Science.gov

Sample records for liquid hydrocarbons final

  1. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  2. Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

  3. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  4. Enhanced liquid hydrocarbon recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D.

    1992-07-14

    This patent describes a process for recovering liquid hydrocarbons. It comprises: injecting into a fractured subterranean formation a polymer enhanced foam comprising a polymer selected from a synthetic polymer or a biopolymer, a surfactant, an aqueous solvent and a gas, recovering liquid hydrocarbons from the formation.

  5. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  6. Final report on the APMP key comparison liquid hydrocarbon flow (APMP.M.FF-K2.a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Su, Chun-Min; Chen, I.-Cheng; Dignan, Simon

    2017-01-01

    A key comparison, APMP.M.FF-K2. was undertaken by the APMP Technical Committee for Fluid Flow, and was piloted by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ/AIST). The objective of this key comparison is to demonstrate the degree of equivalence of the hydrocarbon flow standards held at the participating laboratories (CMS, NMIA and NMIJ), to link the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of CCM.FF-K2 and to provide supporting evidence for the calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) claimed by the participating laboratories in the Asia-Pacific regions. A screw type positive displacement flow meter was selected as a transfer standard. The performance of the transfer standard and its stability was evaluated from repeated measurements by the pilot institute, NMIJ. The transfer standard showed high performance and good stability since the uncertainty due to the transfer standard was less than quoted uncertainties in the participants. CMS and NMIJ have En values which show consistency with both the relevant KCRV for APMP.M.FF-K2.a and each pair of participants. However some En values for NMIA were from 1 to 1.2, indicating 'alert'. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Final report on the key comparison of hydrocarbon liquid flow: CCM.FF-K2.2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, T.; Bittner-Rohrhofer, K.; Medina López, V. J.; Arias, R.; Su, C.-M.; Chen, I.-C.; Ribere, F.; Rowan, L.; Dignan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Seven laboratories: BEV (Austria), CENAM (Mexico), CMS (Chinese-Taipei), LNE-TRAPIL (France), NEL (United Kingdom), NMIA (Australia), and the pilot lab NMIJ (Japan), participated in the key comparison CCM.FF-K2.2015 for hydrocarbon flow measurement. A screw type positive displacement flow meter was selected as a transfer standard. The calibration stability of the transfer standard was evaluated from repeated measurements by NMIJ and showed standard reproducibility of 0.0035 %. The transfer standard was also thoroughly tested for sensitivity to temperature, viscosity, pressure, and other effects. The uncertainty due to the transfer standard of 0.0080 % was less than the quoted uncertainties of the participants. The key comparison reference values (KCRVs) at Reynolds number of 70 000 and 300 000 were obtained as the weighted mean from the calibration results, and the KCRV at Reynolds number of 100 000 was obtained as the median by using the Monte Carlo method according to Cox's procedure B, since the consistency check at Reynolds number of 100 000 failed at the 95 % confidence level. All participant results selected to determine the KCRVs have En values which show consistency with the evaluated KCRVs. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOEpatents

    Szydlowski, Donald F.; Kuzminskas, Vaidotas; Bittner, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  9. Microwave plasma in hydrocarbon liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Mukasa, Shinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Kuramoto, Makoto

    2006-05-01

    The generation of microwave plasma in liquid with vapor bubbles has been achieved and will soon be applied to high-speed chemical vapor deposition. Vapor bubbles are induced from an electrode by heating. The deposition rate of diamondlike carbon films depends on the pressure and the power of the microwave supply. Polycrystalline silicon carbide is synthesized on a silicon substrate in a mixture of n-dodecane and silicone oil. The dispersion of water droplets in liquid creates many pores on the silicon carbide films. The synthesis of carbon nanotubes can be achieved in liquid benzene.

  10. 30 CFR 250.1202 - Liquid hydrocarbon measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquid hydrocarbon measurement. 250.1202... Measurement, Surface Commingling, and Security § 250.1202 Liquid hydrocarbon measurement. (a) What are the requirements for measuring liquid hydrocarbons? You must: (1) Submit a written application to, and...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1202 - Liquid hydrocarbon measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquid hydrocarbon measurement. 250.1202... Measurement, Surface Commingling, and Security § 250.1202 Liquid hydrocarbon measurement. (a) What are the requirements for measuring liquid hydrocarbons? You must: (1) Submit a written application to, and...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1202 - Liquid hydrocarbon measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquid hydrocarbon measurement. 250.1202... Measurement, Surface Commingling, and Security § 250.1202 Liquid hydrocarbon measurement. (a) What are the requirements for measuring liquid hydrocarbons? You must: (1) Submit a written application to, and...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1202 - Liquid hydrocarbon measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquid hydrocarbon measurement. 250.1202... Gas Production Measurement, Surface Commingling, and Security § 250.1202 Liquid hydrocarbon measurement. (a) What are the requirements for measuring liquid hydrocarbons? You must: (1) Submit a...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1202 - Liquid hydrocarbon measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid hydrocarbon measurement. 250.1202..., Surface Commingling, and Security § 250.1202 Liquid hydrocarbon measurement. (a) What are the requirements for measuring liquid hydrocarbons? You must: (1) Submit a written application to, and obtain...

  15. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  16. Evaporation of Liquid Hydrocarbon Mixtures on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Chevrier, V. F.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Singh, S.; Roe, L. A.; Wagner, A.

    2013-10-01

    Besides Earth, Titan is the only other known planetary body with proven stable liquids on its surface. The hydrological cycle of these liquid hydrocarbon mixtures is critical in understanding Titan’s atmosphere and surface features. Evaporation of liquid surface bodies has been indirectly observed as shoreline changes from measurements by Cassini ISS and RADAR (Hayes et al. 2011, Icarus 211, 655-671; Turtle et al. 2011, Science 18, 1414-1417.), but the long seasons of Saturn strongly limit the time span of these observations and their validity over the course of an entire Titan year. Using a novel Titan simulation chamber, the evaporation rate of liquid methane and dissolved nitrogen mixture under Titan surface conditions was derived (Luspay-Kuti et al. 2012, GRL 39, L23203), which is especially applicable to low latitude transient liquids. Polar lakes, though, are expected to be composed of a variety of hydrocarbons, primarily a mixture of ethane and methane (e.g. Cordier et al. 2009, ApJL 707, L128-L131). Here we performed laboratory simulations of ethane-methane mixtures with varying mole fraction under conditions suitable for the polar regions of Titan. We will discuss results specifically addressing the evaporation behavior as the solution becomes increasingly ethane dominated, providing quantitative values for the evaporation rate at every step. These laboratory results are relevant to polar lakes, such as Ontario Lacus, and can shed light on their stability.

  17. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  18. Formulating liquid hydrocarbon fuels for SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, G. J.; Preece, J.; Kendall, K.

    The injection of liquid hydrocarbons directly into an SOFC system is considered for application to hybrid vehicles. The main problem is carbon deposition on the nickel anode when molecules such as ethanol or iso-octane are injected directly. Such carbon deposition has been studied using a microtubular SOFC with a mass spectrometer analysing the product gases to investigate the reaction sequence and also to investigate the deposited carbon by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The results show that only two liquids could be injected directly onto nickel cermet anodes without serious carbon blockage, methanol and methanoic acid. Even then, TPO experiments revealed deposition of small amounts of carbon which could be prevented by small additions of air or water to the fuel. Gasoline type molecules like iso-octane killed the SOFC in about 30 min operation, with about 90% of the molecular carbon being deposited on the nickel cermet anode. However, certain mixtures of iso-octane, water, alcohol and surfactant were found to produce beneficial results with remarkably low carbon deposition, less than 1% of the molecular carbon appearing on the anode. Such formulations had octane numbers appropriate to internal combustion engine operation.

  19. Catalysts for converting syngas into liquid hydrocarbons and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Fei; Yan, Qiangu; Batchelor, William

    2016-03-15

    The presently-disclosed subject matter includes methods for producing liquid hydrocarbons from syngas. In some embodiments the syngas is obtained from biomass and/or comprises a relatively high amount of nitrogen and/or carbon dioxide. In some embodiments the present methods can convert syngas into liquid hydrocarbons through a one-stage process. Also provided are catalysts for producing liquid hydrocarbons from syngas, wherein the catalysts include a base material, a transition metal, and a promoter. In some embodiments the base material includes a zeolite-iron material or a cobalt-molybdenum carbide material. In still further embodiments the promoter can include an alkali metal.

  20. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... hydrocarbons. The Regional Supervisor may allow you to burn liquid hydrocarbons if you demonstrate...

  1. Hydrocarbon content of geopressured brines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Osif, T.L.

    1985-08-01

    Design Well data (bottomhole pressure minus wellhead pressure, GWR, and hydrocarbon composition) is presented as a function of producing conditions. These are examined in conjunction with the following models to attempt to deduce the reservoir brine saturation level: (1) reservoir contains gas dispersed in the pores and the gas saturation is greater than critical; (2) reservoir brine is gas-saturated; (3) bubble point below hydrostatic pressure; and (4) bubble point between hydrostatic pressure and reservoir pressure. 24 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

  2. Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

    2009-09-28

    This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

  3. Liquid hydrocarbons probable under Ross Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, A. K.; Davey, F.J.; Hinz, K.

    1988-01-01

    Thick glacial strata, which have no source-rock potential, cover the Ross Sea. If these strata persist to great depths, then hydrocarbon-generation prospects will be poor. Deeply buried strata within Ross Sea rift-grabens, if like other Gondwana rift-deposits, could have good potential for hydrocarbon generation. Current hydrocarbon assessments of the Ross Sea and adjacent areas must be considered highly speculative because the deeply buried rift(?) strata have not been sampled in situ. The assessment of the Ross Sea relies on geophysical/geologic data, two-stage rift models, and data from formerly nearby Gondwana rift-basins. We conclude that conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and entrapment are likely throughout the Ross Sea, and especially in the Victoria Land basin, if adequate source beds exist. -Authors

  4. Cooling and solidification of heavy hydrocarbon liquid streams

    DOEpatents

    Antieri, Salvatore J.; Comolli, Alfred G.

    1983-01-01

    A process and apparatus for cooling and solidifying a stream of heavy hydrocarbon material normally boiling above about 850.degree. F., such as vacuum bottoms material from a coal liquefaction process. The hydrocarbon stream is dropped into a liquid bath, preferably water, which contains a screw conveyor device and the stream is rapidly cooled, solidified and broken therein to form discrete elongated particles. The solid extrudates or prills are then dried separately to remove substantially all surface moisture, and passed to further usage.

  5. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  6. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  7. Hydrogen Production from Liquid Hydrocarbons Demonstration Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    to naphtha . These hydrogen plant feedstocks have nil sulfur content. End uses for hydrogen include ammonia and methanol manufacture, hydrocracking...steam reformer (HTSR) to convert approximately 55% of the carbon content of the feed logistic fuel to oxides of carbon (carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide...and (2), an autothermal reformer (ATR) to convert the remainder of the hydrocarbon feedstock to a mixture of hydrogen and carbon oxides. Other

  8. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOEpatents

    Kuester, James L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  9. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOEpatents

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  10. Liquid-liquid equilibria of binary mixtures of a lipidic ionic liquid with hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Green, Blane D; Badini, Alexander J; O'Brien, Richard A; Davis, James H; West, Kevin N

    2016-01-28

    Although structurally diverse, many ionic liquids (ILs) are polar in nature due to the strong coulombic forces inherent in ionic compounds. However, the overall polarity of the IL can be tuned by incorporating significant nonpolar content into one or more of the constituent ions. In this work, the binary liquid-liquid equilibria of one such IL, 1-methyl-3-(Z-octadec-9-enyl)imidazolium bistriflimide, with several hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, 1-octene) is measured over the temperature range 0-70 °C at ambient pressure using a combination of cloud point and gravimetric techniques. The phase behavior of the systems are similar in that they exhibit two phases: one that is 60-90 mole% hydrocarbon and a second phase that is nearly pure hydrocarbon. Each phase exhibits a weak dependence of composition on temperature (steep curve) above ∼10 °C, likely due to swelling and restructuring of the nonpolar nano-domains of the IL being limited by energetically unfavorable restructuring in the polar nano-domains. The solubility of the n-alkanes decreases with increasing size (molar volume), a trend that continues for the cyclic alkanes, for which upper critical solution temperatures are observed below 70 °C. 1-Octene is found to be more soluble than n-octane, attributable to a combination of its lower molar volume and slightly higher polarity. The COSMO-RS model is used to predict the T-x'-x'' diagrams and gives good qualitative agreement of the observed trends. This work presents the highest known solubility of n-alkanes in an IL to date and tuning the structure of the ionic liquid to maximize the size/shape trends observed may provide the basis for enhanced separations of nonpolar species.

  11. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    DOEpatents

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Liquid Hydrocarbon Mixtures by Absorption Spectra of Their Vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesnin, V. L.

    2016-11-01

    Absorption spectra of saturated vapors of hydrocarbons and their mixtures were studied near their first overtones. Absorption spectra of hydrocarbons in the liquid and vapor states were compared. The ability to analyze qualitatively the compositions of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures using absorption spectra of their vapors was demonstrated. Indirect evidence suggested that the nonlinear absorption as a function of concentration that was seen in liquid hydrocarbon mixtures was negligible in their vapors.

  13. Two-step catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of fast pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon liquid fuels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingmin; Zhang, Changsen; Liu, Yonggang; Zhai, Yunpu; Zhang, Ruiqin

    2013-10-01

    Two-step catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fast pyrolysis oil was investigated for translating pyrolysis oil to transportation grade hydrocarbon liquid fuels. At the first mild HDO step, various organic solvents were employed to promote HDO of bio-oil to overcome coke formation using noble catalyst (Ru/C) under mild conditions (300 °C, 10 MPa). At the second deep HDO step, conventional hydrogenation setup and catalyst (NiMo/Al2O3) were used under severe conditions (400 °C, 13 MPa) for obtaining hydrocarbon fuel. Results show that the phenomenon of coke formation is effectively eliminated, and the properties of products have been significantly improved, such as oxygen content decreases from 48 to 0.5 wt% and high heating value increases from 17 to 46 MJ kg(-1). GC-MS analysis indicates that the final products include C11-C27 aliphatic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. In short, the fast pyrolysis oils were successfully translated to hydrocarbon liquid fuels using a two-step catalytic HDO process.

  14. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. liquid fuels production increased from 7.43 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2008 to 13.75 million b/d in 2015. However, the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) expects liquid fuels production to decline to 12.99 million b/d in 2017, mainly as a result of prolonged low oil prices. The liquid fuels production forecast reflects a 1.24 million b/d decline in crude oil production by 2017 that is partially offset by a 450,000 b/d increase in the production of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL)—a group of products including ethane, propane, butane (normal and isobutane), natural gasoline, and refinery olefins. This analysis will discuss the outlook for each of these four HGL streams and related infrastructure projects through 2017.

  15. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of historical data and projections for supply, demand, and prices of these liquids, co-products, and competing products. To reduce confusion in terminology and improve its presentation of data, EIA has worked with industry and federal and state governments to clarify gas liquid terminology and has developed the term Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids, or HGL.

  16. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons? (a) You must request and receive approval from the...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... Gas Production Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons? (a) You must request and receive approval from the Regional Supervisor...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... Gas Production Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons? (a) You must request and receive approval from the Regional Supervisor...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... Gas Production Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons? (a) You must request and receive approval from the Regional Supervisor...

  20. Liquid Oxygen Cooling of Hydrocarbon Fueled Rocket Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth S.

    1989-01-01

    Rocket engines using liquid oxygen (LOX) and hydrocarbon fuel as the propellants are being given serious consideration for future launch vehicle propulsion. Normally, the fuel is used to regeneratively cool the combustion chamber. However, hydrocarbons such as RP-1 are limited in their cooling capability. Another possibility for the coolant is the liquid oxygen. Combustion chambers previously tested with LOX and RP-1 as propellants and LOX as the collant demonstrated the feasibility of using liquid oxygen as a coolant up to a chamber pressure of 13.8 MPa (2000 psia). However, there was concern as to the effect on the integrity of the chamber liner if oxygen leaks into the combustion zone through fatigue cracks that may develop between the cooling passages and the hot gas side wall. In order to study this effect, chambers were fabricated with slots machined upstream of the throat between the cooling passage wall and the hot gas side wall to simulate cracks. The chambers were tested at a nominal chamber pressure of 8.6 MPa (1247 psia) over a range of mixture ratios from 1.9 to 3.1 using liquid oxygen as the coolant. The results of the testing showed that the leaking LOX did not have a deleterious effect on the chambers in the region of the slots. However, there was unexplained melting in the throat region of both chambers, but not in line with the slots.

  1. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Explosives and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Deactivation Furnace Ash.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...chromatography or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gas chromatography (GC), because of its speed and sensitivity, has received much...Staley. 1976. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particulate matter by high performance liquid chromatography coupled

  2. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Foral, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

  3. Vapor condensation process produces slurry of magnesium particles in liquid hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, G. M.; Walsh, T. J.; Witzke, W. R.

    1966-01-01

    Vapor condensation apparatus produces a physically stable, homogeneous slurry of finely divided magnesium and liquid hydrocarbons. The magnesium is vaporized and the resultant vapor is cooled rapidly with a liquid hydrocarbon spray, which also serves as the dispersing medium for the condensed magnesium particles.

  4. Development of an ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples.

    PubMed

    Pena, M Teresa; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2009-09-04

    A simple, rapid and efficient method, ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME), has been developed for the first time for the determination of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. The chemical affinity between the ionic liquid (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) and the analytes permits the extraction of the PAHs from the sample matrix also allowing their preconcentration. Thus, this technique combines extraction and concentration of the analytes into one step and avoids using toxic chlorinated solvents. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of ionic liquid, type and volume of disperser solvent, extraction time, dispersion stage, centrifuging time and ionic strength, were optimised. Analysis of extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection (Flu). The optimised method exhibited a good precision level with relative standard deviation values between 1.2% and 5.7%. Quantification limits obtained for all of these considered compounds (between 0.1 and 7 ng L(-1)) were well below the limits recommended in the EU. The extraction yields for the different compounds obtained by IL-DLLME, ranged from 90.3% to 103.8%. Furthermore, high enrichment factors (301-346) were also achieved. The extraction efficiency of the optimised method is compared with that achieved by liquid-liquid extraction. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of PAHs in real water samples (tap, bottled, fountain, well, river, rainwater, treated and raw wastewater).

  5. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Foral, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Amoco Oil Company is investigating the direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels via partial oxidation. This report describes work completed in the first quarter of the two-year project (first quarter FY 1990). Task 1 of the work, preparation of the Project Management Plan, has been completed. Work was started and progress made on three other tasks during this quarter: Task 2. Modification of an existing Amoco pilot plant to handle the conditions of this project. Minor modifications were made to increase the maximum operating pressure to 1500 psig. Other more extensive modifications are being designed, including addition of an oxygen compressor and recycle system. Task 3.1. Evaluation of a Los Alamos National Laboratory methane oxidation kinetic model for suitability in guiding the experimental portions of this project. Task 3.2. Process variable (e.g. temperature, pressure, residence time) studies to determine optimal partial oxidation conditions. 1 fig.

  6. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  7. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) Testing in Liquid Oxygen (LOX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2016-01-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  8. Influence of cation structure on binary liquid-liquid equilibria for systems containing ionic liquids based on trifluoromethanesulfonate anion with hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Karczemna, Ewa

    2010-04-29

    Binary liquid-liquid equilibria for 15 systems containing an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate) with a hydrocarbon (n-hexane, n-heptane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene) were measured by the dynamic method. The influence of cation structure of trifluoromethanesulfonate anion based ionic liquids on solubility of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  9. Composition and concentrations of semi-volatile hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; Fung, K.; Sheetz, L.

    1992-08-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in ambient air are routinely analyzed for C2 to C10 species. The Caldecott Tunnel, located in the San Francisco area, was selected as a site dominated by motor vehicle emissions. The remaining sampling sites were: Los Angeles as a typical urban site, and Oildale as a site dominated by oil production. Whole air samples, analyzed for C2 through C12 hydrocarbons, were collected using the stainless steel canisters. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons, in the range of C8 to C18, were collected using Tenax-TA solid adsorbent. The samples were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatographic separation and Fourier transform infrared/mass spectrometric detection (GC/IRD/MSD) or flame ionization detection (FID) of individual hydrocarbons. The comparison of hydrocarbon concentrations found in the Tenax and canister samples and the assessment of the levels of semivolatile hydrocarbons (C10-C18 range) relative to total non-methane hydrocarbons (C2-C10 or C2-C12), as measured by the canister method, is presented. The results showed that the percent contribution of SVHC to TNMHC ranged from approximately 1 to approximately 18% depending on the carbon number arbitrarily selected as a starting point of SVHC range.

  10. Reflectance spectra of three liquid hydrocarbons on a common sand type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott; Satterwhite, Melvin B.

    2006-05-01

    Three liquid hydrocarbons of different volatilities were incrementally applied to a quartz sand substrate. These liquids were gasoline, diesel fuel, and motor oil. The reflectance spectra of the hydrocarbon-sand samples varied directly with the amount (weight) of liquid on the sand. Liquid-saturated sand samples were then left to age in ambient, outdoor, environmental conditions. At regular intervals, the samples were re-measured for the residual liquid and the associated change in sample reflectance. The results outlined temporal windows of opportunity for detecting these products on the sand substrate. The windows ranged from less than 24-hours to more than a week, depending on liquid volatility. Each hydrocarbon darkened the sand and produced hydrocarbon absorption features near 1.70 and 2.31 μm and a hydrocarbon plateau at 2.28-2.45 μm. These features were used to differentiate the liquid-sand samples. A normalized difference index metric based on one of these features and a spectral continuum band described the reflectance-weight loss and reflectance-time relations. The normalized difference hydrocarbon index (NDHI) using the 1.60 and 2.31 μm bands best characterized the samples.

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  12. 30 CFR 250.1163 - How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? 250.1163 Section 250... Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1163 How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? (a) If your...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1163 - How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? 250.1163 Section 250... Production Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1163 How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? (a)...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1163 - How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? 250.1163 Section 250... Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1163 How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? (a) If your...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1163 - How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? 250.1163 Section 250... Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1163 How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? (a) If your...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1163 - How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? 250.1163 Section 250..., and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1163 How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? (a) If your facility processes more than...

  17. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  18. Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Francisco Zaera

    2007-08-09

    production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a β-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the

  19. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Mo, Weijian; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie; Mandema, Remco Hugo; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  20. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of research on the development of new catalytic pathways for the hydrogenation of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons and the hydrotreating of coal liquids at The University of Chicago under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91056. The work, which is described in three parts, is primarily concerned with the research on the development of new catalytic systems for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen. Part A discusses the activation of dihydrogen by very basic molecular reagents to form adducts that can facilitate the reduction of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons. Part B examines the hydrotreating of coal liquids catalyzed by the same base-activated dihydrogen complexes. Part C concerns studies of molecular organometallic catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions.

  1. Curable liquid hydrocarbon prepolymers containing hydroxyl groups and process for producing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Production of hydroxyl containing curable liquid hydrocarbon prepolymers by ozonizing a high molecular weight saturated hydrocarbon polymer such as polyisobutylene or ethylene propylene rubber is discussed. The ozonized material is reduced using reducing agents, preferably diisobutyl aluminum hydride, to form the hydroxyl containing liquid prepolymers having a substantially lower molecular weight than the parent polymer. The resulting curable liquid hydroxyl containing prepolymers can be poured into a mold and readily cured, with reactants such as toluene diisocyanate, to produce highly stable elastomers having a variety of uses such as binders for solid propellants.

  2. Liquid waste treatment system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-06-01

    Pretreatment of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) involved three distinct processing operations: decontamination of liquid HLW in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS); volume reduction of decontaminated liquid in the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); and encapsulation of resulting concentrates into an approved cement waste form in the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Together, these systems and operations made up the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS).

  3. High energy decomposition of halogenated hydrocarbons FY93 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this program is to demonstrate a viable process for the decomposition of hazardous organochlorine compounds to nonhazardous products. This process has applicability to the treatment of mixed wastes containing both chlorinated hydrocarbons and radioactive constituents. The organics may be decomposed leaving only the radioactive constituents in the waste. Further, the use of spent nuclear fuel as a gamma-ray source presents a potentially cost effective energy source and elegantly allows the fuel to be considered a resource rather than a liability. During FY93 more than 400 samples were irradiated with fission product gamma-rays. Many of these samples were individual PCB congeners dissolved in isopropanol. These samples were studied to gain an understanding of the mechanism and kinetics of, and to provide a mass balance for, the PCB radiolysis reaction. In addition to research findings this report also contains a summary of efforts expended on technology transfer, professional publications and conference presentations.

  4. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Acenaphthene, Acenaphthylene, Anthracene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(g,h,i)perylene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Chrysene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, Fluoranthene, Fluorene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, Phenanthrene, Pyrene is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information.

  5. Liquid-state theory of hydrocarbon-water systems: Application to methane, ethane, and propane

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, L.; Blankschtein, D.

    1992-10-15

    The authors studied the structural and bulk thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon (methane, ethane, and propane)-water systems as well as pure water using the site-site Ornstein-Zernike (SSOZ) equation under a variety of different closure relations in order to compare the quantitative predictive capabilities of the various closures. For the hydrocarbon-water systems, the simple point-charge(SPC) potential was used to model water, and the optimized potentials for liquid, simulation (OPLS) were used to model the hydrocarbons. 69 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Developing Mathematical Provisions for Assessment of Liquid Hydrocarbon Emissions in Emergency Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shantarin, V. D.

    2016-10-01

    The paper reviews the development of methodology for calculation of hydrocarbon emissions during seepage and evaporation to monitor the reliability and safety of hydrocarbon storage and transportation. The authors have analyzed existing methods, models and techniques for assessing the amount of evaporated oil. Models used for predicting the material balance of multicomponent two-phase systems have been discussed. The results of modeling the open-air hydrocarbon evaporation from an oil spill are provided and exemplified by an emergency pit. Dependences and systems of differential equations have been obtained to assess parameters of mass transfer from the open surface of a liquid multicomponent mixture.

  7. Influence of adhesion on aerobic biodegradation and bioremediation of liquid hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Abbasnezhad, Hassan; Gray, Murray; Foght, Julia M

    2011-11-01

    Biodegradation of poorly water-soluble liquid hydrocarbons is often limited by low availability of the substrate to microbes. Adhesion of microorganisms to an oil-water interface can enhance this availability, whereas detaching cells from the interface can reduce the rate of biodegradation. The capability of microbes to adhere to the interface is not limited to hydrocarbon degraders, nor is it the only mechanism to enable rapid uptake of hydrocarbons, but it represents a common strategy. This review of the literature indicates that microbial adhesion can benefit growth on and biodegradation of very poorly water-soluble hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in a non-aqueous phase. Adhesion is particularly important when the hydrocarbons are not emulsified, giving limited interfacial area between the two liquid phases. When mixed communities are involved in biodegradation, the ability of cells to adhere to the interface can enable selective growth and enhance bioremediation with time. The critical challenge in understanding the relationship between growth rate and biodegradation rate for adherent bacteria is to accurately measure and observe the population that resides at the interface of the hydrocarbon phase.

  8. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  9. Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

  10. Hydrocarbon contamination increases the liquid water content of frozen Antarctic soils.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Steven D; Schafer, Alexis N; Forgeron, Michelle A M; Snape, Ian

    2008-11-15

    We do not yet understand why fuel spills can cause greater damage in polar soils than in temperate soils. The role of water in the freezing environment may partly be responsible for why polar soils are more sensitive to pollution. We hypothesized that hydrocarbons alter the liquid water in frozen soil, and we evaluated this hypothesis by conducting laboratory and field experiments at Casey Station, Antarctica. Liquid water content in frozen soils (theta(liquid)) was estimated by time domain reflectometry in laboratory, field collected soils, and in situ field measurements. Our results demonstrate an increase in liquid water associated with hydrocarbon contamination in frozen soils. The dependence of theta(liquid) on aged fuel and spiked fuel were almost identical,with a slope of 2.6 x 10(-6) mg TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) kg(-1) for aged fuel and 3.1 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1) for spiked fuel. In situ measurements found theta(liquid) depends, r2 = 0.75, on fuel for silt loam soils (theta(liquid) = 0.094 + 7.8 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1)) but not on fuel for silt clay loam soils. In our study, theta(liquid) doubled in field soils and quadrupled in laboratory soils contaminated with diesel which may have profound implications on frost heave models in contaminated soils.

  11. Vortex-assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Leng, Geng; Lui, Guibin; Chen, Yong; Yin, Hui; Dan, Dezhong

    2012-10-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient method, vortex-assisted extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. Acetonitrile was used as collecting solvent for the extraction of PAHs from sediment by vortex-assisted extraction. In DLLME, PAHs were rapidly transferred from acetonitrile to dichloromethane. Under the optimum conditions, the method yields a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 10 to 2100 ng g(-1) for fluorene, anthracene, chrysene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene, and 20 to 2100 ng g(-1) for other target analytes. Coefficients of determinations ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9994. The limits of detection, based on signal-to-noise ratio of three, ranged from 2.3 to 6.8 ng g(-1) . Reproducibility and recoveries was assessed by extracting a series of six independent sediment samples, which were spiked with different concentration levels. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied in analyses of real nature sediment samples. The proposed method extended and improved the application of DLLME to solid samples, which greatly shorten the extraction time and simplified the extraction process.

  12. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaman, Ramanathan

    Conventional approaches to oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons involve use of high-purity, expensive water soluble peroxide for oxidation of sulfur compounds followed by post-treatment for removal of oxidized sulfones by extraction. Both are associated with higher cost due to handling, storage of oxidants and yield loss with extraction and water separation, making the whole process more expensive. This thesis explores an oxidative desulfurization process using air as an oxidant followed by catalytic decomposition of sulfones thereby eliminating the aforementioned issues. Oxidation of sulfur compounds was realized by a two step process in which peroxides were first generated in-situ by catalytic air oxidation, followed by catalytic oxidation of S compounds using the peroxides generated in-situ completing the two step approach. By this technique it was feasible to oxidize over 90% of sulfur compounds present in real jet (520 ppmw S) and diesel (41 ppmw S) fuels. Screening of bulk and supported CuO based catalysts for peroxide generation using model aromatic compound representing diesel fuel showed that bulk CuO catalyst was more effective in producing peroxides with high yield and selectivity. Testing of three real diesel fuels obtained from different sources for air oxidation over bulk CuO catalyst showed different level of effectiveness for generating peroxides in-situ which was consistent with air oxidation of representative model aromatic compounds. Peroxides generated in-situ was then used as an oxidant to oxidize sulfur compounds present in the fuel over MoO3/SiO2 catalyst. 81% selectivity of peroxides for oxidation of sulfur compounds was observed on MoO3/SiO2 catalyst at 40 °C and under similar conditions MoO3/Al2O3 gave only 41% selectivity. This difference in selectivity might be related to the difference in the nature of active sites of MoO3 on SiO2 and Al2O 3 supports as suggested by H2-TPR and XRD analyses. Testing of supported and bulk Mg

  13. Standard test method for acidity of distillation residues or hydrocarbon liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the qualitative determination of the acidity of the distillation residue from a gasoline. The sample of distillation residue or hydrocarbon liquid is shaken with water and the aqueous layer tested for acidity to methyl orange. Some petroleum products are treated with mineral acid as part of the refining procedure. Obviously, any residual mineral acid in a petroleum product is undesirable. The absence of a positive indication in the test for acidity of the distillation residue or aqueous extract of a hydrocarbon liquid is an assurance of the care used in refining the fuel or solvent.

  14. Microwave plasmas generated in bubbles immersed in liquids for hydrocarbons reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, Dmitry; Sharma, Ashish; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2016-06-01

    We present a computational modeling study of microwave plasma generated in cluster of atmospheric-pressure argon bubbles immersed in a liquid. We demonstrate that the use of microwaves allows the generation of a dense chemically active non-equilibrium plasma along the gas-liquid interface. Also, microwaves allow generation of overdense plasma in all the bubbles considered in the cluster which is possible because the collisional skin depth of the wave exceeds the bubble dimension. These features of microwave plasma generation in bubbles immersed in liquids are highly desirable for the large-scale liquid hydrocarbon reforming technologies.

  15. Chemical reduction of biomass polysaccharides to liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.M.; Alaniz, N.J.; Beech, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Biomass is fractionated into the principle components cellulose (1), hemicellulose (2), and lignin (3). The two polysaccharide fractions 1 & 2 are converted into polyols by catalytic hydrogenation. Sorbitol, resulting from 1 for example, is treated sequentially with a redox coupled mixture of hydriodic acid and phosphorous acid and then with alcoholic base to afford a mixture of hydrocarbons including hexene. Step 2 of the process is highly tunable and can directly produce about 80% hydrocarbon oligomers, C{sub 12}H{sub 22} and C{sub 18}H{sub 32} and only about 20% of the intermediate 2-iodohexane. Recent results in the development of this new process will be presented. Oxygenate fuel additives, hexanols and hexyl ethers are also available by further reactions of hexene. These are presented in the accompanying paper.

  16. Method for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-03-07

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  17. Catalytic membrane reactor for conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Khassin, A.A.

    2005-07-01

    Plug-through catalytically-active contractor membranes can combine high permeability ({gt} 20 m Darcy), high mechanical strength ({gt} 20 kg cm{sup -2}) and high heat-conductivity ({gt} 4 W(mK){sup -1}). Therefore, it provides isothermicity and low pressure drop. The intense mass-transfer within transport pores, high specific area of these pores and small distances between two adjacent transport pores weaken the mass-transfer constraints. Using the PCM one can achieve high space time yield of hydrocarbons and high selectivity towards heavy hydrocarbons and olefins. These advantages allow supposing the effective usage of the PCM catalytic membrane reactors in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Also the same approach could be efficient for some other multiphase catalytic processes, like hydrogenation of the unsaturated fatty acids. 5 figs.

  18. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark G.; Ranaweera, Samantha A.; Henry, William P.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality distillates, gasoline components, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel supported bimetallic ion complex catalyst for conversion, and provides methods of preparing such novel catalysts and use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  19. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived ethanol to liquid hydrocarbon blend-stock: Effect of light gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenglong; Lepore, Andrew W.; Davison, Brian H.; Narula, Chaitanya K.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a light gas recirculation (LGR) method to increase the liquid hydrocarbon yield with reduced aromatic content from catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons. The previous liquid hydrocarbon yield is ~40% from one-pass ethanol conversion over V-ZSM-5 at 350 C and atmospheric pressure where the remaining ~60% yield is light gas hydrocarbons. In comparison, the liquid hydrocarbon yield increases to 80% when a simulated light gas hydrocarbon stream is co-fed at a rate of 0.053 mol g-1 h-1 with ethanol due to the conversion of most of the light olefins. The LGR also significantly improves the quality of the liquid hydrocarbon blend-stock by reducing aromatic content and overall benzene concentration. For 0.027 mol g-1 h-1 light gas mixture co-feeding, the average aromatic content in liquid hydrocarbons is 51.5% compared with 62.5% aromatic content in ethanol only experiment. Average benzene concentration decreases from 3.75% to 1.5% which is highly desirable since EPA limits benzene concentration in gasoline to 0.62%. As a result of low benzene concentration, the blend-wall for ethanol derived liquid hydrocarbons changes from ~18% to 43%. The remaining light paraffins and olefins can be further converted to valuable BTX products (94% BTX in the liquid) over Ga-ZSM-5 at 500 C. Thus, the LGR is an effective approach to convert ethanol to liquid hydrocarbons with higher liquid yield and low aromatic content, especially low benzene concentration, which could be blended with gasoline in a much higher ratio than ethanol or ethanol derived hydrocarbon blend-stock.

  20. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived ethanol to liquid hydrocarbon blend-stock: Effect of light gas recirculation

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhenglong; Lepore, Andrew W.; Davison, Brian H.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a light gas recirculation (LGR) method to increase the liquid hydrocarbon yield with reduced aromatic content from catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons. The previous liquid hydrocarbon yield is ~40% from one-pass ethanol conversion over V-ZSM-5 at 350 C and atmospheric pressure where the remaining ~60% yield is light gas hydrocarbons. In comparison, the liquid hydrocarbon yield increases to 80% when a simulated light gas hydrocarbon stream is co-fed at a rate of 0.053 mol g-1 h-1 with ethanol due to the conversion of most of the light olefins. The LGR also significantly improves the quality ofmore » the liquid hydrocarbon blend-stock by reducing aromatic content and overall benzene concentration. For 0.027 mol g-1 h-1 light gas mixture co-feeding, the average aromatic content in liquid hydrocarbons is 51.5% compared with 62.5% aromatic content in ethanol only experiment. Average benzene concentration decreases from 3.75% to 1.5% which is highly desirable since EPA limits benzene concentration in gasoline to 0.62%. As a result of low benzene concentration, the blend-wall for ethanol derived liquid hydrocarbons changes from ~18% to 43%. The remaining light paraffins and olefins can be further converted to valuable BTX products (94% BTX in the liquid) over Ga-ZSM-5 at 500 C. Thus, the LGR is an effective approach to convert ethanol to liquid hydrocarbons with higher liquid yield and low aromatic content, especially low benzene concentration, which could be blended with gasoline in a much higher ratio than ethanol or ethanol derived hydrocarbon blend-stock.« less

  1. Insertion of liquid crystal molecules into hydrocarbon monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Piotr Mann, Elizabeth K.; Lacks, Daniel J.; Jákli, Antal

    2014-08-07

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms of vertical surface alignment of liquid crystals. We study the insertion of nCB (4-Cyano-4{sup ′}-n-biphenyl) molecules with n = 0,…,6 into a bent-core liquid crystal monolayer that was recently found to provide good vertical alignment for liquid crystals. The results suggest a complex-free energy landscape for the liquid crystal within the layer. The preferred insertion direction of the nCB molecules (core or tail first) varies with n, which can be explained by entropic considerations. The role of the dipole moments was found to be negligible. As vertical alignment is the leading form of present day liquid crystal displays (LCD), these results will help guide improvement of the LCD technology, as well as lend insight into the more general problem of insertion of biological and other molecules into lipid and surfactant layers.

  2. Relation between liquid hydrocarbon reserves and geothermal gradients - Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Comparison of average geothermal gradients and initial liquid hydrocarbon reserves for 28 Norwegian North Sea fields indicates that gradients in the largest North Sea oil fields cluster around 2.1F/100 feet. No reserves are found where gradients are lower than 1.8F/100 feet or higher than 2.3F/100 feet. At 6.89 billion barrels, reserves for 14 fields falling between 2.05 and 2.15/100 feet total over four times the reserves for all other fields put together. Reserves for seven fields at gradients lower than 2.05F/100 feet and for seven higher than 2.15F/100 feet total 594 and 991 million barrels, respectively. The conclusion is that 2.1F/100 feet is the optimum gradient for generation of liquid hydrocarbons in the Norwegian North Sea, given the depth, kerogen type, and source rock potential of the Kimmeridge Clay, the primary source rock there. Gradients lower than this have not stimulated maximum generation from the source rock. At higher gradients, increasing gas production from source rocks and thermal cracking of previously generated liquid hydrocarbons to gas are effective in limiting liquid hydrocarbon reserves. The 2.1F/100 feet gradient should be a useful pathfinder in the search for new oil reserves in the Norwegian North Sea. Determination of the optimum gradient should be a useful pathfinder in other regions as well.

  3. Ionic Liquid Based Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    for the crystal structure of Zwitterion 1. Chemical Formula C4H14N2O3S Formula Weight 170.23 Crystal System Triclinic Space group P-1 (No. 2...hydrocarbon fuels. Over the past year we have used small angle neutron scattering to characterize the structure of cellulose dissolved in an ionic...CH3 N N+ SO3 - + CF3SO3H CH3 N N + SO3H CF3SO3- (2) 2 Figure 3. Crystal packing of Zwitterion 1. Figure 3 shows the crystal structure

  4. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    DOEpatents

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  5. Final technical report for the Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization (an EFRC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent

    2016-11-11

    Greater than 95% of all materials produced by the chemical industry are derived from a small slate of simple hydrocarbons that are derived primarily from natural gas and petroleum, predominantly through oxygenation, C–C bond formation, halogenation or amination. Yet, current technologies for hydrocarbon conversion are typically high temperature, multi-step processes that are energy and capital intensive and result in excessive emissions (including carbon dioxide). The Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization (CCHF) brought together research teams with the broad coalition of skills and knowledge needed to make the fundamental advances in catalysis required for next-generation technologies to convert hydrocarbons (particularly light alkanes and methane) at high efficiency and low cost. Our new catalyst technologies offer many opportunities including enhanced utilization of natural gas in the transportation sector (via conversion to liquid fuels), more efficient generation of electricity from natural gas using direct methane fuel cells, reduced energy consumption and waste production for large petrochemical processes, and the preparation of high value molecules for use in biological/medical applications or the agricultural sector. The five year collaborative project accelerated fundamental understanding of catalyst design for the conversion of C–H bonds to functionalized products, essential to achieve the goals listed above, as evidenced by the publication of 134 manuscripts. Many of these fundamental advancements provide a foundation for potential commercialization, as evidenced by the submission of 11 patents from research support by the CCHF.

  6. Process and catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon mixture

    DOEpatents

    Rao, V. Udaya S.; Gormley, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas containing CO and H.sub.2 is converted to a high-octane hydrocarbon liquid in the gasoline boiling point range by bringing the gas into contact with a heterogeneous catalyst including, in physical mixture, a zeolite molecular sieve, cobalt at 6-20% by weight, and thoria at 0.5-3.9% by weight. The contacting occurs at a temperature of 250.degree.-300.degree. C., and a pressure of 10-30 atmospheres. The conditions can be selected to form a major portion of the hydrocarbon product in the gasoline boiling range with a research octane of more than 80 and less than 10% by weight aromatics.

  7. Crosslinked structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids as stationary phases for the analysis of hydrocarbons in kerosene and diesel fuels by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Park, Rodney A; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-04-01

    Structurally-tuned ionic liquids (ILs) have been previously applied as the second dimension column in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and have demonstrated high selectivity in the separation of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons from other aliphatic hydrocarbons. However, the maximum operating temperatures of these stationary phases limit the separation of analytes with high boiling points. In order to address this issue, a series of polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based stationary phases were prepared in this study using imidazolium-based IL monomers via in-column free radical polymerization. The IL monomers were functionalized with long alkyl chain substituents to provide the needed selectivity for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Columns were prepared with different film thicknesses to identify the best performing stationary phase for the separation of kerosene. The bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([NTf2](-))-based PIL stationary phase with larger film thickness (0.28μm) exhibited higher selectivity for aliphatic hydrocarbons and showed a maximum allowable operating temperature of 300°C. PIL-based stationary phases containing varied amount of IL-based crosslinker were prepared to study the effect of the crosslinker on the selectivity and thermal stability of the resulting stationary phase. The optimal resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was achieved when 50% (w/w) of crosslinker was incorporated into the PIL-based stationary phase. The resulting stationary phase exhibited good selectivity for different groups of aliphatic hydrocarbons even after being conditioned at 325°C. Finally, the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase was compared with SUPELCOWAX 10 and DB-17 columns for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuel. Better resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was obtained when employing the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase as the second dimension column.

  8. Final report on EURAMET.QM-S6/1195: Bilateral comparison of liquefied hydrocarbon mixtures in constant pressure (piston) cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew S.; Downey, Michael L.; Milton, Martin J. T.; van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Zalewska, Ewelina T.; Li, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Traceable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures are required in order to underpin measurements of the composition and other physical properties of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and LNG (liquefied natural gas), thus meeting the needs of an increasingly large European industrial market. The development of traceable liquid hydrocarbon standards by National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) was still at a relatively early stage at the time this comparison was proposed in 2011. NPL and VSL, who were the only NMIs active in this area, had developed methods for the preparation and analysis of such standards in constant pressure (piston) cylinders, but neither laboratory had Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. This report presents the results of EURAMET 1195, the first comparison of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures between NMIs, which assessed the preparation and analytical capabilities of NPL and VSL for these mixtures. The comparison operated between August 2011 and January 2012. Each laboratory prepared a liquid hydrocarbon standard with nominally the same composition and these standards were exchanged for analysis. The results of the comparison show a good agreement between the laboratories' results and the comparison reference values for the six components with amount fractions greater than 1.0 cmol/mol (propane, propene, iso-butene, n-butane, iso-butane and 1-butene). Measurement of the three components with lower amount fractions (1,3-butadiene, iso-pentane and n-pentane) proved more challenging. In all but one case, the differences from the comparison reference values for these three components were greater than the expanded measurement uncertainty. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual

  9. A Study of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons on an Amino Bonded Phase Liquid Chromatographic Column in the Normal and Reversed Phase.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-24

    Material, Anal. Lett. 9, 957, 1976. 8. Galya, L. C. and Suatoni, J. C., Rapid SARA Separation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography , 3, 229, 1980. 9... High Performance Liquid Chromatography , J. Chromatogr., 174, 2919 1979. 20. Goldstein, G., Separation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Liquid

  10. Dielectric constant of liquid alkanes and hydrocarbon mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. D.; Anicich, V. G.; Arakelian, T.

    1992-01-01

    The complex dielectric constants of n-alkanes with two to seven carbon atoms have been measured. The measurements were conducted using a slotted-line technique at 1.2 GHz and at atmospheric pressure. The temperature was varied from the melting point to the boiling point of the respective alkanes. The real part of the dielectric constant was found to decrease with increasing temperature and correlate with the change in the molar volume. An upper limit to all the loss tangents was established at 0.001. The complex dielectric constants of a few mixtures of liquid alkanes were also measured at room temperature. For a pentane-octane mixture the real part of the dielectric constant could be explained by the Clausius-Mosotti theory. For the mixtures of n-hexane-ethylacetate and n-hexane-acetone the real part of the dielectric constants could be explained by the Onsager theory extended to mixtures. The dielectric constant of the n-hexane-acetone mixture displayed deviations from the Onsager theory at the highest fractions of acetone. The dipole moments of ethylacetate and acetone were determined for dilute mixtures using the Onsager theory and were found to be in agreement with their accepted gas-phase values. The loss tangents of the mixtures exhibited a linear relationship with the volume fraction for low concentrations of the polar liquids.

  11. Dielectric constant of liquid alkanes and hydrocarbon mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sen, A D; Anicich, V G; Arakelian, T

    1992-01-01

    The complex dielectric constants of n-alkanes with two to seven carbon atoms have been measured. The measurements were conducted using a slotted-line technique at 1.2 GHz and at atmospheric pressure. The temperature was varied from the melting point to the boiling point of the respective alkanes. The real part of the dielectric constant was found to decrease with increasing temperature and correlate with the change in the molar volume. An upper limit to all the loss tangents was established at 0.001. The complex dielectric constants of a few mixtures of liquid alkanes were also measured at room temperature. For a pentane-octane mixture the real part of the dielectric constant could be explained by the Clausius-Mosotti theory. For the mixtures of n-hexane-ethylacetate and n-hexane-acetone the real part of the dielectric constants could be explained by the Onsager theory extended to mixtures. The dielectric constant of the n-hexane-acetone mixture displayed deviations from the Onsager theory at the highest fractions of acetone. The dipole moments of ethylacetate and acetone were determined for dilute mixtures using the Onsager theory and were found to be in agreement with their accepted gas-phase values. The loss tangents of the mixtures exhibited a linear relationship with the volume fraction for low concentrations of the polar liquids.

  12. Hydrocarbonoclastic biofilms based on sewage microorganisms and their application in hydrocarbon removal in liquid wastes.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-07-01

    Attempts to establish hydrocarbonoclastic biofilms that could be applied in waste-hydrocarbon removal are still very rare. In this work, biofilms containing hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were successfully established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for 1 month. Culture-dependent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial communities in the biofilms revealed the occurrence of the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Stenotrophomonas, Mycobacterium, Bosea, and Ancylobacter. Biofilms established in oil-containing effluent contained more hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria than those established in oil-free effluent, and both biofilms had dramatically different bacterial composition. Culture-independent analysis of the bacterial flora revealed a bacterial community structure totally different from that determined by the culture-dependent method. In microcosm experiments, these biofilms, when used as inocula, removed between 20% and 65% crude oil, n-hexadecane, and phenanthrene from the surrounding effluent in 2 weeks, depending on the biofilm type, the hydrocarbon identity, and the culture conditions. More of the hydrocarbons were removed by biofilms established in oil-containing effluent than by those established in oil-free effluent, and by cultures incubated in the light than by those incubated in the dark. Meanwhile, the bacterial numbers and diversities were enhanced in the biofilms that had been previously used in hydrocarbon bioremediation. These novel findings pave a new way for biofilm-based hydrocarbon bioremediation, both in sewage effluent and in other liquid wastes.

  13. Influence of brine-hydrocarbon interactions on FT-IR microspectroscopic analyses of intracrystalline liquid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pironon, Jacques; Barrès, Odile

    1992-01-01

    Hydrocarbon droplets surrounded by an aqueous phase and trapped in a host crystal (i.e., fluid inclusions) are windows to the migrating hydrocarbon-water emulsions in petroleum reservoirs. Using synthetic hydrocarbon inclusions, Fourier transform infrared microspectrometric analysis shows that the interactions at the two liquid (hydrocarbon-aqueous solution) phase interface can be determined on a 20 μm scale. Spectral deformation, observed for the CH stretching bands, disappears when the alkali salt concentration decreases, when the organic solvent (CCl 4 or C 6H 6) concentration increases, and when the μFT-IR analysis point moves off the interface. This deformation is due to the cation effect on the interaction of the OH/CH dipoles. The Na +, K + cations break the water structure and induce modifications to the OH dipole at the interface, which then modifies the CH dipole moment and the CH stretching band intensity. Knowledge of the salinity of the aqueous phase is essential for complete understanding of infrared microanalysis of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions.

  14. The Use of a Flash Vaporization System With Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in a Pulse Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Peng , D . Y ., and Robinson , D . B ., “A New Two-Constant Equation of State,” Ind . Eng . Chem ., Fundam ...msec) Pr es su re ( b ar ) Manifold Pressure Head Pressure Figure 4. Premixed manifold and head pressure traces (absolute) for 15 Hz test...program uses the thermo physical properties of hydrocarbon mixtures database and computes the vapor-liquid equilibrium using the Peng - Robinson

  15. Hydrocarbon group type determination in jet fuels by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-two jet and diesel fuel samples of varying chemical composition and physical properties were prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes. Hydrocarbon types in these samples were determined by a fluorescent indicator adsorption analysis, and the results from three laboratories are presented and compared. Two methods of rapid high performance liquid chromatography were used to analyze some of the samples, and these results are also presented and compared. Two samples of petroleum-based Jet A fuel are similarly analyzed.

  16. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponged cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K. W.; Schreiber, G. A.

    1995-02-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg.

  17. Development of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method using a lighter-than-water ionic liquid for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water.

    PubMed

    Medina, Giselle S; Reta, Mario

    2016-11-01

    A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method using a lighter-than-water phosphonium-based ionic liquid for the extraction of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples has been developed. The extracted compounds were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence/diode array detectors. The effects of several experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency, such as type and volume of ionic liquid and disperser solvent, type and concentration of salt in the aqueous phase and extraction time, were investigated and optimized. Three phosphonium-based ionic liquids were assayed, obtaining larger extraction efficiencies when trihexyl-(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide was used. The optimized methodology requires a few microliters of a lighter-than-water phosphonium-based ionic liquid, which allows an easy separation of the extraction solvent phase. The obtained limits of detection were between 0.02 and 0.56 μg/L, enrichment factors between 109 and 228, recoveries between 60 and 108%, trueness between 0.4 and 9.9% and reproducibility values between 3 and 12% were obtained. These figures of merit combined with the simplicity, rapidity and low cost of the analytical methodology indicate that this is a viable and convenient alternative to the methods reported in the literature. The developed method was used to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in river water samples.

  18. Fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon N-heterocyclic (C5-C7) imidazole-based liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongren; Hong, Fengying; Shao, Guang; Hang, Deyu; Zhao, Lei; Zeng, Zhuo

    2014-12-01

    By using three synthetic protocols, a series of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon N-heterocyclic imidazole-based liquid crystals (LCs) and related imidazolium-based ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) have been prepared. The ring size of the N-heterocycle and the length of the N-terminal chain (on the imidazolium unit in the ILCs) were modified, and the influence of these structural parameters on liquid-crystal phases was investigated by means of polarizing optical microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These new ILCs exhibit a disordered smectic phase (SmA), good thermal stabilities, a broad smectic phase range, a high dipole moment, relatively low melting points, but high clearing points and strong emission fluorescence relative to imidazole-based LCs. These encouraging results have led us to believe these fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon N-heterocyclic imidazole-based LCs and related imidazolium-based ILCs could be used as new liquid-crystalline materials.

  19. Liquid Hydrocarbons on Titan's Surface? How Cassini ISS Observations Fit into the Story (So Far)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Dawson, D. D.; Fussner, S.; Hardegree-Ullman, E.; Ewen, A. S.; Perry, J.; Porco, C. C.; West, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Titan is the only satellite in our Solar System with a substantial atmosphere, the origins and evolution of which are still not well understood. Its primary (greater than 90%) component is nitrogen, with a few percent methane and lesser amounts of other species. Methane and ethane are stable in the liquid state under the temperature and pressure conditions in Titan s lower atmosphere and at the surface; indeed, clouds, likely composed of methane, have been detected. Photochemical processes acting in the atmosphere convert methane into more complex hydrocarbons, creating Titan s haze and destroying methane over relatively short timescales. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that Titan s surface has reservoirs of liquid methane which serve to resupply the atmosphere. Early observations of Titan s surface revealed albedo patterns which have been interpreted as dark hydrocarbon liquids occupying topographically low regions between higher-standing exposures of bright, water-ice bedrock, although this is far from being the only explanation for the observed albedo contrast. Observations made by the Imaging Science Subsystem during Cassini's approach to Saturn and its first encounters with Titan show the bright and dark regions in greater detail but have yet to resolve the question of whether there are liquids on the surface.

  20. Valorization of biogas into liquid hydrocarbons in plasma-catalyst reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikravech, Mehrdad; Rahmani, Abdelkader; Labidi, Sana; Saintini, Noiric

    2016-09-01

    Biogas represents an important source of renewable energy issued from biological degradation of biomass. It is planned to produce in Europe the amount of biogas equivalent to 6400 kWh electricity and 4500 kteo (kilo tons equivalent oil) in 2020. Currently the biogas is used in cogeneration engines to produce heat and electricity directly in farms or it is injected in gas networks after purification and odorisation. The aim of this work is to propose a third option that consists of valorization of biogas by transformation into liquid hydrocarbons like acetone, methanol, ethanol, acetic acid etc. These chemicals, among the most important feed materials for chemical industries, retain CO2 molecules participating to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and have high storage energy capacity. We developed a low temperature atmospheric plasma-catalyst reactor (surface dielectric barrier discharge) to transform biogas into chemicals. The conversion rates of CH4 and CO2 are respectively about 50% and 30% depending on operational conditions. The energetic cost is 25 eV/molecule. The yields of liquid hydrocarbon reaches currently 10% wt. More the 11 liquid chemicals are observed in the liquid fraction. Acknowledgements are due to SPC Programme Energie de demain.

  1. Comparison of two different multidimensional liquid-gas chromatography interfaces for determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Barp, Laura; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    This investigation focused on direct comparison of two popular multidimensional liquid-gas chromatography (LC-GC) systems, the Y-interface (retention gap approach) and the syringe-based interface (programmed temperature vaporizer approach). Such transfer devices are structurally very different, and could potentially have a substantial effect on the outcome of a specific application. In this work the application was a topic of much current interest, determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) contamination of a series of food products (rice, pasta, icing sugar, olive oil); the final results were then compared. The two LC-GC methods developed were validated for linearity over the calibration range, analyte discrimination, precision, accuracy, and limits of detection and quantification. No significant differences were found between the two approaches.

  2. DETERMINATION OF SOLID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA DATA FOR MIXTURES OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS IN A LIGHT SOLVENT

    SciTech Connect

    F.V. Hanson; J.V. Fletcher; Karthik R.

    2003-06-01

    A methodology was developed using an FT-IR spectroscopic technique to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons in significantly lighter hydrocarbon diluents. SLE was examined in multiple Model Oils that were assembled to simulate waxes. The various Model oils were comprised of C-30 to C-44 hydrocarbons in decane. The FT-IR technique was used to identify the wax precipitation temperature (WPT). The DSC technique was also used in the identification of the onset of the two-phase equilibrium in this work. An additional Model oil made up of C-20 to C-30 hydrocarbons in decane was studied using the DSC experiment. The weight percent solid below the WPT was calculated using the FT-IR experimental results. The WPT and the weight percent solid below the WPT were predicted using an activity coefficient based thermodynamic model. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is found to successfully provide SLE data and also has several advantages over other laboratory-based methods.

  3. Hydrocarbon group type determination in jet fuels by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are given for the analysis of some jet and diesel fuel samples which were prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes. Thirty-two samples of varying chemical composition and physical properties were obtained. Hydrocarbon types in these samples were determined by fluorescent indicator adsorption (FIA) analysis, and the results from three laboratories are presented and compared. Recently, rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been proposed for hydrocarbon group type analysis, with some suggestion for their use as a replacement of the FIA technique. Two of these methods were used to analyze some of the samples, and these results are also presented and compared. Two samples of petroleum-based Jet A fuel are similarly analyzed.

  4. CROWTM PROCESS APPLICATION FOR SITES CONTAMINATED WITH LIGHT NON-AQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS AND CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Johnson, Jr.

    2003-06-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has successfully applied the CROWTM (Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes) process at two former manufactured gas plants (MGPs), and a large wood treatment site. The three CROW process applications have all occurred at sites contaminated with coal tars or fuel oil and pentachlorophenol (PCP) mixtures, which are generally denser than water and are classified as dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). While these types of sites are abundant, there are also many sites contaminated with gasoline, diesel fuel, or fuel oil, which are lighter than water and lie on top of an aquifer. A third site type occurs where chlorinated hydrocarbons have contaminated the aquifer. Unlike the DNAPLs found at MGP and wood treatment sites, chlorinated hydrocarbons are approximately one and a half times more dense than water and have fairly low viscosities. These contaminants tend to accumulate very rapidly at the bottom of an aquifer. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene, or tetrachloroethylene (PCE), are the major industrial chlorinated solvents that have been found contaminating soils and aquifers. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the effectiveness of applying the CROW process to sites contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Individual objectives were to determine a range of operating conditions necessary to optimize LNAPL and chlorinated hydrocarbon recovery, to conduct numerical simulations to match the laboratory experiments and determine field-scale recoveries, and determine if chemical addition will increase the process efficiency for LNAPLs. The testing consisted of twelve TCE tests; eight tests with PCE, diesel, and wood treatment waste; and four tests with a fuel oil-diesel blend. Testing was conducted with both vertical and horizontal orientations and with ambient to 211 F (99 C) water or steam. Residual saturations for the horizontal tests ranged from 23.6% PV to 0.3% PV

  5. Gas-liquid-liquid equilibria in mixtures of water, light gases, and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    Phase equilibrium in mixtures of water + light gases and water + heavy hydrocarbons has been investigated with the development of new local composition theory, new equations of state, and new experimental data. The preferential segregation and orientation of molecules due to different energies of molecular interaction has been simulated with square well molecules. Extensive simulation has been made for pure square well fluids and mixtures to find the local composition at wide ranges of states. A theory of local composition has been developed and an equation of state has been obtained for square well fluids. The new local composition theory has been embedded in several equations of state. The pressure of water is decoupled into a polar pressure and non-polar pressure according to the molecular model of water of Jorgensen et al. The polar pressure of water is combined with the BACK equation for the general description of polar fluids and their mixtures. Being derived from the steam table, the Augmented BACK equation is particularly suited for mixtures of water + non-polar substances such as the hydrocarbons. The hydrophobic character of the hydrocarbons had made their mixtures with water a special challenge. A new group contribution equation of state is developed to describe phase equilibrium and volumetric behavior of fluids while requiring only to know the molecular structure of the components. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Diazido alkanes and diazido alkanols as combustion modifiers for liquid hydrocarbon ramjet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.S.

    1986-07-03

    This invention relates to liquid-hydrocarbon jet fuels and more particularly to azido additives to liquid-hydrocarbon ramjet fuels. In most liquid-fueled combustors such as the ramjet, the fuel is directly introduced into the upstream flow section of the combustion chamber in the form of sprays of droplets. These droplets subsequently mix with the external gas, heat up, gasify, combust, and thereby release heat to provide the propulsion energy. It is therefore obvious that the rates of gasification and mixing would closely affect the chemical heat release rate and, consequently, such important performance parameters as combustion efficiency and the tendency to exhibit combustion instability. Accordingly, and object of this invention is to provide a new, improved jet fuel and provide new additives for jet fuels. A further object of this invention is to provide a more-efficient jet fuel and reduce the ignition time for jet fuels. Still, a further object of this invention is to improve the mixing characteristics of the jet-fuel spray.

  7. Test program to provide confidence in liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth S.

    1986-01-01

    In previous tests of liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines, small oxygen leaks developed at the throat of the thrust chamber and film cooled the hot gas side of the chamber wall without resulting in catastrophic failure. However, more testing is necessary to demonstrate that a catastropic failure would not occur if cracks developed further upstream between the injector and the throat, where the boundary layer has not been established. Since under normal conditions cracks are expected to form in the throat region of the thrust chamber, cracks must be initiated artificially in order to control their location. Several methods of crack initiation are discussed here.

  8. Diazido alkanes and diazido alkanols as combustion modifiers for liquid hydrocarbon ramjet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.S.; Moriarty, R.M.; Law, C.K.

    1988-05-03

    A liquid hydrocarbon ramjet fuel is described comprising from more than zero to 100 weight percent of a diazido alkanol of the general formula N/sub 3/CH/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/)/sub chi/CHOH(CH/sub 2/)/sub y/CH/sub 2/N/sub 3/ wherein chi is an integer of from 0 to 9, y is an integer of from 0 to 19, chi+y is an integer of from 0 to 19, and chiless than or equal toy, and the balance being a conventional jet fuel.

  9. Fundamental and semi-global kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon combustion. Final report, March 1977-October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Dryer, F L; Glassman, I; Brezinsky, K

    1981-03-01

    Over the past three and one half years, substantial research efforts of the Princeton Fuels Research Group have been directed towards the development of simplified mechanisms which would accurately describe the oxidation of hydrocarbons fuels. The objectives of this combustion research included the study of semi-empirical modeling (that is an overall description) of the chemical kinetic mechanisms of simple hydrocarbon fuels. Such fuels include the alkanes: ethane, propane, butane, hexane and octane as well as the critically important alkenes: ethene, propene and butene. As an extension to this work, the study of the detailed radical species characteristics of combustion systems was initiated as another major aspect of the program, with emphasis on the role of the OH and HO/sub 2/ radicals. Finally, the studies of important alternative fuel problems linked the program to longer range approaches to the energy supply question. Studies of alternative fuels composed the major elements of this area of the program. The efforts on methanol research were completed, and while the aromatics aspects of the DOE work have been a direct extension of efforts supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, they represented a significant part of the overall research effort. The emphasis in the proposed program is to provide further fundamental understanding of the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels which will be useful in guiding engineering approaches. Although the scope of program ranges from the fundamentals of chemical kinetics to that of alternative fuel combustion, the objective in mind is to provide insight and guidance to the understanding of practical combustion environments. The key to our approach has been our understanding of the fundamental combustion chemistry and its relation to the important practical combustion problems which exist in implementing energy efficient, alternate fuels technologies.

  10. A correlation between surface, transport and thermo-elastic properties of liquid hydrocarbon: an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, A. K.; Arafin, S.; Singh, R. N.; Carboni, C.

    2006-04-01

    The temperature dependence of surface tension and viscosity has been investigated in two multi-component liquid hydrocarbons, namely, crude oil samples with different API numbers. The surface tension is found to decrease linearly with temperature whereas viscosity exhibits Arrhenius type variation. These measured values along with the ultrasound velocity, density and the isothermal compressibility have been used to estimate a number of physical parameters such as the activation energy, attenuation factor and the shear wave velocity. Crude oil with larger API was found to have smaller activation energy. Shear velocity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature while the attenuation factor is found to increase linearly with temperature. The ratio of the surface tension to viscosity varies linearly as the square root of temperature. The product of the surface tension and the isothermal compressibility, often characterized as a fundamental or correlation length of the surface of the liquid, was found to yield a constant value for both samples.

  11. Stabilization of liquid hydrocarbon fuel combustion by using a programmable microwave discharge in a subsonic airflow

    SciTech Connect

    Kopyl, P. V.; Surkont, O. S.; Shibkov, V. M.; Shibkova, L. V.

    2012-06-15

    Under conditions of a programmable discharge (a surface microwave discharge combined with a dc discharge), plasma-enhanced combustion of alcohol injected into a subsonic (M = 0.3-0.9) airflow in the drop (spray) phase is stabilized. It is shown that the appearance of the discharge, its current-voltage characteristic, the emission spectrum, the total emission intensity, the heat flux, the electron density, the hydroxyl emission intensity, and the time dependences of the discharge current and especially discharge voltage change substantially during the transition from the airflow discharge to stabilized combustion of the liquid hydrocarbon fuel. After combustion stabilization, more than 80% of liquid alcohol can burn out, depending on the input power, and the flame temperature reaches {approx}2000 K.

  12. REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS IN A NOVEL HYDROGEN-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE-BASED FUEL PROCESSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2003-06-30

    We propose to develop an inorganic metal-metal composite membrane to study reforming of liquid hydrocarbons and methanol by equilibrium shift in membrane-reactor configuration, viewed as fuel processor. Based on our current understanding and experience in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane, we propose to further develop this membrane to a Pd and Pd-Ag alloy membrane on microporous stainless steel support to provide structural reliability from distortion due to thermal cycling. Because of the metal-metal composite structure, we believe that the associated end-seal problem in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane in tubular configuration would not be an issue at all. We plan to test this membrane as membrane-reactor-separator for reforming liquid hydrocarbons and methanol for simultaneous production and separation of high-purity hydrogen for PEM fuel cell applications. To improve the robustness of the membrane film and deep penetration into the pores, we have used osmotic pressure field in the electroless plating process. Using this novel method, we deposited thin Pd-film on the inside of microporous stainless steel tube and the deposited film appears to robust and defect free. Work is in progress to evaluate the hydrogen perm-selectivity of the Pd-stainless steel membrane.

  13. Magnetic ionic liquids as non-conventional extraction solvents for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Nacham, Omprakash; Clark, Kevin D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-08-31

    This work describes the applicability of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) in the analytical determination of a group of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three different MILs, namely, benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL A), methoxybenzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL B), and 1,12-di(3-benzylbenzimidazolium) dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)]imide bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL C), were designed to exhibit hydrophobic properties, and their performance examined in a microextraction method for hydrophobic analytes. The magnet-assisted approach with these MILs was performed in combination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The study of the extraction performance showed that MIL A was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and under optimum conditions the fast extraction step required ∼20 μL of MIL A for 10 mL of aqueous sample, 24 mmol L(-1) NaOH, high ionic strength content of NaCl (25% (w/v)), 500 μL of acetone as dispersive solvent, and 5 min of vortex. The desorption step required the aid of an external magnetic field with a strong NdFeB magnet (the separation requires few seconds), two back-extraction steps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons retained in the MIL droplet with n-hexane, evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile. The overall method presented limits of detection down to 5 ng L(-1), relative recoveries ranging from 91.5 to 119%, and inter-day reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard derivation) lower than 16.4% for a spiked level of 0.4 μg L(-1) (n = 9). The method was also applied for the analysis of real samples, including tap water, wastewater, and tea infusion.

  14. Influence of infrared final cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs.

    PubMed

    Kendirci, Perihan; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze; Onogur, Tomris Altug

    2014-06-01

    Effects of infrared cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooking at a voltage gradient of 15.26V/cm for 92s. Infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, 8.475kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, 16.5cm) and application durations (4, 8, 12min). PAHs were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. The total PAH levels were detected to be between 4.47 and 64μg/kg. Benzo[a] pyrene (B[a]P) and PAH4 (sum of B[a]P, chrysene (Chr), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F)) levels detected in meatballs were below the EC limits. Ohmic pre-cooking followed by infrared cooking may be regarded as a safe cooking procedure of meatballs from a PAH contamination point of view.

  15. Hydrocarbon liquid production via the bioCRACK process and catalytic hydroprocessing of the product oil

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, Nickolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-01-01

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.

  16. Hydrocarbon liquid production via the bioCRACK process and catalytic hydroprocessing of the product oil

    DOE PAGES

    Schwaiger, Nickolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; ...

    2015-01-01

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen rangedmore » from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.« less

  17. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-30

    and advantageous of non- equilibrium chemically reacting plasmas. The main ideas are related to possibilities of cost-effective non-thermal plasma...properties of non- equilibrium plasma in heterogeneous gas-liquid systems; characteristics of plasma reforming of ethanol-water mixtures in plasma...thermodynamically equilibrium , has characteristics of high ionization by higher energetic density. This has merits of good rate of fuel decomposition but demerits

  18. Improvement of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons determination in edible oil by liquid-liquid-gas chromatography with dual detection.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Mineral oils, which are mainly composed of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons, are widespread food contaminants. Liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection represents the method of choice to determine these two families. However, despite the high selectivity of this technique, the presence of olefins (particularly squalene and its isomers) in some samples as in olive oils, does not allow the correct quantification of the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons fraction, requiring additional off-line tools to eliminate them. In the present research, a novel on-line liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography method is described for the determination of hydrocarbon contamination in edible oils. Two different liquid chromatography columns, namely a silica one (to retain the bulk of the matrix) and a silver-ion one (which better retains the olefins), were coupled in series to obtain the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons hump free of interfering peaks. Furthermore, the use of a simultaneous dual detection, flame ionization detector and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allowed us not only to quantify the mineral oil contamination, but also to evaluate the presence of specific markers (i.e. hopanes) to confirm the petrogenic origin of the contamination.

  19. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil samples using flotation-assisted homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Majid Haji; Rezaee, Mohammad; Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Akbarian, Saeid; Mizani, Farhang; Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza

    2012-11-23

    In this study, flotation-assisted homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction (FA-HLLME) was developed as a fast, simple, and efficient method for extraction of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis. A special home-made extraction cell was designed to facilitate collection of the low-density extraction solvent without a need for centrifugation. In this method, PAHs were extracted from soil samples into methanol and water (1:1, v/v) using ultrasound in two steps followed by filtration as a clean-up step. The filtrate was added into the home-made extraction cell contained mixture of 1.0 mL methanol (homogenous solvent) and 150.0 μL toluene (extraction solvent). Using N(2) flotation, the dispersed extraction solvent was transferred to the surface of the mixture and was collected by means of a micro-syringe. Then, 2 μL of the collected organic solvent was injected into the GC-FID for subsequent analysis. Under optimal conditions, linearity of the method was in the range of 40-1000 μg kg(-1) soil (dry weight). The relative standard deviations in real samples varied from 5.9 to 15.2% (n=4). The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the target PAHs in soil samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  20. Homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction via flotation assistance for rapid and efficient determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Majid Haji; Rezaee, Mohammad; Akbarian, Saeid; Mizani, Farhang; Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza; Arabieh, Masoud

    2013-01-31

    In this work, a rapid, simple and efficient homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction via flotation assistance (HLLME-FA) method was developed based on applying low density organic solvents without no centrifugation. For the first time, a special extraction cell was designed to facilitate collection of the low-density solvent extraction in the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The effect of different variables on the extraction efficiency was studied simultaneously using experimental design. The variables of interest in the HLLME-FA were selected as extraction and homogeneous solvent volumes, ionic strength and extraction time. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the optimum conditions of all the variables. Using optimized variables in the extraction process, for all target PAHs, the detection limits, the precisions and the linearity of the method were found in the range of 14-41 μg L(-1), 3.7-10.3% (RSD, n=3) and 50-1000 μg L(-1), respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of four target PAHs in the water samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  1. Solvent-impregnated agarose gel liquid phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water.

    PubMed

    Loh, Saw Hong; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Hasan, Mohamed Noor

    2013-08-09

    A new microextraction procedure termed agarose gel liquid phase microextraction (AG-LPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the determination of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water. The technique utilized an agarose gel disc impregnated with the acceptor phase (1-octanol). The extraction procedure was performed by allowing the solvent-impregnated agarose gel disc to tumble freely in the stirred sample solution. After extraction, the agarose gel disc was removed and subjected to centrifugation to disrupt its framework and to release the impregnated solvent, which was subsequently withdrawn and injected into the GC-MS for analysis. Under optimized extraction conditions, the new method offered high enrichment factors (89-177), trace level LODs (9-14ngL(-1)) and efficient extraction with good relative recoveries in the range of 93.3-108.2% for spiked drinking water samples. AG-LPME did not exhibit any problems related to solvent dissolution, and it provided high extraction efficiencies that were comparable to those of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and significantly higher than those of agarose film liquid phase microextraction (AF-LPME). This technique employed a microextraction format and utilized an environmentally compatible solvent holder that supported the green chemistry concept.

  2. Volatile liquid hydrocarbons in waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, T.C. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Concentrations of volatile liquid hydrocarbons (VLH), C/sub 6/-C/sub 14/ hydrocarbons, were determined in 1977 in coastal, shelf, and open-ocean surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. In open-ocean, nonpetroleum-polluted surface water, VLH concentrations were 60 ng.liter/sup -1/ while in heavily polluted Louisiana shelf and coastal water values reached 500 ng.liter/sup -1/. Caribbean surface samples had very low concentrations, 30 ng.liter/sup -1/. The relationship between anthropogenic gaseous hydrocarbons and VLH was approximately linear. Aromatic VLH accounted for 60 to 85% of the total VLH in surface waters. Cycloalkane concentrations were < 1.0 ng.liter/sup -1/ in open ocean water, 60 to 100 ng.liter/sup -1/ in polluted water (20% of total VLH). Alkanes were 15 ng.liter/sup -1/ in open ocean water, 40 ng.liter/sup -1/ in polluted water. The concentrations of five major VLH compounds (aromatics) in water samples - benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/sup -/, p-xylenes, and o-xylene (called BTX) - were sufficient to predict the total VLH. The empirically determined relationship is VLH (ng.liter/sup -1/) = 1.42 BTX (ng.liter/sup -1/); r = 0.96. Subsurface VLH concentrations in samples of polluted waters collected from depths of 50 m were only 35 to 40 ng.liter/sup -1/ below surface concentrations. Open ocean subsurface samples had concentrations of only 30 ng.liter/sup -1/ at 30 to 50-m depths, comparable to those of Caribbean surface water.

  3. Flow measurement of liquid hydrocarbons with positive displacement meters: the correction for slippage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Berrocal, Agustín; Montalvo, Cristina; Blázquez, Juan; Balbás, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    In the oil industry, the economical and fiscal impact of the measurements accuracy on the custody transfer operations implies fulfilling strict requirements of legal metrology. In this work, we focus on the positive displacement meters (PD meters) for refined liquid hydrocarbons. The state of the art of the lack of accuracy due to slippage flow in these meters is revised. The slippage flow due to the pressure drop across the device has been calculated analytically by applying the Navier-Stokes equation. No friction with any wall of the slippage channel has been neglected and a more accurate formula than the one found in the literature has been obtained. PD meters are calibrated against a bidirectional prover in order to obtain their meter factor which allows correction of their indications. Instead of the analytical model, an empirical one is proposed to explain the variation of the meter factor of the PD meters with flow rate and temperature for a certain hydrocarbon. The empirical model is based on the historical calibration data, of 9 years on average, of 25 m with four types of refined hydrocarbon. This model has been statistically validated by linear least-squares fitting. By using the model parameters, we can obtain the meter factor corresponding to different conditions of temperature and flow rate from the conditions in which the devices were calibrated. The flow parameter is such that a 10% flow rate variation implies a meter factor variation lower than 0.01%. A rule of thumb value for the temperature parameter is 0.005% per degree Celsius. The model residuals allow surveillance of the device drift and quantifying its contribution to the meter factor uncertainty. The observed drift is 0.09% at 95% confidence level in the analyzed population of meters.

  4. Pressurized liquid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from silicone rubber passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J

    2013-11-01

    Silicone rubber passive samplers effectively concentrate organic contaminants from water and are simple-to-use and robust. However, during the extraction of analytes from the samplers with organic solvents, oligomers associated with the rubber are inevitably extracted and this creates analytic challenges. Additionally, extraction methods that use Soxhlet or shaking are time-consuming and use large volumes of solvent. We evaluated a new method for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from silicone rubber passive samplers that uses pressurized liquid extraction with gel permeation chromatography. Extraction with dichloromethane at 100°C provided better recoveries compared to that of 50°C. The recoveries of 14 individual PAHs ranged from 81% to 102% and the mean recovery was 93% (standard deviation=7). Relative to comparable methods in which Soxhlet or shaking were used for the extraction, this method uses considerably less solvent and time.

  5. Experiments on extinction of liquid hydrocarbon fires by a particulate mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, T.P.; Chimote, R.S.; Lal, B.B.; Singh, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports on a series of experiments on gasoline fires that were carried out in a 45-cm-high open-top mild steel tank in the diameter range of 27.5-75 cm in order to study experimentally how efficiently liquid hydrocarbon fires in storage tanks could be extinguished by a particulate mineral. For 30-, 45-, 60-, and 75-cm diameter tank fires, the minimum thickness of the fire extinction volume of the exfoliated vermiculite required for complete extinction of fires is 16 cm for an average 4.5-mm particle size distribution; further it is a linear tangent function of the minimum fire extinction volume of the exfoliated vermiculite and the size of fire to be extinguished.

  6. Deoxygenation of waste cooking oil and non-edible oil for the production of liquid hydrocarbon biofuels.

    PubMed

    Romero, M J A; Pizzi, A; Toscano, G; Busca, G; Bosio, B; Arato, E

    2016-01-01

    Deoxygenation of waste cooking vegetable oil and Jatropha curcas oil under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in batch and semi-batch experiments using CaO and treated hydrotalcite (MG70) as catalysts at 400 °C. In batch conditions a single liquid fraction (with yields greater than 80 wt.%) was produced containing a high proportion of hydrocarbons (83%). In semi-batch conditions two liquid fractions (separated by a distillation step) were obtained: a light fraction and an intermediate fraction containing amounts of hydrocarbons between 72-80% and 85-88% respectively. In order to assess the possible use of the liquid products as alternative fuels a complete chemical characterization and measurement of their properties were carried out.

  7. Laser deposition of diamond-like films from liquid aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakin, A. V.; Shafeev, G. A.; Loubnin, E. N.

    2000-02-01

    Diamond-like films are deposited on transparent substrates upon exposure of its interface with liquid hydrocarbons (toluene C 6H 5CH 3, benzene C 6H 6, and cumene C 6H 5CH(CH 3) 2) to pulsed visible laser radiation of a copper vapor laser ( λ=510.6 nm). The X-ray Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES), Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), profilometry, and ellipsometry are employed to characterize the deposited films. The sp 3 fraction in the films amounts to 60%-70% and depends on the precursor. The addition of diamond nanoparticles to the liquid precursor results in their incorporation into the film. The average film thickness on a glass substrate increases with the number of laser shots and then saturates at about 100 nm. The films show excellent adherence and have microhardness of 50-70 GPa, as measured by nanoindentor. The effect of auto-regulation of the film thickness is discussed as the result of competition between ablation and deposition of the film.

  8. Steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons over a nickel-alumina spinel catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauteux-Lefebvre, Clémence; Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Blanchard, Jasmin; Gitzhofer, François

    Interest in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons is growing due to the necessity of developing reliable alternatives for their use in fuel cells. In particular, solid oxide fuel cells, which can operate with mixtures of H 2 and CO, are excellent candidates for being fed with liquid fuels coming from both fossil and renewable sources. Fossil-derived, synthetic diesel is an interesting option. In this work, an Al 2O 3-ZrO 2-supported nickel-alumina spinel was tested in a lab-scale isothermal packed-bed reactor as a catalyst of steam reforming of propane, hexadecane and tetralin as surrogates of constitutive families of all commercially available diesel fuels. The results show that the reaction reaches equilibrium at reaction severities lower than those reported in the literature. When operated at steam excess of 250%, carbon formation is not higher than expected by theoretical thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, and no significant catalyst deactivation is observed over the test durations. Scanning electron microscopy of the fresh and used catalyst surfaces shows no significant quantities of carbon.

  9. Test program to provide confidence in liquid oxygen cooling of hydrocarbon fueled rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental program has been planned at the NASA Lewis Research Center to build confidence in the feasibility of liquid oxygen cooling for hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. Although liquid oxygen cooling has previously been incorporated in test hardware, more runtime is necessary to gain confidence in this concept. In the previous tests, small oxygen leaks developed at the throat of the thrust chamber and film cooled the hot-gas side of the chamber wall without resulting in catastrophic failure. However, more testing is necessary to demonstrate that a catastrophic failure would not occur if cracks developed further upstream between the injector and the throat, where the boundary layer has not been established. Since under normal conditions cracks are expected to form in the throat region of the thrust chamber, cracks must be initiated artificially in order to control their location. Several methods of crack initiation are discussed in this report. Four thrust chambers, three with cracks and one without, should be tested. The axial location of the cracks should be varied parametrically. Each chamber should be instrumented to determine the effects of the cracks, as well as the overall performance and durability of the chambers.

  10. Ionic liquid coated magnetic nanoparticles for the gas chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waters.

    PubMed

    Galán-Cano, Francisco; Alcudia-León, María del Carmen; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-07-26

    In this paper, ionic liquid coated magnetic nanoparticles (IL-MNPs) have been prepared by covalent immobilization. The as-synthesized MNPs have been successfully used as sorbent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples, the analytes being finally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The influence of several experimental variables (including the ionic strength, amount of MNPs, sample volume, agitation time and desorption solvent) has been considered in depth in the optimization process. The developed method, which has been analytically characterized under its optimal operation conditions, allows the detection of the analytes in the samples with method detection limits in the range from 0.04μgL(-1) (fluoranthene) to 1.11μgL(-1) (indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene). The repeatability of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD, n=7), varies between 4.0% (benzo[b]fluoranthene) and 8.9% (acenaphthene), while the enrichment factors are in the range from 49 (naphthalene) to 158 (fluoranthene). The proposed procedure has been applied for the determination of thirteen PAHs in water samples (tap, river, well and reservoir ones) with recoveries in the range from 75 to 102%.

  11. A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, D.F.

    1993-07-01

    Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

  12. Valorization of Waste Lipids through Hydrothermal Catalytic Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels with in Situ Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongwook; Vardon, Derek R.; Murali, Dheeptha; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate hydrothermal (300 degrees C, 10 MPa) catalytic conversion of real waste lipids (e.g., waste vegetable oil, sewer trap grease) to liquid hydrocarbon fuels without net need for external chemical inputs (e.g., H2 gas, methanol). A supported bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Re/C; 5 wt % of each metal) previously shown to catalyze both aqueous phase reforming of glycerol (a triacylglyceride lipid hydrolysis coproduct) to H2 gas and conversion of oleic and stearic acid, model unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, to linear alkanes was applied to process real waste lipid feedstocks in water. For reactions conducted with an initially inert headspace gas (N2), waste vegetable oil (WVO) was fully converted into linear hydrocarbons (C15-C17) and other hydrolyzed byproducts within 4.5 h, and H2 gas production was observed. Addition of H2 to the initial reactor headspace accelerated conversion, but net H2 production was still observed, in agreement with results obtained for aqueous mixtures containing model fatty acids and glycerol. Conversion to liquid hydrocarbons with net H2 production was also observed for a range of other waste lipid feedstocks (animal fat residuals, sewer trap grease, dry distiller's grain oil, coffee oil residual). These findings demonstrate potential for valorization of waste lipids through conversion to hydrocarbons that are more compatible with current petroleum-based liquid fuels than the biodiesel and biogas products of conventional waste lipid processing technologies.

  13. 19 CFR 159.52 - Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal. 159.52 Section 159.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Warehouse entry not liquidated until final withdrawal. Liquidation of a warehouse or rewarehouse entry...

  14. Influence of liquid water and soil temperature on petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in Antarctic soil.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Alexis N; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Fuel spills in Antarctica typically occur in rare ice-free oases along the coast, which are areas of extreme seasonal freezing. Spills often occur at subzero temperatures, but little is known of ecosystem sensitivity to pollutants, in particular the influence that soil liquid water and low temperature have on toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in Antarctic soil. To evaluate PHC toxicity, 32 locations at an aged diesel spill site in Antarctica were sampled nine times to encompass frozen, thaw, and refreeze periods. Toxicity was assessed using potential activities of substrate-induced respiration, basal respiration, nitrification, denitrification, and metabolic quotient as well as microbial community composition and bacterial biomass. The most sensitive indicator was community composition with a PHC concentration effecting 25% of the population (EC25) of 800 mg/kg, followed by nitrification (2,000 mg/kg), microbial biomass (2,400 mg/kg), and soil respiration (3,500 mg/kg). Despite changes in potential microbial activities and composition over the frozen, thaw, and refreeze period, the sensitivity of these endpoints to PHC did not change with liquid water or temperature. However, the variability associated with ecotoxicity data increased at low liquid water contents. As a consequence of this variability, highly replicated (n = 50) experiments are needed to quantify a 25% ecological impairment by PHCs in Antarctic soils at a 95% level of significance. Increases in biomass and respiration associated with changes in community composition suggest that PHC contamination in Antarctic soils may have irrevocable effects on the ecosystem.

  15. Liquid effluent retention facility final-status groundwater monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.D.; Chou, C.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.

    1997-09-01

    The following sections describe the groundwater-monitoring program for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF). The LERF is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The LERF is included in the {open_quotes}Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit WA890008967{close_quotes}, (referred to herein as the Permit) (Ecology 1994) and is subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring (WAC 173-303-645). This document describes a RCRA/WAC groundwater detection-monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the LERF. This plan describes the LERF monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the LERF. This plan will be used to meet the groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the LERF becomes part of the Permit and through the post-closure care period, until certification of final closure.

  16. Macrocyclic polyamine-functionalized silica as a solid-phase extraction material coupled with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid extraction for the enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longhui; He, Lijun; Jiang, Xiuming; Zhao, Wenjie; Xiang, Guoqiang; Anderson, Jared L

    2014-04-01

    In this study, silica modified with a 30-membered macrocyclic polyamine was synthesized and first used as an adsorbent material in SPE. The SPE was further combined with ionic liquid (IL) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were employed as model analytes to evaluate the extraction procedure and were determined by HPLC combined with UV/Vis detection. Acetone was used as the elution solvent in SPE as well as the dispersive solvent in DLLME. The enrichment of analytes was achieved using the 1,3-dibutylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide IL/acetone/water system. Experimental conditions for the overall macrocycle-SPE-IL-DLLME method, such as the amount of adsorbent, sample solution volume, sample solution pH, type of elution solvent as well as addition of salt, were studied and optimized. The developed method could be successfully applied to the analysis of four real water samples. The macrocyclic polyamine offered higher extraction efficiency for analytes compared with commercially available C18 cartridge, and the developed method provided higher enrichment factors (2768-5409) for model analytes compared with the single DLLME. Good linearity with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9983 to 0.9999 and LODs as low as 0.002 μg/L were obtained in the proposed method.

  17. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOEpatents

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  18. Determination of descriptors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by chromatographic methods and liquid-liquid partition in totally organic biphasic systems.

    PubMed

    Ariyasena, Thiloka C; Poole, Colin F

    2014-09-26

    Retention factors on several columns and at various temperatures using gas chromatography and from reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a SunFire C18 column with various mobile phase compositions containing acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran as strength adjusting solvents are combined with liquid-liquid partition coefficients in totally organic biphasic systems to calculate descriptors for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eighteen related compounds of environmental interest. The use of a consistent protocol for the above measurements provides descriptors that are more self consistent for the estimation of physicochemical properties (octanol-water, air-octanol, air-water, aqueous solubility, and subcooled liquid vapor pressure). The descriptor in this report tend to have smaller values for the L and E descriptors and random differences in the B and S descriptors compared with literature sources. A simple atom fragment constant model is proposed for the estimation of descriptors from structure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The new descriptors show no bias in the prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons unlike the literature values.

  19. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report, for period ending June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  20. Changes in liquid water alter nutrient bioavailability and gas diffusion in frozen antarctic soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Bioremediation has been used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated sites in polar regions; however, limited knowledge exists in understanding how frozen conditions influence factors that regulate microbial activity. We hypothesized that increased liquid water (θ(liquid) ) would affect nutrient supply rates (NSR) and gas diffusion under frozen conditions. If true, management practices that increase θ(liquid) should also increase bioremediation in polar soils by reducing nutrient and oxygen limitations. Influence of θ(liquid) on NSR was determined using diesel-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)) from Casey Station, Antarctica. The θ(liquid) was altered between 0.007 and 0.035 cm(3) cm(-3) by packing soil cores at different bulk densities. The nutrient supply rate of NH 4+ and NO 3-, as well as gas diffusion coefficient, D(s), were measured at two temperatures, 21°C and -5°C, to correct for bulk density effects. Freezing decreased NSR of both NH 4+ and NO 3-, with θ(liquid) linked to nitrate and ammonia NSR in frozen soil. Similarly for D(s), decreases due to freezing were much more pronounced in soils with low θ(liquid) compared to soils with higher θ(liquid) contents. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship between degradation rates and θ(liquid) under frozen conditions.

  1. Supra-Atomic Coarse-Grained GROMOS Force Field for Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Liquid Phase.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, Andreas P; Huang, Wei; Riniker, Sereina; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2015-07-14

    A supra-atomic coarse-grained (CG) force field for liquid n-alkanes is presented. The model was calibrated using experimental thermodynamic data and structural as well as energetic properties for 14 n-alkanes as obtained from atomistic fine-grained (FG) simulations of the corresponding hydrocarbons using the GROMOS 45A3 biomolecular force field. A variation of the nonbonded force-field parameters obtained from mapping the FG interactions onto the CG degrees of freedom to fit the density and heat of vaporization to experimental values turned out to be mandatory for a correct reproduction of these data by the CG model, while the bonded force-field parameters for the CG model could be obtained from a Boltzmann-weighted fit with some variations with respect to the corresponding properties from the FG simulations mapped onto the CG degrees of freedom. The model presents 6 different CG bead types, for bead sizes from 2 to 4 distinguishing between terminal and nonterminal beads within an alkane chain (end or middle). It contains different nonbonded Lennard-Jones parameters for the interaction of CG alkanes with CG water. The CG alkane model was further tested by comparing predictions of the excess free energy, the self-diffusion constant, surface tension, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and shear viscosity for n-alkanes to experimental values. The CG model offers a thermodynamically calibrated basis for the development of CG models of lipids.

  2. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-05

    This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future.

  3. Inhibition of natural gas hydrates in the presence of liquid hydrocarbons forming structure H.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yutaek; Kang, Seong-Pil; Jang, Wonho; Kim, Seonwook

    2010-05-13

    The effects of LMGS (large molecule guest substance) amount on the thermodynamics of natural gas hydrates, as well as structural characteristics of mixed hydrates of LMGS and natural gas, have been studied. The addition of 1.7 wt % neohexane (NH) to water induced inhibition of natural gas hydrates, and this inhibition effect increased with increased addition of NH up to 7.8 wt %. However, the hydrate equilibrium condition changed slightly when the concentration of NH further increased from 7.8 to 14.5 wt %. Investigations on structural characteristics were carried out by analyzing (13)C NMR spectra of mixed hydrates formed from the mixture of natural gas and NH. They indicate that two hydrate structures of II and H coexist simultaneously, and the ratio of structure H to II decreased from 0.97 to 0.43 when the NH concentration decreased from 14.5 to 7.8 wt %. In addition, it was confirmed that ethane, propane, and iso-butane gas molecules do not participate in the formation of structure H and only enclathrated in large cages of structure II. These results indicate the existence of multiple hydrate structures, which must be considered in many industrial applications when mixed hydrates are formed from multicomponent gas mixtures and liquid hydrocarbons.

  4. Waste polypropylene plastic conversion into liquid hydrocarbon fuel for producing electricity and energies.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Molla, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Thermal degradation of polypropylene (PP) waste plastic is batched process studied for the purpose of converting waste PP into liquid hydrocarbon fuel and useful chemicals. The stainless steel reactor is used for conversion to fuel; this reactor chamber has a diameter of 6 inches, height of 18 inches and a temperature input capacity of 500 degrees C. The temperature of 150-370 degrees C was used for PP conversion into fuel. We have also used 1 kg PP waste plastic for conversion into fuel and HZSM-5 catalyst of 5% by preference was used by total weight of sample. Yield percentages obtained from PP to fuel are 92%, 2% light gas and 6% residue. Experimental finish time was 5.25 hours. By gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry instrumental analysis, the PP to fuel carbon range is found to be C3-C25,and the low sulfur level is detected by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test method to be <1.0 ppm.

  5. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Perfetti, G.A.; Nyman, P.J.; Fisher, S.; Joe, F.L. Jr.; Diachenko, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Modification of a previously published method for determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produces very clean seafood extracts in less than half the time. After alkaline digestion of the seafood, PAHs were partitioned into 1,2,3-trichlorotrifluoroethane. The resulting extract was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction on alumina, silica, and C{sub 18} adsorbents and then analyzed by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography with programmable fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of 12 PAHs [acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)-fluoranthene, benzo(k)-fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(ghi)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene] from 5 different matrixes (mussels, oysters, clams, crabmeat, and salmon)spiked at low parts-per-billion levels ranged from 76 to 94%. Estimated limits of quantitation ranged from 0.01 to 0.6 ppb PAHs in extracts that were free of matrix interferences. Results of analyses of a mussels standard reference material obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were in good agreement with the certified values. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Effect of interface fertilization on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in nonaqueous-phase liquids.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Agredano, M C; Gallego, S; Niqui-Arroyo, J L; Vila, J; Grifoll, M; Ortega-Calvo, J J

    2011-02-01

    The main goal of this study was to use an oleophilic biostimulant (S-200) to target possible nutritional limitations for biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the interface between nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) and the water phase. Biodegradation of PAHs present in fuel-containing NAPLs was slow and followed zero-order kinetics, indicating bioavailability restrictions. The biostimulant enhanced the biodegradation, producing logistic (S-shaped) kinetics and 10-fold increases in the rate of mineralization of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Chemical analysis of residual fuel oil also evidenced an enhanced biodegradation of the alkyl-PAHs and n-alkanes. The enhancement was not the result of an increase in the rate of partitioning of PAHs into the aqueous phase, nor was it caused by the compensation of any nutritional deficiency in the medium. We suggest that biodegradation of PAH by bacteria attached to NAPLs can be limited by nutrient availability due to the simultaneous consumption of NAPL components, but this limitation can be overcome by interface fertilization.

  7. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a two-liquid-phase system

    SciTech Connect

    Vanneck, P.; Beeckman, M.; Saeyer, N. De; Verstraete, W.; D`Haene, S.

    1995-12-31

    The use of a two-liquid-phase system consisting of silicone oil and water for biodegrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated. Biomass determinations indicated that the cells were mainly growing at the silicon oil-water interface. In shaken and aerated systems with PAHs and inoculum, 97% and 80%, respectively, of the total biomass was attached to the silicone phase. PAH concentrations in the silicon phase dropped by a factor 2 to 100 when microorganisms were present. Biodegradation rates in these systems varied from 3.6 to 5 mg PAH-C/L reactor{center_dot}d. In the shaken systems at 28 C, the measured CO{sub 2} production rate was equal to 9.1 mg CO{sub 2}/L reactor{center_dot}d and corresponded to a 50% conversion to CO{sub 2}. In the aerated systems at 10 C, however, only 25% of the PAH-C was converted to CO{sub 2}, resulting in a CO{sub 2} production rate of 0.5 mg CO{sub 2}/L reactor{center_dot}d.

  8. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Obana, H.; Hori, S.; Kashimoto, T.

    1981-05-01

    It has been reported that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment, although their concentrations are quite low. Some PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene and 3-methycholanthrene, are carcinogenic to mammals after in vivo hydroxylation by mixed function oxidases. PAHs originate largely from smoke, soot, and exhaust gas produced by combustion and from petroleum oil spilled into the sea, so that the quantity of PAHs in the environment is broadly related to the level of contamination in a given region. Although PAHs have been determined by a TLC-fluorescence method, these methods suffer from complex pretreatment. On the other hand, the development of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has made it possible to analyze PAHs with good separation and high sensitivity and to simplify the pretreatment processes. In this study, ten PAHs in sediments, oyster, and wakame seaweed were determined by HPLC with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The contents and the patterns of PAHs found in sediments and marine samples may be used as an indicator of petroleum contamination in the sea.

  9. The Application of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography to the Analysis of Petroleum Materials. Part 2. Quantitative Hydrocarbon-Type Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Quantitative hydrocarbon type analysis of middle distillate petroleum products, with emphasis on straight-run (olefin-free) diesel fuels has been accomplished by high performance liquid chromatography using silica gel absorbents.

  10. Solubility of aliphatic hydrocarbons in piperidinium ionic liquids: measurements and modeling in terms of perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory.

    PubMed

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Domańska, Urszula

    2011-11-03

    Ionic liquids (ILs) reveal many unique properties which make them very interesting for applications in modern "green" technologies. For that reason, detailed knowledge about correlations between the ions' structure, their combinations, and the bulk properties is of great importance. That knowledge can be accessed by reliable measurements and modeling of systems with ILs in terms of various theoretical approaches. In this paper we report new experimental results on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) measurements of 10 binary systems composed of piperidinium ILs [namely, 1-propyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide] and aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, cyclohexane, and cycloheptane). Moreover, new results on liquid density of pure 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide are presented. Upper critical solution temperature type of phase behavior for all studied systems was observed. Decrease of solubility of n-alkane with an increase of its alkyl chain length and increase of solubility when changing linear into cyclic structure of hydrocarbon were detected. LLE modeling of investigated systems was performed in terms of two modern theories, namely, perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory (NRHB). Pure fluid parameters of the models were obtained from fitting of experimental liquid density and solubility parameter data at ambient pressure and tested against high pressure densities. Then literature values of activity coefficients of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at infinitely diluted mixtures with ILs were used to optimize binary interaction parameters of the models. Finally, the LLE phase diagrams were calculated with average absolute relative deviations of 4.1% and 3.4% of the IL mole fraction for PC-SAFT and NRHB, respectively. The PC-SAFT and NRHB models were both able to capture phase

  11. Accurate measure by weight of liquids in industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.R.

    1992-12-12

    This research`s focus was to build a prototype of a computerized liquid dispensing system. This liquid metering system is based on the concept of altering the representative volume to account for temperature changes in the liquid to be dispensed. This is actualized by using a measuring tank and a temperature compensating displacement plunger. By constantly monitoring the temperature of the liquid, the plunger can be used to increase or decrease the specified volume to more accurately dispense liquid with a specified mass. In order to put the device being developed into proper engineering perspective, an extensive literature review was undertaken on all areas of industrial metering of liquids with an emphasis on gravimetric methods.

  12. Hydrogen production by reforming of liquid hydrocarbons in a membrane reactor for portable power generation-Experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, Ashok S.

    One of the most promising technologies for lightweight, compact, portable power generation is proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. PEM fuel cells, however, require a source of pure hydrogen. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in an integrated membrane reactor has potential to provide pure hydrogen in a compact system. Continuous separation of product hydrogen from the reforming gas mixture is expected to increase the yield of hydrogen significantly as predicted by model simulations. In the laboratory-scale experimental studies reported here steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, butane, methanol and Clearlite ® was conducted to produce pure hydrogen in a single step membrane reformer using commercially available Pd-Ag foil membranes and reforming/WGS catalysts. All of the experimental results demonstrated increase in hydrocarbon conversion due to hydrogen separation when compared with the hydrocarbon conversion without any hydrogen separation. Increase in hydrogen recovery was also shown to result in corresponding increase in hydrocarbon conversion in these studies demonstrating the basic concept. The experiments also provided insight into the effect of individual variables such as pressure, temperature, gas space velocity, and steam to carbon ratio. Steam reforming of butane was found to be limited by reaction kinetics for the experimental conditions used: catalysts used, average gas space velocity, and the reactor characteristics of surface area to volume ratio. Steam reforming of methanol in the presence of only WGS catalyst on the other hand indicated that the membrane reactor performance was limited by membrane permeation, especially at lower temperatures and lower feed pressures due to slower reconstitution of CO and H 2 into methane thus maintaining high hydrogen partial pressures in the reacting gas mixture. The limited amount of data collected with steam reforming of Clearlite ® indicated very good match between theoretical predictions and

  13. Quantitative Determination of Saturates, Olefins, and Aromatics in Hydrocarbon Distillate Products Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Dielectric Constant Detection (HPLC-DC).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    high - performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the basis of a rapid and accurate hydrocarbon group-type analysis. This novel method can determine saturates, olefins, and total aromatics in hydrocarbon liquids with distillation endpoints of at least 400 deg C. The HPLC separation is achieved using a single, 5-micron olefin-selective column, a backflush valve, and Freon 123 as the mobile phase. The DC detector ensures a genuine uniformity of response (less than 2.5% RSD) for each hydrocarbon group type, independent of the carbon number distribution of

  14. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction for the fast determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhi-Guo; Lee, Hian Kee

    2010-02-15

    A new two-step microextraction technique, combining dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and dispersive microsolid-phase extraction (D-micro-SPE), was developed for the fast gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental samples. A feature of the new procedure lies in that any organic solvent immiscible with water can be used as extractant in DLLME. A special apparatus, such as conical-bottom test tubes, and tedious procedures of centrifugation, refrigeration of the solvent, and then thawing it, associated with classical DLLME or similar techniques are not necessary in the new procedure, which potentially lends itself to possible automation. In the present D-micro-SPE approach, hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles were used to retrieve the extractant of 1-octanol in the DLLME step. It is noteworthy that the target of D-micro-SPE was the 1-octanol rather than the PAHs. Because of the rapid mass transfer associated with the DLLME and the D-micro-SPE steps, fast extraction could be achieved. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. The optimal conditions were as follows: vortex at 3200 rpm in the DLLME step for 2 min and in D-micro-SPE for 1 min and then desorption by sonication for 4 min with acetonitrile as the solvent. The results demonstrated that enrichment factors ranging from 110- to 186-fold were obtained for the analytes. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 11.7-61.4 pg/mL and 0.04-0.21 ng/mL, respectively. The linearities were 0.5-50, 1-50, or 2-50 ng/mL for different PAHs. Finally, the two-step extraction method was successfully used for the fast determination of PAHs in river water samples. This two-step method, combining two different and efficient miniaturized techniques, provides a fast means of sample pretreatment for environmental water samples.

  15. Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and coffee samples of Mumbai City (India) by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Narsi R; Mehta, Urvashi; Sain, Umashanker; Pandit, G G

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes a method for quantification of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea and coffee samples of Mumbai City with the help of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with UV-VIS detector. This method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by clean up with C-18 cartridge. Concentration of total PAHs in different brands of tea and coffee samples varied from 18.79 to 31.37 microg/L and from 16.47 to 18.24 microg/L, respectively. Mean concentration of total PAHs was 27.56 microg/L in tea and 17.20 microg/L in coffee. Recoveries at different concentration levels were higher than 68% in samples of tea and coffee. Detection limit was found to be low (0.0006 ng) for anthracene and highest (0.174 ng) for naphthalene with relative standard deviation between 0.4%-7%.

  16. Pipeline accident effects for hazardous liquid pipelines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfeld, J.; Golub, E.; Dresnack, R.; Griffis, F.H.; Pignataro, L.J.

    1996-08-01

    The project team identified the factors that cause pipeline failures and the factors that effect accidents on hazardous liquid pipelines. Since the normalizing of the data was not possible, the authors of this report used indirect and inferential approaches in the analysis. The databases used for this analysis are LIQUID (accident data for 1968-1985) and LIQLCK (accident data for 1985-present). The main finding of this complete data on hazardous liquid accidents should be collected. Other conclusions are that prevention programs should be more effective, and pipe components such as valves, O-rings, gaskets and nipples are a significant source of potentially reducible accidents.

  17. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Laser deposition of amorphous diamond-like films from liquid aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalin, A. A.; Simakin, Aleksandr V.; Bobyrev, V. A.; Lubnin, Evgenii N.; Shafeev, Georgii A.

    1999-04-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the deposition of amorphous diamond-like films on transparent substrates by laser irradiation of the interfaces between such substrates and liquid hydrocarbons [toluene C6H5CH3, benzene C6H6, cumene C6H5CH(CH3)2]. A copper vapour laser (wavelength 510.6 nm, pulse duration 20 ns) was used. The films were studied with x-ray Auger spectroscopy, high-energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The sp3 fraction in the deposited films reached 50% — 70%, depending on the choice of hydrocarbon. The average film thickness was 100 — 200 nm and the microhardness reached 50 — 70 GPa.

  18. Natural gas conversion to higher hydrocarbons using plasma interactions with surfaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Kamath, V.A.; Morgan, B.L.; Airey, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments are reported in which a methane plasma is created, and the methyl ions and hydrogen ions are accelerated within a microchannel array so that they interact with neutral methane molecules on the inside surfaces of the microchannels. No catalysts are used, and the device operates at room temperature. Impact energies of the ions are in the range of 10 eV to greater than 100 eV, and the energy delivered in the interaction at the surfaces causes the production of larger hydrocarbon molecules, such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, along with C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}m C{sub 6}, C{sub 7}m and C{sub 8} molecules. There is a decreasing percentage of larger molecules produced, in comparison with the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} types. Conversion effectiveness is greater at higher pressure, due to the increased ionic activity. The yield of the higher hydrocarbons depends upon the external voltage used, and voltage can be used as a control parameter to adjust the output mixture proportions. A conversion energy of 2.59 kilowatt hours/killogram of output has been demonstrated, and a reduction of this by a factor of 10 is possible using known techniques. In batch experiments, the selectivity for C{sub 2} has varied from 47% to 88%, and selectivity for C{sub 6} has ranged from 0% to 12.8%. Other hydrocarbon selectivities also span a wide and useful range. The estimated costs for hydrocarbons produced with this technology are in the range of $200 per tonne, in production quantities, depending upon natural gas costs. Pilot production experiments are recommended to make these estimates more precise, and to address strategies for scaling the technology up to production levels. Applications are discussed.

  19. Monitoring hydrocarbons and trace metals in Beaufort Sea sediments and organisms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, P.; LeBlanc, L.; Trefry, J.; Marajh-Whittemore, P.; Brown, J.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Minerals Management Service's environmental studies of oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a study was conducted in 1989 to monitor the marine environment for inputs of chemicals related to drilling and exploration. The 1989 Beaufort Sea Monitoring Program (BSMP) was designed to monitor sediments and selected benthic organisms for trace metals and hydrocarbons so as to infer any changes that might have resulted from drilling and production activities. A series of 49 stations were sampled during the program. The study area extended from Cape Halkett on the western end of Harrison Bay to Griffin Point, east of Barter Island. The sampling design combined an area-wide approach in which stations were treated as replicates of 8 specific geographic regions, with an activity-specific approach, which focused on the potential establishment of metal or hydrocarbon concentration gradients with distance from the Endicott Production Field in Prudhoe Bay. The analytical program focused on the analysis of the fine-fraction of the sediment for a series of trace metals and elements and the analysis of a suite of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the bulk sediment. The total organic carbon (TOB) content and the grain size distribution in the sediments were determined as well. Benthic bivalve molluscs, representative of several feeding types were collected from those stations for which data previously existed from the 1984-1986 BSMP, and were analyzed for metals and saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The benthic amphipods were collected, pooled by station or region, and analyzed as well.

  20. Cement encapsulation of low-level waste liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of liquid high-level radioactive waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was essential to ensuring the success of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. By chemically separating the HLW from liquid waste, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in the volume of HLW to be vitrified. In addition, pretreatment made it possible to remove sulfates, which posed several processing problems, from the HLW before vitrification took place.

  1. Comparison of air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in hookah water.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Maryam; Bazregar, Mohammad; Daneshfar, Ali; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    In this work, two disperser-free microextraction methods, namely, air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction are compared for the determination of a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples, followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The effects of various experimental parameters upon the extraction efficiencies of both methods are investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors and limits of detection were found to be in the ranges of 327-773 and 0.015-0.05 ng/mL for air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and 406-670 and 0.015-0.05 ng/mL for ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction, respectively. The linear dynamic ranges and extraction recoveries were obtained to be in the range of 0.05-120 ng/mL (R(2) ≥ 0.995) and 33-77% for air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and 0.05-110 ng/mL (R(2) ≥ 0.994) and 41-67% for ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction, respectively. To investigate this common view among some people that smoking hookah is healthy due to the passage of smoke through the hookah water, samples of both the hookah water and hookah smoke were analyzed.

  2. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and partial least squares regression to assay low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons leached from soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Lucas P; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Schmidt, Marcella E P; Faccin, Henrique; de Machado, Leandro Carvalho; Bohrer, Denise

    2017-02-15

    A novel method was developed to determine low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous leachates from soils and sediments using a salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry and a multivariate calibration technique. Several experimental parameters were controlled and the optimum conditions were: sodium carbonate as the salting-out agent at concentration of 2molL(-1), 3mL of acetonitrile as extraction solvent, 6mL of aqueous leachate, vortexing for 5min and centrifuging at 4000rpm for 5min. The partial least squares calibration was optimized to the lowest values of root mean squared error and five latent variables were chosen for each of the targeted compounds. The regression coefficients for the true versus predicted concentrations were higher than 0.99. Figures of merit for the multivariate method were calculated, namely sensitivity, multivariate detection limit and multivariate quantification limit. The selectivity was also evaluated and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons did not interfere in the analysis. Likewise, high performance liquid chromatography was used as a comparative methodology, and the regression analysis between the methods showed no statistical difference (t-test). The proposed methodology was applied to soils and sediments of a Brazilian river and the recoveries ranged from 74.3% to 105.8%. Overall, the proposed methodology was suitable for the targeted compounds, showing that the extraction method can be applied to spectrofluorometric analysis and that the multivariate calibration is also suitable for these compounds in leachates from real samples.

  3. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and partial least squares regression to assay low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons leached from soils and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lucas P.; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Schmidt, Marcella E. P.; Faccin, Henrique; de Machado, Leandro Carvalho; Bohrer, Denise

    2017-02-01

    A novel method was developed to determine low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous leachates from soils and sediments using a salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry and a multivariate calibration technique. Several experimental parameters were controlled and the optimum conditions were: sodium carbonate as the salting-out agent at concentration of 2 mol L- 1, 3 mL of acetonitrile as extraction solvent, 6 mL of aqueous leachate, vortexing for 5 min and centrifuging at 4000 rpm for 5 min. The partial least squares calibration was optimized to the lowest values of root mean squared error and five latent variables were chosen for each of the targeted compounds. The regression coefficients for the true versus predicted concentrations were higher than 0.99. Figures of merit for the multivariate method were calculated, namely sensitivity, multivariate detection limit and multivariate quantification limit. The selectivity was also evaluated and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons did not interfere in the analysis. Likewise, high performance liquid chromatography was used as a comparative methodology, and the regression analysis between the methods showed no statistical difference (t-test). The proposed methodology was applied to soils and sediments of a Brazilian river and the recoveries ranged from 74.3% to 105.8%. Overall, the proposed methodology was suitable for the targeted compounds, showing that the extraction method can be applied to spectrofluorometric analysis and that the multivariate calibration is also suitable for these compounds in leachates from real samples.

  4. 29 CFR 1450.24 - Liquidation from final check or recovery from other payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remaining balance on the debt may be made from a final payment of any nature, including but not limited to... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquidation from final check or recovery from other payment... final check or recovery from other payment. (a) If the employee retires or resigns or if his or...

  5. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 11 for thrid quarter FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Foral, M.J.

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

  6. Applications of electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Separations of aromatic amino acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Li

    1998-03-27

    The research in this thesis explores the separation capabilities of a new technique termed electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The thesis begins with a general introduction section which provides a literature review of this technique as well as a brief background discussion of the two research projects in each of the next two chapters. The two papers which follow investigate the application of EMLC to the separation of a mixture of aromatic amino acids and of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The last section presents general conclusions and summarizes the thesis. References are compiled in the reference section of each chapter. The two papers have been removed for separate processing.

  7. Investigation of the extraction of hydrocarbons from shale ore using supercritical carbon dioxide. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent, hydrocarbons were extracted from oil shale at low temperature under moderate pressure. Operational variables were studied. The average amount of oil removed corresponded to about 1% of the organic matter of the shale. The maximum yield was 0.73 gallons of oil per ton of shale or about 1.3%. Water was extracted from the shale in greater amounts than was oil. Extraction at temperatures below 400/sup 0/F did not produce high enough yields for the process to be commercially viable. Yield did increase with smaller particle size, increased time of extraction, increased temperature, and increased density of the solvent.

  8. Study of the adsorption of aromatic hydrocarbons by marine sediments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henrichs, S.M.; Luoma, M.; Smith, S.

    1997-08-01

    Three aromatic hydrocarbons--benzene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene--were rapidly and strongly adsorbed by intertidal sediments from Jakolof Bay, lower Cook Inlet. Adsorption of phenanthrene was more than twice that of naphthalene and benzene. Adsorption was not completely, rapidly reversible by suspension of the sediment in clean seawater. Longer adsorption reaction times led to decreased desorption, except for benzene. All sites for adsorption on the sediment surface appeared to be equivalent, and availability of adsorption sites did not limit adsorption over the concentration range studied. Adsorption coefficients for phenanthrene varied among sediment samples by as much as a factor of 3. This variability was not correlated with sediment organic carbon content, indicating that organic matter was not solely responsible for the adsorption properties of these sediments. The bioavailability of phenanthrene was decreased by adsorption to sediment. Combined with the finding that adsorption is not completely reversible, these results indicate that adsorption could contribute to the persistence of aromatic hydrocarbons in lower Cook Inlet sediments.

  9. Evaluation of in situ remedial technologies for sites contaminated with hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lige, J.E.; Kunkel, M.L.; MacFarlane, I.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of an extensive literature review that was performed to assess the overall effectiveness, applicability, and limitations of the various in situ technologies currently being applied to remediate sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. Of 17 technologies that were identified in an initial review and database search, nine were selected as widely used or promising for increased future use: soil vapor extraction, bioventing, pump and treat, aquifer air sparging, biosparging, in situ enhanced aquifer bioremediation, natural attenuation, in-well aeration, and dual-phase extraction. Following a general discussion of in situ technology, the report devotes one chapter to each of these nine technologies, presenting in each chapter a description of the technology; criteria to be used in considering applicability of the technology at a site; a discussion of design criteria and operating conditions; a strategy for monitoring remediation and determining when clean-up criteria are met; a discussion of performance-related issues; documented case studies; and a hypothetical application of the technology. Report appendices provide an overview of petroleum hydrocarbon constituents and their properties, and a glossary of terms.

  10. Detailed analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon attenuation in biopiles by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Van Look, Dirk; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-02-27

    Enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in two biopiles was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCXGC). The attenuation of 34 defined hydrocarbon classes was calculated by HPLC-GCXGC analysis of representative biopile samples at start-up and after 18 weeks of biopile operation. In general, a-cyclic alkanes were most efficiently removed from the biopiles, followed by monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Cycloalkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more resistant to degradation. A-cyclic biomarkers farnesane, trimethyl-C13, norpristane, pristane and phytane dropped to only about 10% of their initial concentrations. On the other hand, C29-C31 hopane concentrations remained almost unaltered after 18 weeks of biopile operation, confirming their resistance to biodegradation. They are thus reliable indicators to estimate attenuation potential of petroleum hydrocarbons in biopile processed soils.

  11. Features of the sorption redistribution of hydrocarbons and alcohols in a gas-supramolecular liquid crystal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchak, L. A.; Ukolova, D. A.; Burmatnova, T. S.; Kuraeva, Yu. G.; Kuvshinova, S. A.; Burmistrov, V. A.; Stepanova, R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic characteristics of the sorption redistribution of hydrocarbons (C8-C12 n-alkanes, C10H16 terpenes, xylene isomers) and alcohols (C3-C5 alkanols, butanediol-2,3, menthol) in a gas-4-(3-hydroxypropyloxy)-4'-formylazobenzene (HPOFAB) supramolecular smectic-nematic liquid crystal system are studied via inverse gas chromatography. The sorption capacity of HPOFAB with respect to nonmesogene sorbates is found to be strongly diminished due to its associated structure, especially in the smectic A phase. Great positive deviations from the Raoult law in the studied nonmesogene-HPOFAB systems are observed not only in mesophases, but also in the isotropic HPOFAB phase, which has a high selectivity to para- and meta-xylenes, in contrast to the isotropic phases of classic (non-associated) liquid crystals.

  12. A modified microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay to account for the presence of hydrocarbon droplets.

    PubMed

    Zoueki, Caroline Warne; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2010-04-15

    The microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay has been used widely to characterize microbial cell hydrophobicity and/or the extent of cell adhesion to hydrophobic liquids. The classical MATH assay involves spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the initial and final cell concentrations in an aqueous cell suspension that has been contacted with a hydrocarbon liquid. In this study, microscopic examination of the aqueous cell suspension after contact with hexadecane or a hexadecane/toluene mixture revealed the presence of hydrocarbon droplets. The hydrocarbon droplets contributed to the absorbance values during spectrophotometric measurements and caused erroneous estimates of cell concentrations and extents of microbial adhesion. A modified MATH assay that avoids such artefacts is proposed here. In this modified assay, microscopic examination of the aqueous suspension and direct cell counts provides cell concentrations that are free of interference from hydrocarbon droplets. The presence of hydrocarbon droplets was noted in MATH assays performed with three bacterial strains, and two different hydrocarbons, at ionic strengths of 0.2 mM and 20 mM and pH 6. In these experiments, the formation of quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets cannot be attributed to the presence of biosurfactants, or stabilization by biocolloids. The presence of surface potential at the hydrocarbon-water interface that was characterized by electrophoretic mobility of up to -1 and -2 microm cm/Vs, likely caused the formation of the quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets that provided erroneous results using the classical MATH assay.

  13. Bacterial diversity of a consortium degrading high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a two-liquid phase biosystem.

    PubMed

    Lafortune, Isabelle; Juteau, Pierre; Déziel, Eric; Lépine, François; Beaudet, Réjean; Villemur, Richard

    2009-04-01

    High-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants that persist in the environment due to their low solubility in water and their sequestration by soil and sediments. Although several PAH-degrading bacterial species have been isolated, it is not expected that a single isolate would exhibit the ability to degrade completely all PAHs. A consortium composed of different microorganisms can better achieve this. Two-liquid phase (TLP) culture systems have been developed to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble substrates for uptake and biodegradation by microorganisms. By combining a silicone oil-water TLP system with a microbial consortium capable of degrading HMW PAHs, we previously developed a highly efficient PAH-degrading system. In this report, we characterized the bacterial diversity of the consortium with a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of part of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to monitor the bacterial population changes during PAH degradation of the consortium when pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene were provided together or separately in the TLP cultures. No substantial changes in bacterial profiles occurred during biodegradation of pyrene and chrysene in these cultures. However, the addition of the low-molecular-weight PAHs phenanthrene or naphthalene in the system favored one bacterial species related to Sphingobium yanoikuyae. Eleven bacterial strains were isolated from the consortium but, interestingly, only one-IAFILS9 affiliated to Novosphingobium pentaromativorans-was capable of growing on pyrene and chrysene as sole source of carbon. A 16S rDNA library was derived from the consortium to identify noncultured bacteria. Among 86 clones screened, 20 were affiliated to different bacterial species-genera. Only three strains were represented in the screened clones. Eighty

  14. Quantification of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography with atmospheric-pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Hou, Hongwei; Chen, Huan; Liu, Yong; Wang, An; Hu, Qingyuan

    2015-09-17

    A stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate was developed and validated. Compared with previously reported methods, this method has lower limits of detection (0.04-1.35 ng/cig). Additionally, the proposed method saves time, reduces the number of separation steps, and reduces the quantity of solvent needed. The new method was applied to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in 213 commercially available cigarettes in China, under the International Standardization Organization smoking regime and the Health Canadian intense smoking regime. The results showed that the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content was more than two times higher in samples from the Health Canadian intense smoking regime than in samples from the International Standardization Organization smoking regime (1189.23 vs. 2859.50 ng/cig, p<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) increased with labeled tar content in both of the tested smoking regimes. There was a positive correlation between total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under the International Standardization Organization smoking regime with that under the Health Canadian intense smoking regime. The proposed liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method is satisfactory for the rapid, sensitive, and accurately quantitative evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in cigarette smoke condensate, and it can be applied to assess potential health risks from smoking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. SBIR Final Report. Liquid Core Optical Scintillating Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Beetz, C.P.; Steinbeck, J.; Buerstler, R.

    2000-05-16

    This Phase I SBIR project focused on developing flexible scintillating liquid core optical fibers, with potential uses in high-energy calorimetry, tracking, preradiators, active targets or other fast detectors. Progress on the six tasks of the project is summarized. The technical developments involve three technology components: (1) highly flexible capillaries or tubes of relatively low n (index of refraction) to serve as cladding and liquid core containment; (2) scintillator (and clear) fluids of relatively high n to serve as a core-- these fluids must have a high light transmission and, for some applications, radiation hardness; (3) optical end plugs, plug insertion, and plug-cladding tube sealing technology to contain the core fluids in the tubes, and to transmit the light.

  16. Toluene model for hydrocarbon risk assessment. Final report, 1 January-31 December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Morre, J.

    1990-05-29

    This project was for continuation of research to investigate the molecular mode of action of a membrane-active hydrocarbon, toluene, potentially present in the Air Force environment as a flight fuel component or from other sources and to serve as a model for other membrane-active molecules in the environment. Two important target sites were identified where rapid dose-dependent but reversible changes in the membrane organization occurred at low dose levels. One of these was at the plasma membrane where the ability of the membrane to form protuberances was severely compromised. The other concerned a failure to form protuberances by membranes involved in internal trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. This step was reproduced in a cell-free system making detailed studies possible. The toluene inhibited step was identified as dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The involved ATPase activity was characterized, solubilized and partially purified.

  17. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  18. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G. . Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  19. Development of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection system with a single column and liquid nitrogen-free for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengtang; Mu, Yujing; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Sheng, Jiujiang; Quan, Jiannong

    2016-01-04

    A liquid nitrogen-free GC-FID system equipped with a single column has been developed for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons. The system is consisted of a cooling unit, a sampling unit and a separation unit. The cooling unit is used to meet the temperature needs of the sampling unit and the separation unit. The sampling unit includes a dehydration tube and an enrichment tube. No breakthrough of the hydrocarbons was detected when the temperature of the enrichment tube was kept at -90 °C and sampling volume was 400 mL. The separation unit is a small round oven attached on the cooling column. A single capillary column (OV-1, 30 m × 0.32 mm I.D.) was used to separate the hydrocarbons. An optimal program temperature (-60 ∼ 170 °C) of the oven was achieved to efficiently separate C2-C12 hydrocarbons. There were good linear correlations (R(2)=0.993-0.999) between the signals of the hydrocarbons and the enrichment amount of hydrocarbons, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the hydrocarbons were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppbv for sampling volume of 400 mL. Field measurements were also conducted and more than 50 hydrocarbons from C2 to C12 were detected in Beijing city.

  20. Optimization of two different dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction methods followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysis in water.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wan-Chi; Chen, Pai-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da

    2014-03-01

    Novel sample preparation methods termed "up-and-down shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UDSA-DLLME)" and "water with low concentration of surfactant in dispersed solvent-assisted emulsion dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (WLSEME)" coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been developed for the analysis of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. For UDSA-DLLME, an up-and-down shaker-assisted emulsification was employed. Extraction was complete in 3min. Only 14 μL of 1-heptanol was required, without a dispersive solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was 0.08-100 µg L(-1), and the LODs were in the range 0.022-0.060 µg L(-1). The enrichment factors (EFs) ranged from 392 to 766. Relative recoveries were between 84% and 113% for river, lake, and field water. In WLSEME, 9 μL of 1-nonanol as extraction solvent and 240 μL of 1 mg L(-1) Triton X-100 as surfactant were mixed in a microsyringe to form a cloudy emulsified solution, which was then injected into the samples. Compared with other surfactant-assisted emulsion methods, WLSEME uses much less surfactant. The linear range was 0.08-100 µg L(-1), and the LODs were 0.022-0.13 µg L(-1). The EFs ranged from 388 to 649. The relative recoveries were 86-114% for all three water specimens.

  1. Isotope Fractionation by Diffusion in Liquids (Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Frank

    2016-11-09

    The overall objective of the DOE-funded research by grant DE-FG02-01ER15254 was document and quantify kinetic isotope fractionations during chemical and thermal (i.e., Soret) diffusion in liquids (silicate melts and water) and in the later years to include alloys and major minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. The research involved both laboratory experiments and applications to natural settings. The key idea is that major element zoning on natural geologic materials is common and can arise for either changes in melt composition during cooling and crystallization or from diffusion. The isotope effects associated with diffusion that we have documented are the key for determining whether or not the zoning observed in a natural system was the result of diffusion. Only in those cases were the zoning is demonstrably due to diffusion can use independently measured rates of diffusion to constrain the thermal evolution of the system.

  2. Apparatus and methods for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-04-25

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  3. Hydrocarbon autothermal reforming program. Final technical report, 28 September 1979-31 October 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, D.O.; Lewis, P.F.; Lord, G.W.; Yarrington, R.M.; Hwang, H.S.

    1982-02-01

    The goal of the PSI program was to understand the mechanisms of the formation of carbon deposits under conditions relevant to authothermal reformers (ATR). The first year of this two year program was dedicated almost entirely to investigations of gas phase soot formation. It was speculated that soot could form in the gas phase and deposit downstream in the catalyst bed. A high temperature experimental test rig was constructed and comptuer models developed to aid in understanding this process. The conclusion of these studies is that soot does not form in the gas phase upstream of the catalyst bed, under ATR conditions, at least, not under well mixed conditions. In the second year, the program was redirected to study carbon formation processes on surfaces and to perform testing and analysis of Engelhard's six inch ATR rig. This work has resulted in an operational computer code for use in modeling the Engelhard ATR. This code requires rate constant information for performance prediction. The PSI laboratory experiments have shown that coke formation on surfaces of nickel catalysts is very rapid, particularly from olefins. Filamentary carbon was formed. Various relevant processes and their relative rates were studied on various nickel surfaces. Coke was not observed when precious metal catalysts were used. Testing on the Engelhard reactor was performed. These preliminary tests show that the Engelhard catalysts can be used to reform number two fuel oil with no problems associated with carbonaceous deposits. Some hydrocarbon breakthrough was observed, increasing at low oxygen to carbon ratio (0.355). These limited data clearly indicate a high potential for a useful ATR. Further testing and analysis are clearly necessary.

  4. A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Ding, Zongqing; Lv, Lili; Song, Dandan; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2009-03-16

    A new dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet method (DLLME-SFO) was developed for the determination of five kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. In this method, no specific holder, such as the needle tip of microsyringe and the hollow fiber, is required for supporting the organic microdrop due to the using of organic solvent with low density and proper melting point. Furthermore, the extractant droplet can be collected easily by solidifying it in the lower temperature. 1-Dodecanol was chosen as extraction solvent in this work. A series of parameters that influence extraction were investigated systematically. Under optimal conditions, enrichment factors (EFs) for PAHs were in the range of 88-118. The limit of detections (LODs) for naphthalene, diphenyl, acenaphthene, anthracene and fluoranthene were 0.045, 0.86, 0.071, 1.1 and 0.66ngmL(-1), respectively. Good reproducibility and recovery of the method were also obtained. Compared with the traditional liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) methods, the proposed method obtained about 2 times higher enrichment factor than those in LPME. Moreover, the solidification of floating organic solvent facilitated the phase transfer. And most importantly, it avoided using high-density and toxic solvent in the traditional DLLME method. The proposed method was successfully applied to determinate PAHs in the environmental water samples. The simple and low-cost method provides an alternative method for the analysis of non-polar compounds in complex environmental water.

  5. Final Report: Thermal Conductance of Solid-Liquid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cahil, David, G.; Braun, Paul, V.

    2006-05-31

    Research supported by this grant has significantly advanced fundamental understanding of the thermal conductance of solid-liquid interfaces, and the thermal conductivity of nanofluids and nanoscale composite materials. • The thermal conductance of interfaces between carbon nanotubes and a surrounding matrix of organic molecules is exceptionally small and this small value of the interface conductance limits the enhancement in thermal conductivity that can be achieved by loading a fluid or a polymer with nanotubes. • The thermal conductance of interfaces between metal nanoparticles coated with hydrophilic surfactants and water is relatively high and surprisingly independent of the details of the chemical structure of the surfactant. • We extended our experimental methods to enable studies of planar interfaces between surfactant-coated metals and water where the chemical functionalization can be varied between strongly hydrophobic and strongly hydrophilic. The thermal conductance of hydrophobic interfaces establishes an upper-limit of 0.25 nm on the thickness of the vapor-layer that is often proposed to exist at hydrophobic interfaces. • Our high-precision measurements of fluid suspensions show that the thermal conductivity of fluids is not significantly enhanced by loading with a small volume fraction of spherical nanoparticles. These experimental results directly contradict some of the anomalous results in the recent literature and also rule-out proposed mechanisms for the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids that are based on modification of the fluid thermal conductivity by the coupling of fluid motion and the Brownian motion of the nanoparticles.

  6. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Naoya; Wada, Mitsuhiro; Kuroda, Naotaka; Akiyama, Syuzo; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2003-06-15

    This paper describes a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in milk samples. The method involves a liquid-liquid extraction procedure after saponification of milk samples with sodium hydroxide. Reproducible determination with highly sensitive detection was attained by HPLC with fluorescence detection using 1,2-bis(9-anthryl)ethane as an internal standard. The detection limits of 12 kinds of PAHs ranged from 1.3 to 76 ng/kg milk at a signal/noise ratio of 3. By the proposed method, the presence of 12 and 11 kinds of PAHs could be confirmed in commercial milk and human milk samples, respectively. The average concentrations of total PAHs (mean+/-SD, micro g/kg) were found to be 0.99+/-0.37 for commercial milk (n=14), 2.01+/-0.30 for infant formula (n=3) and 0.75+/-0.47 for human milk (n=51). High correlation coefficients between the concentrations of total PAHs and triglyceride were observed for commercial milk (r=0.659) and human milk (r=0.645).

  7. Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons (Biomimetic catalysis of the conversion of methane to methanol). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Taylor, R.T.; Satcher, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    In addition to inorganic catalysts that react with methane, it is well-known that a select group of aerobic soil/water bacteria called methanotrophs can efficiently and selectively utilize methane as the sole source of their energy and carbon for cellular growth. The first reaction in this metabolic pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) forming methanol. Methanol is a technology important product from this partial oxidation of methane since it can be easily converted to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels (gasoline), used directly as a liquid fuel or fuel additive itself, or serve as a feedstock for chemicals production. This naturally occurring biocatalyst (MMO) is accomplishing a technologically important transformation (methane directly to methanol) for which there is currently no analogous chemical (non-biological) process. The authors approach has been to use the biocatalyst, MMO, as the initial focus in the development of discrete chemical catalysts (biomimetic complexes) for methane conversion. The advantage of this approach is that it exploits a biocatalytic system already performing a desired transformation of methane. In addition, this approach generated needed new experimental information on catalyst structure and function in order to develop new catalysts rationally and systematically. The first task is a comparative mechanistic, biochemical, and spectroscopic investigation of MMO enzyme systems. This work was directed at developing a description of the structure and function of the catalytically active sites in sufficient detail to generate a biomimetic material. The second task involves the synthesis, characterization, and chemical reactions of discrete complexes that mimic the enzymatic active site. These complexes were synthesized based on their best current understanding of the MMO active site structure.

  8. MEASUREMENT OF HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOILS BY PARTICLE BEAM HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise a class of potentially hazardous compounds of concern to the U.S.EPA. The application of particle-beam (PB) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to the measurement of high-molecular-weight PAHs was investigated. Instrume...

  9. Laser-enhanced synthesis and processing of diamond films from liquid hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jogender; Vellaikal, M.; Narayan, J.

    1993-01-01

    We report synthesis of diamond films by pulsed laser irradiation on copper substrate immersed into liquid benzene. It is envisaged that carbon released from benzene at the liquid-solid interface is converted into diamond as a result of rapid quenching from a high temperature. The diamond crystallites were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging and electron diffraction techniques. Growth of thicker diamond films by subsequent chemical vapor deposition has been investigated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Thin diamond film deposited during liquid phase provided seed for diamond growth during subsequent chemical vapor deposition.

  10. Renewable liquid fuels from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Christopher J.

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming require the development of sustainable sources of energy. Fuels for use in the transportation sector must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage, and combustion; these requirements are currently fulfilled by petroleum-derived liquid fuels. The focus of this work has been the development of two new biofuels that have the potential to become widely used transportation fuels from carbohydrate intermediates. Our first biofuel has cetane numbers ranging from 63 to 97 and is comprised of C7 to C15 straight chain alkanes. These alkanes can be blended with diesel like fuels or with P-series biofuel. Production involves a solid base catalyzed aldol condensation with mixed Mg-Al-oxide between furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acetone, followed by hydrogenation over Pd/Al2O3, and finally hydrogenation/dehydration over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Water was the solvent for all process steps, except for the hydrogenation/dehydration stage where hexadecane was co-fed to spontaneously separate out all alkane products and eliminate the need for energy intensive distillation. A later optimization identified Pd/MgO-ZrO2 as a hydrothermally stable bifunctional catalyst to replace Pd/Al2O3 and the hydrothermally unstable Mg-Al-oxide catalysts along with optimizing process parameters, such as temperature and molar ratios of reactants to maximize yields to heavier alkanes. Our second biofuel involved creating an improved process to produce HMF through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose in a biphasic reactor. Additionally, we developed a technique to further convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by hydrogenolysis of C-O bonds over a copper-ruthenium catalyst. DMF has many properties that make it a superior blending agent to ethanol: it has a high research octane number at 119, a 40% higher energy density than ethanol, 20 K higher boiling point, and is insoluble in

  11. A mild, chemical conversion of cellulose to hexene and other liquid hydrocarbon fuels and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    A unique biomass fractionation is used to feed a novel chemical reduction process that converts carbohydrates with 100% carbon conversion into hydrocarbon fuels. Six strategic goals have been accomplished: (1) Lignin is cleanly removed in a single step, (2) The carbon chain of the sugar monomers remains intact, (3) Each reaction occurs at mild conditions and gives essentially quantitative yield, (4) Each reaction is catalytic, (5) Initial reactions occur in an aqueous medium, which (6) allows the use of wet feedstocks. Catalytic recycling of the chemical reducing agents thus provides the equivalent of an efficient biomass reduction. Conversion of cellulose (1) to hexenes (8) sequentially via sorbitol (4) and 2-iodohexane (6) typifies the process. Step 2 of the process is highly tunable and can directly produce about 80% hydrocarbon oligomers, C{sub 12}H{sub 22} (12) and C{sub 18}H{sub 32} (13). Oxygenate fuel additives such as 2-hexanol (14) are also available by further reactions of hexene.

  12. Research activities in modeling the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, A.

    1995-12-01

    Selective oxidation of organic substrates by oxygen, where all 4 oxidizing equivalents are used productively, remains an unsolved problem in catalysis. In an idealized catalytic cycle that could solve this problem, three separate steps are involved: first oxygen must be rapidly bound, then the O-O bond must be cleaved, and finally each oxo ligand needs to react independently with the substrate regenerating the catalyst. The first and last steps were investigated in this research program. Molecular mechanics was used to study the O{sub 2} binding step and ab initio electronic structure tools were used to study M-O bonding and the reactivity of M{double_bond}O bonds with methane. Mn and Fe complexes are involved.

  13. Understanding of catalyst deactivation caused by sulfur poisoning and carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chao

    2011-12-01

    The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production. Steam reforming of Norpar13 (a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from Exxon Mobile) without and with sulfur was performed on various metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Ni) supported on different materials (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, MgO, and CeO2- Al2O3). A number of characterization techniques were applied to study the physicochemical properties of these catalysts before and after the reactions. Especially, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was intensively used to investigate the nature of sulfur and carbon species in the used catalysts to reveal the catalyst deactivation mechanism. Among the tested noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalyst is the most sulfur tolerant. Al2O3 and CeO2 are much better than SiO2 and MgO as the supports for the Rh catalyst to reform sulfur-containing hydrocarbons. The good sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 can be attributed to the acidic nature of the Al2O3 support and its small Rh crystallites (1-3 nm) as these characteristics facilitate the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles with high sulfur tolerance. The good catalytic performance of Rh/CeO2 in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, which significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the Rh/CeO2catalyst. Steam reforming of Norpar13 in the absence and presence of sulfur was further carried out over CeO2-Al2O3 supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 °C. Both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 °C, iv and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 °C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. Sulfur K-edge XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur

  14. Bubble curves and saturated liquid molar volumes for chlorofluorohydrocarbon-hydrocarbon mixtures: Experimental data and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Laugier, S. ); Richon, D.; Renon, H. . Lab. de Thermodynamique)

    1994-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid densities were obtained using a static apparatus fitted with a variable-volume cell which was described in detail by Valtz et al. (1). Results are given at four temperatures for the binary systems butane--1,2,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, pentane--1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, hexane--1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, heptane--1,12-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoromethane, heptane--1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, and benzene--1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and the ternary system 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane--1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoromethane--heptane. The best simultaneous representation of pressures and saturated liquid molar volumes at a given temperature and liquid composition for these mixtures is obtained using either the Patel-Teja or Trebble-Bishnoi-Salim equation of state (TBS EOS) in either their standard or generalized form (maximum deviation 0.7% in pressure and 3.1% in saturated liquid molar volume with the TBS EOS).

  15. Novel process for depolymerization of coal to C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons. Final report, 1 September 1989--31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.

    1994-07-08

    A principal objective of this work was to study the conversion of coal to C{sub 2} {minus} C{sub 4} hydrocarbons in a two-stage reactor system. Coal was converted to liquids at 440{degrees}C in a stirred batch autoclave using tetralin as the hydrogen donor solvent. The liquids produced were separated from the unreacted coal and ash by filtration. The liquids were then fed into a second stage fixed bed reactor containing sulfided Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2{minus}}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The liquids were hydrocracked on the dual functional catalyst giving high yields of C{sub 2} {minus} C{sub 4}. hydrocarbons. The pressure was 1800 psi and the temperatures were in the range of 425 to 500{degrees}C. The kinetic parameters of the conversion of coal liquids to gases were determined. The activation energy was determined.

  16. Coupling of homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction and preconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous samples followed by GC with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Khiavi, Elahe Behboudi; Khorram, Parisa; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, a simple and rapid method for the extraction and preconcentration of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples has been developed. In this method, two sample preparation methods were combined to obtain high extraction recoveries and enrichment factors for sensitive analysis of the selected analytes. In the first stage of the method, a homogeneous solution containing an aqueous solution and cyclohexyl amine is broken by the addition of a salt. After centrifugation, the upper collected phase containing the extracted analytes is subjected to the following dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method. Rapid injection of the mixture of cyclohexyl amine resulted from the first stage and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (as an extraction solvent) into an acetic acid solution is led to form a cloudy solution. After centrifuging, the fine droplets of the extraction solvent are settled down in the bottom of the test tube, and an aliquot of it is analyzed by gas chromatography. Under the optimum extraction conditions, enrichment factors and limits of detection for the studied analytes were obtained in the ranges of 616-752 and 0.08-0.20 μg/L, respectively. The simplicity, high extraction efficiency, short sample preparation time, low cost, and safety demonstrated the efficiency of this method relative to other approaches.

  17. Determination of hydroxylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment samples by combining subcritical water extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with derivatization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Luan, Tiangang; Yang, Lihua; Tam, Nora F Y

    2012-11-13

    A sample preparation method for the determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) in sediment samples was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with derivatization was performed following the subcritical water extraction (SWE) that provided which was provided by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Several important parameters that affected both SWE extraction and DLLME, such as the selection of organic modifier, its volume, extraction temperature, extraction pressure and extraction time were also investigated. High sensitivity of the hydroxylated PAHs derivatives by N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) could be achieved with the limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.0139 (2-OH-nap) to 0.2334 μg kg(-1) (3-OH-fluo) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 2.81% (2-OH-phe) and 11.07% (1-OH-pyr). Moreover, the proposed method was compared with SWE coupled with solid phase extraction (SPE), and the results showed that ASE-DLLME was more promising with recoveries ranging from 57.63% to 91.07%. The proposed method was then applied to determine the hydroxylated metabolites of phenanthrene in contaminated sediments produced during the degradation by two PAH-degraders isolated from mangrove sediments.

  18. Validation of an Analytical Method for Determination of 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mineral water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayat, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used for the extraction and determination of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mineral water samples. In this procedure, the suitable combination of extraction solvent (500 µL chloroform) and disperser solvent (1000 µL acetone) were quickly injected into the water sample (10.00 mL) by Hamilton syringe. After centrifugation, 500 µL of the lower organic phase was dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen, re-dissolved in chloroform and injected into GC-MS. Chloroform and acetone were found to be the best extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. Validation of the method was performed using spiked calibration curves. The enrichment factor ranged from 93 to 129 and the recovery ranged from 71 to 90%. The linear ranges for all the PAHs were 0.10-2.80 ngmL-1. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water by using anthracene-d10 as internal standard, were in the range of 4-11% for most of the analytes (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL-1. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in mineral water samples collected from Tehran. PMID:27610156

  19. Rapid determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled meat using microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kamankesh, Marzieh; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Hosseini, Hedayat; Modarres Tehrani, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    A simple and rapid analytical tech nique for the simultaneous determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in grilled meat was developed using microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MAE-DLLME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effective parameters in DLLME process were optimized. Good linear relationships were obtained for 16 PAHs in a range of 1-200 ng g(-1), with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) higher than 0.98. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.15-0.3 ng g(-1) and 0.47-1 ng g(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for seven analyses were less than 9%. The recoveries of those compounds in grilled meat were obtained from 85% to 104%. Low consumption of the solvent, high recovery, short extraction time, no matrix interference and good merit figures compared to other methods are advantages of the proposed method. The performance of the present method was evaluated for the determination of PAHs in various types of real grilled meat samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  20. Magnetic solid phase extraction using gold immobilized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Mehdinia, Ali; Khojasteh, Esmail; Baradaran Kayyal, Tohid; Jabbari, Ali

    2014-10-17

    An efficient magnetic sorbent was introduced for solid phase extraction by incorporation of the gold nanoparticles into the hexagonal lattice of magnetic MCM-41. For the effective incorporation of the gold nanoparticles, magnetic MCM-41 was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), which then interacted with Au atoms through the amine groups. Furthermore, to achieve high pre-concentration factors (PFs), the method was coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used as the model compounds to evaluate the extraction performance of the proposed method. The π-system of PAH compounds and immobilized Au atoms on the surface of the sorbent can cause the electron donor-acceptor interactions. The parameters affecting extraction recovery such as types of the disperser and extraction solvents, pH of the sample solution, and the extraction time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the high PFs were obtained in the range 5519-6271 for the target analytes. The kinetic adsorption illustrated that 5 min was sufficient to achieve adsorption equilibrium for PAHs. The evaluations also showed a linearity range 0.01-50 μg L(-1) with the detection limit in the range 0.002-0.004 μg L(-1) for the PAHs. The applicability of the method for the analysis of PAHs in real samples was justified by the extraction of PAHs from seawater samples. The results indicated good recovery efficiencies ranging from 91.4 to 104.2%.

  1. Real-time prediction of hydrocarbon emissions from liquid combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, R.G.; Riale, M.; McCampbell, D.; VanDyne, M.

    1997-12-31

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the ability of heuristic computational techniques to predict hydrocarbon emissions using data from simple process and optical monitors. A mini-pilot scale combustion research facility located at Midwest Research Institute was used was used in the study. The facility`s operational and emissions characteristics have been well defined in previous studies. The facility was fired with fuel oil and operated at wide range of combustion conditions. All operating parameters including fuel feed rate, air feed rates and chamber temperature were monitored. In addition, a CCD-array video camera was used to monitor the flame. An array of conventional continuous emissions monitors for CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and THC sampled the exhaust gases. The operational data and the optical field data were combined with the emissions data to form a training data set for a neural network. The trained network was then used to predict the THC emissions.

  2. The Separation and Identification of Straight Chain Hydrocarbons: An Experiment Using Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment using gas-liquid chromatography is discussed, introducing the student to concept of dead volume and its measurement, idea and use of an internal reference compound, and to linear relationship existing between measurements of a separation on two different stationary phases. (Author/SK)

  3. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUID HYDROCARBON WEATHERING AT SOME JP-4 FUEL RELEASE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fuel weathering study was conducted for database entries to estimate natural light, nonaqueousphase
    liquid weathering and source-term reduction rates for use in natural attenuation models. A range of BTEX
    weathering rates from mobile LNAPL plumes at eight field sites with...

  4. Interim response action, basin F liquid incineration project. Draft final human health assessment. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-02

    The multipathway human health risk assessment based on the SQ1 emission rates measured during the trial burn of basin F liquid indicates that the maximum level of human health risk associated with operation of this incinerator will not exceed the benchmark risk levels defined in the final decision document (Woodward-Clyde, 1990).

  5. On the Extraction of Aromatic Compounds from Hydrocarbons by Imidazolium Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Cassol, Cláudia C.; Umpierre, Alexandre P.; Ebeling, Günter; Ferrera, Bauer; Chiaro, Sandra S. X.; Dupont, Jairton

    2007-01-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium for the ternary system formed by n-octane and aromatic (alkylbenzenes) and heteroaromatic compounds (nitrogen and sulfur containing heterocyles) and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) associated with various anions has been investigated. The selectivity on the extraction of a specific aromatic compound is influenced by anion volume, hydrogen bond strength between the anion and the imidazolium cation and the length of the 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium alkyl side chain. The interaction of alkylbenzenes and sulfur heterocyles with the IL is preferentially through CH-π hydrogen bonds and the quantity of these aromatics in the IL phase decreases with the increase of the steric hindrance imposed by the substituents on the aromatic nucleus. In the case of nitrogen heterocycles the interaction occurs preferentially through N(heteroaromatic)-H(imidazolium) hydrogen bonds and the extraction process is largely controlled by the nitrogen heterocycle pKa. Competitive extraction experiments suggest that benzene, pyridine and dibenzothiophene do not compete for the same hydrogen bond sites of the IL.

  6. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  7. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  8. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGES

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; ...

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  9. [Low-density solvent-based solvent demulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Benqiong; Chen, Hao; Li, Shengqing

    2012-02-01

    A novel method of low-density solvent-based solvent demulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-DLLME) was developed for the determination of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Conventional DLLME methods usually employ organic solvents heavier than water as the extraction solvents and achieve the phase separation through centrifugation. On the contrary, in this proposed extraction procedure, a mixture of low-density extraction solvent (toluene) and dispersive solvent (acetone) was injected into the aqueous sample solution to form an emulsion. A demulsification solvent (acetonitrile) was then injected into the aqueous solution to break up the emulsion, which turned clear quickly and was separated into two layers. The upper layer (toluene) was collected and analyzed by GC. No centrifugation was required in this procedure. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency such as the type and volume of dispersive solvent, extraction solvent and de-emulsifier were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method provided a good linearity in the range of 20 - 500 microg/L (r2 = 0.994 2 - 0.999 9). The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were in the range of 0.52 - 5.11 microg/L. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the determination of 40 microg/L PAHs were in the range of 2.2% - 13.6% (n = 5). The proposed method is fast, efficient and convenient. It has been successfully applied to the determination of PAHs in natural water samples with the spiked recoveries of 80.2% - 115.1%.

  10. Emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction based on deep eutectic solvent: An extraction method for the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples.

    PubMed

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-12-18

    In this study, for the first time, a simple, inexpensive and sensitive method named emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction based on deep eutectic solvent (ELLME-DES) was used for the extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene (BTE) and seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples. In a typical experiment, 100μL of DES (as water-miscible extraction solvent) was added to 1.5mL of sample solution containing target analytes. A homogeneous solution was formed immediately. Injection of 100μL of THF (as emulsifier agent) into homogeneous solution provided a turbid state. After extraction, phase separation (aqueous phase/DES rich phase) was performed by centrifugation. DES rich phase was withdrawn by a micro-syringe and submitted to isocratic reverse-phase HPLC with UV detection. Under optimum conditions obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF), the calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range from 10 to 200μg/L for benzene, 10-400μg/L for toluene, 1-400μg/L for ethylbenzene, biphenyl, chrysene and fluorene, and 0.1-400μg/L for anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene and pyrene. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) and limits of detection were 0.9924-0.9997 and 0.02-6.8μg/L, respectively. This procedure was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in spiked water samples. The relative mean recoveries ranged from 93.1 to 103.3%.

  11. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water samples by solid-phase nanoextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiyong; Campiglia, Andres D

    2008-11-01

    A novel alternative is presented for the extraction and preconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from water samples. The new approachwhich we have named solid-phase nanoextraction (SPNE)takes advantage of the strong affinity that exists between PAH and gold nanoparticles. Carefully optimization of experimental parameters has led to a high-performance liquid chromatography method with excellent analytical figures of merit. Its most striking feature correlates to the small volume of water sample (500 microL) for complete PAH analyses. The limits of detection ranged from 0.9 (anthracene) to 58 ng.L (-1) (fluorene). The relative standard deviations at medium calibration concentrations vary from 3.2 (acenaphthene) to 9.1% (naphthalene). The analytical recoveries from tap water samples of the six regulated PAH varied from 83.3 +/- 2.4 (benzo[ k]fluoranthene) to 95.7 +/- 4.1% (benzo[ g,h,i]perylene). The entire extraction procedure consumes less than 100 microL of organic solvents per sample, which makes it environmentally friendly. The small volume of extracting solution makes SPNE a relatively inexpensive extraction approach.

  12. Contribution of power and desalination plants to the levels of volatile liquid hydrocarbons in the nearby coastal areas of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, T.; Khordagui, H.; Al-Hashash, H.

    1999-07-01

    The levels and distribution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons (VLHs) were determined in Kuwait`s coastal areas in the vicinity of outlets of power and desalination plants. About 230 samples were collected from the selected sampling locations over the 4 seasons. The VLHs in the samples were analyzed using Grob`s closed-loop stripping technique and GC with FID and confirmed by GC/MS. The results showed that significant levels of VLHs were present. The levels ranged from 307 to 6,500 ng/L and from 2,880 to 7,811 ng/L in Kuwait Bay and Sulaibekhat Bay, respectively. The annual average for VLHs near Al-Zor power plant ranged from 465 to 4,665 ng/L. Benzenoids formed the bulk (about 80%) of the VLHs present. Comparison with the levels in the outlets indicated that Doha West power plant contributed much higher levels of VLHs to the coastal areas than Al-Zor plant.

  13. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fresh milk by hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Loh, Saw Hong; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Hasan, Mohamed Noor; Aboul Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-02-01

    In this work, a two-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is developed to provide a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fresh milk. The standard addition method is used to construct calibration curves and to determine the residue levels for the target analytes, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, thus eliminating sample pre-treatment steps such as pH adjustment. The HF-LPME method shows dynamic linearity from 5 to 500 µg/L for all target analytes with R(2) ranging from 0.9978 to 0.9999. Under optimized conditions, the established detection limits range from 0.07 to 1.4 µg/L based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. Average relative recoveries for the determination of PAHs studied at 100 µg/L spiking levels are in the range of 85 to 110%. The relative recoveries are slightly higher than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction, which requires saponification steps for fluorene and phenanthrene, which are more volatile and heat sensitive. The HF-LPME method proves to be simple and rapid, and requires minimal amounts of organic solvent that supports green analysis.

  14. Lipidic ionic liquid stationary phases for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nan, He; Zhang, Cheng; O'Brien, Richard A; Benchea, Adela; Davis, James H; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-01-20

    Lipidic ionic liquids (ILs) possessing long alkyl chains as well as low melting points have the potential to provide unique selectivity as well as wide operating ranges when used as stationary phases in gas chromatography. In this study, a total of eleven lipidic ILs containing various structural features (i.e., double bonds, linear thioether chains, and cyclopropanyl groups) were examined as stationary phases in comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) for the separation of nonpolar analytes in kerosene. N-alkyl-N'-methyl-imidazolium-based ILs containing different alkyl side chains were used as model structures to investigate the effects of alkyl moieties with different structural features on the selectivities and operating temperature ranges of the IL-based stationary phases. Compared to a homologous series of ILs containing saturated side chains, lipidic ILs exhibit improved selectivity toward the aliphatic hydrocarbons in kerosene. The palmitoleyl IL provided the highest selectivity compared to all other lipidic ILs as well as the commercial SUPELCOWAX 10 column. The linoleyl IL containing two double bonds within the alkyl side chain showed the lowest chromatographic selectivity. The lipidic IL possessing a cyclopropanyl group within the alkyl moiety exhibited the highest thermal stability. The Abraham solvation parameter model was used to evaluate the solvation properties of the lipidic ILs. This study provides the first comprehensive examination into the relation between lipidic IL structure and the resulting solvation characteristics. Furthermore, these results establish a basis for applying lipidic ILs as stationary phases for solute specific separations in GC×GC.

  15. Extracellular polymeric substances enhanced mass transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the two-liquid-phase system for biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinping; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Hong, Qing; Lv, Zhengyong; Jiang, Xin

    2011-05-01

    The objective was to elucidate the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two-liquid-phase system (TLPs). Therefore, biodegradation of phenanthrene (PHE) was conducted in a typical TLPs--silicone oil-water--with PHE-degrading bacteria capable of producing EPS, Sphingobium sp. PHE3 and Micrococcus sp. PHE9. The results showed that the presence of both strains enhanced mass transfer of PHE from silicone oil to water, and that biodegradation of PHE mainly occurred at the interfaces. The ratios of tightly bound (TB) proteins to TB polysaccharides kept almost constant, whereas the ratios of loosely bound (LB) proteins to LB polysaccharides increased during the biodegradation. Furthermore, polysaccharides led to increased PHE solubility in the bulk water, which resulted in an increased PHE mass transfer. Both LB-EPS and TB-EPS (proteins and polysaccharides) correlated with PHE mass transfer in silicone oil, indicating that both proteins and polysaccharides favored bacterial uptake of PHE at the interfaces. It could be concluded that EPS could facilitate microbial degradation of PHE in the TLPs.

  16. Development of a wet vapor homogeneous liquid metal MHD power system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Branover, H.; Unger, Y.; El-Boher, A.; Schweitzer, H.

    1991-09-01

    A feasibility study for the approval of liquid metal seeds recovery from a liquid metal vapor-inert gas mixture was conducted and presented in this report. The research activity included background studies on processes relating to mixing stream condenser performance, parametric studies and its experimental validation. The condensation process under study includes mass transfer phenomena combined with heat transfer and phase change. Numerical methods were used in order to solve the dynamic equations and to carry out the parametric study as well as the experimental data reduction. The MSC performance is highly effected by droplet diameter, thus the possibility of atomizing liquid metals were experimentally investigated. The results are generalized and finally used for a set of recommendations by which the recovery of seeds is expected to be feasible.

  17. Ionization in liquids. Final technical report, November 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bakale, G.

    1996-03-29

    The objective of these studies which began in 1993 was to provide new information on electron and ion transport and reactions in model liquids and biomimetic systems that is pertinent to the roles of charged species in inducing radiobiological damage and to elucidate the interrelationship among the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and electrophilicity of chemicals. This final report summarizes research efforts in the following areas: electrons in biological systems; and electron and ion transport and reactions in model liquids. In biological systems attention was focused on the following: excess electrons as probes of carcinogen electrophilicity; cost effectiveness of k{sub e} as a carcinogen-screening test; and conversion of k{sub e} to a carcinogen-screening electronic device. In model liquids, research was focused on two areas. The first investigated radiation-induced dimerization of fullerenes. The second area studied radiolytic synthesis of fullerene derivatives.

  18. Hydrocarbon-Seeded Ignition System for Small Spacecraft Thrusters Using Ionic Liquid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Merkley, Daniel P.; Eilers, Shannon D.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    "Green" propellants based on Ionic-liquids (ILs) like Ammonium DiNitramide and Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate have recently been developed as reduced-hazard replacements for hydrazine. Compared to hydrazine, ILs offer up to a 50% improvement in available density-specific impulse. These materials present minimal vapor hazard at room temperature, and this property makes IL's potentially advantageous for "ride-share" launch opportunities where hazards introduced by hydrazine servicing are cost-prohibitive. Even though ILs present a reduced hazard compared to hydrazine, in crystalline form they are potentially explosive and are mixed in aqueous solutions to buffer against explosion. Unfortunately, the high water content makes IL-propellants difficult to ignite and currently a reliable "coldstart" capability does not exist. For reliable ignition, IL-propellants catalyst beds must be pre-heated to greater than 350 C before firing. The required preheat power source is substantial and presents a significant disadvantage for SmallSats where power budgets are extremely limited. Design and development of a "micro-hybrid" igniter designed to act as a "drop-in" replacement for existing IL catalyst beds is presented. The design requires significantly lower input energy and offers a smaller overall form factor. Unlike single-use "squib" pyrotechnic igniters, the system allows the gas generation cycle to be terminated and reinitiated on demand.

  19. Group-type hydrocarbon standards for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of middistillate fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterson, D. A.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    A new high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for group-type analysis of middistillate fuels is described. It uses a refractive index detector and standards that are prepared by reacting a portion of the fuel sample with sulfuric acid. A complete analysis of a middistillate fuel for saturates and aromatics (including the preparation of the standard) requires about 15 min if standards for several fuels are prepared simultaneously. From model fuel studies, the method was found to be accurate to within 0.4 vol% saturates or aromatics, and provides a precision of + or - 0.4 vol%. Olefin determinations require an additional 15 min of analysis time. However, this determination is needed only for those fuels displaying a significant olefin response at 200 nm (obtained routinely during the saturated/aromatics analysis procedure). The olefin determination uses the responses of the olefins and the corresponding saturates, as well as the average value of their refractive index sensitivity ratios (1.1). Studied indicated that, although the relative error in the olefins result could reach 10 percent by using this average sensitivity ratio, it was 5 percent for the fuels used in this study. Olefin concentrations as low as 0.1 vol% have been determined using this method.

  20. Liquid oxygen cooling of high pressure LOX/hydrocarbon rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. G.; Masters, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental program using liquid oxygen (LOX) and RP-1 as the propellants and supercritical LOX as the coolant was conducted at 4.14, 8.27, and 13.79 MN/sq m (600, 1200, and 2000 psia) chamber pressure. The objectives of this program were to evaluate the cooling characteristics of LOX with the LOX/RP-1 propellants, the buildup of the soot on the hot-gas-side chamber wall, and the effect of an internal LOX leak on the structural integrity of the combustor. Five thrust chambers with throat diameters of 6.6 cm (2.5 in.) were tested successfully. The first three were tested at 4.14 MN/sq m (600 psia) chamber pressure over a mixture ratio range of 2.25 to 2.92. One of these three was tested for over 22 cyclic tests after the first through crack from the coolant channel to the combustion zone was observed with no apparent metal burning or distress. The fourth chamber was tested at 8.27 MN/sq m (1200 psia) chamber pressure over a mixture range of 1.93 to 2.98. The fourth and fifth chambers were tested at 13.79 MN/sq m (2000 psia) chamber pressure over a mixture ratio range of 1.79 to 2.68.

  1. A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

    1994-04-01

    A batch microreactor was designed and fabricated as a means of investigating maximum yields of liquids obtainable in very short reaction times of the order of a few seconds, and the maximum ratios of liquids/hydrocarbon (HC) gases obtainable under those conditions. A Wyodak sub-bituminous coal, crushed and sieved to {minus}200 mesh particle size, was used in the experiments, with a temperature of 500{degrees}C and a pressure of 1500 psi. The fine coal particles were fed dry to the reactor and heated to reaction temperature in times of one to two seconds. At a time of 3 seconds at reaction temperature, in a single pass a liquid yield of 60% by weight of the coal was obtained, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/(HC) gases of 30/1. When the unreacted solids were recycled to the reactor, and the results combined with those of the first pass, a liquid yield of 82% by weight of the coal was achieved, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/HC gases of 30/1. This ratio represents only about 3 wt percent HC gases, much lower that is produced in current advanced technologies, and represents a large saving in hydrogen consumption. A simulated distillation technique was applied to the liquids. The liquid product contained 86% by weight (of the liquids) total distillables (boiling point below 538{degrees}C), including 70% by weight of low-boiling fractions in the gasoline, kerosene and gas oil range (boiling point up to 325{degrees}C). The liquid product exhibited a H/C ratio of 1.5, which is considerably higher than observed in current advanced technologies for the primary liquids. Several catalysts were investigated. Iron catalysts, specifically ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferric sulfate pentahydrate, each produced these high conversions and high ratios of liquids/HC gases.

  2. Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Final report, October 1, 1986--July 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Posin, B.M.; Chan, Yee-Wai

    1995-06-01

    This project explored conversion of methane to useful products by two techniques that do not involve oxidative coupling. The first approach was direct catalytic dehydrocoupling of methane to give hydrocarbons and hydrogen. The second approach was oxidation of methane to methanol by using heterogenized versions of catalysts that were developed as homogeneous models of cytochrome-P450, an enzyme that actively hydroxylates hydrocarbons by using molecular oxygen. Two possibilities exist for dehydrocoupling of methane to higher hydrocarbons: The first, oxidative coupling to ethane/ethylene and water, is the subject of intense current interest. Nonoxidative coupling to higher hydrocarbons and hydrogen is endothermic, but in the absence of coke formation the theoretical thermodynamic equilibrium yield of hydrocarbons varies from 25% at 827{degrees}C to 65% at 1100{degrees}C (at atmospheric pressure). In this project we synthesized novel, highly dispersed metal catalysts by attaching metal clusters to inorganic supports. The second approach mimics microbial metabolism of methane to produce methanol. The methane mono-oxygenase enzyme responsible for the oxidation of methane to methanol in biological systems has exceptional selectivity and very good rates. Enzyme mimics are systems that function as the enzymes do but overcome the problems of slow rates and poor stability. Most of that effort has focused on mimics of cytochrome P-450, which is a very active selective oxidation enzyme and has a metalloporphyrin at the active site. The interest in nonporphyrin mimics coincides with the interest in methane mono-oxygenase, whose active site has been identified as a {mu}-oxo dinuclear iron complex.We employed mimics of cytochrome P-450, heterogenized to provide additional stability. The oxidation of methane with molecular oxygen was investigated in a fixed-bed, down-flow reactor with various anchored metal phthalocyanines (PC) and porphyrins (TPP) as the catalysts.

  3. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  4. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  5. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration. Final technical report, August 4, 1992--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent Deashing and filtration, both of which produce an ash reject stream containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. This program was directed towards development of an improved process for deashing and recovery of coal-derived residual oil: the use of ceramic membranes for high-temperature microfiltration and diafiltration. Using laboratory scale ceramic membrane modules, samples of a coal-derived residual oil containing ash were processed by crossflow microfiltration, followed by solvent addition and refiltration (diafiltration). Excellent recovery of deashed residual oil was demonstrated. Data from this program were used to develop preliminary estimates for production system capital and operating costs that will be used to assess economic feasibility. The first objective of this program was to demonstrate technical feasibility of crossflow microfiltration (MF) for removal of mineral matter from a coal derived residual oil. A second objective was to demonstrate technical feasibility of diafiltration of W concentrate using a hydrocarbon diluent.

  6. Interim Response Action Basin F Liquid Incineration Project Final Draft Human Health Risk Assessment. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    91222R02 2ND COPY Interim Response Action Basin F Liquid Incineration Project FINAL DRAFT HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT V olumne I Preplaced Remedial...The Use of OELs and NAAQSs for Calculating Inhalation RfJ)s 9-13 9.4.2.2 Adjustments to Inhalation RfDs 9-14 793C/FM V 7/22/91 TABLE OF CONTENTS...HENDERSON RTHOL THOL HAZELTIN A I LE-- f V , Rocky Mountain WELB DA Arsenal A"ADA AA -AIL- VIM IT RUM Doi T p- 0 Denver kl& MOR SHER DAN r go, "- V

  7. Calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium and PVTx properties of geological fluid system with SAFT-LJ EOS including multi-polar contribution. Part III. Extension to water-light hydrocarbons systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rui; Lai, Shaocong; Dubessy, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The SAFT-LJ EOS improved by Sun and Dubessy (2010, 2012) is extended to water-light hydrocarbon systems. Light hydrocarbons (including CH4, C2H6, C3H8 and nC4H10) are modeled as chain molecules without multi-polar moments. The contributions of the shape of molecules and main intermolecular interactions existing in water-light hydrocarbon systems (including repulsive and attractive forces between Lennard-Jones segments, the hydrogen-bonding force and the multi-polar interaction between water molecules) to the residual Helmholtz energy were accounted for by this EOS. The adjustable parameters for the interactions of H2O-CH4, H2O-C2H6, H2O-C3H8, and H2O-nC4H10 pairs were evaluated from mutual solubility data of binary water-hydrocarbon systems at vapor-liquid equilibria. Comparison with the experimental data shows this SAFT-LJ EOS can represent well vapor-liquid (and liquid-liquid) equilibria of binary water-light hydrocarbon systems over a wide P-T range. The accuracy of this EOS for mutual solubilities of methane, ethane, propane and water is within the experimental uncertainty generally. Moreover, the model is able to accurately predict the vapor-liquid equilibria and PVTx properties of multi-component systems composed of water, light hydrocarbon as well as CO2. As we know, this EOS is the first one allowing quantitative calculation of the mutual solubilities of water and light hydrocarbons over a wide P-T range among SAFT-type EOSs. This work indicates that the molecular-based EOS combined with conventional mixing rule can well describe the thermodynamic behavior of highly non-ideal systems such as water-light hydrocarbons mixtures except in the critical region for which long range density fluctuations cannot be taken into account by this analytical model.

  8. A validated liquid chromatographic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in honey after homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction using hydrophilic acetonitrile and sodium chloride as mass separating agent.

    PubMed

    Koltsakidou, Anastasia; Zacharis, Constantinos K; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-16

    In the present report, a simple and cost-effective method for the determination of twelve US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in honey samples after salting-assisted liquid-liquid extraction and UHPLC with fluorescence detection is proposed. The sample treatment is based on the usage of hydrophilic acetonitrile as extraction solvent and its phase separation under high salinity conditions. Due to the high sugar content of the samples the phase separation is promoted effortlessly. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and method sensitivity including the concentration of the honey samples, the type and volume of the extraction solvent, the type and quantity of the inorganic salt, extraction time and centrifugation time was systematically investigated. The method was validated in-house according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC guidelines. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method lay between 0.02 and 0.04ngmL(-1) (corresponding to 0.08 and 0.16ngg(-1)) which are close to the quality criteria established by European Regulation (EC) 836/2011 concerning the PAHs in foodstuffs. The mean analytical bias (expressed as relative recoveries) in all spiking levels was acceptable being in the range of 54-118% while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was lower than 19%. The proposed method has been satisfactorily applied for the analysis of the selected PAHs residues in various honey samples obtained from Greek region.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of 13 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tehran’s Tap Water and Water for Injection Samples Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayate, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are classified as persistent and carcinogenic organic pollutants. PAHs contamination has been reported in water. Many of relevant regulatory bodies such as EU and EPA have regulated the limit levels for PAHs in drinking water. In this study, 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tap water samples of Tehran and water for injection. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the extraction and determination of PAHs in the samples. Under the optimized conditions, the range of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water using internal standard (anthracene-d10) were in the range of 71-90% and 4-16%, respectively. Limit of detection for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL-1. The concentration of PAHs in all tap water as well as water for injection samples were lower than the limit of quantification of PAHs. This is the first study addressing the occurrence of PAHs in water for injection samples in Iran using dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:27642318

  10. Simultaneous Determination of 13 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tehran's Tap Water and Water for Injection Samples Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayate, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are classified as persistent and carcinogenic organic pollutants. PAHs contamination has been reported in water. Many of relevant regulatory bodies such as EU and EPA have regulated the limit levels for PAHs in drinking water. In this study, 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tap water samples of Tehran and water for injection. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the extraction and determination of PAHs in the samples. Under the optimized conditions, the range of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water using internal standard (anthracene-d10) were in the range of 71-90% and 4-16%, respectively. Limit of detection for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL(-1). The concentration of PAHs in all tap water as well as water for injection samples were lower than the limit of quantification of PAHs. This is the first study addressing the occurrence of PAHs in water for injection samples in Iran using dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  11. Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits of three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content in a J33 single combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricker, Edward G

    1950-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits were determined in a J33 single combustor for AN-F-58 fuel and three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content (decalin, tetralin, and monomethylnaphthalene) at simulated altitude and combustor inlet-air conditions. At the conditions investigated, the combustion efficiency for the four fuels generally decreased with an increase in volumetric energy content. The altitude operational limits for decalin and tetralin fuels were higher than for AN-F-58 fuel; monomethylnaphthalene fuel gave the lowest altitude operational limit.

  12. Final report on CCM key comparison CCM.D-K2: Comparison of liquid density standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettin, Horst; Jacques, Claude; Zelenka, Zoltán; Fujii, Ken-ichi; Kuramoto, Naoki; Chang, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Yong Jae; Becerra, Luis Omar; Domostroeva, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The results are presented of the key comparison CCM.D-K2 that covered the density measurements of four liquids: the density of water at 20 °C, of pentadecane at 15 °C, 20 °C, 40 °C and 60°C, of tetrachloroethlyene at 5 °C and 20 °C and of a viscous oil at 20 °C. Seven national metrology institutes measured the densities at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing of solid density standards in the time interval from 27 April 2004 to 28 June 2004. Since the participants were asked not to include components for a possible drift or inhomogeneity of the liquid in their uncertainty budget, these uncertainty contributions are investigated for the final evaluation of the data. For this purpose, results of stability and homogeneity measurements of the pilot laboratory are used. The participants decided not to include a possible drift of the liquid's density since no significant drift could be detected, and the influence of the drift and its uncertainty are negligible. Similarly, the inhomogeneity of the water and pentadecane samples is not significant and has no influence on the evaluation. Thus, it was neglected. Only the inhomogeneities of tetrachloroethylene and of the viscous oil were significant. Consequently, they were included in the evaluation. With one or two exceptions, the results show good agreement among the participants. Only in the case of water are the results clearly discrepant. The key comparison reference values were calculated by the weighted mean (taking into account a small correlation between two participants) in the case of consistent results. Otherwise the Procedure B of Cox was used. The expanded uncertainties of all reference densities are below 1 × 10-5 in relative terms. This satisfies the needs of all customers who wish to calibrate or check liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. The comparison fully supports the calibration measurement capabilities table in the BIPM key comparison database

  13. Final report on an experimental evaluation of remote sensing based hydrocarbon measurements: A comparison to fid measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.D.; Mulawa, P.A.; Giles, M.T.; Kennedy, K.G.; Groblicki, P.J.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to intercompare hydrocarbon (HC) measurements performed by a number of different instruments: a gas chromatograph (GC), a flame ionizaton detector (FID), a fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), a commercially produced non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR), and two remote sensors. These instruments were used to measure total HC concentrations in a variety of samples including (1) ten different individual HC species, (2) twelve different vehicle exhaust samples, and (3) three different volatilized fuel samples. The twelve exhaust samples were generated by operating two different vehicles on a dynamometer. Each vehicle was operated at different times with three different fuels.

  14. Analysis of the 16 Environmental Protection Agency priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high performance liquid chromatography-oxidized diamond film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bouvrette, Pierre; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Male, Keith B; Luong, John H T

    2006-01-27

    The capabilities of using boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films as electrode materials for analysis of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after a liquid chromatographic separation were evaluated. The BDD electrode was able to detect all 16 PAHs with high sensitivity due to the low background current and wide potential window. The method provided detection limits ranging from 12-40 nM (3-10 ppb) and repeatable results over consecutive analysis. Calibration curves were linear up to at least 10 microM for all PAHs. The work shows the promising use of diamond as an amperometric detector in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), especially for PAHs and other hydrophobic aromatic compounds.

  15. Total hydrocarbon emission testing of waste-water sludge incinerators. Volume 1. Final report 1991-92

    SciTech Connect

    Chehaske, J.T.; DeWees, W.G.; Lewis, F.M.

    1992-06-01

    The U.S. EPA is considering continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions from all wastewater sludge incincerators. The study was conducted to determine the reliability of total hydrocarbon analyzers (THCAs) in the application. Continuous monitors for oxygen (O2), carbon monoxide (CO), THC, and temperature were installed at two municipal wastewater sludge incinerators. The O2 data were used to normalize the measured THC concentrations to 7% O2. CO was measured to determine if it could be used as a surrogate for THC measurements. The two THCAs performed very well, achieving 94 and 90% on-line availability at the two sampling sites, respectively. The O2 and CO analyzers also worked well. There were initial problems with the sample conditioning system that is necessary for the CO and O2 monitors, but successful operation was achieved after it was modified. The report presents graphical and tabular summaries of the results. The report covers a period from February 1991 to September 1991, and work was completed as of May 29, 1992.

  16. Estimation of the Heat Balance of the Liquid Hydrocarbons Evaporation Process from the Open Surface During Geotechnical Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-10-01

    Researchers in Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) have conducted a complex research of the heat and mass transfer processes and thermophysical properties of hydrocarbons, taking into account their impact on the reliability and safety of the hydrocarbon transport and storage processes. It has been shown that the thermodynamic conditions on the surface and the color of oil influence the degree of temperature rise in the upper layers of oil when exposed to direct solar radiation. In order to establish the nature of solar radiation impact on the surface temperature the experimental studies were conducted in TSOGU on the hydrocarbon evaporation and the temperature change of various petroleum and petroleum products on the free surface with varying degrees of thermal insulation of the side walls and bottom of the vessel.

  17. Extraction of S- and N-Compounds from the Mixture of Hydrocarbons by Ionic Liquids as Selective Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Gabrić, Beata; Sander, Aleksandra; Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Macut, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction is an alternative method that can be used for desulfurization and denitrification of gasoline and diesel fuels. Recent approaches employ different ionic liquids as selective solvents, due to their general immiscibility with gasoline and diesel, negligible vapor pressure, and high selectivity to sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. For that reason, five imidazolium-based ionic liquids and one pyridinium-based ionic liquid were selected for extraction of thiophene, dibenzothiophene, and pyridine from two model solutions. The influences of hydrodynamic conditions, mass ratio, and number of stages were investigated. Increasing the mass ratio of ionic liquid/model fuel and multistage extraction promotes the desulfurization and denitrification abilities of the examined ionic liquids. All selected ionic liquids can be reused and regenerated by means of vacuum evaporation. PMID:23843736

  18. Determination of oxygen and nitrogen derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions of asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-12-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formed in asphalt fractions. Two different methods have been developed for the determination of five oxygenated and seven nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings and present mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds. The detection limits of the methods ranged from 0.1 to 57.3 μg/L for nitrated and from 0.1 to 6.6 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The limits of quantification were in the range of 4.6-191 μg/L for nitrated and 0.3-8.9 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The methods were validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations (two nitrated derivatives) agreed with the certified values. The methods were applied in the analysis of asphalt samples after their fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes, according to American Society for Testing and Material D4124, where the maltenic fraction was further separated into its basic, acidic, and neutral parts following the method of Green. Only two nitrated derivatives were found in the asphalt sample, quinoline and 2-nitrofluorene, with concentrations of 9.26 and 2146 mg/kg, respectively, whereas no oxygenated derivatives were detected.

  19. Quasi-targeted analysis of hydroxylation-related metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caiming; Tan, Jianhua; Fan, Ruifang; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Caixing; Ou, Weihui; Jin, Jiabin; Peng, Xianzhi

    2016-08-26

    Metabolite identification is crucial for revealing metabolic pathways and comprehensive potential toxicities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human body. In this work, a quasi-targeted analysis strategy was proposed for metabolite identification of monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) in human urine using liquid chromatography triple quadruple mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) combined with liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Potential metabolites of OH-PAHs were preliminarily screened out by LC-QqQ-MS/MS in association with filtering in a self-constructed information list of possible metabolites, followed by further identification and confirmation with LC-HRMS. The developed method can provide more reliable and systematic results compared with traditional untargeted analysis using LC-HRMS. In addition, data processing for LC-HRMS analysis were greatly simplified. This quasi-targeted analysis method was successfully applied to identifying phase I and phase II metabolites of OH-PAHs in human urine. Five metabolites of hydroxynaphthalene, seven of hydroxyfluorene, four of hydroxyphenanthrene, and three of hydroxypyrene were tentatively identified. Metabolic pathways of PAHs in human body were putatively revealed based on the identified metabolites. The experimental results will be valuable for investigating the metabolic processes of PAHs in human body, and the quasi-targeted analysis strategy can be expanded to the metabolite identification and profiling of other compounds in vivo.

  20. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  1. Sorption and transport of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in low-carbon aquifer materials. Final report, Jan 88-Jan 89

    SciTech Connect

    Lion, L.W.

    1990-12-01

    Sorption studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on low-carbon aquifer materials are reported. Both column and batch partition coefficients (Kd) were affected by synthetic polymeric components, such as Teflon, in commonly used experimental apparatus. These influences include incorrect estimates for Kd and tailing of peaks in column studies. Both batch and column experimental methods are developed, using polymer-free systems, that allow accurate measurement of Kds for hydrophobic PAHs in low carbon systems. Application of these methods shows that organic carbon contents below the commonly cited threshold level of 0.1 percent may dominate the partitioning and subsequent transport of phenanthrene in aquifer systems. Calculated Kd values from batch and column (temporal first moment) techniques did not agree. Reasons for the disparity in the results from these methods are discussed. Column results may be described using the batch Kd and two adjustable fitting parameters representing variables in a two-side kinetic model.

  2. Survey of cotton (Gossypium sp.) for non-polar, extractable hydrocarbons for use as petrochemicals and liquid fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ontogenetic study of a commercial cotton cultivar (FiberMax 1320), grown dryland, revealed that the dry weight (DW) of leaves reached a maximum at the 1st flower stage, and then declined as bolls opened. However, % pentane soluble hydrocarbon (HC) yield continued to increase throughout the growi...

  3. Final optics protection in laser inertial fusion with cryogenic liquid droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W

    2000-08-31

    A burst of x rays and vaporized debris from high yield targets can damage the final optics in laser inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants and in laboratory experimental facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). Noble gases such as Xe or Kr have been proposed to protect final optics from target-produced x rays and debris. Some problems with the use of such ambient gas fills are the large amount of gas involved, heat transfer to a cryogenic target, potential resonant reradiation of x rays absorbed, and a nonuniform index of refraction due to turbulence interfering with the focusing of laser light. Also the fast igniter laser intensity may be too great for propagation through an ambient gas. We propose to provide the gas in the form of many small closely spaced liquid droplets injected in front of the optics. In the case of NIF, the droplets would be injected only when needed just before a high yield shot. The laser light that is absorbed will cause evaporation of the liquid and spreading of this gas. The liquid droplets intercept only {approx}5% of the laser light allowing {approx}95% to pass through to the target. The light absorbed in the NIF example (assumed to be 50% of the intercepted light, whose intensity is 3.6 x 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}) would cause the xenon droplets to evaporate and spread uniformly such that the x rays from 10 eV to 2 keV are appreciably attenuated when they arrive 40 to 70 ns later at the optical surface. X rays above 3 keV and below 10 eV are not attenuated very much but their intensities are rapidly falling off in this range anyway. Typical droplet sizes are {approx}10 {micro}m radius with a spacing of {approx}0.4 mm. The gas would also protect vaporized target debris from condensing on the optics due to the 0.2 mg/cm{sup 2} of xenon (5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} or 8 Torr-cm for l-e-folding of 1 keV x-rays). These droplets might be produced with technology similar to ink jet technology and photo

  4. Comparative evaluation of coal conversion technologies. Final report, December 7, 1982-July 6, 1983. [Davy McKee (COCHAR), Exxon (Exxon Donor Solvent), Lurgi process, Occidental Research Corporation (Flash Pyrolysis), Tosco (TOSCOAL), Union Carbide (Hydrocarbonization)

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, C.W.

    1983-09-01

    A comparative evaluation was made of six coal pyrolysis processes developed by the following companies: Davy McKee (COCHAR), Exxon (Exxon Donor Solvent), Lurgi (Lurgi Ruhrgas), Occidental Research Corporation (Flash Pyrolysis), Tosco (TOSCOAL), Union Carbide (Hydrocarbonization). This study serves as the necessary first step to the development of a major coal pyrolysis plant based on San Juan Basin coal. The process evaluation led to the recommendation that a more detailed study be made of the integration of the Union Carbide Hydrocarbonization process with an existing coal-fired electric utility plant in the Four Corners. The study included investigations of a char/coal liquids slurry movement to Texas or California, of the hydrotreating of coal liquids produced by the Hydrocarbonization process, and of the cleaning of San Juan Basin coal by electrostatic separation. Estimates of the capital and operating costs of a Hydrocarbonization plant located adjacent to the Four Corners Power Plant were prepared. A forecast was made of the economic benefits to the state of New Mexico and the number of jobs which would be created by the construction of a hydrocarbonization plant. A work plan was created to guide the project through the next stage of development. 58 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  5. The Mochovce final treatment center for liquid radioactive waste introduced to active trial operation

    SciTech Connect

    Krajc, T.; Stubna, M.; Kravarik, K.; Zatkulak, M.; Slezak, M.; Remias, V.

    2007-07-01

    The Final Treatment Centre (FTC) for Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) have been designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced by named NPP equipped with Russian VVER-440 type of reactors. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. During the realisation of project the future operator of Centre required the contractor to solve the treatment of wastes produced in the process of NPP A-1 decommissioning. On the basis of this requirement the project was modified in order to enable manipulations with waste products from A-1 NPP transported to Centre in steel drums. The initial project was prepared in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC civil works started in August 2004. Initial nonradioactive testing of the system parts were carried out from April to September 2006, then the tests of systems started with model concentrates and non-radioactive resins. After the processes evaluation the radioactive test performed from February 2007. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion during 2007 and 2008. The company JAVYS, Inc. is responsible for radioactive waste and spent fuel treatment in the Slovak republic and will operate the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. This Company has also significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 820 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization on Thin Film Evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen in blade

  6. Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Kravarik, K.; Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Krajc, T.; Zatkulak, M.; Holicka, Z.; Slezak, M.

    2006-07-01

    The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a

  7. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  8. Ultrahigh-current-density metal-ion implantation and diamondlike-hydrocarbon films for tribological applications; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbur, P.J.

    1993-09-01

    The metal-ion-implantation system used to implant metals into substrates are described. The metal vapor required for operation is supplied by drawing sufficient electron current from the plasma discharge to an anode-potential crucible so a solid, pure metal placed in the crucible will be heated to the point of vaporization. The ion-producing, plasma discharge is initiated within a graphite-ion-source body, which operates at high temperature, by using an argon flow that is turned off once the metal vapor is present. Extraction of ion beams several cm in diameter at current densities ranging to several hundred {mu}A/cm{sup 2} on a target 50 cm downstream of the ion source have been demonstrated using Mg, Ag, Cr, Cu, Si, Ti, V, B and Zr. These metals were implanted into over 100 substrates (discs, pins, flats, wires). A model describing thermal stresses induced in materials (e.g. ceramic plates) during high-current-density implantation is presented. Tribological and microstructural characteristics of iron and 304-stainless-steel samples implanted with Ti or B are examined. Diamondlike-hydrocarbon coatings were applied to steel surfaces and found to exhibit good tribological performance.

  9. Evaluation of polyurethane foam cartridges for measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in air. Final report, 1 August-31 December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C.C.; Bresler, W.E.; Hannan, S.W.

    1985-08-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate polyurethane foam (PUF) cartridges as collection media for quantification of vapor-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air. Two cleanup methods for PUF cartridges--compression rinsing and combined compression rinsing and Soxhlet extraction--were evaluated. Both methods successfully remove interfering material and background PAHs from the PUF. The compression rinsing method is recommended because it is easier, faster, and cheaper. Two procedures for extraction of PAHs from the PUF matrix, Soxhlet extraction and compression rinsing, were compared. These sample extracts were analyzed by on-column injection, electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (EI GC/MS) to determine PAHs. The results showed that compression rinsing is comparable to conventional Soxhlet extraction, and that both methods successfully remove PAHs from the PUF cartridges. The compression rinsing method was then used in the stability study. The stability study was carried out to determine the stability of PAHs adsorbed on PUF cartridges as a function of storage time between collection and extraction. The results indicated that the levels of the spiked perdeuterated benzo(a)pyrene decreased significantly during storage. The rate of decrease was much faster when the PUF cartridges were stored in light. Other PAH levels were not adversely influenced by the storage time.

  10. Diagnostic development for determining the joint temperature/soot statistics in hydrocarbon-fueled pool fires : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casteneda, Jaime N.; Frederickson, Kraig; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2009-09-01

    A joint temperature/soot laser-based optical diagnostic was developed for the determination of the joint temperature/soot probability density function (PDF) for hydrocarbon-fueled meter-scale turbulent pool fires. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort was in support of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program which seeks to produce computational models for the simulation of fire environments for risk assessment and analysis. The development of this laser-based optical diagnostic is motivated by the need for highly-resolved spatio-temporal information for which traditional diagnostic probes, such as thermocouples, are ill-suited. The in-flame gas temperature is determined from the shape of the nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signature and the soot volume fraction is extracted from the intensity of the Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) image of the CARS probed region. The current state of the diagnostic will be discussed including the uncertainty and physical limits of the measurements as well as the future applications of this probe.

  11. Experimental investigation of the effects of aromatic hydrocarbons on a sediment food web. University research initiative. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, K.R.; Fleeger, J.W.; Pomarico, S.M.; Conn, C.; Todaro, A.

    1994-07-01

    The influence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on a sedimentary salt-marsh food web was examined using microcosm and laboratory experiments that simulated natural conditions. Microcosms were dosed with concentrations of PAH-contaminated sediment collected from a produced water site at Pass Fourchon, LA. Bacterial activity and abundance were not influenced by PAH, but microalgal activity and physiological condition were. Grazing by copepods on benthic microalgae was not significantly influenced by PAH concentration, nor was the physiological condition of copepods. Meiofaunal community composition was influenced by PAH, as nematodes became disproportionally abundant, and the nauplius/copepod ratio increased in high-PAH treatments. Overall, sublethal effects of PAH were not pronounced at the concentrations (0.3 to 3.0 ppm) we examined. Fish-predation studies indicated that Leiostomus xanthurus could not detect PAH-contaminated sediments, and continued to feed normally when exposed to them. PAH contamination did not decrease the number of feeding strikes or sediment processing time. This lack of ability to discriminate between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments could have serious implications in terms of bioaccumulation of PAH (or other contaminants) by these bottom-feeding fish.

  12. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  13. Utilization of stable carbon isotope in the verification of bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Final report, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    DeFlaun, M.F.; Steffan, R.J.; Van de Velde, K.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of this work was to test the feasibility of using stable carbon isotope analysis to verify in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons and chlorinated ethenes under aerobic conditions. Specific objectives were to (1) determine d{sup 13}C values for TCE and the various compounds to be used as co- substrates for TCE degradation; (2) evaluate effects of aerobic biodegradation of co-substrate compounds and TCE on gross fractionation of carbon isotopes as measured in the resulting CO{sub 2}; (3) test the carbon isotope method for its ability to differentiate the source of the CO{sub 2} resulting from aerobic biodegradation; and (4) use samples from an appropriately contaminated bioventing site. Different degrees of fractionation were measured in both pure and mixed cultures for the different compounds tested in this study. Fractionation for toluene was slightly more negative than the starting compound. For JP-4, the fractionation of JP-4 resulted in d{sup 13}C values much more negative than the starting compound. Fractionation for TCE results in d{sup 13}C values more positive, indicating the CO{sub 2} had a higher percentage of {sup 13}C than the source compound. A mixture of toluene and TCE had a d{sup 13}C value intermediate between the two. These results indicate, with the d{sup 13}C values for these co-substrates and chlorinated ethenes sufficiently different, the degradation of one or the other can be determined. When both are being degraded an intermediate value can be obtained.

  14. New Insight into the Formation Mechanism of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids from N-Alkyl Imidazoles and Halogenated Hydrocarbons: A Polar Microenvironment Induced and Autopromoted Process.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xueli; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Chengbu; Zhang, Dongju

    2017-02-09

    To illustrate the formation mechanism of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) from N-alkyl imidazoles and halogenated hydrocarbons, density functional theory calculations have been carried out on a representative system, the reaction of N-methyl imidazole with chloroethane to form 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([Emim]Cl) IL. The reaction is shown to proceed via an SN2 transition state with a free energy barrier of 34.4 kcal/mol in the gas phase and 27.6 kcal/mol in toluene solvent. The reaction can be remarkably promoted by the presence of ionic products and water molecules. The calculated barriers in toluene are 22.0, 21.7, and 19.9 kcal/mol in the presence of 1-3 ionic pairs of [Emim]Cl and 23.5, 21.3, and 19.4 kcal/mol in the presence of 1-3 water molecules, respectively. These ionic pairs and water molecules do not participate directly in the reaction but provide a polar environment that favors stabilizing the transition state with large charge separation. Hence, we propose that the synthesis of imidazolium-based ILs from N-alkyl imidazoles and halogenated hydrocarbons is an autopromoted process and a polar microenvironment induced reaction, and the existence of water molecules (a highly polar solvent) in the reaction may be mainly responsible for the initiation of reaction.

  15. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions in asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt fractions has been developed. The 14 compounds determined, characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings, are expected to be present in asphalt and are considered carcinogenic and mutagenic. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all of the compounds. The limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 346.5 μg/L and the limits of quantification ranged from 1.7 to 1550 μg/L. The method was validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (NIST SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations agreed with the certified values. The method was applied to asphalt samples after its fractionation according to ASTM D4124 and the method of Green. The concentrations of the seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified in the sample ranged from 0.86 mg/kg for benzo[ghi]perylene to 98.32 mg/kg for fluorene.

  16. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-10-15

    Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20].

  17. Comparison of low-level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment revealed by Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Numata, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yarita, Takashi

    2008-03-31

    We analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in lake sediment at low levels (<1 microg g(-1)) by using Soxhlet extraction (Soxhlet), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in combination with gas chromatography and isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. Although all extraction techniques showed good repeatability for five target PAHs (relative standard deviation <5.2%, n=3), the results decreased in the order PLE>MAE>Soxhlet. Differences in the results originated mainly from differences in the extraction efficiencies of the techniques for native PAHs, because all techniques gave comparable recovery yields of corresponding 13C-labeled PAHs (13C-PAHs) (51-84%). Since non-negligible amounts of both native PAHs and 13C-PAHs were re-adsorbed on matrix in MAE, not only recovery yields of 13C-PAHs but also efficiencies of extraction of native PAHs should be examined to evaluate the appropriateness of any analytical procedures.

  18. Interim response action basin F liquid incineration project final draft human health risk assessment. Volume 1. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-01

    This document is a comprehensive, multiple exposure pathway, human health risk assessment prepared for the proposed Basin F Liquid Incineration Project. The submerged quench incinerator will treat Basin F liquid and hydrazine rinse water. The objective of the risk assessment is to establish chemical emission limits which are protective of human health. Average and maximum lifetime daily intakes were calculated for adults, children, and infants in four maximum exposure scenarios under base case and sensitivity case emissions condition. It was concluded that the incineration facility poses neither carcinogenic nor noncarcinogenic risk to any sensitive population. The assessment is divided into: (1) Incineration facility description; (2) Description of surrounding area; (3) Process of pollutant identification and selection; and (4) Determination of emission rates from incineration facility.

  19. 75 FR 19991 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the UNEV Refined Liquid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Refined Liquid Petroleum Products Pipeline in Utah and Nevada and the Proposed Amendment of the Pony... Petroleum Products Pipeline and Pony Express Proposed RMPA/Final EIS have been sent to affected Federal... Pony Express Resource Management Plan so that it would be consistent with the grant of a...

  20. Use of neural networks for prediction of vapor/liquid equilibrium K values for light-hydrocarbon mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Habiballah, W.A.; Startzman, R.A.; Barrufet, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    Equilibrium ratios play a fundamental role in the understanding of phase behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures. They are important in predicting compositional changes under varying temperature and pressure in reservoirs, surface separators, and production and transportation facilities. In particular, they are critical for reliable and successful compositional reservoir simulation. This paper presents a new approach for predicting K values with neural networks (NN`s). The method is applied to binary and multicomponent mixtures, and K-value prediction accuracy is on the order of the traditional methods. However, computing speed is significantly faster.

  1. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1995-06-30

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1991. The project consisted of two different tasks: (1) Development of a model to compute viscosities of coal derived liquids, and (2) Investigate new models for estimation of thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid compounds of the type that exist in coal, or are encountered during coal processing. As for task 1, a model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. The detailed model is presented in this report. Two papers, the first describing the pure liquid model and the second one discussing the application to coal derived liquids, are expected to be published in Energy & Fuels shortly. Marginal progress is reported on task 2. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular. All these developments are discussed in this report. Some recommendations for future direction of research in this area are also listed.

  2. Final Report: Developing Liquid Protection Schemes for Fusion Energy Reactor First Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Minami Yoda Said I. Abdel-Khalik

    2006-03-29

    Over the last year, the Georgia Tech group has experimentally studied vertical turbulent sheets of water issuing downwards into atmospheric pressure air at Reynolds numbers Re = U{sub 0}{delta}/{nu} = 53,000 and 120,000 and Weber numbers We = {rho}U{sub o} {sup 2}{delta}/{sigma} = 2,900 and 18,000, respectively. Here, U{sub o} is the average jet speed, {delta} is the jet thickness (short dimension) at the nozzle exit ({delta} = 1 cm), and {nu}, {rho} and {sigma} are the kinematic viscosity and density of water and the surface tension at the air-water interface, respectively. These Re and We values are about 50% and 20% of the prototypical values for HYLIFE-II, respectively. In this report, the flow coordinate system is defined so that the origin is at the center of the nozzle exit, with the x-axis along the flow direction, the y-axis along the long dimension of the nozzle, and the z-axis along the short dimension of the nozzle (cf. Fig. 1). During the final year of this project, we have made three contributions in the area of thermal-hydraulics of thick liquid protection, namely: (1) Experimentally demonstrated that removing as little as 1% of the total mass flux using boundary-layer (BL) cutting can reduce the number density of the drops due to turbulent breakup of the liquid sheet below the maximum background density levels recommended for HYLIFE-II of 5 x 10{sup -19} m{sup 3}; (2) Shown that a well-designed flow conditioning section upstream of the nozzle can greatly reduce surface ripple, and that boundary-layer cutting can be used in conjunction with well-designed flow conditioning to further reduce surface ripple below the 0.07{delta} beam-to-jet standoff proposed for HYLIFE-II; and (3) Quantified how different flow conditioner designs affect the rms fluctuations of the streamwise (x) and transverse (z) velocity components in the nozzle itself (i.e., upstream of the nozzle exit) and affect surface ripple in the near-field of the flow, or x {le} 25{delta}. The

  3. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction using a multivariate chemometric approach and comparison of solid-phase extraction cleanup steps for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses.

    PubMed

    Foan, L; Simon, V

    2012-09-21

    A factorial design was used to optimize the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from mosses, plants used as biomonitors of air pollution. The analytical procedure consists of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, in association with analysis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). For method development, homogeneous samples were prepared with large quantities of the mosses Isothecium myosuroides Brid. and Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw., collected from a Spanish Nature Reserve. A factorial design was used to identify the optimal PLE operational conditions: 2 static cycles of 5 min at 80 °C. The analytical procedure performed with PLE showed similar recoveries (∼70%) and total PAH concentrations (∼200 ng g(-1)) as found using Soxtec extraction, with the advantage of reducing solvent consumption by 3 (30 mL against 100mL per sample), and taking a fifth of the time (24 samples extracted automatically in 8h against 2 samples in 3.5h). The performance of SPE normal phases (NH(2), Florisil, silica and activated aluminium) generally used for organic matrix cleanup was also compared. Florisil appeared to be the most selective phase and ensured the highest PAH recoveries. The optimal analytical procedure was validated with a reference material and applied to moss samples from a remote Spanish site in order to determine spatial and inter-species variability.

  4. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Final report, September 1991--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1996-03-01

    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various probe compounds on 60-200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. the probe compounds include m-cresol, p-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, n-octanol, n-heptanol, n-propanol, isopropanol n-butanol, s-butanol, 2-butanol, t-butanol, 2-naphthol, cyclohexanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol (2M1P), 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4M2P), benzene and toluene. Equilibrium adsorption of various probe compounds on the coals were measured with the inverse liquid chromatography method. Experiments on flotation of various 60-200 mesh treated coals such as Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. The chosen coals were treated with steam, nitrogen and air at 1 atm and 125-225{degrees}C for 24 hours. The coals were treated with water as well as 20-1000 ppm aqueous alcohol solutions for 3-24 hours at 150-225{degrees}C. The coals also were treated with 20-ppm alcohol aqueous solutions for 1-24 hours at the 0.002-g/min mass flow rate of alcohol aqueous solutions and at 225{degrees}C. Flotation experiments were conducted with a 500-cm{sup 3} batch-type micro flotation apparatus, introducing nitrogen at the bottom of the apparatus. This final report was prepared with the experimental data obtained during the period of September 1991-March 1994.

  5. Biodesulfurization of mild gasification liquid products. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II

    1993-12-31

    The mild gasification of coal, as being developed at IGT and elsewhere, is a promising new technology that can convert coal to multiple products: gas, solid, and liquids. Mild gasification liquids can be used as feedstock to make transportation fuels and chemicals. However, the sulfur content and aromaticity of mild gasification liquids limits their usefulness and biodesulfurization can potentially decrease both sulfur content and aromaticity. The objective of this project is to investigate and feasibility of using biodesulfurization to upgrade the quality of mild gasification liquids. During this project, it was shown that the middle distillate (360--440 F) fraction of liquids derived from the mild gasification of coal, and unfractionated liquids can be biodesulfurized. Moreover, it was demonstrated that lysed cell preparations and freeze-dried cells can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids. The importance of the finding that freeze-dried biocatalysts can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids is that freeze-dried cells can be produced at one location, stored indefinitely, and then shipped (at reduced weight, volume, and cost) to another location for coal biodesulfurization. Moreover, freeze-dried biocatalysts can be added directly to mild coal gasification liquids with only minimal additions of water so that reactor volumes can be minimized.

  6. Comparative study for determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 'PAHs' by a new spectrophotometric method and multivariate calibration coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El Kosasy, A M; El-Sayed Okeil, S M

    2014-12-10

    A modified dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (DLLE) procedure coupled with spectrophotometric techniques was adopted for simultaneous determination of naphthalene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, alpha-naphthol and beta-naphthol in water samples. Two different methods were used, partial least-squares (PLS) method and a new derivative ratio method, namely extended derivative ratio (EDR). A PLS-2 model was established for simultaneous determination of the studied pollutants in methanol, by using twenty mixtures as calibration set and five mixtures as validation set. Also, in methanol a novel (EDR) method was developed for determination of the studied pollutants, where each component in the mixture of the five PAHs was determined by using a mixture of the other four components as divisor. Chemometric and EDR methods could be also adopted for determination of the studied PAH in water samples after transferring them from aqueous medium to the organic one by utilizing dispersive liquid-liquid extraction technique, where different parameters were investigated using a full factorial design. Both methods were compared and the proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines and successfully applied to determine these PAHs simultaneously in spiked water samples, where satisfactory results were obtained. All the results obtained agreed with those of published methods, where no significant difference was observed.

  7. Comparative study for determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ‘PAHs' by a new spectrophotometric method and multivariate calibration coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El Kosasy, A. M.; El-Sayed Okeil, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    A modified dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (DLLE) procedure coupled with spectrophotometric techniques was adopted for simultaneous determination of naphthalene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, alpha-naphthol and beta-naphthol in water samples. Two different methods were used, partial least-squares (PLS) method and a new derivative ratio method, namely extended derivative ratio (EDR). A PLS-2 model was established for simultaneous determination of the studied pollutants in methanol, by using twenty mixtures as calibration set and five mixtures as validation set. Also, in methanol a novel (EDR) method was developed for determination of the studied pollutants, where each component in the mixture of the five PAHs was determined by using a mixture of the other four components as divisor. Chemometric and EDR methods could be also adopted for determination of the studied PAH in water samples after transferring them from aqueous medium to the organic one by utilizing dispersive liquid-liquid extraction technique, where different parameters were investigated using a full factorial design. Both methods were compared and the proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines and successfully applied to determine these PAHs simultaneously in spiked water samples, where satisfactory results were obtained. All the results obtained agreed with those of published methods, where no significant difference was observed.

  8. Magnetic microsphere-confined graphene for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weina; Ma, Ruiyang; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2013-06-07

    In this paper, a magnetic microsphere-confined graphene adsorbent (Fe3O4@SiO2-G) was fabricated and used for the extraction of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) from environmental water samples prior to high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The Fe3O4@SiO2-G was characterized by various instrumental methods. Various experimental parameters that could affect the extraction efficiencies, such as the amount of Fe3O4@SiO2-G, the pH and ionic strength of sample solution, the extraction time and the desorption conditions, were investigated. Due to the high surface area and excellent adsorption capacity of the Fe3O4@SiO2-G, satisfactory extraction can be achieved with only 15mg of the adsorbent per 250mL solution and 5min extraction. Under the optimum conditions, a linear response was observed in the concentration range of 5-1500ngL(-1) for fluorene, 2.5-1500ngL(-1) for anthracene and 15-1500ngL(-1) for phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9897 to 0.9961. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method were between 0.5 and 5.0ngL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5.6%. The recoveries of the method were in the range between 83.2% and 108.2%. The results indicated that this graphene-based magnetic nanocomposite had a great adsorptive ability toward the five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples.

  9. Measurement of muon plus proton final states in νμ interactions on hydrocarbon at < Eν > = 4.2 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Walton, T.

    2015-04-01

    A study of charged-current muon neutrino scattering on hydrocarbon in which the final state includes a muon, at least one proton, and no pions is presented. Although this signature has the topology of neutrino quasielastic scattering from neutrons, the event sample contains contributions from quasielastic and inelastic processes where pions are absorbed in the nucleus. The analysis accepts events with muon production angles up to 70° and proton kinetic energies greater than 110 MeV. The cross section, when based completely on hadronic kinematics, is well described by a relativistic Fermi gas nuclear model including the neutrino event generator modeling formore » inelastic processes and particle transportation through the nucleus. This is in contrast to the quasielastic cross section based on muon kinematics, which is best described by an extended model that incorporates multinucleon correlations. As a result, this measurement guides the formulation of a complete description of neutrino-nucleus interactions that encompasses the hadronic as well as the leptonic aspects of this process.« less

  10. Measurement of muon plus proton final states in νμ interactions on hydrocarbon at < Eν > = 4.2 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, T.

    2015-04-01

    A study of charged-current muon neutrino scattering on hydrocarbon in which the final state includes a muon, at least one proton, and no pions is presented. Although this signature has the topology of neutrino quasielastic scattering from neutrons, the event sample contains contributions from quasielastic and inelastic processes where pions are absorbed in the nucleus. The analysis accepts events with muon production angles up to 70° and proton kinetic energies greater than 110 MeV. The cross section, when based completely on hadronic kinematics, is well described by a relativistic Fermi gas nuclear model including the neutrino event generator modeling for inelastic processes and particle transportation through the nucleus. This is in contrast to the quasielastic cross section based on muon kinematics, which is best described by an extended model that incorporates multinucleon correlations. As a result, this measurement guides the formulation of a complete description of neutrino-nucleus interactions that encompasses the hadronic as well as the leptonic aspects of this process.

  11. Laser-induced back-side etching with liquid and the solid hydrocarbon absorber films of different thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, M.; Lorenz, P.; Yunxiang, P.; Bayer, L.; Han, B.; Zimmer, K.

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced backside wet and dry etching (LIBWE and LIBDE) are methods for high-quality surface patterning of transparent dielectrics that making use of an additional absorber material attached to the rear side that is ablated in a confined configuration. Due to the manifold of the involved processes, the mechanism of the etching process and the parameter influence on the material removal process are multifaceted and not fully understood yet. In the present paper, we investigate the influence of the confinement to the backside etching process by studying the impact of the thickness of the attached liquid or solid absorber within a range of 12-125 and 0.2-11.7 μm, respectively. It was found that for the liquid and solid absorbers, the etching rate increases with the thickness of the absorber layer and saturates exceeding a certain value, which depends on the used laser fluence. Moreover, the incubation of etching depends on the absorber thickness. The comparison of the etching results of a similar thickness of the liquid and the solid absorber layers shows that the phase of the absorber (liquid or solid) does not influence the back-side etching process. Time-resolved shadowgraph images of the process indicate that with higher absorber layer thickness, the interaction time and strength of the laser-induced processes at the sample surface increase. The results suggest that confinement of the rear side attached absorber ablation influences the impact of the laser-induced secondary processes to the strength of the material modifications and, therefore, the etching rate.

  12. Polyurethane foam chips combined with liquid chromatography in the determination of unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons excreted in human urine.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Marina; Pellegrino, Oronzo; Valla, Carla; Rubino, Federico Maria; Verduci, Cinzia; Colombi, Antonio

    2006-09-01

    A method suitable for the determination of unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) excreted at trace levels (ng/L) in human urine for the monitoring of exposure of the general population to PAH contamination was developed. PAHs were determined, after enrichment by solid-phase extraction on polyurethane foam (PUF) chips, by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Different parameters affecting analyte extraction to the PUF, including urine salting-out and organic additives, and optimization of conditions for clean-up and desorption have been investigated. Optimized conditions were 40 mL acidified urine sample, added with magnesium sulfate, tetrahydrofuran and a 2 cm3 PUF chip, and extracted by shaking at 30 rpm for 1 h at ambient temperature. Desorption was performed, after a clean-up step with diluted sodium hydroxide, using a small amount of diethyl ether. The recovery of PAH congeners from spiked urines was >90% in the 2-100 ng/L range; the detection limit was 0.1-0.5 ng/L, depending on the considered PAH congener; day-to-day precision, at 50 ng/L native PAH content, was CV = 10-20%. The proposed technique provides a simple, economical and effective procedure for the determination of trace amounts of unmetabolized PAHs excreted in human urine spot samples.

  13. Biomass Conversion to Produce Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuel Via Hot-vapor Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydrotreating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huamin; Elliott, Douglas C; French, Richard J; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2016-12-25

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels. Among the various thermochemical and biochemical routes, fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrotreating is considered to be a promising near-term opportunity. This paper reports on experimental methods used 1) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-oils in a fluidized-bed reactor and 2) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oils in a two-stage, fixed-bed, continuous-flow catalytic reactor. The configurations of the reactor systems, the operating procedures, and the processing and analysis of feedstocks, bio-oils, and biofuels are described in detail in this paper. We also demonstrate hot-vapor filtration during fast pyrolysis to remove fine char particles and inorganic contaminants from bio-oil. Representative results showed successful conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuel-range hydrocarbon biofuels and, specifically, the effect of hot-vapor filtration on bio-oil production and upgrading. The protocols provided in this report could help to generate rigorous and reliable data for biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreating research.

  14. Biomass Conversion to Produce Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuel Via Hot-vapor Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydrotreating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huamin; Elliott, Douglas C.; French, Richard J.; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels. Among the various thermochemical and biochemical routes, fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrotreating is considered to be a promising near-term opportunity. This paper reports on experimental methods used 1) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-oils in a fluidized-bed reactor and 2) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oils in a two-stage, fixed-bed, continuous-flow catalytic reactor. The configurations of the reactor systems, the operating procedures, and the processing and analysis of feedstocks, bio-oils, and biofuels are described in detail in this paper. We also demonstrate hot-vapor filtration during fast pyrolysis to remove fine char particles and inorganic contaminants from bio-oil. Representative results showed successful conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuel-range hydrocarbon biofuels and, specifically, the effect of hot-vapor filtration on bio-oil production and upgrading. The protocols provided in this report could help to generate rigorous and reliable data for biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreating research. PMID:28060311

  15. Biomass conversion to produce hydrocarbon liquid fuel via hot-vapor filtered fast pyrolysis and catalytic hydrotreating

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huamin; Elliott, Douglas C.; French, Richard J.; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2016-12-25

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels. Among the various thermochemical and biochemical routes, fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrotreating is considered to be a promising near-term opportunity. This paper reports on experimental methods used 1) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-oils in a fluidized-bed reactor and 2) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oils in a two-stage, fixed-bed, continuous-flow catalytic reactor. The configurations of the reactor systems, the operating procedures, and the processing and analysis of feedstocks, bio-oils, and biofuels are described in detail in this paper. We also demonstrate hot-vapor filtration during fast pyrolysis to remove fine char particles and inorganic contaminants from bio-oil. Representative results showed successful conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuel-range hydrocarbon biofuels and, specifically, the effect of hot-vapor filtration on bio-oil production and upgrading. As a result, the protocols provided in this report could help to generate rigorous and reliable data for biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreating research.

  16. Biomass conversion to produce hydrocarbon liquid fuel via hot-vapor filtered fast pyrolysis and catalytic hydrotreating

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Huamin; Elliott, Douglas C.; French, Richard J.; ...

    2016-12-25

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels. Among the various thermochemical and biochemical routes, fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrotreating is considered to be a promising near-term opportunity. This paper reports on experimental methods used 1) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-oils in a fluidized-bed reactor and 2) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oils in a two-stage, fixed-bed, continuous-flow catalytic reactor. The configurations of the reactor systems, the operating procedures, and themore » processing and analysis of feedstocks, bio-oils, and biofuels are described in detail in this paper. We also demonstrate hot-vapor filtration during fast pyrolysis to remove fine char particles and inorganic contaminants from bio-oil. Representative results showed successful conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuel-range hydrocarbon biofuels and, specifically, the effect of hot-vapor filtration on bio-oil production and upgrading. As a result, the protocols provided in this report could help to generate rigorous and reliable data for biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreating research.« less

  17. Biomass Conversion to Produce Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuel Via Hot-vapor Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydrotreating

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huamin; Elliott, Douglas C.; French, Richard J.; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels. Among the various thermochemical and biochemical routes, fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrotreating is considered to be a promising near-term opportunity. This paper reports on experimental methods used 1) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-oils in a fluidized-bed reactor and 2) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oils in a two-stage, fixed-bed, continuous-flow catalytic reactor. The configurations of the reactor systems, the operating procedures, and the processing and analysis of feedstocks, bio-oils, and biofuels are described in detail in this paper. We also demonstrate hot-vapor filtration during fast pyrolysis to remove fine char particles and inorganic contaminants from bio-oil. Representative results showed successful conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuel-range hydrocarbon biofuels and, specifically, the effect of hot-vapor filtration on bio-oil production and upgrading. The protocols provided in this report could help to generate rigorous and reliable data for biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreating research.

  18. Determination of oxygenated and native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban dust and diesel particulate matter standard reference materials using pressurized liquid extraction and LC-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Trifa M; Bergvall, Christoffer; Åberg, Magnus; Westerholm, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel analytical chemistry method, comprised of a coupled high-performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system (LC-GC/MS) with low detection limits and high selectivity, for the identification and determination of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban air and diesel particulate matter. The linear range of the four OPAHs, which include 9,10-anthraquinone, 4H-cyclopenta[def]phenanthrene-4-one, benzanthrone, and 7,12-benz[a]anthraquinone, was 0.7 pg-43.3 ng with limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) on the order of 0.2-0.8 and 0.7-1.3 pg, respectively. The LODs in this study are generally lower than values reported in the literature, which can be explained by using large-volume injection. The recoveries of the OPAHs spiked onto glass fiber filters using two different pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods were in the ranges of 84-107 and 67-110 %, respectively. The analytical protocols were validated using the following National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials: SRM 1649a (Urban Dust), SRM 1650b (Diesel Particulate Matter), and SRM 2975 (Diesel Particulate Matter, Industrial Forklift). The measured mass fractions of the OPAHs in the standard reference materials (SRMs) in this present study are higher than the values from the literature, except for benzanthrone in SRM 1649a (Urban Dust). In addition to the OPAHs, 44 PAHs could be detected and quantified from the same particulate extract used in this protocol. Using data from the literature and applying a two-sided t test at the 5 % level using Bonferroni correction, significant differences were found between the tested PLE methods for individual PAHs. However, the measured mass fractions of the PAHs were comparable, similar to, or higher than those previously reported in the literature.

  19. A Final Year Physics Undergraduate Experiment on Ultrasound Propagation in Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluijs, M. J.; van der Sluijs, J. C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced undergraduate physics experiment which permits the measurement of ultrasound velocity and absorption in liquid systems. A description of the tasks the student is expected to perform is also included. (HM)

  20. Fast automated dual-syringe based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Tan, Shufang; Li, Xiao; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-03-18

    An automated procedure, combining low density solvent based solvent demulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. Capitalizing on a two-rail commercial autosampler, fast solvent transfer using a large volume syringe dedicated to the DLLME process, and convenient extract collection using a small volume microsyringe for better GC performance were enabled. Extraction parameters including the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of dispersive solvent and demulsification solvent, extraction and demulsification time, and the speed of solvent injection were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity ranged from 0.1 to 50 μg/L, 0.2 to 50 μg/L, and 0.5 to 50 μg/L, depending on the analytes. Limits of detection were determined to be between 0.023 and 0.058 μg/L. The method was applied to determine PAHs in environmental water samples.

  1. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  2. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  3. Highly sensitive copper fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction for online selective analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-08-21

    A fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was developed with copper wire and copper tube, which was served as both the substrate and sorbent with high physical strength and good flexibility. Its morphology and surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. It was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment by replacing the sample loop of six-port injection valve, building the online SPME-HPLC system conveniently. Using ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model analytes, extraction conditions including sampling rate, extraction time, organic content and desorption time were investigated and optimized. The copper fiber-in-tube exhibits excellent extraction efficiency toward PAHs, with enrichment factors from 268 to 2497. The established online SPME-HPLC method provides good linearity (0.05-100μgL(-1)) and low detection limits (0.001-0.01μgL(-1)) for PAHs. It has been used to determine PAHs in water samples, with recoveries in the range of 86.2-115%. Repeatability on the same extraction tube is in the range of 0.6-3.6%, and repeatability among three tubes is in the range of 5.6-20.1%. Compared with phthalates, anilines and phenols, the copper fiber-in-tube possesses good extraction selectivity for PAHs. The extraction mechanism is probably related to hydrophobic interaction and π-electron-metal interaction.

  4. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs. PMID:26265155

  5. Tuning the selectivity of polymeric ionic liquid sorbent coatings for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yunjing; Anderson, Jared L

    2010-10-01

    A new generation polymeric ionic liquid (PIL), poly(1-4-vinylbenzyl)-3-hexadecylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (poly(VBHDIm(+) NTf(2)(-))), was synthesized and is shown to exhibit impressive selectivity towards the extraction of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous samples when used as a sorbent coating in direct-immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography (GC). The PIL was imparted with aromatic character to enhance π-π interactions between the analytes and the sorbent coating. For comparison purposes, a PIL with similar structure but lacking the π-π interaction capability, poly(1-vinyl-3-hexadecylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide) (poly(HDIm(+) NTf(2)(-))), as well as a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sorbent coating were evaluated and exhibited much lower extraction efficiencies. Extraction parameters, including stir rate and extraction time, were studied and optimized. The detection limits of poly(VBHDIm(+) NTf(2)(-)), poly(HDIm(+) NTf(2)(-)), and PDMS coatings varied between 0.003-0.07 μg L(-1), 0.02-0.6 μg L(-1), and 0.1-6 μg L(-1), respectively. The partition coefficients (logK(fs)) of eight PAHs to the three studied fiber coatings were estimated using a static SPME approach. This study represents the first report of analyte partition coefficients to any PIL-based material.

  6. Analysis of EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food supplements using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet, diode array or fluorescence detector.

    PubMed

    Danyi, Sophie; Brose, François; Brasseur, Catherine; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Pussemier, Luc; Robbens, Johan; De Saeger, Sarah; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2009-02-09

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet, diode array or fluorescence detector (HPLC/UV-FLD) has been used to set up a method to detect the 15(+1) EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food supplements covering the categories of dried plants and plant extracts excluding oily products. A mini validation was performed and the following parameters have been determined: limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, recovery and linearity. They were in close agreement with quality criteria described in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 333/2007 concerning the PAH benzo[a]pyrene in foodstuffs, except the not fluorescent cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene for which the UV detection leads to a higher limit of detection. Analysis of twenty commercial food supplements covering mainly the class of dried plants was performed to evaluate their PAHs contamination levels and to test the applicability of the method to various plant matrices. Fifty percent of analyzed samples showed concentration exceeding 2 microgkg(-1) for one or more PAHs.

  7. Two-liquid-phase system: A promising technique for predicting bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congying; Wang, Ziyu; Li, Zengbo; Ahmad, Riaz

    2017-02-01

    A two-liquid-phase system (TLPS), which consisted of soil slurry and silicone oil, was employed to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four long-term contaminated soils in order to assess the bioavailability of PAHs. Extraction kinetics of six PAHs viz. phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthrancene were selected to investigate as they covered the susceptible and recalcitrant PAHs in soil. A parallel experiments were also carried out on the microbial degradation of these PAHs in soil with and without biostimulation (by adding (NH4)2HPO4). The rapidly desorbed fraction of fluoranthene, as indicated by the two-fraction model, was found the highest, ranging from 21.4% to 37.4%, whereas dibenzo(a,h)anthrancene was the lowest, ranging from 8.9% to 20.5%. The rapid desorption of selected PAHs was found to be finished within 24 h. The rapidly desorbed fraction of PAHs investigated using TLPS, was significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.95) with that degraded by microorganisms in biostimulation treatment. This suggested that the TLPS-assisted extraction could be a promising technique in determining the bioavailability of aged PAHs in contaminated soils. It also suggested that applying sufficient nutrients in bioremediation of field contaminated soils is crucial. Further work is required to test its application to more hydrophobic organic pollutants in long-term contaminated soils.

  8. Commercial polymeric fiber as sorbent for solid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water.

    PubMed

    Hii, Toh Ming; Basheer, Chanbasha; Lee, Hian Kee

    2009-10-30

    A novel microextraction method making use of commercial polymer fiber as sorbent, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water has been developed. In this technique, the extraction device was simply a length (8 cm) of a strand of commercial polymer fiber, Kevlar (each strand consisted of 1000 filaments, each of diameter ca. 9.23 microm), that was allowed to tumble freely in the aqueous sample solution during extraction. The extracted analytes were desorbed ultrasonically before the extract was injected into HPLC system for analysis. Extraction parameters such as extraction time, desorption time, type of desorption solvent and sample volume were optimized. Each fiber could be used for up to 50 extractions and the method showed good precision, reproducibility and linear response within a concentration range 0.05-5.00 microg L(-1) with correlation coefficients of up to 0.9998. Limits of detection between 0.4 and 4.4 ng L(-1) for seven PAHs could be achieved. The relative standard deviations (n=3) of this technique were between 2.9% and 12.1%.

  9. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu

    2015-08-12

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs.

  10. Retentivity, selectivity and thermodynamic behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on charge-transfer and hypercrosslinked stationary phases under conditions of normal phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Lucy, Charles A

    2016-03-11

    Charge-transfer and hypercrosslinked polystyrene phases offer retention and separation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and thus have potential for petroleum analysis. The size, shape and planarity selectivity for PAH standards on charge-transfer (DNAP column) and hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HC-Tol and 5HGN columns) phases are different under normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC). The HC-Tol column behaves like a conventional NPLC column with low retention of PAHs. Retention of PAHs on the DNAP and 5HGN are strong and increases with the number of aromatic rings. The main retention mechanism is through π-π interactions and dipole-induced dipole interaction. Thermodynamics indicates that the retention mechanism of PAHs remains unchanged over the temperature range 20-60°C. In addition, on either DNAP or 5HGN column, both linear and bent PAHs are retained through the same mechanism. But DNAP possesses smaller π-π interaction and higher planarity selectivity than 5HGN for PAHs. This is suggestive that DNAP interacts with PAHs through a disordered phase arrangement, while 5HGN behaves as an ordered adsorption phase.

  11. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs.

  12. Liquid-vapor and solid-liquid-vapor equilibrium in natural gas systems. Final report, January 1983-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, E.D.; Kidnay, A.J.

    1985-10-01

    The three-phase (SLV) equilibria for the methane + carbon dioxide system was measured at 206, 208, 210, 212, 214, and 216 K, and a complete isotherm was determined at 212 K. The ethane + carbon dioxide system was studied at 204, 206, 208, 209, 210, 212, 213, 214, 216 K and complete isotherms determined at 204, 207, 209, 210, 212, and 216 K. The propane + carbon dioxide system was studied at 208, 210, 212, 214, and 216 K with a complete isotherm measured at 216 K. Preliminary data on temperature, pressure, and mole fraction at the triple points are tabulated. Vapor liquid equilibria data are presented for the ethane + carbon dioxide system at 207, 210, 220, 223.15, 230, 250, 263.15, 270, 213, 230, 250, and 270 K. Binary interaction parameters were fit for the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. VLE measurements are presented for the nitrogen + ethane, and the nitrogen + carbon dioxide system at 220 K and 270 K. Measurements are also presented for the ternary system nitrogen + carbon dioxide + ethane at 220 K and at three pressures ranging from the pressure of 0.803 (the carbon dioxide + ethane azeotrope) to 9 MPa.

  13. Final Technical Report, Grant DE-FG02-87ER13714, "Fundamental Studies of Metastable Liquids"

    SciTech Connect

    Pablo G. Debenedetti

    2009-03-09

    Grant DE-FG02-87ER13714 supported fundamental work on the physical properties of metastable liquids from 6/1/87 to 4/30/08. Renewal proposals were submitted every three years (1990, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005), and included, in every case, a detailed Final Technical Report on the previous three years. Accordingly, the bulk of this report covers the final 2-year period 5/1/06 to 4/30/08 of this grant, which is not covered in any of the previous Final Technical Reports. This is preceded by a brief overview of the main research objectives and principal accomplishments during these very fruitful and productive 21 years of DOE-funded research.

  14. High performance liquid chromatographic hydrocarbon group-type analyses of mid-distillates employing fuel-derived fractions as standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.

  15. Direct determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal liquids and shale oil by laser excited Shpol'skii spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Y.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.; Iles, M.

    1980-07-01

    This article reports that tunable, dye laser excitation of Shpol'skii effect spectra provides a potentially useful means of determining PAH compounds directly in coal liquids and shale oil without prior isolation of the PAH fraction by chromatographic or other techniques. The data reported were obtained by selecting excitation wavelengths within the response curve of a single dye, 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4 oxadiazole (PBD). The characteristic low temperature excitation spectra of PAH compounds in appropriate Shpol'skii matrices are known to be sharp (FWHM approx. 10cm/sup -1/). The luminescence of four individual PAHs is included. The analytical results obtained for a typical solvent refined coal and shale oil sample are summarized. 2 figures, 1 table. (DP)

  16. 21 CFR 172.884 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 172.884... § 172.884 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely... liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum or synthesized from petroleum gases. The additive is...

  17. Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.; Weeks, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    As requested by the Technical Task Request (1), a full-scale test was carried out on several different liquid-level measurement bubblers as recommended from previous testing (2). This final report incorporates photographic evidence (Appendix B) of the bubblers at different stages of testing, along with the preliminary results (Appendix C) which were previously reported (3), and instrument calibration data (Appendix D); while this report contains more detailed information than previously reported (3) the conclusions remain the same. The test was performed under highly prototypic conditions from November 26, 1996 to January 23, 1997 using the full-scale SRAT/SME tank test facilities located in the 672-T building at TNX. Two different types of advanced bubblers were subjected to approximately 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures.The test showed that the large diameter tube bubbler (2.64 inches inside diameter) operated successfully throughout the2-month test by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 deg Cand several days of boiling temperatures. However, a weekly blow-down with air or water is recommended to minimize the slurry which builds up.The small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) operated successfully on a daily basis in the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and several days of boiling temperatures. However, a daily blow-down with air, or air and water, is necessary to maintain accurate readings.For the small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) there were varying levels of success with the lower water-flow tubes and these tubes would have to be cleaned by blowing with air, or air and water, several times a day to maintain them plug free. This

  18. Thermocatalytic CO{sub 2}-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels - Final Report for the Period August 1999 - September 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Nazim Muradov, Ph.D.

    2000-10-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a novel process for CO{sub 2}-free production of hydrogen via thermocatalytic decomposition (pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels as a viable alternative to the conventional processes of methane steam reforming or partial oxidation. The objective of Phase I work was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of CO{sub 2}-free production of hydrogen and carbon from different hydrocarbons, including methane, propane and gasoline.

  19. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation final report and recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Using a formalized Systems Engineering approach, the Latched Idaho Technologies Company developed and evaluated numerous alternatives for treating, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive liquid and calcine wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Based on technical analysis data as of March, 1995, it is recommended that the Department of Energy consider a phased processing approach -- utilizing Radionuclide Partitioning for radioactive liquid and calcine waste treatment, FUETAP Grout for low-activity waste immobilization, and Glass (Vitrification) for high-activity waste immobilization -- as the preferred treatment and immobilization alternative.

  20. A STUDY OF HOW A CHILD LEARNS CONCEPTS ABOUT CHARACTERISTICS OF LIQUID MATERIALS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENGELMANN, SIEGFRIED; GALLAGHER, JAMES J.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO EXPLORE THE PIAGET CONCEPT OF CONSERVATION WITH REGARD TO THE CHILD'S CONCEPT OF THE PROPERTY OF LIQUIDS. AN INVESTIGATOR-CONSTRUCTED CONSERVATION INVENTORY WAS GIVEN TO 45 KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE PUPILS SELECTED FROM THE PRAIRIE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, URBANA, ILLINOIS, TO PROVIDE AN INDEX OF THE CHILD'S…

  1. Liquid-Phase Deposition of CIS Thin Layers: Final Report, February 2003--July 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, F.; Pirouz, P.

    2006-02-01

    The goal of this project was to fabricate single-phase CIS (a-Cu-In-Se, stoichiometric composition: CuInSe2) thin films for photovoltaic applications from a liquid phase - a Cu-In-Se melt of appropriate composition. This approach of liquid-phase deposition (LPD) is based on the new phase diagram we have established for Cu-In-Se, the first complete equilibrium phase diagram of this system. The liquidus projection exhibits four composition fields in which the primary solid phase, i.e., the first solid material that forms on cooling down from an entirely liquid state, is a-CuInSe2. Remarkably, none of the four composition fields is anywhere near the stoichiometric composition (CuInSe2) of a-CuInSe2. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is indeed capable of producing films with a particularly large grain size and a correspondingly low density of grain boundaries. To obtain films sufficiently thin for solar cell applications and with a sufficiently smooth surface, it is advantageous to employ a sliding boat mechanism. Future work on liquid-phase deposition of CIS should focus on the interaction between the melt and the substrate surface, the resulting CIS interfaces, the surface morphology of the LPD-grown films, and, of course, the electronic properties of the material.

  2. Grazing incidence liquid metal mirrors (GILMM) as the final optics for laser inertial fusion energy power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W

    1999-06-25

    A thin film of liquid metal serves as a grazing incident liquid metal mirror (GILMM) for robust final optics of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The amount of laser light the mirror can withstand, called the damage limit, of a sodium film 85{degree} from normal arbitrarily set by surface temperature rise of 200 C to limit liquid ablation is 57 J/cm{sup 2} normal to the beam for a 20 ns pulse and 1.3 J/cm{sup 2} for a 10 ps pulse of 0.35 pm light. Liquid aluminum can handle 106 J/cm{sup 2}. The damage limit actually should be set by avoiding liquid ablation due to the rapid surface heating which is expected to result in even higher temperatures rises than 200 C and even higher power densities. The liquid surface is kept flat to the required accuracy by a combination of polished substrate, adaptive optics, surface tension and low Reynolds number, laminar flow in the film. The film's substrate must be polished to {+-}0.015 m. Then surface tension keeps the surface smooth over short distances (<10 mm) and low Reynolds number laminar flow keeps the surface smooth by keeping the film thickness constant to less than {+-} 0.01 pm over long distance >10 mm. Adaptive (deformable) optics techniques keep the substrate flat to within {+-}0.06 {micro}m over 100 mm distance and {+-}0.6 {micro}m over 1,000 mm distances. The mirror can withstand the x-ray pulse when located 30 m away from the microexplosions of nominal yield of 400 MJ (50 MJ x rays) when Li is used but for higher atomic number liquids like Na and Al there may be too high a temperature rise forcing use of other x-ray attenuation methods such as xenon gas, which may be needed for first wall protecting anyway. The cumulative damage from neutrons causing warpage of the liquid film's substrate can be compensated by adaptive optics techniques giving the mirrors long life, perhaps 30 years. The GILMM should be applicable to both direct and indirect drive and pulse lengths appropriate to slow compression

  3. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  4. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S; Carrera, Martin E; Colling, Craig W

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  5. Liquid-phase methanation/shift process development. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-12

    This final technical report covers the work performed between September 1, 1980 and November 30, 1981 relating to Chem Systems' Liquid Phase Methanation/Shift Process. A total of 44 runs were completed covering testing of five commercially available catalysts at 900/sup 0/F, 1000 psig and 10,000 h/sup -1/ VHSV. The shifted methanation feed gas consisted of 63% H/sub 2/, 19% CO, 2% CO/sub 2/ and 16% CH/sub 4/. To determine the effects of steam, twenty of the scans had 15% steam injected into the feed gas. Each test ran for 100, 300, 600 or 1200 hours with continuous effluent sampling and temperature profile monitoring. At each of the termination points, a catalyst sample was taken from the hot spot section of the bed for analysis. Carbon was deposited on the catalyst under the methanation conditions studied. The rate of carbon deposition was primarily a function of catalyst properties and not of the thermodynamics of the methanation reaction system. In spite of heavy carbon deposition, the catalytic behavior for these systems generally remains unaffected. Physical plugging of the catalyst bed is the limiting condition of the process and not catalyst deactivation. In this respect, a controlled oxidation of the carbon deposits is a viable method of extending catalyst life. The hydrodynamics and design of a cold-flow test unit for a three-phase, liquid-fluidized bed for Liquid Phase Methanation/Shift was evaluated. The cold-flow unit process design, equipment take-off lists, consruction cost and timing schedule are included. As a second potential application, the unit was designed for hydrodynamic studies of a liquid-entrained system for Liquid Phase Methanation/Shift.

  6. Hydrotreating of a Lurgi coal liquid. Phase one. Final report, June 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.B.; Conners, R.W.

    1980-07-01

    Coal liquids produced during the gasification of coal via the Lurgi Process were hydrotreated to determine whether sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen could be removed leaving a liquid product suitable for high grade use, e.g. refinery feed or chemicals. The experimental system was a semi-batch (continuous gas flow) stirred, slurry reactor. A commercial nickel-molybdenum catalyst was used which required presulfiding prior to hydrotreating. The reaction system was operated at 360 psig and at temperatures of 275, 300 and 325/sup 0/C. Product analysis was by gas chromatography. Qualitative determination of ammonia (primary denitrogenation product) and water (primary deoxygenation product) was made. Quantitative determination of hydrogen sulfide was performed. The lumped kinetics desulfurization reactions were pseudo first order with an apparent activation energy 14.500 Kcal/g mole.

  7. Solidification Technologies for Radioactive and Chemical Liquid Waste Treatment - Final CRADA Report

    SciTech Connect

    Castiglioni, Andrew J.; Gelis, Artem V.

    2016-01-01

    This project, organized under DOE/NNSA's Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program, joined Russian and DOE scientists in developing more effective solidification and storage technologies for liquid radioactive waste. Several patent applications were filed by the Russian scientists (Russia only) and in 2012, the technology developed was approved by Russia's Federal State Unitary Enterprise RADON for application throughout Russia in cleaning up and disposing of radioactive waste.

  8. Miniscale Liquid-Liquid Extraction Coupled with Full Evaporation Dynamic Headspace Extraction for the Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with 4000-to-14 000-fold Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Liew, Christina Shu Min; Li, Xiao; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-09-20

    A new sample preparation approach of combining a miniscale version of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), termed miniscale-LLE (msLLE), with automated full evaporation dynamic headspace extraction (FEDHS) was developed. Its applicability was demonstrated in the extraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) from aqueous samples. In the first step, msLLE was conducted with 1.75 mL of n-hexane, and all of the extract was vaporized through a Tenax TA sorbent tube via a nitrogen gas flow, in the FEDHS step. Due to the stronger π-π interaction between the Tenax TA polymer and PAHs, only the latter, and not n-hexane, was adsorbed by the sorbent. This selectivity by the Tenax TA polymer allowed an effective concentration of PAHs while eliminating n-hexane by the FEDHS process. After that, thermal desorption was applied to the PAHs to channel them into a gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) system for analysis. Experimental parameters affecting msLLE (solvent volume and mixing duration) and FEDHS (temperature and duration) were optimized. The obtained results achieved low limits of detection (1.85-3.63 ng/L) with good linearity (r(2) > 0.9989) and high enrichment factors ranging from 4200 to 14 100. The optimized settings were applied to the analysis of canal water sampled from an industrial area and tap water, and this methodology was compared to stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). This innovative combined extraction-concentration approach proved to be fast, effective, and efficient in determining low concentrations of PAHs in aqueous samples.

  9. Dissolution of biological samples in deep eutectic solvents: an approach for extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons followed by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Helalat-Nezhad, Zahra; Ghanemi, Kamal; Fallah-Mehrjardi, Mehdi

    2015-05-15

    A novel sample preparation method based on the complete dissolution of marine biological samples in choline chloride-oxalic acid (ChCl-Ox) deep eutectic solvent was developed for fast and efficient extraction of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using minimum volumes of cyclohexane. The extracted PAHs were purified and then measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL). The effect of key parameters on extraction recoveries and precision was investigated. At optimized conditions, the studied samples were dissolved under atmospheric pressure in ChCl-Ox (1:2) at 55°C for 30min, which is considerably lower than the temperature used in the classical and current methods. After dissolution, it took approximately 20min to quantitatively extract the PAHs from ChCl-Ox using 5mL cyclohexane. Depending on the analyte, the developed method was linear over the calibration range 1.0-250, 2.0-250, and 5.0-250ngg(-1), with r(2)>0.996. The detection limits of the method were between 0.50 and 3.08ngg(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precisions (based on the relative standard deviation, n=5) of the spiked PAHs at a concentration level of 50ngg(-1) were better than 12.6% and 13.3%, respectively. Individual PAH recoveries from spiked marine fish and macroalgae samples were in the range of 71.6% to 109.6%. For comparison, the spiked samples were also subjected to the Soxhlet extraction method. The simplicity of the procedure, high extraction efficiency, short analysis time, and use of safe and inexpensive components suggest the proposed method has a high potential for utilization in routine trace PAH analysis in biological samples.

  10. Beaufort Sea monitoring program: analysis of trace metals and hydrocarbons from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) activities. Final report, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, P.D.; Crecelius, E.; Steinhauer, W.; Steinhauer, M.; Tuckfield, C.

    1986-08-13

    An environmental-monitoring program, designed to detect and quantify long-term changes in sediment and tissue concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons potentially due to oil and gas exploration and development on the U.S. Beaufort Sea continental shelf, was initiated in 1984. In Year-1 of the three-year study, a series of benthic stations was established in the nearshore area between Barter Island and Cape Halkett. In Year-2 of the study, areal coverage of the Study Area was increased to 39 marine stations and 10 shoreline and river stations. Analysis of six replicate sediment samples for trace metals, and saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons revealed a wide range of concentrations. Both trace metal and hydrocarbon analyses of bivalve and crustacean tissues indicated concentrations differences between species but no apparent relationship between animal body burdens and sediment concentrations.

  11. Fate and transport of particle-reactive normal, alkylated and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a sediment-water-colloid system. University research initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Means, J.C.; McMillin, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    The overall study framework is designed to investigate the fate, transport and chemical transformations of normal, alkylated and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with spilled oil, operational discharges and produced water discharges in coastal marine and estuarine environmental systems. In the present research, the nature of the particle reactivity or sorption/desorption equilibria which control the fate, transport and chemical transformations of hydrocarbons has been investigated throgh studies of the sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics of selected normal, alkylated and heterocyclic PAH on various sediment types (a range of organic carbon and particle sizes) over a range of salinities and studies of the relationship between the carbon fraction of sediments and the equilibrium K(suboc) (Partition coefficient) for selected normal, alkylated and heterocyclic PAH. New trace analytical techniques for aromatic hydrocarbons were developed and applied.

  12. High throughput liquid and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assays for tobacco-specific nitrosamine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites associated with lung cancer in smokers.

    PubMed

    Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun; Olvera, Natalie; Brookmeyer, Claire; Yoder, Andrea; Hecht, Stephen S

    2013-08-19

    We developed and applied high throughput liquid and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS) methods for the cigarette smoking-associated biomarkers 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), which are urinary metabolites of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene. NNAL and PheT levels have been linked to lung cancer in previous studies of smokers. Confirmation of these relationships will require further molecular epidemiology studies, necessitating improved methodology applicable to large numbers of small urine samples. Furthermore, NNAL is excreted in urine either unconjugated or as an N- or O-glucuronide, but little data are available on the amounts of each in urine. For the high throughput analysis of NNAL, 3 aliquots were processed from each urine sample, one for the analysis of free NNAL, one for free NNAL plus NNAL-N-Gluc, and one for total NNAL (the sum of free NNAL, NNAL-N-Gluc, and NNAL-O-Gluc). Ninety-six well plate technology was used for sample enrichment by supported liquid extraction plates, mixed mode reverse-phase/cation exchange solid-phase extraction, and LC-MS/MS analysis. For the analysis of PheT, the urine samples were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction on styrene-divinylbenzene sorbent, silylated, and analyzed by GC-MS/MS, both in 96-well format. The methods were validated analytically with respect to accuracy and precision, and applied in an ongoing molecular epidemiology study of smokers. The amount of total NNAL in smokers' urine was (mean ± SD) 1.65 ± 2.13 pmol/mL (N = 2641). Free NNAL, NNAL-N-Gluc, and NNAL-O-Gluc represented (mean ± SD) 31 ± 11%, 22 ± 14%, and 48 ± 15% of total NNAL, respectively. The amount of PheT in smokers' urine was (mean ± SD) 1.43 ± 2.16 pmol/mL (N = 2613). The methodology described here

  13. FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    VAJO, JOHN

    2014-06-12

    DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ≥6 wt% and ≥50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the

  14. Wavelength tunable liquid crystal imaging filters for remote sensing from geosynchronous platforms. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, P.

    1992-10-01

    Recent advances in liquid crystal technology have enabled us to construct tunable birefringent filters with bandwidths between approximately 0.1 nm and 50 nm. The center wavelength of these filters can be selected electronically, in a few tens of milliseconds, with no moving parts. These liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF's), together with existing CCD detectors, make possible a new generation of lightweight, rugged, high-resolution imaging spectrophotometers. Such instruments would be particularly interesting for remote sensing applications from geosynchronous platforms. Important advantages exist in the aperture, absence of image shift, power consumption, size, weight, and absence of high drive frequencies, compared to current instruments used or considered for multispectral scene analysis. In the present work, we have reviewed spectral requirements of planned NASA geosynchronous remote sensing missions and identified several applications of the liquid crystal tunable filter technology. We have modeled the LCTF performance in the visible and near-infrared, and carried out a literature study on space-hardening of the filter components, to evaluate the suitability of LCTF's for geosynchronous missions. We have also compared the power consumption, weight, size, reliability, and optical performance of an imaging spectrophotometer using a LCTF monochromator, to other instruments that have been put forward for remote sensing from geosynchronous platforms. We put forward some conceptual designs for LCTF's that seem to offer important reliability, over the mechanical filter wheels presently baselined for the HEPI and ALM experiments. The extremely wide acceptance angle achievable with LCTF's could also avoid the present need for large-aperture interference filters in the ALM (and LIS) experiments. Thermal vacuum testing and radiation damage analysis is required to investigate the space hardening of these new filters for geosynchronous flight.

  15. Coal-liquid fuel/diesel engine operating compatibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.

    1983-09-01

    This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate fuel in blends of petroleum-derived fuels in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel fuel may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the fuel pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the fuel system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid fuels. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the fuel system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate fuel may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a fuel for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.

  16. Thermoelectric-Driven Liquid-Metal Plasma-Facing Structures (TELS) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzic, David

    2016-12-17

    The Thermoelectric-Driven Liquid-Metal Plasma-Facing Structures (TELS) project was able to establish the experimental conditions necessary for flowing liquid metal surfaces in order to be utilized as surfaces facing fusion relevant energetic plasma flux. The work has also addressed additional developments along with progressing along the timeline detailed in the proposal. A no-cost extension was requested to conduct other relevant experiment- specifically regarding the characterization droplet ejection during energetic plasma flux impact. A specially designed trench module, which could accommodate trenches with different aspect ratios was fabricated and installed in the TELS setup and plasma gun experiments were performed. Droplet ejection was characterized using high speed image acquisition and also surface mounted probes were used to characterize the plasma. The Gantt chart below had been provided with the original proposal, indicating the tasks to be performed in the third year of funding. These tasks are listed above in the progress report outline, and their progress status is detailed below.

  17. Method for determining asphaltene stability of a hydrocarbon-containing material

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-02-05

    A method for determining asphaltene stability in a hydrocarbon-containing material having solvated asphaltenes therein is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, it involves the steps of: (a) precipitating an amount of the asphaltenes from a liquid sample of the hydrocarbon-containing material with an alkane mobile phase solvent in a column; (b) dissolving a first amount and a second amount of the precipitated asphaltenes by changing the alkane mobile phase solvent to a final mobile phase solvent having a solubility parameter that is higher than the alkane mobile phase solvent; (c) monitoring the concentration of eluted fractions from the column; (d) creating a solubility profile of the dissolved asphaltenes in the hydrocarbon-containing material; and (e) determining one or more asphaltene stability parameters of the hydrocarbon-containing material.

  18. A measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic-like cross section on a hydrocarbon target and final state interaction effects

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Presented is the analysis of the μ charged-current quasielastic-like interaction with a polystyrene (CH or hydrocarbon) target in the MINER A experiment, which was exposed to a neutrino beam that peaked at 3.5 GeV.

  19. Molecular and biochemical determinants for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in the manufactured gas plant soils. Final report, September 1991-June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Menn, F.M.; Heitzer, A.; Sanseverino, J.; Applegate, B.M.; Ahn, Y.H.

    1992-06-01

    This research was conducted to further the development of new DNA gene probe(s) for quantifying polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) catabolic bacteria from MGP contaminated soils, and to investigate the use of bioluminescent reporter technology for measuring higher molecular weight PAH(s) degradation, and to examine the role of the naphthalene degradative pathway in degradation of other higher PAHs.

  20. Studies of momentum and energy transfer across wavy gas-liquid interfaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dukler, A.E.

    1993-06-01

    Two phase gas-liquid flow and its associated interfaces exist in a wide variety of situations of importance to the Navy and this has prompted the study of the basic flow mechanics which underlie this complex process. The existence of wind-wave interactions over large bodies of water have long been recognized as a special case of two phase flow where the presence of the deformable interface plays a complex role in the generation of waves due to the action of the wind. Less well recognized, but of great importance, are situations of two phase flow which are found in components of power systems such as condensers, boilers refrigeration loops and cryogen lines. Here the characteristics of two phase flow are critical to the reliable design and safe operation of such systems.

  1. Conserving energy in plastic greenhouses with liquid foam insulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, O.S.

    1980-10-02

    A 25' x 96' quonset-shaped greenhouse, covered with a double layer of polyethylene, was used as a structure for testing the effectiveness of liquid foam as an insulator against night-time heat loss. A foam solution comprised of 3% foam concentrate in water was pumped at 12 to 15 psi through a generator that created bubbles (foam) which filled the space between the two layers. Heat loss reduction varied from 20% to 40% depending upon weather conditions and foaming technique. Antifreeze agents were added to prevent the foam from freezing as it was injected between the layers. Ethylene glycol (at 12%) was the most effective in preventing freezing and also in stabilizing the integrity of the foam.

  2. Development of an extraction process for removal of heteroatoms from coal liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The main goal of this contract was to develop an extraction process for upgrading coal liquids; and in doing so, to reduce the hydrogen requirement in downstream upgrading processes and to yield valuable byproducts. This goal was to be achieved by developing a novel carbon dioxide extraction process for heteroatom removal from coal-derived naphtha, diesel, and jet fuel. The research plan called for the optimization of three critical process variables using a statistically-designed experimental matrix. The commercial potential of the new process was to be evaluated by demonstrating quantitatively the effectiveness of heteroatom removal from three different feedstocks and by conducting a comparative economic analysis of alternate heteroatom removal technologies. Accomplishments are described for the following tasks: food procurement and analysis process variable screening studies; and process assessment.

  3. Liquid Organic Battery Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-540

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2016-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEV) have the potential to significantly reduce consumption of gasoline and emission of greenhouse gases. However, the commercial success of mass-market, long-range BEVs requires battery technology with a challenging combination of technical metrics -- specific energy, safety, fast recharge capability, cycle life, and cost. The NREL team proposes a robust, liquid-phase battery design utilizing a high-energy organic redox couple capable of decoupling these metrics via electrode exchange to provide the necessary combination of performance characteristics. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a functioning prototype and determine its ability to meet RANGE performance targets in large-scale production. Three main tasks described below will work towards this goal with the individual objectives of (1) identifying a robust, high-performance redox couple-solvent-additive combination, (2) designing and demonstrating a functional cell, and (3) analyzing the concept's potential performance and cost in future mass-production scenarios.

  4. Magnetic liquid metal two-phase flow research. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.D.

    1983-04-01

    The Phase I research demonstrates the feasibility of the magnetic liquid metal (MLM) two-phase flow concept. A dispersion analysis is presented based on a complete set of two-phase-flow equations augmented to include stresses due to magnetic polarization of the fluid. The analysis shows that the stability of the MLM two-phase flow is determined by the magnetic Mach number, the slip ratio, geometry of the flow relative to the applied magnetic field, and by the voidage dependence of the interfacial forces. Results of a set of experiments concerned with magnetic effects on the dynamics of single bubble motion in an aqueous-based, viscous, conducting magnetic fluid are presented. Predictions in the theoretical literature are qualitatively verified using a bench-top experimental apparatus. In particular, applied magnetic fields are seen to lead to reduced bubble size at fixed generating orifice pressure.

  5. Microalgae as a source of liquid fuels. Final technical report. [200 references

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Goebel, R.P.; Weissman, J.C.; Augenstein, D.C.

    1982-05-15

    The economics of liquid-fuels production from microalgae was evaluated. A detailed review of published economic analyses of microalgae biomass production revealed wide variations in the published costs, which ranged from several dollars per pound for existing commercial health-food production in the Far East, to less than .05/lb costs projected for microalgae biomass for fuel conversion. As little design information or specific cost data has been published, a credible cost estimate required the conceptual engineering design and cost estimating of microalgae to liquid-fuels processes. Two systems were analyzed, shallow (2 to 3'') covered ponds and deeper (1 ft) open ponds. Only the latter was selected for an in-depth analysis due to the many technical shortcomings of the former approach. Based on the cost analysis of a very simple and low cost process, the most optimistic costs extrapolated were about $60/barrel. These were based on many optimistic assumptions. Additional, more detailed, engieering and cost analyses would be useful. However, the major emphasis in future work in this area should be on demonstrating the basic premises on which this design was based: high productivity and oil content of microalgae strains that can dominate in open ponds and which can be harvested by a simple bioflocculation process. Several specific basic research needs were identified: (1) Fundamentals of species selection and control in open pond systems. Effects of environmental variables on species dominance is of particular interest. (2) Mechanisms of algae bioflocculation. (3) Photosynthetic pathways and efficiency under conditions of high lipid production. (4) Effects of non-steady state operating conditions, particularly pH (CO/sub 2/ availability), on productivity. 18 figures, 47 tables.

  6. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  7. Grazing incidence liquid metal mirrors (GILMM) for radiation hardened final optics for laser inertial fusion energy power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W

    1999-06-30

    A thin film of liquid metal is suggested as a grazing incident liquid metal mirror (GILMM) for robust final optics of a laser inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The amount of laser light the mirror can withstand, called the damage limit, of a sodium film 85{sup o} from normal is calculated to be 57 J/cm{sup 2} normal to the beam for a 20 ns pulse and 1.3 J/cm{sup 2} for a 10 ps pulse of 0.35 {micro}m light (2 m{sup 2} and 90 m{sup 2} of mirror area per 100 kJ of laser energy at 20 ns and 10 ps, respectively). Feasibility relies on keep the liquid surface flat to the required accuracy by a combination of polished substrate, adaptive (deformable) optics, surface tension and low Reynolds number, laminar flow in the film. The film's substrate must be polished to {+-} 0.015 pm. Then surface tension keeps the surface smooth over short distances (<10 mm) and low Reynolds number laminar flow keeps the surface smooth by keeping the film thickness constant to less than + 0.01 w over long distance >10 mm. Adaptive optics techniques keep. the substrate flat to within {+-} 0.06 pm over 100 mm distance and {+-}0.6 {micro}m over 1000 mm distances. The mirror can stand the x-ray pulse when located 30 m away from the microexplosions of nominal yield of 400 MJ (50 MJ of X rays) when Li is used but for higher atomic number liquids like Na there may be too high a temperature rise forcing use of other x-ray attenuation methods such as attenuation by xenon gas. The cumulative damage from neutrons causing warpage of the liquid film's substrate can be compensated by adaptive optics techniques giving the mirrors long life, perhaps 30 years. The GILMM should be applicable to both direct and indirect drive and pulse lengths appropriate to slow compression ({approx}20 ns) or fast ignition ({approx}10 ps). For direct drive laser beams near the poles (70{sup o}, where 90{sup o} is vertical), stable thin films become more challenging. Proof of concept experiments are needed to verify the

  8. Final environmental assessment for the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The proposed project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas using the LPMEOH{trademark} process. The methanol produced during this demonstration will be used as a chemical feedstock (on-site) and/or as an alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications (off-site). In addition, the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed co-product with methanol may be demonstrated for a six month period under the proposed project pending the results of laboratory/pilot-scale research on scale-up. The DME would be used as fuel in on-site boilers. The proposed LPMEOH facility would occupy approximately 0.6 acres of the 3,890-acre Eastman Chemical facility in Kingsport, TN. The effects of the proposed project include changes in air emissions, wastewater discharge, cooling water discharge, liquid waste quantities, transportation activities, socioeconomic effects, and quantity of solids for disposal. No substantive negative impacts or environmental concerns were identified.

  9. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  10. Novel macrocyclic carriers for proton-coupled liquid membrane transport. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.D.; Izatt, R.M.; Bradshaw, J.S.; Shirts, R.B.

    1996-08-24

    The objective of this research program is to elucidate the chemical principles which are responsible for the cation selectivity and permeability of liquid membranes containing macrocyclic carriers. Several new macrocyclic carriers were synthesized during the last three year period. In addition, new, more convenient synthetic routes were achieved for several nitrogen-containing bicyclic and tricyclic macrocycles. The cation binding properties of these macrocycles were investigated by potentiometric titration, calorimetric titration, solvent extraction and NMR techniques. In addition, hydrophobic macrocycles were incorporated into dual hollow fiber and other membrane systems to investigate their membrane performance, especially in the proton-coupled transport mode. A study of the effect of methoxyalkyl macrocycle substituents on metal ion transport was completed. A new calorimeter was constructed which made it possible to study the thermodynamics of macrocycle-cation binding to very high temperatures. Measurements of thermodynamic data for the interaction of crown ethers with alkali and alkaline earth cations were achieved to 473 K. Molecular modeling work was begun for the first time on this project and fundamental principles were identified and developed for the establishment of working models in the future.

  11. Separations of substituted benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using normal- and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with UiO-66 as the stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Chao-Yan; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Xiayan; Huang, Hongliang; Zhou, You-Ya; Xie, Yabo; Li, Fa-Sheng; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-11-28

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have great potential for applications in chromatography due to their highly tailorable porous structures and unique properties. In this work, the stable MOF UiO-66 was evaluated as both a normal-phase (NP-) and a reverse-phase (RP-) stationary phase in the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate substituted benzenes (SBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It was found that the mobile phase composition has a significant effect on the HPLC separation. Baseline RP-HPLC separations of xylene isomers; naphthalene and anthracene; naphthalene and chrysene; and naphthalene, fluorene, and chrysene were achieved using MeOH/H2O ratios of 80:20, 75:25, 85:15, and 75:25, respectively, on the UiO-66 column. Similarly, baseline NP-HPLC separations of xylene isomers and ethylbenzene; ethylbenzene, styrene, o-xylene, and m-xylene; and several PAHs were also obtained on the UiO-66 column with different mobile phase compositions. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of retention time, peak height, peak area, and half peak width for five replicate separations of the tested analytes were within the ranges 0.2-0.4%, 0.2-1.6%, 0.7-3.9%, 0.4-1.1%, respectively. We also evaluated other critical HPLC parameters, including injected sample mass, column temperature, and the thermodynamic characters of both the RP-HPLC and the NP-HPLC separation processes. It was confirmed that the separation of SBs on a UiO-66 column was an exothermic process, controlled by both enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS). The reverse shape selectivity, size selectivity, stacking effect, and electrostatic force played vital roles in the separations of these analytes. To the best of our knowledge, this method is one of the very few examples of using MOFs as the stationary phase in both NP-HPLC and RP-HPLC. MOF-based stationary phases may thus be applied in the separations and analyses of SBs and PAHs in environmental samples.

  12. Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure laser ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APLI-MS) analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 6-8 rings in the environment.

    PubMed

    Thiäner, Jan B; Achten, Christine

    2017-03-01

    A method has been developed for the sensitive and rapid analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental samples using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry as well as the selective atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) process (LC-APLI-MS). Upon analyzing 34 PAHs, the limits of detection of this method were found to range from 0.008 to 1.824 pg (0.024 pg for benzo[a]pyrene). The method therefore provides 30-fold to 5,400-fold increased sensitivity compared with the established GC-MS technique. This LC-APLI-MS method was optimized for higher molecular weight PAHs (C24-C30 PAHs with 6-8 rings), which are difficult to detect or cannot be detected by GC-MS. Using the LC-APLI-MS method, various 6- to 8-ring PAHs were detected in environmental samples for the first time. After developing the method, it was successfully validated in ruggedness tests. The concentrations determined by the LC-APLI-MS method were in good accord with the certified concentrations in three certified reference materials (contaminated soils and sediments). Upon applying the method to environmental samples, it was found that (1) the presence of dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene in urban soil samples could only be detected using LC-APLI-MS (i.e., not GC-MS) due to its high sensitivity, (2) a bituminous coal sample yielded 211 tentative peaks from aromatic compounds in the C24-C30 range, and (3) eleven of those compounds occurred in different environmental samples in similar patterns. Hence, 6- to 8-ring PAHs occur in solid environmental samples in which other 6-ring PAHs such as indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene or benzo[ghi]perylene may also be present. Some of these numerous higher molecular weight PAH compounds could have very high carcinogenic potential, which will need to be elucidated to ensure the reliability of PAH risk assessments.

  13. Degradation of mix hydrocarbons by immobilized cells of mix culture using a trickle fluidized bed reactor. Final report: June 1992--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chapatwala, K.D.

    1994-12-01

    The microorganisms capable of degrading mix hydrocarbons were isolated from the soil samples collected from the hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The mix cultures were identified as Pseudomonas acidovorans, Flavobacterium indoltheticum and Phyllobacterium rubiaceum. The bacterial cells of mix cultures were immobilized in calcium-alginate solution in the form of beads. A trickle fluidized bed air-uplift-type reactor designed to study the degradation of mix hydrocarbons was filled with 0.85% normal saline containing the immobilized cells of mix culture. The immobilized beads were aerated with different amounts of CO{sub 2}-free air. The normal saline saturated with BTXs was circulated in the bioreactors at the rate of 2--4 ml/min. The biodegradation of BTXs by the immobilized beads of mix culture was monitored by determining the concentrations of the BTXs and the metabolites formed during their degradation in the samples at regular intervals using GC. The peaks obtained through the degradation of BTXs were not identified and quantified in this study.

  14. Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

    1995-03-31

    Research described in this report was aimed at synthesizing and evaluating supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen from model and authentic coal-derived liquids. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported oxynitrides and oxycarbides were synthesized via the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides or hydrogen bronzes with NH{sub 3} or an equimolar mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Phase constituents and composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, CHN analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface structure of the catalysts. The reaction rate data was collected using specially designed micro-batch reactors. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides were competitively active for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In fact, the HDN and HDO specific reaction rates for several of the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were higher than those of a commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrotreatment catalyst. Furthermore, the product distributions indicated that the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalysts. For HDN and HDS the catalytic activity was a strong inverse function of the Mo loading. In contrast, the benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities did not appear to be affected by the Mo loading but were affected by the heating rate employed during nitridation or carburization. This observation suggested that HDN and HDS occurred on the same active sites while HDO was catalyzed by a different type of site.

  15. Evaluation of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal-derived liquid as utility diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heater, W.R.; Froh, T.W.; Ariga, S.; Baker, Q.A.; Piispanen, W.; Webb, P.; Trayser, D.; Keane, W.J.

    1983-10-01

    The program consisted of three phases: (I) characterization of the physical and chemical properties of EDS, (II) evaluation of EDS in a laboratory medium-speed diesel engine, and (III) evaluation of EDS in a low-speed diesel engine operating at a utility. The characteristics of high aromatic content and low cetane number that were found during Phase I made it unlikely that EDS could be used as a direct substitute for diesel fuel without engine modification to provide ignition assistance. Phase II was conducted on a 12-cylinder General Electric Company 7FDL diesel engine. Blends of up to 30% EDS and 70% 0.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing engine fuel oil system and injecting DF-2 through an auxiliary nozzle as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 5 to 10% pilot oil heat input. Phase III was conducted on a 16-cylinder Cooper-Bessemer LSV-16-GDT diesel engine at an EUC plant in Easton, Maryland. Blends of up to 66.7% EDS and 33.3% DF-2 were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing fuel oil system and using a natural-gas-fueled precombustion chamber as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 3 to 6% pilot gas heat input. The program confirmed that it is feasible to consume significant proportions of EDS in a diesel engine, but more development is needed before EDS can be considered a viable alternative liquid fuel for diesel engines, and an industrial hygiene program is needed to assure safe handling of the fuel.

  16. Part A: Hydrocarbon Suspension in Slush Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindt, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of preparing suspensions of a hydrocarbon in slush hydrogen for nuclear fuel element corrosion inhibition in rocket engines were investigated. Suspensions were prepared using approximately 5000 ppm by mass of methane, ethane, or cyclopropane in slush hydrogen. The suspensions were stable in the slush, but the hydrocarbons settled out of the liquid melt.

  17. Utilization of an ionic liquid in situ preconcentration method for the determination of the 15 + 1 European Union polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water and fruit-tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Germán-Hernández, Mónica; Crespo-Llabrés, Pilar; Pino, Verónica; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2013-08-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) in situ preconcentration method was optimized and applied to the monitoring of the 15 + 1 European Union polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and fruit-tea infusions. The optimized method utilizes 10 mL of water (or infusion) containing 38 μL of the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and a content of 36.1 g/L NaCl, which are mixed with Li-NTf2 (340 μL, 0.2 g/mL), followed by vortex (4 min) and centrifugation (5 min). The obtained microdroplet containing hydrocarbons is diluted with acetonitrile and injected into an HPLC with UV/Vis and fluorescence detection. The method presented average enrichment factors of 127 for water (tap water and bottled water) and 27 for two fruit-tea infusions; with average relative recoveries of 86.7 and 106% for water and fruit-tea infusions, respectively. The method was sensitive, with detection limits ranging from 0.001 to 0.050 ng/mL in water, and from 0.010 to 0.600 ng/mL in fruit-tea infusions, for the fluorescent hydrocarbons. Real extraction efficiencies ranged from 12.7 to 58.7% for water, and from 20.2 to 117% for the infusions. The method was also fast (~12 min) and free of organic solvents in the extraction step.

  18. Final report on regional supplementary comparison SIM.M.FF-S5: Volume of liquids at 50 mL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Abed; Malta, Dalni; Kornblit, Fernando; Ramírez, Ruben R.; Arias, Roberto; Trujillo, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    A regional supplementary comparison for the volume of liquid at 50 mL was conducted during October 2009 to June 2010 between the SIM members CENAM, INTI, INMETRO, INDECOPI and INTN. The transfer standard consisted of two 50 mL glass pycnometers, of the Gay Lussac type. CENAM acted as the pilot, collected the measurement results, analyzed the data and produced the comparison report. The median of all participants' results was used to calculate the regional comparison reference value because the result for one of the two pycnometers in one laboratory failed the chi-squared test at the 0.05 probability level. The measurements reported by the participants show an excellent overlap in four out of the five NMIs (-34×10-6 < Di < 29×10-6). The degree of equivalence obtained herein will be taken into account for the preparation of calibration and measurement capabilities claims from the participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Optimization of the OPLS-AA Force Field for Long Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Siu, Shirley W I; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2012-04-10

    The all-atom optimized potentials for liquid simulations (OPLS-AA) force field is a popular force field for simulating biomolecules. However, the current OPLS parameters for hydrocarbons developed using short alkanes cannot reproduce the liquid properties of long alkanes in molecular dynamics simulations. Therefore, the extension of OPLS-AA to (phospho)lipid molecules required for the study of biological membranes was hampered in the past. Here, we optimized the OPLS-AA force field for both short and long hydrocarbons. Following the framework of the OPLS-AA parametrization, we refined the torsional parameters for hydrocarbons by fitting to the gas-phase ab initio energy profiles calculated at the accurate MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ theory level. Additionally, the depth of the Lennard-Jones potential for methylene hydrogen atoms was adjusted to reproduce the densities and the heats of vaporization of alkanes and alkenes of different lengths. Optimization of partial charges finally allowed to reproduce the gel-to-liquid-phase transition temperature for pentadecane and solvation free energies. It is shown that the optimized parameter set (L-OPLS) yields improved hydrocarbon diffusion coefficients, viscosities, and gauche-trans ratios. Moreover, its applicability for lipid bilayer simulations is shown for a GMO bilayer in its liquid-crystalline phase.

  20. Production of liquid fuels and chemicals by microalgae. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, J.C.; Goebel, R.P.

    1985-03-01

    An overall objective of the project was to conceptually determine if simple open pond systems have application for the production of fuels from microalgae. To demonstrate the overall objective, work concentrated on showing the potential microalgal yields that are possible from an open pond system on a sustained basis. Furthermore, problems associated with this experimental system were documented and reported so that future endeavors shall benefit. Finally, operational costs were documented to permit preliminary economic analysis of the system. The major conclusions of this project can be summarized as follows: (1) Using two wildtype species in northern California a yearly average productivity of 15 gm/m/sup 2//day, or 24 tons/acre/yr can be obtained in water with TDS = 4 to 8 ppt. (2) This can probably be increased to 20 to 25 gm/m/sup 2//day or 32 to 40 tons/acre/y in southern California. (3) Productivity can probably be further increased by using competitive strains screened for low respiration rates, tolerances to high levels of dissolved oxygen, broad temperature optima, and resistance to photoinhibition. (4) In systems with randomized, turbulent mixing, productivity is independent of channel velocity at least for productivities up to 25 to 30 gm/m/sup 2//day and velocities from 1 to 30 cm/sec. (5) Storage product induction requires one to three days of growth in batch mode under n-depleted conditions. (6) Critical cost centers include CO/sub 2/ input, harvesting and system capital cost. (7) Media recycling, necessary for water conservation, has no adverse effects, at least in the short term for strains which do not excrete organics, and when the harvesting method is at least moderately effective for all algal forms which may be present. 8 refs., 28 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. Final report-passive safety optimization in liquid sodium-cooled reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalana, J. E.; Hahn, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    2007-08-13

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to identify and quantify the performance of innovative design features in metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor designs. The objective of the work was to establish the reliability and safety margin enhancements provided by design innovations offering significant potential for construction, maintenance, and operating cost reductions. The project goal was accomplished with a combination of advanced model development (Task 1), analysis of innovative design and safety features (Tasks 2 and 3), and planning of key safety experiments (Task 4). Task 1--Computational Methods for Analysis of Passive Safety Design Features: An advanced three-dimensional subassembly thermal-hydraulic model was developed jointly and implemented in ANL and KAERI computer codes. The objective of the model development effort was to provide a high-accuracy capability to predict fuel, cladding, coolant, and structural temperatures in reactor fuel subassemblies, and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with lower fidelity models previously used for safety and design analysis. The project included model formulation, implementation, and verification by application to available reactor tests performed at EBR-II. Task 2--Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Innovative Design Features: Integrated safety assessments of innovative liquid metal reactor designs were performed to quantify the performance of inherent safety features. The objective of the analysis effort was to identify the potential safety margin enhancements possible in a sodium-cooled, metal-fueled reactor design by use of passive safety mechanisms to mitigate low-probability accident consequences. The project included baseline analyses using state-of-the-art computational models and advanced analyses using the new model developed in Task 1. Task 3--Safety

  2. Mercury-free PVT apparatus for thermophysical property analyses of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report, August 16, 1990--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lansangan, R.M.; Lievois, J.S.

    1992-08-31

    Typical reservoir fluid analyses of complex, multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures include the volumetric properties, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansivity, equilibrium ratios, saturation pressure, viscosities, etc. These parameters are collectively referred to as PVT properties, an acronym for the primary state variables; pressure, volume, and temperature. The reservoir engineer incorporates this information together with the porous media description in performing material balance calculations. These calculations lead to the determination (estimation) of the initial hydrocarbon in-place, the future reservoir performance, the optimal production scheme, and the ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. About four years ago, Ruska Instrument Corporation embarked on a project to develop an apparatus designed to measure PVT properties that operates free of mercury. The result of this endeavor is the 2370 Hg-Free PVT system which has been in the market for the last three years. The 2370 has evolved from the prototype unit to its present configuration which is described briefly in this report. The 2370 system, although developed as a system-engineered apparatus based on existing technology, has not been exempt from this burden-of-proof Namely, the performance of the apparatus under routine test conditions with real reservoir fluids. This report summarizes the results of the performance and applications testing of the 2370 Hg-Free PVT system. Density measurements were conducted on a pure fluid. The results were compared against literature values and the prediction of an equation of state. Routine reservoir fluid analyses were conducted with a black oil and a retrograde condensate gas mixtures. Limited comparison of the results were performed based on the same tests performed on a conventional mercury-based PVT apparatus. The results of these tests are included in this report.

  3. Antifoulant additive for light end hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G.B.

    1990-06-05

    This patent describes a method of treating a highly paraffinic hydrocarbon liquid containing not more than 5 wt% aromatics and from 10 to 10,000 ppm high molecular weight asphaltenes to prevent asphaltene fouling of equipment at temperatures below 400{degrees} F. It comprises: adding to the hydrocarbon liquid not less than 10 ppm and not more than 200 ppm of an oil soluble overbased magnesium alkyl aromatic sulfonate to inhibit asphaltene fouling.

  4. Method for recovering hydrocarbons from molten metal halides

    DOEpatents

    Pell, Melvyn B.

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy carbonaceous materials by contacting such carbonaceous materials with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst to produce hydrocarbons having lower molecular weights and thereafter recovering the hydrocarbons so produced from the molten metal halide, an improvement comprising injecting into the spent molten metal halide, a liquid low-boiling hydrocarbon stream is disclosed.

  5. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization for treatment of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sludge from Fort Polk Army Installation, Louisiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Channell, M.G.; Preston, K.T.

    1996-09-01

    In the course of normal operations and training, soldiers and civilian personnel operate many Army vehicles on a day-today basis. These vehicles must be cleaned before they can be returned to the motor pool area of an Army base. The cleaning of these vehicles bas posed a problem with the operation and maintenance of oil/water separators located at vehicle washrack facilities. An oily sludge forms in the oil/water separator and is hard to handle and cannot be disposed of in an ordinary manner. This study used solidification/stabilization to treat the oily sludge found in the vehicle washrack oil/water separators. Solidification/stabilization is usually used to treat soils and sludges that contain heavy metals. Organic compounds, such as petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sludge, interfere with the setting of the solidification binding materials and thus produce a material that is not desirable for a treatment alternative. This study incorporates the use of dicalcium silicate as an additive to the solidification process to increase the strength and reduce the leachability of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sludge. This study shows that dicalcium silicate improves the handling characteristics of the sludge and reduces the leachability of the contaminants from the washrack sludge.

  6. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  7. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-09-14

    The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites.

  8. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  9. Pathways for Biomass-Derived Lignin to Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Laskar, Dhrubojyoti; Yang, Bin; Wang, Huamin; Lee, Guo-Shuh J.

    2013-09-01

    Production of hydrocarbon fuel from biomass-derived lignin sources with current version of biorefinery infrastructure would significantly improve the total carbon use in biomass and make biomass conversion more economically viable. Thus, developing specialty and commodity products from biomass derived-lignin has been an important industrial and scientific endeavor for several decades. However, deconstruction of lignin’s complex polymeric framework into low molecular weight reactive moieties amenable for deoxygenation and subsequent processing into hydrocarbons has been proven challenging. This review offers a comprehensive outlook on the existing body of work that has been devoted to catalytic processing of lignin derivatives into hydrocarbon fuels, focusing on: (1) The intrinsic complexity and characteristic structural features of biomass-derived lignin; (2) Existing processing technologies for the isolation and depolymerization of bulk lignin (including detailed mechanistic considerations); (3) Approaches aimed at significantly improving the yields of depolymerized lignin species amenable to catalytic upgrading, and; (4) Catalytic upgrading, using aqueous phase processes for transforming depolymerized lignin to hydrocarbon derivatives. Technical barriers and challenges to the valorization of lignin are highlighted throughout. The central goal of this review is to present an array of strategies that have been reported to obtain lignin, deconstruct it to reactive intermediates, and reduce its substantial oxygen content to yield hydrocarbon liquids. In this regard, reaction networks with reference to studies of lignin model compounds are exclusively surveyed. Special attention is paid to catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, hydrogenolyis and hydrogenation. Finally, this review addresses important features of lignin that are vital to economic success of hydrocarbon production.

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbon-induced injury to subtidal marine sediment resources. Subtidal study number 1a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    To determine the distribution of oil in subtidal sediments after the Exxon Valdez oil spill we sampled sediments at six depths (0, 3, 6, 20, 40 and 100 m) at 53 locations in Prince William Sound and the northern Gulf of Alaska from 1989 to 1991. Results are based on 1278 sediment samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In 1989, the oil concentration was greatest in the Sound at 0 m. Outside the Sound, Exxon Valdez oil occurred at Chugach Bay, Hallo Bay, Katmai Bay, and Windy Bay in 1989. Hydrocarbons often matched Exxon Valdez oil less closely, oil was more patchily distributed, and the oil concentration decreased in sediments after 1989.

  11. Molecular bioanalytical methods for monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in manufactured-gas-plant soils. Volume 2. Final report, September 1987-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.M.H.; Sanseverino, J.; DiGrazia, P.M.; Applegate, B.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1991-08-01

    The objectives of work described in the report were to provide fundamental information on the microbiology and biochemistry of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation, and to continue development and initiate applications for molecular techniques in providing needed information for biodegradation process monitoring and control. A significant portion of the effort was in support of research studies on dynamic systems analysis for PAH (presented in Volume I, GRI-91-0193). Specific work included: (1) Analyzing and developing a PAH degradative mixed bacterial culture for standardized bioreactor operation; (2) Developing a bacterial culture collection of organisms involved in PAH degradation; (3) Applying molecular techniques, principally DNA gene probe technology, for environmental diagnostic assessment of PAH bioremediation potential and biodegradation processes performance evaluation; (4) Development and application of reporter strain bioluminescent technology to improve capabilities of analysis for enzyme expression and/or bioavailability.

  12. Final design, fluid dynamic and structural mechanical analysis of a liquid hydrogen Moderator for the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessler, Y.; Henkes, C.; Hanusch, F.; Schumacher, P.; Natour, G.; Butzek, M.; Klaus, M.; Lyngh, D.; Kickulies, M.

    2017-02-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is currently in the construction phase and should have first beam on Target in 2019. ESS, located in Sweden, will be the most powerful spallation neutron source worldwide, with the goal to produce neutrons for research. As an in-kind partner the Forschungszentrum Juelich will among others, design and manufacture the four liquid hydrogen Moderators, which are located above and below the Target. Those vessels are confining the cold hydrogen used to reduce the energy level of the fast neutrons, produced by spallation in the Target, in order to make the neutrons usable for neutron scattering instruments. Due to the requirements [1], a fluid dynamic analysis with pressure and temperature depended hydrogen data, taking into account the pseudo critical phenomena and the pulsed neutronic heating (pressure waves) is necessary. With the fluid dynamic results, a structure mechanical analysis including radiation damage investigation (RCC-MRx code [5]), low temperature properties as well as strength reduction by welding can be realized. Finally, the manufacturing and welding completes the design process.

  13. Three-phase solid-liquid-vapor equilibria in the binary hydrocarbon systems methane-n-hexane and methane-benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Luks, K.; Hottovy, J.D.; Kohn, J.P.

    1981-10-01

    Pressure, temperature, liquid-phase compositions, and liquid-phase molar volumes are presented along the solid-liquid-vapor (SLV) loci of the binary systems methane-n-hexane and methane-benzene. The data were taken by using cryoscopic techniques and are compared to the solid-liquid (SL) data at elevated pressures of Kuebler and McKinley. The standard deviations of the smoothed SLV data for liquid-phase solute composition presented herein from the raw SLV data are 3.7% for the methane-n-hexane system and 8.6% for the low-temperature branch of the methane-benzene system. The corresponding standard deviation for the high-temperature (high solute composition) branch for the system methane-benzene is less than 0.7%. 8 refs.

  14. Rapid quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction with novel phospholipid cleanup: A streamlined ultra high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection approach for screening polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in avian blood cells and plasma.

    PubMed

    Provatas, Anthony A; Yevdokimov, Alexander V; King, Cory A; Gatley, Emma L; Stuart, James D; Evers, David C; Perkins, Christopher R

    2015-08-01

    A streamlined method has been developed for the isolation and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in avian blood cells and plasma utilizing quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction in combination with novel phospholipid cleanup technology. A variety of traditional extraction and cleanup techniques have been employed in the preparation and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsin a variety of matrices; liquid-liquid partitioning, solid-phase extractions, gel permeation chromatography, and column chromatography are all effective techniques, however they are laborious and time consuming processes that require large amounts of solvent. Using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction coupled with phospholipid cleanup, samples can be quickly screened while maintaining high throughput and sensitivity. With a liquid chromatography approach, analysis times may be kept short at 16 min while maintaining high analyte recovery. Recoveries in quality control samples ranged from 70 to 109%, with average surrogate recoveries of 80.6 ± 1.10%. The result of using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction approach in conjunction with phospholipid cleanup is a methodology that significantly reduces sample preparation time and solvent use while maintaining high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  15. Evaluation of sampling and analytical methods for nicotine and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon in indoor air. Final report, 1 February 1987-30 March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Kuhlman, M.R.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1987-11-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate a potential collection medium, XAD-4 resin, for collecting nicotine and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and to determine whether one collection system and one analytical method will allow quantification of both compound classes in air. The extraction efficiency study was to determine the extraction method to quantitatively remove nicotine and PAH from XAD-4 resin. The results showed that a two-step Soxhlet extraction consisting of dichloromethane followed by ethyl acetate resulted in the best recoveries for both nicotine and PAH. In the sampling efficiency study, XAD-2 and XAD-4 resin were compared, in parallel, for collection of PAH and nicotine. Quartz fiber filters were placed upstream of both adsorbents to collect particles. Prior to sampling, both XAD-2 and XAD-4 traps were spiked with known amounts (2 microgram) of perdeuterated PAH and D3-nicotine. The experiments were performed with cigarette smoking and nonsmoking conditions. The spiked PAH were retained well in both adsorbents after exposure to more than 300 cu. m. of indoor air. The spiked XAD-4 resin gave higher recoveries for D3-nicotine than did the spiked XAD-2 resin. The collection efficiency for PAH for both adsorbents is very similar but higher levels of nicotine were collected on XAD-4 resin.

  16. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.

  17. Gold-functionalized stainless-steel wire and tube for fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yanan; Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Zhou, Changli; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-03-01

    A fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction device based on a gold-functionalized stainless-steel wire and tube was developed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In combination with high-performance liquid chromatography, it was evaluated using six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as model analytes. Important parameters including sampling rate, sample volume, organic solvent content and desorption time were investigated. Under optimized conditions, an online analysis method was established. The linearity was in the range of 0.15-50 μg/L with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9989 to 0.9999, and limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/L. The method was applied to determine model analytes in mosquito-repellent incense ash and river water samples, with recoveries in the range of 85-120%.

  18. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry for high-sensitivity and high-throughput analysis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 16 priority pollutants polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sheng-Suan; Syage, Jack A; Hanold, Karl A; Balogh, Michael P

    2009-03-15

    In this work, we demonstrate the utility of ultra performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for high-sensitivity and high-throughput analysis of United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 16 priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Analyses were performed on a Waters Acquity-TQD equipped with Syagen's PhotoMate APPI source. All 16 PAHs were analyzed on column in approximately 3.5 min with excellent chromatographic separation for all PAH isomers and with low picogram detection limits on column for all analytes using chlorobenzene as a dopant. Dynamic linear ranges were evaluated and found to cover at least 3-4 orders of magnitude. In comparison with the existing U.S. EPA methods, this approach improves instrument sample throughput by at least 10-fold.

  19. Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification and the Texaco Partial Oxidation Process to gasify Lurgi by-product liquids. Final topical report, April 1985-November 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.T.; Smelser, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    A design and cost estimate was prepared for a 250 billion Btu/day lignite-to-SNG plant that uses Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify lignite and the Texaco Partial Oxidation (POX) process to gasify the various hydrocarbon liquids produced by the Lurgi process. Also presented are plant performance and economic comparisons between this plant design and a Base Case design prepared previously in which the Lurgi by-product liquids are burned in boilers and superheaters for steam production. The cost-of-gas for the Study Case is approximately 1.5% higher than the cost-of-gas for the Base Case. It is slightly more economical to burn Lurgi liquids than to gasify them in an auxiliary unit, primarily because if liquids are gasified, additional coal-fired boilers are required for generation of process steam and these are substantially more expensive than boilers fired with liquid fuel.

  20. Hydrocarbon exposure, pancreatitis, and bile acids.

    PubMed Central

    Hotz, P; Pilliod, J; Bourgeois, R; Boillat, M A

    1990-01-01

    The data on hydrocarbon induced pancreatitis are conflicting. This question was therefore studied in a non-selected population exposed to hydrocarbons and in "formerly" exposed workers. Neither the past clinical history nor the pancreatic tests provided any evidence for a causal relation between exposure and pancreatitis. No signs of hydrocarbon induced liver damage were seen either. As a healthy worker effect cannot be totally excluded, however, a case-control study in a group of patients suffering from non-alcohol induced pancreatitis could give useful indications for finally excluding the possibility of pancreatitis being induced by hydrocarbons. PMID:2271391

  1. Sorptive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic framework coated stir bars coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cong; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2014-08-22

    In this work, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, Al-MIL-53-NH₂) were synthesized via the hydrothermal method, and novel polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic framework (PDMS/MOFs, PDMS/Al-MIL-53-NH₂)-coated stir bars were prepared by the sol-gel technique. The preparation reproducibility of the PDMS/MOFs-coated stir bar was good, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4.8% to 14.9% (n=7) within one batch and from 6.2% to 16.9% (n=6) among different batches. Based on this fact, a new method of PDMS/MOFs-coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and ultrasonic-assisted liquid desorption (UALD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. To obtain the best extraction performance for PAHs, several parameters affecting SBSE, such as extraction time, stirring rate, and extraction temperature, were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, wide linear ranges and good RSDs (n=7) were obtained. With enrichment factors (EFs) of 16.1- to 88.9-fold (theoretical EF, 142-fold), the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) of the developed method for the target PAHs were found to be in the range of 0.05-2.94 ng/L. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of PAHs in Yangtze River and East Lake water samples.

  2. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings. Final report, January 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while thare is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

  3. Vapor-liquid phase behavior of the iodine-sulfur water-splitting process : LDRD final report for FY03.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Larson, Richard S.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a one-year LDRD project that was undertaken to better understand the equilibrium behavior of the iodine-water-hydriodic acid system at elevated temperature and pressure. We attempted to extend the phase equilibrium database for this system in order to facilitate development of the iodine-sulfur water-splitting process to produce hydrogen to a commercial scale. The iodine-sulfur cycle for thermochemical splitting of water is recognized as the most efficient such process and is particularly well suited to coupling to a high-temperature source of process heat. This study intended to combine experimental measurements of vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium and equation-of-state modeling of equilibrium solutions using Sandia's Chernkin software. Vapor-liquid equilibrium experiments were conducted to a limited extent. The Liquid Chernkin software that was developed as part of an earlier LDRD project was enhanced and applied to model the non-ideal behavior of the liquid phases.

  4. Carbon neutral hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Frank S; Keith, David W

    2008-11-13

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector may be the most difficult aspect of climate change mitigation. We suggest that carbon neutral hydrocarbons (CNHCs) offer an alternative pathway for deep emission cuts that complement the use of decarbonized energy carriers. Such fuels are synthesized from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon neutral hydrogen. The result is a liquid fuel compatible with the existing transportation infrastructure and therefore capable of a gradual deployment with minimum supply disruption. Capturing the atmospheric CO2 can be accomplished using biomass or industrial methods referred to as air capture. The viability of biomass fuels is strongly dependent on the environmental impacts of biomass production. Strong constraints on land use may favour the use of air capture. We conclude that CNHCs may be a viable alternative to hydrogen or conventional biofuels and warrant a comparable level of research effort and support.

  5. Energy efficient membrane processes for the separation of organic liquids: Part 1: Final report, September 28, 1982--December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cabasso, I.; Acharya, H.R.; Korngold, E.; Liu, Z.; Stern, S.A.; Li, W.; Makenzie, T.; Poda, E.

    1987-10-01

    The potential usefulness of two membrane processes, namely, pervaporation and perstraction, for separating azeotropic mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons was studied theoretically and experimentally. A third membrane process, osmotic phase-separation, was investigated experimentally. The separation of an azeotropic mixture of benzene and cyclohexane was used as an example. Part II of this report will discuss membrane processes for the separation of alcohol/water mixtures. Mathematical models of pervaporation and perstraction were developed for computer simulations of the processes. The perstraction model presented herein is the first of its kind. Additionally, the energy requirements and capital investments costs for the separation of an azeotropic benzene/cyclohexane mixture were determined and compared with those for extractive distillation. 31 refs., 64 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Bioremediation of high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons co-contaminated with metals in liquid and soil slurries by metal tolerant PAHs degrading bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils in the presence of heavy metals have proved to be difficult and often challenging due to the ability of toxic metals to inhibit PAH degradation by bacteria. In this study, a mixed bacterial culture designated as consortium-5 was isolated from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The ability of this consortium to utilise HMW PAHs such as pyrene and BaP as a sole carbon source in the presence of toxic metal Cd was demonstrated. Furthermore, this consortium has proven to be effective in degradation of HMW PAHs even from the real long term contaminated MGP soil. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the great potential of this consortium for field scale bioremediation of PAHs in long term mix contaminated soils such as MGP sites. To our knowledge this is the first study to isolate and characterize metal tolerant HMW PAH degrading bacterial consortium which shows great potential in bioremediation of mixed contaminated soils such as MGP.

  7. Universal Route to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Analysis in Foodstuff: Two-Dimensional Heart-Cut Liquid Chromatography-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nestola, Marco; Friedrich, Rainer; Bluhme, Patrick; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2015-06-16

    Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in complex foodstuff is associated with complicated and work-intensive sample preparation. Chromatographic interference has to be faced in many situations. The scope of the current work was the development of a highly efficient two-dimensional heart-cut LC-LC-GC-MS method. Detection was performed with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of the obtained data in terms of cleanup efficiency. Additionally, routine detection was performed with single quadrupole MS. An easy and quick generic sample preparation protocol was realized as a first step. During method development, focus was given to optimizing HPLC cleanup for complex foodstuff. Silica-, polymeric-, and carbon-based HPLC phases were tested. Coupling of silica gel to π-electron acceptor modified silica gel showed the best cleanup properties. A four rotary valve configuration allowed the usage of a single binary HPLC pump. Screening of several fatty and nonfatty food matrices showed the absence of unwanted matrix compounds in the cleaned-up PAH fraction down to the low picogram range using TOF-MS. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were below 0.1 μg/kg for all EU priority PAHs. Recovery rates ranged from 82 to 111%. Validation data fully complied with EU Regulation 836/2011. Sample preparation was possible in 20 min. Interlacing of HPLC and GC allowed an average method runtime of 40 min per sample.

  8. Determination of saturated-hydrocarbon contamination in baby foods by using on-line liquid-gas chromatography and off-line liquid chromatography-comprehensive gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mondello, Luigi; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Purcaro, Giorgia; Franchina, Flavio Antonio; Sciarrone, Danilo; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco; Tranchida, Peter Quinto

    2012-10-12

    The present contribution describes an investigation directed towards the use of a rapid heart-cutting multidimensional LC-GC-FID method for the analysis of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH), contained in different types of homogenized solid baby food (fish, meat and fruit products). The fish and meat products all contained vegetable oil (sunflower), potentially an important source of mineral-oil contamination. Sixteen commercial baby food samples were subjected to analysis, with various degrees of MOSH contamination (from 0.3mg/kg to circa 14 mg/kg) found. Hence, MOSH contamination was found not only in the meat and fish products, but also in the fruit ones. A fruit-based baby food was lab-made, using the ingredients reported on the commercial product, and was found to be contaminated. The single ingredients were then subjected to LC-GC analysis, with corn starch and sugar found to be the source of contamination. For confirmation of the analytical findings, three of the sixteen samples were analyzed in two separate laboratories, using two distinct LC-GC methods, based on different interfaces. The results were confirmed, in qualitative terms, by collecting the LC fractions, relative to some of the food samples, and subjecting them to comprehensive two-dimensional GC-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, mass spectral data were attained for the saturated hydrocarbons.

  9. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Final report, September 21, 1989--November 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Liu, P.K.T.; Webster, I.A.

    1992-12-31

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  10. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report, May 10, 1994--December 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    This report encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (i) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (ii) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. Since this work was for fundamental research in a number of related areas to the use of LNG as a transportation fuel for long haul trucking, many of those results have appeared in numerous refereed journal and conference papers, and significant graduate training experiences (including at least one M.S. thesis and one Ph.D. dissertation) in the first year of this project. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

  11. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Commercial Parenteral Formulations and Medications Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Marcia M; Bohrer, Denise; Viana, Carine; Carvalho, Leandro M; Nascimento, Paulo C

    2017-02-22

    HPLC coupled to UV diode array detection (DAD) is proposed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pharmaceutical products for parenteral administration. Because rubber is a possible source of PAHs for these products, samples stored in containers with rubber parts were selected for the analysis. The basis for method optimization was EPA Method 8310, which determines 16 priority PAHs in ground water and wastewater by HPLC using both UV and fluorescence detection. Using DAD, two channels were selected for detection, with one operating at 254 nm for the detection of nine PAHs and the other at 225 nm for the detection of seven PAHs. This method allowed for the detection of PAHs using external calibration with LODs and LOQs ranging from 0.001 to 0.060 μg/mL and from 0.003 to 0.167 μg/mL, respectively. Within-day precision, expressed as RSD, varied from 1.24 to 7.76% for PAH concentrations from 0.05 to 0.50 μg/mL, and intraday precision varied from 3.10 to 9.40% for the same concentration range. Method accuracy was confirmed by recoveries of 75–120% of the spiked samples. This method was applied for the determination of PAHs in three commercial infusion solutions and in nine different medications stored in syringes prior to administration to patients. Twelve of 16 PAHs were found in these samples. Total PAH concentrations varied from 0.13 to 13.50 μg/mL. Pyrene was the most prevalent contaminant, being present in 11 of 12 samples in concentrations ranging from 0.17 to 4.80 μg/mL. This method presented good sensitivity for the measurement of PAH in the target samples, allowing for the determination of the 16 priority PAHs in one run and in 30 min.

  12. Packing and mobility of hydrocarbon chains in phospholipid lyotropic liquid crystalline lamellar phases and liposomes: characterisation by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS).

    PubMed

    Dong, Aurelia W; Fong, Celesta; Waddington, Lynne J; Hill, Anita J; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2015-01-07

    Lipid lamellar mesophases and their colloidal dispersions (liposomes) are increasingly being deployed in vivo as drug delivery vehicles, and also as models of biological membranes in fundamental biophysics studies. The permeability and diffusion of small molecules such as drugs is accommodated by a change in local curvature and molecular packing (mesophase behaviour) of the bilayer membrane molecules. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is capable of providing in situ molecular level information on changes in free volume and void space arising from such changes in a non-perturbative manner. In this work PALS was used to systematically characterise the temperature-induced melting transitions (Tm) of saturated and unsaturated phospholipid-water systems while systematically varying lipid chain length, as both bulk lamellar mesophase and as aqueous colloidal dispersions (liposomes). A four-component fit of the data was used that provides separate PALS lifetimes for the aqueous (τ3) and organic domains (τ4). The oPs lifetime (τ4), for the lamellar phases of DSPC (C18:0), DPPC (C16:0), DMPC (C14:0) and DLPC (C12:0) was found to be independent of chain length, with characteristic lifetime value τ4 ∼ 3.4 ns. τ4 is consistently larger in the dispersed liposomes compared to the bulk mesophases, suggesting that the hydrocarbon chains are more mobile. The use of contemporary and consistent analytical approaches as described in this study is the key to future deployment of PALS to interrogate the in situ influence of drugs on membrane and cellular microenvironments.

  13. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

    2012-04-03

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

  14. Production of hydrocarbons by Aspergillus carbonarius ITEM 5010.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Malavika; Sørensen, Annette; Ahamed, Aftab; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2015-04-01

    The filamentous fungus, Asperigillus carbonarius, is able to produce a series of hydrocarbons in liquid culture using lignocellulosic biomasses, such as corn stover and switch grass as carbon source. The hydrocarbons produced by the fungus show similarity to jet fuel composition and might have industrial application. The production of hydrocarbons was found to be dependent on type of media used. Therefore, ten different carbon sources (oat meal, wheat bran, glucose, carboxymethyl cellulose, avicel, xylan, corn stover, switch grass, pretreated corn stover, and pretreated switch grass) were tested to identify the maximum number and quantity of hydrocarbons produced. Several hydrocarbons were produced include undecane, dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane 2,4-dimethylhexane, 4-methylheptane, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl benzene, o-xylene. Oatmeal was found to be the carbon source resulting in the largest amounts of hydrocarbon products. The production of fungal hydrocarbons, especially from lignocellulosic biomasses, holds a great potential for future biofuel production whenever our knowledge on regulators and pathways increases.

  15. Air-water interface equilibrium partitioning coefficients of aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Chu, Fu-Sui; Liou, Jia-Jiunn

    The single equilibration technique was used to determine the equilibrium partitioning coefficients ( pc) of an air-water interface for target aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene. The tested liquid concentrations ( CL) of VOC ranged from 0.5 to 20 mg/l, and the temperatures ( Tw) of the solutions were 300, 305, 310 and 315 K, respectively. The pc values were calculated using the gaseous concentrations ( Cg*) of aromatic hydrocarbons in equilibrium with the aqueous phase and the formula pc=( Cg*/ CL). The heats of VOC of liquid and gaseous phase transfer (Δ Htr) in pure water, and the highly linear regression relationship (with squared correlation coefficients, R2, from 0.900 to 0.999) between ( ln C g*) and (1/ Tw) are also evaluated. Experimental results indicated that the pc values of the target VOC components increase with Tw but, in contrast, are not significantly affected by CL in pure water. However, pc of more soluble compounds, like iso-propanol and methyl ethyl ketone, have been evaluated to be significant with CL in the earlier investigation. Finally, the co-solute effect on pc is also evaluated in this work, as determining pc of the aromatic hydrocarbons by using aqueous ethanol (in a volume ration of 1-15%) as solutes.

  16. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Walter B.; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F. T.; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A.; Campiglia, Andres D.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2 K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 μg L−1 (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples. PMID:26653471

  17. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-02-01

    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 µg L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples.

  18. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Guy R. B.; Barraclough, Bruce L.; Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  19. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Guy R. B.; Barraclough, Bruce L.; Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  20. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  1. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction and clean-up protocol for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xuewei; Yan, Guofang; Li, Xianguo; Guo, Xinyun; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Yan

    2012-09-01

    The procedures of ultrasonic extraction and clean-up were optimized for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine sediments. Samples were ultrasonically extracted, and the extracts were purified with a miniaturized silica gel chromatographic column and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector. Ultrasonication with methanol-dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) mixture gave higher extraction efficiency than that with dichloromethane. Among the three elution solvents used in clean-up step, dichloromethane-hexane (2:3, v/v) mixture was the most satisfactory. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries in the range of 54.82% to 94.70% with RSDs of 3.02% to 23.22% for a spiked blank, and in the range of 61.20% to 127.08% with RSDs of 7.61% to 26.93% for a spiked matrix, were obtained for the 15 PAHs studied, while the recoveries for a NIST standard reference SRM 1941b were in the range of 50.79% to 83.78% with RSDs of 5.24% to 21.38%. The detection limits were between 0.75 ng L-1 and 10.99 ng L-1for different PAHs. A sample from the Jiaozhou Bay area was examined to test the established methods.

  2. Simultaneous determination of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and twelve aldehydes in cooked food by an automated on-line solid phase extraction ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Robotti, Elisa; Calabrese, Giorgio; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio

    2011-09-16

    An on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous identification and determination of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and twelve aldehydes (derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine). The chromatographic conditions have been optimized to obtain the maximum of sensitivity and resolution taking into account the different retention interactions and the different ionization conditions of PAHs and derivatized aldehydes. LOD values ranging from 0.028 to 0.768 μg L(-1) for PAHs and from 0.002 to 0.125 μg L(-1) for aldehydes were obtained. The resolution permitted the separation of four couples of PAH isomers. Sample pre-treatment and SPE were optimized in order to apply the whole methodology to the analysis of different food matrices as salmon, frankfurter, steak, and pork chop, subjected to different cooking modes (smoked, grilled, cooked in oil or in butter). Particular attention was devoted to the evaluation of matrix effect that was significantly reduced through the on-line SPE treatment. For each food matrix the method detection limits, the method quantitation limits, and the recovery R were evaluated. R was shown not to depend on analyte concentration in the explored concentration range (LOQ - 50.000 μg L(-1)): the average R percent ranges from 70.6% to 120.0%.

  3. Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oil after solid-phase extraction using a dual-layer sorbent cartridge followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Stenerson, Katherine K; Shimelis, Olga; Halpenny, Michael R; Espenschied, Ken; Ye, Maochun M

    2015-05-27

    A simple and easy direct solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for the analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in olive oil using a dual-layer cartridge containing activated Florisil and a mixture of octadecyl (C18)-bonded and zirconia-coated silicas. Undiluted olive oil was applied directly to the SPE cartridge, and the sample was eluted with acetonitrile solvent. Background in the extract was found to be low enough for either gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) analysis. Average recoveries for 16 different PAHs from spiked olive oil replicates were >75%, with intraday precisions of <20% relative standard deviation (% RSD). Detection limits ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 μg/kg and, specifically for the PAHs listed in EC Regulation 835/2011, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene, were from 0.3 to 0.7 μg/kg. The method was then applied to determine the PAH content present in commercial samples of refined versus extra-virgin olive oils.

  4. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano; West, Ryan M.

    2015-06-30

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

  5. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

    2014-01-07

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be conveted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

  6. Hydrocarbon mineralization potentials and microbial populations in marine sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braddock, J.F.; Rasley, B.T.; Yeager, T.R.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microoganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. The microbial data indicate mobilization between 1989 and 1990 of oil from the intertidal to surface sediments at 20, 40 and 100 m depths offshore.

  7. Upgrading mild gasification liquids to produce electrode binder pitch. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the production of electrode binder pitch, from mild gasification liquids. The IGT MILDGAS process pyrolyzes coal in a fluidized/entrained bed to produce solid, gas, and liquid co-products. The largest market for pitch made from coal liquids is the aluminum industry, which uses it to make carbon anodes for electrolytic furnaces. In this project, crude pitch from the DOE-sponsored MILDGAS process research programs being modified by a flash thermocracking technique to achieve specifications typical of a binder pitch. Atomization of the pitch at the thermocracker inlet is being examined as a method of optimizing the particle size of polymerized pitch components. Six successful thermocracking tests were performed with a crude Illinois No. 6 pitch from 1,110 F MILDGAS PRU runs. The tests were conducted at 1,200--1,500 F with pitch feed rates of 2.6--12.7 g/min and residence times of 2.6--4.5 seconds. Tests were conducted with and without an atomizing nozzle to evaluate the effects of atomization on the primary quinoline- and toluene-insoluble (QI and TI) content of the pitch. Key pitch properties improved in all cases, with higher temperatures resulting in increased softening point (187--273 F), QI (10--16%), TI (18--41%), coking value (38--55%), C:H ratio (1.17--1.57), and density (1.16--1.26). Higher reactor loading appears to promote more coke and gas production, but atomization promotes higher yield of cracked pitch, oil, and gas and less coke. The products of pitch cracking ranged from 26--54 wt% cracked pitch, 13--44 wt% coke, 16--28 wt% oils, and 3--23 wt% high-Btu gas. The pitch cokes had C:H atomic ratios of 1.95--2.93, which could be increased by calcination for use as a carbon anode filler.

  8. Improved liquid/solids handling module. Final report 2321:01, 1 September 1979-31 October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    West, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    A Mobile Liquid/Solids handling (L/S) unit was constructed that is the active element for a low cost Advanced Primary Geothermal Heat Exchanger (APEX), presently under development. The L/S system incorporates two alternating hydrocyclone-accumulator tank combinations and an injection pump. Sand particles are injected into the main flow and then separated and recirculated at capture efficiencies of greater than 99%. The system was tested at varying flowrates, solids concentrations, and particle sizes to determine an optimum operating point.

  9. Final Report for Fractionation and Separation of Polydisperse Nanoparticles into Distinct Monodisperse Fractions Using CO2 Expanded Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Chistopher Roberts

    2007-08-31

    The overall objective of this project was to facilitate efficient fractionation and separation of polydisperse metal nanoparticle populations into distinct monodisperse fractions using the tunable solvent properties of gas expanded liquids. Specifically, the dispersibility of ligand-stabilized nanoparticles in an organic solution was controlled by altering the ligand-solvent interaction (solvation) by the addition of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas as an antisolvent (thereby tailoring the bulk solvent strength) in a custom high pressure apparatus developed in our lab. This was accomplished by adjusting the CO{sub 2} pressure over the liquid dispersion, resulting in a simple means of tuning the nanoparticle precipitation by size. Overall, this work utilized the highly tunable solvent properties of organic/CO{sub 2} solvent mixtures to selectively size-separate dispersions of polydisperse nanoparticles (ranging from 1 to 20 nm in size) into monodisperse fractions ({+-}1nm). Specifically, three primary tasks were performed to meet the overall objective. Task 1 involved the investigation of the effects of various operating parameters (such as temperature, pressure, ligand length and ligand type) on the efficiency of separation and fractionation of Ag nanoparticles. In addition, a thermodynamic interaction energy model was developed to predict the dispersibility of different sized nanoparticles in the gas expanded liquids at various conditions. Task 2 involved the extension of the experimental procedures identified in task 1 to the separation of other metal particles used in catalysis such as Au as well as other materials such as semiconductor particles (e.g. CdSe). Task 3 involved using the optimal conditions identified in tasks 1 and 2 to scale up the process to handle sample sizes of greater than 1 g. An experimental system was designed to allow nanoparticles of increasingly smaller sizes to be precipitated sequentially in a vertical series of high pressure vessels by

  10. Ecological risk assessment report, submerged quench incinerator, task IRA-2, basin F liquids treatment design. Version 3. 0. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this ecological risk assessment is to evaluate the potential impacts of on-site incineration of Basin F liquids. Twenty-nine chemicals were evaluated for potential adverse effects to terrestrial and aquatic wildlife and vegetation on RMA. Based on this assessment, it is concluded that the operation of the submerged quench incinerator poses no quantifiable risks to the wildlife and vegetation. The assessment is divided into the following sections: description of the area - terrestrial and aquatic ecology; contaminants of concern; ecological exposure - description of contaminant transport from incinerator to environment; ecological risk - development of risk criteria, risk characterization; assumptions and uncertainties.

  11. Hydrocarbon liquefaction: viability as a peak oil mitigation strategy.

    PubMed

    Höök, Mikael; Fantazzini, Dean; Angelantoni, André; Snowden, Simon

    2014-01-13

    Current world capacity of hydrocarbon liquefaction is around 400,000 barrels per day, providing a marginal share of the global liquid fuel supply. This study performs a broad review of technical, economic, environmental and supply chain issues related to coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). We find three issues predominate. First, significant amounts of coal and gas would be required to obtain anything more than a marginal production of liquids. Second, the economics of CTL plants are clearly prohibitive, but are better for GTL. Nevertheless, large-scale GTL plants still require very high upfront costs, and for three real-world GTL plants out of four, the final cost has been so far approximately three times that initially budgeted. Small-scale GTL holds potential for associated gas. Third, both CTL and GTL incur significant environmental impacts, ranging from increased greenhouse gas emissions (in the case of CTL) to water contamination. Environmental concerns may significantly affect growth of these projects until adequate solutions are found.

  12. Final report on EUROMET key comparison EUROMET.M.D-K2 (EUROMET 627) "Comparison of density determinations of liquid samples"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettin, Horst; Heinonen, Martti; Gosset, André; Zelenka, Zoltán; Lorefice, Salvatore; Hellerud, Kristen; Durlik, Hanna; Jordaan, Werner; Field, Ireen

    2016-01-01

    The results of the key comparison EUROMET 627 (EUROMET.M.D-K2) are presented. This project covered the density measurements of three liquids: dodecane, water and an oil of high viscosity measured at 15 °C, 20 °C and 40 °C. Seven European metrology laboratories and the South African laboratory CSIR-NML (now: NMISA) measured the densities at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing of solid density standards between 04 October 2001 and 18 December 2001. The stability and homogeneity of the liquids were investigated by the pilot laboratory PTB. The results generally show good agreement among the participants. Only for the simple Mohr-Westphal balances do the uncertainties seem to be underestimated by the laboratories. Furthermore, the measurement of high-viscosity oil was difficult for some laboratories. Nevertheless, the five laboratories PTB/DE, BNM/FR (now: LNE/FR), OMH/HU (now: MKEH/HU), IMGC/IT (now: INRIM/IT) and GUM/PL agree with each other for stated uncertainties of 0.05 kg/m3 or less. This satisfies the current needs of customers who wish to calibrate or check liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. No reference values were calculated since the subsequent CCM key comparison CCM.D-K2 had a different scope and the EUROMET 627 comparison was soon superseded by the EURAMET 1019 (EURAMET.M.D-K2) comparison. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

  14. Upgrading mild gasification liquids to produce electrode binder pitch: Final technical report, September 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the production of electrode binder pitch, valued at $250--$300/ton, from mild gasification liquids. In the IGT MILDGAS process, the 400 C+ distillation residue (crude pitch) comprises up to 20 wt% of maf feed coal. The largest market for pitch made from coal liquids is the aluminum industry, which uses it to make carbon anodes for electrolytic furnaces. In this project, crude MILDGAS pitch is being modified by flash thermocracking to achieve binder pitch specifications. A 1-kg/h continuous unit has been built for operation up to 900 C at 2.5 atm, and parametric tests were conducted in N{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and 50% H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}. In general, thermocracking at 750--850 C in N{sub 2} resulted in a pitch which meets binder pitch requirements for QI, TI, softening point, and C:H ratio. Further improvements in density and sulfur content are required. Test anodes were prepared by Alcoa using the upgraded mild gasification pitch. All of the key anode properties (density, strength, resistivity, thermal properties, permeability, and reactivity) compared very favorably with those of electrodes made from a standard pitch binder.

  15. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19

    The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C4-650°F range with no 650°F+ product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C4-650°F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650°F+ liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C4-650°F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m2/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was

  16. Extracting hydrocarbons from water using a centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, A. Yu.; Ilyina, A. A.; Chuikin, A. V.; Velikov, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    An original method for the solid-phase microextraction of hydrocarbons from water using a centrifuge is proposed. Comparative results from the chromatographic elution of substances after liquid-phase and solid-phase microextraction are presented. The percentage of the extraction of substances from aqueous solutions and the minimum detection limit for aromatic and aliphatic compounds are calculated.

  17. A rotating disk apparatus for assessing the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons transferring from a non-aqueous phase liquid to solutions of surfactant Brij 35.

    PubMed

    Bernardez, Letícia A

    2009-04-01

    A rotating disk apparatus was used to investigate the biodegradation of PAHs from non-aqueous phase liquids to solutions of Brij 35. The mass transfer of PAHs in absence of surfactant solution was not large enough to replenish the degraded PAHs. The addition of surfactant resulted in an overall enhancement of biodegradation rates compared to that observed in pure aqueous solution. This is because surfactant partition significant amount of PAHs into the bulk phase, where uptake occurs but the supply of PAHs to the aqueous phase through micellar solubilization at latter period limited biodegradation rates. It was demonstrated the relationship between biodegradation rate and surfactant dose and the mechanisms controlling the mass transfer of PAH from NAPLs. The satisfactory comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of a model, which parameters were determined from independent solubilization and dissolution experiments and based on the main assumption that the solutes must be present in the true aqueous phase to be degraded, allows us to conclude the absence of direct uptake of PAHs by bacteria.

  18. Reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons with nucleophilic reagents in liquid ammonia. VII. Direction of hydroxylation of 3-substituted (Cl, Br, I, NO/sub 2/) nitrobenzenes with potassium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Malykhin, E.V.; Kolesnichenko, G.A.; Shteingarts, V.D.

    1986-09-20

    The reaction of 3-chloro-, 3-bromo-, and 3-iodonitrobenzenes with potassium hydroxide and oxygen in liquid ammonia (-33/sup 0/C) leads to the formation of nitrohalogenophenols, corresponding to substitution of the hydrogen atom at the ortho and para positions of the ring in relation to the nitro group by a hydroxy group. In the case of the last two substrates it also leads to the corresponding 2-halo-geno-3',4'-dinitrodiphenylamines. In view of the fact that substituted diphenylamines are formed under the same conditions as a result of the reaction of 3-nitro-aniline with 3-halogenonitrobenzenes it is suggested that 3-bromo- and 3-iodonitrobenzenes are partly converted into 3-nitroaniline through the intermediate formation of 3-nitrodehydrobenzene. During dehydroxylation in the absence of oxygen the proportion of the phenols corresponding to substitution of the hydrogen atom at the para position to the nitro group by the hydroxy group increases, and the degree of transformation of the initial compounds decreases. 2,4-dinitrophenol is formed with a low yield during the reaction of 1,3-nitrobenzene and potassium hydroxide in the presence of oxygen or in an atmosphere of argon.

  19. Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in toasted guaraná (Paullinia cupana) by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector.

    PubMed

    Veiga, L L A; Amorim, H; Moraes, J; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Quiterio, S L

    2014-01-01

    Samples of toasted guaraná seeds with husk from Maués (Amazônia) and ten samples of different brands of guaraná powder produced in different parts of Brazil were analysed in this work, aiming to identify and quantify 16 PAHs. The samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence and UV-Vis detectors. Naphthalene was identified and quantified in the guaraná samples (0.13 and 0.78 μg kg(-1)) and both naphthalene and phenanthrene were found in two commercial guaraná powder samples (0.36-1.54 and 0.03-0.06 μg kg(-1), respectively). Considering that the average daily intake of guaraná powder is equivalent to 10 g, it can be seen that guaraná powder contains less PAHs than the limit established in European legislation for other kinds of food (CE 835/2011), that is, around 0.20 μg kg(-1) of PAHs.

  20. Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1997-04-01

    Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution of these hydrocarbons suggested crude oil as the source of contamination. However, there was variation among oiled otters in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbons, which may be due to differing proximate causes of mortality and varying lengths of time and sea otters survived following oil exposure. The concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the tissues of the ten oiled sea otters generally were higher than in tissues from 7 sea otters with no external oiling that were collected from prince William Sound in 1989 and 1990, or from 12 sea otters collected from an area in southeast Alaska which had not experienced an oil spill.

  1. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.

  2. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A.

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC`s ``Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants`` (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC`s preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant`s research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified.

  3. Electrogenerative cell for the oxidation or halogenation of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-03-15

    A process for producing electric power by the electrogenerative halogenation or oxidation of at least one unsaturated hydrocarbon in an electrochemical cell having an anode and cathode separated by a permselective membrane or electrolyte permeable diaphragm is described comprising: (A) flowing a first liquid electrolyte and the unsaturated hydrocarbon to an anolyte compartment of the cell containing a porous anode; (B) flowing a second liquid electrolyte and a halogen or oxygen gas to a catholyte compartment of the cell containing a porous cathode; (C) reacting the unsaturated hydrocarbon with the halogen or the oxygen at ambient or elevated temperatures and pressures; (D) recovering a halogenated or oxygenated hydrocarbon; (E) recycling the electrolytes, unsaturated hydrocarbon, and halogen or oxygen gas to the cell.

  4. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Uwins, P.J.R.; Baker, J.C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R. . Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis)

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoir, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programs. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  5. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks.

    PubMed

    Uwins, P J; Baker, J C; Mackinnon, I D

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoirs, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programmes. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  6. Liquid/Gas Flow Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabris, Gracio

    1994-01-01

    Improved devices mix gases and liquids into bubbly or foamy flows. Generates flowing, homogeneous foams or homogeneous dispersions of small, noncoalescing bubbles entrained in flowing liquids. Mixers useful in liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic electric-power generator, froth flotation in mining industry, wastewater treatment, aerobic digestion, and stripping hydrocarbon contaminants from ground water.

  7. Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid-oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seungdoo; Vohs, John M.; Gorte, Raymond J.

    2000-03-01

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels to generate electrical power has the potential to accelerate substantially the use of fuel cells in transportation and distributed-power applications. Most fuel-cell research has involved the use of hydrogen as the fuel, although the practical generation and storage of hydrogen remains an important technological hurdle. Methane has been successfully oxidized electrochemically, but the susceptibility to carbon formation from other hydrocarbons that may be present or poor power densities have prevented the application of this simple fuel in practical applications. Here we report the direct, electrochemical oxidation of various hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, 1-butene, n-butane and toluene) using a solid-oxide fuel cell at 973 and 1,073 K with a composite anode of copper and ceria (or samaria-doped ceria). We demonstrate that the final products of the oxidation are CO2 and water, and that reasonable power densities can be achieved. The observation that a solid-oxide fuel cell can be operated on dry hydrocarbons, including liquid fuels, without reforming, suggests that this type of fuel cell could provide an alternative to hydrogen-based fuel-cell technologies.

  8. Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid-oxide fuel cell

    PubMed

    Park; Vohs; Gorte

    2000-03-16

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels to generate electrical power has the potential to accelerate substantially the use of fuel cells in transportation and distributed-power applications. Most fuel-cell research has involved the use of hydrogen as the fuel, although the practical generation and storage of hydrogen remains an important technological hurdle. Methane has been successfully oxidized electrochemically, but the susceptibility to carbon formation from other hydrocarbons that may be present or poor power densities have prevented the application of this simple fuel in practical applications. Here we report the direct, electrochemical oxidation of various hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, 1-butene, n-butane and toluene) using a solid-oxide fuel cell at 973 and 1,073 K with a composite anode of copper and ceria (or samaria-doped ceria). We demonstrate that the final products of the oxidation are CO2 and water, and that reasonable power densities can be achieved. The observation that a solid-oxide fuel cell can be operated on dry hydrocarbons, including liquid fuels, without reforming, suggests that this type of fuel cell could provide an alternative to hydrogen-based fuel-cell technologies.

  9. Evaluation of analytical methodology for hydrocarbons in high pressure air and nitrogen systems. [data aquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Information regarding the safety limits of hydrocarbons in liquid and gaseous oxygen, the steps taken for hydrocarbon removal from liquified gases, and the analysis of the contaminants was searched and the results are presented. The safety of hydrocarbons in gaseous systems was studied, and the latest hydrocarbon test equipment and methodology is reviewed. A detailed sampling and analysis plan is proposed to evaluate high pressure GN2 and LOX systems.

  10. Biotransformation of the high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 and identification of new products of non-alternant PAH biodegradation by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Allyn H; Nishi, Shinro; Hatada, Yuji; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    A pathway for the biotransformation of the environmental pollutant and high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by a soil bacterium was constructed through analyses of results from liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(–)-MS/MS). Exposure of Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 to benzo[k]fluoranthene resulted in transformation to four-, three-and two-aromatic ring products. The structurally similar four-and three-ring non-alternant PAHs fluoranthene and acenaphthylene were also biotransformed by strain KK22, and LC/ESI(–)-MS/MS analyses of these products confirmed the lower biotransformation pathway proposed for benzo[k]fluoranthene. In all, seven products from benzo[k]fluoranthene and seven products from fluoranthene were revealed and included previously unreported products from both PAHs. Benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation proceeded through ortho-cleavage of 8,9-dihydroxy-benzo[k]fluoranthene to 8-carboxyfluoranthenyl-9-propenic acid and 9-hydroxy-fluoranthene-8-carboxylic acid, and was followed by meta-cleavage to produce 3-(2-formylacenaphthylen-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-prop-2-enoic acid. The fluoranthene pathway converged with the benzo[k]fluoranthene pathway through detection of the three-ring product, 2-formylacenaphthylene-1-carboxylic acid. Production of key downstream metabolites, 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and 1-naphthoic acid from benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene and acenaphthylene biotransformations provided evidence for a common pathway by strain KK22 for all three PAHs through acenaphthoquinone. Quantitative analysis of benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation by strain KK22 confirmed biodegradation. This is the first pathway proposed for the biotransformation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by a bacterium. PMID:24325265

  11. Analysis of co-eluted isomers of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions via solid-phase nanoextraction and time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Walter B; Campiglia, Andres D

    2011-09-28

    We present an accurate method for the determination of isomers of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons co-eluted in HPLC fractions. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated with two isomers of molecular weight 302 with identical mass fragmentation patterns, namely dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene. Qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out via laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy at liquid helium temperature. Unambiguous identification of co-eluted isomers is based on their characteristic 4.2 K line-narrowed spectra in n-octane as well as their fluorescence lifetimes. Pre-concentration of HPLC fractions prior to spectroscopic analysis is performed with the aid of gold nanoparticles via an environmentally friendly procedure. In addition to the two co-eluted isomers, the analytical figures of merit of the entire procedure were evaluated with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene. The analytical recoveries from drinking water samples varied between 98.2±5.5 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) and 102.7±3.2% (dibenzo[a,i]pyrene). The limits of detection ranged from 51.1 ng L(-1) (naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene) to 154 ng L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its HPLC compatibility makes this approach an attractive alternative for the analysis of co-eluted isomers with identical mass spectra.

  12. A magnetic-based dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction method using the metal-organic framework HKUST-1 and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waters and fruit tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Rocío-Bautista, Priscilla; Pino, Verónica; Ayala, Juan H; Pasán, Jorge; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-03-04

    A hybrid material composed by the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has been synthetized in a quite simple manner, characterized, and used in a magnetic-assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (M-d-μSPE) method in combination with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and fluorescence detection (FD). The application was devoted to the determination of 8 heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different aqueous samples, specifically tap water, wastewaters, and fruit tea infusion samples. The overall M-d-μSPE-UHPLC-FD method was optimized and validated. The method is characterized by: its simplicity in both the preparation of the hybrid material (simple mixing) and the magnetic-assisted approach (∼10min extraction time), the use of low sorbent amounts (20mg of HKUST-1 and 5mg of Fe3O4 MNPs), and the low organic solvent consumption in the overall M-d-μSPE-UHPLC-FD method (1.5mL of acetonitrile in the M-d-μSPE method and 2.8mL of acetonitrile in the UHPLC-FD run). The resulting method has high sensitivity, with LODs down to 0.8ngL(-1); adequate intermediate precision, with relative standard deviation values (RSD) always lower than 6.3% (being the range 5.9-9.0% in tap water for a spiked level of 45ngL(-1), 6.1-14% in wastewaters for a spiked level of 45ngL(-1), and 7.2-17% in fruit tea infusion samples for a spiked level of 45ngL(-1)); and adequate relative recoveries, with average values of 82% in tap water, and 94% and 75% in wastewater and fruit tea infusion samples, respectively, if using the proper matrix-matched calibration.

  13. Sulfur poisoning of CeO[subscript 2]-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3]-supported mono- and bi-metallic Ni and Rh catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons at low and high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2010-12-01

    In order to develop a better understanding on sulfur poisoning of reforming catalysts in fuel processing for hydrogen production, steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was performed over CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 C. XANES was used to identify the sulfur species in the used catalysts and to study their impacts on the metal surface properties probed by XPS. It was found that both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 C, and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur species on the used Ni catalyst, while sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the used Rh catalyst. The presence of sulfur induced severe carbon deposition on the Ni catalyst at 800 C. The superior sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst at 800 C may be associated with its capability in sulfur oxidation. It is likely that the formation of the oxygen-shielded sulfur structure of sulfonate and sulfate can suppress the poisoning impact of sulfur on Rh by inhibiting direct rhodium-sulfur interaction. Moreover, XPS indicated that the metal surface properties of the Rh catalysts after the reaction without and with sulfur at 800 C are similar, suggesting that sulfur poisoning on Rh was mitigated under the high-temperature condition. Although the Rh-Ni catalyst exhibited better sulfur tolerance than the monometallic catalysts at 550 C, its catalytic performance was inferior compared with the Rh catalyst in the sulfur-containing reaction at 800 C probably due to the severe carbon deposition on the bimetallic catalyst.

  14. Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquids grafted on graphene oxide-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber for extraction and enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in potatoes and phthalate esters in food-wrap.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiudan; Guo, Yong; Liang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xusheng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Licheng; Liu, Xia

    2016-06-01

    A class of novel, environmental friendly ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized by on-fiber preparation strategy and modified on graphene oxide (GO)-coated stainless steel wire, which was used as a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for efficient enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Surface characteristic of the ILs and polymeric-ILs (PILs) fibers with the wave-structure were inspected by scanning electron microscope. The successfully synthesis of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2(-))-based ILs were also characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer analysis. Through the chromatograms of the proposed two ILs (1-aminoethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C2NH2MIm(+)Br(-)), C2NH2MIm(+)NTf2(-)) and two PILs (polymeric 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium bromide (poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))), poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-)))-GO-coated fibers for the extraction of analytes, NTf2(-)-based PIL demonstrated higher extraction capacity for hydrophobic compounds than other as-prepared ILs. Analytical performances of the proposed fibers were investigated under the optimized extraction and desorption conditions coupled with gas chromatography (GC). Compared with the poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))-GO fiber, the poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-))-GO SPME fiber brought wider linear ranges for analytes with correlation coefficient in the range of 0.9852-0.9989 and lower limits of detection ranging from 0.015-0.025μgL(-1). The obtained results indicated that the newly prepared PILs-GO coating was a feasible, selective and green microextraction medium, which could be suitable for extraction and determination of PAHs and PAEs in potatoes and food-wrap sample, respectively.

  15. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry for high-sensitivity analysis of US Environmental Protection Agency sixteen priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in oysters.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sheng-Suan; Stevens, Joan; Syage, Jack A

    2012-03-02

    In response to Gulf of Mexico deepwater horizon oil spill, we have developed an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) based ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method for high-sensitivity analysis of United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) 16 priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oysters. Analyses were performed on an Agilent's Infinity 1290 UHPLC system coupled with a G6140A single quadrupole MS detector with Syagen's PhotoMate® APPI® source. Column separation was achieved using Zorbax Eclipse PAH column. Chlorobenzene was used as an APPI dopant for maximum overall sensitivity. Dynamic linear ranges were evaluated and found to cover 3.6-5.1 (Ave. 4.4) orders of magnitude with R² of at least 0.995. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and cleanup procedure was used. The spike recoveries ranged from 77% to 110% with %RSD of 0.6-6.7 at spike concentrations below or substantially below the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) level of concern in oysters. The on-column instrument detection limits (IDLs, 6σ S/N=3) ranged from 8 to 106 pg with an average of 23 pg for 16 PAHs. The method detection limits (MDLs, 6σ S/N=3) ranged from 0.013 to 0.129 ppm with an average of 0.040 ppm for all analytes. These MDLs were about 5 times to over 4 orders of magnitude lower than US FDA levels of concern in oysters.

  16. Biotransformation of the high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 and identification of new products of non-alternant PAH biodegradation by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Allyn H; Nishi, Shinro; Hatada, Yuji; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    A pathway for the biotransformation of the environmental pollutant and high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by a soil bacterium was constructed through analyses of results from liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS). Exposure of Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 to benzo[k]fluoranthene resulted in transformation to four-, three- and two-aromatic ring products. The structurally similar four- and three-ring non-alternant PAHs fluoranthene and acenaphthylene were also biotransformed by strain KK22, and LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS analyses of these products confirmed the lower biotransformation pathway proposed for benzo[k]fluoranthene. In all, seven products from benzo[k]fluoranthene and seven products from fluoranthene were revealed and included previously unreported products from both PAHs. Benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation proceeded through ortho-cleavage of 8,9-dihydroxy-benzo[k]fluoranthene to 8-carboxyfluoranthenyl-9-propenic acid and 9-hydroxy-fluoranthene-8-carboxylic acid, and was followed by meta-cleavage to produce 3-(2-formylacenaphthylen-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-prop-2-enoic acid. The fluoranthene pathway converged with the benzo[k]fluoranthene pathway through detection of the three-ring product, 2-formylacenaphthylene-1-carboxylic acid. Production of key downstream metabolites, 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and 1-naphthoic acid from benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene and acenaphthylene biotransformations provided evidence for a common pathway by strain KK22 for all three PAHs through acenaphthoquinone. Quantitative analysis of benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation by strain KK22 confirmed biodegradation. This is the first pathway proposed for the biotransformation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by a bacterium.

  17. Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for semivolatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and alkylated PAH homolog groups in sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Burbank, T.L.; Olson, M.C.; Iverson, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are recognized as environmentally relevant for their potential adverse effects on human and ecosystem health. This paper describes a method to determine the distribution of PAH and alkylated homolog groups in sediment samples. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, was developed to decrease sample preparation time, to reduce solvent consumption, and to minimize background interferences for full-scan GC-MS analysis. Recoveries from spiked Ottawa sand, environmental stream sediment, and commercially available topsoil, fortified at 1.5-15 ??g per compound, averaged 94.6 ?? 7.8%, 90.7 ?? 5.8% and 92.8 ?? 12.8%, respectively. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds ranged from 20 to 302 ??g/kg, based on 25 g samples. Results from 28 environmental sediment samples, excluding homologs, show 35 of 41 compounds (85.4%) were detected in at least one sample with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected compound, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, was detected in 23 of the 28 (82%) environmental samples with a concentration ranging from 15 to 907 ??g/kg. The results from the 28 environmental sediment samples for the homolog series showed that 27 of 28 (96%) samples had at least one homolog series present at concentrations ranging from 20 to 89,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected homolog series, C2-alkylated naphthalene, was detected in 26 of the 28 (93%) environmental samples with a concentration ranging from 25 to 3900 ??g/kg. Results for a standard reference material using dichloromethane Soxhlet-based extraction also are compared. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. BENZENE AND NAPHTHALENE SORPTION ON SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIDUAL HYDROCARBONS FROM UNLEADED GASOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    For complex nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), the composition of the NAPL retained in the pore space of geologic material weathers until the residual NAPL no longer acts a liquid and exists as discrete regions of hydrocarbon (termed residual hydrocarbons) in association with the ...

  19. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on regional key comparison SIM.M.FF-K4: Volume of liquids at 20 L and 100 mL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Roberto; Maldonado, Manuel; Wright, John; Wallace, Tanisha; Rodríguez, Sandra; Pinzón, Orlando; Morales, Abed; Vega, Maria; Santo, Claudia; Kornblit, Fernando; Malta, Dalni

    2010-01-01

    At its meeting in October 2006 in Querétaro, Mexico, the Interamerican Metrology System (SIM) Technical Committee for Fluid Flow (TCFF) approved a Regional Key Comparison for Volume of Liquids at 20 L and 100 mL, to be piloted by the national metrology institute of Mexico (CENAM). The objective of this comparison was to demonstrate the degree of equivalence of the volume measurement standards held at national measurement institutes (NMIs) and to provide supporting evidence for the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) claimed by the participating laboratories in the Americas. During the comparison, one of the pycnometers suffered irreversible damage, and degrees of equivalence for volume at 100 mL were calculated using the results obtained with one single pycnometer (TS 03.04.04). Conclusions are as follows: The transfer standards for SIM.M.FF-K4 exhibited global good performance all the way along, both in terms of stability and repeatability. Degrees of equivalence have been produced for volumes at 20 L and at 100 mL. The best estimation of the measurands, as reported by the participants, shows a general agreement better than +/-0.0070% for volume of liquids at 100 mL and 20 L. It is advisable to review the uncertainty analysis of some participants. New CMC entries for some NMIs should take into account the information presented in this Report. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  20. Ionic Liquids as Multi-Functional Lubricant Additives to Enhance Engine Efficiency (final report NFE-12-03876)

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Toops, Todd J.; West, Brian H.; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Papke, Brian L.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Chen, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    This ORNL-Shell CRADA developed and investigated ionic liquids (ILs) as multifunctional additives for next-generation low-viscosity engine oils. Several groups of oil-miscible ILs were successfully designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Synergistic effects between the common anti-wear additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and a particular group of ILs were discovered with > 30% friction reduction and 70% wear reduction compared with using ZDDP or IL alone. The IL+ZDDP tribofilm distinguishes itself from the IL or ZDDP tribofilms with substantially higher contents of metal phosphates but less metal oxides and sulfur compounds. Notably, it was revealed that the actual concentrations of functional elements on the droplet surface of the oil containing IL+ZDDP are one order magnitude higher than their nominal values. Such significantly increased concentrations of anti-wear agents are presumably expected for the oilsolid interface and believed to be responsible for the superior lubricating performance. A prototype SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a synergistic IL+ZDDP pair as the anti-wear additive has been formulated based on the compatibility between the IL and other additives. Sequence VIE full-scale engine dynamometer tests demonstrated fuel economy improvement (FEI) for this prototype oil and revealed the individual contributions from the lower oil viscosity and reduced boundary friction. The impact of IL and IL+ZDDP on exhaust emission catalyst was investigated using an accelerated small engine aging test and results were benchmarked against ZDDP.

  1. Maximum hydrocarbon window determination in South Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, W.G. )

    1993-03-29

    This is the third and final part of a three part article about the distribution of hydrocarbons in the Tertiary sands of South Louisiana. Based on many individual plots, it was found that hydrocarbon distribution will vary according to the depth of abnormal pressure and lithology. The relation of maximum hydrocarbon distribution to formation fracture strength or depth opens the door to the use of a maximum hydrocarbon window (MHW) technique. This MHW technique can be used as a decision making tool on how deep to drill a well, particularly how deep to drill a well below the top of abnormal pressure. The paper describes the benefits of the MHW technique and its future potential for exploration and development operations.

  2. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

  3. Hydrocarbon radical thermochemistry: Gas-phase ion chemistry techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, Kent M.

    2014-03-21

    Final Scientific/Technical Report for the project "Hydrocarbon Radical Thermochemistry: Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry Techniques." The objective of this project is to exploit gas-phase ion chemistry techniques for determination of thermochemical values for neutral hydrocarbon radicals of importance in combustion kinetics.

  4. Hydrogen production from liquid hydrocarbons demonstration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, J. B.; Chow, T. K.; Ling, J. K.

    1986-09-01

    The Air Force now uses diesel engine generators as sources of heat and electricity at selected remote sites. Simultaneously, it has investigated alternative cogeneration candidates that offer improved reliability, maintain ability, and economics. One system that shows high potential is a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant consisting of a fuel conditioner to convert logistic fuels such as DEF-2, DF-a and JP-4 to a hydrogen-rich gas, and a power conditioner to convert the direct current power to alternating current. The objective was to define, and demonstrate, a fuel conditioner to meet performance criteria estabilished for the Air Force Remote Site Fuel Cell Power Plant program. Key criteria included high fuel-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, rapid startup and load following capability, and minimum water consumption during operations. A process configuration which has the potential to produce a minimum of 0.365 pound of hydrogen per pound of feed diesel consumed is described. The hydrogen-containing product is suitable for phosphoric acid fuel 1 cell power plant. A 2 mole per hour (hydrogen) demonstration plant was designed, constructed and started up.

  5. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300°C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity

  6. Bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons: role of asphaltenes and resins.

    PubMed

    Warne Zoueki, Caroline; Ghoshal, Subhasis; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2010-08-01

    The influence of asphaltenes and resins on bacterial adhesion to model crude oils was examined using a modified microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay. Well-controlled bacterial adhesion experiments were conducted at three solution pHs (4, 6 and 7) using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida and four model crude oil systems containing up to four representative hydrocarbon compounds found in crude oils. The model crude oils were designed to independently evaluate the influence of asphaltenes and resins on hydrocarbon surface charge (i.e., electrophoretic mobility) and on bacterial adhesion to the liquid hydrocarbon phase. Asphaltenes and resins were found to make the hydrocarbon droplet surface charge less negative (or more positive) and to generally decrease microbial adhesion to the hydrocarbon. The experimental results were not in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions of bacteria-hydrocarbon interactions based on the classical or extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek interaction energy profiles calculated from measured physicochemical properties of the microorganisms and hydrocarbons. Model calculations considering the role of steric repulsion in bacteria-hydrocarbon interactions suggest that the decreased adhesion behavior in the presence of asphaltenes and resins may be linked to a mechanism of steric hindrance.

  7. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  8. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  9. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  10. Theoretical Studies of Elementary Hydrocarbon Species and Their Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Wesley D.; Schaefer, III, Henry F.

    2015-11-14

    This is the final report of the theoretical studies of elementary hydrocarbon species and their reactions. Part A has a bibliography of publications supported by DOE from 2010 to 2016 and Part B goes into recent research highlights.

  11. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC LIQUIDS

    DOEpatents

    Vavalides, S.P.

    1959-08-25

    A process is described for recovering small quantities of uranium from organic liquids such as hydrocarbon oils. halogen-substituted hydrocarbons, and alcohols. The organic liquid is contacted with a comminuted alkaline earth hydroxide, calcium hydroxide particularly, and the resulting uranium-bearing solid is separated from the liquid by filtration. Uranium may then be recovered from the solid by means of dissolution in nitric acid and conventional extraction with an organic solvent such as tributyl phosphate.

  12. Subsea hydrocarbon sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Marosko, R.J.; Warren, W.B.

    1981-08-04

    A hydrocarbon detection system is provided for use in a subsea hydrocarbon production installation which includes production tree assemblies, an electro-hydraulic control module located on the sea floor and remote from the production trees, cable assemblies interconnecting the control module with the production trees through magnetic coupling devices. A pair of inductive elements are electrically coupled by the surrounding sea water. Displacement of the conductive sea water by escaping hydrocarbons affects the coupling between the inductive elements to produce a hydrocarbon-presence-responsive output signal. The inductive elements are resonated within a selected frequency range by capacitors coupled with a primary inductor coil by auxiliary windings on a common core element. An excitation signal sweeps over the selected frequency range at a rate effective to produce a peak detected signal at the resonant frequency. The peak output signal is then monitored to form a control signal functionally related to the presence or absence of hydrocarbons in the sea water.

  13. Assessment of oil spill impacts on fishery resources: Measurement of hydrocarbons and their metabolites, and their effects, in important species. NRDA project subtidal 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Collier, T.K.; Krone, C.A.; Krahn, M.M.; Johnson, L.L.

    1995-09-01

    Studies were conducted from 1989 to 1991 to assess injury to fisheries resources related to the Exxon Valdz oil spill. These studies were designed to determine exposure of fish to petroleum-derived compounds, specifically aromatic hydrocarbons, and assess possible effects. Over 4000 fish were collected from >50 sites in Prince William Sound, Lower Cook Inlet, and embayments along the Kenai and Alaska Peininsulas. Biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) and hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities were measured, and used to determine degree of exposure of fish to aromatic compounds. The results showed continuing exposure through 1991 of several benthic fish species, which suggested persistent petroleum contamination of subtidal sediments. While major histopathological and reproductive effects were not documented, the potential impact on fishery resources of long-term exposure to petroleum, albeit at moderate to low levels, could not be determined from these studies.

  14. SIM.M.FF-S7: Final report on SIM/ANDIMET supplementary comparison for volume of liquids at 100 mL and 100 μL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, S.; Maldonado, J. M.; Vega, M. C.; Santalla, E.; Sica, A.; Cantero, D.; Salazar, M.; Morales, A.; Solano, P.; Rodríguez, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    A SIM/ANDIMET comparison for liquid volume using two 100 mL pycnometers and two 100 μL piston pipettes was performed between January 2012 and October 2013. The National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Bolivia was the coordinating laboratory and the Mexican NMI provided technical assistance. The participating labs were IBMETRO (Bolivia), INM (Colombia), INEN (Ecuador), INDECOPI (Peru), LACOMET (Costa Rica), LATU (Uruguay), INTN (Paraguay), and CENAM (Mexico). Based on measurements made by CENAM at the beginning and end of the comparison, the transfer standards were stable during the comparison within 0.0001 mL for the 100 mL pycnometers and 0.03 μL for the 100 μL pipettes. For 100 mL, six of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.003 % and had standardized degrees of equivalence (EN) less than 1. Two participants (INEN and INM) had EN values greater than 1. For the 100 μL pipettes, the results were corrected for the influence of altitude and seven of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.3 %. Results from INEN and some from INM and IBMETRO had EN values greater than 1 for the 100 μL pipettes. Uncertainties recommended by Guideline DKD-R 8-1 for micropipettes were included. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Foaming of mixtures of pure hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. V.; Woods, W. W.

    1950-01-01

    Mixtures of pure liquid hydrocarbons are capable of foaming. Nine hydrocarbons were mixed in pairs, in all possible combinations, and four proportions of each combination. These mixtures were sealed in glass tubes, and the foaming was tested by shaking. Mixtures of aliphatic with other aliphatic hydrocarbons, or of alkyl benzenes with other alkyl benzenes, did not foam. Mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons with alkyl benzenes did foam. The proportions of the mixtures greatly affected the foaming, the maximum foaming of 12 of 20 pairs being at the composition 20 percent aliphatic hydrocarbon, 80 percent alkyl benzene. Six seconds was the maximum foam lifetime of any of these mixtures. Aeroshell 120 lubricating oil was fractionated into 52 fractions and a residue by extraction with acetone in a fractionating extractor. The index of refraction, foam lifetime, color, and viscosity of these fractions were measured. Low viscosity and high index fractions were extracted first. The viscosity of the fractions extracted rose and the index decreased as fractionation proceeded. Foam lifetimes and color were lowest in the middle fractions. Significance is attached to the observation that none of the foam lifetimes of the fractions or residue is as high as the foam lifetime of the original Aeroshell, indicating that the foaming is not due to a particular foaming constituent, but rather to the entire mixture.

  16. Supercritical Hydrocarbon Impinging Injector Simulation Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    PC Beowulf cluster that was purchased under a previous AFOSR Grant (F49620-01-1-0432) managed by Dr. Mitat Birkan. The cluster consists of 22 Intel...computing cluster allows simulations to be conducted in a sufficiently short time period to allow investigation of the effects of operating conditions...hydrocarbon propellants are of interest to the next generation of liquid propellant rocket engines. The procured high performance computing cluster allows

  17. Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1957-01-01

    Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.

  18. Shock compression of liquid helium and helium-hydrogen mixtures : development of a cryogenic capability for shock compression of liquid helium on Z, final report for LDRD Project 141536.

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Andrew J.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Shelton, Keegan P.; Hanson, David Lester

    2010-10-01

    This final report on SNL/NM LDRD Project 141536 summarizes progress made toward the development of a cryogenic capability to generate liquid helium (LHe) samples for high accuracy equation-of-state (EOS) measurements on the Z current drive. Accurate data on He properties at Mbar pressures are critical to understanding giant planetary interiors and for validating first principles density functional simulations, but it is difficult to condense LHe samples at very low temperatures (<3.5 K) for experimental studies on gas guns, magnetic and explosive compression devices, and lasers. We have developed a conceptual design for a cryogenic LHe sample system to generate quiescent superfluid LHe samples at 1.5-1.8 K. This cryogenic system adapts the basic elements of a continuously operating, self-regulating {sup 4}He evaporation refrigerator to the constraints of shock compression experiments on Z. To minimize heat load, the sample holder is surrounded by a double layer of thermal radiation shields cooled with LHe to 5 K. Delivery of LHe to the pumped-He evaporator bath is controlled by a flow impedance. The LHe sample holder assembly features modular components and simplified fabrication techniques to reduce cost and complexity to levels required of an expendable device. Prototypes have been fabricated, assembled, and instrumented for initial testing.

  19. A semi-micro Soxhlet extraction method for the determination of extractable particulate organic matter and selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Gundel, L.A.; Wang, L.

    1989-02-01

    A semi-micro-Soxhlet extraction method has been developed for the determination of extractable particulate organic matter and selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of particulate matter collected in homes in which concentrations are about 10 ..mu..g-m/sup /minus/3/ or more. The method involves a sequential extraction in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by an optimal extraction with acetone (ACE). The extracts are then filtered in a specially developed semi-micro filtration/evaporation apparatus and brought to a final volume of 1.0 ml for extract weight determination. An aliquot of the DCM fraction is then analyzed for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using fluorescence detection for high sensitivity. 7 refs.

  20. Liquid clathrate formation in ionic liquid-aromatic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Holbrey, John D; Reichert, W Matthew; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Sheppard, Oonagh; Hardacre, Christopher; Rogers, Robin D

    2003-02-21

    1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium containing ionic liquids with hexafluorophosphate, bis(trifyl)imide, tetrafluoroborate, and chloride anions form liquid clathrates when mixed with aromatic hydrocarbons; in the system 1,3-dimethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate-benzene, the aromatic solute could be trapped in the solid state forming a crystalline 2:1 inclusion compound.

  1. Process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, I.

    1981-01-20

    A process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases utilizes iron oxide particles of unique chemical and physical properties. These particles have large surface area, and are comprised substantially of amorphous Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ containing a crystalline phase of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ and combinations thereof. In scavenging hydrogen sulfide, the iron oxide particles are suspended in a liquid which enters into intimate mixing contact with hydrocarbon gases; the hydrogen sulfide is reacted at an exceptional rate and only acid-stable reaction products are formed. Thereafter, the sweetened hydrocarbon gases are collected.

  2. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  3. A study of hydrocarbon migration events: Development and application of new methods for constraining the time of migration and an assessment of rock-fluid interactions. Final report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, R.D.; Engel, M.H.

    1993-12-31

    The authors are conducting the research to test and refine a paleomagnetic method for dating hydrocarbon migration, and to assess the chemical alteration of crude oils resulting from fluid-rock interactions. Samples were collected for paleomagnetic and organic geochemical investigations from several units. These include the Old Red Sandstone in Scotland, and the Schoolhouse Member of the Maroon Formation and the Belden Formation in Colorado. Studies of these units are completed or underway. In addition, simulation experiments, where the authors are attempting to form magnetite in the laboratory, are underway.

  4. Nearshore transport of hydrocarbons and sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 3b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, D.M.; Gibeaut, J.C.; Short, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sediment traps were deployed in nearshore subtidal areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) to monitor particulate chemistry and mineralogy. Complemented by benthic sediment chemistry and core sample stratigraphy at the study sites, results were compared to historical trends and data from other Exxon Valdez studies. These results clearly indicate the transport of oil-laden sediments from oiled shorelines to adjacent subtidal sediments. The composition of hydrocarbons adsorbed to settling particulates at sites adjacent to oiled shorelines matched the PAH pattern of weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil.

  5. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Breuker, J.H.; De H.H.; Kwant, P.B.

    1980-01-15

    A process for preparing light distillate fractions and medicinal oil from heavy hydrocarbon oils comprises two-stage hydrocracking, fractionation distillation and catalytic hydrotreatment of at least part of the fractionation residue.

  6. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Funk, Edward W.; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  7. Quantification of petroleum-type hydrocarbons in avian tissue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, M.L.; Belisle, A.A.; Patton, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Summary: Methods were developed for the analysis of 16 hydrocarbons in avian tissue. Mechanical extraction with pentane was followed by clean-up on Florisil and Silicar. Residues were determined by gas--liquid chromatography and gas-liquid, chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was applied to the analysis of liver, kidney, fat, and brain tissue of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed a mixture of hydrocarbons. Measurable concentrations of all compounds analyzed were present in all tissues except brain. Highest concentrations were in fat.

  8. Methods for estimating properties of hydrocarbons comprising asphaltenes based on their solubility

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2016-10-04

    Disclosed herein is a method of estimating a property of a hydrocarbon comprising the steps of: preparing a liquid sample of a hydrocarbon, the hydrocarbon having asphaltene fractions therein; precipitating at least some of the asphaltenes of a hydrocarbon from the liquid sample with one or more precipitants in a chromatographic column; dissolving at least two of the different asphaltene fractions from the precipitated asphaltenes during a successive dissolution protocol; eluting the at least two different dissolved asphaltene fractions from the chromatographic column; monitoring the amount of the fractions eluted from the chromatographic column; using detected signals to calculate a percentage of a peak area for a first of the asphaltene fractions and a peak area for a second of the asphaltene fractions relative to the total peak areas, to determine a parameter that relates to the property of the hydrocarbon; and estimating the property of the hydrocarbon.

  9. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  10. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse, and propellant density specific impulse.

  11. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate.

  12. Reduction of hydrocarbon emissions can be costly

    SciTech Connect

    Menke, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to share the Lone Star Greencastle Indiana Plant`s, experiences with changing raw materials in the kiln feed to reduce hydrocarbons emissions. The original change of the plant`s kiln feed composition was made in July of 1995. The plant changed the kiln feed composition for the first time since the plant opened. Shale was replaced in the kiln feed composition with clay, mill scale, and foundry sand, solely to reduce hydrocarbon emissions. At the time it was something that had to be done to keep burning liquid waste, in order to comply with the BIF Tier II limit of 20 ppm of hydrocarbon emissions. The change of raw materials did accomplish what it was supposed to by reducing the hydrocarbon emissions under the allowable limit. Plant personnel did not want to change raw materials, but did not have much of a choice, and had no idea of the repercussions that would follow. I will discuss the positives and negatives of the different raw mix compositions. 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. 29 CFR 1910.106 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline, or other hydrocarbon... means of a natural or manmade drainage system, such systems shall comply with the following: (1) (2)...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.106 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline, or other hydrocarbon... means of a natural or manmade drainage system, such systems shall comply with the following: (1) (2)...

  15. DESTRUCTION OF HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS WITH SOLVATED ELECTRONS IN THE PRESENCE OF WATER. (R826180)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model halogenated aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and halogenated phenols were dehalogenated in seconds by solvated electrons generated from sodium in both anhydrous liquid ammonia and ammonia/water solutions. The minimum sodium required to completely dehalogenate these mo...

  16. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  17. The influence of interfacial properties on the two-phase liquid flow of organic contaminants in groundwater. Final report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Demond, A.H.; Desai, F.N.; Hayes, K.F.

    1992-12-31

    DOE`s waste sites are contaminated with a variety of organic liquids. Because of their low solubility in water, organic liquids such as these will persist as separate liquid phases and be transported as such in the subsurface. Thus, an improved understanding of the factors influencing the movement of a separate organic liquid phase in the subsurface is important to DOE`s efforts to control groundwater contamination. Wettability is sometimes cited as the most important factor influencing two-phase flow in porous media. The wetting phase migrates preferentially through the smaller pores, whereas the nonwetting phase is concentrated in the larger pores. Typically, aquifers are thought of as strongly water-wet, implying that the organic liquid preferentially occupies the larger pores. But in fact, that state depends on the properties of the three interfaces of the system: between the organic liquid and water, water and the solid, and the organic liquid and the solid. Characteristics of the system which affect the interfacial properties also impact the wettability, such as the nature of the aquifer solids` surfaces, the composition of the goundwater and the properties of the organic contaminant. The alteration of wettability at DOE waste sites may be dominated by the presence of co-contaminants such as organic acids and bases which behave as surface-active agents or surfactants. Because of their physicochemical nature, surfactants will sorb preferentially at the interfaces of the system, thereby impacting the wettability and the distribution of the liquids in the porous medium. The over-all objective of this research was to determine how changes in interfacial properties affect two-phase flow. Specifically, the objective was to examine the effect of surfactant sorption on capillary pressure relationships by correlating measurements of sorption, zeta potential, interfacial tension and contact angle, with changes in the capillary pressure-saturation relationships.

  18. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei; Yokoya, Takayoshi; Kambe, Takashi; Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L. T.; Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya

    2015-07-01

    'Aromatic hydrocarbon' implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (Kxpicene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (Tc's) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting Kxpicene phase with a Tc as high as 14 K, so we now know that Kxpicene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides Kxpicene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rbxpicene and Caxpicene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for Kxpicene and Rbxpicene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of Tc that is clearly observed in some phases of aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors, suggesting behavior not explained by the standard BCS picture of superconductivity. In this article, we describe the present status of this research field, and discuss its future prospects.

  19. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.; Weber, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX)/hydrocarbon propulsion concepts for a "second generation' orbiter auxiliary propulsion system was evaluated. The most attractive fuel and system design approach identified, and the technology advancements that are needed to provide high confidence for a subsequent system development were determined. The fuel candidates were ethanol, methane, propane, and ammonia. Even though ammonia is not a hydrocarbon, it was included for evaluation because it is clean burning and has a good technology base. The major system design options were pump versus pressure feed, cryogenic versus ambient temperature RCS propellant feed, and the degree of OMS-RCS integration. Ethanol was determined to be the best fuel candidate. It is an earth-storable fuel with a vapor pressure slightly higher than monomethyl hydrazine. A pump-fed OMS was recommended because of its high specific impulse, enabling greater velocity change and greater payload capability than a pressure fed system.

  20. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  1. Radar evidence for liquid surfaces on Titan.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Donald B; Black, Gregory J; Carter, Lynn M; Ostro, Steven J

    2003-10-17

    Arecibo radar observations of Titan at 13-centimeter wavelength indicate that most of the echo power is in a diffusely scattered component but that a small specular component is present for about 75% of the subearth locations observed. These specular echoes have properties consistent with those expected for areas of liquid hydrocarbons. Knowledge of the areal extent and depth of any deposits of liquid hydrocarbons could strongly constrain the history of Titan's atmosphere and surface.

  2. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  3. Hydrocarbon fuel detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.R.; Lyons, W.R.

    1990-01-23

    This patent describes a hydrocarbon fuel composition comprising: a hydrocarbon fuel; and a detergent amount of a detergent comprising an alkenylsuccinimide prepared by reacting an alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride with a mixture of amines, wherein at least 90 weight percent of the alkenyl substituent is derived from an olefin having a carbon chain of from 10 to 30 carbons or mixtures thereof, and wherein the alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride is reacted with the mixture of amines at a mole ratio of 0.8 to 1.5 moles of the amines per mole of the alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride.

  4. Hydrocarbon Constituents of T-56 Combustor Exhaust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    May 1973 to determine feasibility of exhaust cryotrapping and to establish analytical methodology for identifying individual hydrocarbon compounds (3...midtemperature setting was at about 166°C, and 33 psig, corresponding to the conditions of many moderate-pressure ratio engines (1). Finally the high -temperature...condition of 2040C and 50 psig simulates many newer high -pressure-ratio engines, like the F-101 and F-100. Table 2 lists typical military engines and

  5. Tidal effects of disconnected hydrocarbon seas on Titan.

    PubMed

    Dermott, S F; Sagan, C

    1995-03-16

    Thermodynamic and photochemical arguments suggest that Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, has a deep ocean of liquid hydrocarbons. At visible wavelengths, Titan's surface is obscured by a thick stratospheric haze, but radar observations have revealed large regions of high surface reflectivity that are inconsistent with a global hydrocarbon ocean. Titan's surface has also been imaged at infrared wavelengths, and the highest-resolution data (obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope) show clear variations in surface albedo and/or topography. The natural interpretation of these observations is that Titan, like the Earth, has continents and oceans. But Titan's high orbital eccentricity poses a problem for this interpretation, as the effects of oceanic tidal friction would have circularized Titan's orbit for most configurations of oceans and continents. Here we argue that a more realistic topography, in which liquid hydrocarbons are confined to a number of disconnected seas or crater lakes, may satisfy both the dynamical and observational constraints.

  6. HYDROCARBON SPILL SCREENING MODEL (HSSM) VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This users guide describes the Hydrocarbon Spill Screening Model (HSSM). The model is intended for simulation of subsurface releases of light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs). The model consists of separate modules for LNAPL flow through the vadose zone, spreading in the capil...

  7. HYDROCARBON AND MTBE REMOVAL RATES DURING NATURAL ATTENUATION APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Removal rates of hydrocarbons and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) residual source floating over the water table were estimated with site characterization data at the petroleum contamination site in the US Coast Guard (USCG) air-base. S...

  8. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water. Part 2. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 37 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aliphatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For 14 systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem and another one can be in the methanol + hydrocarbon subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  9. Zeroing in on hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, I.P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1997-05-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost-reducing techniques in soil investigation and cleanup techniques. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using ground penetrating radar in combination with in house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. This article discusses the new technology. 2 figs.

  10. Hydrocarbon options emerge

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, P.

    1995-11-01

    Europe stole the scene at last week`s International Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and Halon Alternatives Conference in Washington as attendees learned more about an accelerating shift to low-cost hydrocarbon refrigerants by European equipment manufacturers. Udo Wenning, representing German refrigerator market leader Bosch-Siemens, told the conference that hydrocarbons-isobutane as refrigerant and cyclopentane to blow the insulating foam-are now used in 90% of German production. Wenning says that in all performance parameters, hydrocarbons match the hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) replacements favored in the U.S. and Japan and that, unlike HCFCs and HFCs they have low global warming potential. Their Achille`s heel is flammability, Wenning says. American equipment manufacturers aiming to sell a new generation of equipment designed for the new HFC refrigerants sought to amplify concern over flammability at the conference. {open_quotes}In a society as litigious as ours, we do not see a future for flammable refrigerants,{close_quotes} says a representative of air conditioner manufacturer Carrier. Hydrocarbon supporters such as Greenpeace say the risks are mananageable.

  11. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1988-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  12. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  13. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1987-05-19

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 6 figs.

  14. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  15. Polycyclic hydrocarbons and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gelboin, H.V.P; Ts'o, P.O.P.

    1981-01-01

    This book is Volume 3 of a three-volume series. It discusses polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment, various PAH dihydrodiols, certain enzyme reactions, carcinogenesis modifications, and tumor promotion. PAH epidemiology for quantifying cigarette smoking and air pollution risks is also covered. (JMT)

  16. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  17. Hydrocarbonization research: completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E.; Barker, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple process used for producing oil, substitute natural gas, and char by heating coal under a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. This report describes studies that were performed in a bench-scale hydrocarbonization system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period 1975 to 1978. The results of mock-up studies, coal metering valve and flowmeter development, and supporting work in an atmospheric hydrocarbonization system are also described. Oil, gas, and char yields were determined by hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.1-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at a pressure of 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 854 K. The nominal coal feed rate was 4.5 kg/h. Wyodak subbituminous coal was used for most of the experiments. A maximum oil yield of approx. 21% based on moisture- and ash-free (maf) coal was achieved in the temperature range of 810 to 840 K. Recirculating fluidized-bed, uniformly fluidized-bed, and rapid hydropyrolysis reactors were used. A series of operability tests was made with Illinois No. 6 coal to determine whether caking coal could be processed in the recirculating fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were generally unsuccessful because of agglomeration and caking problems; however, these problems were eliminated by the use of chemically pretreated coal. Hydrocarbonization experiments were carried out with Illinois No. 6 coal that had been pretreated with CaO-NaOH, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and CaO-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. Oil yields of 14, 24, and 21%, respectively, were obtained from the runs with treated coal. Gas and char yield data and the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.

  18. Mantle hydrocarbons: Abiotic or biotic?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugisaki, Ryuichi; Mimura, Koichi

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) and peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro and granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from field contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here {open_quotes}mantle hydrocarbons.{close_quotes} The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) {delta}{sup 13}C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about {minus}27{per_thousand}). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were inorganically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH{sub 4} at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C{sub 4}H{sub 10}. 76 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10.

  20. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOEpatents

    Kong, P.C.

    1997-05-06

    A method is described for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap there between. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition. 6 figs.

  1. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.

    1997-01-01

    A method for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap therebetween. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition.

  2. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.; Weber, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon propulsion systems applicable to a second generation orbiter OMS/RCS were compared, and major system/component options were evaluated. A large number of propellant combinations and system concepts were evaluated. The ground rules were defined in terms of candidate propellants, system/component design options, and design requirements. System and engine component math models were incorporated into existing computer codes for system evaluations. The detailed system evaluations and comparisons were performed to identify the recommended propellant combination and system approach.

  3. Syngas Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels through Mixed Alcohol Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Jinjing; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-13

    Synthesis gas (syngas) can be used to synthesize a variety of fuels and chemicals. Domestic transportation and military operational interests have driven continued focus on domestic syngas-based fuels production. Liquid transportation fuels may be made from syngas via four basic processes: 1) higher alcohols, 2) Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 3) methanol-to-gasoline (MTG), and 4) methanol-to-olefins (MTO) and olefins-to-gasoline/distillate (MOGD). Compared to FT and higher alcohols, MTG and MTO-MOGD have received less attention in recent years. Due to the high capital cost of these synthetic fuel plants, the production cost of the finished fuel cannot compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently evaluated one way to potentially reduce capital cost and overall production cost for MTG by combining the methanol and MTG syntheses in a single reactor. The concept consists of mixing the conventional MTG catalyst (i.e. HZSM-5) with an alcohol synthesis catalyst. It was found that a methanol synthesis catalyst, stable at high temperature (i.e. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3) [1], when mixed with ZSM-5, was active for syngas conversion. Relatively high syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed as they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbon product. However, selectivity control was difficult to achieve as formation of undesirable durene and light hydrocarbons was problematic [2]. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate other potential composite catalyst systems and optimize the reactions conditions for the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon fuels, through the use of mixed alcohol intermediates. Mixed alcohols are of interest as they have recently been reported to produce higher yields of gasoline compared to methanol [3]. 1. Lebarbier, V.M., Dagle, R.A., Kovarik, L., Lizarazo-Adarme, J.A., King, D.L., Palo, D.R., Catalyst Science & Technology, 2012, 2

  4. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years.

  5. Design and development of a self-regenerative contained-liquid membrane process for combined SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, S.; LeBlanc, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The lack of an efficient, cost effective process for the removal of sulfur compounds from gas streams (either gasified coal or flue gases resulting from coal combustion) is a major obstacle to the economic utilization of high sulfur Ohio coal. The most economically favorable processes for the desulfurization of flue gases are the regenerable processes as opposed to the `throwaway` processes. In addition, recovery of sulfur from these gases in the form of elemental sulfur or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} does seem to be an essential step in the economic utilization of high sulfur coal. n light of these observations, a recently proposed FGD process which regenerates the scrubbing liquor ``in-situ`` as well as recovering a concentrated S0{sub 2} stream for use in sulfuric acid production, is quite promising. Conventional processes, presently in operation, employ large packed tower scrubbers for S0{sub 2} absorption which results in very high capital expenditures and operating costs. Recent developments in membrane technology can now provide us with an alternative to these large packed towers for stack gas cleanup. In this research we have investigated the use of novel membrane contactors for replacing more conventional packed absorbers. Contained-liquid membranes, exploiting carrier mediated transpose, enable the scrubbing liquid to be regenerated ``in-site,`` in a single process unit. Microporous single-ply polymeric membranes have recently been used in gas-liquid and liquid-liquid contactors. These membranes are fashioned into a tubular shape (i.e. long, thin fibers) for use in mass transfer contactors.

  6. Total hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Shamat, N. ); Crumpler, E. ); Roddan, A. )

    1991-10-01

    Measuring and controlling organic emissions from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor total hydrocarbon emissions (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic emissions. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator emissions; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC emissions.

  7. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  8. Hydrocarbon bioremediation -- An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Reisinger, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation is the process that transforms xenobiotics introduced into the environment to a less toxic or innocuous form, or mineralizes them to inorganic species. The processes can be carried out through either aerobic or anaerobic pathways by indigenous heterotrophs or by specially engineered organisms. For some xenobiotics, the process can also be carried out by cometabolic processes, which use another compound as the carbon and energy source. This technique can be applied either in situ or ex situ. An overview is presented of real-world applications of a variety of hydrocarbon bioremediation approaches, including biopiling, bioventing, bioslurping, landfarming, electrobioreclamation, and biovertical circulation wells. Problems in translating laboratory and field-scale pilot test data to full-scale operating systems are discussed. Such issues include biodegradation enhancement, nutrient and electron acceptor delivery, alternative electron acceptors, and integration of biological, chemical, and physical approaches to hydrocarbon remediation.

  9. Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, C.; Dreyer, N.A.; Satterfield, M.H.; Levin, L.

    1993-12-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis of increased kidney cancer risk after exposure to hydrocarbons, especially those present in gasoline, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of approximately 100,000 male refinery workers from five petroleum companies. A review of 18,323 death certificates identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories, containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject, were found for 98% of the cases and 94% of the controls. Tb each job, industrial hygienists assigned semiquantitative ratings for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the more volatile hydrocarbons. Ratings of {open_quotes}present{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}absent{close_quotes} were assigned for seven additional exposures: higher boiling hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chlorinated solvents, ionizing radiation, and lead. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the hydrocarbon category of principal a priori interest, the nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.9). Analyses of cumulative exposures and of exposures in varying time periods before kidney cancer occurrence also produced null or near-null results. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject (average duration 9.2 years or 40% of the refiner&y work history), three groups appeared to be at increased risk: laborers (RR = 1.9,95% CI 1.0-3.9); workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5,95% CI 0.9-6.6); and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.5-9.9). 53 refs., 7 tabs.

  10. Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. Effect of hydrocarbons on plasma treatment of NOx

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1997-12-31

    Lean burn gasoline engine exhausts contain a significant amount of hydrocarbons in the form of propene. Diesel engine exhausts contain little gaseous hydrocarbon; however, they contain a significant amount of liquid-phase hydrocarbons (known as the volatile organic fraction) in the particulates. The objective of this paper is to examine the fate of NO{sub x} when an exhaust gas mixture that contains hydrocarbons is subjected to a plasma. The authors will show that the hydrocarbons promote the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}, but not the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. The oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} is strongly coupled with the hydrocarbon oxidation chemistry. This result suggests that gas-phase reactions in the plasma alone cannot lead to the chemical reduction of NO{sub x}. Any reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} can only be accomplished through heterogeneous reactions of NO{sub 2} with surfaces or particulates.

  13. Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties for Halogenated Hydrocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Yukihiro

    The predictive methods of thermodynamic properties are discussed with respect to the halogenated hydrocarbons using as working fluids for refrigeration and heat pump cycles. The methods introduced into this paper can be calculated by the limited information; critical properties, normal boiling point and acentric factor. The results of prediction are compared with the experimental values of PVT property, vapor pressure and saturated liquid density. On the basis of these comparisons, Lydersen's method for predicting the critical properties, the generalized vapor pressure correlation by Ashizawa et, al., and Hankinson-Thomson's method for predicting saturated liquid density can be recommended. With respect to the equation of state, either Soave equation or Peng-Robinson equation is effective in calculating the thermodynamic properties except high density region.

  14. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    SciTech Connect

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  15. Mo-Fe catalysts supported on activated carbon for synthesis of liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch process: effect of Mo addition on reducibility, activity, and hydrocarbon selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wenping Ma; Edwin L. Kugler; James Wright; Dady B. Dadyburjor

    2006-12-15

    The effects of Mo loading (0-12 wt %) on the properties of activated-carbon- (AC-) supported Fe-Cu-K catalysts and their performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are studied. Physicochemical properties studied include particle size, reducibility, and dispersion, and catalytic properties include activity, selectivity, and stability. Catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and CO chemisorption. Catalyst performance was studied at 310-320{sup o}C, 2.2 MPa, 3 Nl/g-cat/h, and H{sub 2}/CO = 0.9. Reaction results in a fixed-bed reactor show that addition of 6% Mo into the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalyst improves catalyst stability without sacrificing activity, but activity is suppressed dramatically on a 12% Mo-loaded catalyst. Detectable hydrocarbons of C{sub 1} to C{sub 34} are produced on the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalysts with or without Mo. However, the addition of Mo results in the production of more CH{sub 4} and less C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons. The Mo promoter greatly enhances secondary reactions of olefins, leading to a large amount of internal olefins (i.e., other than 1-olefins) in the product. TPR shows that a strong interaction between Fe and Mo oxides is present, and the extent of reduction of Fe is suppressed after addition of Mo to the Fe-Cu-K catalyst. CO-chemisorption and XRD studies show increased iron dispersion and decreased particle size of the iron carbide and iron oxide after the addition of Mo. Segregation of iron active sites, thereby preventing them from agglomerating, and a larger number of active sites on the 6% Mo catalyst are possible reasons for the improved stability and higher activity of Mo-promoted catalysts. 54 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Fracture-toughness tests and displacement and crack-stability analyses of round-bar bend specimens of liquid-phase-sintered tungsten. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, J.H.; Baratta, F.I.; Zalinka, J.J.

    1991-10-01

    Plane strain fracture toughness tests were performed using the recently proposed round bar bend test procedure with a liquid-phase sintered tungsten alloy. The tests included a direct comparison of fracture toughness from rectangular and round bend specimens and measurements of load line compliance using the unloading technique of J integral fracture tests. Complementary displacement and crack growth stability analyses of the round bar were performed as an extension of recent work in these two areas.

  17. Radical scavengers from heavy hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Junichi

    1996-10-01

    The hydrogen-donating properties of some hydrocarbons form the basis for processes such as coal liquefaction and heavy oil upgrading. However, these hydrocarbons have seldom been used for other purposes, because their potential applications have not been well recognized. Research has indicated that these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons can be used in important reactions as radical scavengers and have properties particular to those of pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms. Over years of study researchers have found that pure hydrocarbons with radical-scavenging effects nearly as high as those in conventional hindered phenolic antioxidants can be produced from petroleum, and these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons exhibit such effects even in oxidative atmospheres (i.e., they function as antioxidants). He has also shown that these mixtures have some properties particular to pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms, and they`ve seen that a mechanism based on the steric effects appears when these hydrocarbons are used in heavy oil hydroprocessing. Hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons should be a viable resource in many applications. In this article, he presents radical-scavenging abilities, characteristics as pure hydrocarbons, and applications on the basis of the studies.

  18. Hydrocarbon extraction agents and microbiological processes for their production

    SciTech Connect

    Zajic, J.E.; Gerson, D.F.

    1987-02-03

    A process is described for producing extraction agents useful in the separation of hydrocarbon values from mineral deposits. It comprises cultivating by an aerobic fermentation, in a growth promoting medium and under growth promoting conditions, and on a liquid hydrocarbon substrate, a selected microbial strain of a species of microorganism selected from the group consisting of Arthrobacter terregens, Arthrobacter xerosis, Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium lepus, Corynebacterium xerosis, Nocardia petroleophila, and Vibrio ficheri. This is done to produce an extraction agent of microbiological origin in the fermentation medium, subsequently recovering the extraction agent from the fermentation medium and drying the agent to powdered form.

  19. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2005-11-15

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  20. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.