on the use of a waterless gel and foam for handwashing. Both waterless products were used for a period of 1 week and students again were anonymously observed. A questionnaire was distributed at the conclusion of the study to determine product preference. During handwashing with soap and water, the average time the soap was in contact with the hands was 7.0 seconds. The average contact time with the gel and foam was 15.3 seconds and 20.0 seconds, respectfully. Questionnaire results indicated that the foam was significantly preferred over the gel and soap and water (54%, 28% and 16%, respectively). The foam was also significantly preferred when evaluating fragrance (52%), kindness to the skin (66%), convenience (64%) and fastest drying time (54%). Results from this study indicate that the waterless foam product was significantly preferred over the waterless gel and traditional soap and water for handwashing procedures. Since handwashing guidelines, regardless of which product used, recommend a minimum of 15 seconds to minimize the number of transient microorganisms on the hands, compliance was found only with the foam and the gel.

  8. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.80 Applicability; description of the manufacture of...

  9. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.80 Applicability; description of the manufacture of...

  10. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.80 Applicability; description of the manufacture of...

  11. Impact of Regular Soap Provision to Primary Schools on Hand Washing and E. coli Hand Contamination among Pupils in Nyanza Province, Kenya: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saboori, Shadi; Greene, Leslie E.; Moe, Christine L.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Caruso, Bethany A.; Akoko, Daniel; Rheingans, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed whether supplying soap to primary schools on a regular basis increased pupil hand washing and decreased Escherichia coli hand contamination. Multiple rounds of structured observations of hand washing events after latrine use were conducted in 60 Kenyan schools, and hand rinse samples were collected one time in a subset of schools. The proportion of pupils observed practicing hand washing with soap (HWWS) events was significantly higher in schools that received a soap provision intervention (32%) and schools that received soap and latrine cleaning materials (38%) compared with controls (3%). Girls and boys had similar hand washing rates. There were non-significant reductions in E. coli contamination among intervention school pupils compared with controls. Removing the barrier of soap procurement can significantly increase availability of soap and hand washing among pupils; however, we discuss limitations in the enabling policy and institutional environment that may have prevented reaching desired levels of HWWS. PMID:23939707

  12. Impact of regular soap provision to primary schools on hand washing and E. coli hand contamination among pupils in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Saboori, Shadi; Greene, Leslie E; Moe, Christine L; Freeman, Matthew C; Caruso, Bethany A; Akoko, Daniel; Rheingans, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    We assessed whether supplying soap to primary schools on a regular basis increased pupil hand washing and decreased Escherichia coli hand contamination. Multiple rounds of structured observations of hand washing events after latrine use were conducted in 60 Kenyan schools, and hand rinse samples were collected one time in a subset of schools. The proportion of pupils observed practicing hand washing with soap (HWWS) events was significantly higher in schools that received a soap provision intervention (32%) and schools that received soap and latrine cleaning materials (38%) compared with controls (3%). Girls and boys had similar hand washing rates. There were non-significant reductions in E. coli contamination among intervention school pupils compared with controls. Removing the barrier of soap procurement can significantly increase availability of soap and hand washing among pupils; however, we discuss limitations in the enabling policy and institutional environment that may have prevented reaching desired levels of HWWS.

  13. Isolation of Raoultella planticola from refillable antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers in a dental setting.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Tomlin, Nancy; Ruby, John D

    2015-04-01

    Liquid antimicrobial soaps are commonly used in the dental health care setting for hand washing to minimize the potential spread of infectious agents to health care workers and patients. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible bacterial contamination of antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers located in 2 institutional comprehensive dental care clinics. Fourteen soap dispensers and 16 original stock containers were sampled. A 1-milliliter aliquot was diluted in 10 mL of phosphate buffer (Tween-80; Acros). Serial dilutions were plated in duplicate on neutralizing agar and incubated for 7 days. Molecular identification was performed using 500 base pair comparisons of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing. Taq polymerase chain reaction was performed with sequence-specific primers for Raoultella species. Bacterial growth was observed at 18 hours for 57% (8 of 14) of soap dispenser samples. Bacterial densities ranged from 4 × 10(2) to 6 × 10(9) colony-forming units per milliliter. Original commercial containers exhibited no growth. Isolates were identified as Raoultella (Klebsiella) planticola. This is the first study to the authors' knowledge indicating recovery of R. planticola from antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers. R. planticola is a recognized environmental opportunistic pathogen that potentially poses a health concern. These findings indicate compliance problems with infection prevention recommendations and support the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommendation that dispensers should not be topped off. High bacterial loads of R. planticola are inconsistent with infection control practices and are a concern because transmission and possible infection to the health care worker or the patient may occur. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps...

  15. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps...

  16. Alternative Hand Contamination Technique To Compare the Activities of Antimicrobial and Nonantimicrobial Soaps under Different Test Conditions▿

    PubMed Central

    Fuls, Janice L.; Rodgers, Nancy D.; Fischler, George E.; Howard, Jeanne M.; Patel, Monica; Weidner, Patrick L.; Duran, Melani H.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial hand soaps provide a greater bacterial reduction than nonantimicrobial soaps. However, the link between greater bacterial reduction and a reduction of disease has not been definitively demonstrated. Confounding factors, such as compliance, soap volume, and wash time, may all influence the outcomes of studies. The aim of this work was to examine the effects of wash time and soap volume on the relative activities and the subsequent transfer of bacteria to inanimate objects for antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps. Increasing the wash time from 15 to 30 seconds increased reduction of Shigella flexneri from 2.90 to 3.33 log10 counts (P = 0.086) for the antimicrobial soap, while nonantimicrobial soap achieved reductions of 1.72 and 1.67 log10 counts (P > 0.6). Increasing soap volume increased bacterial reductions for both the antimicrobial and the nonantimicrobial soaps. When the soap volume was normalized based on weight (∼3 g), nonantimicrobial soap reduced Serratia marcescens by 1.08 log10 counts, compared to the 3.83-log10 reduction caused by the antimicrobial soap (P < 0.001). The transfer of Escherichia coli to plastic balls following a 15-second hand wash with antimicrobial soap resulted in a bacterial recovery of 2.49 log10 counts, compared to the 4.22-log10 (P < 0.001) bacterial recovery on balls handled by hands washed with nonantimicrobial soap. This indicates that nonantimicrobial soap was less active and that the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps can be improved with longer wash time and greater soap volume. The transfer of bacteria to objects was significantly reduced due to greater reduction in bacteria following the use of antimicrobial soap. PMID:18441107

  17. Alternative hand contamination technique to compare the activities of antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps under different test conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D; Fischler, George E; Howard, Jeanne M; Patel, Monica; Weidner, Patrick L; Duran, Melani H

    2008-06-01

    Antimicrobial hand soaps provide a greater bacterial reduction than nonantimicrobial soaps. However, the link between greater bacterial reduction and a reduction of disease has not been definitively demonstrated. Confounding factors, such as compliance, soap volume, and wash time, may all influence the outcomes of studies. The aim of this work was to examine the effects of wash time and soap volume on the relative activities and the subsequent transfer of bacteria to inanimate objects for antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps. Increasing the wash time from 15 to 30 seconds increased reduction of Shigella flexneri from 2.90 to 3.33 log(10) counts (P = 0.086) for the antimicrobial soap, while nonantimicrobial soap achieved reductions of 1.72 and 1.67 log(10) counts (P > 0.6). Increasing soap volume increased bacterial reductions for both the antimicrobial and the nonantimicrobial soaps. When the soap volume was normalized based on weight (approximately 3 g), nonantimicrobial soap reduced Serratia marcescens by 1.08 log(10) counts, compared to the 3.83-log(10) reduction caused by the antimicrobial soap (P < 0.001). The transfer of Escherichia coli to plastic balls following a 15-second hand wash with antimicrobial soap resulted in a bacterial recovery of 2.49 log(10) counts, compared to the 4.22-log(10) (P < 0.001) bacterial recovery on balls handled by hands washed with nonantimicrobial soap. This indicates that nonantimicrobial soap was less active and that the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps can be improved with longer wash time and greater soap volume. The transfer of bacteria to objects was significantly reduced due to greater reduction in bacteria following the use of antimicrobial soap.

  18. Quantifying the Effects of Water Temperature, Soap Volume, Lather Time, and Antimicrobial Soap as Variables in the Removal of Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 from Hands.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dane A; Macinga, David R; Shumaker, David J; Bellino, Roberto; Arbogast, James W; Schaffner, Donald W

    2017-06-01

    The literature on hand washing, while extensive, often contains conflicting data, and key variables are only superficially studied or not studied at all. Some hand washing recommendations are made without scientific support, and agreement between recommendations is limited. The influence of key variables such as soap volume, lather time, water temperature, and product formulation on hand washing efficacy was investigated in the present study. Baseline conditions were 1 mL of a bland (nonantimicrobial) soap, a 5-s lather time, and 38°C (100°F) water temperature. A nonpathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) was the challenge microorganism. Twenty volunteers (10 men and 10 women) participated in the study, and each test condition had 20 replicates. An antimicrobial soap formulation (1% chloroxylenol) was not significantly more effective than the bland soap for removing E. coli under a variety of test conditions. Overall, the mean reduction was 1.94 log CFU (range, 1.83 to 2.10 log CFU) with the antimicrobial soap and 2.22 log CFU (range, 1.91 to 2.54 log CFU) with the bland soap. Overall, lather time significantly influenced efficacy in one scenario, in which a 0.5-log greater reduction was observed after 20 s with bland soap compared with the baseline wash (P = 0.020). Water temperature as high as 38°C (100°F) and as low as 15°C (60°F) did not have a significant effect on the reduction of bacteria during hand washing; however, the energy usage differed between these temperatures. No significant differences were observed in mean log reductions experienced by men and women (both 2.08 log CFU; P = 0.988). A large part of the variability in the data was associated with the behaviors of the volunteers. Understanding what behaviors and human factors most influence hand washing may help researchers find techniques to optimize the effectiveness of hand washing.

  19. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers.

  20. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Paulmann, D; Becker, B; Bischoff, B; Steinmann, E; Steinmann, J

    2012-12-01

    Three ethanol-based sanitizers were compared with three antimicrobial liquid soaps for their efficacy to inactivate polio-, adeno-, vaccinia- and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) as surrogates for human norovirus in a suspension test. Additionally, sanitizers and soaps were examined against MNV in a modified fingerpad method. All sanitizers sufficiently inactivated the test viruses in the suspension test whereas two soaps were active only against vaccinia virus and BVDV. In the modified fingerpad test a povidone-iodine-containing soap was superior to the sanitizers whereas the other two soaps showed no activity. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Richard L.; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  2. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments.

  3. How are soap bubbles blown? Fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Lambert, Lori; Sherman, Erica; Wei, Timothy; Ryu, Sangjin

    2013-11-01

    Soap bubbles are a common interfacial fluid dynamics phenomenon having a long history of delighting not only children and artists but also scientists. In contrast to the dynamics of liquid droplets in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, the dynamics of soap bubbles has not been well documented. This is possibly because studying soap bubbles is more challenging due to there existing two gas-liquid interfaces. Having the thin-film interface seems to alter the characteristics of the bubble/drop creation process since the interface has limiting factors such as thickness. Thus, the main objective of this study is to determine how the thin-film interface differentiates soap bubbles from gas bubbles and liquid drops. To investigate the creation process of soap bubbles, we constructed an experimental model consisting of air jet flow and a soap film, which consistently replicates the conditions that a human produces when blowing soap bubbles, and examined the interaction between the jet and the soap film using the high-speed videography and the particle image velocimetry.

  4. Hand hygiene with soap and water is superior to alcohol rub and antiseptic wipes for removal of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Matthew T; Loo, Vivian G; Dendukuri, Nandini; Fenn, Susan; Libman, Michael D

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate common hand hygiene methods for efficacy in removing Clostridium difficile. Randomized crossover comparison among 10 volunteers with hands experimentally contaminated by nontoxigenic C. difficile. Interventions included warm water with plain soap, cold water with plain soap, warm water with antibacterial soap, antiseptic hand wipes, alcohol-based handrub, and a control involving no intervention. All interventions were evaluated for mean reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) under 2 contamination protocols: "whole hand" and "palmar surface." Results were analyzed according to a Bayesian approach, by using hierarchical models adjusted for multiple observations. Under the whole-hand protocol, the greatest adjusted mean reductions were achieved by warm water with plain soap (2.14 log(10) CFU/mL [95% credible interval (CrI), 1.74-2.54 log(10) CFU/mL]), cold water with plain soap (1.88 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 1.48-2.28 log(10) CFU/mL), and warm water with antibacterial soap (1.51 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 1.12-1.91 log(10) CFU/mL]), followed by antiseptic hand wipes (0.57 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 0.17-0.96 log(10) CFU/mL]). Alcohol-based handrub (0.06 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, -0.34 to 0.45 log(10) CFU/mL]) was equivalent to no intervention. Under the palmar surface protocol, warm water with plain soap, cold water with plain soap, and warm water with antibacterial soap again yielded the greatest mean reductions, followed by antiseptic hand wipes (26.6, 26.6, 26.6, and 21.9 CFUs per plate, respectively), when compared with alcohol-based handrub. Hypothenar (odds ratio, 10.98 [95% CrI, 1.96-37.65]) and thenar (odds ratio, 6.99 [95% CrI, 1.25-23.41]) surfaces were more likely than fingertips to remain heavily contaminated after handwashing. Handwashing with soap and water showed the greatest efficacy in removing C. difficile and should be performed preferentially over the use of alcohol-based handrubs when contact with C. difficile is suspected or likely.

  5. Removal of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis after Hand Washing with Antimicrobial and Nonantimicrobial Soap and Persistence of These Bacteria in Rinsates.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Garza, J; García, S; Heredia, N

    2017-10-01

    Food handlers are important sources of contamination in the agricultural environment. This study was conducted (i) to evaluate the activity of antimicrobial soaps against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis using a hand washing model with soiled hands and (ii) to determine the survival and persistence of these bacteria in rinsates. Sterilized agricultural soil from tomato and pepper farms was inoculated with E. coli or E. faecalis at 10 3 or 10 6 CFU/g. Decontaminated hands were placed in contact with contaminated soil for 2 min and were then washed with soaps with or without antimicrobial compounds (citric extracts, chloroxylenol, triclosan, or chlorhexidine gluconate). As the control, hands were washed with sterile distilled water. The levels of bacteria remaining on the hands and recovered from the rinsates were determined using a membrane filtration method and selective media. Antimicrobial soaps removed levels of E. coli similar to those removed by distilled water and nonantimicrobial soap on hands contaminated with E. coli at 10 3 CFU/g. However, when hands were contaminated with E. coli at 10 6 CFU/g, more E. coli was removed with the chlorhexidine gluconate soap. When hands were contaminated with E. faecalis at 10 3 CFU/g, bacteria were removed more effectively with soaps containing chloroxylenol or chlorhexidine gluconate. When hands were contaminated with E. faecalis at 10 6 CFU/g, all of the antimicrobial soaps were more effective for removing the bacteria than were distilled water and nonantimicrobial soap. E. coli grew in all of the hand washing rinsates except that containing triclosan, whereas E. faecalis from the 10 6 CFU/g treatments grew in rinsates containing chlorhexidine gluconate and in the distilled water rinsates. Washing with antimicrobial soap was more effective for reducing bacteria on soiled hands than was washing with water or nonantimicrobial soap. However, persistence or growth of bacteria in these rinsates poses health risks.

  6. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  7. Observed practices and perceived advantages of different hand cleansing agents in rural Bangladesh: ash, soil, and soap.

    PubMed

    Nizame, Fosiul A; Nasreen, Sharifa; Halder, Amal K; Arman, Shaila; Winch, Peter J; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-06-01

    Bangladeshi communities have historically used ash and soil as handwashing agents. A structured observation study and qualitative interviews on the use of ash/soil and soap as handwashing agents were conducted in rural Bangladesh to help develop a handwashing promotion intervention. The observations were conducted among 1,000 randomly selected households from 36 districts. Fieldworkers observed people using ash/soil to wash their hand(s) on 13% of occasions after defecation and on 10% after cleaning a child's anus. This compares with 19% of people who used soap after defecation and 27% after cleaning a child who defecated. Using ash/soil or soap was rarely (< 1%) observed at other times recommended for handwashing. The qualitative study enrolled 24 households from three observation villages, where high usage of ash/soil for handwashing was detected. Most informants reported that ash/soil was used only for handwashing after fecal contact, and that ash/soil could clean hands as effectively as soap. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Rapid characterisation of Klebsiella oxytoca isolates from contaminated liquid hand soap using mass spectrometry, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, Ralf; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Hahmann, Hartmut; Wicke, Amal; Kleta, Sylvia; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojciech; Nitsche, Andreas; Stämmler, Maren; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Lasch, Peter

    2016-06-23

    Microbiological monitoring of consumer products and the efficiency of early warning systems and outbreak investigations depend on the rapid identification and strain characterisation of pathogens posing risks to the health and safety of consumers. This study evaluates the potential of three rapid analytical techniques for identification and subtyping of bacterial isolates obtained from a liquid hand soap product, which has been recalled and reported through the EU RAPEX system due to its severe bacterial contamination. Ten isolates recovered from two bottles of the product were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca and subtyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS), near-infrared Fourier transform (NIR FT) Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Comparison of the classification results obtained by these phenotype-based techniques with outcomes of the DNA-based methods pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data revealed a high level of concordance. In conclusion, a set of analytical techniques might be useful for rapid, reliable and cost-effective microbial typing to ensure safe consumer products and allow source tracking.

  9. The microjet-film interaction: the interaction and resulting shapes of a liquid microjet impacting a soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Jau Tung; Lee, Jie Liang; Tjeng, Vincent; Yeo, Ye; Tan, Guoxian

    2014-11-01

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide annual competition for high-school students. This paper is adapted from the solution to problem 8, Jet and Film, as presented by the Singapore Team at the 26th IYPT, Taipei, Taiwan. The impact of liquid microjets on stable soap films was investigated. Two steady regimes were observed: refraction (where the microjet penetrates the soap film and is deflected) and absorption (where the microjet merges with the soap film and forms vertical undulating patterns on the soap film surface). This phenomenon has potential applications in controlling the trajectory of a liquid microjet in air. Although Kirstetter et al (2012) investigated this interaction by using the same liquid for both the microjet and the soap film, this paper extends their work by using different liquids for the microjet and the soap film. In addition, the need for a small-angle approximation of Snell’s law is removed for the refraction regime, and an alternative expression is proposed for the force exerted by the soap film on the microjet in the absorption regime that accounts for the dependence of the wavelength of the undulating patterns on the angle of incidence of the microjet on the soap film. Empirical data support these improved theoretical predictions.

  10. Rapid antibacterial activity of 2 novel hand soaps: evaluation of the risk of development of bacterial resistance to the antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Geraldo, Ingrid M; Gilman, Allan; Shintre, Milind S; Modak, Shanta M

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of and risk of organisms developing resistance to 2 novel hand soaps: (1) a soap containing triclosan, polyhexamethylene biguanide, and benzethonium chloride added to a soap base (TPB soap); and (2) a soap containing farnesol, polyhexamethylene biguanide, and benzethonium chloride added to a soap base (FPB soap). Tests also included soaps containing only triclosan. The risk of emergence of resistant bacterial mutants was investigated by determining the susceptibility changes after repeated exposure of bacteria to the drugs and soaps in vitro. The effectiveness of the soaps was evaluated using an in vitro tube dilution method, a volunteer method (the ASTM standard), and 2 pig skin methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of triclosan against Staphylococcus aureus increased 8- to 62.5-fold, whereas those of TPB and FPB (both alone and in soap) were unchanged. In vitro, TPB and FPB soaps produced higher log(10) reductions in colony-forming units of all tested organisms (4.95-8.58) than did soaps containing triclosan alone (0.29-4.86). In the test using the pig skin and volunteer methods, TPB soap produced a higher log(10) reduction in colony-forming units (3.1-3.3) than did the soap containing triclosan alone (2.6-2.8). The results indicate that TPB and FPB soaps may provide superior rapid and broad-spectrum efficacy with a lower risk of organisms developing resistance than do soaps containing triclosan alone. Pig skin methods may be used to predict the efficacy of antibacterial soaps in the rapid disinfection of contaminated hands. Hand washing with TPB and FPB soaps by healthcare workers and the general population may reduce the transmission of pathogens, with a lower risk of promoting the emergence of resistant organisms.

  11. [Comparison of antibacterial effects of different antiseptics after hand washing].

    PubMed

    Buluş, Nesrin; Kaleli, Ilknur

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, 7.5% povidone iodine and liquid soap, which are used as hand washing solutions for the immediate, cumulative and residual effects in bacterial growth. For this purpose, 18 volunteers washed their hands with 7.5% povidone iodine, 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and liquid soap by applying standard hygienic hand washing technique. In order to find out the bacterial amount in the hands of study group, glove liquid test was used. For the evaluation of immediate effects, samples were collected just after the washing procedure, for the residual effects samples were collected from gloved hands after 3 hours, and for the cumulative effects, samples were collected after 5 days with daily hand washings. It is found that the immediate effects of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate was superior than others, and 7.5% povidone iodine was superior to liquid soap. There was no difference between 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 7.5% povidone iodine for residual effects. The cumulative effects were observed for 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 7.5% povidone iodine, while there was no cumulative effect for liquid soap. According to these results, it can be suggested that 4% chlorhexidine gluconate can be used as a reliable antiseptic agent in the hospitals, especially for laboratories, intensive care units and operating rooms, owing to its favourable immediate, residual and cumulative effects.

  12. A comparison of hand washing techniques to remove Escherichia coli and caliciviruses under natural or artificial fingernails.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Min; Wu, Fone-Mao; Kim, Hoi-Kyung; Doyle, Michael P; Michael, Barry S; Williams, L Keoki

    2003-12-01

    Compared with other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. Artificial fingernails, which are usually long and polished, reportedly harbor higher microbial populations than natural nails. Hence, the efficacy of different hand washing methods for removing microbes from natural and artificial fingernails was evaluated. Strains of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli JM109 and feline calicivirus (FCV) strain F9 were used as bacterial and viral indicators, respectively. Volunteers with artificial or natural nails were artificially contaminated with ground beef containing E. coli JM109 or artificial feces containing FCV. Volunteers washed their hands with tap water, regular liquid soap, antibacterial liquid soap, alcohol-based hand sanitizer gel, regular liquid soap followed by alcohol gel, or regular liquid soap plus a nailbrush. The greatest reduction of inoculated microbial populations was obtained by washing with liquid soap plus a nailbrush, and the least reduction was obtained by rubbing hands with alcohol gel. Lower but not significantly different (P > 0.05) reductions of E. coli and FCV counts were obtained from beneath artificial than from natural fingernails. However, significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher E. coli and FCV counts were recovered from hands with artificial nails than from natural nails before and after hand washing. In addition, microbial cell numbers were correlated with fingernail length, with greater numbers beneath fingernails with longer nails. These results indicate that best practices for fingernail sanitation of food handlers are to maintain short fingernails and scrub fingernails with soap and a nailbrush when washing hands.

  13. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of triclosan as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential impact on antimicrobial resistance: a focused review.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Christopher A; Rybak, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Triclosan is a synthetic biocide found in many household products, including antimicrobial hand soap. Levels of triclosan have been found throughout the environment and in human urine, blood, and even breast milk. Increasing levels of exposure to triclosan have led to concerns over the development of resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. We performed a literature search to assess whether the widespread use of triclosan displays a favorable benefit: risk ratio, defined by evaluation of triclosan's efficacy as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential effect on the development of antimicrobial resistance. Data from laboratory-based studies regarding the efficacy of triclosan are conflicting, although well-designed studies suggest no significant difference in efficacy over nonantimicrobial soap. In addition, when triclosan was introduced in a community setting, no beneficial effects were observed on the reduction of infections over nonantimicrobial soap. Resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to antimicrobials have been consistently demonstrated in laboratory settings, although overall resistance rates and cross-resistance rates in the community setting are low. Based on the available evidence, the risk of potential antimicrobial resistance outweighs the benefit of widespread triclosan use in antimicrobial soaps. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwambete, K D; Lyombe, F

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps' concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps' ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps' concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts(®) soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency(®) and Dalan(®) exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex(®), Roberts(®), Family(®) and Protector(®) were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda(®) liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps' antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora.

  16. Contamination of liquid soap for hospital use with Raoultella planticola.

    PubMed

    García-San Miguel, L; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Medina, M J; López Hernández, S; Sánchez-Romero, I; Ganga, B; Asensio, Á

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the contamination of a batch of liquid soap for hospital use with Raoultella planticola. The micro-organism was first identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae due to the inability of automated systems to characterize this species. There is a need to strengthen the inspection of cosmetic products to be used in the hospital setting. It is recommended that hospitalized patients at the highest risk of infection should use antimicrobial soaps for personal hygiene. The incidence of infections due to R. planticola is unknown as it is usually misclassified as Klebsiella spp. by automated systems. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Laser Soap Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which subsequently hits an inclined plane. As the liquid soap, a non-Newtonian fluid, begins to accumulate into a pile, its shear properties change and the incoming fluid rebounds from the pile, forming striking parabolic arcs. We present here a readily reproducible and inexpensive version of a laser soap fountain.

  18. Hand washing with soap and water together with behavioural recommendations prevents infections in common work environment: an open cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Haapakoski, Jaason; Peltola, Piia A; Ziegler, Thedi; Korpela, Terttu; Anttila, Pirjo; Amiryousefi, Ali; Huovinen, Pentti; Huvinen, Markku; Noronen, Heikki; Riikkala, Pia; Roivainen, Merja; Ruutu, Petri; Teirilä, Juha; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hovi, Tapani

    2012-01-16

    Hand hygiene is considered as an important means of infection control. We explored whether guided hand hygiene together with transmission-limiting behaviour reduces infection episodes and lost days of work in a common work environment in an open cluster-randomized 3-arm intervention trial. A total of 21 clusters (683 persons) were randomized to implement hand hygiene with soap and water (257 persons), with alcohol-based hand rub (202 persons), or to serve as a control (224 persons). Participants in both intervention arms also received standardized instructions on how to limit the transmission of infections. The intervention period (16 months) included the emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic and the subsequent national hand hygiene campaign influencing also the control arm. In the total follow-up period there was a 6.7% reduction of infection episodes in the soap-and water arm (p = 0.04). Before the onset of the anti-pandemic campaign, a statistically significant (p = 0.002) difference in the mean occurrence of infection episodes was observed between the control (6.0 per year) and the soap-and-water arm (5.0 per year) but not between the control and the alcohol-rub arm (5.6 per year). Neither intervention had a decreasing effect on absence from work. We conclude that intensified hand hygiene using water and soap together with behavioural recommendations can reduce the occurrence of self-reported acute illnesses in common work environment. Surprisingly, the occurrence of reported sick leaves also increased in the soap-and water-arm. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877 The Finnish Work Environment Fund and the National Institute for Health and Welfare.

  19. Lead(ii) soaps: crystal structures, polymorphism, and solid and liquid mesophases.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Casado, F J; Ramos-Riesco, M; Rodríguez-Cheda, J A; Redondo-Yélamos, M I; Garrido, L; Fernández-Martínez, A; García-Barriocanal, J; da Silva, I; Durán-Olivencia, M; Poulain, A

    2017-07-05

    The long-chain members of the lead(ii) alkanoate series or soaps, from octanoate to octadecanoate, have been thoroughly characterized by means of XRD, PDF analysis, DSC, FTIR, ssNMR and other techniques, in all their phases and mesophases. The crystal structures at room temperature of all of the members of the series are now solved, showing the existence of two polymorphic forms in the room temperature crystal phase, different to short and long-chain members. Only nonanoate and decanoate present both forms, and this polymorphism is proven to be monotropic. At higher temperature, these compounds present a solid mesophase, defined as rotator, a liquid crystal phase and a liquid phase, all of which have a similar local arrangement. Since some lead(ii) soaps appear as degradation compounds in oil paintings, the solved crystal structures of lead(ii) soaps can now be used as fingerprints for their detection using X-ray diffraction. Pair distribution function analysis on these compounds is very similar in the same phases and mesophases for the different members, showing the same short range order. This observation suggests that this technique could also be used in the detection of these compounds in disordered phases or in the initial stages of formation in paintings.

  20. Hand washing with soap and water together with behavioural recommendations prevents infections in common work environment: an open cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered as an important means of infection control. We explored whether guided hand hygiene together with transmission-limiting behaviour reduces infection episodes and lost days of work in a common work environment in an open cluster-randomized 3-arm intervention trial. Methods A total of 21 clusters (683 persons) were randomized to implement hand hygiene with soap and water (257 persons), with alcohol-based hand rub (202 persons), or to serve as a control (224 persons). Participants in both intervention arms also received standardized instructions on how to limit the transmission of infections. The intervention period (16 months) included the emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic and the subsequent national hand hygiene campaign influencing also the control arm. Results In the total follow-up period there was a 6.7% reduction of infection episodes in the soap-and water arm (p = 0.04). Before the onset of the anti-pandemic campaign, a statistically significant (p = 0.002) difference in the mean occurrence of infection episodes was observed between the control (6.0 per year) and the soap-and-water arm (5.0 per year) but not between the control and the alcohol-rub arm (5.6 per year). Neither intervention had a decreasing effect on absence from work. Conclusions We conclude that intensified hand hygiene using water and soap together with behavioural recommendations can reduce the occurrence of self-reported acute illnesses in common work environment. Surprisingly, the occurrence of reported sick leaves also increased in the soap-and water-arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877 Source of funding The Finnish Work Environment Fund and the National Institute for Health and Welfare. PMID:22243622

  1. The use of a measure of acute irritation to predict the outcome of repeated usage of hand soap products.

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Wilkinson, M; McShane, P; Pennington, D; Fernandez, C; Pierce, S

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is an important worldwide problem that could be reduced by better hand hygiene practice. However, an increasing number of healthcare workers are experiencing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands as a result of repeated hand washing. This may lead to a reduced level of compliance with regard to hand hygiene. To assess whether a measure of acute irritation by hand soaps could predict the effects of repeated usage over a 2-week period. In a double-blind, randomized comparison study, the comparative irritation potential of four different hand soaps was assessed over a 24-h treatment period. The effect of repeated hand washing with the hand soap products over a 2-week period in healthy adult volunteers on skin barrier function was then determined by assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), epidermal hydration and a visual assessment using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) at days 0, 7 and 14. A total of 121 subjects from the 123 recruited completed phase 1 of the study. All four products were seen to be significantly different from each other in terms of the irritant reaction observed and all products resulted in a significantly higher irritation compared with the no-treatment control. Seventy-nine of the initial 121 subjects were then enrolled into the repeated usage study. A statistically significant worsening of the clinical condition of the skin as measured by HECSI was seen from baseline to day 14 in those subjects repeatedly washing their hands with two of the four soap products (products C and D) with P-values of 0·02 and 0·01, respectively. Subclinical assessment of the skin barrier function by measuring epidermal hydration was significantly increased from baseline to day 7 after repeated hand washing with products A, B and D but overall no significant change was seen in all four products tested by day 14. A statistically significant increase in TEWL at day 14 was seen for product A (P = 0·02) indicating a

  2. The pH of the main Brazilian commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps: considerations on the repair of the skin barrier*

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Giovana M; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-01-01

    The pH of the skin is slightly acidic (4.6 to 5.8) which is important for appropriate antibacterial, antifungal, constitution of barrier function, as well as structuring and maturation of the stratum corneum. This study aimed to evaluate the pH of the main commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps in Brazil. Thus, pH of the products was quantified by pH meter in three measurements. A total of 38 moisturizers and six commercial liquid soaps were evaluated. Mean pH of 63% and 50% of the moisturizing and liquid soaps presented results above 5.5, disfavoring repair, function, and synthesis of dermal barrier. PMID:29166523

  3. The pH of the main Brazilian commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps: considerations on the repair of the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Giovana M; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-01-01

    The pH of the skin is slightly acidic (4.6 to 5.8) which is important for appropriate antibacterial, antifungal, constitution of barrier function, as well as structuring and maturation of the stratum corneum. This study aimed to evaluate the pH of the main commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps in Brazil. Thus, pH of the products was quantified by pH meter in three measurements. A total of 38 moisturizers and six commercial liquid soaps were evaluated. Mean pH of 63% and 50% of the moisturizing and liquid soaps presented results above 5.5, disfavoring repair, function, and synthesis of dermal barrier.

  4. Oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial additive to detergent for hand washing and food contact surface cleaning.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, J; Gialagkolidou, K; Gogou, M; Mavridou, O; Blatsiotis, N; Ritzoulis, C; Likotrafiti, E

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the potential use of oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in liquid soap for hand washing and for food contact surface cleaning. Oregano essential oil (O.E.O.) was emulsified in liquid detergent solution. This was challenge tested against a commercial antimicrobial soap in hand washing trials using natural flora. Soap with O.E.O. was as effective as the commercial antimicrobial soap at reducing aerobic plate count on the hands and more effective than plain soap with no additives. Cloths wetted with soap with O.E.O. were used to clean three different surfaces contaminated with four bacterial pathogens. For three of the four pathogens, the addition of 0·5% v/v O.E.O. to the soap solution enhanced cleaning performance and also reduced bacterial survival on the cloth after cleaning. Oregano essential oil (0·5%) is effective as an antimicrobial additive to detergent solutions for hand washing and surface cleaning. This preliminary study has shown that oregano essential oil is a potential alternative to antimicrobials used in various detergents, such as chloroxylenol and triclosan, which can have adverse environmental and health effects. Further development could lead to a commercial product. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwambete, K. D.; Lyombe, F.

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps’ concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps’ ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps’ concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts® soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency® and Dalan® exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex®, Roberts®, Family® and Protector® were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda® liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps’ antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora. PMID:22131630

  6. Simultaneous determination of three surfactants and water in shampoo and liquid soap by ATR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Carolei, Luciano; Gutz, Ivano G R

    2005-03-31

    It is demonstrated for the first time that the principal constituents of a shampoo as well as of a liquid soap -three surfactants and water- can be determined directly, simultaneously and quickly in undiluted samples by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in the middle infrared region, despite the broad absorption bands of the solvent. Two of the surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) and cocoamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), are common to both formulations; alkylpolyglucoside (APG) is the third surfactant of the liquid soap and cocodiethanolamide (CDEA), the corresponding ingredient of the shampoo. Absorbance data of the undiluted samples and of the calibration standards was collected in the middle infrared region of the spectrum (800-1600 and 1900-3000cm(-1)). Two methods of multivariate quantification were compared: classical least squares (CLS), where absorbance data measured at 200 wavenumbers was processed, and inverse least squares (ILS), where data at 10 selected wavenumbers was analyzed. A spectra normalization procedure, based on a dominating water band, was examined. Twenty-seven standard mixtures were used for each application, consisting of all combinations at three concentration levels of each surfactant, respectively the lower limit, the expected value and the upper limit accepted in quality control. By favoring wavenumbers where absorption bands of the minor components (APG in the liquid soap and CDEA in the shampoo) are more intense, good results were obtained for 18 simulated samples of shampoo and 18 samples of liquid soap, no matter if calculations were made by CLS or ILS. The relative errors for water (major component, 84-88%) and SLES (7-10%) were always below 2%; for CAPB (2-4%), APG (<2%) and CDEA (<2%), they occasionally reached 5% of the component, an uncertainty of less than 0.07% in terms of the sample weight.

  7. Simulated microbe removal around finger rings using different hand sanitation methods.

    PubMed

    Alur, Archana A; Rane, Madhavi J; Scheetz, James P; Lorenz, Douglas J; Gettleman, Lawrence

    2009-09-01

    It is our opinion that the CDC and the WHO have underestimated cross-contamination under examination gloves in dental clinics while wearing jewelry, such as finger rings. These agencies only "recommend" removing jewelry, and only washing hands for 15 seconds with soap and warm water before donning gloves. This study examined several washing procedures and finger rings using simulated microbes. A gloved rubber hand manikin was made and fitted with a fresh disposable vinyl glove. Four fingers were fitted with rings or no ring, dusted with simulated microbes, and washed with a scrub brush for 5, 15, and 25 seconds under 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C water alone, or with liquid hand soap. Light levels (in lux) of fluorescent powder before and after washing were measured and delta scores calculated for changes in light levels, equivalent to effectiveness of hand washing procedures. A full-factorial, 3-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences among levels of the three study factors-time, temperature, and soap use. Tukey's post hoc honestly significant difference (HSD) test was applied to significant factors to examine pair-wise differences between factor levels. It was found that the longer the hands with rings were washed with a scrub brush under flowing water, the more simulated microbes were removed. By 25 seconds, all methods were essentially the same. Simulated microbes were more difficult to remove from the palm compared to the back of the hand. The liquid hand soap used in this study was more effective with warm water than cold. When given a choice of washing with cold water up to 15 seconds, it would be preferable not to use soap to remove simulated microbes. Qualitatively, the outer surface of finger rings were more effectively cleaned than the crevice below the ring, and the ring with a stone setting appeared to accumulate and retain simulated microbes more than other rings. The most effective treatment was washing with warm water

  8. Effectiveness of hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient bacteria after patient nursing.

    PubMed Central

    Ojajärvi, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effectiveness of various hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient skin bacteria was studied in hospital after dry or moist contamination of the hands when nursing burn patients. The results were compared with those of laboratory tests with volunteers. A fairly good correlation of the bacterial reductions existed between hospital and laboratory tests. All other methods removed Staph. aureus from the hands more effectively than liquid soap. Gram-negative bacilli were more easily removed than staphylococci, even with soap wash alone. In hospital, none of the washing and disinfection methods always removed all patient-borne bacteria from the hands. After dry or moist contamination and subsequent washing with soap only, colonies of Staph. aureus were often detected in finger-print samples. Staphylococci were more often completely removed by a 4% chlorhexidine detergent scrub and alcoholic solutions (either with or without previous soap wash) than by liquid soap, hexachlorophene or iodophor preparations. Gram-negative bacilli were more easily removed by all the washing and disinfection methods. After moist contamination, Gram-negative bacilli were more often completely removed from the hands by ethanol than by other treatments. The results of the present study emphasize the importance of always using gloves when nursing a profuse spreader of bacteria or one who must be protected from infection. PMID:6778914

  9. Formulation of Antibacterial Liquid Soap from Nyamplung Seed Oil (Calophyllum inophyllum L) with Addition of Curcuma heyneana and its Activity Test on Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningsih, S.; Chasani, M.; Diastuti, H.; Novayanti

    2018-04-01

    The increasing demand of soap encourages new innovations of it’s quantity, quality, benefits and raw materials. One of the innovations that has been developed is the use of nyamplung (C. inophyllum L) seed oil as basic ingredients of soap, with addition of active substances such as antibacterial and fragrance. This research aims to determine best formulation of liquid soap according to SNI 06-4085-1996 and its antibacterial activity after addition of n-hexane fraction of C. heyneana rhizome and fragrance from lavender flower oil at various concentrations, then a hedonic test was conducted to evaluate the panelist's preference towards the soap with the best formulation. This research has been done through several stages of soap making with saponification method, soap characterization according to SNI 06-4085-1996, determination of best formulation of liquid soap based on the effectiveness index method and antibacterial activity test of liquid soap to S.aureus with disc diffusion method and hedonic test using some parameters such as colour, odor, foam, clean power and effects after being used. The results showed that the best characteristic soap according to SNI 06-4085-1996 was soap with 0.2% antibacterial content and 2.5% perfume. The best soap characteristic showed total fatty acid 67.49%, free fatty acid 1.01%, neutral fat 7.24%, weight of type 1.05 g/mL, pH of 9.85 and foam stability 76.69%. The results of the antibacterial activity test of the best formula soap showed the inhibitory zone of 14.92 mm.

  10. Hand washing with soap and WASH educational intervention reduces under-five childhood diarrhoea incidence in Jigjiga District, Eastern Ethiopia: A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hashi, Abdiwahab; Kumie, Abera; Gasana, Janvier

    2017-06-01

    Despite the tremendous achievement in reducing child mortality and morbidity in the last two decades, diarrhoea is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. Hand washing with soap promotion, water quality improvements and improvements in excreta disposal significantly reduces diarrhoeal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hand washing with soap and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) educational Intervention on the incidence of under-five children diarrhoea. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 24 clusters (sub-Kebelles) in Jigjiga district, Somali region, Eastern Ethiopia from February 1 to July 30, 2015. The trial compared incidence of diarrhoea among under-five children whose primary caretakers receive hand washing with soap and water, sanitation, hygiene educational messages with control households. Generalized estimating equation with a log link function Poisson distribution family was used to compute adjusted incidence rate ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. The results of this study show that the longitudinal adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of diarrhoeal diseases comparing interventional and control households was 0.65 (95% CI 0.57, 0.73) suggesting an overall diarrhoeal diseases reduction of 35%. The results are similar to other trials of WASH educational interventions and hand washing with soap. In conclusion, hand washing with soap practice during critical times and WASH educational messages reduces childhood diarrhoea in the rural pastoralist area.

  11. Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin

    2016-11-01

    Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.

  12. Increase in hospital purchase of hand hygiene products: The importance of focusing on the right product.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Manisha; Prasad, Amber; Dhaliwal, Navneet; Gupta, A K; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol-based handrub (AHR) consumption is positively correlated with increases in hand hygiene (HH) compliance. In our 2,000-bed hospital in India, multiple awareness drives have been conducted to promote HH. This study aimed to determine the quantitative effect of these campaigns on use of HH products (soap and AHR) in the hospital. Over the last 6 years, bar soap consumption has increased by 389.15%, whereas that of AHR increased by 146.7%. We also evaluated microbial contamination of 99 bar soap and 60 liquid soap samples in our hospital for a year. Of the samples, 61 (61.6%) of the bar soaps and 2 (3.3%) of the liquid soaps were found to be contaminated with various organisms (P < .0002). To conclude, the focus should be to increase the right kind of HH product so that hospitals in developing countries procure liquid soaps instead of bar soaps for handwashing purposes. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. National and regional assessment of the antibacterial soap market: a step toward determining the impact of prevalent antibacterial soaps.

    PubMed

    Perencevich, E N; Wong, M T; Harris, A D

    2001-10-01

    Consumer antibacterial soaps contain triclosan or triclocarban. No scientific data have been published to suggest that the use of antibacterial agents in household products prevents infection, and triclosan resistance mechanisms have recently been identified. Little data are available regarding the prevalence of antibacterial agents contained in consumer soaps. In a physician-performed survey of 23 stores in 10 states from December 1999 to April 2000, investigators determined the number of national brand liquid and bar soaps and percent of each containing antibacterial agents sold at national chain, regional grocery, and Internet stores. Antibacterial agents were present in 76% of liquid soaps and 29% of bar soaps available nationally. There were no differences found between national, regional, and Internet stores. Overall, 45% of surveyed soaps contain antibacterial agents. With limited documented benefits and experimental laboratory evidence suggesting possible adverse effects on the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, consumer antibacterial use of this magnitude should be questioned.

  14. Critical assessment of the pH of children's soap.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Bruna Rafaela; Shimabukuro, Danielle Midori; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the pH value of children's antibacterial soaps and syndets used in children's baths and verify whether there is information regarding pH on the product label. Quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical observational study that included ninety soap samples, both in bar and liquid presentations, as follows: 67 children's soap (group 1), 17 antibacterial soaps (group 2), and 6 syndets (group 3). Each sample had its pH measured after 1% dilution. In addition to descriptive statistics, the Pearson-Yates chi-squared test and Student's t-tests were applied, considering the minimal significance level of 5%. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for inferential statistics. The pH levels varied considerably between liquid and bar presentations, with lower levels (4.4-7.9) found for the liquids (p<0.05). Syndets showed pH levels close to the ideal (slightly acid) and the antibacterial soaps showed the highest pH levels (up to 11.34) (p<0.05). Only two of the soaps included in the study had information about their pH levels on the product packaging. Knowledge of the pH of children's soap by doctors and users is important, considering the great pH variability found in this study. Moreover, liquid soaps, and especially syndets, are the most recommended for the sensitive skin of neonates and infants, in order to guarantee skin barrier efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  16. Quasi-steady vortical structures in vertically vibrating soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, José M.; Higuera, F. J.; Weidman, P. D.

    1998-10-01

    An analysis of the quasi-steady streaming of the liquid in a vertically vibrated horizontal soap film is reported. The air around the soap film is seen to play a variety of roles: it transmits normal and tangential oscillatory stresses to the film, damps out Marangoni waves, and forces non-oscillatory deflection of the film and tangential motion of the liquid. Non-oscillatory volume forcing originating inside the liquid is also analysed. This forcing dominates the quasi-steady streaming when the excitation frequency is close to the eigenfrequency of a Marangoni mode of the soap film, while both volume forcing in the liquid and surface forcing of the gas on the liquid are important when no Marangoni mode resonates. Different manners by which the combined forcings can induce quasi-steady streaming motion are discussed and some numerical simulations of the quasi-steady liquid flow are presented.

  17. Bactericidal effects of triclosan in soap both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Moon, H; Lee, K; Rhee, M S

    2015-12-01

    On December 2013, the US FDA proposed a rule stating that manufacturers must provide data to demonstrate that antibacterial soap is more effective than plain soap or water. The objective of the present study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo bactericidal effect of triclosan (the most widely used antiseptic agent in soap) in soap. Twenty bacterial strains (proposed by the FDA) were exposed to plain and antibacterial soaps (the same formulation as plain soap, but containing 0.3% triclosan) for 20 s at 22°C (room temperature) and 40°C (warm temperature). The temperature and time were selected to simulate the hand washing conditions and procedures used by consumers. The triclosan concentration of 0.3% is the maximum allowed by law. The decontamination efficacy of plain soap and antibacterial soap was also examined in vivo: the hands of volunteers were artificially inoculated with Serratia marcescens. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in bactericidal activity between plain soap and antibacterial soap at either test temperature. However, antibacterial soap showed significantly greater bactericidal effects after 9 h. These results suggest that although triclosan-containing soap does have antibacterial activity, the effects are not apparent during the short time required for hand washing. Antibacterial soap containing triclosan (0.3%) was no more effective than plain soap at reducing bacterial contamination when used under 'real-life' conditions. The present study provides practical information that may prove useful for both industry and governments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Adequate Hand Washing and Glove Use Are Necessary To Reduce Cross-Contamination from Hands with High Bacterial Loads.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew L; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Junehee; Todd, Ewen; Rodriguez, Fernando Perez; Ryu, Dojin

    2016-02-01

    Hand washing and glove use are the main methods for reducing bacterial cross-contamination from hands to ready-to-eat food in a food service setting. However, bacterial transfer from hands to gloves is poorly understood, as is the effect of different durations of soap rubbing on bacterial reduction. To assess bacterial transfer from hands to gloves and to compare bacterial transfer rates to food after different soap washing times and glove use, participants' hands were artificially contaminated with Enterobacter aerogenes B199A at ∼9 log CFU. Different soap rubbing times (0, 3, and 20 s), glove use, and tomato dicing activities followed. The bacterial counts in diced tomatoes and on participants' hands and gloves were then analyzed. Different soap rubbing times did not significantly change the amount of bacteria recovered from participants' hands. Dicing tomatoes with bare hands after 20 s of soap rubbing transferred significantly less bacteria (P < 0.01) to tomatoes than did dicing with bare hands after 0 s of soap rubbing. Wearing gloves while dicing greatly reduced the incidence of contaminated tomato samples compared with dicing with bare hands. Increasing soap washing time decreased the incidence of bacteria recovered from outside glove surfaces (P < 0.05). These results highlight that both glove use and adequate hand washing are necessary to reduce bacterial cross-contamination in food service environments.

  19. The Most Important Recommended Times of Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Preventing the Occurrence of Acute Diarrhea Among Children Under Five Years of Age in Slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adane, Metadel; Mengistie, Bezatu; Mulat, Worku; Medhin, Girmay; Kloos, Helmut

    2018-04-01

    Adequate hand washing with soap at five recommended times is particularly important in urban slums in developing countries, but which of the recommended times are the most important in the prevention of diarrhea among children under five years of age living in these areas remains unclear. To address this gap, a community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in the slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between September and November 2014. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist. Multivariable logistic regression with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used for data analysis. Only 4.4% of the households had hand washing facilities within or near a latrine with soap and water access. The average prevalence of hand washing with soap at the five recommended times was 19.8%. One quarter (24.8%) of caregivers washed their hands with soap before feeding a child, 23.8% before preparing food, and 17.1% after defecation. The most important recommended times in preventing acute diarrhea were before preparing food [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.7] and after defecation (AOR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.9). Household size of six or more persons (AOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.4-3.9) and low monthly household income (AOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.0) were significantly associated with acute diarrhea. Promoting hand washing with soap and advocacy programs at the five recommended times, especially before preparing food and after defecation, and implementation of socioeconomic development programs targeting poor households are essential for increasing the prevalence of hand washing with soap and preventing acute diarrhea in the slums of Addis Ababa.

  20. Marangoni and Gibbs elasticity of flowing soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Sane, Aakash; Mandre, Shreyas

    2017-11-01

    A flowing soap film has two elasticities. Marangoni elasticity dynamically stabilizes the film from sudden disturbance, and Gibbs elasticity is an equilibrium property that influences the film's persistence over time. In our experimental investigation, we find that Marangoni elasticity is 22 mN/m independent of the film thickness. On the other hand, Gibbs elasticity depends both on the film thickness and the soap concentration. Interestingly, the soap film made of dilute soap solution has the greater Gibbs elasticity, which is not consistent to the existing theory. Such discrepancy is originated from the flowing nature of our soap films, in which surfactants are continuously replenished.

  1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy in AD of liquid soap containing 12% ammonium lactate + 20% urea.

    PubMed

    Amichai, B; Grunwald, M H

    2009-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin disease, which mainly affects children. Xerosis is one of the most troublesome signs of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of liquid soap containing 12% ammonium lactate + 20% urea in patients with AD. In a randomized, double-blind study, 36 patients (both male and female patients; age range 3-40 years) with mild to moderate AD were enrolled. Patients were divided randomly into two groups, in a ratio of 2:1 (active:placebo). The prescribed soap was used on a daily basis during a shower for 3 weeks. All patients continued all other systemic or topical medication but avoided any other soap or emollients. After 3 weeks of treatment, efficacy was assessed both by clinician and patient. There were significant improvements in scaling (P < 0.0001), skin dryness (P < 0.0001) and redness (P = 0.03) as rated by the investigator, and subjective patient assessment of itch also improved (P < 0.001) in the study group compared with the control group. The liquid soap was found to be effective in patients with AD, as use of this soap in patients with stable mild to moderate AD improved the parameters studied.

  2. On the shape of giant soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Reyssat, Etienne; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2017-03-07

    We study the effect of gravity on giant soap bubbles and show that it becomes dominant above the critical size [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the mean thickness of the soap film and [Formula: see text] is the capillary length ([Formula: see text] stands for vapor-liquid surface tension, and [Formula: see text] stands for the liquid density). We first show experimentally that large soap bubbles do not retain a spherical shape but flatten when increasing their size. A theoretical model is then developed to account for this effect, predicting the shape based on mechanical equilibrium. In stark contrast to liquid drops, we show that there is no mechanical limit of the height of giant bubble shapes. In practice, the physicochemical constraints imposed by surfactant molecules limit the access to this large asymptotic domain. However, by an exact analogy, it is shown how the giant bubble shapes can be realized by large inflatable structures.

  3. In-vivo efficacy of hand sanitisers against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus.

    PubMed

    Lages, S L S; Ramakrishnan, M A; Goyal, S M

    2008-02-01

    Hand disinfection is considered important in preventing the transmission of viruses, including norovirus. We investigated the virucidal efficacy of nine hand sanitisers (four alcohol-based sanitisers, three non-alcoholic sanitisers and two triclosan-containing antimicrobial liquid soaps) against feline calicivirus, a surrogate for norovirus, on artificially contaminated fingertips for 30 s and 2 min contact periods. Among alcohol-based sanitisers, a product containing 99.5% ethanol was more effective than those containing 62% ethanol, 70% isopropanol or 91% isopropanol. A log(10) virus reduction factor of 1.00-1.30 was achieved with 99.5% ethanol but those containing a lower alcohol concentration only achieved a log(10) reduction factor of soaps. The two antimicrobial soaps tested showed minimal virus reduction (a log(10) reduction factor of 0.17-0.50), which is similar to that obtained by washing hands without any soap (a log(10) reduction factor of 0.33-0.42). These results indicate that triclosan-containing antimicrobial soaps or alcohol-based hand rubs may be inadequate for preventing norovirus transmission. Further research on alternative hand sanitisers should continue for effective control of norovirus infections.

  4. Elasticity of a soap film junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, F.; Janiaud, E.; Bacri, J.-C.; Andreotti, B.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the elasticity of an isolated, threefold junction of soap films (Plateau border), which displays static undulations when liquid rapidly flows into it. By analyzing the shape of the Plateau border (thickness R and transverse displacement) as a function of the liquid flow rate Q, we show experimentally and theoretically that the elasticity of the Plateau border is dominated by the bending of the soap films pulling on the Plateau border. In this asymptotic regime, the undulation wavelength obeys the scaling law ˜Q2 R-2 and the decay length ˜Q2 R-4.

  5. Inspections of hand washing supplies and hand sanitizer in public schools.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mary M; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-10-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In November 2008, 90 schools (97%) reported their inspection results. Among 697 total bathrooms, 88.8% had soap and 91.7% had paper towels or hand dryers. Hand sanitizer was reported in 1.2% of bathrooms and 15.2% of cafeterias. No difference was observed between boys' and girls' bathrooms, or primary and secondary schools, in the prevalence of soap or paper towels/hand dryers. Hand washing supplies were generally available in public school bathrooms. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer in school bathrooms was reported occasionally and should be discouraged. Hand sanitizer in a supervised setting, the school cafeteria, was not often reported and should be promoted.

  6. A free-flowing soap film combined with cavity ring-down spectroscopy as a detection system for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, Markus; Welsch, Thomas; Jones, Harold

    2010-05-07

    We have shown that a free-flowing soap film has sufficiently high-quality optical properties to allow it to be used in the cavity of a ring-down spectrometer (CRDS). The flow rates required to maintain a stable soap film were similar to those used in liquid chromatography and thus allowed interfacing with an HPLC system for use as an optical detector. We have investigated the properties of the system in a relevant analytical application. The soap film/CRDS combination was used at 355 nm as a detector for the separation of a mixture of nitroarenes. These compounds play a role in the residue analysis of areas contaminated with explosives and their decomposition products. In spite of the short absorption path length (9 microm) obtained by the soap film, the high-sensitivity of CRDS allowed a limit of detection of 4 x 10(-6) in absorption units (AU) or less than 17 fmol in the detection volume to be achieved. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Outbreak of Serratia marcescens in a neonatal intensive care unit: contaminated unmedicated liquid soap and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Buffet-Bataillon, S; Rabier, V; Bétrémieux, P; Beuchée, A; Bauer, M; Pladys, P; Le Gall, E; Cormier, M; Jolivet-Gougeon, A

    2009-05-01

    This study describes an outbreak of Serratia marcescens and its investigation and control in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). During a three-month period, five infants were colonised or infected by a single strain of S. marcescens. A case-control study, culture surveys and pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis implicated a bottle soap dispenser as a reservoir of S. marcescens (P=0.032). Infants with S. marcescens colonisation or infection were also more likely to have been exposed to a central or percutaneous venous catheter (P=0.05) and had had longer exposure to endotracheal intubation (P=0.05). Soap dispensers are used in many hospitals and may be an unrecognised source of nosocomial infections. This potential source of infection could be reduced by using 'airless' dispensers which have no air intake for the distribution of soap. Prompt intervention and strict adherence to alcoholic hand disinfection were the key factors that led to the successful control of this outbreak.

  8. The mixture of liquid foam soap, ethanol and citric acid as a new fixative-preservative solution in veterinary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Turan, Erkut; Gules, Ozay; Kilimci, Figen Sevil; Kara, Mehmet Erkut; Dilek, Omer Gurkan; Sabanci, Seyyid Said; Tatar, Musa

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the efficiency of liquid foam soap, ethanol, citric acid and benzalkonium chloride as a fixative-preservative solution (a soap-and ethanol-based fixing solution, or SEFS). In this study, ethanol serves as the fixative and preservative, liquid foam soap as the modifying agent, citric acid as the antioxidant and benzalkonium chloride as the disinfectant. The goat cadavers perfused with SEFS (n=8) were evaluated over a period of one year with respect to hardness, colour and odour using objective methods. Colour and hardness were compared between one fresh cadaver and the SEFS-embalmed cadavers. Histological and microbiological examinations were also performed in tissue samples. Additionally, the cadavers were subjectively evaluated after dissection and palpation. The SEFS provided the effectiveness expected over a 1-year embalming period for the animal cadavers. No bacteria or fungi were isolated except for some non-pathogenic Bacillus species. Visible mould was not present on either cadavers or in the surrounding environment. The cadavers maintained an appearance close to their original anatomical appearance, with muscles having good hardness and elasticity for dissection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Transient Temperature Response of Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Seiichi; Tatesaku, Akihiro; Dantsuka, Yuki; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kunimine, Kanji

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties of thin liquid films are important to understand interfacial phenomena due to film structures composed of amphiphilic molecules in soap film, phospholipid bilayer of biological cell and emulsion. A transient hot-wire technique for liquid films less than 1 \\upmu m thick such as soap film has been proposed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity simultaneously. Two-dimensional heat conduction equations for a solid cylinder with a liquid film have been solved numerically. The temperature of a thin wire with liquid film increases steeply with its own heat generation. The feasibility of this technique is verified through numerical experiments for various thermal conductivities, diffusivities, and film thicknesses. Calculated results indicate that the increase in the volumetric average temperature of the thin wire sufficiently varies with the change of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the soap film. Therefore, the temperature characteristics could be utilized to evaluate both the thermal conductivity and diffusivity using the Gauss-Newton method.

  10. Effect of the Intelligent Health Messenger Box on health care professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to hand hygiene and hand bacteria counts.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Mohsen; Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Fattahipour, Rasoul; Khalaji, Kazem; Pakpour, Amir H; Koenig, Harold G

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of the Intelligent Health Messenger Box in promoting hand hygiene using a quasiexperimental design. Knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices related to hand hygiene as well as hand bacteria counts and amount of liquid soap used were measured. The intervention involved broadcasting preventive audio messages. All outcomes showed significant change after the intervention compared with before. The Intelligent Health Messenger Box can serve as a practical way to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of insoluble soap in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Crovetto, Guillermo; Verge, Coral; de Ferrer, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new analytical procedure for determining insoluble Ca and Mg fatty acid salts (soaps) in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. The number of analytical methodologies that focus in the determination of insoluble soap salts in different environmental compartments is very limited. In this work, we propose a methodology that involves a sample clean-up step with petroleum ether to remove soluble salts and a conversion of Ca and Mg insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate salt and potassium carbonate, followed by the extraction of analytes from the samples using microwave-assisted extraction with methanol. An improved esterification procedure using 2,4-dibromoacetophenone before the liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection analysis also has been developed. The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two fatty acid Ca salts that are not commercial and are never detected in natural samples (C₁₃:₀ and C₁₇:₀). Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect because both standards have similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C₁₀:₀) to C₁₈:₀). We also studied the effect of the different variables on the clean-up, the conversion of Ca soap, and the extraction and derivatization procedures. The quantification limits found ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the development of a study on soap behavior in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. © 2010 SETAC.

  12. Soap is not enough: handwashing practices and knowledge in refugee camps, Maban County, South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Raina M; Vujcic, Jelena; Boscoe, Andrew; Handzel, Thomas; Aninyasi, Mark; Cookson, Susan T; Blanton, Curtis; S Blum, Lauren; Ram, Pavani K

    2015-01-01

    Refugees are at high risk for communicable diseases due to overcrowding and poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions. Handwashing with soap removes pathogens from hands and reduces disease risk. A hepatitis E outbreak in the refugee camps of Maban County, South Sudan in 2012 prompted increased hygiene promotion and improved provision of soap, handwashing stations, and latrines. We conducted a study 1 year after the outbreak to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the refugees in Maban County. We conducted a cross sectional survey of female heads of households in three refugee camps in Maban County. We performed structured observations on a subset of households to directly observe their handwashing practices at times of possible pathogen transmission. Of the 600 households interviewed, nearly all had soap available and 91 % reported water was available "always" or "sometimes". Exposure to handwashing promotion was reported by 85 % of the respondents. Rinsing hands with water alone was more commonly observed than handwashing with soap at critical handwashing times including "before eating" (80 % rinsing vs. 7 % washing with soap) and "before preparing/cooking food" (72.3 % vs 23 %). After toilet use, 46 % were observed to wash hands with soap and an additional 38 % rinsed with water alone. Despite intensive messaging regarding handwashing with soap and access to soap and water, rinsing hands with water alone rather than washing hands with soap remains more common among the refugees in Maban County. This practice puts them at continued risk for communicable disease transmission. Qualitative research into local beliefs and more effective messaging may help future programs tailor handwashing interventions.

  13. Pinch-off Scaling Law of Soap Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2014-11-01

    Three common interfacial phenomena that occur daily are liquid drops in gas, gas bubbles in liquid and thin-film bubbles. One aspect that has been studied for these phenomena is the formation or pinch-off of the drop/bubble from the liquid/gas threads. In contrast to the formation of liquid drops in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, thin-film bubble pinch-off has not been well documented. Having thin-film interfaces may alter the pinch-off process due to the limiting factor of the film thickness. We observed the pinch-off of one common thin-film bubble, soap bubbles, in order to characterize its pinch-off behavior. We achieved this by constructing an experimental model replicating the process of a human producing soap bubbles. Using high-speed videography and image processing, we determined that the minimal neck radius scaled with the time left till pinch-off, and that the scaling law exponent was 2/3, similar to that of liquid drops in gas.

  14. A meta-analysis of the published literature on the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research was to conduct a systematic quantitative analysis of the existing data in the literature in order to determine if there is a difference between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps and to identify the methodological factors that might affect this difference. Data on hand washing efficacy and experimental conditions (sample size, wash duration, soap quantity, challenge organism, inoculum size, and neutralization method) from published studies were compiled and transferred to a relational database. A total of 25 publications, containing 374 observations, met the study selection criteria. The majority of the studies included fewer than 15 observations with each treatment and included a direct comparison between nonantimicrobial soap and antimicrobial soap. Although differences in efficacy between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soap were small (∼0.5-log CFU reduction difference), antimicrobial soap produced consistently statistically significantly greater reductions. This difference was true for any of the antimicrobial compounds investigated where n was >20 (chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophor, triclosan, or povidone). Average log reductions were statistically significantly greater (∼2 log CFU) when either gram-positive or gram-negative transient organisms were deliberately added to hands compared with experiments done with resident hand flora (∼0.5 log CFU). Our findings support the importance of using a high initial inoculum on the hands, well above the detection limit. The inherent variability in hand washing seen in the published literature underscores the importance of using a sufficiently large sample size to detect differences when they occur.

  15. Comparison of the immediate, residual, and cumulative antibacterial effects of Novaderm R,* Novascrub R,* Betadine Surgical Scrub, Hibiclens, and liquid soap.

    PubMed

    Faoagali, J; Fong, J; George, N; Mahoney, P; O'Rourke, V

    1995-12-01

    Triclosan (Irgasan), an antibacterial active against staphylococci and coliform bacteria, has been formulated for use as a handwash. There has been only one previous report of the use of the glove juice test to determine the immediate, residual, and cumulative effects of a 1% triclosan-based handwash product. There have been no previous studies on the use of 1% triclosan combined with povidone-iodine (PI) in a handwash product. The glove juice technique was used to document and compare the immediate, 3-hour residual, and 5-day cumulative effects on the mean log10 bacterial counts of 1% triclosan-based handwash product and 1% triclosan with 5% PI. A standardized surgical handwashing technique was used before sample collection. These results and the identity and type of the aerobic bacteria cultured from the samples were compared with the results of standardized washing and glove juice sampling with 4% weight/volume chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), 7.5% PI, and a nonantimicrobial liquid soap. All five tested products showed significant log10 reduction from baseline on day 1, hour 0 (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean log10 bacterial count when 7.5% PI, 4% CHG, and 1% triclosan with 5% PI were compared with each other immediately after washing (p > 0.05). There was a significant difference between 1% triclosan and the liquid soap when they were each compared with 4% CHG, 7.5% PI, and 1% triclosan with 5% PI. There was no statistically significant difference between the 1% triclosan product and the liquid soap (p > 0.20). All products were effective at reducing the immediate bacterial count from the baseline level. All formulations except the liquid soap showed significant cumulative effect (p < 0.05) after multiple washes, with no significant difference between the cumulative effects of the liquid soap and 1% triclosan (p > 0.05). Both products differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the CHG, PI, and triclosan with PI. CHG, PI, and triclosan

  16. Laser Soap Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which…

  17. 9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN No. 4: UPPER SCREWS MOVED SOAP CHIPS HORIZONTALLY FROM BIN TO BIN; LOWER LEFT-AND RIGHT-HAND SCREWS MOVED CHIPS TO CHUTE LEADING TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  18. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's

    MedlinePlus

    ... your hands when they are visibly dirty. Antibacterial soaps, such as those containing triclosan, are no more effective at killing germs than is regular soap. Using antibacterial soap might even lead to the ...

  19. SaniTwice: a novel approach to hand hygiene for reducing bacterial contamination on hands when soap and water are unavailable.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; Mann, James; McCormack, Robert R; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M; Arbogast, James W; Dolan, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    The risk of inadequate hand hygiene in food handling settings is exacerbated when water is limited or unavailable, thereby making washing with soap and water difficult. The SaniTwice method involves application of excess alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), hand "washing" for 15 s, and thorough cleaning with paper towels while hands are still wet, followed by a standard application of ABHS. This study investigated the effectiveness of the SaniTwice methodology as an alternative to hand washing for cleaning and removal of microorganisms. On hands moderately soiled with beef broth containing Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), washing with a nonantimicrobial hand washing product achieved a 2.86 (±0.64)-log reduction in microbial contamination compared with the baseline, whereas the SaniTwice method with 62 % ethanol (EtOH) gel, 62 % EtOH foam, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.64 ± 0.89, 3.64 ± 0.57, and 4.61 ± 0.33 log units, respectively. When hands were heavily soiled from handling raw hamburger containing E. coli, washing with nonantimicrobial hand washing product and antimicrobial hand washing product achieved reductions of 2.65 ± 0.33 and 2.69 ± 0.32 log units, respectively, whereas SaniTwice with 62 % EtOH foam, 70 % EtOH gel, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.87 ± 0.42, 2.99 ± 0.51, and 3.92 ± 0.65 log units, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of the SaniTwice regimen with various ABHS is equivalent to or exceeds that of the standard hand washing approach as specified in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code. Implementation of the SaniTwice regimen in food handling settings with limited water availability should significantly reduce the risk of foodborne infections resulting from inadequate hand hygiene.

  20. Distribution of soap molecules in flowing soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Sane, Aakash; Mandre, Shreyas

    Flowing soap films are useful tools to simulate two-dimensional flows. The Marangoni elasticity due to the presence of soap molecules not only stabilizes the soap film but also imparts it compressibility to the two-dimensional flow in the soap film. Therefore, it is desirable to measure the surface concentration cs of soap molecules to understand the physics flowing soap films. In this study, we present an indirect measurement of cs, by making a direct measurement of the surface tension and the Marangoni elasticity. Using a two-stage model for soap distribution in the flows, the range of cs is calculated for different thickness and the soap solution concentration. Our model shows that the soap film will have the same cs for the range of parameters in popular use and in agreements with experimental data.

  1. The Marangoni convection induced by acetone desorption from the falling soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Yong; Li, Zhangyun; Wang, Yongyi; Huang, Jiali

    2012-05-01

    By means of the falling soap film tunnel and the Schlieren optical method, the Marangoni convection were observed directly in the immediate interfacial neighborhood during the desorption process of acetone from the falling soap film. Moreover, the hydraulic characteristics of the falling soap film tunnel, the acetone concentration, the surface tension of the soap liquid and the mass transfer has been investigated in details through the experimental or theoretical method.

  2. Jet impact on a soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstetter, Geoffroy; Raufaste, Christophe; Celestini, Franck

    2012-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the impact of a liquid jet on a soap film. We observe that the jet never breaks the film and that two qualitatively different steady regimes may occur. The first one is a refractionlike behavior obtained at small incidence angles when the jet crosses the film and is deflected by the film-jet interaction. For larger incidence angles, the jet is absorbed by the film, giving rise to a new class of flows in which the jet undulates along the film with a characteristic wavelength. Besides its fundamental interest, this paper presents a different way to guide a micrometric flow of liquid in the inertial regime and to probe foam stability submitted to violent perturbations at the soap film scale.

  3. Jet impact on a soap film.

    PubMed

    Kirstetter, Geoffroy; Raufaste, Christophe; Celestini, Franck

    2012-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the impact of a liquid jet on a soap film. We observe that the jet never breaks the film and that two qualitatively different steady regimes may occur. The first one is a refractionlike behavior obtained at small incidence angles when the jet crosses the film and is deflected by the film-jet interaction. For larger incidence angles, the jet is absorbed by the film, giving rise to a new class of flows in which the jet undulates along the film with a characteristic wavelength. Besides its fundamental interest, this paper presents a different way to guide a micrometric flow of liquid in the inertial regime and to probe foam stability submitted to violent perturbations at the soap film scale.

  4. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  5. Stability Conditions and Mechanism of Cream Soaps: Effect of Polyols.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi; Komoriya, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, polyols and water are essential ingredients for producing stable cream soaps. The solution behavior of the above four components system has been studied to elucidate the effect of four sorts of polyols (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol) on the stability of cream soaps. It has been revealed that the lamellar liquid crystalline one-phase converted to a two-phase of a lamellar phase and an isotropic aqueous solution by the addition of a few percent of 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol, whereas the lamellar one-phase was remained by about 50 wt% of glycerol in the aqueous solution. The X-ray data at room temperature showed that the existence of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 mole ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol systems, whereas that the coexistence of 1:1 acid soap crystal and a lamellar gel phase (swelled lamellar gel structure) in the glycerol system. The phase transition peaks from coagel to gel (Tgel) and from gel to liquid state (Tc) were appeared in the above four polyol systems by DSC measurements. It was confirmed from the combined data of SAXS and DSC that the existence of anhydrous 1:1 acid soap gels (or with small amount of bound water) in the all polyol systems, whereas the coexistence of the anhydrate gel and the swelled gel with a lot of intermediate water in the only glycerol system. This swelled gel structure would be contributed to stabilize the dispersed anhydrate acid soap crystals in cream soaps.

  6. Access to waterless hand sanitizer improves student hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K

    2013-09-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access.

  7. Consumer antibacterial soaps: effective or just risky?

    PubMed

    Aiello, Allison E; Larson, Elaine L; Levy, Stuart B

    2007-09-01

    Much has been written recently about the potential hazards versus benefits of antibacterial (biocide)-containing soaps. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to assess the studies that have examined the efficacy of products containing triclosan, compared with that of plain soap, in the community setting, as well as to evaluate findings that address potential hazards of this use--namely, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The PubMed database was searched for English-language articles, using relevant keyword combinations for articles published between 1980 and 2006. Twenty-seven studies were eventually identified as being relevant to the review. Soaps containing triclosan within the range of concentrations commonly used in the community setting (0.1%-0.45% wt/vol) were no more effective than plain soap at preventing infectious illness symptoms and reducing bacterial levels on the hands. Several laboratory studies demonstrated evidence of triclosan-adapted cross-resistance to antibiotics among different species of bacteria. The lack of an additional health benefit associated with the use of triclosan-containing consumer soaps over regular soap, coupled with laboratory data demonstrating a potential risk of selecting for drug resistance, warrants further evaluation by governmental regulators regarding antibacterial product claims and advertising. Further studies of this issue are encouraged.

  8. Sound and vision: visualization of music with a soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulon, C.; Derec, C.; Combriat, T.; Marmottant, P.; Elias, F.

    2017-07-01

    A vertical soap film, freely suspended at the end of a tube, is vibrated by a sound wave that propagates in the tube. If the sound wave is a piece of music, the soap film ‘comes alive’: colours, due to iridescences in the soap film, swirl, split and merge in time with the music (see the snapshots in figure 1 below). In this article, we analyse the rich physics behind these fascinating dynamical patterns: it combines the acoustic propagation in a tube, the light interferences, and the static and dynamic properties of soap films. The interaction between the acoustic wave and the liquid membrane results in capillary waves on the soap film, as well as non-linear effects leading to a non-oscillatory flow of liquid in the plane of the film, which induces several spectacular effects: generation of vortices, diphasic dynamical patterns inside the film, and swelling of the soap film under certain conditions. Each of these effects is associated with a characteristic time scale, which interacts with the characteristic time of the music play. This article shows the richness of those characteristic times that lead to dynamical patterns. Through its artistic interest, the experiments presented in this article provide a tool for popularizing and demonstrating science in the classroom or to a broader audience.

  9. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access. PMID:23836575

  10. Thermotropic phase behavior of choline soaps.

    PubMed

    Klein, Regina; Dutton, Helen; Diat, Olivier; Tiddy, Gordon J T; Kunz, Werner

    2011-04-14

    Choline carboxylates (ChCm with m = 12-18) are simple biocompatible anionic surfactants with very low Krafft temperatures, possessing a rich aqueous phase behavior. In the present work, we have investigated the thermotropic mesomorphism of anhydrous ChCm salts for m = 12-18. Transition temperatures and enthalpies determined by differential scanning calorimetry reveal that all investigated compounds exhibit three different phases between -20 and 95 °C. The phases were further characterized by optical polarizing microscopy, NMR spin-spin relaxation, and X-ray scattering measurements. The nature of the phases was identified with increasing temperature as crystalline, semicrystalline, and liquid-crystalline lamellar. Even long-chain choline carboxylates (m = 18) were found to melt into a lamellar liquid-crystalline phase below 100 °C. Accordingly, with choline as counterion in simple fatty acid soaps, not only the water solubility is considerably enhanced but also the melting points are substantially reduced, hence facilitating thermotropic mesomorphism at temperatures between 35 and 95 °C. Thus, simple choline soaps with m = 12-18 may be classified as ionic liquids.

  11. Revisiting the hand wipe versus gel rub debate: is a higher-ethanol content hand wipe more effective than an ethanol gel rub?

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Natalie N; Rihs, John D; Stout, Janet E; Yu, Victor L

    2010-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for hand hygiene state that the use of alcohol-based hand wipes is not an effective substitute for the use of an alcohol-based hand rub or handwashing with an antimicrobial soap and water. The objective of this study was to determine whether a hand wipe with higher ethanol content (65.9%) is as effective as an ethanol hand rub or antimicrobial soap in removing bacteria and spores from hands. In two separate experiments, the hands of 7 subjects were inoculated with a suspension of Serratia marcescens or Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Subjects washed with each of 3 different products: 65.9% ethanol hand wipes (Sani-Hands ALC), 62% ethanol gel rub (Purell), and antimicrobial soap containing 0.75% triclosan (Kindest Kare). A total of 56 observations were analyzed for S marcescens removal and 70 observations were analyzed for G stearothermophilus removal. The rank order of product efficacy for both bacteria and spore removal was antibacterial soap > 65.9% ethanol hand wipes >62% ethanol hand rub. Mean S marcescens log reductions (±SD) for the 65.9% ethanol alcohol wipe, 62% ethanol alcohol rub, and antimicrobial foam soap were 3.44 ± 0.847, 2.32 ± 1.065, and 4.44 ± 1.018, respectively (P < .001). Mean G stearothermophilus log reductions for the 65.9% ethanol wipe, 62% ethanol rub, and antimicrobial foam soap were 0.51 ± 0.26, -0.8 ± 0.32 increase over baseline, and 1.72 ± 0.62, respectively (P < .001). The alcohol-based hand wipe containing 65.9% ethanol was significantly more effective than the 62% ethanol rub in reducing the number of viable bacteria and spores on the hands. Copyright © 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Soap film vibration: origin of the dissipation.

    PubMed

    Acharige, Sébastien Kosgodagan; Elias, Florence; Derec, Caroline

    2014-11-07

    We investigate the complex dispersion relationship of a transverse antisymmetric wave on a horizontal soap film. Experimentally, the complex wave number k at a fixed forcing frequency is determined by measuring the vibrating amplitude of the soap film: the wavelength (linked to the real part of k) is determined by the spatial variation of the amplitude; the decay length (linked to the imaginary part of k) is determined by analyzing the resonance curves of the vibrating wave as a function of frequency. Theoretically, we compute the complex dispersion relationship taking into account the physical properties of the bulk liquid and gas phase, and of the gas-liquid interfaces. The comparison between the computation (developed to the leading order under our experimental conditions) and the experimental results confirms that the phase velocity is fixed by the interplay between surface tension, and liquid and air inertia, as reported in previous studies. Moreover, we show that the attenuation of the transverse antisymmetric wave originates from the viscous dissipation in the gas phase surrounding the liquid film. This result is an important step in understanding the propagation of an acoustic wave in liquid foam, using a bottom-up approach.

  13. Light guiding properties of soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier; Casanova, Federico

    2013-02-01

    The injection of a laser beam from the side in a horizontal free-standing draining soap film is reported. We observe the self-deflection of the beam that varies in a random way. The film thinning is affected by the injection and depends on the polarization of the light beam, not on the laser power. The liquid in the soap film is ejected towards the meniscus, without modifying its molecular structure. Besides, this injection seems to stabilize the film near the light beam propagation and to destabilize the film in the other zones. Consequences and applications are then discussed.

  14. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  15. Designation of Soap Molder Machine and Procedure for Transparent Soap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    Transparent soap is actually the combination of actual soap and solvent. The solvent is added into the soap solution to produce the transparent characteristic. The problem from the previous production is that tiny air bubbles were observed inside the soap resulted in less attractive appearance. Current method of producing the soap bar had taken more than 8 hours and having difficulties to take out the soap bar from the plastic mold with low production rate. It is expected that the air bubble problem can be solved using this new soup molder machine. The soap production rate is believed to increase with the invention of soap molder machine. By reducing the production time from 8 hours to 2 hours, it improve production rate significantly.

  16. Intensified hand-hygiene campaign including soap-and-water wash may prevent acute infections in office workers, as shown by a recognized-exposure -adjusted analysis of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hovi, Tapani; Ollgren, Jukka; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita

    2017-01-09

    Variable exposure to causative agents of acute respiratory (RTI) or gastrointestinal tract infections (GTI) is a significant confounding factor in the analysis of the efficacy of interventions concerning these infections. We had an exceptional opportunity to reanalyze a previously published dataset from a trial assessing the effect of enhanced hand hygiene on the occurrence of RTI or GTI in adults, after adjustment for reported exposure and other covariates. Twenty-one working units (designated clusters) each including at least 50 office employees, totaling 1,270 persons, were randomized into two intervention arms (either using water-and-soap or alcohol-rub in hand cleansing), or in the control arm. Self-reported data was collected through weekly emails and included own symptoms of RTI or GTI, and exposures to other persons with similar symptoms. Differences in the weekly occurrences of RTI and GTI symptoms between the arms were analyzed using multilevel binary regression model with log link with personal and cluster specific random effects, self-reported exposure to homologous disease, randomization triplet, and seasonality as covariates in the Bayesian framework. Over the 16 months duration of the trial, 297 persons in the soap and water arm, 238 persons in the alcohol-based hand rub arm, and 230 controls sent reports. The arms were similar in age distribution and gender ratios. A temporally-associated reported exposure strongly increased the risk of both types of infection in all trial arms. Persons in the soap-and-water arm reported a significantly - about 24% lower weekly prevalence of GTI than the controls whether they had observed an exposure or not during the preceding week, while for RTI, this intervention reduced the prevalence only during weeks without a reported exposure. Alcohol-rub did not affect the symptom prevalence. We conclude that while frequent and careful hand washing with soap and water partially protected office-working adults from GTI, the

  17. Bacterial flora of commonly used soaps in three hospitals in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, B A; Oduyebo, O O; Ogunsola, F T

    2007-10-01

    To obtain general information on soap use and soap bacterial flora, and to assess the risk of transmission of organisms from contaminated soap to patients. Descriptive study. Three hospitals in an urban area of Lagos, Nigeria. A teaching (761 bed) hospital, a general hospital (a 51 bed secondary healthcare facility) and a private hospital (a 30 bed private community with a surgical specialty). Bar soaps were much more commonly used than liquid soaps. Out of the thirty six bar soaps and their receptacles studied, 19 (52.8%) were found wet, nine (25%) dry, five (13.9%) very dry, and three (8.3%) in a pool of water. A total of 39% soaps and 75% of receptacles were contaminated. Thirty three percent of the dry soaps and 68.4% of the wet soaps were contaminated. None of the very dry soaps and all in a pool of water were contaminated. The bacteria isolated from soaps included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (89.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.5%), while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (70.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.8%) and Serratia marcescens (2.9%) were isolated from the receptacles. The antibiogram showed that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the soaps and their containers (sinks) were distinct from those obtained from colonised or infected wounds. The soap contamination rates correlated with the conditions in which the soaps were kept. The type of soap containers in particular, played a vital role in keeping the soap dry or wet. In all the hospitals studied, the policies on soap use, if any, were not in agreement with the recommended guidelines. The healthcare workers need to be re-educated on these guidelines.

  18. Use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum intimate liquid soap for external hygiene in the prevention of bacterial vaginosis recurrence after metronidazole oral treatment.

    PubMed

    Bahamondes, M Valeria; Portugal, Priscila Mendes; Brolazo, Eliane Melo; Simões, José Antônio; Bahamondes, Luis

    2011-01-01

    To determine the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) after the use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap starting immediately after the treatment with oral metronidazole and the quality of life of the participants. A total of 123 women with diagnosis of BV with at least three of the following criteria: 1) homogeneous vaginal discharge without inflammation of the vagina or vulva; 2) vaginal pH ≥ 4.5; 3) positive Whiff test; and 4) "clue cells" in more than 20% of the epithelial cells in the vagina. A Nugent score ≥ 4 in the vaginal bacterioscopy was also used. After BV diagnosis, metronidazole 500 mg was administered orally bid during 7 days. Patients cured of BV were then instructed to use 7.5 to 10 mL of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap once-a-day for hygiene of the external genital region. Three subsequent control visits after starting the hygiene treatment (30, 60, and 90 days; ± 5 days) were scheduled. A questionnaire was applied in the form of visual analogue scale (VAS) in all the visits regarding: 1) level of comfort at the genital region; 2) malodorous external genitalia; 3) comfort in sexual intercourse; 4) satisfaction with intimate hygiene; and 5) self-esteem. Ninety two (74.8%) women initiated the use of a lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap at visit 1. At visit 2, 3, and 4 there were 84, 62 and 42 women available for evaluation, respectively. The rate of recurrence of BV was 19.0%, 24.2% and 7.1%, respectively in the three visits and vaginal candidiasis was observed in five treated women. Quality of life was evaluated in the 42 women who completed the four visits schedule and there were significant improvement in the five domains assessed. A lactic acid plus lactoserum liquid soap for external intimate hygiene may be an option for the prevention of BV recurrence after treatment and cure with oral metronidazole.

  19. [Products for hand hygiene and antisepsis: use by health professionals and relationship with hand eczema].

    PubMed

    Batalla, A; García-Doval, I; de la Torre, C

    2012-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important measure for the prevention of nosocomial infection. We describe the different products available for hygiene and antisepsis of the hands and the use of these products in daily practice. Hand hygiene products such as soaps and detergents are a cause of irritant dermatitis in health professionals. This irritation is one of the principal factors affecting their use in clinical practice. Alcohol-based products are better tolerated and less irritant than soap and water; irritation should not therefore be a limiting factor in the use of these products and they are to be recommended in place of soap and water. Informative and continued education programs could increase their use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  1. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Préve, Deison; Saa, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only factor responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume V and with a fixed equatorial perimeter L. It is well known that the sphere is the solution for V=L(3)/6π(2), and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for V<αL(3)/6π(2), with α≈0.21, such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but is rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtaining the global solution for this axisymmetric isoperimetric problem. Our result suggests that deformed bubbles with V<αL(3)/6π(2) cannot be stable and should not exist in foams, for instance.

  2. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Préve, Deison; Saa, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only factor responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume V and with a fixed equatorial perimeter L . It is well known that the sphere is the solution for V =L3/6 π2 , and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for V <α L3/6 π2 , with α ≈0.21 , such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but is rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtaining the global solution for this axisymmetric isoperimetric problem. Our result suggests that deformed bubbles with V <α L3/6 π2 cannot be stable and should not exist in foams, for instance.

  3. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  4. Evaluation of various agro-wastes for traditional black soap production.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, O E; Osinowo, F A

    2001-08-01

    The agricultural wastes, cocoa-pod husks, palm-bunch waste, sorghum chaff and groundnut shells, which are normally thrown away have been used in the production of black soap. Unlike other soaps which are made from oils and chemicals, black soap is made from oils and agro-wastes ashes. Chemical analysis indicated that the liquid extract from the ashes of the different agro-wastes used contained various amounts of potassium and sodium compounds. The most common ingredient in the agro-wastes was potassium carbonate. The amount of potassium carbonate was 56.73 +/- 0.16% in cocoa-pod ash, 43.15 +/- 0.13% in palm-bunch ash, 16.65 +/- 0.05% in groundnut shell ash and 12.40 +/- 0.08% in sorghum chaff ash. Soaps made from the agro-wastes ashes had excellent solubility, consistency, cleansing and lathering abilities.

  5. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses.

  6. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  7. Memory effects in soap film arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewalle, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stephane; Lumay, Geoffroy; Schockmel, Julien; Noirhomme, Martial

    2012-02-01

    We report experiments on soap film configurations in a triangular prism for which the shape factor can be changed continuously. Two stable configurations can be observed for a range of the shape factor h. A hysteretic behaviour is found, due to the occurence of another local minima in the free energy. Experiments demonstrate that soap films can be trapped in a particular configuration being different from a global surface minimization. This metastability can be evidenced from a geometrical model based on idealized structures. Depending on the configuration, providing clues on the structural relaxations taking place into 3D foams, such as T1 rearrangements. The composition of the liquid is also investigated leading to dynamical picture of the transition. (Phys. Rev. E 83, 021403 (2011))

  8. Washing with contaminated bar soap is unlikely to transfer bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, J. E.; Yackovich, F.

    1988-01-01

    Recent reports of the isolation of microorganisms from used soap bars have raised the concern that bacteria may be transferred from contaminated soap bars during handwashing. Since only one study addressing this question has been published, we developed an additional procedure to test this concern. In our new method prewashed and softened commercial deodorant soap bars (0.8% triclocarban) not active against Gram-negative bacteria were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to give mean total survival levels of 4.4 X 10(5) c.f.u. per bar which was 70-fold higher than those reported on used soap bars. Sixteen panelists were instructed to wash with the inoculated bars using their normal handwashing procedure. After washing, none of the 16 panelists had detectable levels of either test bacterium on their hands. Thus, the results obtained using our new method were in complete agreement with those obtained with the previously published method even though the two methods differ in a number of procedural aspects. These findings, along with other published reports, show that little hazard exists in routine handwashing with previously used soap bars and support the frequent use of soap and water for handwashing to prevent the spread of disease. PMID:3402545

  9. Soap bubbles in analytical chemistry. Conductometric determination of sub-parts per million levels of sulfur dioxide with a soap bubble.

    PubMed

    Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Borst, Walter L; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2006-04-15

    Soap bubbles provide a fascinating tool that is little used analytically. With a very low liquid volume to surface area ratio, a soap bubble can potentially provide a very useful interface for preconcentration where mass transfer to an interfacial surface is important. Here we use an automated system to create bubbles of uniform size and film thickness. We utilize purified Triton-X 100, a nonionic surfactant, to make soap bubbles. We use such bubbles as a gas-sampling interface. Incorporating hydrogen peroxide into the bubble provides a system where electrical conductance increases as the bubble is exposed to low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas. We theoretically derive the conductance of a hollow conducting spherical thin film with spherical cap electrodes. We measure the film thickness by incorporating a dye in the bubble making solution and laser transmission photometry and find that it agrees well with the geometrically computed thickness. With the conductance of the bubble-making soap solution being measured by conventional methods, we show that the measured values of the bubble conductance with known bubble and electrode dimensions closely correspond to the theoretically computed value. Finally, we demonstrate that sub-ppm levels of SO(2) can readily be detected by the conductivity change of a hydrogen peroxide-doped soap bubble, measured in situ, when the gas flows around the bubble.

  10. Columnar to Nematic Mesophase Transition: Binary Mixtures of Unlike Copper Soaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghrouchni, R.; Skoulios, A.

    1995-10-01

    Copper (II) soaps are known to produce columnar mesophases at high temperature. The polar groups of the soap molecules are stacked over one another within columns surrounded by the alkyl chains in a disordered conformation and laterally arranged according to a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice. The present work studies the mesomorphic behaviour of binary mixtures of copper soaps using differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. When the soaps are of comparable molecular sizes the mixtures are homogeneous and columnar at all compositions. The columns of the two soaps, remaining intact in the mixture, are distributed randomly on the nodes of a hexagonal Bravais lattice. Crystallographic homogeneity is obtained by transfer of methylene groups from cell to cell. When, on the other hand, the soaps are different enough in molecular sizes, the columnar structure of the mixtures is interrupted in the middle range of compositions for the benefit of a nematic one. The transfer of methylene groups gets indeed harder to achieve and the distortion of the hexagonal units cells becomes important. The columnar to nematic phase transition is discussed on a molecular and a topological level.

  11. No germs on me: a social marketing campaign to promote hand-washing with soap in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context.

  12. Microbicidal effects of plain soap vs triclocarban-based antibacterial soap.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Rhee, M S

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the bactericidal effects of plain and antibacterial soap. The bactericidal effects of plain and antibacterial soap containing 0.3% triclocarban were examined against 10 Gram-positive and 10 Gram-negative bacterial strains after exposure at 22°C and 40°C for 20 s. Gram-negative bacteria were more susceptible to both soaps than Gram-positive bacteria. However, with one exception (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 at 40°C), there was no significant difference between the effects of medicated and non-medicated soap at either temperature. Triclocarban in soap does not lead to a meaningful reduction in bacterial levels during use. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Foam structure :from soap froth to solid foams.

    SciTech Connect

    Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2003-01-01

    The properties of solid foams depend on their structure, which usually evolves in the fluid state as gas bubbles expand to form polyhedral cells. The characteristic feature of foam structure-randomly packed cells of different sizes and shapes-is examined in this article by considering soap froth. This material can be modeled as a network of minimal surfaces that divide space into polyhedral cells. The cell-level geometry of random soap froth is calculated with Brakke's Surface Evolver software. The distribution of cell volumes ranges from monodisperse to highly polydisperse. Topological and geometric properties, such as surface area and edge length, of themore » entire foam and individual cells, are discussed. The shape of struts in solid foams is related to Plateau borders in liquid foams and calculated for different volume fractions of material. The models of soap froth are used as templates to produce finite element models of open-cell foams. Three-dimensional images of open-cell foams obtained with x-ray microtomography allow virtual reconstruction of skeletal structures that compare well with the Surface Evolver simulations of soap-froth geometry.« less

  14. The production of paper soaps from coconut oil and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) with the addition of glycerine as plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyasanti, Asri; Miracle Lenyta Ginting, Anastasia; Asyifani, Elgina; Nurjanah, Sarifah

    2018-03-01

    Hand washing with soap is important because it is proven to clean hands from germs and bacteria. The paper soapswere made from coconut oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO) with the addition of glycerin as a plasticizer. The aims of this research were to determine both formulation of paper soap using coconut oil and VCO based with addition of glycerin, and to determine the quality of the paper soapswhich is a disposable hand soap. This research used laboratory experimental method using descriptive analysis. The treatments of this research were treatment A (paper soap without the addition of glycerin), treatment B (paper soap with the addition of glycerin 10% (w/w)), treatment C (paper soap with the addition of glycerin 15% (w/w)), treatment D (paper soap with the addition of glycerin of 20% (w/w)). Parameters tested were moisture content, stability of foam, pH value, insoluble material in ethanol, free alkali content, unsaponified fat, antibacterial activity test, and organoleptic test. The result of physicochemical characteristics for bothcoconut oil-paper soap and VCO-paper soap revealed that treatment C (the addition of glycerin 15% (w/w) was the best soap formulation. Coconut Oil papersoap 15% w/w glicerin had water content 13.72%, the content of insoluble material in ethanol 3.93%, the content of free alkali 0.21%, and the content of unsaponified fat 4.06%, pH value 10.78, stability of foam 97.77%, and antibacterial activity against S. aureus 11.66 mm. Meanwhile, VCO paper soap 15% w/w glicerin had the value of water content of 18.47%, the value stability of foam of 96.7%, the pH value of 10.03, the value of insoluble material in ethanol of 3.49%, the value of free alkali content 0.17%, the value of unsaponified fat 4.91%, and the value of inhibition diameter on the antibacterial activity test 15.28 mm. Based on Mandatory Indonesian National Standard of solid soap SNI 3532:2016 showed that both of paper soap had not been accorded with SNI 3532:2016, unless the

  15. Evaluation of proposed Skylab and SSP soap products.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durfee, R. L.; Spurlock, J. M.; Whitmore, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Four candidate cleansing agents evaluated in terms of potential hazards to crew members included two soaps (Neutrogena bar soap and Olive Leaf Liquid), one nonfoaming surfactant (Miranol JEM), and one laundry detergent (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). None of the four exhibited adverse dermatological effects from skin patch tests or supported growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Aqueous solutions of Neutrogena did support a mold species. Neutrogena and Miranol JEM were used in a simulated Skylab personal hygiene regimen with no adverse effects on skin or skin microflora. Based on our results, each of these agents appear to be a promising candidate material for the use intended.

  16. The elasticity of soap bubbles containing wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Sabadini, Edvaldo; Ungarato, Rafael F S; Miranda, Paulo B

    2014-01-28

    Slow-motion imaging of the rupture of soap bubbles generally shows the edges of liquid films retracting at a constant speed (known as the Taylor-Culick velocity). Here we investigate soap bubbles formed from simple solutions of a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide - CTAB) and sodium salicylate. The interaction of salicylate ions with CTAB leads to the formation of wormlike micelles (WLM), which yield a viscoelastic behavior to the liquid film of the bubble. We demonstrate that these elastic bubbles collapse at a velocity up to 30 times higher than the Taylor-Culick limit, which has never been surpassed. This is because during the bubble inflation, the entangled WLM chains stretch, storing elastic energy. This extra energy is then released during the rupture of the bubble, yielding an additional driving force for film retraction (besides surface tension). This new mechanism for the bursting of elastic bubbles may have important implications to the breakup of viscoelastic sprays in industrial applications.

  17. Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Graham, Jay P.; Mattson, Kay D.; Kelsey, Andrea; Mukherji, Supriya; Cronin, Aidan A.

    2016-01-01

    Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households’ hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1) a desire to smell nice; (2) interpersonal influences; (3) the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4) key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages. PMID:27598178

  18. Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Graham, Jay P; Mattson, Kay D; Kelsey, Andrea; Mukherji, Supriya; Cronin, Aidan A

    2016-09-01

    Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households' hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1) a desire to smell nice; (2) interpersonal influences; (3) the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4) key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages.

  19. [Hand hygiene: first measure to control nosocomial infection].

    PubMed

    Christiaens, G; Barbier, C; Mutsers, J; Warnotte, J; De Mol, P; Bouffioux, C

    2006-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross infection in hospi tals, however adherence to guidelines is commonly poor. The hand-hygiene promotion programme started on May 2004 at the University Hospital of Liège after a baseline survey of compliance. We attempted to promote hand hygiene and most par ticularly alcohol-based hand disinfection. We measured MRSA transmission rates and consumption of alcohol-based handrub solution and soap in parallel. During the campaign, consump tion of alcohol-based handrub solution and soap increased by 56% and 24% respectively and MRSA transmission rates decreased from 11,04 to 7,07 cases per 1000 admissions.

  20. Increasing Hand Washing Compliance With a Simple Visual Cue

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Brian T.; Menachemi, Nir; Huerta, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a simple, visual cue to increase hand washing with soap and water. Automated towel dispensers in 8 public bathrooms were set to present a towel either with or without activation by users. We set the 2 modes to operate alternately for 10 weeks. Wireless sensors were used to record entry into bathrooms. Towel and soap consumption rates were checked weekly. There were 97 351 hand-washing opportunities across all restrooms. Towel use was 22.6% higher (P = .05) and soap use was 13.3% higher (P = .003) when the dispenser presented the towel without user activation than when activation was required. Results showed that a visual cue can increase hand-washing compliance in public facilities. PMID:24228670

  1. Zero liquid carryover whole-body shower vortex liquid/gas separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a liquid/gas vortex type separator design eliminating liquid and semi-liquid (suds) carryover into air recirculating system were described. Consideration was given to a number of soaps other than the "Miranol JEM" which was the low sudsing soap used in previous test runs of the space shower. Analysis of test parameters and prototype testing resulted in a revised separator configuration and a better understanding of the suds generating mechanism in the wastewater collection system. The final design of the new separator provides for a wider choice of soaps without leading to the problem of "carryover". Furthermore, no changes in separator-to-shower interfaces were required. The new separator was retrofitted on the "space shower" and satisfactorily demonstrated in one-g testing.

  2. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  3. The effect of handwashing at recommended times with water alone and with soap on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique; Unicomb, Leanne; Johnston, Richard B

    2011-06-01

    Standard public health interventions to improve hand hygiene in communities with high levels of child mortality encourage community residents to wash their hands with soap at five separate key times, a recommendation that would require mothers living in impoverished households to typically wash hands with soap more than ten times per day. We analyzed data from households that received no intervention in a large prospective project evaluation to assess the relationship between observed handwashing behavior and subsequent diarrhea. Fieldworkers conducted a 5-hour structured observation and a cross-sectional survey in 347 households from 50 villages across rural Bangladesh in 2007. For the subsequent 2 years, a trained community resident visited each of the enrolled households every month and collected information on the occurrence of diarrhea in the preceding 48 hours among household residents under the age of 5 years. Compared with children living in households where persons prepared food without washing their hands, children living in households where the food preparer washed at least one hand with water only (odds ratio [OR]=0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.57-1.05), washed both hands with water only (OR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.89), or washed at least one hand with soap (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.19-0.47) had less diarrhea. In households where residents washed at least one hand with soap after defecation, children had less diarrhea (OR=0.45; 95% CI=0.26-0.77). There was no significant association between handwashing with or without soap before feeding a child, before eating, or after cleaning a child's anus who defecated and subsequent child diarrhea. These observations suggest that handwashing before preparing food is a particularly important opportunity to prevent childhood diarrhea, and that handwashing with water alone can significantly reduce childhood diarrhea.

  4. Soap film gas flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Lalin, H.S.; Bermudez, J.E.; Fleming, W.T.

    1987-09-08

    A soap film gas flowmeter is described comprising: a flow tube having a hollow body with opposite open ends through which a soap film is propelled and a first closed chamber housing a soap solution. It also includes means for supporting the flow tube in a substantially vertical position with the open bottom end of the flow tube disposed in the first chamber above the soap solution; a second closed chamber into which the open top end of the flow tube extends and gas inlet means for introducing gas into the first chamber at a flow rate to be measuredmore » using the flowmeters. A gas exit means is included for discharging the gas introduced into the first chamber through the second chamber. Plus there are means for generating a single soap bubble from the soap solution substantially at the bottom end of the flow tube and a relatively large opening in the flowtube for providing an open passageway for inlet gas to pass through the flowtube when the bottom open end of the flowtube is covered by the soap solution.« less

  5. Cytomegalovirus Survival and Transferability and the Effectiveness of Common Hand-Washing Agents against Cytomegalovirus on Live Human Hands

    PubMed Central

    Stowell, Jennifer D.; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Cannon, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 105 infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands. PMID:24185855

  6. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands.

  7. The crystallization of metal soaps and fatty acids in oil paint model systems.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Joen J; Keune, Katrien; van Loon, Annelies; Iedema, Piet D

    2016-04-28

    The formation and crystallization of metal soaps in oil paint layers is an important issue in the conservation of oil paintings. The chemical reactions and physical processes that are involved in releasing metal ions from pigments and fatty acids from the oil binder to form crystalline metal soap deposits have so far remained poorly understood. We have used a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on model mixtures of palmitic acid, lead palmitate or zinc palmitate and linseed oil to study the transition from amorphous material to crystalline fatty acid or metal soap. This transition forms the final stage in the cascade of processes leading to metal soap-related oil paint degradation. Palmitic acid as well as the metal soaps showed nearly ideal solubility behavior. However, it was found that, near room temperature, both lead and zinc palmitate are practically insoluble in both liquid and partially polymerized linseed oil. Interestingly, the rate of metal soap and fatty acid crystallization decreased rapidly with the degree of linseed oil polymerization, possibly leading to systems where metal soaps are kinetically trapped in a semi-crystalline state. To explain the various morphologies of metal soap aggregates observed in oil paint layers, it is proposed that factors affecting the probability of crystal nucleation and the rate of crystal growth play a crucial role, like exposure to heat or cleaning solvents and the presence of microcracks.

  8. Do Soaps Teach Sex?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Muriel G.; Cantor, Joel M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces historical development of soap operas and presents results of surveys conducted with college students to determine how viewing affects their behavior, attitudes, and beliefs. Results indicate students neither seek nor take advice from soap operas whereas early radio soap opera listeners sought practical explanations of appropriate behavior…

  9. Soap and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Gregory R.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines an activity centered around the soap-making process in which soap is made via demonstration. Students are asked to develop an acid-base classification table and discuss various acid-base indicators. (DDR)

  10. Ineffective hand washing and the contamination of carrots after using a field latrine.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, J M; Hutchison, M L

    2016-04-01

    A study was undertaken to simulate the likely effects of a field worker with poor hygienic practices that had returned to work too soon after recovering from an infection by an enteric pathogen. The studies simulated a variety of hand-washing practices from no washing to washing with soap and water followed by an application of alcohol gel after using a field latrine. The numbers of generic Escherichia coli isolated from workers' hands declined with increasing thoroughness of hand-washing treatments with unwashed hands > water > water and soap > water, soap and alcohol gel. Where gloves were worn the counts obtained for the treatments were significantly reduced, but it was observed that unwashed hands contaminated gloves during the process of putting them on. Hand contamination following the use of a field latrine transferred contamination to carrots. These results suggest that if no gloves are worn it would be best practice to wash hands with water and soap and apply alcohol gel after using a field latrine. Wearing gloves reduced the risk of contaminating handled produce but workers should still wash their hands after using a field latrine before applying gloves. This study shows that inadequate hand hygiene in the field following the use of a field latrine can transfer bacterial contamination to hand-harvested carrots. Where fresh produce crops are to be handled by workers, wearing gloves reduces the risk of contaminating produce but workers should still wash their hands after using a field latrine before applying gloves. If no gloves are worn it would be best practice to wash hands with water and soap and apply alcohol gel after using a field latrine. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Handwashing with soap or alcoholic solutions? A randomized clinical trial of its effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, M; Sallés, M; Gomez, J; Bayas, J M; Trilla, A

    1999-06-01

    The effectiveness of an alcoholic solution compared with the standard hygienic handwashing procedure during regular work in clinical wards and intensive care units of a large public university hospital in Barcelona was assessed. A prospective, randomized clinical trial with crossover design, paired data, and blind evaluation was done. Eligible health care workers (HCWs) included permanent and temporary HCWs of wards and intensive care units. From each category, a random sample of persons was selected. HCWs were randomly assigned to regular handwashing (liquid soap and water) or handwashing with the alcoholic solution by using a crossover design. The number of colony-forming units on agar plates from hands printing in 3 different samples was counted. A total of 47 HCWs were included. The average reduction in the number of colony-forming units from samples before handwashing to samples after handwashing was 49.6% for soap and water and 88.2% for the alcoholic solution. When both methods were compared, the average number of colony-forming units recovered after the procedure showed a statistically significant difference in favor of the alcoholic solution (P <.001). The alcoholic solution was well tolerated by HCWs. Overall acceptance rate was classified as "good" by 72% of HCWs after 2 weeks use. Of all HCWs included, 9.3% stated that the use of the alcoholic solution worsened minor pre-existing skin conditions. Although the regular use of hygienic soap and water handwashing procedures is the gold standard, the use of alcoholic solutions is effective and safe and deserves more attention, especially in situations in which the handwashing compliance rate is hampered by architectural problems (lack of sinks) or nursing work overload.

  12. Improved sample treatment for the determination of insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Vílchez, J L; Crovetto, G; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A

    2010-09-15

    A new selective and sensitive method for the determination of insoluble fatty acid salts (soap) in sewage sludge samples is proposed. The method involves a clean up of sample with petroleum ether, the conversion of calcium and magnesium insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts, potassium salts extraction with methanol, and a derivatization procedure previous to the liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) analysis. Three different extraction techniques (Soxhlet, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasounds) were compared and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was selected as appropriate for our purpose. This allowed to reduce the extraction time and solvent waste (50 mL of methanol in contrast with 250 mL for Soxhlet procedure). The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two standards (C(13:0) and C(17:0)) that are not commercials and neither of them has been detected in sewage sludge samples. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect since both standards have similar environmental behaviour (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C(10:0)-C(18:0)). The method was successfully applied to samples from different sources and consequently, with different composition. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laser-induced vibration of a thin soap film.

    PubMed

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2014-09-21

    We report on the vibration of a thin soap film based on the optical radiation pressure force. The modulated low power laser induces a counter gravity flow in a vertical free-standing draining film. The thickness of the soap film is then higher in the upper region than in the lower region of the film. Moreover, the lifetime of the film is dramatically increased by a factor of 2. Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the film interfaces, such a film can be employed in an optofluidic diaphragm pump, the interfaces behaving like a vibrating membrane and the liquid in-between being the fluid to be pumped. Such a pump could then be used in delicate micro-equipment, in chips where temperature variations are detrimental and even in biological systems.

  14. Discovering Black Soap: A Survey on the Attitudes and Practices of Black Soap Users.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ann; Nabatian, Adam; Halverstam, Caroline P

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to discover the general attitudes and practices of black soap users with regard to amelioration of various dermatologic conditions. DESIGN: This was a prospective questionnaire-based study with a sample size of 100 black soap users. Setting: Outpatient dermatology clinics of Montefiore Medical Center and other Albert Einstein affiliated dermatology clinics in Bronx, New York. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred subjects who have used black soap were recruited. MEASUREMENTS: The participants evaluated and reported their attitudes and applications of black soap. Data on sociodemographic prevalence and user satisfactions of black soap were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The age distribution of participants was uniform among the specified age categories: 1) 18 to 29 years; 2) 30 to 39 years, 3) 40 to 49 yesars, and 4) 50 years and older. The sex distribution favored women, comprising 74 percent of those surveyed. A significant number of participants were born in either Africa (23%) or the Caribbean (19%). Black soap usage was applied to mitigate many dermatologic conditions, including acne (23%), dark spots (20%), razor bumps (13%), eczema (7%), and fine lines (4%). The most popular usage was for overall skin care (70%). The vast majority of users found black soap helpful for their skin condition (51% very satisfied, and 40% somewhat satisfied). Conclusion: The survey results indicate widespread usage and satisfaction with black soap for reduction in symptoms of various dermatologic conditions. Further investigations are warranted to discover active ingredients present in black soap that may unveil future therapeutic options for various dermatologic conditions.

  15. Soap films burst like flapping flags.

    PubMed

    Lhuissier, Henri; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2009-07-31

    When punctured, a flat soap film bursts by opening a hole driven by liquid surface tension. The hole rim does not, however, remain smooth but soon develops indentations at the tip of which ligaments form, ultimately breaking and leaving the initially connex film into a mist of disjointed drops. We report on original observations showing that these indentations result from a flaglike instability between the film and the surrounding atmosphere inducing an oscillatory motion out of its plane. Just like a flag edge flaps in the wind, the film is successively accelerated on both sides perpendicularly to its plane, inducing film thickness modulations and centrifuging liquid ligaments that finally pinch off to form the observed spray. This effect exemplifies how the dynamics of fragile objects such as thin liquid films is sensitive to their embedding medium.

  16. Marangoni elasticity of flowing soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas

    2017-08-01

    We measure the Marangoni elasticity of a flowing soap film to be 22 mN/m irrespective of its width, thickness, flow speed, or the bulk soap concentration. We perform this measurement by generating an oblique shock in the soap film and measuring the shock angle, flow speed, and thickness. We postulate that the elasticity is constant because the film surface is crowded with soap molecules. Our method allows nondestructive measurement of flowing soap film elasticity and the value 22 mN/m is likely applicable to other similarly constructed flowing soap films.

  17. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand-washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Torondel, Belen; Opare, David; Brandberg, Bjorn; Cobb, Emma; Cairncross, Sandy

    2014-02-14

    Moringa oleifera is a plant found in many tropical and subtropical countries. Many different uses and properties have been attributed to this plant, mainly as a nutritional supplement and as a water purifier. Its antibacterial activity against different pathogens has been described in different in vitro settings. However the potential effect of this plant leaf as a hand washing product has never been studied. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of this product using an in vivo design with healthy volunteers. The hands of fifteen volunteers were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Moringa oleifera leaf powder was tested as a hand washing product and was compared with reference non-medicated liquid soap using a cross over design following an adaptation of the European Committee for Standardization protocol (EN 1499). In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of Moringa oleifera leaf powder was compared with an inert powder using the same protocol. Application of 2 and 3 g of dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder (mean log10-reduction: 2.44 ± 0.41 and 2.58 ± 0.34, respectively) was significantly less effective than the reference soap (3.00 ± 0.27 and 2.99 ± 0.26, respectively; p < 0.001). Application of the same amounts of Moringa oleifera (2 and 3 g) but using a wet preparation, was also significantly less effective than reference soap (p < 0.003 and p < 0.02, respectively). However there was no significant difference when using 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder in dried or wet preparation (mean log10-reduction: 2.70 ± 0.27 and 2.91 ± 0.11, respectively) compared with reference soap (2.97 ± 0.28). Application of calcium sulphate inert powder was significantly less effective than the 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder (p < 0.01). Four grams of Moringa oleifera powder in dried and wet application had the same effect as non-medicated soap when used for hand washing. Efficacious

  18. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand- washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera is a plant found in many tropical and subtropical countries. Many different uses and properties have been attributed to this plant, mainly as a nutritional supplement and as a water purifier. Its antibacterial activity against different pathogens has been described in different in vitro settings. However the potential effect of this plant leaf as a hand washing product has never been studied. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of this product using an in vivo design with healthy volunteers. Methods The hands of fifteen volunteers were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Moringa oleifera leaf powder was tested as a hand washing product and was compared with reference non-medicated liquid soap using a cross over design following an adaptation of the European Committee for Standardization protocol (EN 1499). In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of Moringa oleifera leaf powder was compared with an inert powder using the same protocol. Results Application of 2 and 3 g of dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder (mean log10-reduction: 2.44 ± 0.41 and 2.58 ± 0.34, respectively) was significantly less effective than the reference soap (3.00 ± 0.27 and 2.99 ± 0.26, respectively; p < 0.001). Application of the same amounts of Moringa oleifera (2 and 3 g) but using a wet preparation, was also significantly less effective than reference soap (p < 0.003 and p < 0.02, respectively). However there was no significant difference when using 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder in dried or wet preparation (mean log10-reduction: 2.70 ± 0.27 and 2.91 ± 0.11, respectively) compared with reference soap (2.97 ± 0.28). Application of calcium sulphate inert powder was significantly less effective than the 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder (p < 0.01). Conclusion Four grams of Moringa oleifera powder in dried and wet application had the same effect as non-medicated soap

  19. Formation of soap bubbles by gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Maolei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhiyuan; Han, Jifeng; Liu, Dong

    2017-12-01

    Soap bubbles can be easily generated by various methods, while their formation process is complicated and still worth studying. A model about the bubble formation process was proposed in the study by Salkin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 077801 (2016)] recently, and it was reported that the bubbles were formed when the gas blowing velocity was above one threshold. However, after a detailed study of these experiments, we found that the bubbles could be generated in two velocity ranges which corresponded to the laminar and turbulent gas jet, respectively, and the predicted threshold was only effective for turbulent gas flow. The study revealed that the bubble formation was greatly influenced by the aerodynamics of the gas jet blowing to the film, and these results will help to further understand the formation mechanism of the soap bubble as well as the interaction between the gas jet and the thin liquid film.

  20. Generating Soap Bubbles by Blowing on Soap Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Making soap bubbles by blowing air on a soap film is an enjoyable activity, yet a poorly understood phenomenon. Working either with circular bubble wands or long-lived vertical soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we investigate the formation of such bubbles when a gas is blown through a nozzle onto a film. We vary film size, nozzle radius, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are formed. The response is sensitive to containment, i.e., the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet, which is a function of the distance from the film to the nozzle. We rationalize the observed four different regimes by comparing the dynamic pressure exerted by the jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble. This simple model allows us to account for the interplay between hydrodynamic, physicochemical, and geometrical factors.

  1. Generating Soap Bubbles by Blowing on Soap Films.

    PubMed

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2016-02-19

    Making soap bubbles by blowing air on a soap film is an enjoyable activity, yet a poorly understood phenomenon. Working either with circular bubble wands or long-lived vertical soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we investigate the formation of such bubbles when a gas is blown through a nozzle onto a film. We vary film size, nozzle radius, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are formed. The response is sensitive to containment, i.e., the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet, which is a function of the distance from the film to the nozzle. We rationalize the observed four different regimes by comparing the dynamic pressure exerted by the jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble. This simple model allows us to account for the interplay between hydrodynamic, physicochemical, and geometrical factors.

  2. Method of refining cracked oil by using metallic soaps. [desulfurization of cracked oils

    SciTech Connect

    Masakichi, M.; Marunouchi, K.K.; Yoshimura, T.

    1937-04-13

    The method of refining cracked oil consists in dissolving oil-soluble heavy metallic soap of oleic acid in a volatile organic solvent which will disperse homogeneously in cracked oil; pouring the solution thus obtained slowly into cracked oil to effect dispersion naturally and homogeneously at room temperature in the cracked oil. This process serves to react the mercaptans in the cracked oil with the heavy metallic soap by a double decomposition reaction and to precipitate the mercaptans as insoluble metallic salts. The remaining liquid is distilled to separate it from the remaining solvent.

  3. Influence of Evaporation on Soap Film Rupture.

    PubMed

    Champougny, Lorène; Miguet, Jonas; Henaff, Robin; Restagno, Frédéric; Boulogne, François; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2018-03-13

    Although soap films are prone to evaporate due to their large surface to volume ratio, the effect of evaporation on macroscopic film features has often been disregarded in the literature. In this work, we experimentally investigate the influence of environmental humidity on soap film stability. An original experiment allows to measure both the maximum length of a film pulled at constant velocity and its thinning dynamics in a controlled atmosphere for various values of the relative humidity [Formula: see text]. At first order, the environmental humidity seems to have almost no impact on most of the film thinning dynamics. However, we find that the film length at rupture increases continuously with [Formula: see text]. To rationalize our observations, we propose that film bursting occurs when the thinning due to evaporation becomes comparable to the thinning due to liquid drainage. This rupture criterion turns out to be in reasonable agreement with an estimation of the evaporation rate in our experiment.

  4. Implementing AORN recommended practices for hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Marcia; Van Wicklin, Sharon A

    2012-04-01

    This article focuses on implementing the revised AORN "Recommended practices for hand hygiene in the perioperative setting." The content of the document has been expanded and reorganized from the previous iteration and now includes specific activity statements about water temperature, water and soap dispensing controls, the type of dispensers to use, paper towel dispenser requirements, placement of soap and rub dispensers, and regulatory requirements for products and recommendations for hand hygiene practices. A successful hand hygiene program allows end users to have input into the selection and evaluation of products and should include educating personnel about proper hand hygiene, product composition and safety, and how and when to use specific products. Measures for competency evaluation and compliance monitoring include observations, quizzes, skills labs, electronic monitoring systems, handheld device applications, and data collection forms. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface tension of flowing soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Aakash; Mandre, Shreyas; Kim, Ildoo

    2018-04-01

    The surface tension of flowing soap films is measured with respect to the film thickness and the concentration of soap solution. We perform this measurement by measuring the curvature of the nylon wires that bound the soap film channel and use the measured curvature to parametrize the relation between the surface tension and the tension of the wire. We find the surface tension of our soap films increases when the film is relatively thin or made of soap solution of low concentration, otherwise it approaches an asymptotic value 30 mN/m. A simple adsorption model with only two parameters describes our observations reasonably well. With our measurements, we are also able to measure Gibbs elasticity for our soap film.

  6. Hand hygiene--comparison of international recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wendt, C

    2001-08-01

    The value of hand hygiene for the prevention of cross-infection was first observed in the middle of the 19th century. Since then, which procedure is the most suitable for hand hygiene has been repeatedly discussed and several different guidelines and recommendations have been published. The aim of this review is to compare different recommendations for hand hygiene regarding technique and indication. Medline, the internet and a personal library were searched to obtain as many written recommendations as possible. In addition, a small questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 20 international colleagues. As a result, written recommendations from 10 countries could be compared. Recommended methods of hand hygiene include handwashing (washing hands with plain soap), hygienic handwash (washing hands with medicated soap) and hygienic hand-rub (use of antiseptic rubs). In most countries handwashing and hygienic handwash are the methods of choice and only in central European countries is hygienic hand-rub the preferred technique. Situations in which performance of hand hygiene is recommended are comparable. However, no single indication is recommended in all guidelines. Hand hygiene is most often recommended before performing invasive procedures and after microbial contamination. Guidelines should be clear and easy to follow for them to become standard of care. Thus, guidelines are needed that do not leave to the health care worker a decision as to whether hand hygiene is indicated.

  7. Effectiveness of Hand Sanitizers with and without Organic Acids for Removal of Rhinovirus from Hands

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Ronald B.; Fuls, Janice L.; Rodgers, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined. PMID:20047916

  8. Hand Hygiene and Tuberculosis Risk in Korea: An Ecological Association.

    PubMed

    Han, Mi Ah

    2018-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a basic but effective strategy against infectious disease. This study investigated an ecological association between hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) risk in Korea. Hand hygiene data were obtained from the 2015 Community Health Survey. Information on TB incidence and mortality in 2015 were obtained from the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System and death monitoring database, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, frequent hand washing rates after using the restroom (B = -0.78, P = .037), after returning from the outdoors (B = -0.28, P = .049), and with soap or hand sanitizer (B = -0.54, P = .018) were negatively associated with TB incidence. TB mortality were associated with frequent hand washing rates after returning from the outdoors (B = -0.05, P = .035), and with soap or hand sanitizer (B = -0.10, P = .010), respectively. Hand washing was associated with lower TB incidence and mortality at the community level. These results could contribute to develop community-based health promotion strategies.

  9. Hard Water and Soft Soap: Dependence of Soap Performance on Water Hardness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osorio, Viktoria K. L.; de Oliveira, Wanda; El Seoud, Omar A.; Cotton, Wyatt; Easdon, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    The demonstration of the performance of soap in different aqueous solutions, which is due to water hardness and soap formulation, is described. The demonstrations use safe, inexpensive reagents and simple glassware and equipment, introduce important everyday topics, stimulates the students to consider the wider consequences of water hardness and…

  10. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  11. Handwashing and antiseptic-containing soaps in hospital

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, J. D.; Wynne, C. D.; Enwright, L.; Williams, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Two aspects of handwashing in hospital were considered. A study was carried out to examine the contamination of bar soap and containers, and the use of antiseptic soaps in reducing the resident flora of the skin. Swabs were collected from soap dishes on six wards and from a bacteriology laboratory on four consecutive days. The unmedicated bar soap was replaced by bar soap containing 2·5% povidone-iodine, and further swabs were collected over a period of seven days. Ninety-two isolates from 48 samples were obtained when unmedicated bar soap was used, and nine isolates from 42 samples when povidone-iodine (Betadine) soap was substituted. The number of organisms recovered when povidone-iodine soap was used was much reduced, and Pseudomonas spp were recovered in low numbers on only one occasion. Six laboratory workers took part in a study to compare bar soap with other agents—povidone-iodine soap, povidone-iodine surgical scrub, povidone-iodine alcoholic solution, chlorhexidine surgical scrub, and alcoholic chlorhexidine. Samples were collected after standard washes and after surgical gloves had been worn for 90 minutes. The effect of multiple washes was assessed by samples collected after six washes with the agent under study (three per day) followed by 90 minutes wearing surgical gloves. The average percentage reduction in normal flora obtained indicated that alcoholic chlorhexidine was superior to the other agents. PMID:500840

  12. Modeling drop impacts on inclined flowing soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Saikat; Yawar, Ali; Concha, Andres; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    Small drops impinging on soap films flowing at an angle primarily exhibit three fundamental regimes of post-impact dynamics: (a) the drop bounces off the film surface, (b) it coalesces with the downstream flow, and (c) it pierces through the film. During impact, the drop deforms along with a simultaneous, almost elastic deformation of the film transverse to the stream direction. Hence, the governing dynamics for this interaction present the rare opportunity to explore the in-tandem effects of elasticity and hydrodynamics alike. In this talk, we outline the analytical framework to study the drop impact dynamics. The model assumes a deformable drop and a deformable three-dimensional soap film and invokes a parametric study to qualify the three mentioned impact types. The physical parameters include the impact angle, drop impact speed, and the diameters of the drop prior to and during impact when it deforms and spreads out. Our model system offers a path towards optimization of interactions between a spray and a flowing liquid.

  13. Soap-film flow induced by electric fields in asymmetric frames.

    PubMed

    Mollaei, S; Nasiri, M; Soltanmohammadi, N; Shirsavar, R; Ramos, A; Amjadi, A

    2018-04-01

    Net fluid flow of soap films induced by (ac or dc) electric fields in asymmetric frames is presented. Previous experiments of controllable soap film flow required the simultaneous use of an electrical current passing through the film and an external electric field or the use of nonuniform ac electric fields. Here a single voltage difference generates both the electrical current going through the film and the electric field that actuates on the charge induced on the film. The film is set into global motion due to the broken symmetry that appears by the use of asymmetric frames. If symmetric frames are used, the film flow is not steady but time dependent and irregular. Finally, we study numerically these film flows by employing the model of charge induction in ohmic liquids.

  14. Soap-film flow induced by electric fields in asymmetric frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollaei, S.; Nasiri, M.; Soltanmohammadi, N.; Shirsavar, R.; Ramos, A.; Amjadi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Net fluid flow of soap films induced by (ac or dc) electric fields in asymmetric frames is presented. Previous experiments of controllable soap film flow required the simultaneous use of an electrical current passing through the film and an external electric field or the use of nonuniform ac electric fields. Here a single voltage difference generates both the electrical current going through the film and the electric field that actuates on the charge induced on the film. The film is set into global motion due to the broken symmetry that appears by the use of asymmetric frames. If symmetric frames are used, the film flow is not steady but time dependent and irregular. Finally, we study numerically these film flows by employing the model of charge induction in ohmic liquids.

  15. Making Usable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Suzanne T.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to make opaque and transparent soap, using cold and semi boiled processes respectively, and surfactant tests that measure the pH of the prepared soap, is introduced. The experiment shows an easy method to make soap by giving a choice to select oils and scents for the soap, which can be used at home.

  16. The formation of soap bubbles created by blowing on soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Using either circular bubble wands or long-lasting vertically falling soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we study the formation of soap bubbles created when air is blown through a nozzle onto a soap film. We vary nozzle radius, film size, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are generated. The response is sensitive to confinement, that is, the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet which is a function of the distance from the nozzle to the film. We observe four different regimes that we rationalize by comparing the dynamic pressure of a jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble.

  17. TV watching, soap opera and happiness.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Argyle, M

    1993-09-01

    One hundred and fourteen subjects reported the amount of time they spent watching television in general, and soap opera in particular. They also completed scales measuring happiness and other personality variables, such as extraversion and cooperativeness. In the multiple regression analysis, having controlled for the demographic variables, watching TV was related to unhappiness, whereas watching soap opera was related to happiness. Discriminant analysis showed that females, higher happiness and extraversion distinguished regular soap watchers (who nevertheless watched little TV in general) from irregular soap watchers (who nevertheless watched a lot of TV in general).

  18. Mapping of the Marangoni effect in soap films using Young's double-slit experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    We report on the thickness variation measurement of a soap film due to a local perturbation, using Young's double-slit experiment configuration. We map a laser-heated deformation of a vertical free-standing draining thin soap film using the differential change of optical path in the interferometer. The experiment has a resolution of about 0.1 nm and enables to follow the liquid flow dynamics. We evidence a bottleneck formation in the heated region of the film that perturbs the usual flow. Such an experimental set-up could then be adapted to measure other tiny variations in fluctuating hydrodynamics such as capillary waves for example.

  19. Science and Art--Rotating and Vibrating Soap Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramme, Goran

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities concerning interference phenomena derived from illuminated rotating soap films. Suggests reflecting incident light off of the soap film onto a projection screen. Discusses several possible experiments, how to make soap solutions, and vibrating soap films. (MVL)

  20. Soap Operas and Telenovelas: An Intercultural Critique of Soap Operas as Feminine Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Elizabeth

    This paper questions some of the assumptions that permeate the current literature about soap operas and television, examining particularly the model according to which soap operas are the expression of an "essential" and universal feminine nature. The paper suggests the pertinence of a crosscultural approach to the study of melodrama as…

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial of Antiseptic Hand Hygiene Methods in an Outpatient Surgery Clinic.

    PubMed

    Therattil, Paul J; Yueh, Janet H; Kordahi, Anthony M; Cherla, Deepa V; Lee, Edward S; Granick, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Outpatient wound care plays an integral part in any plastic surgery practice. However, compliance with hand hygiene measures has shown to be low, due to skin irritation and lack of time. The objective of this trial was to determine whether single-use, long-acting antiseptics can be as effective as standard multiple-use hand hygiene methods in an outpatient surgical setting. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed in the authors' outpatient plastic surgery clinic at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ to compare the efficacy of an ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer (Avagard D Instant Hand Aniseptic, 3M Health Care, St. Paul, MN), a benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer (Soft & Shield, Bioderm Technologies, Inc, Trenton, NJ, distributed by NAPP Technologies, Hackensack, NJ ), and soap and- water handwashing. Subjects included clinic personnel, who were followed throughout the course of a 3-hour clinic session with hourly hand bacterial counts taken. During the course of the trial, 95 subjects completed the clinic session utilizing 1 of the hand hygiene methods (36 ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer, 38 benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer, and 21 soap-and-water handwashing). There was no difference between hand bacterial counts using the different methods at 4 hourly time points (P greater than 0.05). Hand bacterial counts increased significantly over the 3-hour clinic session with the ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer (9.24 to 21.90 CFU, P less than 0.05), benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer (6.69 to 21.59 CFU, P less than 0.05), and soap-and-water handwashing (8.43 to 22.75 CFU, P less than 0.05). There does not appear to be any difference in efficacy between single-use, long-acting sanitizer, and standard multiple-use hand hygiene methods. Hand bacterial counts increased significantly over the course of the 3-hour clinic session regardless of the hand hygiene measure used. Hand condition of subjects was improved with the ethyl alcohol

  2. Effects of soap and detergents on skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration and fat content in infants.

    PubMed

    Gfatter, R; Hackl, P; Braun, F

    1997-01-01

    In adults the influence of cleansing preparations on the pH, fat content and hydration of the skin is well documented. Studies in newborn and small infants have not been reported. Our study aimed at examining whether similar effects can be ascertained in infants. Infants without skin disease, aged 2 weeks to 16 months, entered an open, controlled and randomized study. Ten infants each had skin washed with tap water (control group), liquid detergent (pH 5.5), compact detergent (pH 5.5) or alkaline soap (pH 9.5). The pH, fat content and hydration were measured before and 10 min after cleansing. Findings were statistically evaluated by parametric covariance analysis. The skin pH increased from an average of 6.60 after cleansing in all groups. The smallest increase (+0.19) was observed in the control group, the largest (+0.45) after washing with alkaline soap. After treatment with liquid or compact detergent, the increase of the pH was only 0.09 higher than for the control group. In comparison to the compact and liquid detergents, the alkaline soap group had a significantly higher increase in pH. The fat content (mean starting value: 4.34 micrograms/cm2) decreased after washing in all groups; the smallest effect was observed in the control group (decrease of 0.93 micrograms/cm2), the highest for the alkaline soap group (decrease of 4.81 micrograms/cm2). In comparison to the compact and liquid detergents, the alkaline soap group had a higher decrease in fat content. This difference was significant for compact detergents. No statistically significant differences were observed for hydration before versus after washing. Each cleansing agent, even normal tap water, influences the skin surface. The increase of the skin pH irritates the physiological protective 'acid mantle', changes the composition of the cutaneous bacterial flora and the activity of enzymes in the upper epidermis, which have an acid pH optimum. The dissolution of fat from the skin surface may influence the

  3. Alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer reduces elementary school illness absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Dyer, D L; Shinder, A; Shinder, F

    2000-10-01

    BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: A substantial percentage of school absenteeism among children is related to transmissible infection. Rates of transmission can be reduced by hand washing with soap and water, but such washing occurs infrequently. This study tested whether an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer (CleanHands) could reduce illness absenteeism in school-age children. A 10-week, open-label, crossover study was performed on 420 elementary school-age children (ages 5-12). Students were given a brief orientation immediately prior to the start of the study on the relationship of germs, illness, and hand washing. Each student in the treatment group then received the test product in individual bottles, with instructions to apply one to two sprays to the hands after coming into the classroom, before eating, and after using the restroom, in addition to their normal hand washing with soap and water. The control group was instructed to continue hand washing as normal with non-medicated soap. After 4 weeks of treatment and a 2-week wash-out period, the control and experimental groups were reversed. Data gathered on absenteeism were classified as gastrointestinal or respiratory related and normalized for nonillness-related absenteeism and school holidays. Compared to the hand washing-only control group, students using CleanHands were found to have 41.9% fewer illness-related absence days, representing a 28.9% and a 49.7% drop in gastrointestinal- and respiratory-related illnesses, respectively. Likewise, absence incidence decreased by 31.7%, consisting of a 44.2% and 50.2% decrease in incidence of gastrointestinal- and respiratory-related illnesses, respectively. No adverse events were reported during the study. Daily use of the instant hand sanitizer was associated with significantly lower rates of illness-related absenteeism.

  4. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-09-03

    provision of soap) at child day-care facilities or schools prevents around one-third of diarrhoea episodes in high income countries (rate ratio 0.70; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.85; nine trials, 4664 participants, high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in LMICs but only two trials from urban Egypt and Kenya have evaluated this (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.99; two trials, 45,380 participants, low quality evidence). Only three trials reported measures of behaviour change and the methods of data collection were susceptible to bias. In one trial from the USA hand washing behaviour was reported to improve; and in the trial from Kenya that provided free soap, hand washing did not increase, but soap use did (data not pooled; three trials, 1845 participants, low quality evidence).Hand washing promotion among communities in LMICs probably prevents around one-quarter of diarrhoea episodes (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83; eight trials, 14,726 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, six of these eight trials were from Asian settings, with only single trials from South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In six trials, soap was provided free alongside hand washing education, and the overall average effect size was larger than in the two trials which did not provide soap (soap provided: rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78; six trials, 11,422 participants; education only: rate ratio: 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; two trials, 3304 participants). There was increased hand washing at major prompts (before eating/cooking, after visiting the toilet or cleaning the baby's bottom), and increased compliance to hand hygiene procedure (behavioural outcome) in the intervention groups than the control in community trials (data not pooled: three trials, 3490 participants, high quality evidence).Hand washing promotion for the one trial conducted in a hospital among high-risk population showed significant reduction in mean episodes of diarrhoea (1.68 fewer) in the intervention

  5. Measurement of contact-line dissipation in a nanometer-thin soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuo; Lee, Chun Huen; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2015-01-01

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient ξc of two fluctuating contact lines formed on a fiber surface when a long glass fiber intersects the two water-air interfaces of a thin soap film. The glass fiber of diameter d in the range of 0.4-4 μ m and length 100-300 μ m is glued onto the front end of a rectangular cantilever used for atomic force microscopy. As a sensitive mechanical resonator, the hanging fiber probe can accurately measure a minute change of its viscous damping caused by the soap film. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the hanging fiber probe with varying viscosity η of the soap film and different surface treatments of the glass fiber, we confirm that the contact line dissipation obeys a universal scaling law, ξc=α π d η , where the coefficient α =1.1 ±0.3 is insensitive to the change of liquid-solid contact angle. The experimental result is in good agreement with the numerical result based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  6. Measurement of contact-line dissipation in a nanometer-thin soap film.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuo; Lee, Chun Huen; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2015-01-01

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient ξ(c) of two fluctuating contact lines formed on a fiber surface when a long glass fiber intersects the two water-air interfaces of a thin soap film. The glass fiber of diameter d in the range of 0.4-4 μm and length 100-300 μm is glued onto the front end of a rectangular cantilever used for atomic force microscopy. As a sensitive mechanical resonator, the hanging fiber probe can accurately measure a minute change of its viscous damping caused by the soap film. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the hanging fiber probe with varying viscosity η of the soap film and different surface treatments of the glass fiber, we confirm that the contact line dissipation obeys a universal scaling law, ξ(c)=απdη, where the coefficient α=1.1±0.3 is insensitive to the change of liquid-solid contact angle. The experimental result is in good agreement with the numerical result based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  7. Medicinal and cosmetics soap production from Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Shahinuzzaman, M; Yaakob, Zahira; Moniruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Measuring Surface Tension of a Flowing Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Aakash; Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that surface tension is sensitive to the presence of surfactants and many conventional methods exist to measure it. These techniques measure surface tension either by intruding into the system or by changing its geometry. Use of conventional methods in the case of a flowing soap film is not feasible because intruding the soap film changes surface tension due to Marangoni effect. We present a technique in which we measure the surface tension in situ of a flowing soap film without intruding into the film. A flowing soap film is created by letting soap solution drip between two wires. The interaction of the soap film with the wires causes the wires to deflect which can be measured. Surface tension is calculated using a relation between curvature of the wires and the surface tension. Our measurements indicate that the surface tension of the flowing soap film for our setup is around 0.05 N/m. The nature of this technique makes it favorable for measuring surface tension of flowing soap films whose properties change on intrusion.

  9. The antimicrobial assessment of some Nigerian herbal soap.

    PubMed

    Igbeneghu, O A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty samples of herbal soaps were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeast of significance in skin infections with the aim to provide some justification for the continued use of the soaps in the management of superficial skin infections. All the soaps were found to possess antimicrobial activity in a concentration and organism dependent manner. The soaps were more active against the gram positive organisms than the Gram negative organisms while none of the soaps had activity against the tested yeasts. Only 35% of the soaps were appropriately packaged with adequate directions for use and storage. The study showed that the tested soaps possessed antimicrobial properties and they can contribute to the treatment and management of skin infections caused by bacteria if well prepared with the appropriate plant materials to target specific causative organisms and packaged with appropriate directions for use and storage.

  10. Sex on the Soap Operas: Afternoon Delight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examines the portrayal of intimate sexual behavior on soap operas and concludes that soap operas have more sexual content than do prime-time programs, but the types of intimacies differ. Notes that soap operas are potentially a major force in the transmission of values and sexual information to youthful viewers. (PD)

  11. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This guide was prepared to help those involved in the manufacturing of soap, detergent, and related products to identify potential process improvements that will reduce production costs and conserve resources. The guide offers a series of generic process descriptions and checklists of improvement opportunities specific to each of five major processes used in the industry: Soap production, surfactant production, solid cake product formulation, liquid product formulation, and granulated powdered product formulation. The checklists identify thermal, electrical, environmental, water use, and low- or no-cost measures that can be implemented, as well as retrofit technology options. A variety of new technologies thatmore » may exhibit future potential are also described. Appendices include a glossary, background information on the Ontario soap/detergent industry, and description of the four major categories of ingredients used in the industry.« less

  12. Mercury and hydroquinone content of skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps, and the potential risks to the health of Ghanaian women.

    PubMed

    Agorku, Eric Selorm; Kwaansa-Ansah, Edward Ebow; Voegborlo, Ray Bright; Amegbletor, Pamela; Opoku, Francis

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sixty-two (62) skin-lightening creams and soaps were analysed for total mercury and hydroquinone levels. Total mercury was determined by the Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry using an automatic mercury analyser and hydroquinone by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The mean concentration of total mercury in skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps were 0.098 ± 0.082 and 0.152 ± 0.126 μg/g, respectively. The mean concentration of hydroquinone was 0.243 ± 0.385 and 0.035 ± 0.021 % in skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps, respectively. All the creams and soaps analysed had mercury and hydroquinone levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's acceptable limit of 1 μg/g and 2 %, respectively. The low levels of mercury and hydroquinone in the creams and soaps analysed in this study therefore do not pose any potential risk to consumers who are mostly women in Ghana.

  13. Microbiological Evaluation of the Efficacy of Soapy Water to Clean Hands: A Randomized, Non-Inferiority Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Nuhu; Pickering, Amy J.; Ram, Pavani K.; Unicomb, Leanne; Najnin, Nusrat; Homaira, Nusrat; Ashraf, Sania; Abedin, Jaynal; Islam, M. Sirajul; Luby, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority field trial in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh among mothers to compare microbial efficacy of soapy water (30 g powdered detergent in 1.5 L water) with bar soap and water alone. Fieldworkers collected hand rinse samples before and after the following washing regimens: scrubbing with soapy water for 15 and 30 seconds; scrubbing with bar soap for 15 and 30 seconds; and scrubbing with water alone for 15 seconds. Soapy water and bar soap removed thermotolerant coliforms similarly after washing for 15 seconds (mean log10 reduction = 0.7 colony-forming units [CFU], P < 0.001 for soapy water; mean log10 reduction = 0.6 CFU, P = 0.001 for bar soap). Increasing scrubbing time to 30 seconds did not improve removal (P > 0.05). Scrubbing hands with water alone also reduced thermotolerant coliforms (mean log10 reduction = 0.3 CFU, P = 0.046) but was less efficacious than scrubbing hands with soapy water. Soapy water is an inexpensive and microbiologically effective cleansing agent to improve handwashing among households with vulnerable children. PMID:24914003

  14. The Utilization of VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil) in Manufacturing of Solid Soap with Red Betel Leaf Extract Addition (Paper Crotum Ruiz &Pav)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, M.

    2018-04-01

    Soap is a compound of sodium or potassium with fatty acids from vegetable oils or solid animal fats, soft or liquid, and foamy. Considering the potential of VCO as the raw material for making soap and supported by the benefits of red betel leaves, then this research is done by making solid bath soap from VCO which is supplemented with Red betel leaf extract. The purpose of this research is to make solid soap from VCO with an extract of red betel leaf based on SNINo.06-3532199. Analyzing VCO oil, which is used for the manufacture of soap, consists of analysis of saponification figures, Iodine number and peroxide number. Has made solid soap from VCO oil with Red betel leaf extract. From the five quality standards established under SNI 06-3532-1994 only two quality standards that can be done that is water quality and the amount of acidity. The percent of water quality obtained is 10% meanwhile the amount of acidity obtained is 9,32%. According to the data, it can be concluded that the solid soap made was not fulfill SNI 06-3532-1994.

  15. Transmission of Enterobius vermicularis eggs through hands of school children in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Imogen; Potgieter, Natasha; Mathebula, Sammy; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2015-10-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a helminth that is difficult to control, is found globally, especially in crowded conditions, and can be transmitted from person to person by contaminated hands. A newly developed method for the quantification of helminth eggs on hands was tested among schoolchildren in a rural South African region to look at the role hands play in helminth infection, and to determine the risk factors for hand contamination. The study found 16.6% of participants' hands positive for helminth eggs, with E. vermicularis most commonly identified. Egg concentrations on hands ranged from 0 to 57 eggs/2 hands. Gender, toilet type used at home, and not reporting to wash hands with soap before eating were all associated with the presence of eggs on hands. The study highlights the need to improve sanitation facilities, and promote handwashing with soap in schools to prevent transmission of E. vermicularis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the gap between hand washing knowledge and practices in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rabbi, Sifat E; Dey, Nepal C

    2013-01-30

    Hand washing is considered as one of the most effective hygiene promotion activities for public health in developing countries. This study compared hand washing knowledge and practices in BRAC's water; sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme areas over time. This study is a cross-sectional comparative study between baseline (2006), midline (2009) and end-line (2011) surveys in 50 sub-districts from the first phase of the programme. Thirty thousand households from 50 sub-districts were selected in two steps: i) 30 villages were selected from each sub-district by cluster sampling, and ii) 20 households were chosen systematically from each village. The matched households were considered (26,404 in each survey) for analysis. Data were collected from households through face-to-face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Respondents were the adult female members of the same households, who had knowledge of day-to-day household activities related to water, sanitation and hygiene. A gap between perception and practice of proper hand washing practices with soap was identified in the study areas. Hand washing practice with soap before eating was much lower than after defecation. In baseline data, 8% reported to wash their hands with soap which significantly increased to 22% in end line. Hand washing knowledge and practices before cooking food, before serving food and while handling babies is considerably limited than other critical times. A multivariate analysis shows that socio-economic factors including education of household head and respondent, water availability and access to media have strong positive association with hand washing with soap. Gap between knowledge and practice still persists in hand washing practices. Long term and extensive initiatives can aware people about the effectiveness of hand washing.

  17. Spectroscopic and Thermal Behavior of Chromium Soaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrotra, K. N.; Jain, Mamta

    1996-02-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of chromium soaps (myristate and stearate) were investigated in the solid state (thermal, X-ray, and IR measurements) and in solutions (spectrophotometric measurements). The thermal measurements showed that the decomposition of chromium soaps is a two-step process. The soap decomposed into chromium oxycarboxylate, ketone, and carbon dioxide in the first step and the intermediate oxycarboxylate underwent further decomposition to chromium trioxide in the second step. The results showed that the second step is kinetically of zero order and the values of energy of activation for the first and second steps lie in the ranges 6-7 and 17-18 kcal mol-1, respectively. The X-ray diffraction results showed that these soaps possess double-layer structure with molecular axes slightly inclined to the basal plane. The infrared results revealed that the fatty acids exist with dimeric structure through hydrogen bonding between two molecules of fatty acids whereas the metal-to-oxygen bonds in chromium soaps are not purely ionic but possess considerable covalent character. The results of spectrophotometric measurements also confirmed the somewhat covalent nature of chromium soaps in solutions in dichloromethane.

  18. Communication networks, soap films and vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of constructing the least-cost network of connections between arbitrarily placed points is one that is common and which can be very important financially. The network may consist of motorways between towns, a grid of electric power lines, buried gas or oil pipe lines or telephone cables. Soap films trapped between parallel planes with vertical pins between them provide a 'shortest path' network and Isenberg (1975) has suggested that soap films of this sort be used to model communication networks. However soap films are unable to simulate the different costs of laying, say, a three-lane motorway instead of a two-lane one or of using a larger pipeline to take the flow from two smaller ones. Soap films, however, have considerable intrinsic interest. In the article the emphasis is on the use of soap films and communication networks as a practical means of illustrating the importance of vector and matrix methods in geometry. The power of vector methods is illustrated by the fact that given any soap film network the total length of the film can be written down by inspection if the vector positions of the pins are known. It is also possible to predict the boundaries at which 'catastrophes' occur and to decide which network has the least total length. In the field of communication networks a method is given of designing the minimum cost network linking, say, a number of oilwells, which produce at different rates to an outlet terminal.

  19. THE GERMICIDAL AND HEMOLYTIC ACTION OF α-BROM SOAPS

    PubMed Central

    Eggerth, Arnold H.

    1929-01-01

    1. The soaps of the α-brom fatty acids are usually more germicidal than the unsubstituted soaps. Only when B. typhosus was the test organism was there no increase in germicidal action. 2. For any test organism, germicidal action of the brominated soaps increases rapidly with increasing molecular weight up to a certain point, then diminishes. This is likewise true of the hemolytic titer. The point of maximal germicidal action varies with the different species of tests organisms. In the series studied, brominated soaps of 12 and 14 carbon atoms were most germicidal for the Gram-negative organisms, while soaps of 16 and 18 carbon atoms were most germicidal for Gram-positive organisms. 3. The brominated soaps are, in general, more active in acid that in neutral or alkaline reactions. The reasons for this have been discussed in a previous paper, in which a similar phenomenon with unsubstituted soaps was observed. 4. For certain organisms, the brominated soaps are among the most rapid and potent germicides known. PMID:19869537

  20. Soap Gets in Your Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Alistair; Bloom, Philip

    1990-01-01

    We present a previously unreported series of five cases of acute angle closure glaucoma associated with watching the Australia soap opera "Neighbours". Two cases were bilateral and associated with watching two episodes of "Neighbours" on the same day. The pathogenesis, and possible role of watching soap operas in the causation of primary angle closure glaucoma is discussed. PMID:1369543

  1. Stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps: role of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, glycerol and water are essential ingredients in the production of stable cream soaps. In this study, the behavior of these components in solution was investigated to elucidate the stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps. It was determined that the cream soaps were a dispersion of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 molar ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the lamellar gel phase, which has confirmed from the phase behavior diagrams and small angle X-ray scattering data. Glycerol was crucial ingredient in the formation of the lamellar gel phase. The cleansing process of the cream soaps was also evaluated using the same diagrams. The structure of the continuous phase in cream soaps changed from lamellar gel to a micellar aqueous solution upon the addition of water. This structural change during the washing process is important in producing the foaming activity of acid soaps to wash away dirt or excess fats from the skin surface.

  2. Experimental pretesting of hand-washing interventions in a natural setting.

    PubMed

    Judah, Gaby; Aunger, Robert; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Michie, Susan; Granger, Stewart; Curtis, Val

    2009-10-01

    We pretested interventions derived from different domains of behavior change theory to determine their effectiveness at increasing hand washing with soap in a natural setting. We installed wireless devices in highway service station restrooms to record entry and soap use. Two text-only messages for each of 7 psychological domains were compared for their effect on soap-use rates. We collected data on nearly 200 000 restroom uses. The knowledge activation domain was most effective for women, with a relative increase in soap use of 9.4% compared with the control condition (P = .001). For men, disgust was the most effective, increasing soap use by 9.8% (P = .001). Disgust was not significantly better than the control condition for women, nor was knowledge activation for men. Messages based on social norms and social status were effective for both genders. Our data show that unobtrusive observation of behavior in a natural setting can help identify the most effective interventions for changing behaviors of public health importance. The gender differences we found suggest that public health interventions should target men and women differently.

  3. Soaps and Detergents--A 'Social' Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how social aspects of science can be incorporated into teaching soap and detergents in British secondary chemistry and general science courses. Historical background to the use and production of soap and the development of detergents are also presented. (HM)

  4. Drag reduction in hydrocarbon-aluminum soap polymer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.; Lee, K.C.

    1972-01-01

    While the drag-reducing capability of solutions of aluminum soap in hydrocarbons in turbulent flow has been known for over 20 yr, investigations of the effects of concentration, soap type, and aging on drag reduction have only recently begun. The effects of aging, shear stress, and the presence of peptizers on drag reduction of hydrocarbon dispersions of aluminum soaps at relatively low concentrations were studied. These systems showed an apparent upper critical shear stress above which drag reduction was gradually lost. Degradation of the soap micelle structure occurred relatively rapidly above this point and recovery was slow. The effect of peptizersmore » is complex. In some situations, it enhanced and in others reduced the drag-reducing ability of the soap polymers. (13 refs.)« less

  5. Giant optical activity of sugar in thin soap films.

    PubMed

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier; Ghoufi, Aziz; Moréac, Alain; Casanova, Federico; Ding, Minxia; Houizot, Patrick

    2013-10-15

    We report on enhanced experimental optical activity measurements of thin soap films in the presence of sugar. This unusual optical activity is linked to the intramolecular chiral conformation of the glucose molecules at the air/liquid interface. Choosing sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a model surfactant and glucose as model sugar, favorable interactions between the anionic group -OSO3(-)- and the glucose molecules are highlighted. This induces an interfacial anchoring of glucose molecules leading to a perturbing influence of the asymmetric chiral environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Soaps and detergents: understanding their composition and effect.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, R S; Froelich, C W

    1998-03-01

    Soaps have been used for thousands of years as part of religious ceremonies and daily life. Derived from fatty acids or triglycerides (fats or oils) into their alkali derivatives through a process called saponification, soaps are important for healthcare professionals in preventing the spread of disease. Partly due to their alkaline nature, soaps are limited by their irritancy to the skin and their tendency to form insoluble and inactive salts when combined with either hard water or sea water. Therefore, soap alternatives or synthetic detergents have been developed. Detergents are classified into four groups: anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic. These four groups are based on the hydrophilic qualities and surfactants they possess. Each group has characteristics that pertain to its main uses, irritancy, and toxicity. Understanding soaps and detergents may assist clinicians in making intelligent choices when using these agents on their patients as either skin cleansers or wound cleansers. Understanding the characteristics of soaps and detergents is especially important when dealing with at-risk patients such as the elderly.

  7. Soap Operas and Sexual Activity: A Decade Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; Busselle, Rick W.

    1996-01-01

    Finds that soap operas analyzed in 1994 contain more frequent sexual incidence on an hourly average, both within the same soaps analyzed a decade earlier and even more so on two additional very popular soaps. Shows that the more frequent sex centers on physical intercourse, primarily among partners not married to anyone; and sexual activity is…

  8. Exploring the potential of antimicrobial hand hygiene products in reducing the infectious burden in low-income countries: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    de Witt Huberts, Jessie; Greenland, Katie; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Curtis, Val

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this review was to understand whether adding antimicrobial agents to hand hygiene products could increase the health benefits of handwashing with plain soap (HWWS) in low-income settings. A review of experimental studies comparing the effects of HWWS with antimicrobial soap and waterless hand sanitizer on health and hand contamination in naturalistic conditions was conducted. In addition, an analysis was completed of the evidence from laboratory studies examining the factors that may affect the impact of antimicrobial soap, taking into account the conditions in low-income settings. The review found no evidence for a superior effect of antimicrobial products compared with HWWS on disease incidence and limited evidence for an effect on hand contamination under naturalistic conditions. An analysis of the effectiveness of antimicrobial soap in laboratory settings suggested that it was only more effective than HWWS when handwashing frequency, duration, and product concentrations were above levels that could be expected in low-income settings. The limited available evidence suggests that under naturalistic conditions, antimicrobial products are no more effective than HWWS in removing pathogens from hands. Without significant improvement in efficacy, antimicrobial products are unlikely to produce greater health gains than HWWS in low-income settings. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New test method for the evaluation of the preservation efficacy of soaps at very alkaline pH made by saponification.

    PubMed

    Témoin-Fardini, S; Servant, J; Sellam, S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a test method to evaluate the preservation efficacy for a specific product, a very high-alkaline liquid soap (pH around 10) made by a saponification process. Several manufacturers have experienced contamination issues with these high-pH soaps despite passing a classic preservative efficacy challenge test or even a multi-inoculation challenge test. Bacteria were isolated from contaminated soaps and were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. High-alkaline-pH unpreserved soaps were tested using the Thor Personal Care internal multichallenge test method (TM206) with classical microorganisms and then with the bacterial strains isolated from various contaminated soaps (TM768). Preservatives were added to these soaps and assessed for their efficacy using the newly developed test. Four different species of bacteria (Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, Dermacoccus sp., Halomonas sp. and Roseomonas sp.) were identified by sequencing among the contaminants of the various soaps tested. Among these, only one bacterial species, Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, appeared to be responsible for the specific contamination of these high-alkaline soaps. Thus, one specific wild-type strain of Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, named as strain 768, was used in a new multi-inoculation test (TM768). Unlike the single inoculation challenge test, the multi-inoculation test using the Nesterenkonia strain 768 was able to predict the sensitivity of a product towards this bacterium. Among the 27 different preservatives tested, 10 were able to protect the formula against contamination with this bacterium. This study enabled the development of a test method to evaluate the efficacy of preservation using a specific bacterium, Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, responsible for the contamination of very alkaline soaps made by saponification and identify an appropriate preservative system. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Hand-portable liquid chromatographic instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sonika; Tolley, Luke T; Tolley, H Dennis; Plistil, Alex; Stearns, Stanley D; Lee, Milton L

    2015-11-20

    Over the last four decades, liquid chromatography (LC) has experienced an evolution to smaller columns and particles, new stationary phases and low flow rate instrumentation. However, the development of person-portable LC has not followed, mainly due to difficulties encountered in miniaturizing pumps and detectors, and in reducing solvent consumption. The recent introduction of small, non-splitting pumping systems and UV-absorption detectors for use with capillary columns has finally provided miniaturized instrumentation suitable for high-performance hand-portable LC. Fully integrated microfabricated LC still remains a significant challenge. Ion chromatography (IC) has been successfully miniaturized and applied for field analysis; however, applications are mostly limited to inorganic and small organic ions. This review covers advancements that make possible more rapid expansion of portable forms of LC and IC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Profiling the Adolescent Soap Opera Viewer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Alison; And Others

    Observing that plot and character changes in the daytime television serials has increased the teen and preteen share of soap opera audiences, a study compared demographic, personal experience, and attitudinal variables among adolescent soap opera fans, occasional viewers, and nonviewers. Data were collected from 230 students in the classrooms of…

  12. Influence of Soap Characteristics and Food Service Facility Type on the Degree of Bacterial Contamination of Open, Refillable Bulk Soaps.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Donald W; Jensen, Dane; Gerba, Charles P; Shumaker, David; Arbogast, James W

    2018-02-01

    Concern has been raised regarding the public health risks from refillable bulk-soap dispensers because they provide an environment for potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow. This study surveyed the microbial quality of open refillable bulk soap in four different food establishment types in three states. Two hundred ninety-six samples of bulk soap were collected from food service establishments in Arizona, New Jersey, and Ohio. Samples were tested for total heterotrophic viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. Bacteria were screened for antibiotic resistance. The pH, solids content, and water activity of all soap samples were measured. Samples were assayed for the presence of the common antibacterial agents triclosan and parachlorometaxylenol. More than 85% of the soap samples tested contained no detectable microorganisms, but when a sample contained any detectable microorganisms, it was most likely contaminated at a very high level (∼7 log CFU/mL). Microorganisms detected in contaminated soap included Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia liquefaciens, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter gergoviae, Serratia odorifera, and Enterobacter cloacae. Twenty-three samples contained antibiotic-resistant organisms, some of which were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Every sample containing less than 4% solids had some detectable level of bacteria, whereas no samples with greater than 14% solids had detectable bacteria. This finding suggests the use of dilution and/or low-cost formulations as a cause of bacterial growth. There was a statistically significant difference ( P = 0.0035) between the fraction of bacteria-positive samples with no detected antimicrobial agent (17%) and those containing an antimicrobial agent (7%). Fast food operations and grocery stores were more likely to have detectable bacteria in bulk-soap samples compared with convenience stores ( P < 0.05). Our findings underscore the risk to public health from use of refillable

  13. Social uses of commercial soap operas: a conversation with Miguel Sabido.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A; Obregon, R

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an interview with Miguel Sabido, a writer-producer-director of theater and soap operas in Mexico concerning the social uses of commercial soap operas. According to Sabido, television soap operas can play multiple roles in educating the public: 1) melodramatic soap operas represent a mediation between good and bad; 2) soap operas allow people to gossip on different characters, their dilemmas, and create a climate for social change, especially if it centers on key social issues; and 3) soap operas provide role models to emulate. Sabido stressed the importance of a theory-based method for producing drama and mentioned how theoreticians Bentley, Bandura, Maclean, and Jung influenced his writing and production of soap operas. According to Sabido, the social uses of commercial television are possible with socially responsible soap operas.

  14. Drainage Behavior in Soap Films Above and Below the CMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, S.; Adelizzi, E. A.; Troian, S. M.

    2003-11-01

    We investigate through laser interferometry the drainage behavior of Newtonian soap films initially entrained on a fiber frame at small and constant capillary number. The initial film thickness is sufficiently small that gravitational drainage is presumed minimal. The drainage of rigid soap films by capillary forces alone should proceed according to h(t) ˜ t^- 1/2. Our experimental results show much more rapid drainage with exponents as large as -2, especially for those solutions whose surfactant concentrations are below the CMC. Video recordings of the entire film surface reveal a variety of structures during the drainage process, some attributable to marginal regeneration. Though still a controversial issue, this regeneration process is believed to be caused by surfactant accumulation in the meniscus region (1). We show that modification of the relevant capillary drainage equation to account for Marangoni effects through a course-grained slip condition at the air-liquid interface produces exponents in better agreement with experimental findings. (1) V. A. Nierstrasz and G. Frens, JCIS 215, 28 (1999).

  15. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  16. Building an automated SOAP classifier for emergency department reports.

    PubMed

    Mowery, Danielle; Wiebe, Janyce; Visweswaran, Shyam; Harkema, Henk; Chapman, Wendy W

    2012-02-01

    Information extraction applications that extract structured event and entity information from unstructured text can leverage knowledge of clinical report structure to improve performance. The Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan (SOAP) framework, used to structure progress notes to facilitate problem-specific, clinical decision making by physicians, is one example of a well-known, canonical structure in the medical domain. Although its applicability to structuring data is understood, its contribution to information extraction tasks has not yet been determined. The first step to evaluating the SOAP framework's usefulness for clinical information extraction is to apply the model to clinical narratives and develop an automated SOAP classifier that classifies sentences from clinical reports. In this quantitative study, we applied the SOAP framework to sentences from emergency department reports, and trained and evaluated SOAP classifiers built with various linguistic features. We found the SOAP framework can be applied manually to emergency department reports with high agreement (Cohen's kappa coefficients over 0.70). Using a variety of features, we found classifiers for each SOAP class can be created with moderate to outstanding performance with F(1) scores of 93.9 (subjective), 94.5 (objective), 75.7 (assessment), and 77.0 (plan). We look forward to expanding the framework and applying the SOAP classification to clinical information extraction tasks. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Psychosocial Factors Mediating the Effect of the CHoBI7 Intervention on Handwashing With Soap: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Biswas, Shwapon; Jung, Danielle; Perin, Jamie; Parvin, Tahmina; Monira, Shirajum; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Thomas, Elizabeth D; Dreibelbis, Robert; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Zhang, Xiaotong; Sack, David A; Alam, Munirul; Sack, R Bradley; Leontsini, Elli; Winch, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    Inadequate hand hygiene is estimated to result in nearly 300,000 deaths annually, with the majority of deaths being among children younger than 5 years. In an effort to promote handwashing with soap and water treatment behaviors among highly susceptible household members of cholera patients, we recently developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7); chobi means picture in Bengali. This 1-week handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention is delivered by a promoter in the hospital and the home to cholera patients and their household members. In our randomized controlled trial of this intervention, we observed a significant reduction in symptomatic cholera infections during the 1-week intervention period compared to the control arm and sustained high uptake of observed handwashing with soap behaviors up to 12 months postintervention. The aim of the present study was to assess the underlying mechanism of change that led to the high handwashing with soap behavior observed among participants who received the CHoBI7 intervention. Handwashing with soap was measured using 5-hour structured observation, and psychosocial factors were assessed using a structured questionnaire among 170 intervention and 174 control household members enrolled in the CHoBI7 trial. To investigate potential mediators of the CHoBI7 intervention effect, mediation models were performed. Response efficacy was found to mediate the intervention's effect on habit formation for handwashing with soap at the 1-week follow-up, and disgust, convenience, and cholera awareness were mediators of habit maintenance at the 6- to 12-month follow-up. These results support the use of theory-driven approaches for the development and implementation of handwashing with soap interventions.

  18. Manual dexterity aptitude testing: a soap carving study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Christopher G; Hilsinger, Raymond L; Cruz, Raul M; Schloegel, Luke J; Byl, Fred M; Rasgon, Barry M

    2014-03-01

    Currently there are few validated metrics for predicting surgical skill among otolaryngology residency applicants. To determine whether manual dexterity aptitude testing in the form of soap carving during otolaryngology residency interviews at Kaiser Permanente Medical Center Oakland predicts surgical skill at the time of graduation from otolaryngology residency programs. This study was conducted to determine how applicants with the best and worst soap carvings compared at the time of graduation with respect to various metrics including visuospatial ability and manual dexterity. Over the last 25 years, applicants to the residency program at Kaiser Permanente Oakland were required to carve soap during their residency interview. The 3 best and 3 worst soap carvings from 1990 through 2006 were determined. Of the individuals who carved those soaps, 62 qualified for the study and matriculated into otolaryngology residency programs. Surveys were sent to the 62 individuals' residency programs to evaluate those individuals on a 5-point Likert scale in various categories as well as to rank those individuals as being in the top 50% or bottom 50% of their graduating class. All else being equal, we hypothesized that applicants who had the manual dexterity and visuospatial skills to accurately carve a bar of soap would more likely possess the skills necessary to become a good surgeon. There was no difference between individuals with the best soap carvings and those with the worst soap carvings in all categories: cognitive knowledge, visuospatial ability, manual dexterity, decision making, and overall score (P > .10 for all categories). There was a 95% response rate, with 35 of 37 residency programs responding and 59 of 62 surveys returned. Manual dexterity aptitude testing in the form of soap carving does not appear to correlate with surgical skill at the time of graduation. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the role of manual dexterity and visuospatial

  19. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.

  20. Evaluation of the national Cleanyourhands campaign to reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals in England and Wales by improved hand hygiene: four year, prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Christopher; Savage, Joan; Cookson, Barry; Hayward, Andrew; Cooper, Ben; Duckworth, Georgia; Michie, Susan; Murray, Miranda; Jeanes, Annette; Roberts, J; Teare, Louise; Charlett, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the Cleanyourhands campaign on rates of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and soap, report trends in selected healthcare associated infections, and investigate the association between infections and procurement. Design Prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2008. Setting 187 acute trusts in England and Wales. Intervention Installation of bedside alcohol hand rub, materials promoting hand hygiene and institutional engagement, regular hand hygiene audits, rolled out nationally from 1 December 2004. Main outcome measures Quarterly (that is, every three months) rates for each trust of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and liquid soap; Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (meticillin resistant (MRSA) and meticillin sensitive (MSSA)) and Clostridium difficile infection for each trust. Associations between procurement and infection rates assessed by mixed effect Poisson regression model (which also accounted for effect of bed occupancy, hospital type, and timing of other national interventions targeting these infections). Results Combined procurement of soap and alcohol hand rub tripled from 21.8 to 59.8 mL per patient bed day; procurement rose in association with each phase of the campaign. Rates fell for MRSA bacteraemia (1.88 to 0.91 cases per 10 000 bed days) and C difficile infection (16.75 to 9.49 cases). MSSA bacteraemia rates did not fall. Increased procurement of soap was independently associated with reduced C difficile infection throughout the study (adjusted incidence rate ratio for 1 mL increase per patient bed day 0.993, 95% confidence interval 0.990 to 0.996; P<0.0001). Increased procurement of alcohol hand rub was independently associated with reduced MRSA bacteraemia, but only in the last four quarters of the study (0.990, 0.985 to 0.995; P<0.0001). Publication of the Health Act 2006 was strongly associated with reduced MRSA bacteraemia (0.86, 0.75 to 0.98; P=0

  1. Evaluation of the national Cleanyourhands campaign to reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals in England and Wales by improved hand hygiene: four year, prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study.

    PubMed

    Stone, Sheldon Paul; Fuller, Christopher; Savage, Joan; Cookson, Barry; Hayward, Andrew; Cooper, Ben; Duckworth, Georgia; Michie, Susan; Murray, Miranda; Jeanes, Annette; Roberts, J; Teare, Louise; Charlett, Andre

    2012-05-03

    To evaluate the impact of the Cleanyourhands campaign on rates of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and soap, report trends in selected healthcare associated infections, and investigate the association between infections and procurement. Prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2008. 187 acute trusts in England and Wales. Installation of bedside alcohol hand rub, materials promoting hand hygiene and institutional engagement, regular hand hygiene audits, rolled out nationally from 1 December 2004. Quarterly (that is, every three months) rates for each trust of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and liquid soap; Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (meticillin resistant (MRSA) and meticillin sensitive (MSSA)) and Clostridium difficile infection for each trust. Associations between procurement and infection rates assessed by mixed effect Poisson regression model (which also accounted for effect of bed occupancy, hospital type, and timing of other national interventions targeting these infections). Combined procurement of soap and alcohol hand rub tripled from 21.8 to 59.8 mL per patient bed day; procurement rose in association with each phase of the campaign. Rates fell for MRSA bacteraemia (1.88 to 0.91 cases per 10,000 bed days) and C difficile infection (16.75 to 9.49 cases). MSSA bacteraemia rates did not fall. Increased procurement of soap was independently associated with reduced C difficile infection throughout the study (adjusted incidence rate ratio for 1 mL increase per patient bed day 0.993, 95% confidence interval 0.990 to 0.996; P < 0.0001). Increased procurement of alcohol hand rub was independently associated with reduced MRSA bacteraemia, but only in the last four quarters of the study (0.990, 0.985 to 0.995; P < 0.0001). Publication of the Health Act 2006 was strongly associated with reduced MRSA bacteraemia (0.86, 0.75 to 0.98; P = 0.02) and C difficile infection (0.75, 0.67 to 0.84; P < 0

  2. Spectroscopic Determination of Triclosan Concentration in a Series of Antibacterial Soaps: A First-Year Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyllie, Graeme R. A.

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial chemical triclosan is a common component in personal care products but recently the subject of many reports concerning environmental toxicity and health impacts. Although triclosan concentration in a soap can be determined simply via high-performance liquid chromatography, this is a technique not routinely available in the…

  3. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants). Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with provision of soap) at child day-care facilities or schools prevents around one-third of diarrhoea episodes in high income countries (rate ratio 0.70; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.85; nine trials, 4664 participants, high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in LMICs but only two trials from urban Egypt and Kenya have evaluated this (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.99; two trials, 45,380 participants, low quality evidence). Only three trials reported measures of behaviour change and the methods of data collection were susceptible to bias. In one trial from the USA hand washing behaviour was reported to improve; and in the trial from Kenya that provided free soap, hand washing did not increase, but soap use did (data not pooled; three trials, 1845 participants, low quality evidence). Hand washing promotion among communities in LMICs probably prevents around one-quarter of diarrhoea episodes (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83; eight trials, 14,726 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, six of these eight trials were from Asian settings, with only single trials from South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In six trials, soap was provided free alongside hand washing education, and the overall average effect size was larger than in the two trials which did not provide soap (soap provided: rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78; six trials, 11,422 participants; education only: rate ratio: 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; two trials, 3304 participants). There was increased hand washing at major prompts (before eating/cooking, after visiting the toilet or cleaning the baby's bottom), and increased compliance to hand hygiene procedure (behavioural outcome) in the intervention groups than the control in community trials (data not pooled: three trials, 3490 participants, high quality evidence). Hand washing promotion for the one trial conducted in a hospital among high

  4. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    PubMed

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study.

  5. Effective dilution of surfactants due to thinning of the soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Aakash; Mandre, Shreyas; Kim, Ildoo

    2017-11-01

    A flowing soap film is a system whose hydrodynamic properties can be affected by its thickness. Despite abundant experiments performed using soap films, few have examined the dependence of its physical as well as chemical properties with respect to its thickness. We investigate one such property - surface tension of the flowing film and delineate its dependence on the concentration of the soap solution and flow rate per unit width i.e. thickness of the soap film. Using our proposed method to measure the average surface tension in-situ over the whole soap film, we show that the surface tension increases by reducing the thickness of the film and by reducing the concentration of the soap solution. Our data suggests that thinning of the soap film is effectively diluting the solution. Thinning increases the adsorption of surfactants to the surfaces, but it decreases the total number of molecules per unit area. Our work brings new insight into the physics of soap films and we believe that this effective dilution due to thinning is a signature of the flowing soap films, whose surface concentration of surfactants is affected by the thickness.

  6. Evaluation and remediation of bulk soap dispensers for biofilm.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Lindsey A; Ramsay, Bradley D; Goeres, Darla M; Fields, Matthew W; Zapka, Carrie A; Macinga, David R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating bulk soap in public restroom soap dispensers have demonstrated up to 25% of open refillable bulk-soap dispensers were contaminated with ~ 6 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, plastic counter-mounted, plastic wall-mounted and stainless steel wall-mounted dispensers were analyzed for suspended and biofilm bacteria using total cell and viable plate counts. Independent of dispenser type or construction material, the bulk soap was contaminated with 4-7 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) bacteria, while 4-6 log(10)(CFU cm(-2)) biofilm bacteria were isolated from the inside surfaces of the dispensers (n = 6). Dispenser remediation studies, including a 10 min soak with 5000 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite, were then conducted to determine the efficacy of cleaning and disinfectant procedures against established biofilms. The testing showed that contamination of the bulk soap returned to pre-test levels within 7-14 days. These results demonstrate biofilm is present in contaminated bulk-soap dispensers and remediation studies to clean and sanitize the dispensers are temporary.

  7. Observed Handwashing with Soap Practices Among Cholera Patients and Accompanying Household Members in a Hospital Setting (CHoBI7 Trial).

    PubMed

    Zohura, Fatema; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Monira, Shirajum; Begum, Farzana; Biswas, Shwapon K; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Leontsini, Elli; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Sharmin, Rumana; Zhang, Xiaotong; Alam, Munirul; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Household members of cholera patients are at a 100 times higher risk of cholera than the general population. Despite this risk, there are only a handful of studies that have investigated the handwashing practices among hospitalized diarrhea patients and their accompanying household members. To investigate handwashing practices in a hospital setting among this high-risk population, 444 hours of structured observation was conducted in a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, among 148 cholera patients and their household members. Handwashing with soap practices were observed at the following key events: after toileting, after cleaning the anus of a child, after removing child feces, during food preparation, before eating, and before feeding. Spot-checks were also conducted to observe the presence of soap at bathroom areas. Overall, 4% (4/103) of key events involved handwashing with soap among cholera patients and household members during the structured observation period. This was 3% (1/37) among cholera patients and 5% (3/66) for household members. For toileting events, observed handwashing with soap was 7% (3/46) overall, 7% (1/14) for cholera patients, and 6% (2/32) for household members. For food-related events, overall observed handwashing with soap was 2% (2/93 overall), and 0% (0/34) and 3% (2/59) for cholera patients and household members, respectively. Soap was observed at only 7% (4/55) of handwashing stations used by patients and household members during spot-checks. Observed handwashing with soap at key times among patients and accompanying household members was very low. These findings highlight the urgent need for interventions to target this high-risk population. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Electrowetting of soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arscott, Steve

    2013-07-01

    A proof-of-concept demonstration of the electrowetting-on-dielectric of a sessile soap bubble is reported here. The bubbles are generated using a commercial soap bubble mixture—the surfaces are composed of highly doped, commercial silicon wafers covered with nanometer thick films of Teflon®. Voltages less than 40 V are sufficient to observe the modification of the bubble shape and the apparent bubble contact angle. Such observations open the way to inter alia the possibility of bubble-transport, as opposed to droplet-transport, in fluidic microsystems (e.g., laboratory-on-a-chip)—the potential gains in terms of volume, speed, and surface/volume ratio are non-negligible.

  9. Significance of Ca-soap formation for calcium absorption in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Gacs, G; Barltrop, D

    1977-01-01

    The significance of calcium soap formation in the inhibition of calcium absorption has been studied in rats. 47Ca labelled soaps of fatty acids were introduced into the duodenum and the absorption of calcium measured after four hours in a whole body counter. The absorption of calcium was inversely correlated with the chain length of the fatty acid varying from 1% for Ca-stearate to 60% for Ca-hexanoate. Increasing the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid was accompanied by increased calcium absorption. The availability of calcium for absorption from the soaps was correlated with their solubility in 1% aqueous Na-tauroglycocholate. The percentages of calcium as soap in the small intestine and the faeces after intragastric administration of calcium and fats were similar, which suggests that the faecal content of calcium soaps is an index of intestinal soap formation. Soap formation was negligible when CaCl2 was given with tristearate, triolaeate, or tridecanoate and no depression of calcium absorption was observed. Calcium absorption was markedly impaired by the addition of phosphates at a Ca/P ratio of 1:1 irrespective of the presence of neutral fats. Stearic acid resulted in significant soap formation and reduced calcium absorption. The degree of Ca-soap formation and the inhibition of calcium absorption were well correlated. The results suggest that, although calcium soap formation may markedly depress calcium absorption in the rat, no significant soap formation takes place when fats are given in the form of triglycerides. PMID:838405

  10. Data Integration Using SOAP in the VSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, K. Q.; Bogart, R. S.; Davey, A.; Dimitoglou, G.; Gurman, J. B.; Hill, F.; Martens, P. C.; Wampler, S.

    2003-05-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) project has implemented a time interval search for all four participating data archives. The back-end query services are implemented as web services, and are accessible via SOAP. SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) defines an RPC (Remote Procedure Call) mechanism that employs HTTP as its transport and encodes the client-server interactions (request and response messages) in XML (eXtensible Markup Language) documents. In addition to its core function of identifying relevant datasets in the local archive, the SOAP server at each data provider acts as a "wrapper" that maps descriptions in an abstract data model to those in the provider-specific data model, and vice versa. It is in this way that VSO integrates heterogeneous data services and allows access to them using a common interface. Our experience with SOAP has been fruitful. It has proven to be a better alternative to traditional web access methods, namely POST and GET, because of its flexibility and interoperability.

  11. Synthesis of Exotic Soaps in the Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanstiel, Otto, IV; Dueno, Eric; Xianghong Wang, Queenie

    1998-05-01

    A variety of different triglyceride sources ranging from Vietnamese garlic oil to a local restaurant's grill sludge were saponified to generate a series of exotic soaps. Students did not quantify their results, but described their products in terms of color, texture and odor. Their results were compared with existing data on the triglyceride content for each source used (when possible). Soap texture seemed to be related to the degree of unsaturation present in the starting triglyceride. However, texture alterations due to occluded impurities could not be ruled out. In general, fats and oils high in saturated fats (butter) gave hard, chunky, and waxlike soaps, while those high in unsaturated fats gave flaky and easily crumbled soaps (olive, corn, peanut and sunflower oils). Soap color was not consistent with triglyceride unsaturation levels during the time frame studied. Odor changes were dramatic and were explained in terms of a change in chemical structure (i.e. conversion from an ester to a carboxylate salt). In general, the experiment was well received by students and stressed the importance of making precise qualitative observations during the experiment.

  12. Liquid film demonstration experiment Skylab SL-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darbro, W.

    1975-01-01

    The liquid film demonstration experiment performed on Skylab 4 by Astronaut Gerald Carr, which involved the construction of water and soap films by boundary expansion and inertia, is discussed. Results include a 1-ml globule of water expanded into a 7-cm-diameter film as well as complex film structures produced by inertia whose lifetimes are longer in the low-g environment. Also discussed are 1-g acceleration experiments in which the unprovoked rupture of films was photographed and film lifetimes of stationary and rotated soap films were compared. Finally, there is a mathematical discussion regarding minimal surfaces, an isoperimetric problem, and liquid films.

  13. Plateau borders of smectic liquid crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; Aldred, Ruth; Stannarius, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the geometrical properties of Plateau borders in an arrangement of connected smectic A free standing films. The geometry is chosen such that a circular Plateau border surrounds a planar smectic film and connects it with two smectic catenoids. It is demonstrated that, similar to soap films, the smectic film geometry can be described by a negative line tension of the circular contact region. Thus, the equilibrium angle between the films depends upon the liquid content in this region, and with increasing liquid content, deviations from Plateau's rule are observed. The experimental results are qualitatively comparable to soap films. A possible origin of slight quantitative differences is discussed.

  14. Sensitivities of Soap Solutions in Leak Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuck, D.; Lam, D. Q.; Daniels, C.

    1985-01-01

    Document describes method for determining minimum leak rate to which soap-solution leak detectors sensitive. Bubbles formed at smaller leak rates than previously assumed. In addition to presenting test results, document discusses effects of joint-flange configurations, properties of soap solutions, and correlation of test results with earlier data.

  15. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey.

    PubMed

    Horng, L M; Unicomb, L; Alam, M-U; Halder, A K; Shoab, A K; Ghosh, P K; Opel, A; Islam, M K; Luby, S P

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey

    PubMed Central

    Horng, L.M.; Unicomb, L.; Alam, M.-U.; Halder, A.K.; Shoab, A.K.; Ghosh, P.K.; Opel, A.; Islam, M.K.; Luby, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. Aim To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. Methods The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. Findings More than 96% of facilities had ‘improved’ water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78–92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4–30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Conclusion Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi health-care facilities. PMID:27665311

  17. Associations between presence of handwashing stations and soap in the home and diarrhoea and respiratory illness, in children less than five years old in rural western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kamm, K B; Feikin, D R; Bigogo, G M; Aol, G; Audi, A; Cohen, A L; Shah, M M; Yu, J; Breiman, R F; Ram, P K

    2014-04-01

    We tested whether soap presence in the home or a designated handwashing station was associated with diarrhoea and respiratory illness in Kenya. In April 2009, we observed presence of a handwashing station and soap in households participating in a longitudinal health surveillance system in rural Kenya. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children < 5 years old were identified using parent-reported syndromic surveillance collected January-April 2009. We used multivariate generalised linear regression to estimate differences in prevalence of illness between households with and without the presence of soap in the home and a handwashing station. Among 2547 children, prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI was 2.3 and 11.4 days per 100 child-days, respectively. Soap was observed in 97% of households. Children in households with soap had 1.3 fewer days of diarrhoea/100 child-days (95% CI -2.6, -0.1) than children in households without soap. ARI prevalence was not associated with presence of soap. A handwashing station was identified in 1.4% of households and was not associated with a difference in diarrhoea or ARI prevalence. Soap presence in the home was significantly associated with reduced diarrhoea, but not ARI, in children in rural western Kenya. Whereas most households had soap in the home, almost none had a designated handwashing station, which may prevent handwashing at key times of hand contamination. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Associations between presence of handwashing stations and soap in the home and diarrhoea and respiratory illness, in children less than five years old in rural western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, K. B.; Feikin, D. R.; Bigogo, G. M.; Aol, G.; Audi, A.; Cohen, A. L.; Shah, M. M.; Yu, J.; Breiman, R. F.; Ram, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether soap presence in the home or a designated handwashing station was associated with diarrhoea and respiratory illness in Kenya. METHODS In April 2009, we observed presence of a handwashing station and soap in households participating in a longitudinal health surveillance system in rural Kenya. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children < 5 years old were identified using parent-reported syndromic surveillance collected January–April 2009. We used multivariate generalised linear regression to estimate differences in prevalence of illness between households with and without the presence of soap in the home and a handwashing station. RESULTS Among 2547 children, prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI was 2.3 and 11.4 days per 100 child-days, respectively. Soap was observed in 97% of households. Children in households with soap had 1.3 fewer days of diarrhoea/100 child-days (95% CI −2.6, −0.1) than children in households without soap. ARI prevalence was not associated with presence of soap. A handwashing station was identified in 1.4% of households and was not associated with a difference in diarrhoea or ARI prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Soap presence in the home was significantly associated with reduced diarrhoea, but not ARI, in children in rural western Kenya. Whereas most households had soap in the home, almost none had a designated handwashing station, which may prevent handwashing at key times of hand contamination. PMID:24405627

  19. Bow and Oblique Shock Formation in Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas; Sane, Aakash

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, soap films have been exploited primarily to approximate two-dimensional flows while their three-dimensional character is relatively unattended. An example of the three-dimensional character of the flow in a soap film is the observed Marangoni shock wave when the flow speed exceeds the wave speed. In this study, we investigated the formation of bow and oblique shocks in soap films generated by wedges with different deflection angles. When the wedge deflection angle is small and the film flows fast, oblique shocks are observed. When the oblique shock cannot exists, bow shock is formed upstream the wedge. We characterized the oblique shock angle as a function of the wedge deflection angle and the flow speed, and we also present the criteria for transition between bow and oblique Marangoni shocks in soap films.

  20. Soap Bubble Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, Colin

    1984-01-01

    Describes an apparatus (called the "Rainbow Cup") used for demonstrating the colored rings produced by constructive interference in soap films. Discusses construction of the Rainbow Cup and gives hints for its use in the classroom, especially in relation to classroom humidity. (JM)

  1. Colorful Demos with a Long-Lasting Soap Bubble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behroozi, F.; Olson, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Describes several demonstrations that feature interaction of light with soap bubbles. Includes directions about how to produce a long-lasting stationary soap bubble with an easily changeable size and describes the interaction of white light with the bubble. (DDR)

  2. Hand hygiene practices of veterinary support staff in small animal private practice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, R K; Tompkins, E; Braasch, E L; Martinez, J G; Bianco, D

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the hand hygiene (HH) practices among veterinary technicians (VT) and veterinary support staff (VSS) in small animal private practice. This was a prospective questionnaire-based study involving 182 VT and VSS from 18 small animal hospitals in the USA. Questions asked included gender, number of animals handled per work shift, frequency of hand washing, reason for not washing more frequently, most common available hand washing agent, education regarding the importance of HH and frequency of ring wearing. Less than half of the respondents [76 of 182 (41·7%)] reported washing their hands regularly between handling patients and 154 of 182 (85·6%) believed they should have washed more frequently. The most commonly employed HH agent was hand soap [154 of 182 (84·6%)] and the most common reason cited for not washing more frequently was being too busy [132 of 182 (72·5%)]. Only 96 of 182 (52·7%) respondents were educated by doctors at their hospital regarding the importance of HH. The HH practices among VT and VSS in small animal private practice is poor. Hand soap was the most commonly employed agent among respondents in this study. Education of VT and VSS regarding the importance of HH requires improvement. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. The generation of two-dimensional vortices by transverse oscillation of a soap film

    SciTech Connect

    Afenchenko, V.O.; Ezersky, A.B.; Kiyashko, S.V.

    1998-02-01

    An experimental investigation of the dynamics of horizontal soap films stretched over circular or square boundaries undergoing periodic transverse oscillations at frequencies in the range 20{endash}200 Hz is reported. Concomitant with modes of transverse flexural oscillations, it was observed that two-dimensional vortices in the plane of the film are excited. The vortices may be either (i) large, scaling with the size of the cavity or (ii) small, localized at a wavelength or half-wavelength of the membrane modes. In the experiments a stable generation of one, two, {hor_ellipsis}, ten pairs of counter-rotating vortices were observed in finite regions of amplitude-frequency parametermore » space. The circulation strength of vortices in a given vortex pattern increases with increasing external forcing and with decreasing soap film thickness. A theoretical model based on the wave-boundary interaction of excited Marangoni waves reveals a vorticity generation mechanism active in vibrating soap films. This model shows that vorticity is generated throughout the entire liquid volume by viscous diffusion, and qualitatively reproduces many steady vortex patterns observed in the experiment. However, the model cannot explain the existence of the sometimes intense vortices observed far from the film boundary that do not appear to be generated by diffusive processes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  4. Pro-development soap operas: a novel approach to development communication.

    PubMed

    Brown, W J; Singhal, A; Rogers, E M

    1989-01-01

    Soap operas have their roots in 18th century English romance novels. These evolved into serialized radio dramas. In their current form, they were developed primarily to attract large audiences in order to sell consumer products. Hence the name soap which refers to the soap manufacturers who commonly advertise on such programs. In the world of soap operas there are 2 kinds. Those that function primarily to entertain and sell consumer products, and those that primarily entertain, but infuse positive social messages. The former are found everywhere, but are the only kind in America. The latter are found exclusively in developing countries. American soap operas have conveyed pro-social messages in the past, but they differ fundamentally from pro-development soap operas in their theoretical foundations. American soap operas are created by people who want to sell consumer goods. Development soap operas are created by people who want to convey pro-social messages that will aid their country's development. Both must be popular in order to be successful, but the former lack moral coherency, are unrealistic, erode values, and are created through a process of a theoretical development; while the latter have moral coherency, are realistic, promote values, and are created through a process of theoretical development. The 1st pro-development soap opera was Ven Conmigo (Come With Me) and was produced in Mexico between 1975-76. Its primary purpose was to increase adult literacy. During the year it ran, applicants at adult literacy centers rose by 600,000 or 63% compared to 7% the year before, and 2% the year after. The 2nd pro-development soap opera was Acompaname (Accompany Me) and it primary purpose was to promote family planning. It ran from 1977-78 and during that time the number of family planning adopters rose by 560,000 and contraceptive sale sin Mexico rose sharply. The question of what are pro-social messages and who should control them must be answered by each country in

  5. An example of branching in a variational problem. [shape of liquid suspended from wire in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darbro, W.

    1978-01-01

    In an experiment in space it was found that when a cubical frame was slowly withdrawn from a soap solution, the wire frame retained practically a full cube of liquid. Removed from the frame (by shaking), the faces of the cube became progressively more concave, until adjacent faces became tangential. In the present paper a mathematical model describing the shape a liquid takes due to its surface tension while suspended on a wire frame in zero-g is solved by use of Lagrange multipliers. It is shown how the configuration of soap films so bounded is dependent upon the volume of liquid trapped in the films. A special case of the solution is a soap film naturally formed on a cubical wire frame.

  6. Surgical hand preparation with chlorhexidine soap or povidone iodine: new methods to increase immediate and residual effectiveness, and provide a safe alternative to alcohol solutions.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, R; Vizcaino, M J; Yela, R

    2018-04-01

    Surgical use of 4% chlorhexidine soap (CHX-4) and 10% povidone iodine (PVP-I-10) does not meet the standards defined by EN 12791. To investigate the possibility of increasing the immediate and residual effects of these antiseptics. Over three consecutive weeks, n-propanol, standard CHX-4 and PVP-I-10 were tested in two experimental groups of volunteers. The new method for applying the antiseptic substances involved standard hand rub and rinse of CHX-4 or PVP-I-10, followed by application of an aqueous solution based on 5% chlorhexidine or PVP-I-10 with no further rinsing of the hands prior to donning gloves. Samples were taken to assess immediate and residual effects, analysing the logarithmic reduction of colony-forming units. At t=0 h, n-propanol was superior in bactericidal effect to standard CHX-4 (P<0.05), but the new chlorhexidine protocol was superior to both standard CHX-4 (P<0.01) and n-propanol (P<0.05); the same effect was observed at t=3 h (residual effect). At t=0 h, n-propanol was significantly superior to standard PVP-I-10, but the new PVP-I-10 protocol was superior, although not significantly, to n-propanol. There was no significant residual effect at t=3 h. The new protocol for chlorhexidine application permits surgical hand preparation with chlorhexidine, as a safe alternative to alcohol solutions, because it meets the standards defined by EN 12791. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial Factors Mediating the Effect of the CHoBI7 Intervention on Handwashing with Soap: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Christine Marie; Biswas, Shwapon; Jung, Danielle; Perin, Jamie; Parvin, Tahmina; Monira, Shirajum; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Thomas, Elizabeth D.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Zhang, Xiaotong; Sack, David A.; Alam, Munirul; Sack, R. Bradley; Leontsini, Elli; Winch, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate hand hygiene is estimated to result in nearly 300,000 deaths annually, with the majority of deaths being among children younger than 5 years. In an effort to promote handwashing with soap and water treatment behaviors among highly susceptible household members of cholera patients, we recently developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based…

  8. Chemistry in Soap Bubbles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

  9. Hydrodynamics of soap films probed by two-particle microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Vikram; Weeks, Eric R.

    2007-11-01

    A soap film consists of a thin water layer that is separated from two bulk air phases above and below it by surfactant monolayers. The flow fields in the soap film created in response to a perturbation depend on coupling between these different phases, the exact nature of which is unknown. In order to determine this coupling, we use polystyrene spheres as tracer particles and track their diffusive motions in the soap film. The correlated Brownian motion of pairs of particles (two-particle microrheology) maps out the flow field, and provides a measure of the surface viscosity of the soap film as well. This measured surface viscosity agrees well with the value obtained from self diffusion of single particles (one-particle microrheology) in the film.

  10. Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

  11. Hand Hygiene: Knowledge and Attitudes of Fourth-Year Clerkship Medical Students at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hamadah, Reem; Kharraz, Razan; Alshanqity, Airabab; AlFawaz, Danah; Eshaq, Abdulaziz M; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-08-24

    Little is known about the clerkship (clinical) medical students' knowledge of hand hygiene as the single most important precautionary measure to reduce nosocomial healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study is to explore the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, hand hygiene practices among fourth-year clerkship medical students at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, paper-based, Yes/No formatted questionnaire was administered to explore the students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, hand hygiene practices. Data were decoded in Microsoft Excel sheet and presented as numbers and percentages. One hundred and eleven students (n=111/147) participated in the questionnaire (response rate: 76%). Although the majority of students had a fair knowledge of hand hygiene practices, a number of them had some misconceptions. Only 14% of students correctly agreed to the statement: "Traditional hand washing (water, plus regular soap) decreases the number of germs." Furthermore, only 32% of students correctly answered that "hand washing with a regular soap, instead of an antiseptic soap, is better in limiting the transmission of clostridium difficile infections". Almost all students (93%) agreed to the importance of hand hygiene education in medical curricula and its awareness in healthcare centers. Despite the importance of hand hygiene, only 13% of students reviewed the respective WHO and CDC guidelines before starting their clinical training in the teaching hospital. The students' inadequate knowledge about hand hygiene needs to be enriched by well-structured curricular and extra-curricular programs as well as more positive attitudes by healthcare workers.

  12. The Systems SOAP Note: A Systems Learning Tool.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Fumi; Young, John Q; Leary, Mark; Dilley, James; Mangurian, Christina

    2016-02-01

    Systems-based practice (SBP) is the only Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency concerned with public health and is relatively neglected in residency curricula. A tool was developed and pilot-tested to improve SBP learning on inpatient psychiatry rotations. A four-step approach was used: (1) literature review, (2) expert consultation, (3) tool development, and (4) pilot testing on four cases and evaluation for completion time and preliminary efficacy. Out of 51 SBP articles, six (12%) focused on psychiatric residency programs, and none had a practical SBP learning tool. The "systems SOAP (subjective, objective, assessment, plan) note" (S-SOAP) was structured after a clinical SOAP note and was easy to use (mean completion time = 60 min), and residents self-reported more insight into systems issues. The S-SOAP tool was effectively integrated into clinical experience and provided insight into systemic complexities. Future research should assess SBP knowledge acquisition after the use of such tools.

  13. Health: the soap opera version.

    PubMed

    Harris, C

    1993-01-01

    Watching soap opera is a favorite pastime of millions of Egyptians. Since the spring of 1992, the soap opera "The Family House" has reached audiences with messages on AIDS, drugs, child spacing, home accidents, and hygiene. The shows are the brainchild of the Director of the Center for Development Communication (CDC) in Egypt, Dr. El Kamel; the shows capture the novel and unique concept of both the communication of information and entertainment. Between 1983 and 1990, the CDC has been creating 130 short soap opera episodes on subjects such as the prevention of dehydration from diarrhea and the use of oral rehydration salt (ORS) packets to save children's lives. The ORS episodes were 15 minutes in length and showed the dramatic tension between a baby suffering from diarrhea and the mother's helping to overcome the difficulty. Surveys conducted in 1983 and 1986 on knowledge, attitudes, and practices found that in 1986 98% knew about ORS and 70% had used it compared with 3% knowledge and 50% practice in 1983. "The Family House" will be similar but expand on the number of issues considered and will pretest audience knowledge, attitudes, and practice before and after airing on specific issues. This soap opera also will be the first to be a daily series with an unending story. "The main character is Amina, who is an artisan in her late 40s who raised 4 children by herself." The series of 45-minute long shows will depict urban and rural settings and everyday Egyptian culture: language, clothing, life styles, and moral standards. Distribution is anticipated for other Arabic countries in Africa and the Middle East, which already air many Egyptian television series.

  14. The essential SOAP note in an EHR age.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Patricia F; Ferguson, Laurie Anne; George, Gwen S; Langford, Cynthia A

    2016-02-18

    This article reviews the traditional Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan (SOAP) note documentation format. The information in the SOAP note is useful to both providers and students for history taking and physical exam, and highlights the importance of including critical documentation details with or without an electronic health record.

  15. Structure-related aspects on water diffusivity in fatty acid-soap and skin lipid model systems.

    PubMed

    Norlén, L; Engblom, J

    2000-01-03

    Simplified skin barrier models are necessary to get a first hand understanding of the very complex morphology and physical properties of the human skin barrier. In addition, it is of great importance to construct relevant models that will allow for rational testing of barrier perturbing/occlusive effects of a large variety of substances. The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of lipid morphology on water permeation through various lipid mixtures (i.e., partly neutralised free fatty acids, as well as a skin lipid model mixture). In addition, the effects of incorporating Azone((R)) (1-dodecyl-azacycloheptan-2-one) into the skin lipid model mixture was studied. Small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used for structure determinations. It is concluded that: (a) the water flux through a crystalline fatty acid-sodium soap-water mixture (s) is statistically significantly higher than the water flux through the corresponding lamellar (L(alpha)) and reversed hexagonal (H(II)) liquid crystalline phases, which do not differ between themselves; (b) the water flux through mixtures of L(alpha)/s decreases statistically significantly with increasing relative amounts of lamellar (L(alpha)) liquid crystalline phase; (c) the addition of Azone((R)) to a skin lipid model system induces a reduction in water flux. However, further studies are needed to more closely characterise the structural basis for the occlusive effects of Azone((R)) on water flux.

  16. Gravity-driven soap film dynamics in subcritical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auliel, M. I.; Castro, F.; Sosa, R.; Artana, G.

    2015-10-01

    We undertake the analysis of soap-film dynamics with the classical approach of asymptotic expansions. We focus our analysis in vertical soap film tunnels operating in subcritical regimes with elastic Mach numbers Me=O(10-1) . Considering the associated set of nondimensional numbers that characterize this flow, we show that the flow behaves as a two-dimensional (2D) divergence free flow with variable mass density. When the soap film dynamics agrees with that of a 2D and almost constant mass density flow, the regions where the second invariant of the velocity gradient is non-null correspond to regions where the rate of change of film thickness is non-negligible.

  17. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  18. Ecological effects of a deodorant and a plain soap upon human skin bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Bibel, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of a commercial trichlorocarbanilide-containing deodorant soap and a commercial plain soap upon the cutaneous flora of individuals were compared. Using a cross-over design, 21 volunteers (10 women and 11 men) washed their forearms at least once a day with one soap for 3 weeks and then switched soaps for another 4 weeks use. By analysis of variance no significant difference in total colony counts was noted among individuals in their use of the two soaps. With the exception of individual variation, neither sequence of use, sex, nor any combination was influential. However, in 20 of 21 subjects an alteration in the composition of skin flora was observed. The deodorant soap, which in six cases increased total flora, tended to reduce or eliminate diphtheroids in 12 to 17 carriers (71%). Fewer kinds of bacteria were also noted. More Staphylococcus epidermidis was seen with the plain soap, but washing with the deodorant soap seemed to favour Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Micrococcus luteus. The impact of this alteration and the use of total counts to measure effectiveness of deodorant soaps were brought into question. PMID:264493

  19. Hand Hygiene Program Decreases School Absenteeism Due to Upper Respiratory Infections.

    PubMed

    Azor-Martinez, Ernestina; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Seijas-Vazquez, Maria Luisa; Fernández-Sánchez, Carmen; Strizzi, Jenna M; Torres-Alegre, Pilar; Santisteban-Martínez, Joaquin; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizer to prevent school absenteeism due to upper respiratory infections (URIs). This was a randomized, controlled, and open study on a sample of 1341 children 4-12 years old, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow-up. The experimental group (EG) washed their hands with soap and water, together with using hand sanitizer, and the control group followed their usual handwashing procedures. Absenteeism rates due to URIs were compared between the 2 groups through a multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The percent of days missed in both groups were compared with a z test. Overall, 1271 cases of school absenteeism due to URIs were registered. Schoolchildren from the EG had a 38% lower risk of absenteeism due to URIs, incidence rate ratio: 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.55-0.70, and a decrease in absenteeism of 0.45 episodes/child/academic year, p < .001. Pupils missed 2734 school days due to URIs and the percentage of days absent was significantly lower in the EG, p < .001. Use of hand sanitizer plus handwashing with soap accompanied by educational support is an effective measure to reduce absenteeism due to URIs. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  20. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.; Vorobieff, P.

    1999-09-01

    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  1. Washing with hope: evidence of improved handwashing among children in South Africa from a pilot study of a novel soap technology.

    PubMed

    Burns, Justine; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Mouzinho, Âurea

    2018-06-07

    While regular handwashing effectively reduces communicable disease incidence and related child mortality, instilling a habit of regular handwashing in young children continues to be a challenging task, especially in developing country contexts. This randomised controlled pilot study assessed the effect of a novel handwashing intervention - a bi-monthly delivery of a colourful, translucent bar of soap with a toy embedded in its centre (HOPE SOAP©) - on children's handwashing behaviour and health outcomes. Between September and December 2014, 203 households in an impoverished community in Cape Town, South Africa, were randomised (1:1) to the control group or to receive HOPE SOAP©. Of all children (N = 287) aged 3-9 years and not enrolled in early childhood development programmes, 153 residing in intervention households received a bar of HOPE SOAP© every two weeks (total of 4 bars). Children in control households received a colourful, translucent bar of soap of equal size to HOPE SOAP©, with a toy alongside it. Two 'snack tests' (children were offered crackers and jam) were used to provide objective observational measures of handwashing. Through baseline and endline surveys, data were collected from caregivers on the frequency (scale of 1-10) of handwashing by children after using the toilet and before meals, and on soap-use during handwashing. Data on 14 illnesses/symptoms of illness experienced by children in the two weeks preceding the surveys were collected. Multivariable Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses were used to assess the intervention effect on handwashing behaviours and health outcomes. At endline, HOPE SOAP© children were directly observed as being more likely to wash their hands unprompted at both snack tests (49% vs 39%, β: 0.10, p = 0.27). They were more likely to score ≥8/10 for using soap when washing their hands (β: 0.14, p = 0.011). HOPE SOAP© children, in general, had better health outcomes, and those who used the

  2. Mild soaps and radiotherapy: a survey of the UK public to identify brands of soap considered mild and analysis of these to ascertain suitability for recommendation in radiotherapy departments.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Brown, P

    2011-05-01

    Cancer agencies recommend that patients use mild soap when undergoing external beam radiotherapy to minimise skin reactions. They define 'mild soap' as non-alkaline, lanolin free, unperfumed soap with a neutral pH. This study aimed to identify which soaps the UK public perceive as mild and ascertain if these were clinically mild and could potentially be recommended within radiotherapy departments. A survey of 237 participants identified eight top brands of mild soap, which were then tested for pH and analysed for potential irritants. All soaps were lanolin free and non-alkaline, with Simple and Johnson's the closest to pH 5.5. All contained fragrances except Simple and E45. Dove, Pears and Imperial Leather contained the highest concentration of fragrances. All soaps except E45 contained potential irritants. Only Simple and E45 fit the cancer agencies' definition of mild soap and could therefore be recommended for radiotherapy patients. Future research should identify current practices and recommendations in the UK as anecdotal evidence suggests large variations in skin care advice. Further scientific analysis could potentially identify cheaper brands that fit the definition of 'mild'. UK recommendations should be standardised and consistent with best practice to reduce skin reaction severity in radiotherapy patients. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Guanidine Soaps As Vehicles For Coating Ceramic Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H.; Veitch, Lisa C.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1994-01-01

    Soaps made from strong organic base guanidine and organic fatty acids serve as vehicles and binders for coating ceramic fibers, various smooth substrates, and other problematic surfaces with thin precious-metal or metal-oxide films. Films needed to serve as barriers to diffusion in fiber/matrix ceramic composite materials. Guanidine soaps entirely organic and burn off, leaving no residues.

  4. The use of different concentrations of betaine as a reducing irritation agent in soaps monitored visually and non-invasively.

    PubMed

    Nicander, Ingrid; Aberg, Peter; Ollmar, Stig

    2003-02-01

    Products containing detergents can damage the skin and give rise to irritant contact dermatitis. Therefore, attempts have been made to find less irritating detergents as well as substances decreasing undesired side-effects of detergents, and a novel approach is offered by betaine. The aim of the study has been to determine the irritating properties of some liquid soaps for personal hygiene and to map the effect of different concentrations of betaine using electrical impedance, trans-epidermal water loss and visual inspection. Twenty-eight healthy subjects were patch tested with different commercial soaps with and without betaine and sodium lauryl sulphate on both volar forearms for 24 h. A site with distilled water and an unoccluded area were used as references. Responses of the skin reactions were evaluated by visual inspection and by measuring trans-epidermal water loss and electrical impedance before application and 24 h after removal of the chambers. Significant skin reactions were found for all soaps tested but the soaps containing betaine were the least irritating. However, the skin irritation did not decrease with increasing concentrations of betaine in the tested range. On the whole the differences between the products were not large. The non-invasive methods used were more sensitive than visual assessment for evaluation of invisible or barely visible skin responses. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2003

  5. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the soap...

  6. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the soap... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the soap...

  7. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the soap...

  8. False-positive cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination caused by disinfectants and soaps.

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, L B; Fenn, J; Segal, H; Newcomb-Gayman, P; Carroll, K C

    1995-01-01

    Five disinfectants or soaps were tested to determine if any could be responsible for false-positive results obtained with the Latex-Crypto Antigen Detection System kit (Immuno-Mycologics, Inc., Norman, Okla.). Three disinfectants or soaps (Derma soap, 7X, and Bacdown) produced false-positive agglutination after repeated washing of ring slides during testing of a known negative cerebrospinal fluid specimen. PMID:7650214

  9. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Viscosity on Bouncing Soap Droplets onto a Horizontal Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, Amy-Lee; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2012-11-01

    This experimental study aims to investigate the phenomenon of a bouncing soap droplet on a horizontal soap film, and how this behavior is affected by variations in the glycerol content of the solution for both the droplet and film. Direct visualization of the bouncing dynamics using high-speed photography allows determination of droplet size and rebound height as the viscosity is varied. In addition, the upper and lower limits of the mixture composition at which the viscosity of the fluid prevents the droplet from bouncing are determined. A thorough examination of this fluid trampoline was recently conducted by Gilet and Bush, the focus of which was to compare the effect of vibration in the soap film [T. Gilet and J.W.M. Bush, J. Fluid Mech. 625: 167-203, 2009]. A small amount of attention was given to the effect of viscosity changes in the droplet and film, and this work aims to expand on those findings. This work is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

  10. Delayed norovirus epidemic in the 2009-2010 season in Japan: potential relationship with intensive hand sanitizer use for pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Inaida, S; Shobugawa, Y; Matsuno, S; Saito, R; Suzuki, H

    2016-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) epidemics normally peak in December in Japan; however, the peak in the 2009-2010 season was delayed until the fourth week of January 2010. We suspected intensive hand hygiene that was conducted for a previous pandemic influenza in 2009 as the cause of this delay. We analysed the NoV epidemic trend, based on national surveillance data, and its associations with monthly output data for hand hygiene products, including alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap. The delayed peak in the NoV incidence in the 2009-2010 season had the lowest number of recorded cases of the five seasons studied (2006-2007 to 2010-2011). GII.4 was the most commonly occurring genotype. The monthly relative risk of NoV and monthly output of both alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap were significantly and negatively correlated. Our findings suggest an association between hand hygiene using these products and prevention of NoV transmission.

  11. How does a soap film burst during generation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle; Saulnier, Laurie; Restagno, Frederic; Langevin, Dominique

    2011-11-01

    Foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid matrix in the presence of stabilizing surfactants. Even if foams are ubiquitous, the ability of a solution to create a certain foam quantity is still not fully understood. As a first step, we choose to work on a simplified system and studied the stability of a soap film during its generation. We have built an experiment, in which we determine simultaneously the velocity of a frame pulled out of a soapy solution and the entire shape of the liquid film. We found that the film is made of two parts: the bottom part is of uniform and stationary thickness, well described by the classical Frankel's law; in the top part, the film drains until a black film appears near the frame upper boundary frame, and then bursts. In this study, we characterize both part of the films and show that the Frankel law breaks down at high capillary number due to surfactants confinement. We also explain why films pulled at high velocity have a shorter lifetime than those pulled at low velocity. L. Saulnier is funded by CNES.

  12. Hand hygiene for the prevention of nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald; Gastmeier, Petra

    2009-10-01

    The WHO regards hand hygiene as an essential tool for the prevention of nosocomial infection, but compliance in clinical practice is often low. The relevant scientific literature and national and international evidence-based recommendations (Robert Koch Institute [Germany], WHO) were evaluated. Hygienic hand disinfection has better antimicrobial efficacy than hand-washing and is the procedure of choice to be performed before and after manual contact with patients. The hands should be washed, rather than disinfected, only when they are visibly soiled. Skin irritation is quite common among healthcare workers and is mainly caused by water, soap, and prolonged wearing of gloves. Compliance can be improved by training, by placing hand-rub dispensers at the sites where they are needed, and by physicians setting a good example for others. Improved compliance in hand hygiene, with proper use of alcohol-based hand rubs, can reduce the nosocomial infection rate by as much as 40%.

  13. Waterflooding employing surfactants derived from metallic soaps

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.A.

    1975-12-16

    A waterflooding process is described in which a petroleum oil containing divalent metal soaps is contacted with an inorganic acid in order to convert the soaps to the corresponding organic acids. The organic acids thus obtained may be injected into the reservoir followed by an aqueous alkaline solution. Alternatively, the organic acids may be contacted with an aqueous solution in order to convert the acids to the corresponding surface-active monovalent salts, which may be then injected into the reservoir. (4 claims)

  14. Antibacterial properties of soap containing some fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    Pandey, N K; Natraj, C V; Kalle, G P; Nambudiry, M E

    1985-02-01

    Synopsis Chemical microbial inhibitors compatible with formulations of soaps and deodorant perfumes are more effective if they are substantive to the skin. However, highly effective inhibitors are toxic and their substantivity on skin may accentuate the toxicity. Natural compounds such as short to medium chain fatty acids and their derivatives, which are known to be germicidal, offer a viable alternative to chemical inhibitors. We report here the synthesis of sodium 2-lauroyloxy propionate and an in vivo method to test its substantivity on skin following its incorporation in soaps. Among several compounds tested, sodium 2-lauroyloxy propionate was found to be highly substantive in soap formulation.

  15. Hand hygiene behavior among urban slum children and their care takers in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Pati, S; Kadam, S S; Chauhan, A S

    2014-06-01

    To study the knowledge and practice of hand washing among mothers and children of shikharchandi slum of Bhubaneswar, Odisha and to recommend possible measures to improve the current practices. Present cross-sectional study was carried out in the Shikharchandi slum located in the Bhubaneswar city of Orissa state in India. 150 women and 80 children were interviewed. Children questionnaire were prepared to suit to their age and according to local context. Components of sanitation like food handling and hand washing were covered in this questionnaire. Hand washing before preparing food is being practiced by 85% of women. Of all women interviewed, 77% wash hands before serving food. Only 15% children said soap was available in their school to wash hands. Out of total children interviewed, 76% told that their teachers tell about sanitation and hand washing in the class. Only 5% children told they were consulted by doctor/health worker during last 3 months. As many as 81% children told that they wash their hands before taking food and 19% children said they take their food without washing hands. Though most of the children told that they wash hands before taking food, but only 17.5% told that they use soap for hand washing. Only 29% children told that their teachers check hand washing in school. When asked about critical timing of hand washing, 44% children told about at least two critical timings and 56% were unaware about the critical timings of hand washing. Inadequate knowledge on this among our study participant is a point of concern. Systematic integration of health and hygiene education in schools through curricular modifications could be an appropriate strategy.

  16. A High Performance SOAP Engine for Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Welzl, Michael; Zhang, Liang

    Web Service technology still has many defects that make its usage for Grid computing problematic, most notably the low performance of the SOAP engine. In this paper, we develop a novel SOAP engine called SOAPExpress, which adopts two key techniques for improving processing performance: SCTP data transport and dynamic early binding based data mapping. Experimental results show a significant and consistent performance improvement of SOAPExpress over Apache Axis.

  17. Mother Courage and Her Soaps: "Incendies, Weeds, Nurse Jackie," and Daytime Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The decline of the soap opera as a major form of popular culture highlights the importance of that form in creating and maintaining a shared subculture for women. Soap operas are contrasted with recent television and film works that present the struggles of women in a different way, highlighting the distinctive features of soap operas as women's…

  18. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.70 Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar...

  19. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.70 Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar...

  20. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.70 Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar...

  1. A comparative study to evaluate liquid dish washing soap as an alternative to xylene and alcohol in deparaffinization and hematoxylin and eosin staining.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Tanwar, Aparna; Sharma, Anuradha; Mittal, Sanjeev

    2014-07-01

    Our study presents a new deparaffinizing and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining method that involves the use of easily available, nontoxic and eco-friendly liquid diluted dish washing soap (DWS) by completely eliminating expensive and hazardous xylene and alcohol from deparaffinizing and rehydration prior to staining, staining and from dehydration prior to mounting. The aim was to evaluate and compare the quality of liquid DWS treated xylene and alcohol free (XAF) sections with that of the conventional H and E sections. A total of 100 paraffin embedded tissue blocks from different tissues were included. From each tissue block, one section was stained with conventional H and E (normal sections) and the other with XAF H and E (soapy sections) staining method. Slides were scored using five parameters: Nuclear, cytoplasmic, clarity, uniformity, and crispness of staining. Z-test was used for statistical analysis. Soapy sections scored better for cytoplasmic (90%) and crisp staining (95%) with a statistically significant difference. Whereas for uniformity of staining, normal sections (88%) scored over soapy sections (72%) (Z = 2.82, P < 0.05). For nuclear (90%) and clarity of staining (90%) total scored favored soapy sections, but the difference was not statistically significant. About 84% normal sections stained adequately for diagnosis when compared with 86% in soapy sections (Z = 0.396, P > 0.05). Liquid DWS is a safe and efficient alternative to xylene and alcohol in deparaffinization and routine H and E staining procedure. We are documenting this project that can be used as a model for other histology laboratories.

  2. The 'Dope' on Soaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Patrick T.

    1983-01-01

    Used a sample of 165 long-time soap opera viewers to examine the context, motives, and consequences of drug use in daytime serials. Results showed alcohol was seen more frequently than any other drug. Portrayal of illegal drugs was much less common than that of legal drugs. (JAC)

  3. SPICE Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggi, John; Carnright, Robert; Hildebrand, Claude

    2008-01-01

    A SPICE module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) precisely represents complex motion and maneuvers in an interactive, 3D animated environment with support for user-defined quantitative outputs. (SPICE stands for Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, and Events). This module enables the SOAP software to exploit NASA mission ephemeris represented in the JPL Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) SPICE formats. Ephemeris types supported include position, velocity, and orientation for spacecraft and planetary bodies including the Sun, planets, natural satellites, comets, and asteroids. Entire missions can now be imported into SOAP for 3D visualization, playback, and analysis. The SOAP analysis and display features can now leverage detailed mission files to offer the analyst both a numerically correct and aesthetically pleasing combination of results that can be varied to study many hypothetical scenarios. The software provides a modeling and simulation environment that can encompass a broad variety of problems using orbital prediction. For example, ground coverage analysis, communications analysis, power and thermal analysis, and 3D visualization that provide the user with insight into complex geometric relations are included. The SOAP SPICE module allows distributed science and engineering teams to share common mission models of known pedigree, which greatly reduces duplication of effort and the potential for error. The use of the software spans all phases of the space system lifecycle, from the study of future concepts to operations and anomaly analysis. It allows SOAP software to correctly position and orient all of the principal bodies of the Solar System within a single simulation session along with multiple spacecraft trajectories and the orientation of mission payloads. In addition to the 3D visualization, the user can define numeric variables and x-y plots to quantitatively assess metrics of interest.

  4. [The effectiveness of hand hygiene products on MRSA colonization of health care workers by using CHROMagar MRSA].

    PubMed

    Koçak Tufan, Zeliha; Irmak, Hasan; Bulut, Cemal; Cesur, Salih; Kınıklı, Sami; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were; to investigate the hand hygiene compliance of the health care workers (HCWs) during their routine patient care, to determine the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) hand colonization of the HCWs, to investigate the effect of different hand hygiene products on MRSA colonization and to evaluate the effectiveness of chromogenic agar for detecting MRSA. HCWs were investigated during their routine patient care and hand cultures were taken before and after hand wash/hygiene. Two different techniques were used to obtain the hand cultures: fingertip method (CHROMagar MRSA containing HygiSlide); and direct swab method and then inoculation to CHROMagar MRSA media. MRSA strains grown on those cultures were confirmed with conventional methods. A total of 100 HCWs (of them 61 were female; mean age: 32.7 ± 5.2 years; age range: 25-51 years) involving physicians (n= 33), nurses (n= 38) and health care assistants (n= 29), were included in the study. MRSA was detected in 39% and 11% before hand hygiene and in 13% and 6% after hand hygiene, with HygiSlide CHROMagar media and with CHROMagar in plate media, respectively. No difference were found regarding clinics, occupations, or the type of patient handling in those HCWs who were positive (n= 13) for MRSA colonization following hand hygiene, and those who were negative (n= 26). However, the type of the hand hygiene product used exhibited a statistical difference. None of the seven HCWs who used alcohol based hand rub revealed growth in the second culture while 10 of 19 (53%) HCWs who used soap and three of 13 (23%) HCWs who used chlorhexidine were still colonized with MRSA. In terms of reduction in the MRSA counts, the most effective one was the alcohol based hand rub while the soap was the least, since seven of 19 (37%) HCWs who used soap showed no reduction at all in the MRSA counts. A high ratio of hand colonization with MRSA was detected in our hospital staff (39%). It was shown that

  5. Fibrillar films obtained from sodium soap fibers and polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zawko, Scott A; Schmidt, Christine E

    2011-08-01

    An objective of tissue engineering is to create synthetic polymer scaffolds with a fibrillar microstructure similar to the extracellular matrix. Here, we present a novel method for creating polymer fibers using the layer-by-layer method and sacrificial templates composed of sodium soap fibers. Soap fibers were prepared from neutralized fatty acids using a sodium chloride crystal dissolution method. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) of polystyrene sulfonate and polyallylamine hydrochloride were deposited onto the soap fibers, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and then the soap fibers were leached with warm water and ethanol. The morphology of the resulting PEM structures was a dense network of fibers surrounded by a nonfibrillar matrix. Microscopy revealed that the PEM fibers were solid structures, presumably composed of polyelectrolytes complexed with residual fatty acids. These fibrillar PEM films were found to support the attachment of human dermal fibroblasts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Green Soap: An Extraction and Saponification of Avocado Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutheimer, Susan; Caster, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Simone H.

    2015-01-01

    An introductory level green chemistry experiment is described that places a new twist on soap-making in lab. In this experiment, oil is extracted from an avocado, after which the oil is saponified to produce bars of green craft soap. Commonly used extraction solvents, such as petroleum ether, methylene chloride, and hexane, are replaced with safer…

  7. Viscosity of particulate soap films: approaching the jamming of 2D capillary suspensions.

    PubMed

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-05-14

    We compute the effective viscosity of particulate soap films thanks to local velocity fields obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) during film retraction experiments. We identify the jamming of these 2D capillary suspensions at a critical particle surface fraction (≃0.84) where effective viscosity diverges. Pair correlation function and number of neighbors in contact or close to contact reveal the cohesive nature of this 2D capillary granular media. The experimental 2D dynamic viscosities can be predicted by a model considering viscous dissipation at the liquid interfaces induced by the motion of individual particles.

  8. NPDES Permit for Soap Creek Associates Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  9. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategor...

  10. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategor...

  11. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 9. Washing and drying of hands to reduce microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    During various daily activities at home and work, hands quickly become contaminated. Some activities increase the risk of finger contamination by pathogens more than others, such as the use of toilet paper to clean up following a diarrheal episode, changing the diaper of a sick infant, blowing a nose, or touching raw food materials. Many foodborne outbreak investigation reports have identified the hands of food workers as the source of pathogens in the implicated food. The most convenient and efficient way of removing pathogens from hands is through hand washing. Important components of hand washing are potable water for rinsing and soaps to loosen microbes from the skin. Hand washing should occur after any activity that soils hands and certainly before preparing, serving, or eating food. Antimicrobial soaps are marginally more effective than plain soaps, but constant use results in a buildup of the antimicrobial compound on the skin. The time taken to wash hands and the degree of friction generated during lathering are more important than water temperature for removing soil and microorganisms. However, excessive washing and scrubbing can cause skin damage and infections. Drying hands with a towel removes pathogens first by friction during rubbing with the drying material and then by wicking away the moisture into that material. Paper rather than cloth towels should be encouraged, although single-use cloth towels are present in the washrooms of higher class hotels and restaurants. Warm air dryers remove moisture and any surface microorganisms loosened by washing from hands by evaporation while the hands are rubbed together vigorously; however, these dryers take too long for efficient use. The newer dryers with high-speed air blades can achieve dryness in 10 to 15 s without hand rubbing.

  12. Larvicidal activity of synthetic disinfectants and antibacterial soaps against mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A

    2013-01-01

    Seven commercial synthetic disinfectant and antibacterial soap products were evaluated as mosquito larvicides against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Three aerosol disinfectant products, at 0.01% concentration resulted in 58-76% mortality of laboratory-reared fourth instar mosquito larvae at 24 h posttreatment. Four antibacterial soap products at 0.0001% concentration resulted in 88-100% larval mortality at 24 h posttreatment. The active ingredient of the antibacterial soap products, triclosan (0.1%) resulted in 74% larval mortality. One of the antibacterial soap products, Equate caused the highest mosquito larval mortality in the laboratory. Equate antibacterial soap at the application rate of 0.000053 ppm resulted in 90% mortality of the introduced fourth instar larvae of Cx. quinquesfasicatus in the outdoor pools. In laboratory and field bioassays, the antibacterial soap resulted in significant larval mosquito mortality.

  13. 6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: AMERICAN CAR & FOUNDRY COMPANY MANUAL SOAP CUTTER INSTALLED 1932 (FOREGROUND); CONVEYORS; AND R.A. JONES & COMPANY HORIZONTAL PRESS INSTALLED 1931 (BACKGROUND) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  14. Epidemiologic Background of Hand Hygiene and Evaluation of the Most Important Agents for Scrubs and Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Kramer, Axel

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of nosocomial infections, the frequency of contaminated hands with the different nosocomial pathogens, and the role of health care workers' hands during outbreaks suggest that a hand hygiene preparation should at least have activity against bacteria, yeasts, and coated viruses. The importance of efficacy in choosing the right hand hygiene product is reflected in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on hand hygiene (J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:1-45, 2002). The best antimicrobial efficacy can be achieved with ethanol (60 to 85%), isopropanol (60 to 80%), and n-propanol (60 to 80%). The activity is broad and immediate. Ethanol at high concentrations (e.g., 95%) is the most effective treatment against naked viruses, whereas n-propanol seems to be more effective against the resident bacterial flora. The combination of alcohols may have a synergistic effect. The antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (2 to 4%) and triclosan (1 to 2%) is both lower and slower. Additionally, both agents have a risk of bacterial resistance, which is higher for chlorhexidine than triclosan. Their activity is often supported by the mechanical removal of pathogens during hand washing. Taking the antimicrobial efficacy and the mechanical removal together, they are still less effective than the alcohols. Plain soap and water has the lowest efficacy of all. In the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline, promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs containing various emollients instead of irritating soaps and detergents is one strategy to reduce skin damage, dryness, and irritation. Irritant contact dermatitis is highest with preparations containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, less frequent with nonantimicrobial soaps and preparations containing lower concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, and lowest with well-formulated alcohol-based hand rubs containing emollients and other skin conditioners. Too few published data

  15. Use Primary Sources to Develop a Soap Opera: As the Civil War Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a social studies class activity that uses primary sources to develop a soap opera based on the American Civil War. In the soap opera activity, students can watch historical characters as they grow, develop, and change. Not only do people in the soap opera develop over a long period, but their accumulated…

  16. A comparative study to evaluate liquid dish washing soap as an alternative to xylene and alcohol in deparaffinization and hematoxylin and eosin staining

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Tanwar, Aparna; Sharma, Anuradha; Mittal, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Our study presents a new deparaffinizing and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining method that involves the use of easily available, nontoxic and eco-friendly liquid diluted dish washing soap (DWS) by completely eliminating expensive and hazardous xylene and alcohol from deparaffinizing and rehydration prior to staining, staining and from dehydration prior to mounting. The aim was to evaluate and compare the quality of liquid DWS treated xylene and alcohol free (XAF) sections with that of the conventional H and E sections. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 paraffin embedded tissue blocks from different tissues were included. From each tissue block, one section was stained with conventional H and E (normal sections) and the other with XAF H and E (soapy sections) staining method. Slides were scored using five parameters: Nuclear, cytoplasmic, clarity, uniformity, and crispness of staining. Z-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Soapy sections scored better for cytoplasmic (90%) and crisp staining (95%) with a statistically significant difference. Whereas for uniformity of staining, normal sections (88%) scored over soapy sections (72%) (Z = 2.82, P < 0.05). For nuclear (90%) and clarity of staining (90%) total scored favored soapy sections, but the difference was not statistically significant. About 84% normal sections stained adequately for diagnosis when compared with 86% in soapy sections (Z = 0.396, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Liquid DWS is a safe and efficient alternative to xylene and alcohol in deparaffinization and routine H and E staining procedure. We are documenting this project that can be used as a model for other histology laboratories. PMID:25328332

  17. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  18. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  19. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  20. Is cutaneous malignant melanoma associated with the use of antibacterial soaps?

    PubMed

    Arbesman, H

    1999-07-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of melanoma has increased dramatically in Caucasians worldwide, and during the past decade has risen at a rate of 6% a year in the USA. A hypothesis regarding this increased incidence suggests that the prevalent use of antibacterial soaps that contain photosensitizing compounds may be a risk factor for the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma. These antibacterial soaps were introduced in the 1960s and compounds with photosensitizing properties are still present in various soaps throughout the industrialized world. The use of these antibacterial soaps, in combination with sun exposure, leads to free radical production in the skin. These free radicals are hypothesized to cause damage to melanocytes, leading to the development of melanoma. Various epidemiological findings regarding melanoma are consistent with this hypothesis. A significant reduction in the number of new cases of melanoma could be achieved if this hypothesis is correct.

  1. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by...

  2. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by...

  3. Mobile Cloud Computing with SOAP and REST Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mushtaq; Fadli Zolkipli, Mohamad; Mohamad Zain, Jasni; Anwar, Shahid

    2018-05-01

    Mobile computing in conjunction with Mobile web services drives a strong approach where the limitations of mobile devices may possibly be tackled. Mobile Web Services are based on two types of technologies; SOAP and REST, which works with the existing protocols to develop Web services. Both the approaches carry their own distinct features, yet to keep the constraint features of mobile devices in mind, the better in two is considered to be the one which minimize the computation and transmission overhead while offloading. The load transferring of mobile device to remote servers for execution called computational offloading. There are numerous approaches to implement computational offloading a viable solution for eradicating the resources constraints of mobile device, yet a dynamic method of computational offloading is always required for a smooth and simple migration of complex tasks. The intention of this work is to present a distinctive approach which may not engage the mobile resources for longer time. The concept of web services utilized in our work to delegate the computational intensive tasks for remote execution. We tested both SOAP Web services approach and REST Web Services for mobile computing. Two parameters considered in our lab experiments to test; Execution Time and Energy Consumption. The results show that RESTful Web services execution is far better than executing the same application by SOAP Web services approach, in terms of execution time and energy consumption. Conducting experiments with the developed prototype matrix multiplication app, REST execution time is about 200% better than SOAP execution approach. In case of energy consumption REST execution is about 250% better than SOAP execution approach.

  4. Evaluation of pH of Bathing Soaps and Shampoos for Skin and Hair Care.

    PubMed

    Tarun, Jose; Susan, Jose; Suria, Jacob; Susan, Veronica John; Criton, Sebastian

    2014-09-01

    Normal healthy skin has potential of hydrogen (pH) range of 5.4-5.9 and a normal bacterial flora. Use of soap with high pH causes an increase in skin pH, which in turn causes an increase in dehydrative effect, irritability and alteration in bacterial flora. The majority of soaps and shampoos available in the market do not disclose their pH. The aim of this study was to assess the pH of different brands of bathing soaps and shampoos available in the market. The samples of soaps and shampoos were collected from shops in the locality. The samples of different brands are coded before the analysis of the pH. Solution of each sample was made and pH was measured using pH meter. Majority of the soaps have a pH within the range of 9-10. Majority of the shampoos have a pH within the range of 6-7. The soaps and shampoos commonly used by the population at large have a pH outside the range of normal skin and hair pH values. Therefore, it is hoped that before recommending soap to patient especially those who have sensitive and acne prone skin, due consideration is given to the pH factor and also that manufacturers will give a thought to pH of soaps and shampoos manufactured by them, so that their products will be more skin and hair friendly.

  5. Seeking Clearer Recommendations for Hand Hygiene in Communities Facing Ebola: A Randomized Trial Investigating the Impact of Six Handwashing Methods on Skin Irritation and Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Marlene K; Wells, Emma; Mitro, Brittany; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Scheinman, Pamela; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To prevent disease transmission, 0.05% chlorine solution is commonly recommended for handwashing in Ebola Treatment Units. In the 2014 West Africa outbreak this recommendation was widely extended to community settings, although many organizations recommend soap and hand sanitizer over chlorine. To evaluate skin irritation caused by frequent handwashing that may increase transmission risk in Ebola-affected communities, we conducted a randomized trial with 91 subjects who washed their hands 10 times a day for 28 days. Subjects used soap and water, sanitizer, or one of four chlorine solutions used by Ebola responders (calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and generated or pH-stabilized sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)). Outcomes were self-reported hand feel, irritation as measured by the Hand Eczema Score Index (HECSI) (range 0-360), signs of transmission risk (e.g., cracking), and dermatitis diagnosis. All groups experienced statistically significant increases in HECSI score. Subjects using sanitizer had the smallest increases, followed by higher pH chlorine solutions (HTH and stabilized NaOCl), and soap and water. The greatest increases were among neutral pH chlorine solutions (NaDCC and generated NaOCl). Signs of irritation related to higher transmission risk were observed most frequently in subjects using soap and least frequently by those using sanitizer or HTH. Despite these irritation increases, all methods represented minor changes in HECSI score. Average HECSI score was only 9.10 at endline (range 1-33) and 4% (4/91) of subjects were diagnosed with dermatitis, one each in four groups. Each handwashing method has benefits and drawbacks: soap is widely available and inexpensive, but requires water and does not inactivate the virus; sanitizer is easy-to use and effective but expensive and unacceptable to many communities, and chlorine is easy-to-use but difficult to produce properly and distribute. Overall, we recommend Ebola responders and

  6. Electron Microscopy Imaging of Zinc Soaps Nucleation in Oil Paint.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Joen; Osmond, Gillian; van Loon, Annelies; Iedema, Piet; Chapman, Robyn; Drennan, John; Jack, Kevin; Rasch, Ronald; Morgan, Garry; Zhang, Zhi; Monteiro, Michael; Keune, Katrien

    2018-06-04

    Using the recently developed techniques of electron tomography, we have explored the first stages of disfiguring formation of zinc soaps in modern oil paintings. The formation of complexes of zinc ions with fatty acids in paint layers is a major threat to the stability and appearance of many late 19th and early 20th century oil paintings. Moreover, the occurrence of zinc soaps in oil paintings leading to defects is disturbingly common, but the chemical reactions and migration mechanisms leading to large zinc soap aggregates or zones remain poorly understood. State-of-the-art scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy techniques, primarily developed for biological specimens, have enabled us to visualize the earliest stages of crystalline zinc soap growth in a reconstructed zinc white (ZnO) oil paint sample. In situ sectioning techniques and sequential imaging within the SEM allowed three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of sample morphology. Improvements in the detection and discrimination of backscattered electrons enabled us to identify local precipitation processes with small atomic number contrast. The SEM images were correlated to low-dose and high-sensitivity TEM images, with high-resolution tomography providing unprecedented insight into the structure of nucleating zinc soaps at the molecular level. The correlative approach applied here to study phase separation, and crystallization processes specific to a problem in art conservation creates possibilities for visualization of phase formation in a wide range of soft materials.

  7. Laundry Soap from Waste Cooking Oil. What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides instructions for clarifying cooking oil and using it with either wood ash lye or commercial lye to make laundry soap. It also provides (in appendices): a discussion of oils and soaps, including the history of soap; instructions for preparing an 18 percent lye solution; instructions for preparing soap using lye from wood ash;…

  8. Flapping dynamics of a thin liquid sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadivukkarasan, M.; Kumaran, Dhivyaraja; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Multi-phase flow physics Group Team

    2017-11-01

    We attempt to delineate and describe the complete evolution of a thin soap film when air is blown through a nozzle in the normal direction. The sequence of events and its intrinsic dynamics are captured using high speed imaging. By careful observation, it was observed that multiple mechanisms occur in the same system and each event is triggered by an independent mechanism. The events include (a) flapping of a liquid sheet and pinching of the bubble, (b) onset of rupture on the liquid sheet, (c) formation of ligaments and (d) ejection of drops. From this study, it is shown that these events are predominantly governed by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Taylor - Culick law, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and capillary instability, respectively. The present experiments can be considered as an extension to the previous studies on soap films as well as thin flapping sheets which has direct relevance to coaxial atomizers used in aircraft applications.

  9. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.60 Applicability...

  10. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.60 Applicability...

  11. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.60 Applicability...

  12. Clean Hands for Life: results of a large, multicentre, multifaceted, social marketing hand-hygiene campaign.

    PubMed

    Forrester, L A; Bryce, E A; Mediaa, A K

    2010-03-01

    A year-long multifaceted hand-hygiene campaign entitled Clean Hands for Life targeting individual, environmental and organisational factors that influence healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour was implemented in 36 acute and long-term care facilities in Vancouver Coastal Health region. The campaign involved rotation of ten novel posters, two poster contests, and distribution of multiple promotional items. A social marketing approach was used to implement and monitor the effectiveness of the campaign. Evaluation included quality assurance surveys, staff surveys (baseline, mid- and post-campaign), and focus groups. A total of 141 poster contest submissions was received, 5452 staff surveys completed and 14 focus groups conducted. Overall knowledge of the importance of hand-hygiene and intention to clean hands was high at baseline. No significant differences were observed when mid- and post-campaign scores were compared to baseline. The majority (89.5%) of HCWs reported that they preferred soap and water over alcohol hand gel. A significant increase in the self-reported use of hand-hygiene products was observed particularly among HCWs not providing direct patient care. Barriers to hand-hygiene included inappropriate placement of sinks, traffic flow issues, inadequately stocked washrooms, workload and time constraints. Organisational support was visible throughout the campaign. The results showed that social marketing is an effective approach in engaging HCWs. Hand-hygiene campaigns that focus almost exclusively on increasing awareness among HCWs may not be as successful as multifaceted campaigns or campaigns that target identified barriers to hand-hygiene. Copyright 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the soap... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...

  14. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...

  15. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...

  16. The effect of random voice hand hygiene messages delivered by medical, nursing, and infection control staff on hand hygiene compliance in intensive care.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, Maryanne; Shubin, Arlene; McBride, Patricia; Lane, Stephen; Strauss, Kevin; Butler, Donna; Pitman, Andrew

    2006-12-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) compliance in the intensive care unit has been studied extensively, with short-term, nonsustained compliance often because of lack of ongoing reinforcement. HH messages delivered by health care workers responsible for overseeing staff in the intensive care unit provided continuous reinforcement of HH. Compliance measured through product usage and reported as HH/bed-days increased by 60% for soap and sanitizer combined and 25% for sanitizer usage (P < 001).

  17. Hand hygiene knowledge and practice among university students: evidence from Private Universities of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Hossain, Sarder Mahmud

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene has achieved the reputation of being a convenient means of preventing communicable diseases. Although causal links between hand hygiene and rates of infectious disease have also been established earlier, studies focusing on hand hygiene among university-going students are not adequate in number. This study evaluated handwashing knowledge, practice, and other related factors among the selected university students in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 undergraduate students from four selected universities. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire, that included a checklist associated with handwashing practice, was applied to capture all relevant data. The mean (± SD) age of the participants was 20.4 (±1.8) years. The majority of the students washed their hands with water, but only 22.5% washed their hands effectively by maintaining the correct steps and frequency of handwashing with water, and soap or hand sanitizer. The mean (± SD) score of the participants’ hand hygiene practice was 50.81 (±4.79), while the total score with all perfect answers was considered as 66. Regression coefficient demonstrated that age has a negative influence on hand hygiene practice, as older students have lower scores compared to the younger ones (P<0.01). However, the unmarried students were a significant predictor for influencing the incensement of handwashing practice compared to the married ones (P<0.01). Findings of this study designate widespread insufficient hand hygiene practice in the university-going students and indicate a need for an extensive public health education program on this topic. Furthermore, availability of soap and sufficient water supply is needed within the university setting to facilitate handwashing. Therefore, supporting quantity and quality of available campus-based public health education programs along with providing health-washing equipment is suggested. PMID:26929673

  18. Hand hygiene knowledge and practice among university students: evidence from Private Universities of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Hossain, Sarder Mahmud

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene has achieved the reputation of being a convenient means of preventing communicable diseases. Although causal links between hand hygiene and rates of infectious disease have also been established earlier, studies focusing on hand hygiene among university-going students are not adequate in number. This study evaluated handwashing knowledge, practice, and other related factors among the selected university students in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 undergraduate students from four selected universities. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire, that included a checklist associated with handwashing practice, was applied to capture all relevant data. The mean (± SD) age of the participants was 20.4 (±1.8) years. The majority of the students washed their hands with water, but only 22.5% washed their hands effectively by maintaining the correct steps and frequency of handwashing with water, and soap or hand sanitizer. The mean (± SD) score of the participants' hand hygiene practice was 50.81 (±4.79), while the total score with all perfect answers was considered as 66. Regression coefficient demonstrated that age has a negative influence on hand hygiene practice, as older students have lower scores compared to the younger ones (P<0.01). However, the unmarried students were a significant predictor for influencing the incensement of handwashing practice compared to the married ones (P<0.01). Findings of this study designate widespread insufficient hand hygiene practice in the university-going students and indicate a need for an extensive public health education program on this topic. Furthermore, availability of soap and sufficient water supply is needed within the university setting to facilitate handwashing. Therefore, supporting quantity and quality of available campus-based public health education programs along with providing health-washing equipment is suggested.

  19. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap...

  20. The role of surface elasticity in liquid film formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champougny, Lorene; Scheid, Benoit; Restagno, Frederic; Rio, Emmanuelle; Laboratoire de Physique des Solides Team; TIPS-Fluid Physics Unit Team

    2014-11-01

    The formation of thin liquid films, either free standing (soap films) or deposited on a solid substrate (coated films), is of utmost importance for many applications, ranging from the control of foam stability to surface functionalization. In this work, the behavior of thin liquid films during their generation from a surfactant solution is investigated through comparison between a hydrodynamic model including surface elasticity and experiments. ``Twin'' models are proposed to describe the coating of films onto a solid plate (Landau-Levich-Derjaguin configuration) as well as soap film pulling (Frankel configuration) in a single framework. Experimental data are successfully fitted using the models, surface elasticity being the only adjustable parameter. For a given surfactant solution, the analyses of soap and coated films both yield the same value for the effective surface elasticity, showing that it is an intrinsic parameter of a surfactant solution. Conversely, we demonstrate that Frankel- or Landau-Levich-like experiments can be used in practice as surface rheometers to determine the numerical value of the (effective) surface elasticity of a solution, especially for values lower than those measurable by classical devices. L.C. was supported by ANR F2F. B.S. thanks the F.R.S.-FNRS for funding as well as the IAP-MicroMAST project.

  1. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products.

  2. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap...

  3. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap...

  4. TCP/IP Interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet protocol (TCP/IP) interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) provides the means for the software to establish real-time interfaces with other software. Such interfaces can operate between two programs, either on the same computer or on different computers joined by a network. The SOAP TCP/IP module employs a client/server interface where SOAP is the server and other applications can be clients. Real-time interfaces between software offer a number of advantages over embedding all of the common functionality within a single program. One advantage is that they allow each program to divide the computation labor between processors or computers running the separate applications. Secondly, each program can be allowed to provide its own expertise domain with other programs able to use this expertise.

  5. Soap-film coating: High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renyun; Andersson, Henrik A.; Andersson, Mattias; Andres, Britta; Edlund, Håkan; Edström, Per; Edvardsson, Sverker; Forsberg, Sven; Hummelgård, Magnus; Johansson, Niklas; Karlsson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Norgren, Magnus; Olsen, Martin; Uesaka, Tetsu; Öhlund, Thomas; Olin, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The coating of thin films is applied in numerous fields and many methods are employed for the deposition of these films. Some coating techniques may deposit films at high speed; for example, ordinary printing paper is coated with micrometre-thick layers of clay at a speed of tens of meters per second. However, to coat nanometre thin films at high speed, vacuum techniques are typically required, which increases the complexity of the process. Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for the high-speed coating of films with thicknesses at the nanometre level. This soap-film coating technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. Molecules and nanomaterials can be deposited at a thickness ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology. PMID:23503102

  6. The fluid trampoline: droplets bouncing on a soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Gilet, Tristan

    2008-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of droplets falling onto a horizontal soap film. Both static and vertically vibrated soap films are considered. A quasi-static description of the soap film shape yields a force-displacement relation that provides excellent agreement with experiment, and allows us to model the film as a nonlinear spring. This approach yields an accurate criterion for the transition between droplet bouncing and crossing on the static film; moreover, it allows us to rationalize the observed constancy of the contact time and scaling for the coefficient of restitution in the bouncing states. On the vibrating film, a variety of bouncing behaviours were observed, including simple and complex periodic states, multiperiodicity and chaos. A simple theoretical model is developed that captures the essential physics of the bouncing process, reproducing all observed bouncing states. Quantitative agreement between model and experiment is deduced for simple periodic modes, and qualitative agreement for more complex periodic and chaotic bouncing states.

  7. The effect of Ebola Virus Disease outbreak on hand washing among secondary school students in Ondo State Nigeria, October, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Alele, Faith Osaretin

    2015-01-01

    Hand washing with soap and water is one of the cheapest, most effective ways of limiting the spread of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Despite its importance the prevalence of hand washing was low before the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with improved hand washing practices following the EVD outbreak. A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free. Systematic random sampling was used. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Data was analysed with epi info version 7, descriptive statistics were done, Chi square test was used for the assessment of significant associations between proportions. Determinants of good hand washing practices was identified using logistics regression analysis at 5% level of significance. Of 440 respondents, mean age was 13.7±1.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Only 4.6% have never heard of Ebola Virus Disease.Level of hand washing with soap and water improved by62.6%. Significant improvement in hand washing was in 75.8% of those who heard through social media (p < 0.001), 70.5% of Newspaper readers(p < 0.001), 65.6% of radio listeners (p = 0.001), 75.4% of family members p < 0.001, 76.3% talk in church p < 0.001, 77.6% peers p = 0.02, 72.4% TV p < 0.001. Change in hand washing practices was associated with watching television (AOR: 2.2; CI 95%: 1.1-4.3) and listening to health education in church (AOR: 2.4; CI 95%: 1.2-4.7).Major reason for change in hand washing practices was because of EVD deadly nature, 170(40.5%). Watching health education messages on television and listening to it in church are the determinants of change in hand washing practices. Promotion of hand washing with soap and water needs to be sustained to prevent other diseases. Training of students on prevention of EVD was conducted in selected schools.

  8. The Appeal of Soap Opera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielwasser, Alfred P.; Wolf, Michelle A.

    This paper provides a framework for developing an approach to understanding soap opera's appeal as a direct function of both the genre's form and of its fans' viewing behavior. The paper suggests that while this analysis is largely critical, other studies from both critical and social scientific approaches can be based upon the framework and…

  9. Soap production: A green prospective.

    PubMed

    Félix, Sandra; Araújo, Joana; Pires, Ana Maria; Sousa, Ana Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    A green prospective based on the reuse of waste materials such as almond shells, orange peel and used cooking oil to manufacture soap is presented. In Portugal, thousands of tons of waste are generated from used cooking oil and production of nut shells' residues is growing every year. In addition, the high consumption of citrus fruits, oranges in particular, generates large amounts of citrus peel. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify reuse mechanisms of these wastes, in order to make them back into raw materials. Complying with this trend, this work was carried out by processing and grinding almond shells, treating used oil, processing orange peels and extracting limonene, formulating and producing soap, and performing an acceptance study of the final product. Results validated a high potential of the idea in the field of environmental education, so it can be replicated in practical classes. It can also be useful for waste management, and it can support the development of community projects on an ecological approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An automated hand hygiene training system improves hand hygiene technique but not compliance.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Yen Lee Angela; Callard, Michelle; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-08-01

    The hand hygiene technique that the World Health Organization recommends for cleansing hands with soap and water or alcohol-based handrub consists of 7 poses. We used an automated training system to improve clinicians' hand hygiene technique and test whether this affected hospitalwide hand hygiene compliance. Seven hundred eighty-nine medical and nursing staff volunteered to participate in a self-directed training session using the automated training system. The proportion of successful first attempts was reported for each of the 7 poses. Hand hygiene compliance was collected according to the national requirement and rates for 2011-2014 were used to determine the effect of the training system on compliance. The highest pass rate was for pose 1 (palm to palm) at 77% (606 out of 789), whereas pose 6 (clean thumbs) had the lowest pass rate at 27% (216 out of 789). One hundred volunteers provided feedback to 8 items related to satisfaction with the automated training system and most (86%) expressed a high degree of satisfaction and all reported that this method was time-efficient. There was no significant change in compliance rates after the introduction of the automated training system. Observed compliance during the posttraining period declined but increased to 82% in response to other strategies. Technology for training clinicians in the 7 poses played an important education role but did not affect compliance rates. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of an instant hand sanitizer on blood glucose monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, John J; Ellison, John M; Glaeser, Danielle; Price, David

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are instructed to clean their skin prior to self-monitoring of blood glucose to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become popular when soap and water are not available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hand sanitizer is compatible with glucose meter testing and effective for the removal of exogenous glucose. We enrolled 34 nonfasting subjects [14 male/20 female, mean ages 45 (standard deviation, 9.4)] years, 2 with diagnosed diabetes/32 without known diabetes]. Laboratory personnel prepared four separate fingers on one hand of each subject by (1) cleaning the second finger with soap and water and towel drying (i.e., control finger), (2) cleaning the third finger with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, (3) coating the fourth finger with cola and allowing it to air dry, and (4) coating the fifth finger with cola and then cleaning it with the instant hand sanitizer after the cola had dried. Finger sticks were performed on each prepared finger and blood glucose was measured. Several in vitro studies were also performed to investigate the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer for removal of exogenous glucose.z Mean blood glucose values from fingers cleaned with instant hand sanitizer did not differ significantly from the control finger (p = .07 and .08, respectively) and resulted in 100% accurate results. Blood glucose data from the fourth (cola-coated) finger were substantially higher on average compared with the other finger conditions, but glucose data from the fifth finger (cola-coated then cleaned with hand sanitizer) was similar to the control finger. The data from in vitro experiments showed that the hand sanitizer did not adversely affect glucose meter results, but when an exogenous glucose interference was present, the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer on glucose bias (range: 6% to 212%) depended on the surface area and degree of dilution. In our study

  12. The Effect of an Instant Hand Sanitizer on Blood Glucose Monitoring Results

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, John J; Ellison, John M; Glaeser, Danielle; Price, David

    2011-01-01

    Background People with diabetes mellitus are instructed to clean their skin prior to self-monitoring of blood glucose to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become popular when soap and water are not available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hand sanitizer is compatible with glucose meter testing and effective for the removal of exogenous glucose. Methods We enrolled 34 nonfasting subjects [14 male/20 female, mean ages 45 (standard deviation, 9.4)] years, 2 with diagnosed diabetes/32 without known diabetes]. Laboratory personnel prepared four separate fingers on one hand of each subject by (1) cleaning the second finger with soap and water and towel drying (i.e., control finger), (2) cleaning the third finger with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, (3) coating the fourth finger with cola and allowing it to air dry, and (4) coating the fifth finger with cola and then cleaning it with the instant hand sanitizer after the cola had dried. Finger sticks were performed on each prepared finger and blood glucose was measured. Several in vitro studies were also performed to investigate the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer for removal of exogenous glucose.z Results Mean blood glucose values from fingers cleaned with instant hand sanitizer did not differ significantly from the control finger (p = .07 and .08, respectively) and resulted in 100% accurate results. Blood glucose data from the fourth (cola-coated) finger were substantially higher on average compared with the other finger conditions, but glucose data from the fifth finger (cola-coated then cleaned with hand sanitizer) was similar to the control finger. The data from in vitro experiments showed that the hand sanitizer did not adversely affect glucose meter results, but when an exogenous glucose interference was present, the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer on glucose bias (range: 6% to 212%) depended on the surface area and degree of

  13. Transmission of helminth eggs through hands in a high-risk community.

    PubMed

    Gulliver, Francesca; Jeandron, Aurelie; Nguyen, Viet Anh; Do, Hong Anh; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2014-10-01

    The role that hands play in the transmission of Ascaris is not well understood. A newly developed method to quantify the presence helminth eggs on hands was tested among a group of farmers in Vietnam. High turbidity in hand rinse samples meant that the adopted sugar solution had to be replaced by zinc sulphate as a flotation solution. The survey found 34% (31/90) of study participant hands' were positive for helminth eggs, though concentrations were low and ranged from 0-10 eggs/2 hands. The use of fresh excreta in agriculture was the only variable that showed an association with the concentrations of eggs found on hands. The results highlight the need to promote handwashing with soap to prevent the transmission of soil-transmitted helminth infections. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Determination of surface tension from the measurement of internal pressure of mini soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, F.; Behroozi, P. S.

    2011-11-01

    We review the elementary theory that gives the internal pressure of a soap bubble in terms of its radius and surface tension. The theory is generalized to relate the pressure difference across any element of a soap film to its local curvature. This result is used to introduce the concept of the mean curvature of a surface element and is applied to a double soap bubble to obtain the relation between the three radii that characterize its geometry. We also describe a simple setup, suitable for the undergraduate laboratory, to produce mini bubbles and to obtain the surface tension of the soap solution by measuring the radius and internal pressure of the bubbles.

  15. Lifitegrast Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... when you are finished. Do not save the liquid left in the container for your next dose.To instill the eye drops follow these steps: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. Pull off one container of medication ...

  16. Patients' Hand Washing and Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infection.

    PubMed

    Haverstick, Stacy; Goodrich, Cara; Freeman, Regi; James, Shandra; Kullar, Rajkiran; Ahrens, Melissa

    2017-06-01

    Hand hygiene is important to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Patients' hand hygiene is just as important as hospital workers' hand hygiene. Hospital-acquired infection rates remain a concern across health centers. To improve patients' hand hygiene through the promotion and use of hand washing with soap and water, hand sanitizer, or both and improve patients' education to reduce hospital-acquired infections. In August 2013, patients in a cardiothoracic postsurgical step-down unit were provided with individual bottles of hand sanitizer. Nurses and nursing technicians provided hand hygiene education to each patient. Patients completed a 6-question survey before the intervention, at hospital discharge and 1, 2, and 3 months after the intervention. Hospital-acquired infection data were tracked monthly by infection prevention staff. Significant correlations were found between hand hygiene and rates of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci ( P = .003) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( P = .01) after the intervention. After the implementation of hand hygiene interventions, rates of both infections declined significantly and patients reported more staff offering opportunities for and encouraging hand hygiene. This quality improvement project demonstrates that increased hand hygiene compliance by patients can influence infection rates in an adult cardiothoracic step-down unit. The decreased infection rates and increased compliance with hand hygiene among the patients may be attributed to the implementation of patient education and the increased accessibility and use of hand sanitizer. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  17. What is the mechanism of soap film entrainment?

    PubMed

    Saulnier, Laurie; Restagno, Frédéric; Delacotte, Jérôme; Langevin, Dominique; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2011-11-15

    Classical Frankel's law describes the formation of soap films and their evolution upon pulling, a model situation of film dynamics in foams (formation, rheology, and destabilization). With the purpose of relating film pulling to foam dynamics, we have built a new setup able to give an instantaneous measurement of film thickness, thus allowing us to determine film thickness profile during pulling. We found that only the lower part of the film is of uniform thickness and follows Frankel's law, provided the entrainment velocity is small. We show that this is due to confinement effects: there is not enough surfactant in the bulk to fully cover the newly created surfaces which results in immobile film surfaces. At large velocities, surfaces become mobile and then Frankel's law breaks down, leading to a faster drainage and thus to a nonstationary thickness at the bottom of the film. These findings should help in understanding the large dispersion of previous experimental data reported during the last 40 years and clarifying the pulling phenomenon of thin liquid films.

  18. Handwashing and Ebola virus disease outbreaks: A randomized comparison of soap, hand sanitizer, and 0.05% chlorine solutions on the inactivation and removal of model organisms Phi6 and E. coli from hands and persistence in rinse water

    PubMed Central

    Gallandat, Karin; Daniels, Kyle; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Scheinman, Pamela; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions) for 1) efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2) persistence of organisms in rinse water. Model organisms E. coli and bacteriophage Phi6 were used to evaluate handwashing with and without organic load added to simulate bodily fluids. Hands were inoculated with test organisms, washed, and rinsed using a glove juice method to retrieve remaining organisms. Impact was estimated by comparing the log reduction in organisms after handwashing to the log reduction without handwashing. Rinse water was collected to test for persistence of organisms. Handwashing resulted in a 1.94–3.01 log reduction in E. coli concentration without, and 2.18–3.34 with, soil load; and a 2.44–3.06 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 2.71–3.69 with, soil load. HTH performed most consistently well, with significantly greater log reductions than other handwashing protocols in three models. However, the magnitude of handwashing efficacy differences was small, suggesting protocols are similarly efficacious. Rinse water demonstrated a 0.28–4.77 log reduction in remaining E. coli without, and 0.21–4.49 with, soil load and a 1.26–2.02 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 1.30–2.20 with, soil load. Chlorine resulted in significantly less persistence of E. coli in both conditions and Phi6 without soil load in rinse water (p<0.001). Thus, chlorine-based methods may offer a benefit of reducing persistence in rinse water. We recommend responders use the most practical handwashing method to ensure hand hygiene in Ebola contexts, considering

  19. Handwashing and Ebola virus disease outbreaks: A randomized comparison of soap, hand sanitizer, and 0.05% chlorine solutions on the inactivation and removal of model organisms Phi6 and E. coli from hands and persistence in rinse water.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Marlene K; Gallandat, Karin; Daniels, Kyle; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Scheinman, Pamela; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions) for 1) efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2) persistence of organisms in rinse water. Model organisms E. coli and bacteriophage Phi6 were used to evaluate handwashing with and without organic load added to simulate bodily fluids. Hands were inoculated with test organisms, washed, and rinsed using a glove juice method to retrieve remaining organisms. Impact was estimated by comparing the log reduction in organisms after handwashing to the log reduction without handwashing. Rinse water was collected to test for persistence of organisms. Handwashing resulted in a 1.94-3.01 log reduction in E. coli concentration without, and 2.18-3.34 with, soil load; and a 2.44-3.06 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 2.71-3.69 with, soil load. HTH performed most consistently well, with significantly greater log reductions than other handwashing protocols in three models. However, the magnitude of handwashing efficacy differences was small, suggesting protocols are similarly efficacious. Rinse water demonstrated a 0.28-4.77 log reduction in remaining E. coli without, and 0.21-4.49 with, soil load and a 1.26-2.02 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 1.30-2.20 with, soil load. Chlorine resulted in significantly less persistence of E. coli in both conditions and Phi6 without soil load in rinse water (p<0.001). Thus, chlorine-based methods may offer a benefit of reducing persistence in rinse water. We recommend responders use the most practical handwashing method to ensure hand hygiene in Ebola contexts, considering the potential

  20. Impact of sink location on hand hygiene compliance for Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Caroline; Blakney, Rebekah; Van Hoof, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-04-01

    Hand hygiene with soap and water after the care of a patient with Clostridium difficile infection is essential to reduce nosocomial transmission in an outbreak situation. Factors that may pose barriers to user completion of infection prevention measures, such as hand hygiene, are of interest. We undertook a quantitative study to evaluate the relationship between sink location and compliance with handwashing among health care workers and visitors in a surgical transplant unit. We found that placement of 2 more easily visible sinks in a surgical transplant unit was associated with improved adherence to handwashing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Elemental and Molecular Segregation in Oil Paintings due to Lead Soap Degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen Karen; Catalano, Jaclyn; Williams, Garth J; Murphy, Anna; Yao, Yao; Zumbulyadis, Nicholas; Centeno, Silvia A; Dybowski, Cecil; Thieme, Juergen

    2017-09-14

    The formation of Pb, Zn, and Cu carboxylates (soaps) has caused visible deterioration in hundreds of oil paintings dating from the 15th century to the present. Through transport phenomena not yet understood, free fatty acids in the oil binding medium migrate through the paint and react with pigments containing heavy metals to form soaps. To investigate the complex correlation among the elemental segregation, types of chemical compounds formed, and possible mechanisms of the reactions, a paint sample cross-section from a 15th century oil painting was examined by synchrotron X-ray techniques. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy, quantified with elemental correlation density distribution, showed Pb and Sn segregation in the soap-affected areas. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) around the Pb-L3 absorption edge showed that Pb pigments and Pb soaps can be distinguished while micro-XANES gave further information on the chemical heterogeneity in the paint film. The advantages and limitations of these synchrotron-based techniques are discussed and compared to those of methods routinely used to analyze paint samples. The results presented set the stage for improving the information extracted from samples removed from works of art and for correlating observations in model paint samples to those in the naturally aged samples, to shed light onto the mechanism of soap formation.

  2. Elemental and Molecular Segregation in Oil Paintings due to Lead Soap Degradation

    DOE PAGES

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Catalano, Jaclyn; Williams, Garth J.; ...

    2017-09-14

    The formation of Pb, Zn, and Cu carboxylates (soaps) has caused visible deterioration in hundreds of oil paintings dating from the 15th century to the present. Through transport phenomena not yet understood, free fatty acids in the oil binding medium migrate through the paint and react with pigments containing heavy metals to form soaps. To investigate the complex correlation among the elemental segregation, types of chemical compounds formed, and possible mechanisms of the reactions, a paint sample cross-section from a 15th century oil painting was examined by synchrotron X-ray techniques. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy, quantified with elemental correlation density distribution,more » showed Pb and Sn segregation in the soap-affected areas. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) around the Pb-L3 absorption edge showed that Pb pigments and Pb soaps can be distinguished while micro-XANES gave further information on the chemical heterogeneity in the paint film. The advantages and limitations of these synchrotron-based techniques are discussed and compared to those of methods routinely used to analyze paint samples. The results presented set the stage for improving the information extracted from samples removed from works of art and for correlating observations in model paint samples to those in the naturally aged samples, to shed light onto the mechanism of soap formation.« less

  3. Elemental and Molecular Segregation in Oil Paintings due to Lead Soap Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Catalano, Jaclyn; Williams, Garth J.

    The formation of Pb, Zn, and Cu carboxylates (soaps) has caused visible deterioration in hundreds of oil paintings dating from the 15th century to the present. Through transport phenomena not yet understood, free fatty acids in the oil binding medium migrate through the paint and react with pigments containing heavy metals to form soaps. To investigate the complex correlation among the elemental segregation, types of chemical compounds formed, and possible mechanisms of the reactions, a paint sample cross-section from a 15th century oil painting was examined by synchrotron X-ray techniques. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy, quantified with elemental correlation density distribution,more » showed Pb and Sn segregation in the soap-affected areas. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) around the Pb-L3 absorption edge showed that Pb pigments and Pb soaps can be distinguished while micro-XANES gave further information on the chemical heterogeneity in the paint film. The advantages and limitations of these synchrotron-based techniques are discussed and compared to those of methods routinely used to analyze paint samples. The results presented set the stage for improving the information extracted from samples removed from works of art and for correlating observations in model paint samples to those in the naturally aged samples, to shed light onto the mechanism of soap formation.« less

  4. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-10-02

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff.

  5. Comparison of European ICU patients in 2012 (ICON) versus 2002 (SOAP).

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Kotfis, Katarzyna; Nanchal, Rahul; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Wittebole, Xavier; Sakka, Samir G; Pickkers, Peter; Moreno, Rui; Sakr, Yasser

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate differences in the characteristics and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients over time. We reviewed all epidemiological data, including comorbidities, types and severity of organ failure, interventions, lengths of stay and outcome, for patients from the Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (SOAP) study, an observational study conducted in European intensive care units in 2002, and the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit, a survey of intensive care unit patients conducted in 2012. We compared the 3147 patients from the SOAP study with the 4852 patients from the ICON audit admitted to intensive care units in the same countries as those in the SOAP study. The ICON patients were older (62.5 ± 17.0 vs. 60.6 ± 17.4 years) and had higher severity scores than the SOAP patients. The proportion of patients with sepsis at any time during the intensive care unit stay was slightly higher in the ICON study (31.9 vs. 29.6%, p = 0.03). In multilevel analysis, the adjusted odds of ICU mortality were significantly lower for ICON patients than for SOAP patients, particularly in patients with sepsis [OR 0.45 (0.35-0.59), p < 0.001]. Over the 10-year period between 2002 and 2012, the proportion of patients with sepsis admitted to European ICUs remained relatively stable, but the severity of disease increased. In multilevel analysis, the odds of ICU mortality were lower in our 2012 cohort compared to our 2002 cohort, particularly in patients with sepsis.

  6. 16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVEROLL TOILET SOAP MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVE-ROLL TOILET SOAP MILL INSTALLED 1950, TO WEST; BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM 2ND FLOOR SOAP PRESSES TO 5TH FLOOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  7. A mild hand cleanser, alkyl ether sulphate supplemented with alkyl ether carboxylic acid and alkyl glucoside, improves eczema on the hand and prevents the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin surface.

    PubMed

    Fukui, S; Morikawa, T; Hirahara, M; Terada, Y; Shimizu, M; Takeuchi, K; Takagi, Y

    2016-12-01

    Washing the hands using cleansers with antiseptic materials is the most popular method for hand hygiene and helps maintain health by preventing food poisoning and bacterial infections. However, repeated hand washing tends to induce eczema of the hand, such as dryness, cracking and erythema. Moreover, eczema on the hand leads to increased levels in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on the skin surface in contrast to expectations. Thus, mild hand cleansers which induce less eczema even with repeated washings are desired. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a hand cleanser formulated with alkyl ether sulphate (AES), alkyl ether carboxylic acid (AEC) and alkyl glucoside (AG) that contains isopropyl methylphenol (IPMP) on skin symptoms and S. aureus levels. Eczema of the hand and the presence of S. aureus on the skin surface were analysed prior to and following 4 weeks of usage of the hand cleanser. A soap-based hand cleanser with IPMP was used as a reference cleanser. Eczema and cutaneous conditions were evaluated by visual grading, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum moisture-retention ability (MRA) and skin surface pH. The repeated use of the soap-based hand cleanser significantly worsened the hand dryness, scaling and cracks on the tips of the fingers and significantly increased the TEWL and decreased the MRA. In contrast, usage of the test cleanser only induced a significant increase in skin dryness but did not induce skin scaling or cracking and did not increase TEWL or decrease the MRA. Corresponding to these changes in skin symptoms, the presence of S. aureus increased the following use of the reference cleanser but not the test cleanser. There was no significant difference in skin surface pH between the two cleansers. Moreover, the increase in S. aureus was significantly correlated to the worsening of skin dryness and scaling. These results suggest that not only antimicrobial activity but also the mildness, which minimizes cutaneous effects

  8. SOAP Methodology in General Practice/Family Medicine Teaching in Practical Context.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Luiz Miguel; Neto, Isabel

    2016-12-30

    Medical records in General Practice/Family Medicine are an essential information support on the health status of the patient and a communication document between health professionals. The development of competencies in General Practice/Family Medicine during pre-graduation must include the ability to make adequate medical records in practical context. As of 2012, medicine students at the University of Beira Interior have been performing visits using the Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan - SOAP methodology, with a performance evaluation of the visit, with the aim to check on which Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan - SOAP aspects students reveal the most difficulties in order to define improvement techniques and to correlate patient grade with tutor evaluation. Analysing the evaluation data for the 2015 - 2016 school year at the General Practice/Family Medicine visit carried out by fourth year students in medicine, comparing the averages of each item in the Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan - SOAP checklist and the patient evaluation. In the Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan - SOAP, 29.7% of students are on the best grade quartile, 37.1% are on the best competencies quartile and 27.2% on the best patient grade quartile. 'Evolution was verified/noted' received the worst grades in Subjective, 'Record of physical examination focused on the problem of the visit' received the worst grades in Objective, 'Notes of Diagnostic reasoning / differential diagnostic' received de worst grades in Assessment and 'Negotiation of aims to achieve' received the worst grades in Plan. The best tutor evaluation is found in 'communication'. Only one single study evaluated student´s performance under examination during a visit, with similar results to the present one and none addressed the patient's evaluation. Students revealed a good performance in using the Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan - SOAP. The findings represent the beginning of the

  9. Electrically rotating suspended films of polar liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsavar, R.; Amjadi, A.; Tonddast-Navaei, A.; Ejtehadi, M. R.

    2011-02-01

    Controlled rotation of a suspended soap water film, simply generated by applying an electric field, has been reported recently. The film rotates when the applied electric field exceeds a certain threshold. In this study, we investigate the phenomenon in films made of a number of other liquids with various physical and chemical properties. Our measurements show that the intrinsic electrical dipole moments of the liquid molecules seems to be vital for the corresponding film rotation. All the investigated rotating liquids have a molecular electric dipole moment of above 1 Debye, while weakly polar liquids do not rotate. However, the liquids investigated here cover a wide range of physical parameters (e.g. viscosity, density, conductivity, etc.). So far, no significant correlation has been observed between the electric field thresholds and macroscopic properties of the liquids.

  10. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its definition of the term cosmetic, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act specifically excludes soap. The...

  11. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its definition of the term cosmetic, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act specifically excludes soap. The...

  12. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its definition of the term cosmetic, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act specifically excludes soap. The...

  13. Extension of a suspended soap film: a homogeneous dilatation followed by new film extraction.

    PubMed

    Seiwert, Jacopo; Monloubou, Martin; Dollet, Benjamin; Cantat, Isabelle

    2013-08-30

    Liquid foams are widely used in industry for their high effective viscosity, whose local origin is still unclear. This Letter presents new results on the extension of a suspended soap film, in a configuration mimicking the elementary deformation occurring during foam shearing. We evidence a surprising two-step evolution: the film first extends homogeneously, then its extension stops, and a new thicker film is extracted from the meniscus. The second step is independent of the nature of the surfactant solution, whereas the initial extension is only observed for surfactant solutions with negligible dilatational moduli. We predict this complex behavior using a model based on Frankel's theory and on interface rigidification induced by confinement.

  14. Extension of a Suspended Soap Film: A Homogeneous Dilatation Followed by New Film Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiwert, Jacopo; Monloubou, Martin; Dollet, Benjamin; Cantat, Isabelle

    2013-08-01

    Liquid foams are widely used in industry for their high effective viscosity, whose local origin is still unclear. This Letter presents new results on the extension of a suspended soap film, in a configuration mimicking the elementary deformation occurring during foam shearing. We evidence a surprising two-step evolution: the film first extends homogeneously, then its extension stops, and a new thicker film is extracted from the meniscus. The second step is independent of the nature of the surfactant solution, whereas the initial extension is only observed for surfactant solutions with negligible dilatational moduli. We predict this complex behavior using a model based on Frankel’s theory and on interface rigidification induced by confinement.

  15. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control. 430.03 Section 430... management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and... Liquor, Soap, and Turpentine Service: Any process vessel, storage tank, pumping system, evaporator, heat...

  16. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control. 430.03 Section 430... management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and... Liquor, Soap, and Turpentine Service: Any process vessel, storage tank, pumping system, evaporator, heat...

  17. 10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, WITH AUTOMATIC CUTTER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND WRAPPER (RIGHT); LARGE CHUTE AT CENTER FROM 5TH FLOOR BINS TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS; OVERHEAD AND FLOOR (LOWER RIGHT) FINISHED GOODS CONVEYORS TO G BLOCK (HAER NO. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  18. Behavioral responses and mortality in German cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae) after exposure to dishwashing liquid.

    PubMed

    Szumlas, Daniel E

    2002-04-01

    Behavioral responses and mortality of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), after exposure to solutions of common household dishwashing liquid diluted in tap water without other known insecticidal active ingredients are described. Soap solutions of 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0% were tested on first and second instars, fifth and sixth instars, and adults. Cockroaches were treated individually or in groups. Behavioral observations after treatment included an immediate knockdown period, an awakening and a struggle period, an unresponsive period, and either death or recovery between 30 min and 18 h after treatment. Probit analysis gave an excellent fit of unresponsive rates 18 h after treatment with the various soap concentrations, and LD50 and LD99 values were calculated to be 0.4 and 3.0% soap, respectively. Adult females were the most difficult to kill, but at soap concentrations of 1% or higher, 95% or greater unresponsiveness and death occurred. Soap concentrations of 3% or greater resulted in 100% unresponsiveness after 3 min, and eventually resulted in 100% mortality within 72 h for all adults and nymphs treated. Observations on the mode and site of action for soap are consistent with the blockage of spiracles and/or tracheae that results in asphyxiation and death. Future investigations into the efficacy of soaps against other arthropod groups are warranted and may be beneficial in certain situations.

  19. Motion of Colloidal Particles near Plateau Border in Freely Suspended Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Hyuk Kyu; Sur, Jeanman

    2000-03-01

    We study the motion of colloidal particle near Plateau border in free-standing soap film which is placed perpendicularly to the gravitational direction. When the thickness of soap film is a micron order, two air/water interfacial surfaces of the film can be deformed by the presence of the colloidal particle. When the colloidal particles are in the central area of soap film, they move in random directions. But, as the particles approach near Plateau border, they are accelerated to the border of the film. The travelling distance, before the accelerated particle stops, depends on particle size. We propose a simple model to explain the motion of particle near Plateau border using a surface energy argument and compare the results with experimental measurements.

  20. Role of surface elasticity in the drainage of soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonin, A. A.; Bonfillon, A.; Langevin, D.

    1993-10-01

    We present measurements of the thinning velocity of circular horizontal soap films made from dilute surfactant solutions (around the critical micellar concentration). We have solved numerically the hydrodynamic equations for the drainage process. After data fitting, we deduce the values of the elasticities of the surfactant monolayer that stabilizes the soap film. These elasticity values have been compared to elasticities obtained independently from the study of waves at the surface of the solution. The comparison reveals the importance of surface convection in the drainage process and demonstrates the important role of surface elasticity.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance of liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Emsley, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The phenomenon of liquid crystallinity has been known for 100 years, but it is only in recent years that our modern methods have yielded an understanding of this fascinating and important subject in terms of molecular behavior. The great improvements in NMR spectrometers have led to a rapid growth in the study of liquid crystalline systems; concurrently, the increased use of these systems in electro-optic displays, in soaps and membranes, have all focused increased attention on liquid crystallinity. The emphasis is placed first on giving an account of the theory of both the spectroscopy and the liquid crystalline state. Thismore » is followed by descriptions of experiments and their application to thermotropic phases, including discotics, to lyotropics, and finally to the very complex biological membranes.« less

  2. Health in our hands, but not in our heads: understanding hygiene motivation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Scott, Beth; Curtis, Val; Rabie, Tamer; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana

    2007-07-01

    Each year more than 2 million children die from diarrhoeal diseases; the same number again die from acute respiratory infections. The simple hygiene behaviour of washing hands with soap represents an effective way of preventing the transmission of many of these infections. However, rates of handwashing across the globe are low, presenting a challenge for health promotion programmes. Behaviour change is not easy, and past efforts based upon health education have met with limited success. New approaches are needed. We propose that much can be learnt from the world of consumer marketing. Rather than base communications programmes for behaviour change on increasing knowledge, marketers aim to respond to the inner desires and motivations of their target audiences. This study used consumer research to investigate the factors motivating handwashing with soap in order to inform a national communications campaign for Ghana. It revealed that the strongest motivators for handwashing with soap were related to nurturance, social acceptance and disgust of faeces and latrines, especially their smell. Protection from disease is mentioned as a driving force, but was not a key motivator of handwashing behaviour. The ways in which these findings have been translated into a handwash promotion campaign are discussed.

  3. Columnar to Nematic Mesophase Transition: Binary Mixtures of Copper Soaps with Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghrouchni, R.; Skoulios, A.

    1995-09-01

    Copper (II) soaps are known to produce columnar mesophases at high temperatures. The polar groups of the soap molecules are stacked over one another within columns surrounded by the paraffin chains in a disordered conformation and laterally arranged according to a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice. Upon addition of a hydrocarbon, the mesophases swell homogeneously. The hydrocarbon molecules locate themselves among the disordered chains of the soap molecules, the columnar cores remain perfectly unchanged, keeping a constant intra-columnar stacking period, and the hexagonal lattice expands in proportion to the amount of hydrocarbon added to the system. Beyond a certain degree of swelling, the columnar mesophases suddenly turn into a nematic mesophase through a first-order phase transition. The structural elements that align parallel to the nematic director are the very same molecular columns that are involved in the columnar mesophases. The columnar to nematic mesophase transition was studied systematically as a function of the molecular size of the soaps and hydrocarbons used as diluents and discussed on a molecular level, emphasizing such aspects as the persistence length of the paraffin chains and the location of the solvent molecules among the columns.

  4. Popular soap opera helps raise contraceptive use. Tanzania.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The latest Demographic and Health Surveys Report on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice documents an increase in the level of use of modern contraceptive methods in Tanzania between 1991 and 1994 from 5.9% to 11.3% of reproductive-age women. 53.2% of all women of reproductive age were exposed to mass media messages about family planning, which large majorities of men and women consider acceptable. 48.3% were exposed through radio, 22.9% reported listening to the US Agency for International Development-funded family planning promotional radio soap opera "Zinduka]", 22.5% read newspaper items, 17.5% saw posters, and 7.3% saw leaflets. 4.5% were visited by a family planning worker, 24.7% discussed family planning with a friend or relative, and 24.7% discussed family planning with health facility personnel. Zinduka], a popular 52-episode soap opera, depicts how the lives of Bomu wa Kabuma's family, in Msongano Town and Tawanya village in Tanzania, are affected because he is unable to provide for his eight children, parents, wife, mistress, and the mistress's child. The soap was produced with technical assistance from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs Population Communication Services project. The 15-minute episodes were first broadcast in Swahili on Radio Tanzania from October 1993 through October 1994. The series was then resumed in September 1995 for another 12 months.

  5. Soap Films and GeoGebra in the Study of Fermat and Steiner Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfinio; Park, Jungeun

    2018-01-01

    We discuss how mathematics and secondary mathematics education majors developed an understanding of Fermat points for the triangle as well as Steiner points for the square and regular pentagon, and also of soap film configurations between parallel plates where forces are in equilibrium. The activities included the use of soap films and the…

  6. Effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera on family planning behavior in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E M; Vaughan, P W; Swalehe, R M; Rao, N; Svenkerud, P; Sood, S

    1999-09-01

    An entertainment-education radio soap opera introduced in Tanzania in 1993 was evaluated by means of a field experimental design in which the radio program was broadcast by seven mainland stations of Radio Tanzania. An eighth station broadcast alternative programming from 1993 to 1995, its listenership serving as a comparison area in which contemporaneous changes in family planning adoption were measured. The soap opera was subsequently broadcast nationwide from 1995 to 1997. Data about the effects of the radio soap opera were gathered in five annual surveys of about 2,750 households in the comparison and the treatment areas and from a sample of new family planning adopters in 79 health clinics. The soap opera had strong behavioral effects on family planning adoption; it increased listeners' self-efficacy regarding family planning adoption and influenced listeners to talk with their spouses and peers about contraception.

  7. Between soap bubbles and vesicles: The dynamics of freely floating smectic bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; May, Kathrin; Harth, Kirsten; Trittel, Torsten

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of droplets and bubbles, particularly on microscopic scales, are of considerable importance in biological, environmental, and technical contexts. We introduce freely floating bubbles of smectic liquid crystals and report their unique dynamic properties. Smectic bubbles can be used as simple models for dynamic studies of fluid membranes. In equilibrium, they form minimal surfaces like soap films. However, shape transformations of closed smectic membranes that change the surface area involve the formation and motion of molecular layer dislocations. These processes are slow compared to the capillary wave dynamics, therefore the effective surface tension is zero like in vesicles. Freely floating smectic bubbles are prepared from collapsing catenoid films and their dynamics is studied with optical high-speed imaging. Experiments are performed under normal gravity and in microgravity during parabolic flights. Supported by DLR within grant OASIS-Co.

  8. A public study of the lifetime distribution of soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, S. T.; Meagher, A. J.; Bulfin, B.; Möbius, M.; Hutzler, S.

    2011-08-01

    We present data for the lifetime distribution of soap films made from commercial dish-washing solution and contained in sealed cylinders. Data for over 2500 films were gathered during a 2-month exhibition on the science and art of bubbles and foams in Dublin's Science Gallery. Visitors to the gallery were invited to create 10-20 parallel soap films in acrylic tubes which were sealed with cork stoppers. Individual film bursts occurred at random and were uncorrelated. The total number of remaining films in the tubes was recorded every day. Visitors could monitor the status of their soap film tube and the daily updated histogram of the lifetime of all films. The histogram of the bubble lifetimes is well described by a Weibull distribution, which indicates that the failure rate is not constant and increases over time. Unsealed cylinders show drastically reduced film lifetimes. This experiment illustrates the difference between the unpredictability of the lifetime of individual films and the existence of a well-defined lifetime distribution for the ensemble.

  9. There's alcohol in my soap: portrayal and effects of alcohol use in a popular television series.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Joris J; de Jong, Menno D T; Fennis, Bob M; Gosselt, Jordy F

    2009-06-01

    Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents' alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character, drinking situations and drinking times. Inter-coder reliability was satisfactory. The results showed that alcohol portrayal was prominent and that many instances of alcohol use reflected undesirable behaviours. To assess the influence of such alcohol cues on adolescents, a 2x2 experiment was conducted focusing on the separate and combined effects of alcohol portrayal in the soap series and surrounding alcohol commercials. Whereas the alcohol commercials had the expected effects on adolescents' attitudes, the alcohol-related soap content only appeared to have unexpected effects. Adolescents who were exposed to the alcohol portrayal in the soap series had a less positive attitude towards alcohol and lower drinking intentions. Implications of these findings for health policy and future research are discussed.

  10. Spatially-resolved magnetic resonance study of the dissolution interface between soaps and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampi, E.; Goerke, U.; McDonald, P. J.; Chambers, J. G.; Newling, B.

    2002-06-01

    The developing interfacial region between a soap bar and water has been studied using a suite of spatially resolved NMR techniques. Stray field imaging (STRAFI) allowed the dynamics of water ingress into a shop-bought, commercial soap to be followed. A simplistic analysis of the data shows the ingress to be a Fickian process (∝t1/2) in the first 4 h. The T2 contrast employed in the STRAFI method is not sufficient to resolve detail of the mesophase formation at the interface. However, double quantum filtered 2H spectroscopy at different positions in the interfacial region allowed water concentration (and mesophase distribution) to be mapped over the first 120 h of dissolution. A simple model shows good agreement with the water concentration data. In the isotropic soap solution above the interfacial region, J-cyclic cross polarization was used to selectively interrogate the CH2 1H of the soap alkyl chains and, in combination with a pulsed field gradient measurement of self-diffusion, suggests a micellar solution in which the hydrodynamic radius of the micelles is ~5nm.

  11. A pilot study on the evaluation of medical student documentation: assessment of SOAP notes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Im, Sun-Ju; Roh, HyeRin; Kim, Do-Kyong; Bae, Hwa-Ok; Oh, Young-Rim

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of the current status of medical students' documentation of patient medical records. We checked the completeness, appropriateness, and accuracy of 95 Subjective-Objective-Assessment-Plan (SOAP) notes documented by third-year medical students who participated in clinical skill tests on December 1, 2014. Students were required to complete the SOAP note within 15 minutes of an standard patient (SP)-encounter with a SP complaining rhinorrhea and warring about meningitis. Of the 95 SOAP notes reviewed, 36.8% were not signed. Only 27.4% documented the patient's symptoms under the Objective component, although all students completed the Subjective notes appropriately. A possible diagnosis was assessed by 94.7% students. Plans were described in 94.7% of the SOAP notes. Over half the students planned workups (56.7%) for diagnosis and treatment (52.6%). Accurate documentation of the symptoms, physical findings, diagnoses, and plans were provided in 78.9%, 9.5%, 62.1%, and 38.0% notes, respectively. Our results showed that third-year medical students' SOAP notes were not complete, appropriate, or accurate. The most significant problems with completeness were the omission of students' signatures, and inappropriate documentation of the physical examinations conducted. An education and assessment program for complete and accurate medical recording has to be developed.

  12. Hand hygiene in rural Indonesian healthcare workers: barriers beyond sinks, hand rubs and in-service training.

    PubMed

    Marjadi, B; McLaws, M-L

    2010-11-01

    Few attempts to increase healthcare workers' hand hygiene compliance have included an in-depth analysis of the social and behavioural context in which hand hygiene is not undertaken. We used a mixed method approach to explore hand hygiene barriers in rural Indonesian healthcare facilities to develop a resource-appropriate adoption of international guidelines. Two hospitals and eight clinics (private and public) in a rural Indonesian district were studied for three months each. Hand hygiene compliance was covertly observed for two shifts each in three adult wards at two hospitals. Qualitative data were collected from direct observation, focus group discussions and semistructured in-depth and informal interviews within healthcare facilities and the community. Major barriers to compliance included longstanding water scarcity, tolerance of dirtiness by the community and the healthcare organisational culture. Hand hygiene compliance was poor (20%; 57/281; 95% CI: 16-25%) and was more likely to be undertaken after patient contact (34% after-patient contact vs 5% before-patient contact, P<0.001) and 'inherent' opportunities associated with contacts perceived to be dirty (49% 'inherent' vs 11% 'elective' opportunities associated with clean contacts, P<0.001). Clinicians frequently touched patients without hand hygiene, and some clinicians avoided touching patients altogether. The provision of clean soap and water and in-service training will not overcome strong social and behavioural barriers unless interventions focus on long term community education and managerial commitment to the provision of supportive working conditions. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Videotaping the Lifespan of a Soap Bubble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramme, Goran

    1995-01-01

    Describes how the use of a videotape to record the history of a soap bubble allows a study of many interesting events in considerable detail including interference fringes, convection and turbulence patterns on the surface, formation of black film, and the ultimate explosion of the bubble. (JRH)

  14. The use of D-optimal mixture design in optimising okara soap formulation for stratum corneum application.

    PubMed

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24-28% w/w), olive oil B (15-20% w/w), palm oil C (6-10% w/w), castor oil D (15-20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6-10% w/w), and okara F (2-7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

  15. Why language matters: a tour through hand hygiene literature.

    PubMed

    Pires, Daniela; Tartari, Ermira; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Pittet, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Hand hygiene has evolved over the last decades and many terminologies emerged. We aimed to analyse the evolution in the frequency of utilization of key hand hygiene terms in the literature along the years. We identified keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used in MEDLINE® indexation related to hand hygiene by searching international guidelines and the MeSH database. We performed a MEDLINE® search combining the selected keywords and MeSH and analysed the number of publications retrieved yearly. The literature search yielded 9019 publications when all hand hygiene related search terms were combined, between 1921 and November 2016. The total number of publications per year increased from a median of 4 (IQR 3, 6) in the 1950's to 554 (IQR 478, 583) between 2011 and 2015. The most frequently used keywords are hand disinfection, hand hygiene, hand washing, handrub, hand sanitizer and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR). Until the 1990s, hand disinfection and hand washing were the most frequently used terms. Whilst the last decade has seen a remarkable increase in publications mentioning hand disinfection and hand hygiene and for the first time handrub, hand sanitizers and ABHR were introduced in the literature. Hand disinfection, hand hygiene and hand sanitizers are the main MeSH used by MEDLINE®. Since 2013 hand hygiene is the most frequently used MeSH and keyword. The change seen in literature in the last two decades, from hand washing and hand disinfection to hand hygiene, most probably reflect the paradigm shift favouring use of ABHR over soap and water promoted by international guidelines in the early 2000s.

  16. Work of the Hand through the Curriculum and across the Planes of Development: A Compilation of Creative Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAMTA Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This article and the one that follows, "Quilt-Making in the Elementary Class" (EJ1077043), emerge from Mountain Laurel Montessori School and provide examples of the intrinsic links between the hand and academic lessons. This article features a compilation of artful recipes for young children (Soap Sculpting Clay, Easy Flour Paste, Face…

  17. Ethical Gifts?: An Analysis of Soap-for-data Transactions in Malawian Survey Research Worlds.

    PubMed

    Biruk, Crystal

    2017-09-01

    In 2008, thousands of Malawians received soap from an American research project as a gift for survey participation. Soap was deemed an ethical, non-coercive gift by researchers and ethics boards, but took on meanings that expressed recipients' grievances and aspirations. Research participants reframed soap and research benefits as "rights" they are entitled to, wages for "work," and a symbol of exploitation. Enlisting the perspectives of Malawi's ethics board, demographers, Malawian fieldworkers, and research participants, I describe how soap is spoken about and operates in research worlds. I suggest that neither a prescriptive nor a situated frame for ethics-with their investments in standardization and attention to context, respectively-provides answers about how to compensate Malawian research participants. The conclusion gestures toward a reparative framework for thinking ethics that is responsive not just to project-based parameters but also to the histories and political economy in which projects (and ethics) are situated. © 2017 by the American Anthropological Association.

  18. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory...

  19. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory...

  20. Assessment of SOAP note evaluation tools in colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Sando, Karen R; Skoy, Elizabeth; Bradley, Courtney; Frenzel, Jeanne; Kirwin, Jennifer; Urteaga, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    To describe current methods used to assess SOAP notes in colleges and schools of pharmacy. Members of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Laboratory Instructors Special Interest Group were invited to share assessment tools for SOAP notes. Content of submissions was evaluated to characterize overall qualities and how the tools assessed subjective, objective, assessment, and plan information. Thirty-nine assessment tools from 25 schools were evaluated. Twenty-nine (74%) of the tools were rubrics and ten (26%) were checklists. All rubrics included analytic scoring elements, while two (7%) were mixed with holistic and analytic scoring elements. A majority of the rubrics (35%) used a four-item rating scale. Substantial variability existed in how tools evaluated subjective and objective sections. All tools included problem identification in the assessment section. Other assessment items included goals (82%) and rationale (69%). Seventy-seven percent assessed drug therapy; however, only 33% assessed non-drug therapy. Other plan items included education (59%) and follow-up (90%). There is a great deal of variation in the specific elements used to evaluate SOAP notes in colleges and schools of pharmacy. Improved consistency in assessment methods to evaluate SOAP notes may better prepare students to produce standardized documentation when entering practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies of rotating liquid floating zones on Skylab IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, J. R.; Gibson, E. G.; Klett, M. G.; Facemire, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid zones of water, soap solution and soap foam were deployed between two aligned circular disks which were free to rotate about the zone axis in the microgravity environment of Skylab IV. Such a configuration is of interest in the containerless handling of melts for possible future space processing crystal growth experiments. Three basic types of zone surface deformation and instability were observed for these rotational conditions; axisymmetric shape changes under single disk rotation, nonaxisymmetric, whirling, C-modes for long zones with equal rotation of both disks, and capillary wave phenomena for short zones with equal rotation of both disks. The sources of these instabilities and the conditions promoting them are analyzed in detail from video tape recordings of the Skylab experiments.

  2. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimising Okara Soap Formulation for Stratum Corneum Application

    PubMed Central

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24–28% w/w), olive oil B (15–20% w/w), palm oil C (6–10% w/w), castor oil D (15–20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6–10% w/w), and okara F (2–7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible. PMID:25548777

  3. Social determinants of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents in a rural Indian community.

    PubMed

    Dobe, Madhumita; Mandal, Ram Narayan; Jha, Ayan

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 randomly selected villages to assess prevalence of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents, and describe the social determinants. The prevalence of adolescent GHP was 32.1% (95% CI = 27.1, 37.1). Logistic regression established 5 significant positive predictors-maternal GHP, presence of sanitary latrine, availability of soap at hand-washing locations, in-house water supply, and higher per capita income. Our research provides a scope for better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of GHP in a rural Indian setting, and may find implications in the Total Sanitation Campaign launched by Government of India.

  4. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. Effects of polyalkylene glycols and fatty acid soaps on properties of synthetic lubricating-cooling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stulii, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The lack of any effect of the polyalkylene glycols on the series of properties of the fatty acid soaps was confirmed by replacing the PEG-35 in the synthetic lubricating-cooling fluid (LCF) by a polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 400 or 6000, a propylene oxide oligomer with a molecular weight of 700, or a copolymer of ethylene and propylene oxides (Pluronic 44, Pluriol PE-6400, Hydropol 200). Attempts to select surfactants and optimal concentrations in synthetic LCFs based on polyalkylene glycols. Indicates that of the studied soaps, those of the most interest are the triethanolamine soaps of individual C/sub 6/-C/submore » 10/ fatty acids and commercial mixed C/sub 7/-C/sub 9/ synthetic fatty acids. Finds that the polyalkylene glycols and the indicated soaps supplement each other, imparting the required set of properties to the LCF.« less

  6. A Discovery Experiment: Carbon Dioxide Soap Bubble Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millikan, Roger C.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of soap bubbles in a beaker of carbon dioxide gas helps students to feel the pleasure that comes from understanding nature, from applying that understanding to real problems, and from making unexpected discoveries that yield to analysis. (Author/BB)

  7. Self-reported hand washing behaviors and foodborne illness: a propensity score matching approach.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Verrill, Linda; Zhang, Yuanting

    2014-03-01

    Hand washing is a simple and effective but easily overlooked way to reduce cross-contamination and the transmission of foodborne pathogens. In this study, we used the propensity score matching methodology to account for potential selection bias to explore our hypothesis that always washing hands before food preparation tasks is associated with a reduction in the probability of reported foodborne illness. Propensity score matching can simulate random assignment to a condition so that pretreatment observable differences between a treatment group and a control group are homogenous on all the covariates except the treatment variable. Using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2010 Food Safety Survey, we estimated the effect of self-reported hand washing behavior on the probability of self-reported foodborne illness. Our results indicate that reported washing of hands with soap always before food preparation leads to a reduction in the probability of reported foodborne illness.

  8. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    PubMed

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape, and reproducibility, showing that

  9. The long-term use of soap does not affect the pH-maintenance mechanism of human skin.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Y; Kaneda, K; Miyaki, M; Matsuo, K; Kawada, H; Hosokawa, H

    2015-05-01

    The pH at the surface of healthy human skin is around 5. Cleansing the skin with soap increases the pH of the skin, which then returns to a more acidic pH within a few hours. However, the effects of skin cleansing with soap over a long time on the pH regulatory system is still unclear. We compared the pH of the skin between users of a soap-based cleanser and of a mild-acidic cleanser prior to and following the cleansing. This study had two groups of subjects, one group who had used a soap-based cleanser for more than 5 years and the other group who had used a mild-acidic cleanser for more than 5 years. The pH on the inner forearm of each subject was measured prior to and for 6 h after cleansing with a soap bar. There were no differences between the pH of the skin these two groups prior to cleansing, immediately after cleansing or in the pH recovery rate for 6 h. These results suggest that long-term continuous use of a soap-based cleanser does not affect the pH-maintaining mechanism of human skin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Consumption of hand-hygiene products in health establishments in the west of France].

    PubMed

    Branger, B; Senechal, H; Bataillon, S; Ertzscheid, M A; Baron, R; Borgey, F; Thibon, P; Van Der Mee, N; Girard, N; Wiesel, M; Avril, C; Coulomb, F; Chaperon, J; Lejeune, B

    2005-06-01

    The study had for aim to investigate hand hygiene product use in French hospitals between 2000 and 2003. A questionnaire was sent in 2002 and 2 more in 2003 and 2004 (for 2000 to 2003) requiring data on type of hospital, number of beds, staff members, admissions and patient-day, litres of mild soap, antiseptic soap and alcohol-based rub used and price per litre. Indices were calculated accordingly. 574 hospitals answered over the 4 year period (average 143 per year) representing an average of 50 000 beds/year, 80 000 full-time staff positions, 1.2 million admissions and 16 millions patient-days. The median consumption of mild soap was 3.8 l per bed, 2.7 l per staff member, 2.4 l per 100 admissions, and 10.6 ml per patient-day. The median consumption of antiseptic soap was 1 l per bed, 0.8 l per staff member, 4.8 l per 100 admissions, and 3.2 ml per patient-day. The median consumption of alcohol-based rub (HAS) was 0.3 l per bed, 0.3 l per staff-member, 1.5 l per admission, and 0.9 l per patient-day. Between 2000 and 2003, HAS use significantly increased from 69 to 88% (a relative increase of 31%) and the median consumption increased from 0.5 ml to 1.5 ml per patient-day. 370 fully completed grids gave a number of 7 opportunities per patient-day with less than 1 for HAS. The best indicator for an infection control practitioners is the quantity of alcohol-based solution in ml/patient-day and HAS per patient-day is the reference.

  11. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  12. Effects of alcohol-based hand hygiene solutions on breath alcohol detection in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Beth L; Whitfill, Travis; Baum, Carl R; Garlin-Kane, Katherine; Santucci, Karen

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of alcohol-based hand hygiene solution (ABHS) use by care providers on point-of-care alcohol breath analyzer interpretation under different clinically relevant conditions. Among each test condition (foam vehicle with immediate testing, gel vehicle with immediate testing, allowing hands to dry after the use of ABHS, and donning gloves after the use of ABHS), alcohol was detected in breath at 1 minute after use of ABHS. Because the use of ABHS by individuals administering breath alcohol detection may result in false-positive detection of alcohol, staff using these devices should consider traditional hand hygiene with soap and water. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Do Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides enhance the anti-microbial activity of traditional medicinal soft soaps (Osedudu)?

    PubMed

    Moody, J O; Adebiyi, O A; Adeniyi, B A

    2004-05-01

    The Nigerian traditional soft soaps prepared using varied locally sourced raw materials such as cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) palm kernel shaft ash (Elaies guineensis) have been evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and anti-microbial activities using standard pharmacopoeia protocols and an in-vitro agar diffusion bioassay method. The anti-microbial evaluation was done with and without incorporation of Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides extractives into the soap samples. Results showed that the physico-chemical properties of the soaps are dependent on the raw materials utilised. The incorporated medicinal plants used in this study, however, did not show any significant effect on the anti-microbial activities exhibited by the various soaps against the bacterial and fungal test organisms. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Methylisothiazolinone in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis: a repeated open-application study.

    PubMed

    Yazar, K; Lundov, M D; Faurschou, A; Matura, M; Boman, A; Johansen, J D; Lidén, C

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) has increased dramatically. Cosmetic products are one of the major sources of exposure. To examine whether allowed concentrations of MI in cosmetic rinse-off products have the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Nineteen MI-allergic subjects and 19 controls without MI allergy applied two liquid hand soaps five times per day on areas of 5 × 10 cm(2) on the ventral side of their forearms. One soap contained 100 ppm MI, the maximum allowed concentration in cosmetics, and was used by 10 allergic subjects and all controls. Another liquid soap with 50 ppm MI was used by nine allergic subjects. As the negative control, all subjects used a similar soap that did not contain MI. The repeated open applications proceeded until a positive reaction occurred or up to 21 days. The study was conducted in a randomized and blinded fashion. Ten out of 10 MI-allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the soap with 100 ppm and seven out of nine reacted to the 50 ppm soap, while none of the 19 controls had a positive reaction during 21 days of application. No reactivity was seen to the soap without MI. The difference in reactivity to MI between MI-allergic subjects and controls was statistically significant (Fisher's exact test, P ˂ 0.0001). Rinse-off products preserved with 50 ppm MI or more are not safe for consumers. No safe level has yet been identified. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. A miracle happening to a laser beam in a soap film

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu

    2003-05-31

    When a 10 {mu}W - 3 W laser beam (for example, at 632.8 nm) is focused into a usual soap film of thickness between 10 nm and 10 {mu}m from the side or through a defect on the film surface, the self-channeling of the beam propagating in the film is observed. The beam also exhibits self-branching into submicron filaments, the so-called whiskers of length several tens of centimetres. The results of experiments on the dynamics of behaviour of these whiskers in a soap film, their polariton nature, and possible applications are discussed. (letters)

  16. Modified starch containing liquid fuel slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, G.W.

    1978-04-04

    A substantially water-free, high solids content, stably dispersed combustible fuel slurry is provided, with a method of preparing the slurry. The slurry contains a minor amount of a solid particulate carbonaceous material such as powdered coal, with substantially the entire balance of the slurry being comprised of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel, particularly a heavy fuel oil. In extremely minor amounts are anionic surfactants, particularly soaps, and a stabilizing amount of a starch modified with an anionic polymer.

  17. Chemical Constituents and an Alternative Medicinal Veterinary Herbal Soap Made from Senna macranthera

    PubMed Central

    Inoue Andrade, Flávia; Purgato, Gislaine Aparecida; de Faria Maia, Thalita; Pais Siqueira, Raoni; Lima, Sâmia; Diaz, Marisa Alves Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Upon undergoing biomonitoring, the most active dichloromethane extract retrieved from Senna macranthera roots led to the isolation of three main compounds: emodine, physione, and chrysophanol. In this sequence, these compounds revealed a potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 20, 90, and 90 μg mL−1, respectively. Therefore, an herbal soap was also produced from this same active extract. This soap was tested in vitro using gloves contaminated by animals with bovine mastitis that had been discarded after use by milkers and showed similar results to previously tested compounds. These results indicate the potential of this plant as an alternative veterinary medicine for the production of antibacterial soaps that aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections in small Brazilian farms. PMID:25821480

  18. Optimizing Libraries’ Content Findability Using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) With Multi-Tier Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahinta, A.; Haris, I.; Abdillah, T.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a developed application of Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) as a model for improving libraries’ digital content findability on the library web. The study applies XML text-based protocol tools in the collection of data about libraries’ visibility performance in the search results of the book. Model from the integrated Web Service Document Language (WSDL) and Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) are applied to analyse SOAP as element within the system. The results showed that the developed application of SOAP with multi-tier architecture can help people simply access the website in the library server Gorontalo Province and support access to digital collections, subscription databases, and library catalogs in each library in Regency or City in Gorontalo Province.

  19. Observation and simulation of flow on soap film induced by concentration gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Mitsuru; Yoshihara, Shoichi; Azuma, Hisao

    The behavior of the flow and capillary wave induced on the film surface by the surfactant concentration difference is studied. Flat soap film is used as a model of thin film. The result is applicable to the case of flow by thermal gradient. The Schlieren method is used to observe the flow and the wave on the soap film. It is found that the wave velocities, in the case of a high surface tension difference, are linearly related to the square root of the surface tension difference.

  20. Evaluation of a hand hygiene campaign in outpatient health care clinics.

    PubMed

    Kukanich, Kate Stenske; Kaur, Ramandeep; Freeman, Lisa C; Powell, Douglas A

    2013-03-01

    To improve hand hygiene in two outpatient health care clinics through the introduction of a gel sanitizer and an informational poster. In this interventional study, health care workers at two outpatient clinics were observed for frequency of hand hygiene (attempts versus opportunities). Gel sanitizer and informational posters were introduced together as an intervention. Direct observation of the frequency of hand hygiene was performed during baseline, intervention, and follow-up. A poststudy survey of health care workers was also distributed and collected. In both clinics, the frequency of hand hygiene was poor at baseline (11% and 21%) but improved significantly after intervention (36% and 54%) and was maintained through the follow-up period (32% and 51%). Throughout the study, postcontact hand hygiene was observed significantly more often than precontact hand hygiene. In both clinics, health care workers reported a preference for soap and water; yet observations showed that when the intervention made gel sanitizer available, sanitizer use predominated. Fifty percent of the surveyed health care workers considered the introduction of gel sanitizer to be an effective motivating tool for improving hand hygiene. Hand hygiene performance by health care workers in outpatient clinics may be improved through promoting the use of gel sanitizer and using informational posters. Compared with surveys, direct observation by trained observers may provide more accurate information about worker preferences for hand hygiene tools.

  1. Hand contamination during routine care in medical wards: the role of hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Monistrol, Olga; López, M Liboria; Riera, Montserrat; Font, Roser; Nicolás, Carme; Escobar, Miguel Angel; Freixas, Núria; Garau, Javier; Calbo, Esther

    2013-04-01

    The hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) are the most common vehicle for the transmission of micro-organisms from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multimodal campaign on the type and amount of resident and transient flora and the presence of potential risk factors for hand contamination during routine care. A before-after (PRE and POST periods) interventional study was carried out in medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. Eighty-nine samples were analysed. Samples were cultured immediately before patient contact using a glove-juice method. Data collected included socio-demographic and risk factors for hand contamination. Flora was measured as log10 c.f.u. ml(-1) and evaluated by comparing median values in the PRE and POST periods. Transient flora was isolated from the hands of 67.4 and 46.1 % of HCWs in the PRE and POST periods, respectively (P<0.001). Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant contaminants. Resident flora was isolated from 92.1 % of HCWs in the PRE period and from 70.8 % in the POST period (P<0.001). The meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci log10 c.f.u. count ml(-1) decreased from 1.96 ± 1.2 to 0.89 ± 1.2 (mean ± s d; P<0.001), and the global flora count decreased from 2.77 ± 1.1 to 1.56 ± 1.4 (P<0.001). In the POST period, the wearing of fewer rings (P<0.001), shorter fingernail length (P = 0.008), a shorter time since recent hand hygiene (HH) (P = 0.007) and an increased use of alcohol-based hand rub instead of soap (P<0.001) were documented. The HH multimodal strategy reduced the number of risk factors and the level of HCW hand contamination.

  2. Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    White, C G; Shinder, F S; Shinder, A L; Dyer, D L

    2001-10-01

    Hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of communicable disease. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess whether an alcohol-free, instant hand sanitizer containing surfactants, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride could reduce illness absenteeism in a population of 769 elementary school children and serve as an effective alternative when regular soap and water hand washing was not readily available. Prior to the study, students were educated about proper hand washing technique, the importance of hand washing to prevent transmission of germs, and the relationship between germs and illnesses. Children in kindergarten through the 6th grade (ages 5-12) were assigned to the active or placebo hand-sanitizer product and instructed to use the product at scheduled times during the day and as needed after coughing or sneezing. Data on illness absenteeism were tracked. After 5 weeks, students using the active product were 33% less likely to have been absent because of illness when compared with the placebo group.

  3. 49 CFR 176.320 - Use of hand flashlights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.320 Use of hand flashlights. Each hand flashlight used on deck near or in any hold or compartment containing a Class 3 (flammable) liquid... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  4. 49 CFR 176.320 - Use of hand flashlights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.320 Use of hand flashlights. Each hand flashlight used on deck near or in any hold or compartment containing a Class 3 (flammable) liquid... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  5. 49 CFR 176.320 - Use of hand flashlights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.320 Use of hand flashlights. Each hand flashlight used on deck near or in any hold or compartment containing a Class 3 (flammable) liquid... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  6. 49 CFR 176.320 - Use of hand flashlights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.320 Use of hand flashlights. Each hand flashlight used on deck near or in any hold or compartment containing a Class 3 (flammable) liquid... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  7. 49 CFR 176.320 - Use of hand flashlights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable) and Combustible Liquid Materials § 176.320 Use of hand flashlights. Each hand flashlight used on deck near or in any hold or compartment containing a Class 3 (flammable) liquid... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  8. Performance of Lead-Free versus Lead-Based Hunting Ammunition in Ballistic Soap

    PubMed Central

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. Methods We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. Results All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. Conclusion The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape

  9. Wire Frame Holds Water-Soap Film in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit photographed a cube shaped wire frame supporting a thin film made from a water-soap solution during his Saturday Morning Science aboard the International Space Station's (ISS) Destiny Laboratory. Food coloring was added to several faces to observe the effects of diffusion within the film.

  10. From R&D to end users applications in operational oceanography: The navy's "SOAP" case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud Saint-Albin, S.; Jourdan, D.

    2003-04-01

    For the last ten years, the CMO/BRESM has conducted an operational program for Ocean Analysis and Prediction SOAP, whose goal has been to support sea activities with high resolution mesoscale ocean nowcast products. Successive prototypes have been generated, operated and improved in tandem with a continuous re-evaluation of Navy Needs. This strategy played a key-role in defining the concept of “real-time integrated oceanography” which relies on remote and in situ ocean observations, (a hierarchy of) ocean models and data assimilation methods. The paper focuses on the results of the latter feasability study for next SOAP prototype: the military motivation for developing new prototypes is to extend the application domain of SOAP operational products from the operative (~ a description of the synoptic scale) to the tactical ( ~ a tailored product to strategic needs) relevance. Current SOAP P2 system is as a transition system pulled by end-user’s requirements and designed by research oceanographers from existing tools and models. The development of SOAP P3 has just started and will benefit from the emergence of an increasing offer of ocean modelling results, pushed by the GODAE initiative. It will be based on MERCATOR high resolution prototypes. From that starting point future developments will have to address both issues of defense specific requirements for high resolution ocean modeling and computation of relevant acoustical products for military applications. Especially, the crucial needs for assessing the end-users’ products reliability should be explored.

  11. Use of hand hygiene agents as a surrogate marker of compliance in Hungarian long-term care facilities: first nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Rita; Morvai, Júlia; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Pittet, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene practice is an important measure for preventing infections in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). However, low compliance with hand hygiene has been reported in a number of studies. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the first reference data collected on alcohol-based handrub (ABHR) and antiseptic soap consumption, as surrogate markers for hand hygiene compliance by healthcare workers (HCWs) in Hungarian LTCFs. The objective was to inform stakeholders on the need of hand hygiene improvement in these settings. Between 5 May and 30 September 2014, we conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional survey using a standardized self-administered questionnaire; all Hungarian LTCFs were eligible. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used for data analysis. The questionnaire was completed by 354 LTCFs, representing 24 % of all Hungarian LTCFs. In total, the median consumption of ABHR and antimicrobial soap was 15.5 L (IQR, 0-800 L) and 60 L (IQR, 0-1,680 L) per LTCFs, and 2.2 mL (IQR, 0.4-9.1 mL) and 12.1 mL (IQR, 0.7-32.8 mL) per HCWs in 2013, respectively. The estimated number of hand hygiene actions was 0.6 hygienic handrub/HCW per day (IQR, 0-12.8/HCWs) and 2.4 hygienic handwashing/HCW per day (IQR, 0-21.9/HCWs; P = .001), respectively. This study suggests that non-compliance with hand hygiene is a significant problem in Hungarian LTCFs. Based on our results, there is an urgent need for a nationwide multimodal hand hygiene promotion strategy including education and performance monitoring and feedback in all LTCFs. Furthermore, monitoring of ABHR consumption constitute an additional component of the existing National Nosocomial Surveillance system.

  12. SOAP 2.0: Spot Oscillation And Planet 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, Xavier; Boisse, I.; Santos, N. C.

    2015-04-01

    SOAP (Spot Oscillation And Planet) 2.0 simulates the effects of dark spots and bright plages on the surface of a rotating star, computing their expected radial velocity and photometric signatures. It includes the convective blueshift and its inhibition in active regions.

  13. Small-Body Extensions for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2008-01-01

    An extension to the SOAP software allows users to work with tri-axial ellipsoid-based representations of planetary bodies, primarily for working with small, natural satellites, asteroids, and comets. SOAP is a widely used tool for the visualization and analysis of space missions. The small body extension provides the same visualization and analysis constructs for use with small bodies. These constructs allow the user to characterize satellite path and instrument cover information for small bodies in both 3D display and numerical output formats. Tri-axial ellipsoids are geometric shapes the diameters of which are different in each of three principal x, y, and z dimensions. This construct provides a better approximation than using spheres or oblate spheroids (ellipsoids comprising two common equatorial diameters as a distinct polar diameter). However, the tri-axial ellipsoid is considerably more difficult to work with from a modeling perspective. In addition, the SOAP small-body extensions allow the user to actually employ a plate model for highly irregular surfaces. Both tri-axial ellipsoids and plate models can be assigned to coordinate frames, thus allowing for the modeling of arbitrary changes to body orientation. A variety of features have been extended to support tri-axial ellipsoids, including the computation and display of the spacecraft sub-orbital point, ground trace, instrument footprints, and swathes. Displays of 3D instrument volumes can be shown interacting with the ellipsoids. Longitude/latitude grids, contour plots, and texture maps can be displayed on the ellipsoids using a variety of projections. The distance along an arbitrary line of sight can be computed between the spacecraft and the ellipsoid, and the coordinates of that intersection can be plotted as a function of time. The small-body extension supports the same visual and analytical constructs that are supported for spheres and oblate spheroids in SOAP making the implementation of the more

  14. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  15. 5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT CENTER), MANUAL CUTTERS (CENTER, RIGHT CENTER) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  16. Boundary singularities produced by the motion of soap films.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Raymond E; McTavish, James; Moffatt, H Keith; Pesci, Adriana I

    2014-06-10

    Recent work has shown that a Möbius strip soap film rendered unstable by deforming its frame changes topology to that of a disk through a "neck-pinching" boundary singularity. This behavior is unlike that of the catenoid, which transitions to two disks through a bulk singularity. It is not yet understood whether the type of singularity is generally a consequence of the surface topology, nor how this dependence could arise from an equation of motion for the surface. To address these questions we investigate experimentally, computationally, and theoretically the route to singularities of soap films with different topologies, including a family of punctured Klein bottles. We show that the location of singularities (bulk or boundary) may depend on the path of the boundary deformation. In the unstable regime the driving force for soap-film motion is the mean curvature. Thus, the narrowest part of the neck, associated with the shortest nontrivial closed geodesic of the surface, has the highest curvature and is the fastest moving. Just before onset of the instability there exists on the stable surface the shortest closed geodesic, which is the initial condition for evolution of the neck's geodesics, all of which have the same topological relationship to the frame. We make the plausible conjectures that if the initial geodesic is linked to the boundary, then the singularity will occur at the boundary, whereas if the two are unlinked initially, then the singularity will occur in the bulk. Numerical study of mean curvature flows and experiments support these conjectures.

  17. Boundary singularities produced by the motion of soap films

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; McTavish, James; Moffatt, H. Keith; Pesci, Adriana I.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that a Möbius strip soap film rendered unstable by deforming its frame changes topology to that of a disk through a “neck-pinching” boundary singularity. This behavior is unlike that of the catenoid, which transitions to two disks through a bulk singularity. It is not yet understood whether the type of singularity is generally a consequence of the surface topology, nor how this dependence could arise from an equation of motion for the surface. To address these questions we investigate experimentally, computationally, and theoretically the route to singularities of soap films with different topologies, including a family of punctured Klein bottles. We show that the location of singularities (bulk or boundary) may depend on the path of the boundary deformation. In the unstable regime the driving force for soap-film motion is the mean curvature. Thus, the narrowest part of the neck, associated with the shortest nontrivial closed geodesic of the surface, has the highest curvature and is the fastest moving. Just before onset of the instability there exists on the stable surface the shortest closed geodesic, which is the initial condition for evolution of the neck’s geodesics, all of which have the same topological relationship to the frame. We make the plausible conjectures that if the initial geodesic is linked to the boundary, then the singularity will occur at the boundary, whereas if the two are unlinked initially, then the singularity will occur in the bulk. Numerical study of mean curvature flows and experiments support these conjectures. PMID:24843162

  18. Soap Operas and Captioning in the EFL Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Donald T.

    A teacher describes the use of closed-caption decoding of television melodramas to teach English as a second language (ESL). The approach uses evening soap operas that afford a range of English usage and accents, realistic dialogue, entertainment, and coverage of current social issues and are closed-captioned for the hearing-impaired. The programs…

  19. Soaps and germicides as adjunct topical antimycotic agents on candida species implicated in vulvovaginal candidasis.

    PubMed

    Ogunshe, Adenike A O; Omotoso, Oluwatoyin A; Akindele, Titilayo M

    2011-06-01

    The study aims at evaluating the potentials of soaps and germicides/disinfectants as adjunct topical anti-vulvovaginal candidasis agents. In vitro inhibitory activities of the test agents, prepared according to the manufacturer's specification for toilet and midwifery purposes were determined using modified agar well-diffusion method. Varied susceptibility patterns were exhibited by Candida albicans (26.5%), C. glabrata (18.4%), C. pseudotropicalis (14.3%) and C. tropicalis (40.8%) implicated in vulvovaginal candidasis, indicating Crusader oil (100%), Meriko (95%), Tetmosol (84.7%) and Aloe (68.4%) as the most inhibitory soaps against the Candida strains. The in vitro inhibitory activities of the germicides and disinfectants ranged between (Dettol; 34.6% and Purit; 84.6%) for C. albicans; (Roberts; 33.3% and Purit; 83.3%) for C. glabrata; (Roberts; 21.4% and Purit; 92.9%) for C. pseudotropicalis; (Dettol; 35.0% and Purit; 87.5%) for C. tropicalis respectively. All the Candida strains were totally inhibited by the germicides and disinfectants at the second lower dilutions, except in Morigad towards C. albicans (69.2%]) C. glabrata (72.2%), C. pseudotropicalis (92.9%) and C. tropicalis (82.5%) but none of the vaginal Lactobacillus strains was inhibited by the soaps, germicides or disinfectant. About 90% of a control group indicated relief after pubic cleansing with soaps, germicides and disinfectants. Results indicatied the safety of soaps, germicides and disinfectants as potential adjunct topical cleansing-agents in cases of vaginal itching and candidasis, a common mucosal infection caused by opportunistic yeasts of the Candida genus.

  20. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  1. Thermal Convection in Two-Dimensional Soap Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Wu, X. L.

    2002-11-01

    Thermal convection in a fluid is a common phenomenon. Due to thermal expansion, the light warm fluid at the bottom tends to rise and the cold, heavier fluid at the top tends to fall. This so-called thermal convection exists in earth atmosphere and in oceans. It is also an important mechanism by which energy is transported in stars. In this study we investigate thermal convection in a vertical soap film.

  2. Toxicity of insecticidal soaps to the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and two of its natural enemies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insecticidal soaps (hereafter “soaps”) are labeled for use by homeowners and also can be used in citrus grown for the organic market. Soaps control some insect pests and therefore might be an alternative to conventional pesticides for control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (...

  3. 7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: FERGUSON & HAAS AUTOMATIC WRAPPING MACHINE INSTALLED BY 1929 - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  4. Survey of attitudes and practices of Irish nursing students towards hand hygiene, including handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P

    2017-05-01

    Hand hygiene is widely recognised as the most important measure a healthcare worker can take in preventing the spread of healthcare associated infections. As a member of the healthcare team, nursing students have direct patient contact during clinical practice; hence, good hand hygiene practice among nursing students is essential. Low to moderate levels of hand hygiene knowledge and poor attitudes and practices are reported among nursing students. However, less is known about their attitudes and practices of handrubbing with ABHR, even though handrubbing is the recommended optimum practice in most situations. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes and practices of hand hygiene, in particular handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub, among nursing students in Ireland. This survey employed a descriptive, self-report design using a questionnaire to gather data. It was administered electronically to all undergraduate nursing students (n=342) in the Department of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Limerick, Ireland in March and April 2015. Response rate was 66%. Attitudes towards hand hygiene were generally positive. Compliance with hand hygiene after contact with body fluid was high (99.5%) and before a clean or aseptic procedure (98.5%). However, suboptimal practices emerged, before touching a patient (85%), after touching a patient (87%) and after touching patients' surroundings (61%), with first year students more compliant than fourth year students. 16% of students were not aware of the clinical contraindications for using alcohol-based hand rub and 9% did not know when to use soap and water and when to use alcohol-based hand rub. Educators and practitioners play an important role in ensuring that nursing students develop appropriate attitudes towards hand hygiene and engage in optimal handrubbing practices. Raising awareness among nursing students of their responsibility in preventing the occurrence and reducing the transmission of HCAI as an on

  5. 4. THIRD FLOOR CENTER BAY TO NORTH; SOAP KETTLES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. THIRD FLOOR CENTER BAY TO NORTH; SOAP KETTLES TO LEFT AND RIGHT, TWO-STORY TANK AT CENTER REAR - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-13, 48-50 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  6. Analysis of a deflating soap bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David P.; Sleyman, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    A soap bubble on the end of a cylindrical tube is seen to deflate as the higher pressure air inside the bubble escapes through a tube. We perform an experiment to measure the radius of the slowly deflating bubble and observe that the radius decreases to a minimum before quickly increasing. This behavior reflects the fact that the bubble ends up as a flat surface over the end of the tube. A theoretical analysis reproduces this behavior and compares favorably with the experimental data.

  7. The efficacy of Pistacia Terebinthus soap in the treatment of cetuximab-induced skin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tastekin, Didem; Tambas, Makbule; Kilic, Kemal; Erturk, Kayhan; Arslan, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    This open-labeled phase II, efficacy-finding study evaluated the efficiency and safety of Pistacia terebinthus soap in metastatic colorectal cancer patients who developed cetuximab induced skin toxicity. Patients who received cetuximab plus chemotherapy and developed Grade 2 or 3 skin toxicity were treated twice daily with a soap made of oil extracted from Pistacia terebinthus. During treatment, no topical or oral antibiotics, corticosteroids or other moisturizers were used. Patients were examined 1 week later and their photographs were taken. Fifteen mCRC patients who developed skin toxicity while receiving first-line CTX in combination with chemotherapy were included into the study. Eight patients were male and the median age was 58 (25-70). Sixty percent of the patients (n:9) had Grade 3 skin toxicity. Complete response rates in patients with Grade 2 and Grade 3 skin toxicities were 100 and 33%, respectively. In the remaining patients with Grade 3 toxicity the skin toxicity regressed to Grade 1. The objective response rate was 100%, and no delay, dose reduction or discontinuation of CTX treatment due to skin toxicity was necessary. Skin toxicity reoccurred in all patients when patients stopped administering the soap and therefore they used it throughout the cetuximab treatment. Pistacia terebinthus soap seemed to be used safely and effectively in the treatment of skin toxicity induced by Cetuximab.

  8. MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND BLEACHING BUILDINGS. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1905 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of Mr. George Durette, Photographer, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  9. Molecular dynamics of palmitic acid and lead palmitate in cross-linked linseed oil films: Implications from deuterium magnetic resonance for lead soap formation in traditional oil paintings.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Jaclyn; Murphy, Anna; Yao, Yao; Zumbulyadis, Nicholas; Centeno, Silvia A; Dybowski, Cecil

    2018-02-01

    Many oil paintings, dating from the 15th century to the present, are affected by the formation of heavy-metal carboxylates (soaps) that alter the structural integrity and appearance of the works. Through transport phenomena not yet understood, free fatty acids formed from oils used as binders migrate through the paint film and react with heavy-metal ions that are constituents of pigments and/or driers, forming metal carboxylates. The local molecular dynamics of fatty acids and metal carboxylates are factors influencing material transport in these systems. We report temperature-dependent 2 H NMR spectra of palmitic acid and lead palmitate as pure materials, in cross-linked linseed oil films, and in a lead white linseed oil paint film as part of our broader research into metal soap formation. Local dynamics at the α carbon, at the terminal methyl group, and at the middle of the fatty acid chain were observed in specifically deuterated materials. Changes in the dynamic behavior with temperature were observed by the appearance of two species, a solid-like material and a liquid-like material. The relative amounts of the two phases and their deuterium NMR parameters indicate that the amount of liquid-like material and the local dynamics at that site increase with temperature. At the three locations along the chain and at all temperatures, there is a larger percentage of acyl chains of both palmitic acid and lead palmitate that are "mobile" or liquid-like in linseed oil films than there are in the pure materials. However, the percentage of liquid-like species is decreased in a lead white paint film, as compared to a linseed oil matrix. In addition, these experiments indicate that there is a larger percentage of liquid-like acyl chains of palmitic acid than of lead palmitate under identical conditions in these model paint systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Manufacture, Properties, and Testing of Napalm Soaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-11-17

    prrcltio’n. Tests at 1000C. a.nd 100 p.s,,i. %Inhibitor Induction Addod Pcriod, mins. N one 0 20 Eydroquinone 1 5 duPont #19 1 150 Lecithin 1 SF0 1 45...acetone tends to hydrolyze the soap, liberating more free acid which in turn is removed by the solvent. Table XXIV shows results obtained with a

  11. Monitoring the thinning dynamics of soap films by phase shift interferometry. The case of perfluoropolyether surfactants.

    PubMed

    Gambi, Cecilia M C; Vannoni, Maurizio; Sordini, Andrea; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    An interferometric method to monitor the thinning process of vertical soap films from a water solution of surfactant materials is reported. Raw data maps of optical path difference introduced by the film are obtained by conventional phase shift interferometry. Off-line re-processing of such raw data taking into account the layered structure of soap films leads to an accurate measurement of the geometrical thickness. As an example of data acquisition and processing, the measuring chain is demonstrated on perfluoropolyether surfactants; the section profile of vertical films is monitored from drawing to black film state, and quantitative data on the dynamics of the thinning process are presented. The interferometric method proves effective to the task, and lends itself to further investigate the physical properties of soap films.

  12. The effect of a soap promotion and hygiene education campaign on handwashing behaviour in rural India: a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Biran, Adam; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Wright, Richard; Jones, Therese; Seshadri, M; Isaac, Pradeep; Nathan, N A; Hall, Peter; McKenna, Joeleen; Granger, Stewart; Bidinger, Pat; Curtis, Val

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a hygiene promotion intervention based on germ awareness in increasing handwashing with soap on key occasions (after faecal contact and before eating) in rural Indian households. Cluster randomised trial of a hygiene promotion intervention in five intervention and five control villages. Handwashing was assessed through structured observation in a random sample of 30 households per village. Additionally, soap use was monitored in a sub-sample of 10 households per village using electronic motion detectors embedded in soap bars. The intervention reached 40% of the target population. Germ awareness increased as well as reported handwashing (a possible indicator of perceived social norms). Observed handwashing with soap on key occasions was rare (6%), especially after faecal contact (2%). Observed handwashing with soap on key occasions did not change 4 weeks after the intervention in either the intervention arm (-1%, 95% CI -2%/+0.3%), or the control arm (+0.4%, 95% CI -1%/+2%). Data from motion detectors indicated a significant but small increase in overall soap use in the intervention arm. We cannot confidently identify the nature of this increase except to say that there was no change in a key measure of handwashing after defecation. The intervention proved scalable and effective in raising hygiene awareness. There was some evidence of an impact on soap use but not on the primary outcome of handwashing at key times. However, the results do not exclude that changes in knowledge and social norms may lay the foundations for behaviour change in the longer term.

  13. Calcium soap from palm fatty acid distillate for ruminant feed: The influence of water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handojo, Lienda A.; Indarto, Antonius; Shofinita, Dian; Meitha, Anggina; Nabila, Rakhmawati; Triharyogi, Harry; Kevin, Leonardus

    2018-03-01

    As the largest palm oil producing country in the world, Indonesia also produces abundant amount of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), a by-product of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) refining process. PFAD can be utilized as the raw material for calcium soap, ruminant feed that is widely used to increase milk yield, as well as to increase the ruminant’s fertility. However, the practice of feeding ruminants with calcium soap has not been practiced in Indonesia, which makes it imperative to develop calcium soap production process from PFAD within the country. This research aimed to study the effect of operating conditions of the saponification reaction using PFAD and CaO as reactants on the quality of the calcium soap obtained. The saponification reaction was carried out by modified fusion method. A range of stoichiometric mole ratios of CaO to PFAD (1.0 to 1.6) and the temperature of water (60-90°C) were studied in this research. An increase in the stoichiometric mole ratio of CaO/PFAD was observed to cause a decrease in the acid value, which indicates an increase in the reaction conversion. In contrast, the temperature of water was found to have little impact on the acid value of the product.

  14. 12. DETAIL OF REMOVED PLODDER (UPPER HALF) FROM HOTEL SOAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF REMOVED PLODDER (UPPER HALF) FROM HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 STORED IN G BLOCK (HAER No. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  15. 13. DETAIL OF REMOVED PLODDER (LOWER HALF) FROM HOTEL SOAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF REMOVED PLODDER (LOWER HALF) FROM HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 STORED IN G BLOCK (HAER No. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  16. Factors associated with hand hygiene practices in two neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bevin; Saiman, Lisa; Cimiotti, Jeannie; Larson, Elaine

    2003-06-01

    To determine whether hand hygiene practices differ between levels of contact with neonates; to characterize the hand hygiene practices of different types of personnel; and to compare hand hygiene practices in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) using different products. Research assistants observed staff hand hygiene practices during 38 sessions in two NICUs. Patient touches were categorized as touching within the neonates' environment but only outside the Isolette (Level 1), touching within the Isolette but not the neonate directly (Level 2) or directly touching the neonate (Level 3). Hand hygiene practices for each touch were categorized into five groups: cleaned hands and new gloves; uncleaned hands and new gloves; used gloves; clean hands and no gloves; uncleaned hands and no gloves. Research assistants observed 1472 touches. On average each neonate or his or her immediate environment was touched 78 times per shift. Nurses (P = 0.001), attending physicians (P = 0.02) and physicians-in-training (P = 0.03) were more likely to use appropriate practices during Level 3 touches, but only 22.8% of all touches were with cleaned and/or newly gloved hands. The mean number of direct touches by staff members with cleaned hands was greater in the NICU using an alcohol-based hand rub than in the NICU using antimicrobial soap (P < 0.01). Hand hygiene was suboptimal in this high risk setting; administrative action and improved products may be needed to assure acceptable practice. In this study use of an alcohol-based product was associated with significantly improved hand hygiene and should be encouraged, as recommended in the new CDC hand hygiene guideline.

  17. SOAP-V: Introducing a method to empower medical students to be change agents in bending the cost curve.

    PubMed

    Moser, Eileen M; Huang, Grace C; Packer, Clifford D; Glod, Susan; Smith, Cynthia D; Alguire, Patrick C; Fazio, Sara B

    2016-03-01

    Medical students must learn how to practice high-value, cost-conscious care. By modifying the traditional SOAP (Subjective-Objective-Assessment-Plan) presentation to include a discussion of value (SOAP-V), we developed a cognitive forcing function designed to promote discussion of high-value, cost-conscious care during patient delivery. The SOAP-V model prompts the student to consider (1) the evidence that supports a test or treatment, (2) the patient's preferences and values, and (3) the financial cost of a test or treatment compared to alternatives. Students report their findings to their teams during patient care rounds. This tool has been successfully used at 3 medical schools. Preliminary results find that students who have been trained in SOAP-V feel more empowered to address the economic healthcare crisis, are more comfortable in initiating discussions about value, and are more likely to consider potential costs to the healthcare system. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  18. The effect of automated monitoring and real-time prompting on nurses' hand hygiene performance.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate hand hygiene compliance by healthcare staff is considered an effective method to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The electronic system developed at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute automatically detects hand hygiene opportunities and records hand hygiene actions. It includes an optional visual hand hygiene status indication, generates real-time hand hygiene prompting signals, and enables automated monitoring of individual and aggregated hand hygiene performance. The system was installed on a complex continuous care unit at the entrance to 17 patient rooms and a utility room. A total of 93 alcohol gel and soap dispensers were instrumented and 14 nurses were provided with the personal wearable electronic monitors. The study included three phases with the system operating in three different modes: (1) an inactive mode during the first phase when hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions were recorded but prompting and visual indication functions were disabled, (2) only hand hygiene status indicators were enabled during the second phase, and (3) both hand hygiene status and real-time hand hygiene prompting signals were enabled during the third phase. Data collection was performed automatically during all of the three phases. The system indicated significantly higher hand hygiene activity rates and compliance during the third phase, with both hand hygiene indication and real-time prompting functions enabled. To increase the efficacy of the technology, its use was supplemented with individual performance reviews of the automatically collected data.

  19. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…

  20. Drop coalescence and liquid flow in a single Plateau border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Alexandre; Fraysse, Nathalie; Raufaste, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the flow of liquid triggered by injecting a droplet into a liquid foam microchannel, also called a Plateau border. This drop-injected experiment reveals an intricate dynamics for the liquid redistribution, with two contrasting regimes observed, ruled either by inertia or viscosity. We devoted a previous study [A. Cohen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218303 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.218303] to the inertial imbibition regime, unexpected at such small length scales. Here we report other features of interest of the drop-injected experiment, related to the coalescence of the droplet with the liquid microchannel, to both the inertial and viscous regimes, and to the occurrence of liquid flow through the soap films as well as effects of the interfacial rheology. The transition between the two regimes is investigated and qualitatively accounted for. The relevance of our results to liquid foam drainage is tackled by considering the flow of liquid at the nodes of the network of interconnected microchannels. Extensions of our study to liquid foams are discussed.

  1. Collapse of the soap-film bridge - Quasistatic description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cryer, Steven A.; Steen, Paul H.

    1992-11-01

    Observations of the collapse of a soap-film bridge from a connected to a disconnected state are recorded. The equilibrium framework for this nonequilibrium event is classical. Experiments confirm predictions of stable and unstable equilibria. A quasistatic description is introduced for the dynamic states to extend the static theory. It is found to adequately describe the collapse trajectory while the bridge is still connected.

  2. Collapse of the soap-film bridge - Quasistatic description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cryer, Steven A.; Steen, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the collapse of a soap-film bridge from a connected to a disconnected state are recorded. The equilibrium framework for this nonequilibrium event is classical. Experiments confirm predictions of stable and unstable equilibria. A quasistatic description is introduced for the dynamic states to extend the static theory. It is found to adequately describe the collapse trajectory while the bridge is still connected.

  3. Multiphase flow of miscible liquids: jets and drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Travis W.; Logia, Alison N.; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2015-05-01

    Drops and jets of liquids that are miscible with the surrounding bulk liquid are present in many processes from cleaning surfaces with the aid of liquid soaps to the creation of biocompatible implants for drug delivery. Although the interactions of immiscible drops and jets show similarities to miscible systems, the small, transient interfacial tension associated with miscible systems create distinct outcomes such as intricate droplet shapes and breakup resistant jets. Experiments have been conducted to understand several basic multiphase flow problems involving miscible liquids. Using high-speed imaging of the morphological evolution of the flows, we have been able to show that these processes are controlled by interfacial tensions. Further multiphase flows include investigating miscible jets, which allow the creation of fibers from inelastic materials that are otherwise difficult to process due to capillary breakup. This work shows that stabilization from the diminishing interfacial tensions of the miscible jets allows various elongated morphologies to be formed.

  4. On the nature of laser polariton tracks in soap films

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu

    2004-06-30

    The results of the study of narrow laser tracks in soap films with the divergence below the diffraction-limited value are presented, and the mechanism of formation of narrow channels (spatial polariton solitons) based on laser dielectrophoresis in films is proposed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  5. Visualization of Sound Waves Using Regularly Spaced Soap Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, F.; Hutzler, S.; Ferreira, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel demonstration experiment for the visualization and measurement of standing sound waves in a tube. The tube is filled with equally spaced soap films whose thickness varies in response to the amplitude of the sound wave. The thickness variations are made visible based on optical interference. The distance between two antinodes is…

  6. Liquid Lubricants for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S.; Rowntree, A.

    Liquid lubricants used for spacecraft have advantages over solid lubricants but there are also disadvantages to consider. The challenge is to ensure that the liquid lubricant does not disappear from the mechanism by evaporation or creep. Lubricants can be used as fluids or formulated as greases. The liquids can be highly refined hydrocarbons, PAOs, silicones, polyol esters (POEs), multiply alkylated cycloparaffins, (MACs) or various perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs). Greases are made from these liquids using thickeners such as lithium, calcium or sodium soaps, PTFE, graphite or lead. Operational temperatures range from - 45°C to over 100°C. Low vapour pressures are crucial, below 10-8 mbar at 20°C and total weight loss must be <1% for general applications, <0.1% for optical applications. 'Surface creep rates' must be low, temperature gradients and surface Ra are important factors. The wear rates for standard tests using different lubricants vary over several orders of magnitude for different lubricants, surface coatings and rpm. Unexpected effects, such as PTFE 'plating out' at low rpm, occur. The main issues are to prevent the lubricant escaping from working areas and to protect it from degradation by chemical reactions or radiation.

  7. On angled bounce-off impact of a drop impinging on a flowing soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Saikat; Yawar, Ali; Concha, Andres; Bandi, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Small drops impinging obliquely on thin flowing soap films frequently demonstrate the rare emergence of bulk elastic effects working in-tandem with the more commonplace hydrodynamic interactions. Three collision regimes are observable: (a) drop piercing through the film, (b) it coalescing with the flow, and (c) it bouncing off the film surface. During impact, the drop deforms along with a bulk elastic deformation of the film. For impacts that are close-to-tangential, the bounce-off regime predominates. We outline a reduced order analytical framework assuming a deformable drop and a deformable three-dimensional film, and the idealization invokes a phase-based parametric study. Angular inclination of the film and the ratio of post and pre-impact drop sizes entail the phase parameters. We also perform experiments with vertically descending droplets (constituted from deionized water) impacting against an inclined soap film, flowing under constant pressure head. Model-predicted phase domain for bounce-off compares well to our experimental findings. Additionally, the experiments exhibit momentum transfer to the film in the form of shed vortex dipoles, along with propagation of free surface waves. On consulting prior published work, we note that for locomotion of water-walking insects using an impulsive action, the momentum distribution to the shed vortices and waves are both significant, taking up respectively 2/3 and 1/3 of the imparted streamwise momentum. Considering the visually similar impulse actions, this theory, despite its assumption of a quiescent liquid bath of infinite depth, is applied to the drop bounce-off experiments, and the resultant shed vortex dipole momenta are compared to the momenta of the coherent vortex structures computed from particle imaging velocimetry data. The magnitudes reveal identical order (10-7 N s), suggesting that notwithstanding the disparities, the bounce-off regime may be tapped as a toy analog for impulse-based interfacial

  8. Complete denture biofilm after brushing with specific denture paste, neutral soap and artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Salles, Antônio Eduardo Sparça; Macedo, Leandro Dorigan de; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena da; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Watanabe, Evandro

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the levels of biofilm in maxillary and mandibular complete dentures and evaluated the number of colony-forming units (cfu) of yeasts, after using auxiliary brushing agents and artificial saliva. Twenty-three denture wearers with hyposalivation and xerostomia were instructed to brush the dentures 3 times a day during 3 weeks with the following products: Corega Brite denture dentifrice, neutral liquid soap, Corega Brite combined with Oral Balance (artificial saliva) or tap water. For biofilm quantification, the internal surfaces of the dentures were disclosed, photographed and measured using a software. For microbiological analysis, the biofilm was scrapped off, and the harvested material was diluted, sown in CHROMagar™ Candida and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Mandibular dentures presented a mean biofilm percentage (µ=26.90 ± 21.10) significantly greater than the maxillary ones (µ=18.0 ± 15.0) (p<0.05). Brushing using Corega Brite combined with Oral Balance (µ=15.87 ± 18.47) was more effective (p<0.05) than using the denture dentifrice (µ=19.47 ± 17.24), neutral soap (µ=23.90 ± 18.63) or tap water (control; µ=32.50 ± 20.68). For the microbiological analysis, the chi-square test did not indicate significant difference between the hygiene products for either type of denture. The more frequently isolated species of yeasts were C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. In conclusion, mandibular dentures had more biofilm formation than maxillary ones. Denture brushing with Corega Brite dentifrice combined with the use of Oral Balance was the most effective method for reduction of biofilm levels, but the use of products did not show difference in yeast cfu counts.

  9. Is Structured Observation a Valid Technique to Measure Handwashing Behavior? Use of Acceleration Sensors Embedded in Soap to Assess Reactivity to Structured Observation

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Pavani K.; Halder, Amal K.; Granger, Stewart P.; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M. Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3–10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0–18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior. PMID:21036840

  10. Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation.

    PubMed

    Ram, Pavani K; Halder, Amal K; Granger, Stewart P; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

  11. SOAP in Practice: Learning Outcomes of a Cross-Institutional Innovation Project Conducted by Teachers, Student Teachers, and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seezink, Audrey; Poell, Rob; Kirschner, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study investigating learning outcomes at the individual and organisational level of a cross-institutional innovation project based on the SOAP approach. SOAP integrates "S"chooling of teachers, "O"rganisational development of schools, "A"ction- and development-oriented research, and…

  12. Soap films and GeoGebra in the study of Fermat and Steiner points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Park, Jungeun

    2018-05-01

    We discuss how mathematics and secondary mathematics education majors developed an understanding of Fermat points for the triangle as well as Steiner points for the square and regular pentagon, and also of soap film configurations between parallel plates where forces are in equilibrium. The activities included the use of soap films and the interactive geometry program GeoGebra. Students worked in small groups using these tools to investigate the properties of Fermat and Steiner points and then justified the results of their investigations using geometrical arguments. These activities are specific approaches of how to encourage prospective teachers to use physical experiments to support students' development of mathematical curiosity and mathematical justifications.

  13. Effect of face washing with soap and water and cleaning with antiseptics on upper-lid bacteria of surgical eye patients.

    PubMed

    Bekibele, Charles O; Kehinde, Aderemi O; Ajayi, Benedictus G K

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of face washing with soap and water and cleaning with povidone iodine and cetrimide/chlorhexidine gluconate (Savlon) on upper-lid bacteria. Prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial. Eighty patients attending the Eye Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Eighty patients assigned to 4 groups had swabs of the upper eyelid skin taken before and after face wash with soap and water, and cleansing with Savlon and 5% povidone iodine. Specimens were cultured and Gram stained. Bacterial counts were carried out using standard techniques. Face washing with soap and water increased the proportion of patients with bacterial isolates from 80.0% to 87.5%. The average colony count increased from 187.1 to 318.5 colony units per mL (p = 0.02). Application of 5% povidone iodine without face washing with soap and water reduced the proportion of patients with bacterial isolates from 82.6% (mean count 196.5) to 28.6% (mean count 34.1)(p = 0.001); in comparison, the application of 5% povidone iodine after face washing with soap and water reduced the proportion from 71.4% (mean count 133.9) to 40.0% (mean count 69.0)(p = 0.01). Application of Savlon without face washing with soap and water reduced the proportion of patients with bacterial isolates from 100% (mean count 310.9) to 41.2% (mean count 19.8)(p = 0.004) compared with the application after face washing, which reduced the proportion from 89.5% (mean count 240.3) to 41.2% (mean count 82.9)(p = 0.02). Both povidone and Savlon are effective in reducing periocular bacteria in an African setting. Prior face washing with soap and water had no added benefit in reducing bacterial colony count.

  14. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a

  15. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maureen E C; Sargeant, Jan M; Weese, J Scott

    2014-05-07

    Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a component of a multimodal hand

  16. 6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS (RIGHT) AND WEIGH HOPPERS OVER SITES OF REMOVED AMALGAMATORS (LEFT) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  17. Manipulation of small particles at solid liquid interface: light driven diffusioosmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, David; Maduar, Salim R.; Santer, Mark; Lomadze, Nino; Vinogradova, Olga I.; Santer, Svetlana

    2016-11-01

    The strong adhesion of sub-micron sized particles to surfaces is a nuisance, both for removing contaminating colloids from surfaces and for conscious manipulation of particles to create and test novel micro/nano-scale assemblies. The obvious idea of using detergents to ease these processes suffers from a lack of control: the action of any conventional surface-modifying agent is immediate and global. With photosensitive azobenzene containing surfactants we overcome these limitations. Such photo-soaps contain optical switches (azobenzene molecules), which upon illumination with light of appropriate wavelength undergo reversible trans-cis photo-isomerization resulting in a subsequent change of the physico-chemical molecular properties. In this work we show that when a spatial gradient in the composition of trans- and cis- isomers is created near a solid-liquid interface, a substantial hydrodynamic flow can be initiated, the spatial extent of which can be set, e.g., by the shape of a laser spot. We propose the concept of light induced diffusioosmosis driving the flow, which can remove, gather or pattern a particle assembly at a solid-liquid interface. In other words, in addition to providing a soap we implement selectivity: particles are mobilized and moved at the time of illumination, and only across the illuminated area.

  18. Manipulation of small particles at solid liquid interface: light driven diffusioosmosis.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, David; Maduar, Salim R; Santer, Mark; Lomadze, Nino; Vinogradova, Olga I; Santer, Svetlana

    2016-11-03

    The strong adhesion of sub-micron sized particles to surfaces is a nuisance, both for removing contaminating colloids from surfaces and for conscious manipulation of particles to create and test novel micro/nano-scale assemblies. The obvious idea of using detergents to ease these processes suffers from a lack of control: the action of any conventional surface-modifying agent is immediate and global. With photosensitive azobenzene containing surfactants we overcome these limitations. Such photo-soaps contain optical switches (azobenzene molecules), which upon illumination with light of appropriate wavelength undergo reversible trans-cis photo-isomerization resulting in a subsequent change of the physico-chemical molecular properties. In this work we show that when a spatial gradient in the composition of trans- and cis- isomers is created near a solid-liquid interface, a substantial hydrodynamic flow can be initiated, the spatial extent of which can be set, e.g., by the shape of a laser spot. We propose the concept of light induced diffusioosmosis driving the flow, which can remove, gather or pattern a particle assembly at a solid-liquid interface. In other words, in addition to providing a soap we implement selectivity: particles are mobilized and moved at the time of illumination, and only across the illuminated area.

  19. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, N.; Caps, H.

    2015-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed by introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects once set in the film is related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerically solving the adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position is predicted by simple modeling that takes into account the mechanical equilibrium of the films coupled to previous thickness measurements.

  20. SOAP 2.0: a tool to estimate the photometric and radial velocity variations induced by stellar spots and plages

    SciTech Connect

    Dumusque, X.; Boisse, I.; Santos, N. C., E-mail: xdumusque@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents SOAP 2.0, a new version of the Spot Oscillation And Planet (SOAP) code that estimates in a simple way the photometric and radial velocity (RV) variations induced by active regions. The inhibition of the convective blueshift (CB) inside active regions is considered, as well as the limb brightening effect of plages, a quadratic limb darkening law, and a realistic spot and plage contrast ratio. SOAP 2.0 shows that the activity-induced variation of plages is dominated by the inhibition of the CB effect. For spots, this effect becomes significant only for slow rotators. In addition, in the casemore » of a major active region dominating the activity-induced signal, the ratio between the FWHM and the RV peak-to-peak amplitudes of the cross correlation function can be used to infer the type of active region responsible for the signal for stars with v sin i ≤8 km s{sup –1}. A ratio smaller than three implies a spot, while a larger ratio implies a plage. Using the observation of HD 189733, we show that SOAP 2.0 manages to reproduce the activity variation as well as previous simulations when a spot is dominating the activity-induced variation. In addition, SOAP 2.0 also reproduces the activity variation induced by a plage on the slowly rotating star α Cen B, which is not possible using previous simulations. Following these results, SOAP 2.0 can be used to estimate the signal induced by spots and plages, but also to correct for it when a major active region is dominating the RV variation.« less

  1. Two in-vivo protocols for testing virucidal efficacy of handwashing and hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Nehrkorn, R; Meyer, A; Becker, K

    1995-01-01

    Whole-hands and fingerpads of seven volunteers were contaminated with poliovirus type 1 Sabin strain in order to evaluate virucidal efficacy of different forms of handwashing and handrub with alcohols and alcohol-based disinfectants. In the whole-hand protocol, handwashing with unmedicated soap for 5 min and handrubbing with 80% ethanol yielded a log reduction factor (RF) of > 2, whereas the log RF by 96.8% ethanol exceeded 3.2. With the fingerpad model ethanol produced a greater log RF than iso- or n-propanol. Comparing five commercial hand disinfectants and a chlorine solution (1.0% chloramine T-solution) for handrub, Desderman and Promanum, both composed of ethanol, yielded log RFs of 2.47 and 2.26 respectively after an application time of 60 s, similar to 1.0% chloramine T-solution (log RF of 2.28). Autosept, Mucasept, and Sterillium, based on n-propanol and/or isopropanol, were found to be significantly less effective (log RFs of 1.16, 1.06 and 1.52 respectively). A comparison of a modified whole-hand and the fingerpad protocol with Promanum showed similar results with the two systems suggesting both models are suitable for testing the in-vivo efficacy of handwashing agents and hand disinfectants which are used without any water.

  2. Fluid instabilities and wakes in a soap-film tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-05-01

    We present a compact, low-budget two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow visualization system based on a tilted, gravity-driven soap film tunnel. This system is suitable for demonstrations and studies of a variety of fluid mechanics problems, including turbulent wakes past bluff bodies and lifting surfaces, Kelvin{endash}Helmholtz instability, and grid turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Association of Physics Teachers.}

  3. A renaissance of soaps? - How to make clear and stable solutions at neutral pH and room temperature.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, Stefan; Marcus, Julien; Touraud, Didier; Kunz, Werner

    2016-10-01

    Soaps are the oldest and perhaps most natural surfactants. However, they lost much of their importance since "technical surfactants", usually based on sulfates or sulfonates, have been developed over the last fifty years. Indeed, soaps are pH- and salt-sensitive and they are irritant, especially to the eyes. In food emulsions, although authorized, they have a bad taste, and long-chain saturated soaps have a high Krafft temperature. We believe that most or perhaps all of these problems can be solved with modern formulation approaches. We start this paper with a short overview of our present knowledge of soaps and soap formulations. Then we focus on the problem of the lacking soap solubility at neutral pH values. For example, it is well known that with the food emulsifier sodium oleate (NaOl), clear and stable aqueous solutions can only be obtained at pH values higher than 10. A decrease in the pH value leads to turbid and unstable solutions. This effect is not compatible with the formulation of aqueous stable and drinkable formulations with neutral or even acidic pH values. However, the pH value/phase behavior of aqueous soap solutions can be altered by the addition of other surfactants. Such a surfactant can be Rebaudioside A (RebA), a steviol glycoside from the plant Stevia rebaudiana which is used as a natural food sweetener. In a recent paper, we showed the influence of RebA on the apKa value of sodium oleate in a beverage microemulsion and on its clearing temperature. In the present paper, we report on the effect of the edible bio-surfactant RebA, on the macroscopic and microscopic phase behavior of simple aqueous sodium oleate solutions at varying pH values. The macroscopic phase behavior is investigated by visual observation and turbidity measurements. The microscopic phase behavior is analyzed by acid-base titration curves, phase-contrast and electron microscopy. It turned out that even at neutral pH, aqueous NaOl/RebA solutions can be completely clear and

  4. Impact of hand eczema severity on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Charan, Ujwala Priya; Peter, C. V. Dincy; Pulimood, Susanne A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is a common disease seen in dermatological practice comprising of a spectrum ranging from mild disease to a severe distressing and chronic course with a negative impact on the quality of life. Aim: To assess the impact of hand eczema severity on quality of life. Materials and Methods: Patients with hand eczema were enrolled in a prospective study. Disease severity was assessed by hand eczema severity index (HECSI) score and quality of life by dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Forty-six patients participated of which 22 (47.8%) were males and 24 (52.2%) females. The commonest age group affected among men and women was 50-59 years (31.8%) and 40-49 years (41.7%) respectively. History of atopy was found in 23.9% and 63% had persistent disease. In 28 (60.9%), the trigger was washing soaps and detergents of which 21 (87.5%) were housewives. Of those employed, 27.7% reported loss of work days. The mean HECSI score was 14.46 (S.D = 20.98) and mean DLQI score was 9.54 (S.D = 5.62). Gender, age, occupation and duration of disease did not significantly affect the quality of life or disease severity. Increased episodes of eczema (>4 episodes/year) showed a statistically significant correlation with DLQI (P value = 0.021). There was no significant correlation between HECSI score and DLQI in this study. Conclusion: Majority of the patients with hand eczema had a significant impairment of their quality of life. The impairment of quality of life in this study was mainly dependent on increased frequency of the eruptions and not on hand eczema severity. PMID:23741665

  5. A simple geometrical model describing shapes of soap films suspended on two rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Felix J.; Kilvington, Charles D.; Wildenberg, Rebekah L.; Camacho, Franco E.; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Peter S.; Walecki, Eve S.

    2016-09-01

    We measured and analysed the stability of two types of soap films suspended on two rings using the simple conical frusta-based model, where we use common definition of conical frustum as a portion of a cone that lies between two parallel planes cutting it. Using frusta-based we reproduced very well-known results for catenoid surfaces with and without a central disk. We present for the first time a simple conical frusta based spreadsheet model of the soap surface. This very simple, elementary, geometrical model produces results surprisingly well matching the experimental data and known exact analytical solutions. The experiment and the spreadsheet model can be used as a powerful teaching tool for pre-calculus and geometry students.

  6. Evaluating a handwashing with soap program in Australian remote Aboriginal communities: a pre and post intervention study design.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Teresa; Slavin, Nicola

    2015-11-27

    The No Germs on Me (NGoM) Social Marketing Campaign to promote handwashing with soap to reduce high rates of infection among children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities has been ongoing since 2007. Recently three new television commercials were developed as an extension of the NGoM program. This paper reports on the mass media component of this program, trialling an evaluation design informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A survey questionnaire taking an ecological approach and based on the principals and constructs of the TPB was developed. Surveys were completed in six discrete Aboriginal communities immediately before and on completion of four weeks intensive televising of the three new commercials. Across the six communities access in the home to a television that worked ranged from 49 to 83 % (n = 415). Seventy-seven per cent (n = 319) of participants reported having seen one or more of the new commercials. Levels of acceptability and comprehension of the content of the commercials was high (97 % n = 308). Seventy-five per cent (n = 651) of participants reported they would buy more soap, toilet paper and facial tissues if these were not so expensive in their communities. For TPB constructs demonstrated to have good internal reliability the findings were mixed and these need to be interpreted with caution due to limitations in the study design. Cultural, social-economic and physical barriers in remote communities make it challenging to promote adults and children wash their hands with soap and maintain clean faces such that these behaviours become habit. Low levels of access to a television in the home illustrate the extreme level of disadvantage experienced in these communities. Highlighting that social marketing programs have the potential to increase disadvantage if expensive items such as television sets are needed to gain access to information. This trial of a theory informed evaluation design allowed for new and rich

  7. Update on antibacterial soaps: the FDA takes a second look at triclosans.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Kendra Gail

    2014-04-01

    In December of 2013 the Food and Drug Administration announced it would look further into the safety and efficacy of the biocide triclosan and requested further safety data as part of a new review with the Environmental Protection Agency. The use of triclosan has increased exponentially since its introduction in in 1972, to the point that 75% of commercial soap brands contain triclosan and 76% of a nationwide sample of adults and children excrete triclosan in the urine. This announcement raised an important dialog about the appropriate use of all over the counter biocides. Particular concerns include whether these biocides are more effective than regular soaps, whether they may create new drug resistant bacteria, and whether they may also act as hormone disruptors in humans or the environment.

  8. Watching your weight? The relations between watching soaps and music television and body dissatisfaction and restrained eating in young girls.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka; Engels, Rutger; Leeuwe, Jan Van; Strien, Tatjana van

    2009-11-01

    Although previous research showed that the thin ideal provided by the media affects body image and eating behaviour in young children, less is known about specific media contents that are related to body image and eating behaviour. This study tested the associations between watching soaps and music television and body dissatisfaction and restrained eating directly, and indirectly through thin ideal internalisation. We conducted a survey in class, in which 245 girls (aged 7-9) completed scales on their television watching behaviour, thin ideal internalisation, body dissatisfaction and restrained eating. Additionally, height and weight were measured. Watching soaps and music television often was associated with higher thin ideal internalisation, which in turn was associated with higher body dissatisfaction and restrained eating. Furthermore, a direct association between watching soaps and music television and restrained eating was found. If watching other types of children's programmes or maternal encouragement to be thin were included in the models, watching soaps and music television remained an important factor, especially with regard to restrained eating. Therefore, our results suggest that if young girls watch soaps and music television often, this is related to higher restrained eating and body dissatisfaction, directly or indirectly, through higher thin ideal internalisation.

  9. [The sensitivity and clinical course of patients with wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis sensitized to hydrolyzed wheat protein in facial soap].

    PubMed

    Hiragun, Makiko; Ishii, Kaori; Hiragun, Takaaki; Shindo, Hajime; Mihara, Shoji; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Hide, Michihiro

    2011-12-01

    Recently an increasing number of patients with wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA), developed during or after using hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP)-containing soap (HWP-WDEIA), were reported in Japan. To clarify the relation between WDEIA and HWP-containing soap and their prognosis, we investigated the patients who visited Hiroshima University Hospital and were diagnosed as WDEIA from January 2010 to June 2011. We took detailed clinical histories, performed skin prick tests, serum immunoassays for antigen-specific IgE and basophil histamine release test, and followed up their clinical courses after the diagnosis. Among 36 patients with WDEIA, 30 patients had used only one type of HWP-soap. The patients with HWP-WDEIA were mainly women and had developed facial symptoms and angioedema. They suffered from blood pressure reductions less frequently than patients with conventional WDEIA. The levels of glutens-specific IgE were higher than those of ω-5 gliadin in patients with HWP-WDEIA (p<0.05, One-way ANOVA). All patients with HWP-WDEIA were positive against HWP in histamine release test. Among the conventional wheat antigens, glutenins induced highest histamine release from basophils of patients with HWP-WDEIA. The sensitivities of patients against glutens and glutenins were reduced over months along with the discontinuance of HWP-soap. The development of HWP-WDEIA is associated with the use of HWP-soap. The sensitivities to HWP that cross reacts with non-processed wheat may be reduced or possibly cured after the discontinuation of HWP-soap.

  10. Parametric-Studies and Data-Plotting Modules for the SOAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    "Parametric Studies" and "Data Table Plot View" are the names of software modules in the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP). Parametric Studies enables parameterization of as many as three satellite or ground-station attributes across a range of values and computes the average, minimum, and maximum of a specified metric, the revisit time, or 21 other functions at each point in the parameter space. This computation produces a one-, two-, or three-dimensional table of data representing statistical results across the parameter space. Inasmuch as the output of a parametric study in three dimensions can be a very large data set, visualization is a paramount means of discovering trends in the data (see figure). Data Table Plot View enables visualization of the data table created by Parametric Studies or by another data source: this module quickly generates a display of the data in the form of a rotatable three-dimensional-appearing plot, making it unnecessary to load the SOAP output data into a separate plotting program. The rotatable three-dimensionalappearing plot makes it easy to determine which points in the parameter space are most desirable. Both modules provide intuitive user interfaces for ease of use.

  11. Method for producing microcomposite powders using a soap solution

    DOEpatents

    Maginnis, Michael A.; Robinson, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for producing microcomposite powders for use in superconducting and non-superconducting applications. A particular method to produce microcomposite powders for use in superconducting applications includes the steps of: (a) preparing a solution including ammonium soap; (b) dissolving a preselected amount of a soluble metallic such as silver nitrate in the solution including ammonium soap to form a first solution; (c) adding a primary phase material such as a single phase YBC superconducting material in particle form to the first solution; (d) preparing a second solution formed from a mixture of a weak acid and an alkyl-mono-ether; (e) adding the second solution to the first solution to form a resultant mixture; (f) allowing the resultant mixture to set until the resultant mixture begins to cloud and thicken into a gel precipitating around individual particles of the primary phase material; (g) thereafter drying the resultant mixture to form a YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder; and (h) calcining the YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder to convert the silver nitrate to silver and thereby form a YBC/silver microcomposite powder wherein the silver is substantially uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the YBC material.

  12. Development of an observational measure of healthcare worker hand-hygiene behaviour: the hand-hygiene observation tool (HHOT).

    PubMed

    McAteer, J; Stone, S; Fuller, C; Charlett, A; Cookson, B; Slade, R; Michie, S

    2008-03-01

    Previous observational measures of healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour (HHB) fail to provide adequate standard operating procedures (SOPs), accounts of inter-rater agreement testing or evidence of sensitivity to change. This study reports the development of an observational tool in a way that addresses these deficiencies. Observational categories were developed systematically, guided by a clinical guideline, previous measures and pilot hand-hygiene behaviour observations (HHOs). The measure, a simpler version of the Geneva tool, consists of HHOs (before and after low-risk, high-risk or unobserved contact), HHBs (soap, alcohol hand rub, no action, unknown), and type of HCW. Inter-observer agreement for each category was assessed by observation of 298 HHOs and HHBs by two independent observers on acute elderly and intensive care units. Raw agreement (%) and Kappa were 77% and 0.68 for HHB; 83% and 0.77 for HHO; and 90% and 0.77 for HCW. Inter-observer agreement for overall compliance of a group of HCWs was assessed by observation of 1191 HHOs and HHBs by two pairs of independent observers. Overall agreement was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). Sensitivity to change was examined by autoregressive time-series modelling of longitudinal observations for 8 months on the intensive therapy unit during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak and subsequent strengthening of infection control measures. Sensitivity to change was demonstrated by a rise in compliance from 80 to 98% with an odds ratio of increased compliance of 7.00 (95% confidence interval: 4.02-12.2) P < 0.001.

  13. Typhoid fever: hurdles to adequate hand washing for disease prevention among the population of a peri-urban informal settlement in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, James; McCool, Judith; Kool, Jacob; Salusalu, Mosese

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific island nation of Fiji Islands has high rates of endemic typhoid fever which is difficult to diagnose and often underreported. However, the majority of cases are preventable through use of safe water; adequate sanitation; vaccination; and, most sustainable of all, simple hygienic behaviour, such as hand washing with soap (HWWS). Despite many attempts by public health authorities, little progress has been made in the area of environmental adaptation and behaviour change. To explore perceptions of typhoid fever risk among urban squatters and behavioural determinants surrounding HWWS, indigenous Fijians living in informal settlements with high typhoid fever incidence were invited to participate in focus group discussions. In-depth interviews were conducted with community leaders. Perceptions of typhoid fever suggest confusion about risk factors, symptoms and communicability. Environmental barriers for hand washing were related to water and soap access. Standard social marketing approaches have been trialled with little clear evidence of impact. Despite this, we continue to advocate for the social and cultural determinants of typhoid prevention to remain central to future public health strategies. Despite behaviour change being notoriously difficult, we argue that community-driven behaviour adaptation initiatives based on sound epidemiological evidence and health communication theory are likely to have significant impact and greater likelihood of sustainability.

  14. SOAP 2.0: A Tool to Estimate the Photometric and Radial Velocity Variations Induced by Stellar Spots and Plages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, X.; Boisse, I.; Santos, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents SOAP 2.0, a new version of the Spot Oscillation And Planet (SOAP) code that estimates in a simple way the photometric and radial velocity (RV) variations induced by active regions. The inhibition of the convective blueshift (CB) inside active regions is considered, as well as the limb brightening effect of plages, a quadratic limb darkening law, and a realistic spot and plage contrast ratio. SOAP 2.0 shows that the activity-induced variation of plages is dominated by the inhibition of the CB effect. For spots, this effect becomes significant only for slow rotators. In addition, in the case of a major active region dominating the activity-induced signal, the ratio between the FWHM and the RV peak-to-peak amplitudes of the cross correlation function can be used to infer the type of active region responsible for the signal for stars with v sin i <=8 km s-1. A ratio smaller than three implies a spot, while a larger ratio implies a plage. Using the observation of HD 189733, we show that SOAP 2.0 manages to reproduce the activity variation as well as previous simulations when a spot is dominating the activity-induced variation. In addition, SOAP 2.0 also reproduces the activity variation induced by a plage on the slowly rotating star α Cen B, which is not possible using previous simulations. Following these results, SOAP 2.0 can be used to estimate the signal induced by spots and plages, but also to correct for it when a major active region is dominating the RV variation. . The work in this paper is based on observations made with the MOST satellite, the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile), and the SOPHIE instrument at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (France).

  15. Melde's Experiment on a Vibrating Liquid Foam Microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Alexandre; Fraysse, Nathalie; Raufaste, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    We subject a single Plateau border channel to a transverse harmonic excitation, in an experiment reminiscent of the historical one by Melde on vibrating strings, to study foam stability and wave properties. At low driving amplitudes, the liquid string exhibits regular oscillations. At large ones, a nonlinear regime appears and the acoustic radiation splits the channel into two zones of different cross section area, vibration amplitude, and phase difference with the neighboring soap films. The channel experiences an inertial dilatancy that is accounted for by a new Bernoulli-like relation.

  16. Melde's Experiment on a Vibrating Liquid Foam Microchannel.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexandre; Fraysse, Nathalie; Raufaste, Christophe

    2017-12-08

    We subject a single Plateau border channel to a transverse harmonic excitation, in an experiment reminiscent of the historical one by Melde on vibrating strings, to study foam stability and wave properties. At low driving amplitudes, the liquid string exhibits regular oscillations. At large ones, a nonlinear regime appears and the acoustic radiation splits the channel into two zones of different cross section area, vibration amplitude, and phase difference with the neighboring soap films. The channel experiences an inertial dilatancy that is accounted for by a new Bernoulli-like relation.

  17. Exposure to disinfectants (soap or hydrogen peroxide) increases tolerance to permethrin in Anopheles gambiae populations from the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid expansion of insecticide resistance is limiting the efficiency of malaria vector control interventions. However, current knowledge of factors inducing pyrethroid resistance remains incomplete. In the present study, the role of selection at the larval stage by disinfectants, such as soap and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on adult mosquito resistance to permethrin was investigated. Methods Field Anopheles gambiae sensu lato larvae, were exposed to variable concentrations of soap and H2O2. Larvae surviving to acute toxicity assays after 24 hours were reared to the adult stage and exposed to permethrin. The susceptibility level of adults was compared to the untreated control group. The effect of soap or hydrogen peroxide selection on the length of larval development and emergence rate was assessed. Result Larval bioassays analysis showed a more acute effect of hydrogen peroxide on mosquito larvae compared to soap. The regression lines describing the dose mortality profile showed higher mean and variance to hydrogen peroxide than to soap. The duration of larval development (<5 days) and adults emergence rates (1 to 77%) were shorter and lower compare to control. Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae surviving to selection with either soap or hydrogen peroxide or both, produced adults who were up to eight-times more resistant to permethrin than mosquitoes from the untreated control group. Conclusion The present study shows that selective pressure exerted by non-insecticidal compounds such as soap and hydrogen peroxide affect An. gambiae s.l. tolerance to pyrethroids. This requires further studies with regard to the adaptation of An. gambiae s.l. to polluted habitats across sub-Saharan Africa cities. PMID:25086741

  18. Exposure to disinfectants (soap or hydrogen peroxide) increases tolerance to permethrin in Anopheles gambiae populations from the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Youmsi-Goupeyou, Marlene; Kopya, Edmond; Tene-Fossog, Billy; Njiokou, Flobert; Costantini, Carlo; Awono-Ambene, Parfait

    2014-08-03

    The rapid expansion of insecticide resistance is limiting the efficiency of malaria vector control interventions. However, current knowledge of factors inducing pyrethroid resistance remains incomplete. In the present study, the role of selection at the larval stage by disinfectants, such as soap and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on adult mosquito resistance to permethrin was investigated. Field Anopheles gambiae sensu lato larvae, were exposed to variable concentrations of soap and H2O2. Larvae surviving to acute toxicity assays after 24 hours were reared to the adult stage and exposed to permethrin. The susceptibility level of adults was compared to the untreated control group. The effect of soap or hydrogen peroxide selection on the length of larval development and emergence rate was assessed. Larval bioassays analysis showed a more acute effect of hydrogen peroxide on mosquito larvae compared to soap. The regression lines describing the dose mortality profile showed higher mean and variance to hydrogen peroxide than to soap. The duration of larval development (<5 days) and adults emergence rates (1 to 77%) were shorter and lower compare to control. Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae surviving to selection with either soap or hydrogen peroxide or both, produced adults who were up to eight-times more resistant to permethrin than mosquitoes from the untreated control group. The present study shows that selective pressure exerted by non-insecticidal compounds such as soap and hydrogen peroxide affect An. gambiae s.l. tolerance to pyrethroids. This requires further studies with regard to the adaptation of An. gambiae s.l. to polluted habitats across sub-Saharan Africa cities.

  19. Waterless Hand Rub Versus Traditional Hand Scrub Methods for Preventing the Surgical Site Infection in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Akio; Seki, Masahiko; Ando, Yoshiyuki; Tsujio, Tadao; Hoshino, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-11-15

    MINI: Fourteen hundred consecutive patients were investigated for evaluating the utility of waterless hand rub before orthopaedic surgery. The risk in the surgical site infection incidence was the same, but costs of liquids used for hand hygiene were cheaper and the hand hygiene time was shorter for waterless protocol, compared with traditional hand scrub. A retrospective cohort study with prospectively collected data. The aim of this study was to compare SSI incidences, the cost of hand hygiene agents, and hand hygiene time between the traditional hand scrub and the waterless hand rub protocols before orthopedic surgery. Surgical site infections (SSI) prolong hospitalization and are a leading nosocomial cause of morbidity and a source of excess cost. Recently, a waterless hand rub protocol comprising alcohol based chlorhexidine gluconate for use before surgery was developed, but no studies have yet examined its utility in orthopedic surgery. Fourteen hundred consecutive patients who underwent orthopedic surgery (spine, joint replacement, hand, and trauma surgeries) in our hospital since April 1, 2012 were included. A total of 712 cases underwent following traditional hand scrub between April 1, 2012 and April 30, 2013 and 688 cases underwent following waterless hand rub between June 1, 2013 and April 30, 2014. We compared SSI incidences within all and each subcategory between two hand hygiene protocols. All patients were screened for SSI within 1 year after surgery. We compared the cost of hand hygiene agents and hand hygiene time between two groups. The SSI incidences were 1.3% (9 of 712) following the traditional protocol (2 deep and 7 superficial infections) and 1.1% (8 of 688) following the waterless protocol (all superficial infections). There were no significant differences between the two groups. The costs of liquids used for one hand hygiene were about $2 for traditional hand scrub and less than $1 for waterless hand rub. The mean hand hygiene time was 264

  20. Time-Dependent ATR-FTIR Spectroscopic Studies on Fatty Acid Diffusion and the Formation of Metal Soaps in Oil Paint Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Baij, Lambert; Hermans, Joen J; Keune, Katrien; Iedema, Piet

    2018-06-18

    The formation of metal soaps (metal complexes of saturated fatty acids) is a serious problem affecting the appearance and structural integrity of many oil paintings. Tailored model systems for aged oil paint and time-dependent attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were used to study the diffusion of palmitic acid and subsequent metal soap crystallization. The simultaneous presence of free saturated fatty acids and polymer-bound metal carboxylates leads to rapid metal soap crystallization, following a complex mechanism that involves both acid and metal diffusion. Solvent flow, water, and pigments all enhance metal soap crystallization in the model systems. These results contribute to the development of paint cleaning strategies, a better understanding of oil paint degradation, and highlight the potential of time-dependent ATR-FTIR spectroscopy for studying dynamic processes in polymer films. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  1. Hand washing practices in two communities of two states of Eastern India: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sandip Kumar; Zaman, Forhad Akhtar; Laskar, Nasrin Banu

    2010-01-01

    Public health importance of hand washing as well as its importance in reduction of communicable diseases such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections have been highlighted in many studies worldwide. This study was designed to study the hand washing practices followed in two urban slums as well as to assess and compare the status of different components of hand washing at the pre- and post-intervention phases. A community-based cross-sectional intervention study on hand washing practices was carried out at two urban slums situated in two states of Eastern India with similar sociocultural and linguistic background. The study was carried out by using an interview technique as well as observation of hand washing practices. Interpersonal communication for behavioural change was chosen as a method of intervention. The majority (>90%) practiced hand washing after defecation in both the study areas. However, hand washing following all six steps and for stipulated time period was seen to be poor before intervention. Significant improvement was observed in all the aspects of hand washing after intervention in both the areas. The poor practice of hand washing was observed in some situations and needed attention. Use of soap and clean material for drying hands after hand washing was poor initially followed by improvement after intervention. Based on the findings of the study, it could be suggested that Behaviour Change Communication program should be further planned with emphasis on different components of hand washing with a final objective to bring down the incidence of target diseases.

  2. Authentic ESL Spoken Materials: Soap Opera and Sitcom versus Natural Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Surmi, Mansoor Ali

    2012-01-01

    TV shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by ESL practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners might be faced with the dilemma of how to evaluate whether such conversational materials reflect…

  3. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, D L; Ponte, J M; Kochanowski, B A

    2000-04-01

    In many outbreaks of foodborne illness, the food worker has been implicated as the source of the infection. To decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination, food workers must clean and disinfect their hands frequently. To ensure their effectiveness, hand disinfectants should be tested using rigorous conditions that mimic normal use. Currently, several different methods are used to assess the efficacy of hand disinfectants. However, most of these methods were designed with the health care worker in mind and do not model the specific contamination situations encountered by the food worker. To fill this void, we developed a model that uses soil from fresh meat and a means of quantifying bacteria that is encountered and transferred during food preparation activities. Results of studies using various doses of para-chloro-meta-xylenol and triclosan confirm that the method is reproducible and predictable in measuring the efficacy of sanitizers. Consistent, dose-dependent results were obtained with relatively few subjects. Other studies showed that washing hands with a mild soap and water for 20 s was more effective than applying a 70% alcohol hand sanitizer.

  4. Chemists Clean Up: A History and Exploration of the Craft of Soapmaking--How Soap Came To Be Common in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostka, Kimberly L.; McKay, David D.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the confluence of cultural and technological changes that led to the transformation of soap into a ubiquitous and well-used object. Picks up the timeline for the development of soap in the early American republic when soapmaking was a householder's task. Traces the rise of the American cleanliness movement and correlates the rise to…

  5. Safety in Outdoor Adventure Programs. S.O.A.P. Safety Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Wayne, Comp.; And Others

    Drafted in 1978 as a working document for Safety in Outdoor Adventure Programs (S.O.A.P.) by a council of outdoor adventure programmers, checklists outline standard accepted safety policy for Outdoor Adventure Programs and Wilderness Adventure Programs conducted through public or private agencies in California. Safety policy emphasizes: the…

  6. Teaching with Soap: Examples of Project-Based Units for Students and Future Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Ivan; Hamed, Kastro M.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of project-based instruction in activities and labs intended to develop higher-order thinking skills with high school students and pre-service teachers through the use of soap making.

  7. Relativistic strings - From soap films to a grand unified theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, V. V.

    1986-11-01

    The concept of relativistic strings is considered in connection with the theory of minimal surfaces (e.g., soap films stretched onto closed wire contours). The role of relativistic strings in hadron physics is discussed. Attention is then given to the creation of a grand unified theory on the basis of the superstring concept. Finally, the role of relativistic strings in cosmology is examined.

  8. "Marginal pinching" in soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aradian, A.; Raphaël, E.; de Gennes, P.-G.

    2001-09-01

    We discuss the behaviour of a thin soap film facing a frame element: the pressure in the Plateau border around the frame is lower than the film pressure, and the film thins out over a certain distance λ(t), due to the formation of a well-localized pinched region of thickness h(t) and extension w(t). We construct a hydrodynamic theory for this thinning process, assuming a constant surface tension: Marangoni effects are probably important only at late stages, where instabilities set in. We find λ(t) ~ t1/4, and for the pinch dimensions, h(t) ~ t-1/2 and w(t) ~ t-1/4. These results may play a useful role for the discussion of later instabilities leading to a global film thinning and drainage, as first discussed by K. Mysels under the name "marginal regeneration".

  9. Microbial characterization and degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an anaerobic reactor treating wastewater containing soap powder.

    PubMed

    Carosia, Mariana Fronja; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating wastewater containing soap powder as LAS source. At Stage I, the AFBR was fed with a synthetic substrate containing yeast extract and ethanol as carbon sources, and without LAS; at Stage II, soap powder was added to this synthetic substrate obtaining an LAS concentration of 14 ± 3 mg L(-1). The compounds of soap powder probably inhibited some groups of microorganisms, increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from 91 to 143 mg HAc L(-1). Consequently, the LAS removal rate was 48 ± 10% after the 156 days of operation. By sequencing, 16S rRNA clones belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Synergistetes were identified in the samples taken at the end of the experiment, with a remarkable presence of Dechloromonas sp. and Geobacter sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (p<0.001). Conclusions While the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

  11. Pramoxine

    MedlinePlus

    ... your hands. Clean the affected area with mild soap and warm water. Rinse thoroughly. Pat affected area ... your hands. Clean affected rectal area with mild soap and warm water. Rinse thoroughly. Gently dry by ...

  12. Mechlorethamine Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... the treated areas. Wash your hands well with soap and water after applying or touching mechlorethamine gel. ... disposable nitrile gloves and wash hands well with soap and water after removing the gloves. If a ...

  13. The destabilization of an initially thick liquid sheet edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuissier, Henri; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2011-09-01

    By forcing the sudden dewetting of a free soap film attached on one edge to a straight solid wire, we study the recession and subsequent destabilization of its free edge. The newly formed rim bordering the sheet is initially thicker than the film to which it is attached, because of the Plateau border preexisting on the wire. The initial condition is thus that of an immobile massive toroidal rim connected to a thin liquid film of thickness h. The terminal Taylor-Culick receding velocity V =√2σ/ρh , where σ and ρ are the liquid surface tension and density, respectively, is only reached after a transient acceleration period which promotes the rim destabilization. The selected wavelength and associated growth time coincide with those of an inertial instability driven by surface tension.

  14. Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-08-01

    Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity,more » vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R{sub {lambda}}{approx}100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in {ital k} space consistent with the k{sup {minus}3} spectrum of the Kraichnan{endash}Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  15. Preventive effects of topical washing with miconazole nitrate-containing soap to diaper candidiasis in hospitalized elderly patients: A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Oyama, Noritaka; Tanaka, Izumi; Hasegawa, Michiko; Hirano, Kaori; Shimada, Chieko; Hasegawa, Minoru

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present randomized, double-blind trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of daily washing with miconazole nitrate-containing soap for candidiasis at diaper-covered sites in elderly subjects under long-term inpatient care. To confirm the onset and disappearance of candidiasis, we microscopically evaluated the existence of the pseudohyphae and/or blastoconidia of Candida spp. We enrolled 75 elderly patients who wore diapers all day in the hospital or nursing home. Patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with either miconazole soap or miconazole-free placebo soap, and 28 patients in the miconazole group and 27 patients in the placebo group were followed for 4 weeks. Although washing with miconazole soap did not affect the frequency of pseudohyphae/blastoconidia-positive patients, it significantly inhibited the positive conversion of pseudohyphae/blastoconidia compared with the placebo group. As a result, the frequency of patients positive for pseudohyphae/blastoconidia was significantly lower in the miconazole group than in the control group at 4 weeks (17.9% vs 44.4%). Clinically apparent diaper candidiasis did not develop in either group. Washing with miconazole soap was a significant independent factor for reducing the cases positive for pseudohyphae/blastoconidia, while diarrhea and heart failure were significant factors associated with an increase in the positive rate at the end-point. Severe adverse effects were not found in any patients. Thus, washing with miconazole soap is well-tolerated and can inhibit the positive conversion of Candida in patients wearing diapers. Therefore, maintenance of genital hygiene using this soap may prophylactically decrease the overall prevalence of patients with diaper candidiasis. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. 11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, WITH WRAPPER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND CUTTER (RIGHT, BEHIND CHUTE); BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM PRESS TO 5TH FLOOR FOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  17. Gelling Mechanism of Aluminum Di-Soaps in Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Rackaitis, Mindaugas

    2009-03-01

    This work demonstrates that aluminum di-soaps form nano-sized spherical micelles in the oils and that the aggregation of these micelles forms a network that gives rise to a gel formation -- thereby refuting a long-held belief that the gel formation was the result of linear polymeric chains of aluminum association. The discovery of such aluminum nano-particles could expand application of these materials to new technologies because these materials are chemically inert, odorless and nontoxic, and have been widely used in greases, paints, gels, cosmetics, drugs and foods.

  18. Distribution of peanut allergen in the environment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tamara T; Conover-Walker, Mary Kay; Pomés, Anna; Chapman, Martin D; Wood, Robert A

    2004-05-01

    Patients with peanut allergy can have serious reactions to very small quantities of peanut allergen and often go to extreme measures to avoid potential contact with this allergen. The purpose of this study was to detect peanut allergen under various environmental conditions and examine the effectiveness of cleaning agents for allergen removal. A monoclonal-based ELISA for Arachis hypogaea allergen 1 (Ara h 1; range of detection, 30-2000 ng/mL) was used to assess peanut contamination on cafeteria tables and other surfaces in schools, the presence of residual peanut protein after using various cleaning products on hands and tabletops, and airborne peanut allergen during the consumption of several forms of peanut. After hand washing with liquid soap, bar soap, or commercial wipes, Ara h 1 was undetectable. Plain water and antibacterial hand sanitizer left detectable Ara h 1 on 3 of 12 and 6 of 12 hands, respectively. Common household cleaning agents removed peanut allergen from tabletops, except dishwashing liquid, which left Ara h 1 on 4 of 12 tables. Of the 6 area preschools and schools evaluated, Ara h 1 was found on 1 of 13 water fountains, 0 of 22 desks, and 0 of 36 cafeteria tables. Airborne Ara h 1 was undetectable in simulated real-life situations when participants consumed peanut butter, shelled peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, is relatively easily cleaned from hands and tabletops with common cleaning agents and does not appear to be widely distributed in preschools and schools. We were not able to detect airborne allergen in many simulated environments.

  19. Methyldibromo glutaronitrile: clinical experience and exposure-based risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zachariae, Claus; Rastogi, Suresh; Devantier, Charlotte; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-03-01

    In the year 2000, the level of methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDGN) allergy in dermatology clinics in Europe exceeded the level of allergies to all other preservatives, with a prevalence of 3.5%. In the present study, cases of primary sensitization and elicitation to MDGN due to cosmetic products were collected over an 8-month period at the Department of Dermatology, Gentofte University Hospital. The aim was to identify the products related to hand eczema, assess exposure to MDGN in these products and relate the findings to results from a newly developed updated risk assessment model for contact allergy. Out of 24 patients with a positive patch test to MDGN, 17 patients with hand eczema were identified. In 11 of these patients, cosmetic products used in relation to the onset of the disease were shown to contain MDGN (65%). In 8 of these 11 cases, primary sensitization was probable, 5 due to hand/body lotions and 3 due to lotions and/or liquid hand soap. Chemical analysis of 12 products showed that lotions contained 149-390 ppm of MDGN, liquid hand soap 144-399 ppm, a rinsing cream 293 ppm and shampoos 78-79 ppm. The shampoo exposure was not of certain relevance to the eczema. Applying the newly developed updated risk assessment model showed that the concentrations of MDGN in lotions of 149-390 ppm exceeded the calculated maximum acceptable exposure level for MDGN, which would be expected to lead to sensitization in consumers using such products, as seen in the current study. The present cases and updated exposure-based risk assessment process add to the evidence and need for re-defining safe-use concentrations of MDGN in cosmetic products.

  20. Video surveillance captures student hand hygiene behavior, reactivity to observation, and peer influence in Kenyan primary schools.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Blum, Annalise G; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K; Davis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In-person structured observation is considered the best approach for measuring hand hygiene behavior, yet is expensive, time consuming, and may alter behavior. Video surveillance could be a useful tool for objectively monitoring hand hygiene behavior if validated against current methods. Student hand cleaning behavior was monitored with video surveillance and in-person structured observation, both simultaneously and separately, at four primary schools in urban Kenya over a study period of 8 weeks. Video surveillance and in-person observation captured similar rates of hand cleaning (absolute difference <5%, p = 0.74). Video surveillance documented higher hand cleaning rates (71%) when at least one other person was present at the hand cleaning station, compared to when a student was alone (48%; rate ratio  = 1.14 [95% CI 1.01-1.28]). Students increased hand cleaning rates during simultaneous video and in-person monitoring as compared to single-method monitoring, suggesting reactivity to each method of monitoring. This trend was documented at schools receiving a handwashing with soap intervention, but not at schools receiving a sanitizer intervention. Video surveillance of hand hygiene behavior yields results comparable to in-person observation among schools in a resource-constrained setting. Video surveillance also has certain advantages over in-person observation, including rapid data processing and the capability to capture new behavioral insights. Peer influence can significantly improve student hand cleaning behavior and, when possible, should be exploited in the design and implementation of school hand hygiene programs.