Science.gov

Sample records for liquid lithium environment

  1. Erosive effects in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Down, M.G.; Bagnall, C.; Keeton, A.R.; Tsu, T.C.

    1982-09-01

    Results are reported of experimental testing to investigate the potential erosive effect of liquid lithium at 270/sup 0/C and velocities up to 24 ms/sup -1/, on type 304 stainless steel. Two experiments were performed in order to compare data from a conventional flow-through isothermal test leg with those from specimens attached to the circumference of a rotating disc in static lithium.

  2. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  3. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  4. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium wallsa)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Widmann, K.; Tritz, K.

    2015-05-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasm surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  5. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  6. Lithium-Air and ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The final portion of this project was accomplished at Sandia National Labs, Livermore, with the overall goal being to optimize lithium-air cells with an ionic liquid electrolyte. Both of these are potential future routes for lithium-ion technology. Lithiumair presents the advantage of higher gravimetric energy density, and ionic liquids present the advantage of greater hydrophobicity and much lower volatility, along with a larger window of electrochemical stability. Ionic liquids however have several drawbacks for the battery industry. Currently they are not as cost effective as many organic solvents. Additionally, because of the added viscosity of ionic interactions compared to the typical dipole interactions of a solvent, the ionic conductivity is lower than for common organic solvents.

  7. Liquid electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, George E.

    A number of advances in electrolytes have occurred in the past 4 years, which have contributed to increased safety, wider temperature range of operation, better cycling and other enhancements to lithium-ion batteries. The changes to basic electrolyte solutions that have occurred to accomplish these advances are discussed in detail. The solvent components that have led to better low-temperature operation are also considered. Also, additives that have resulted in better structure of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) are presented as well as proposed methods of operation of these additives. Other additives that have lessened the flammability of the electrolyte when exposed to air and also caused lowering of the heat of reaction with the oxidized positive electrode are discussed. Finally, additives that act to open current-interrupter devices by releasing a gas under overcharge conditions and those that act to cycle between electrodes to alleviate overcharging are presented. As a class, these new electrolytes are often called "functional electrolytes". Possibilities for further progress in this most important area are presented. Another area of active work in the recent past has been the reemergence of ambient-temperature molten salt electrolytes applied to alkali metal and lithium-ion batteries. This revival of an older field is due to the discovery of new salt types that have a higher voltage window (particularly to positive potentials) and also have greatly increased hydrolytic stability compared to previous ionic liquids. While practical batteries have not yet emerged from these studies, the increase in the number of active researchers and publications in the area demonstrates the interest and potentialities of the field. Progress in the field is briefly reviewed. Finally, recent results on the mechanisms for capacity loss on shelf and cycling in lithium-ion cells are reviewed. Progress towards further market penetration by lithium-ion cells hinges on improved

  8. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium wallsa)

    DOE PAGES

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; ...

    2015-05-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasm surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceedmore » several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.« less

  9. Lithium solvation in bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lassègues, Jean-Claude; Grondin, Joseph; Talaga, David

    2006-12-28

    The lithium solvation in (1 -x)(EMI-TFSI), xLiTFSI ionic liquids where EMI(+) is the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and TFSI(-) the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion, is shown by Raman spectroscopy to involve essentially [Li(TFSI)(2)](-) anionic clusters for 0 < x < 0.4, but addition of stoichiometric amounts of solvents S such as oligoethers changes the lithium solvation into [Li(S)(m)](+) cationic clusters; the lithium transference number in TFSI-based ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium batteries should thus be strongly improved.

  10. Advances in primary lithium liquid cathode batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, George E.

    1989-05-01

    Recent work on cell development and various aspects of cell chemistry and cell development of lithium/thionyl chloride liquid cathode batteries is reviewed. As a result of safety studies, a number of cell sizes can now be considered satisfactory for many applications and the energy densities of these cells is higher than any other developed battery system. Primary batteries operate with low to moderate currents and the anode delay effect appears to be under reasonable control. Reserve cells are in the design stage and operate at high to very high power densities as well as very high energy densities. The nature of the anode film and the operation of the lithium anode has been studied with substantial success and understanding has grown accordingly. Also, studies of the structure of the electrolyte and the effects on the electrolyte of impurities and additives have led to improved understanding in this area as well. Work in progress on new electrolytes is reviewed. The state of the art of mathematical modeling is also discussed and it is expected that this work will continue to develop.

  11. Liquid-free lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Balaish, Moran; Peled, Emanuel; Golodnitsky, Diana; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-01-07

    Non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries are considered as most advanced power sources, albeit they are facing numerous challenges concerning almost each cell component. Herein, we diverge from the conventional and traditional liquid-based non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries to a Li-O2 system based on a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE-) and operated at a temperature higher than the melting point of the polymer electrolyte, where useful and most applicable conductivity values are easily achieved. The proposed SPE-based Li-O2 cell is compared to Li-O2 cells based on ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (glyme) through potentiodynamic and galvanostatic studies, showing a higher cell discharge voltage by 80 mV and most significantly, a charge voltage lower by 400 mV. The solid-state battery demonstrated a comparable discharge-specific capacity to glyme-based Li-O2 cells when discharged at the same current density. The results shown here demonstrate that the safer PEO-based Li-O2 battery is highly advantageous and can potentially replace the contingent of liquid-based cells upon further investigation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Recovery of tritium from a liquid lithium blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from liquid lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium by thermal regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to study such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. Recent static sorption experiments have shown the effects of lithium temperature and possible impurities on the sorption of tritium. Diffusivity data, obtained from previous tritium recovery experiments, were evaluated to show the importance of the yttrium surface condition in controlling the release of tritium.

  13. Study of the microdynamics of liquid lithium and lithium-hydrogen melt by inelastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Blagoveshchenskii, N. M.; Morozov, V. A.; Novikov, A. G.; Pashnev, M. A. Savostin, V. V.; Shimkevich, A. L.

    2007-05-15

    The frequency spectra of vibrations of Li atoms at temperatures of 22, 227, 397, and 557 deg. C and the lithium-hydrogen melt (98 at % {sup 7}Li, 2 at % H) at 557 deg. C have been obtained from the experimental neutron inelastic scattering data. On the basis of the frequency spectra, the temperature dependences of the mean-square displacement of Li atoms, the mean-square amplitudes of atomic vibrations, and the velocity autocorrelation function of atoms have been calculated. The speed of sound in liquid lithium has been estimated within the Debye model. The frequency spectra of lithium-hydrogen melt and solid lithium hydride are compared. A generalized frequency spectrum of vibrations of hydrogen atoms in lithium-hydrogen melt is obtained.

  14. Mechanical Design of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    R. Ellis, R. Kaita, H. Kugel, G. Paluzzi, M. Viola and R. Nygren

    2009-02-19

    The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) on NSTX will be the first test of a fully-toroidal liquid lithium divertor in a high-power magnetic confinement device. It will replace part of the lower outboard divertor between a specified inside and outside radius, and ultimately provide a lithium surface exposed to the plasma with enough depth to absorb a significant particle flux. There are numerous technical challenges involved in the design. The lithium layer must be as thin as possible, and maintained at a temperature between 200 and 400 degrees Celsius to minimize lithium evaporation. This requirement leads to the use of a thick copper substrate, with a thin stainless steel layer bonded to the plasma-facing surface. A porous molybdenum layer is then plasma-sprayed onto the stainless steel, to provide a coating that facilitates full wetting of the surface by the liquid lithium. Other challenges include the design of a robust, vacuumcompatible heating and cooling system for the LLD. Replacement graphite tiles that provided the proper interface between the existing outer divertor and the LLD also had to be designed, as well as accommodation for special LLD diagnostics. This paper describes the mechanical design of the LLD, and presents analyses showing the performance limits of the LLD.

  15. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A

    2014-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  16. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  17. Different roles of ionic liquids in lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Liu, Yang; Chen, Pu

    2016-12-01

    Ionic liquids are often named solvents of the future because of flexibility in design. This statement has given credence that ionic liquids should simply replace the problematic electrolytes of lithium batteries. As a result, the promising potentials of ionic liquids in electrochemical systems are somehow obscured by inappropriate expectations. We summarize recent advancements in this field, especially, ionic liquids as standalone electrolytes, additives, plasticizers in gel polymer electrolytes, and binders; and attempt to shed light on the future pathway of this area of research. Ionic liquids are not dilute media to serve as pure solvents in electrochemical systems where mobility of ions is the priority; instead, they can contribute to the ionic conductivity of various components in a battery system. Owing to the enormous possibilities of ionic liquids, it is not merely a matter of choice. Ionic liquids can be used to design novel types of electrolytes for a new generation of lithium batteries. A promising possibility, which is still at a very early stage, is supercooled ionic liquid crystals for fast ion diffusion through the guided channels of a liquid-like medium. This, of course, will be a breakthrough in the realm of electrochemistry, far beyond lithium battery field, when materialized.

  18. Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; R. Doerner; G. Antar; M. Baldwin; R. Conn; P. Efthimion; M. Finkenthal; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; S. Krashenninikov; H. Kugel; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; J. Menard; T. Munsat; D. Stutman; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Whyte; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov

    2002-10-15

    We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors.

  19. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  20. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and themore » electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.« less

  1. Modeling of Spherical Torus Plasmas for Liquid Lithium Wall Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; S. Jardin; B. Jones; C. Kessel; R. Majeski; J. Spaleta; R. Woolley; L. Zakharo; B. Nelson; M. Ulrickson

    2002-01-29

    Liquid metal walls have the potential to solve first-wall problems for fusion reactors, such as heat load and erosion of dry walls, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. In the near term, such walls can serve as the basis for schemes to stabilize magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Furthermore, the low recycling characteristics of lithium walls can be used for particle control. Liquid lithium experiments have already begun in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U). Plasmas limited with a toroidally localized limiter have been investigated, and experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter are in progress. A liquid surface module (LSM) has been proposed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In this larger ST, plasma currents are in excess of 1 MA and a typical discharge radius is about 68 cm. The primary motivation for the LSM is particle control, and options for mounting it on the horizontal midplane or in the divertor region are under consideration. A key consideration is the magnitude of the eddy currents at the location of a liquid lithium surface. During plasma start up and disruptions, the force due to such currents and the magnetic field can force a conducting liquid off of the surface behind it. The Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) has been used to estimate the magnitude of this effect. This program is a two dimensional, time dependent, free boundary simulation code that solves the MHD equations for an axisymmetric toroidal plasma. From calculations that match actual ST equilibria, the eddy current densities can be determined at the locations of the liquid lithium. Initial results have shown that the effects could be significant, and ways of explicitly treating toroidally local structures are under investigation.

  2. Thermocapillary and thermoelectric effects in liquid lithium plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Morley, N. B.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2009-06-01

    Recent experiments have renewed interest in the use of liquid lithium as a plasma facing component (PFC). The liquid metal surface will experience a number of effects which are considered in the present work with simple analytical and more complete computational models. These include the thermal response under fusion relevant heat loads causing thermocapillary and thermoelectric effects. Analytical solutions for simplified flow are given showing the surface velocity of these liquid metals due to thermocapillary effects in conjunction with magnetohydrodynamic drag. A parameter describing dominant conduction or convection is developed which shows that thin-films relevant to NSTX will be conduction dominated. Thermoelectric effects could propel liquid lithium with velocities of 10 s of cm/s providing a significant boost to energy transport.

  3. Simulations of NSTX with a Liquid Lithium Divertor Module

    SciTech Connect

    D. P. Stotler, R. Maingi, H.W. Kugel, A. Yu. Pigarov, T.D. Rognlien, V.A. Soukhanovskii

    2008-07-08

    The UEDGE edge plasma transport code is used to model the effect of the reduced recycling provided by the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) module that will be installed in NSTX. UEDGE's transport coefficients are calibrated against an existing NSTX shot using midplane and divertor diagnostic data. The LLD is then incorporated into the simulations as a reduction in the recycling coefficient over the outer divertor. Heat transfer calculations performed using the resulting heat flux profiles indicate that lithium evaporation will be negligible for pulse lengths < 2 s at low (~ 2 MW) input power. At high input power (~ 7 MW), the pulse length may have to be restricted.

  4. Simulations of NSTX with a Liquid Lithium Divertor Module

    SciTech Connect

    Stotler, D. P.; Maingi, R.; Zakharov, L. E.; Kugel, H. W.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2010-02-18

    A strategy to develop self-consistent simulations of the behavior of lithium in the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) module to be installed in NSTX is described. In this initial stage of the plan, the UEDGE edge plasma transport code is used to simulate an existing NSTX shot, with UEDGE's transport coefficients set using midplane and divertor diagnostic data. The LLD is incorporated into the simulations as a reduction in the recycling coefficient over the outer divertor. Heat transfer calculations performed using the resulting heat flux profiles provide preliminary estimates on operating limits for the LLD as well as input data for subsequent steps in the LLD modeling effort.

  5. Comparison of H-Mode Plasmas Diverted to Solid and Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita, et. al.

    2012-07-20

    Experiments were conducted with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) in NSTX. Among the goals was to use lithium recoating to sustain deuterium (D) retention by a static liquid lithium surface, approximating the ability of flowing liquid lithium to maintain chemical reactivity. Lithium evaporators were used to deposit lithium on the LLD surface. Improvements in plasma edge conditions were similar to those with lithiated graphite plasma-facing components (PFCs), including an increase in confinement over discharges without lithiumcoated PFCs and ELM reduction during H-modes. With the outer strike point on the LLD, the D retention in the LLD was about the same as that for solid lithium coatings on graphite, or about two times that achieved without lithium PFC coatings. There were also indications of contamination of the LLD surface, possibly due erosion and redeposition of carbon from PFCs. Flowing lithium may thus be needed for chemically active PFCs during long-pulse operation.

  6. Electrical detection of liquid lithium leaks from pipe jointsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. A.; Jaworski, M. A.; Mehl, J.; Kaita, R.; Mozulay, R.

    2014-11-01

    A test stand for flowing liquid lithium is under construction at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. As liquid lithium reacts with atmospheric gases and water, an electrical interlock system for detecting leaks and safely shutting down the apparatus has been constructed. A defense in depth strategy is taken to minimize the risk and impact of potential leaks. Each demountable joint is diagnosed with a cylindrical copper shell electrically isolated from the loop. By monitoring the electrical resistance between the pipe and the copper shell, a leak of (conductive) liquid lithium can be detected. Any resistance of less than 2 kΩ trips a relay, shutting off power to the heaters and pump. The system has been successfully tested with liquid gallium as a surrogate liquid metal. The circuit features an extensible number of channels to allow for future expansion of the loop. To ease diagnosis of faults, the status of each channel is shown with an analog front panel LED, and monitored and logged digitally by LabVIEW.

  7. Electrical detection of liquid lithium leaks from pipe joints

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. A. Jaworski, M. A.; Mehl, J.; Kaita, R.; Mozulay, R.

    2014-11-15

    A test stand for flowing liquid lithium is under construction at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. As liquid lithium reacts with atmospheric gases and water, an electrical interlock system for detecting leaks and safely shutting down the apparatus has been constructed. A defense in depth strategy is taken to minimize the risk and impact of potential leaks. Each demountable joint is diagnosed with a cylindrical copper shell electrically isolated from the loop. By monitoring the electrical resistance between the pipe and the copper shell, a leak of (conductive) liquid lithium can be detected. Any resistance of less than 2 kΩ trips a relay, shutting off power to the heaters and pump. The system has been successfully tested with liquid gallium as a surrogate liquid metal. The circuit features an extensible number of channels to allow for future expansion of the loop. To ease diagnosis of faults, the status of each channel is shown with an analog front panel LED, and monitored and logged digitally by LabVIEW.

  8. Velocity Measurements of Thermoelectric Driven Flowing Liquid Lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szott, Matthew; Xu, Wenyu; Fiflis, Peter; Haehnlein, Ian; Kapat, Aveek; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid lithium has garnered additional attention as a PFC due to its several advantages over solid PFCs, including reduced erosion and thermal fatigue, increased heat transfer, higher device lifetime, and enhanced plasma performance due to the establishment of low recycling regimes at the wall. The Lithium Metal Infused Trenches concept (LiMIT) has demonstrated thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic flow of liquid lithium through horizontal open-faced metal trenches with measured velocities varying from 3.7+/-0.5 cm/s in the 1.76 T field of HT-7 to 22+/-3 cm/s in the SLiDE facility at UIUC at 0.059 T. To demonstrate the versatility of the concept, a new LiMIT design using narrower trenches shows steady state, thermoelectric-driven flow at an arbitrary angle from horizontal. Velocity characteristics are measured and discussed. Based on this LiMIT concept, a new limiter design has been developed to be tested on the mid-plane of the EAST plasma. Preliminary modelling suggests lithium flow of 6 cm/s in this device. Additionally, recent testing at the Magnum-PSI facility has given encouraging results, and velocity measurements in relation to magnetic field strength and plasma flux are also presented.

  9. Effect of Energetic Plasma Flux on Flowing Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Jung, Soonwook; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Szott, Mathew; Ruzic, David

    2014-10-01

    An operational liquid lithium system with steady state flow driven by thermo-electric magneto-hydrodynamic force and capable of constantly refreshing the plasma exposed surface have been demonstrated at U of I. To evaluate the system performance in reactor relevant conditions, specifically to understand the effect of disruptive plasma events on the performance of the liquid metal PFCs, the setup was integrated to a pulsed plasma generator. A coaxial plasma generator drives the plasma towards a theta pinch which preferentially heats the ions, simulating ELM like flux, and the plasma is further guided towards the target chamber which houses the flowing lithium system. The effect of the incident flux is examined using diagnostic tools including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, rogowski coils, Ion energy analyzers, and fast frame spectral image acquisition with specific optical filters. The plasma have been well characterized and a density of ~1021 m-3, with electron temperature ~10 - 20 eV is measured, and final plasma velocities of 34 - 74 kms-1 have been observed. Calorimetric measurements using planar molybdenum targets indicate a maximum plasma energy (with 6 kV plasma gun and 20 kV theta pinch) of 0.08 MJm-2 with plasma divergence effects resulting in marginal reduction of 40 +/- 23 J in plasma energy. Further results from the other diagnostic tools, using the flowing lithium targets and the planar targets coated with lithium will be presented. DOE DE-SC0008587.

  10. Solvation of lithium salts in protic ionic liquids: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Cabeza, Óscar; Russina, Olga; Triolo, Alessandro; Gallego, Luis J; Varela, Luis M

    2014-01-23

    The structure of solutions of lithium nitrate in a protic ionic liquid with a common anion, ethylammonium nitrate, at room temperature is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Several structural properties, such as density, radial distribution functions, hydrogen bonds, spatial distribution functions, and coordination numbers, are analyzed in order to get a picture of the solvation of lithium cations in this hydrogen-bonded, amphiphilically nanostructured environment. The results reveal that the ionic liquid mainly retains its structure upon salt addition, the interaction between the ammonium group of the cation and the nitrate anion being only slightly perturbed by the addition of the salt. Lithium cations are solvated by embedding them in the polar nanodomains of the solution formed by the anions, where they coordinate with the latter in a solid-like fashion reminiscent of a pseudolattice structure. Furthermore, it is shown that the average coordination number of [Li](+) with the anions is 4, nitrate coordinating [Li](+) in both monodentate and bidentate ways, and that in the second coordination layer both ethylammonium cations and other lithiums are also found. Additionally, the rattling motion of lithium ions inside the cages formed by their neighboring anions, indicative of the so-called caging effect, is confirmed by the analysis of the [Li](+) velocity autocorrelation functions. The overall picture indicates that the solvation of [Li](+) cations in this amphiphilically nanostructured environment takes place by means of a sort of inhomogeneous nanostructural solvation, which we could refer to as nanostructured solvation, and which could be a universal solvation mechanism in ionic liquids.

  11. Susceptibility of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel to liquid metal induced embrittlement by lithium-lead solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, B.A.; Edwards, G.R.

    1984-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the liquid metal induced embrittlement susceptibility of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel exposed to lithium and 1a/o lead-lithium at temperatures between 190/sup 0/C and 525/sup 0/C. This research was part of an ongoing effort to evaluate the compatibility of liquid lithium solutions with potential fusion reactor containment materials. Of particular interest was the microstructure present in a weld heat-affected zone, a microstructure known to be highly susceptible to corrosive attack by liquid lead-lithium solutions. Embrittlement susceptibility was determined by conducting tension tests on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel exposed to an inert environment as well as to a lead-lithium liquid and observing the change in tensile behavior. The 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel was also given a base plate heat treatment to observe its embrittlement susceptibility to 1a/o lead-lithium. The base plate microstructure was severely embrittled at temperatures less than 500/sup 0/C. Tempering the base plate was effective in restoring adequate ductility to the steel.

  12. Ionic liquid based lithium battery electrolytes: charge carriers and interactions derived by density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Angenendt, Knut; Johansson, Patrik

    2011-06-23

    The solvation of lithium salts in ionic liquids (ILs) leads to the creation of a lithium ion carrying species quite different from those found in traditional nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes. The most striking differences are that these species are composed only of ions and in general negatively charged. In many IL-based electrolytes, the dominant species are triplets, and the charge, stability, and size of the triplets have a large impact on the total ion conductivity, the lithium ion mobility, and also the lithium ion delivery at the electrode. As an inherent advantage, the triplets can be altered by selecting lithium salts and ionic liquids with different anions. Thus, within certain limits, the lithium ion carrying species can even be tailored toward distinct important properties for battery application. Here, we show by DFT calculations that the resulting charge carrying species from combinations of ionic liquids and lithium salts and also some resulting electrolyte properties can be predicted.

  13. An imidazolium based ionic liquid electrolyte for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Kwang; Matic, Aleksandar; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Jacobsson, Per

    An electrolyte for lithium batteries based on the ionic liquid 3-methy-1-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethysulfony)imide (PMIMTFSI) complexed with lithium bis(trifluoromethysulfony)imide (LiTFSI) at a molar ratio of 1:1 has been investigated. The electrolyte shows a high ionic conductivity (∼1.2 × 10 -3 S cm -1) at room temperature. Over the whole investigated temperature range the ionic conductivity is more than one order of magnitude higher than for an analogue electrolyte based on N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Py 14TFSI) complexed with LiTFSI and used here as a benchmark. Raman results indicate furthermore that the degree of lithium coordinated TFSI is slightly lower in the electrolyte based on PMIMTFSI and thus that the Li + charge carriers should be higher than in electrolytes based on Py 14TFSI. An ionic liquid gel electrolyte membrane was obtained by soaking a fibrous fully interconnected membrane, made of electrospun P(VdF-HFP), in the electrolyte. The gel electrolyte was cycled in Li/ionic liquid polymer electrolyte/Li cells over 15 days and in Li/LiFePO 4 cells demonstrating good interfacial stability and highly stable discharge capacities with a retention of >96% after 50 cycles (∼146 mAh g -1).

  14. Liquid crystal deposition on poled, single crystalline lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath, S. C.; Pimputkar, K. R.; Pronschinske, A. M.; Pearl, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanisms for molecular organization at poled ferroelectric surfaces, single crystalline lithium niobate (LN), 'Z-cut' along the (0 0 0 1) plane, has been prepared and characterized and subsequently exposed to liquid crystal molecules. As a model system we chose to study the anchoring of 4- n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) to LN. Liquid crystalline films are of interest because of their useful electronic and optical properties as well as chemical sensing attributes. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface contact angle measurements (CA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface of lithium niobate as well as the nature of 8CB films grown on the surface. Atomically flat LN surfaces were prepared as a support for monolayer thick, 8CB molecular domains. 8CB liquid crystal molecules were deposited by an ambient vaporization technique and the films were analyzed using XPS and CA. Understanding electrostatic anchoring mechanisms and thin film organization for this molecule on uniformly poled surfaces allows for a fuller appreciation of how molecular deposition of other polarizable molecules on periodically poled and patterned poled lithium niobate surfaces would occur.

  15. Structural properties of lithium atom under weakly coupled plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S.; Saha, J. K.; Chandra, R.; Mukherjee, T. K.

    2016-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Ritz variational technique with a Hylleraas basis set is being tested for the first time to estimate the structural modifications of a lithium atom embedded in a weakly coupled plasma environment. The Debye-Huckel potential is used to mimic the weakly coupled plasma environment. The wave functions for both the helium-like lithium ion and the lithium atom are expanded in the explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis set which fully takes care of the electron-electron correlation effect. Due to the continuum lowering under plasma environment, the ionization potential of the system gradually decreases leading to the destabilization of the atom. The excited states destabilize at a lower value of the plasma density. The estimated ionization potential agrees fairly well with the few available theoretical estimates. The variation of one and two particle moments, dielectric susceptibility and magnetic shielding constant, with respect to plasma density is also been discussed in detail.

  16. Structural properties of lithium atom under weakly coupled plasma environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, S.; Saha, J. K.

    2016-04-15

    The Rayleigh-Ritz variational technique with a Hylleraas basis set is being tested for the first time to estimate the structural modifications of a lithium atom embedded in a weakly coupled plasma environment. The Debye-Huckel potential is used to mimic the weakly coupled plasma environment. The wave functions for both the helium-like lithium ion and the lithium atom are expanded in the explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis set which fully takes care of the electron-electron correlation effect. Due to the continuum lowering under plasma environment, the ionization potential of the system gradually decreases leading to the destabilization of the atom. The excited states destabilize at a lower value of the plasma density. The estimated ionization potential agrees fairly well with the few available theoretical estimates. The variation of one and two particle moments, dielectric susceptibility and magnetic shielding constant, with respect to plasma density is also been discussed in detail.

  17. Investigation of parameters of interaction of hydrogen isotopes with liquid lithium and lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tazhibayeva, I. L. Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.; Ponkratov, Yu. V.; Barsukov, N. I.; Tulubayev, Ye. Yu.; Baklanov, V. V.; Gnyrya, V. S.; Kenzhin, Ye. A.

    2015-12-15

    In this study, the effect of reactor irradiation on the processes of interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) is considered. The experiments are carried out by the gas-absorption method with use of a specially designed ampoule device. The results of investigation of the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium CPS under conditions of reactor irradiation are described; namely, these are the temperature dependences of the rate constant for the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium at different reactor powers, the activation energies of the processes, and the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius dependence. The effect of increasing absorption of hydrogen by the samples under investigation as a result of the reactor irradiation is fixed. The effect can be explained by increasing mobility of hydrogen in liquid lithium due to hot spots in lithium bulk and the interaction of helium and tritium ions (formed as a result of the nuclear reaction of {sup 6}Li with neutron) with a surface hydride film.

  18. The Role of Dissolved Gas in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Secondary Lithium Metal Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-07

    devices use lithium - ion batteries comprised of a graphite anode and metal oxide cathode. Lithium , being the third-lightest element, is already synonymous...support shuttling lithium ions ( battery cycling) such as the separator, electrolyte, and cathode and anode superstructures contribute most of the...The Role of Dissolved Gas in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Secondary Lithium Metal Batteries Johanna K. Stark1, Yi Ding2, and Paul A. Kohl1

  19. Preparation of the liquid lithium divertor plates for NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygren, R. E.; McKee, G. R.; Fordham, J. A.; Lewis, S. A.; Kugel, H.; Ellis, R. A.; Viola, M. E.; O'Dell, J. S.

    2011-10-01

    Each of the four toroidal panels of the liquid lithium divertor being installed in NSTX for operation in the 2010 campaign is a conical section inclined at 22° like the previous graphite divertor tiles. Each panel is a copper plate clad with stainless steel and a surface layer of porous plasma sprayed molybdenum (Mo) that will host lithium deposited from an evaporator. This paper describes the processes in fabrication; these include cutting to rough shape, die pressing into conical sections, machining to near final shape with holes for electrical heaters, thermocouples and a groove for a cooling tube, brazing of the 0.25-mm cladding and vacuum plasma spraying of the Mo coating.

  20. Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski

    2010-01-15

    At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700oC. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 oC), tungsten is selfannealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment. The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium. Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands1 and fusion experiments2,3 to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 oC), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11- M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

  1. A thermo-electric-driven flowing liquid lithium limiter/divertor for magnetic confined fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzic, D. N.; Xu, Wenyu; Curreli, Davide; Andruczyk, Daniel; Mui, Travis

    2012-10-01

    The concept of using a liquid metal, especially liquid lithium, as the plasma facing surface may provide the best path forward toward reactor designs. A liquid PFC can effectively eliminate the erosion and thermal stress problems compared to the solid PFC while transferring heat and prolong the lifetime limit of the PFCs. A liquid lithium surface can also suppress the hydrogen isotopes recycling and getter the impurities in fusion reactor. The Lithium/metal infused trench (LiMIT) concept successfully proved that the thermoelectric effect can induce electric currents inside liquid lithium and an external magnetic field can drive liquid lithium to flow within metallic open trenches. IR camera and thermocouple measurements prove the strong heat transfer ability of this concept. A new flowing lithium system with active control of the temperature gradient inside the lithium trenches and back flow channels has been designed. TEMHD driven liquid lithium run steady state and pulsed for a few seconds of high heat flux (˜15MW/m^2) has been used to investigate the transient reaction of the flowing lithium. A similar tray is scheduled to be tested in HT-7, Hefei, China as a limiter in Sept. 2012. Related movies and analysis will be shown.

  2. Lithium insertion in graphite from ternary ionic liquid-lithium salt electrolytes. I. Electrochemical characterization of the electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appetecchi, Giovanni B.; Montanino, Maria; Balducci, Andrea; Lux, Simon F.; Winterb, Martin; Passerini, Stefano

    In this paper we report the results of chemical-physical investigation performed on ternary room temperature ionic liquid-lithium salt mixtures as electrolytes for lithium-ion battery systems. The ternary electrolytes were made by mixing N-methyl- N-propyl pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (PYR 13FSI) and N-butyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR 14TFSI) ionic liquids with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6) or lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The mixtures were developed based on preliminary results on the cyclability of graphite electrodes in the IL-LiX binary electrolytes. The results clearly show the beneficial synergic effect of the two ionic liquids on the electrochemical properties of the mixtures.

  3. Response of NSTX Liquid Lithium divertor to High Heat Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, Tyler; Kallman, J; Kaitaa, R; Foley, E L; Grayd, T K; Kugel, H; Levinton, F; McLean, A G; Skinner, C H

    2012-07-18

    Samples of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) with and without an evaporative Li coating were directly exposed to a neutral beam ex-situ at a power of ~1.5 MW/m2 for 1-3 seconds. Measurements of front face and bulk sample temperature were obtained. Predictions of temperature evolution were derived from a 1D heat flux model. No macroscopic damage occurred when the "bare" sample was exposed to the beam but microscopic changes to the surface were observed. The Li-coated sample developed a lithium hydroxide (LiOH) coating, which did not change even when the front face temperature exceeded the pure Li melting point. These results are consistent with the lack of damage to the LLD surface and imply that heating alone may not expose pure liquid Li if the melting point of surface impurities is not exceeded. This suggests that flow and heat are needed for future PFCs requiring a liquid Li surface. __________________________________________________

  4. Room temperature lithium polymer batteries based on ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appetecchi, G. B.; Kim, G. T.; Montanino, M.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.

    In this manuscript are reported the results of an investigation performed on rechargeable, all-solid-state, solvent-free, Li/LiFePO 4 polymer batteries incorporating N-butyl- N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, PYR 14TFSI, ionic liquid (IL). The tests show clearly the beneficial effect due to the incorporation of ionic liquids on room temperature battery performance that, conversely, results extremely poor in IL-free lithium polymer batteries. The theoretical capacity is delivered at 30 °C whereas about 115 mA h g -1 are discharged at 20 °C with excellent capacity retention and high coulombic efficiency. At 40 °C large capacities (125 mA h g -1) are discharged even at medium rates (C/3). Impedance measurements revealed that the overall battery resistance is almost fully located (e.g., above 93%) at the lithium anode/polymer electrolyte interface, which plays a key role in determining the battery performance.

  5. Effects of Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiters on Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; G. Gettelfinger; T. Gray; D. Hoffman; S. Jardin; H. Kugel; P. Marfuta; T. Munsat; C. Neumeyer; S. Raftopoulos; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; L. Delgado-Aparicio; R.P. Seraydarian; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; M. Baldwin; R.W. Conn; R. Maingi; M. Menon; R. Causey; D. Buchenauer; M. Ulrickson; B. Jones; D. Rodgers

    2004-06-07

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a first wall has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter.

  6. Effects of Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiters on Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R; Jajeski, R; Boaz, M; Efthimion, P; Gettelfinger, G; Gray, T; Hoffman, D; Jardin, S; Kugel, H; Marfuta, P; Munsat, T; Neumeyer, C; Raftopoulos, S; Soukhanovskii, V; Spaleta, J; Taylor, G; Timberlake, J; Woolley, R; Zakharov, L; Finkenthal, M; Stutman, D; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Seraydarian, R; Antar, G; Doerner, R; Luckhardt, S; Baldwin, M; Conn, R; Maingi, R; Menon, M; Causey, R; Buchenauer, D; Ulrickson, M; Jones, B; Rodgers, D

    2004-06-03

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a first wall has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter.

  7. Corrosion resistance investigation of vanadium alloys in liquid lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovitskaya, I. V.; Lyublinskiy, I. E.; Bondarenko, G. G.; Paramonova, V. V.; Korshunov, S. N.; Mansurova, A. N.; Lyakhovitskiy, M. M.; Zharkov, M. Yu.

    2016-12-01

    A major concern in using vanadium alloys for first wall/blanket systems in fusion reactors is their activity with regard to nonmetallic impurities in the coolants. This paper presents the results of studying the corrosion resistance in high-purity liquid lithium (with the nitrogen and carbon content of less than 10-3 wt %) of vanadium and vanadium alloys (V-1.86Ga, V-3.4Ga-0.62Si, V-4.81Ti-4.82Cr) both in the initial state and preliminarily irradiated with Ar+ ions with energy of 20 keV to a dose of 1022 m-2 at an irradiation temperature of 400°C. The degree of corrosion was estimated by measuring the changes in the weight and microhardness. Corrosion tests were carried out under static isothermal conditions at a temperature of 600°C for 400 h. The identity of corrosion mechanisms of materials both irradiated with Ar ions and not irradiated, which consisted in an insignificant penetration of nitrogen into the materials and a substantial escape of oxygen from the materials, causing the formation of a zone with a reduced microhardness near the surface, was established. The influence of the corrosive action of lithium on the surface morphology of the materials under study was found, resulting in the manifestation of grain boundaries and slip lines on the sample surface, the latter being most clearly observed in the case of preliminary irradiation with Ar ions.

  8. Mixed ionic liquid as electrolyte for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaw, M.; Chagnes, A.; Carré, B.; Willmann, P.; Lemordant, D.

    Ionic liquids like 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IMIBF 4) or hexafluorophosphate (IMIPF 6) and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (PyBF 4) were mixed with organic solvents such as butyrolactone (BL) and acetonitrile (ACN). A lithium salt (LiBF 4 or LiPF 6) was added to these mixtures for possible application in the field of energy storage (batteries or supercapacitors). Viscosities, conductivities and electrochemical windows at a Pt electrode of these electrolytes were investigated. All studied electrolytes are stable toward oxidation and exhibit a vitreous phase transition, which has been determined by application of the VTF theory to conductivity measurements. Mixtures containing the BF 4- anion exhibit the lowest viscosity and the highest conductivity. Two mixtures have been optimized in terms of conductivity: BL/IMIBF 4 (60/40, v/v) and ACN/IMIBF 4 (70/30, v/v).

  9. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J.

    2017-06-20

    A method is provided for extracting hydrogen from lithium hydride. The method includes (a) heating lithium hydride to form liquid-phase lithium hydride; (b) extracting hydrogen from the liquid-phase lithium hydride, leaving residual liquid-phase lithium metal; (c) hydriding the residual liquid-phase lithium metal to form refined lithium hydride; and repeating steps (a) and (b) on the refined lithium hydride.

  10. Hydrophobic ionic liquids based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation for lithium/seawater batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yancheng; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna

    Two hydrophobic ionic liquids (room temperature molten salts) based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation (BMI +), BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N -, were used in developing a highly efficient lithium anode system for lithium/seawater batteries. The lithium anode system was composed of lithium metal/ionic liquid/Celgard membrane. Both BMI +PF 6-and BMI +Tf 2N - maintained high apparent anodic efficiency (up to 100%) under potentiostatic polarization (at +0.5 V versus open-circuit potential (OCP)) in a 3% NaCl solution. Eventually, traces of water contaminated the ionic liquid and a bilayer film (LiH and LiOH) on the lithium surface was formed, decreasing the rate of lithium anodic reaction and hence the discharge current density. BMI +Tf 2N - prevented traces of water from reaching the lithium metal surface longer than BMI +PF 6- (60 h versus 7 h). However, BMI +PF 6- was better than BMI +Tf 2N - in keeping a constant current density (˜0.2 mA cm -2) before the traces of water contaminated the lithium surface due to the non-reactivity of BMI +PF 6- with the lithium metal that kept the bare lithium surface. During the discharge process, BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N - acted as ion transport media of Li +, Cl -, OH - and H 2O, but did not react with them because of the excellent chemical stability, high conductivity, and high hydrophobicity of these two ionic liquids. Both BMI +PF 6- and BMI +Tf 2N - gels were tentative approaches used to delay the traces of water coming in contact with the lithium surface.

  11. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-06-01

    In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

  12. The equilibrium structure of lithium salt solutions in ether-functionalized ammonium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro Henrique; Siqueira, Leonardo J A; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2012-10-11

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for ionic liquids based on a ternary mixture of lithium and ammonium cations and a common anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [Tf(2)N](-). We address structural changes resulting from adding Li(+) in ionic liquids with increasing length of an ether-functionalized chain in the ammonium cation. The calculation of static structure factors reveals the lithium effect on charge ordering and intermediate range order in comparison with the neat ionic liquids. The charge ordering is modified in the lithium solution because the coordination of [Tf(2)N](-) toward Li(+) is much stronger than ammonium cations. Intermediate range order is observed in neat ionic liquids based on ammonium cations with a long chain, but in the lithium solutions, there is also a nonhomogenous distribution of Li(+) cations. The presence of Li(+) enhances interactions between the ammonium cations due to correlations between the oxygen atom of the ether chain and the nitrogen atom of another ammonium cation.

  13. Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Section 1 of this report records the progress achieved on NASA-LaRC Grant NAG-1-745 (Environment Assisted Degradation Mechanisms in Al-Li Alloys), and is based on research conducted during the period April 1 to November 30, 1987. A discussion of work proposed for the project's second year is included. Section 2 provides an overview of the need for research on the mechanisms of environmental-mechanical degradation of advanced aerospace alloys based on aluminum and lithium. This research is to provide NASA with the basis necessary to permit metallurgical optimization of alloy performance and engineering design with respect to damage tolerance, long term durability and reliability. Section 3 reports on damage localization mechanisms in aqueous chloride corrosion fatigue of aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 4 reports on progress made on measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 5 provides a detailed technical proposal for research on environmental degradation of Al-Li alloys, and the effect of hydrogen in this.

  14. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  15. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  16. Wetting Properties of Liquid Lithium on Stainless Steel and Enhanced Stainless Steel Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiflis, P.; Xu, W.; Raman, P.; Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.

    2012-10-01

    Research into lithium as a first wall material has proven its ability to effectively getter impurities and reduce recycling of hydrogen ions at the wall. Current schemes for introducing lithium into a fusion device consist of lithium evaporators, however, as these devices evolve from pulsed to steady state, new methods will need to be employed such as the LIMIT concept of UIUC, or thin flowing film lithium walls. Critical to their implementation is understanding the interactions of liquid lithium with various surfaces. One such interaction is the wetting of materials by lithium, which may be characterized by the contact angle between the lithium and the surface. Experiments have been performed at UIUC into the contact angle of liquid lithium with a given surface, as well as methods to increase it. To reduce the oxidation rate of the droplets, the experiments were performed in vacuum, using a lithium injector to deposit drops on each surface. Among the materials investigated are stainless steel, both untreated and coated with a diamond like carbon (DLC) layer, molybdenum, and boronized molybdenum. The contact angle and its dependence on temperature is measured.

  17. The diffusivity of hydrogen isotopes in liquid lithium and in solid yttrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxbaum, R. E.; Johnson, E. F.

    1982-12-01

    The separation of tritium from liquid lithium at low concentrations is an important problem for fusion technology. One of the most promising techniques for effecting this separation involves sorbing the tritium on solid yttrium metal. Reliable diffusivity data are essential for a realistic evaluation of this technique. The bodies of relevant experimental diffusivity data, i.e., data on protium diffusion in liquid lithium, protium diffusion in solid yttrium, and the isotope effect in metals, are reviewed.

  18. Corrosion resistance investigation of vanadium alloys in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Borovitskaya, I. V.; Lyublinskiy, I. E.; Bondarenko, G. G.; Paramonova, V. V.; Korshunov, S. N.; Mansurova, A. N.; Lyakhovitskiy, M. M.; Zharkov, M. Yu.

    2016-12-15

    A major concern in using vanadium alloys for first wall/blanket systems in fusion reactors is their activity with regard to nonmetallic impurities in the coolants. This paper presents the results of studying the corrosion resistance in high-purity liquid lithium (with the nitrogen and carbon content of less than 10{sup –3} wt %) of vanadium and vanadium alloys (V–1.86Ga, V–3.4Ga–0.62Si, V–4.81Ti–4.82Cr) both in the initial state and preliminarily irradiated with Ar+ ions with energy of 20 keV to a dose of 10{sup 22} m{sup –2} at an irradiation temperature of ~400°C. The degree of corrosion was estimated by measuring the changes in the weight and microhardness. Corrosion tests were carried out under static isothermal conditions at a temperature of 600°C for 400 h. The identity of corrosion mechanisms of materials both irradiated with Ar ions and not irradiated, which consisted in an insignificant penetration of nitrogen into the materials and a substantial escape of oxygen from the materials, causing the formation of a zone with a reduced microhardness near the surface, was established. The influence of the corrosive action of lithium on the surface morphology of the materials under study was found, resulting in the manifestation of grain boundaries and slip lines on the sample surface, the latter being most clearly observed in the case of preliminary irradiation with Ar ions.

  19. Plasma-wall interactions and plasma behaviour in fusion devices with liquid lithium plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnov, S.

    2009-06-01

    The application of lithium as a self-recovery and renewable material of plasma facing components (PFC) can be used to solve steady state fusion reactor PFC problems. This paper is a survey of liquid Li use in current tokamaks. Liquid Li as tokamak limiter material has been tested in T-11 M tokamak (TRINITI, RF), in FTU (Italy) and in CDX-U (USA). The idea of T-11 M and FTU liquid Li limiters is based on the Capillary-Pore System (CPS) concept. The main feature of CDX-U toroidal limiter was free liquid Li surface. The crucial issue of tokamak is impurity contamination. Lithium experiments in tokamaks discovered that poor lithium penetration into hot plasma core from its periphery (lithium screening) and the development close to plasma boundary lithium non-coronal irradiative blanket. Lithium screening can be physical ground of lithium 'emitter-collector' limiter concept with irradiated blanket and PFC prevention from a high local power load up to level of ITER parameters.

  20. Plasma Performance Improvements with Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; M. Boaz; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; R. Kaita; H. Kugel; T. Munsat; J. Spaleta; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R.W. Conn; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; R. Maingi; and M. Ulrickson

    2002-07-12

    The use of flowing liquid lithium as a first wall for a reactor has potentially attractive physics and engineering features. The Current Drive experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has begun experiments with a fully toroidal liquid lithium limiter. CDX-U is a compact [R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, Btoroidal = 2 kG, IP =100 kA, T(subscript)e(0) {approx} 100 eV, n(subscript)e(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m-3] short-pulse (<25 msec) spherical tokamak with extensive diagnostics. The limiter, which consists of a shallow circular stainless steel tray of radius 34 cm and width 10 cm, can be filled with lithium to a depth of a few millimeters, and forms the lower limiting surface for the discharge. Heating elements beneath the tray are used to liquefy the lithium prior to the experiment. The total area of the tray is approximately 2000 cm{sup 2}. The tokamak edge plasma, when operated in contact with the lithium-filled tray, shows evidence of reduced impurities and recycling. The reduction in re cycling and impurities is largest when the lithium is liquefied by heating to 250 degrees Celsius. Discharges which are limited by the liquid lithium tray show evidence of performance enhancement. Radiated power is reduced and there is spectroscopic evidence for increases in the core electron temperature. Furthermore, the use of a liquid lithium limiter reduces the need for conditioning discharges prior to high current operation. The future development path for liquid lithium limiter systems in CDX-U is also discussed.

  1. Development of a lithium liquid metal ion source for MeV ion beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.M.; Maskrey, J.T.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Lithium liquid metal ion sources are an attractive complement to the existing gaseous ion sources that are extensively used for ion beam analysis. This is due in part to the high brightness of the liquid metal ion source and in part to the availability of a lithium ion beam. High brightness is of particular importance to MeV ion microprobes which are now approaching current density limitations on targets determined by the ion source. The availability of a lithium beam provides increased capabilities for hydrogen profiling and high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. This paper describes the design and performance of a lithium liquid metal ion source suitable for use on a 5MV Laddertron accelerator. Operational experience with the source and some of its uses for ion beam analysis are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles.

  3. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  4. Safety and diagnostic systems on the Liquid Lithium Test Stand (LLTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. A.; Jaworski, M. A.; Ellis, R.; Kaita, R.; Mozulay, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Liquid Lithium Test Stand (LLTS) is a test bed for development of flowing liquid lithium systems for plasma-facing components at PPPL. LLTS is designed to test operation of liquid lithium under vacuum, including flowing, solidifying (such as would be the case at the end of plasma operations), and re-melting. Constructed of stainless steel, LLTS is a closed loop of pipe with two reservoirs and a pump, as well as diagnostics for temperature, flow rate, and pressure. Since liquid lithium is a highly reactive material, special care must be taken when designing such a system. These include a permanent-magnet MHD pump and MHD flow meter that have no mechanical components in direct contact with the liquid lithium. The LLTS also includes an expandable 24-channel leak-detector interlock system which cuts power to heaters and the pump if any lithium leaks from a pipe joint. Design for the interlock systems and flow meter are presented. This work is supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  6. Investigation of tin-lithium eutectic as a liquid plasma facing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzic, David; Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Shchelkanov, Ivan; Kalathiparambil, Kishor Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Innovative materials and techniques need to be utilized to address the high heat and particle flux incident on plasma facing components in fusion reactors. A liquid metal diverter module developed at UIUC with self circulating lithium has been successfully demonstrated to be capable of handling the relevant heat flux in plasma gun based tests and on operational tokamaks. The proper geometry of the liquid lithium trenches to minimize droplet ejection during transient plasma events have also been identified. Although lithium has proven to be effective in improved plasma performance and contributes to other advantageous factors like reduction in the fuel recycling, impurity gettering and, owing to the low Z, a significantly reduced impact on plasma as compared to the solid wall materials, it still poses several drawbacks related to its high reactivity and high vapor pressure at the relevant tokamak wall temperatures. The evaporation properties of a new eutectic mixture of tin and lithium (20% Sn) shows that lithium segregates to the surface at melting temperatures and hence is an effective replacement for pure lithium. Also, the vapor from the eutectic is dominated by lithium, minimizing the entry of high Z Sn into the plasma. At UIUC experiments for the synthesis and characterization of the eutectic - measurement of the critical wetting parameters and Seebeck coefficients with respect to the trench materials have been performed to ensure lithium wetting and flow in the trenches. The results will be presented. DOE project DEFG02- 99ER54515.

  7. Counterintuitive trends of the wetting behavior of ionic liquid-based electrolytes on modified lithium electrodes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Paulo; Kolek, Martin; Diddens, Diddo; Stan, Marian Cristian; Jalkanen, Kirsi; Winter, Martin; Bieker, Peter

    2017-07-26

    The demand for high energy densities has brought rechargeable lithium metal batteries back into the research focus. Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as suitable electrolyte components for these systems. In this work, the wetting behavior of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ([C2MIm]TFSI), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ([C4MIm]TFSI), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ([C6MIm]TFSI), and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) on mechanically modified lithium electrodes, with and without lithium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) conducting salt, is investigated and is compared to an organic carbonate-based electrolyte. Three different patterns were chosen for the lithium modification, enabling a surface area increase of 12%, 20%, and 56% for the modified lithium electrodes. Especially for pure ILs, the contact angle on lithium was significantly larger with higher surface areas of the lithium electrodes. Since the addition of LiTFSI remarkably decreased the contact angles of the ILs on the modified lithium surfaces, it could be shown that the effect of LiTFSI can be attributed to a decreased surface tension. This observation could be explained by an interruption of the ordering of ionic liquid cations and anions, which is supported by Raman spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

  8. Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith

    2002-01-18

    The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance.

  9. Conceptual design of a pre-loaded liquid lithium divertor target for NSTX-U

    DOE PAGES

    Rindt, P.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; van Dommelen, J. A. W.; ...

    2016-09-03

    In this study, a conceptual design for a pre-filled liquid lithium divertor target for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) is presented. The design is aimed at facilitating experiments with high lithium flux from the plasma facing components (PFCs) in NSTX-U and investigating the potential of capillary based liquid lithium components. In the design, lithium is supplied from a reservoir in the PFC to the plasma facing surface via capillary action in a wicking structure. This working principle is also demonstrated experimentally. Next, a titanium zirconium molybdenum (TZM) prototype design is presented, required to withstand a steady state heatmore » flux peaking at 10 MW m–2 for 5 s and edge localized modes depositing (130 kJ in 2 ms at 10 Hz). The main challenge is to sufficiently reduce the thermal stresses. This is achieved by dividing the surface into brushes and filling the slots in between with liquid lithium. The principle of using this liquid “interlayer” allows for thermal expansion and simultaneously heat conduction, and could be used to significantly reduce the demands to solids in future PFCs. Lithium flow to the surface is analyzed using a novel analytical model, ideally suited for design purposes. Thermal stresses in the PFC are analyzed using the finite element method. As a result, the requirements are met, and thus a prototype will be manufactured for physical testing.« less

  10. Conceptual design of a pre-loaded liquid lithium divertor target for NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Rindt, P.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; van Dommelen, J. A. W.; Kaita, R.; Jaworski, M. A.

    2016-09-03

    In this study, a conceptual design for a pre-filled liquid lithium divertor target for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) is presented. The design is aimed at facilitating experiments with high lithium flux from the plasma facing components (PFCs) in NSTX-U and investigating the potential of capillary based liquid lithium components. In the design, lithium is supplied from a reservoir in the PFC to the plasma facing surface via capillary action in a wicking structure. This working principle is also demonstrated experimentally. Next, a titanium zirconium molybdenum (TZM) prototype design is presented, required to withstand a steady state heat flux peaking at 10 MW m–2 for 5 s and edge localized modes depositing (130 kJ in 2 ms at 10 Hz). The main challenge is to sufficiently reduce the thermal stresses. This is achieved by dividing the surface into brushes and filling the slots in between with liquid lithium. The principle of using this liquid “interlayer” allows for thermal expansion and simultaneously heat conduction, and could be used to significantly reduce the demands to solids in future PFCs. Lithium flow to the surface is analyzed using a novel analytical model, ideally suited for design purposes. Thermal stresses in the PFC are analyzed using the finite element method. As a result, the requirements are met, and thus a prototype will be manufactured for physical testing.

  11. Lithium ion conductive behavior of TiO2 nanotube/ionic liquid matrices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of TiO2 nanotube (TNT)/ionic liquid matrices were prepared, and their lithium ion conductive properties were studied. SEM images implied that ionic liquid was dispersed on the whole surface of TNT. Addition of TNT to ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (BMImTFSA)) resulted in significant increase of ionic conductivity. Furthermore, lithium transference number was also largely enhanced due to the interaction of anion with TNT. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann parameter showed higher carrier ion number for TNT/BMImTFSA in comparison with BMImTFSA. PMID:25313300

  12. Simplified thermochemistry of oxygen in lithium and sodium for liquid metal cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.

    1972-01-01

    Plots of oxygen chemical potential against composition of lithium-oxygen solutions and sodium-oxygen solutions for a range of temperature were constructed. For each liquid metal two such plots were prepared. For one plot ideal solution behavior was assumed. For the other plot, existing solubility limit data for oxygen in the liquid metal were used to determine a first-order term for departure from ideality. The use of the plots in evaluating the oxygen gettering capability of refractory metals in liquid metal cooling systems is illustrated by a simple example involving lithium, oxygen, and hafnium.

  13. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruisi; Chen, Yuanfen; Montazami, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  14. Liquid surface skimmer apparatus for molten lithium and method

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Pollard, Roy E.; Thompson, William F.; Stark, Marshall W.; Currin, Jr., Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus for separating two fluids having different specific gravities. The invention also relates to a method for using the separating apparatus of the present invention. This invention particularly relates to the skimming of molten lithium metal from the surface of a fused salt electrolyte in the electrolytic production of lithium metal from a mixed fused salt.

  15. UV cross-linked, lithium-conducting ternary polymer electrolytes containing ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. T.; Appetecchi, G. B.; Carewska, M.; Joost, M.; Balducci, A.; Winter, M.; Passerini, S.

    In this manuscript is reported an attempt to prepare high ionic conductivity lithium polymer electrolytes by UV cross-linking the poly(ethyleneoxide) (briefly called PEO) polymer matrix in presence of the plasticizing lithium salt, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and an ionic liquid of the pyrrolidinium family (N-alkyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium TFSI) having a common anion with the lithium salt. It is demonstrated that polymer electrolytes with room temperature ionic conductivities of nearly 10 -3 S cm -1 could be obtained as a result of the reduced crystallinity of the ternary electrolytes. The results clearly indicate that the cross-linked ternary electrolyte shows superior mechanical properties with respect to the non-cross-linked electrolytes and higher conductivities with respect to polymer electrolytes containing none or less ionic liquid.

  16. Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A

    2014-12-07

    In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate.

  17. A high power beam-on-target test of liquid lithium target for RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Novick, V.; Specht, J.; Plotkin, P.; Momozaki,Y.; Gomes, I.

    2005-08-29

    Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the stable operation of a windowless liquid lithium target under extreme thermal loads that are equivalent to uranium beams from the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The engineering and safety issues accompanying liquid lithium systems are first discussed. The liquid metal technology knowledge base generated primarily for fast reactors, and liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, was applied to the development of these systems in a nuclear physics laboratory setting. The use of a high energy electron beam for simulating a high power uranium beam produced by the RIA driver linac is also described. Calculations were performed to obtain energy deposition profiles produced by electron beams at up to a few MeV to compare with expected uranium beam energy deposition profiles. It was concluded that an experimental simulation using a 1-MeV electron beam would be a valuable tool to assess beam-jet interaction. In the experiments, the cross section of the windowless liquid lithium target was 5 mm x 10 mm, which is a 1/3rd scale prototype target, and the velocity of the liquid lithium was varied up to 6 m/s. Thermal loads up to 20 kW within a beam spot diameter of 1mm were applied on the windowless liquid lithium target by the 1-MeV electron beam. The calculations showed that the maximum power density and total power deposited within the target, from the electron beam, was equivalent to that of a 200-kW, 400-MeV/u uranium beam. It was demonstrated that the windowless liquid lithium target flowing at velocities as low as 1.8 m/s stably operated under beam powers up to 20 kW without disruption or excessive vaporization.

  18. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  19. Stabilizing lithium metal using ionic liquids for long-lived batteries

    PubMed Central

    Basile, A.; Bhatt, A. I.; O'Mullane, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Suppressing dendrite formation at lithium metal anodes during cycling is critical for the implementation of future lithium metal-based battery technology. Here we report that it can be achieved via the facile process of immersing the electrodes in ionic liquid electrolytes for a period of time before battery assembly. This creates a durable and lithium ion-permeable solid–electrolyte interphase that allows safe charge–discharge cycling of commercially applicable Li|electrolyte|LiFePO4 batteries for 1,000 cycles with Coulombic efficiencies >99.5%. The tailored solid–electrolyte interphase is prepared using a variety of electrolytes based on the N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide room temperature ionic liquid containing lithium salts. The formation is both time- and lithium salt-dependant, showing dynamic morphology changes, which when optimized prevent dendrite formation and consumption of electrolyte during cycling. This work illustrates that a simple, effective and industrially applicable lithium metal pretreatment process results in a commercially viable cycle life for a lithium metal battery. PMID:27292652

  20. 2-D thermal response calculations of the liquid lithium divertor on NSTX*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, K.; McLean, A. G.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Maingi, R.

    2011-10-01

    The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) in NSTX was installed for particle and impurity control in NSTX, and its effectiveness was predicted to vary with the lithium surface temperature. It is therefore important to know the temperature evolution of the LLD during plasma discharges. A 2-D implicit finite difference code (``Li_enthalpy'') was written to simulate the lithium temperature with an accurate description of the LLD components, which include a surface lithium layer, a porous molybdenum mesh that is ~ 50% filled with lithium, a thin stainless steel layer, and a thick underlying copper substrate. The heat flux on the graphite was measured with a recently developed dual-band infrared camera; we use the same heat flux profile on the LLD at the same major radius, because of toroidal symmetry. The code ``Li_enthalpy'' computes the LLD thermal response to this heat flux profile; a Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure was implemented to solve the phase-change problem as lithium melted in response to plasma heating. The computed LLD temperature response is then compared and calibrated with the measured surface temperature on the LLD with the dual-band camera. From this the dynamics of the spatially and time varying liquid lithium layer thickness are extracted. Analysis from a number of plasma discharges is presented. *Supported in part by U.S. DoE contracts DE-AC05-00OR22725 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  1. Stabilizing lithium metal using ionic liquids for long-lived batteries.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Bhatt, A I; O'Mullane, A P

    2016-06-13

    Suppressing dendrite formation at lithium metal anodes during cycling is critical for the implementation of future lithium metal-based battery technology. Here we report that it can be achieved via the facile process of immersing the electrodes in ionic liquid electrolytes for a period of time before battery assembly. This creates a durable and lithium ion-permeable solid-electrolyte interphase that allows safe charge-discharge cycling of commercially applicable Li|electrolyte|LiFePO4 batteries for 1,000 cycles with Coulombic efficiencies >99.5%. The tailored solid-electrolyte interphase is prepared using a variety of electrolytes based on the N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide room temperature ionic liquid containing lithium salts. The formation is both time- and lithium salt-dependant, showing dynamic morphology changes, which when optimized prevent dendrite formation and consumption of electrolyte during cycling. This work illustrates that a simple, effective and industrially applicable lithium metal pretreatment process results in a commercially viable cycle life for a lithium metal battery.

  2. Experiments with Liquid Metal Walls: Status of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, Robert; Boyle, Dennis; Gray, Timothy; Granstedt, Erik; Hammett, Gregory; Jacobson, Craig M; Jones, Andrew; Kozub, Thomas; Kugel, Henry; Leblanc, Benoit; Logan, Nicholas; Lucia, Matthew; Lundberg, Daniel; Majeski, Richard; Mansfield, Dennis; Menard, Jonathan; Spaleta, Jeffrey; Strickler, Trevor; Timberlak, John

    2010-02-16

    Liquid metal walls have been proposed to address the first wall challenge for fusion reactors. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is the first magnetic confinement device to have liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFC's) that encloses virtually the entire plasma. In the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U), a predecessor to LTX at PPPL, the highest improvement in energy confinement ever observed in Ohmically-heated tokamak plasmas was achieved with a toroidal liquid lithium limiter. The LTX extends this liquid lithium PFC by using a conducting conformal shell that almost completely surrounds the plasma. By heating the shell, a lithium coating on the plasma-facing side can be kept liquefied. A consequence of the low-recycling conditions from liquid lithium walls is the need for efficient plasma fueling. For this purpose, a molecular cluster injector is being developed. Future plans include the installation of a neutral beam for core plasma fueling, and also ion temperature measurements using charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Low edge recycling is also predicted to reduce temperature gradients that drive drift wave turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations are in progress to calculate fluctuation levels and transport for LTX plasmas, and new fluctuation diagnostics are under development to test these predictions. __________________________________________________

  3. Glyme-lithium salt equimolar molten mixtures: concentrated solutions or solvate ionic liquids?

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kazuhide; Yoshida, Kazuki; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Tachikawa, Naoki; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2012-09-13

    To demonstrate a new family of ionic liquids (ILs), i.e., "solvate" ionic liquids, the properties (thermal, transport, and electrochemical properties, Lewis basicity, and ionicity) of equimolar molten mixtures of glymes (triglyme (G3) and tetraglyme (G4)) and nine different lithium salts (LiX) were investigated. By exploring the anion-dependent properties and comparing them with the reported data on common aprotic ILs, two different classes of liquid regimes, i.e., ordinary concentrated solutions and "solvate" ILs, were found in the glyme-Li salt equimolar mixtures ([Li(glyme)]X) depending on the anionic structures. The class a given [Li(glyme)]X belonged to was governed by competitive interactions between the glymes and Li cations and between the counteranions (X) and Li cations. [Li(glyme)]X with weakly Lewis basic anions can form long-lived [Li(glyme)](+) complex cations. Thus, they behaved as typical ionic liquids. The lithium "solvate" ILs based on [Li(glyme)]X have many desirable properties for lithium-conducting electrolytes, including high ionicity, a high lithium transference number, high Li cation concentration, and high oxidative stability, in addition to the common properties of ionic liquids. The concept of "solvate" ionic liquids can be utilized in an unlimited number of combinations of other metal salts and ligands, and will thus open a new field of research on ionic liquids.

  4. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    SciTech Connect

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

    2013-04-19

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  5. Mixed organic compound-ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium battery electrolyte systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanino, M.; Moreno, M.; Carewska, M.; Maresca, G.; Simonetti, E.; Lo Presti, R.; Alessandrini, F.; Appetecchi, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal, transport, rheological and flammability properties of electrolyte mixtures, proposed for safer lithium-ion battery systems, were investigated as a function of the mole composition. The blends were composed of a lithium salt (LiTFSI), organic solvents (namely EC, DEC) and an ionic liquid (PYR13TFSI). The main goal is to combine the fast ion transport properties of the organic compounds with the safe issues of the non-flammable and non-volatile ionic liquids. Preliminary tests in batteries have evidenced cycling performance approaching that observed in commercial organic electrolytes.

  6. Ionic liquid-based membranes as electrolytes for advanced lithium polymer batteries.

    PubMed

    Navarra, M A; Manzi, J; Lombardo, L; Panero, S; Scrosati, Bruno

    2011-01-17

    Gel-type polymer electrolytes are formed by immobilizing a solution of lithium N,N-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in N-n-butyl-N-ethylpyrrolidinium N,N-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Py₂₄TFSI) ionic liquid (IL) with added mixtures of organic solvents, such as ethylene, propylene and dimethyl carbonates (EC, PC, and DMC, respectively), into a poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) matrix, and their properties investigated. The addition of the organic solvent mixtures results in an improvement of the ionic conductivity and in the stabilization of the interface with the lithium electrode. Conductivity values in the range of 10⁻³-10⁻²  S cm⁻¹ are obtained in a wide temperature range. These unique properties allow the effective use of these membranes as electrolytes for the development of advanced polymer batteries based on a lithium metal anode and an olivine-type lithium iron phosphate cathode.

  7. Existing condition and migration property of ions in lithium electrolytes with ionic liquid solvent.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuria; Umecky, Tatsuya; Niwa, Junichi; Sakai, Tetsuo; Maeda, Seiji

    2007-10-11

    Ionization conditions of each ionic species in lithium ionic liquid electrolytes, LiTFSI/BMI-TFSI and LiTFSI/BDMI-TFSI, were confirmed based on the diffusion coefficients of the species measured by the pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR technique. We found that the diffusion coefficient ratios of the cation and anion species D(Li)(obs)/D(F)(obs) of the lithium salt and D(H)(obs)/D(F)(obs) of the ionic liquid solvent were effective guides to evaluate the ionization condition responsible for their mobility. Lithium ions were found to be stabilized, forming the solvated species as Li(TFSI)3(2-). TFSI- anion coordination could be relaxed by the dispersion of silica to form a gel electrolyte, LiTFSI/BDMI-TFSI/silica. It is expected that the oxygen sites on the silica directly attract Li+, releasing the TFSI- coordination. The lithium species, loosing TFSI- anions, kept a random walk feature in the gel without the diffusion restriction attributed from the strong chemical and morphological effect as that in the gel with the polymer. We can conclude that the silica dispersion is a significant approach to provide the appropriate lithium ion condition as a charge-transporting species in the ionic liquid electrolytes.

  8. The effect of lithium salt doping on the nanostructure of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Luis; Völkner, Johannes; Labrador, Ana; Matic, Aleksandar

    2015-10-28

    In this work we report on the evolution of the structure of two model ionic liquid families, N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (Pyr1n-TFSI) and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (CnMIm-TFSI) (n = 3, 4, 6 and 8) both containing the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anion, upon the addition of LiTFSI using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The introduction of a lithium salt (Li-salt) tunes the interactions through the substitution of the large cation in the ionic liquid with the small and charge localized lithium ion, thus increasing the coulombic contribution from ion-ion interactions. We find that the introduction of lithium ions results in a restructuring of the polar groups in the ionic liquids. These changes are manifested as an increase in the correlation lengths related to charge alternation of the ions and a more disordered structure. This restructuring is interpreted as a reconfiguration of the anions as they coordinate to the small and ionic lithium. In contrast, the length scale of the mesoscopic heterogeneities related to the clustering of alkyl chains is virtually unchanged with lithium doping. Moreover, the correlation corresponding to alkyl chain domains becomes more well defined with increasing salt concentration, suggesting that Li-salt doping, i.e. an increased columbic interaction in the system, promotes clustering of the alkyl tails.

  9. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    SciTech Connect

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Silverman, I.; Paul, M.; Friedman, M.; Tessler, M.

    2013-12-15

    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm{sup 3}) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ∼200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm{sup 2} and volume power density of ∼2 MW/cm{sup 3} at a lithium flow of ∼4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91–2.5 MeV, 1–2 mA) at SARAF.

  10. Higher energy and safety of lithium-ion batteries with ionic liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komaba, Shinichi; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Katayama, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Ionic liquid has been utilized as safe electrolyte solution for lithium-ion batteries. Reversible charge / discharge cycling of the graphite electrode in the ionic liquid has been achieved with polyacrylic acid polymer binder, which can suppress the organic cation intercalation to the graphite. Cycleability of the graphite-silicon composite electrodes prepared with polyacrylate binder was significantly improved in comparison to the conventional PVdF binder, and it has been demonstrated that the reversible cycling with 1000 mAh g-1 for 30 cycling test is possible in ionic liquid. The possibility of the safe and high-energy lithium-ion battery is discussed through the preliminary study on Li2MnO3-LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 based positive electrode and graphite-silicon-polyacrylate composite negative electrode with the ionic liquid electrolyte.

  11. Ionic liquid-based electrolyte with binary lithium salts for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Zhu, Qizhen; Chen, Renjie; Chen, Nan; Chen, Yan; Ye, Yusheng; Qian, Ji; Li, Li

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable Li-S batteries have suffered several technical obstacles, such as rapid capacity fading and low coulombic efficiency. To overcome these problems, we design new electrolytes containing N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (Pyr1,2O1TFSI) and tri(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ether (TEGDME) in mass ratio of 7:3. Moreover, Lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiODFB) is introduced for the modification. Although the addition of LiODFB as additive lead to extremely high viscosity of electrolyte and inferior performance of the cells, the electrolyte containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI, 0.84 nm) and LiODFB (0.60 nm) mixture with a total molar concentration of 0.4 mol kg-1 as binary lithium salt shows excellent electrochemical performance. The Pyr1,2O1TFSI/TEGDME electrolyte with LiTFSI/LiODFB binary lithium salts in mole ratio of 6:4 is obtained after optimizing ratio. The Li-S cells containing this electrolyte system show excellent capacity and cycle performance, whose initial discharge capacity is 1264.4 mAh g-1, and retains 911.4 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles with the coulombic efficiency more than 95%. It can be attributed the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming ability of LiODFB which protect Li anode from suffering lithium dendrites and prevent the shuttle phenomenon. The novel electrolytes provide good cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency for the Li-S batteries, which is suggested as a promising electrolyte for Li-S batteries.

  12. Use of Ionic Liquids in Rod-Coil Block Copolyimides for Improved Lithium Ion Conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.; Chapin, Kara; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent-free, solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) have the potential to improve safety, increase design flexibility and enhance performance of rechargeable lithium batteries. Solution based electrolytes are flammable and typically incompatible with lithium metal anodes, limiting energy density. We have previously demonstrated use of polyimide rod coil block copolymers doped with lithium salts as electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries. The polyimide rod blocks provide dimensional stability while the polyethylene oxide (PEO) coil portions conduct ions. Phase separation of the rods and coils in these highly branched polymers provide channels with an order of magnitude improvement in lithium conduction over polyethylene oxide itself at room temperature. In addition, the polymers have been demonstrated in coin cells to be compatible with lithium metal. For practical use at room temperature and below, however, at least an order of magnitude improvement in ion conduction is still required. The addition of nonvolatile, room temperature ionic liquids has been shown to improve the ionic conductivity of high molecular weight PEO. Herein we describe use of these molten salts to improve ionic conductivity in the rod-coil block copolymers.

  13. Decomposition of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids in Contact with Lithium Metal.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Paulo; Jakelski, Rene; Pyschik, Marcelina; Jalkanen, Kirsi; Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin; Bieker, Peter

    2017-03-09

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered to be suitable electrolyte components for lithium-metal batteries. Imidazolium cation based ILs were previously found to be applicable for battery systems with a lithium-metal negative electrode. However, herein it is shown that, in contrast to the well-known IL N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Pyr14 ][TFSI]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([C2MIm][TFSI]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([C4MIm][TFSI]) are chemically unstable versus metallic lithium. A lithium-metal sheet was immersed in pure imidazolium-based IL samples and aged at 60 °C for 28 days. Afterwards, the aged IL samples were investigated to deduce possible decomposition products of the imidazolium cation. The chemical instability of the ILs in contact with lithium metal and a possible decomposition starting point are shown for the first time. Furthermore, the investigated imidazolium-based ILs can be utilized for lithium-metal batteries through the addition of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) film-forming additive fluoroethylene carbonate. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. CDX-U Operation with a Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiter

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; M. Boaz; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; R. Kaita; H. Kugel; T. Munsat; J. Spaleta; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R.W. Conn; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; R. Maingi; and M. Ulrickson

    2002-07-12

    The Current Drive experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has begun experiments with a fully toroidal liquid lithium limiter. CDX-U is a compact [R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, B(subscript)toroidal = 2 kG, I(subscript)P = 100 kA, T(subscript)e(0) {approx} 100 eV, n(subscript)e(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}] short-pulse (<25 msec) spherical torus with extensive diagnostics. The limiter, which consists of a shallow circular stainless steel tray of radius 34 cm and width 10 cm, can be filled with lithium to a depth of a few millimeters, and forms the lower limiting surface for the discharge. Heating elements beneath the tray are used to liquefy the lithium prior to the experiment. Surface coatings are evident on part of the lithium. Despite the surface coatings, tokamak discharges operated in contact with the lithium-filled tray show evidence of reduced impurities and recycling. The reduction in recycling is largest when the lithium is liquefied by heating to 250 degrees Celsius.

  15. Lithium Metal Anodes with an Adaptive "Solid-Liquid" Interfacial Protective Layer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Pei, Allen; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Kong, Biao; Liu, Nian; Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Yayuan; Liu, Chong; Hsu, Po-Chun; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2017-04-05

    Lithium metal is an attractive anode for the next generation of high energy density lithium-ion batteries due to its high specific capacity (3,860 mAh g(-1)) and lowest overall anode potential. However, the key issue is that the static solid electrolyte interphase cannot match the dynamic volume changes of the Li anode, resulting in side reactions, dendrite growth, and poor electrodeposition behavior, which prevent its practical applications. Here, we show that the "solid-liquid" hybrid behavior of a dynamically cross-linked polymer enables its use as an excellent adaptive interfacial layer for Li metal anodes. The dynamic polymer can reversibly switch between its "liquid" and "solid" properties in response to the rate of lithium growth to provide uniform surface coverage and dendrite suppression, respectively, thereby enabling the stable operation of lithium metal electrodes. We believe that this example of engineering an adaptive Li/electrolyte interface brings about a new and promising way to address the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes.

  16. Reliability of microcantilevers in liquid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. M.; Mantell, Susan C.; Longmire, Ellen K.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable operation of MEMS in liquid environments is an important design requirement for numerous MEMS devices in chemical, pharmaceutical, biomedical, consumer product, and defense industries. In this paper, reliability and long-term performance of microcantilevers in liquid environments is investigated. Single crystal silicon microcantilevers are subjected to long-term cyclic actuation (~10 8 -10 9 cycles) in enclosures filled with two different liquids- de-ionized water and saline solution. Additionally, silicon microcantilevers are actuated in air to enable comparison of experimental data in air and liquids. The microcantilevers have an electroplated Permalloy layer and are magnetically actuated. The resonance frequency of the microcantilevers is periodically monitored to track changes in stiffness and mechanical performance. The microcantilevers are subjected to peak stresses ranging from 0-10 MPa, which are typical for MEMS applications like AFM tips, and resonating sensors. Since the peak stresses are small compared to the tensile strength of silicon (1-3 GPa), complete structural fatigue failure is neither expected nor observed. However, operational failures characterized by a gradual decrease in resonance frequency of the microcantilevers are observed in saline solution. Changes in resonance frequency of microcantilevers actuated in air and water were negligible to within the limits of experimental accuracy. These results demonstrate that an understanding of MEMS reliability in air cannot necessarily be extended to explain and predict device reliability in liquid environments.

  17. Single-Ion Block Copoly(ionic liquid)s as Electrolytes for All-Solid State Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Porcarelli, Luca; Shaplov, Alexander S; Salsamendi, Maitane; Nair, Jijeesh R; Vygodskii, Yakov S; Mecerreyes, David; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2016-04-27

    Polymer electrolytes have been proposed as replacement for conventional liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their intrinsic enhanced safety. Nevertheless, the power delivery of these materials is limited by the concentration gradient of the lithium salt. Single-ion conducting polyelectrolytes represent the ideal solution since their nature prevents polarization phenomena. Herein, the preparation of a new family of single-ion conducting block copolymer polyelectrolytes via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization technique is reported. These copolymers comprise poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate blocks. The obtained polyelectrolytes show low Tg values in the range of -61 to 0.6 °C, comparatively high ionic conductivity (up to 2.3 × 10(-6) and 1.2 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 25 and 55 °C, respectively), wide electrochemical stability (up to 4.5 V versus Li(+)/Li), and a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (0.83). Owing to the combination of all mentioned properties, the prepared polymer materials were used as solid polyelectrolytes and as binders in the elaboration of lithium-metal battery prototypes with high charge/discharge efficiency and excellent specific capacity (up to 130 mAh g(-1)) at C/15 rate.

  18. Characterization of Liquid Lithium Wetting and Thermoelectric Properties for Nuclear Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Christenson, Michael; Andruczyk, Daniel; Curreli, Davide; Ruzic, David

    2013-10-01

    Critical to the implementation of flowing liquid lithium plasma facing components is understanding the interactions of liquid lithium with various surfaces. Presented here are experiments investigating the material compatibility, wetting characteristics, and relative thermopower of liquid lithium with a variety of potential substrate candidates for the LiMIT concept. Wetting experiments with lithium used the contact angle as a metric. Among those materials investigated are 316 SS, Mo, Ta, and W. The contact angle, as well as its dependence on temperature was measured. For example, at 200 C, tungsten registers a contact angle of 130°, whereas above its wetting temperature of 350 C, the contact angle is less than 80°. Several methods were found to decrease the critical wetting temperature of various materials and are presented here. The thermopower of W, Mo, Ta, Li, Ga, Wood's metal and Sn has been measured relative to stainless steel, and the Seebeck coefficient of has then been calculated. For molybdenum the Seebeck coefficient has a linear rise with temperature from SMo = 3.9 μVK-1 at 30 °C to 7.5 μVK-1 at 275 °C. On Assignment at PPPL

  19. Kinetics of the degradation of type 316 stainless steel by liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    A forced convection loop is used to study the corrosion of type 316 stainless steel by liquid lithium at temperatures relevant to fusion reactors. Weight loss data are reported for tubular samples located in the hot zone of the loop. Temperatures of 440C and 490C have been used in the hot zone with temperature differences of 100C to 200C between the hot and cold zones. The effect of lithium velocity on local mass transfer rates is examined by simultaneously exposing stainless steel samples to parallel streams of lithium at velocities ranging from 40 to 130 cm/s. The loss rates become essentially steady after one month of exposure. The rates agree substantially with rates reported by previous workers, but are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the rates predicted by boundary layer theory, using an extrapolation of the available solubility data for iron in lithium. It is presumed that particles of iron circulate in the lithium and by their dissolution and precipitation act as a buffer to reduce the wall fluxes. The loss rate increases with lithium velocity in a manner suggestive of liquid-phase controlled mass transfer. The velocity dependence is weaker than expected for flows in the range of Reynolds numbers studied. This may reflect a significant interfacial resistance to the dissolution. The mass loss rates at 440C are reduced when the temperature difference between the hot and cold zones is reduced. The rates during the first 1000 hours are three to four times higher at 490C than at 440C. The dissolution rate at 490C decreases markedly after 1000 hours. The transformation of the steel surface to a ferritic phase may cause the reduction in the rate.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of chromium solubility data in liquid lithium containing nitrogen: Comparison between experimental data and computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasin, Valery P.; Soyustova, Svetlana I.

    2015-10-01

    The mathematical formalism for description of solute interactions in dilute solution of chromium and nitrogen in liquid lithium have been applied for calculating of the temperature dependence of the solubility of chromium in liquid lithium with the various nitrogen contents. It is shown that the derived equations are useful to provide understanding of a relationship between thermodynamic properties and local ordering in the Li-Cr-N melt. Comparison between theory and data reported in the literature for solubility of chromium in nitrogen-contaminated liquid lithium, was allowed to explain the reasons of the deviation of the experimental semi-logarithmic plot of chromium content in liquid lithium as a function of the reciprocal temperature from a straight line.

  1. New Polymer and Liquid Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    1999-03-29

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they don't interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in PEO based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation completing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion completing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3{sup -}}. The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in volubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6 x 10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1}. The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells.

  2. Structural Investigations on Lithium-Doped Protic and Aprotic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Ray, Promit; Vogl, Thomas; Balducci, Andrea; Kirchner, Barbara

    2017-05-25

    Solutions of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiNTf2), in four different [NTf2](-)-based ionic liquids, are extensively investigated as potential electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Solvation of the [Li](+) ions in the ionic liquids and its impact on their physicochemical properties are studied herein with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations. The cationic components of the investigated liquids were systematically varied so as to individually evaluate effects of specific structural changes; increase in ring size, the addition of an alkyl chain and absence of an acidic proton, on the solvation and mobility of the [Li](+) cations. The studied cations also allow for a direct comparison between solutions of [Li](+) salt in protic and aprotic ionic liquids. Emphasis is laid on elucidating the interactions between the [Li](+) and [NTf2](-) ions revealing slightly higher coordination numbers for the aprotic solvent, benchmarked against experimental measurements. The study suggests that the ionic liquids largely retain their structure upon salt addition, with interactions within the liquids only slightly perturbed. The rattling motion of the [Li](+) cations within cages formed by the surrounding [NTf2](-) anions is examined by the analysis of [Li](+) autocorrelation functions. Overall, the solvation mechanism of [Li](+) salt, within the hydrogen-bonded network of the ionic liquids, is detailed from classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

  3. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Zakharov, L. E.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  4. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2015-02-15

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a “first,” or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  5. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Yang, Q X; Li, J G; Zakharov, L E; Xie, H; Chen, Z X

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak-both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  6. Ferrous alloy metallurgy - liquid lithium corrosion and welding. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D. L.; Matlock, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth has been used to evaluate the interaction between liquid lithium and an imposed stress. Fatigue crack growth data on type 304L stainless steel at 700C and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel between 500 and 700C show that for all imposed test conditions (i.e. frequency, temperature, and nitrogen content in the lithium) the interaction of lithium with the strain at the crack tip results in enhanced crack growth rates. The enhanced growth rates result from the effects of either enhanced grain boundary penetration or a change in crack propagation mechanism due to liquid metal embrittlement. Auger spectroscopy of grain boundary penetrated specimen shows that a lithium-oxygen compound forms at the grain boundary. Moessbauer evaluations of the ferrite layer of corroded type 304 stainless steel are being used to develop a model for weight loss in liquid lithium. The welding research in progress is directed to characterize the influence of variations of the austenitic weld metal composition on the microstructural and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal weldments. Weldments of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to 316 stainless steel have been investigated for fusion microstructure, thermal expansion impact strength and characterization of specific long time in-service failures. Modification of weld metal microstructures by microalloy additions is being investigated as a concept to improve weld metal properties. The behavior of a strip electrode in a gas metal arc is being investigated to determine the feasibility of gas metal arc weld strip overlay cladding.

  7. Retention/Diffusivity Studies in Free-Surface Flowing Liquid Lithium

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Stubbers; G.H. Miley; M. Nieto; W. Olczak; D.N. Ruzic; A. Hassanein

    2004-12-14

    FLIRE was designed to measure the hydrogen and helium retention and diffusivity in a flowing stream of liquid lithium, and it has accomplished these goals. Retention coefficients for helium in the flowing liquid stream were 0.1-2% for flow speeds of 44 cm/s and implantation energies between 500 and 2000 eV. The energy dependence of retention is linear for the energy range considered, as expected, and the dependence of retention on flow velocity fits the expected square-root of flow speed dependence. Estimates of the helium diffusion coefficient in the flowing lithium stream were {approx} 4 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s, and are independent of implantation energy. This value is much lower than expected, which could be due to several factors, such as mixing, bubble formation or surface film formation. In the case of hydrogen, long term retention and release mechanisms are of greatest importance, since this relates to tritium inventory in flowing lithium PFCs for fusion applications. The amount of hydride formation was measured for flowing lithium exposed to neutral deuterium gas. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements indicate that the hydride concentration was between 0.1 and 0.2% over a wide range of pressures (6.5 x 10{sup -5} to 1 Torr). This result implies that the deuterium absorption rate is limited by the surface dissociation rate, since deuterium (hydrogen/tritium) is absorbed in its atomic form, not its molecular form.

  8. Experiments on FTU with an actively water cooled liquid lithium limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Apruzzese, G.; Crescenzi, F.; Iannone, F.; Maddaluno, G.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Roccella, S.; Reale, M.; Viola, B.; Lyublinski, I.; Vertkov, A.

    2015-08-01

    In order to prevent the overheating of the liquid Li surface and the consequent Li evaporation for T > 500 °C, an advanced version of the liquid lithium limiter has been realized and installed on FTU. This new system, named Cooled Lithium Limiter (CLL), has been optimized to demonstrate the lithium limiter capability to sustain thermal loads as high as 10 MW/m2 with up to 5 s of plasma pulse duration. The CLL operates with an actively cooled system with water circulation at the temperature of about 200 °C, for heating lithium up to the melting point and for the heat removal during the plasma discharges. To characterize CLL during discharges, a fast infrared camera and the spectroscopic signals from Li and D atom emission have been used. The experiments analyzed so far and simulated by ANSYS code, point out that heat loads as high as 2 MW/m2 for 1.5 s have been withstood without problems.

  9. A Spectroscopic Measurement of Recycling on the Surface of a Liquid Lithium Limiter in CDX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfuta, P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Maingi, R.

    2003-10-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of lithium plasma-facing surfaces should give a quantitative assessment of the local recycling in CDX-U. We will use both a 1-D CCD camera with an interference filter and a pair of fiber-optic filterscopes focused on different parts of a fully-toroidal liquid lithium limiter tray. Additional filterscope data will be taken along a sightline immediately above the tray, so that the edge plasma emission can be subtracted from the direct views of the lithium surface. The diagnostics will measure the H-alpha line both with and without lithium in the limiter tray to assess the reduction of neutral hydrogen recycling, as well as the Li-I emission to observe the level of lithium introduced into the plasma, and the C-III and O-II lines to measure the effect of the lithium on plasma impurities.

  10. Ternary polymer electrolytes containing pyrrolidinium-based polymeric ionic liquids for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appetecchi, G. B.; Kim, G.-T.; Montanino, M.; Carewska, M.; Marcilla, R.; Mecerreyes, D.; De Meatza, I.

    The electrochemical properties of solvent-free, ternary polymer electrolytes based on a novel poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) as polymer host and incorporating PYR 14TFSI ionic liquid and LiTFSI salt are reported. The PIL-LiTFSI-PYR 14TFSI electrolyte membranes were found to be chemically stable even after prolonged storage times in contact with lithium anode and thermally stable up to 300 °C. Particularly, the PIL-based electrolytes exhibited acceptable room temperature conductivity with wide electrochemical stability window, time-stable interfacial resistance values and good lithium stripping/plating performance. Preliminary battery tests have shown that Li/LiFePO 4 solid-state cells are capable to deliver above 140 mAh g -1 at 40 °C with very good capacity retention up to medium rates.

  11. Lithium insertion in graphite from ternary ionic liquid-lithium salt electrolytes: II. Evaluation of specific capacity and cycling efficiency and stability at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, Simon F.; Schmuck, Martin; Appetecchi, Giovanni B.; Passerini, Stefano; Winter, Martin; Balducci, Andrea

    In this paper we report the results about the use of ternary room temperature ionic liquid-lithium salt mixtures as electrolytes for lithium-ion battery systems. Mixtures of N-methyl- N-propyl pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide, PYR 13FSI, and N-butyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl) imide, PYR 14TFSI, with lithium hexafluorophosphate, LiPF 6 and lithium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl) imide, LiTFSI, containing 5 wt.% of vinylene carbonate (VC) as additive, have been used in combination with a commercial graphite, KS6 TIMCAL. The performance of the graphite electrodes has been considered in term of specific capacity, cycling efficiency and cycling stability. The results clearly show the advantage of the use of ternary mixtures on the performance of the graphite electrode.

  12. Mapping the Free Energy of Lithium Solvation in the Protic Ionic Liquid Ethylammonuim Nitrate: A Metadynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Kachmar, Ali; Carignano, Marcelo; Laino, Teodoro; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Hutter, Jürg

    2017-08-10

    Understanding lithium solvation and transport in ionic liquids is important due to their possible application in electrochemical devices. Using first-principles simulations aided by a metadynamics approach we study the free-energy landscape for lithium ions at infinite dilution in ethylammonium nitrate, a protic ionic liquid. We analyze the local structure of the liquid around the lithium cation and obtain a quantitative picture in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations show that the lowest two free energy minima correspond to conformations with the lithium ion being solvated either by three or four nitrate ions with a transition barrier between them of 0.2 eV. Other less probable conformations having different solvation pattern are also investigated. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Rock-salt structure lithium deuteride formation in liquid lithium with high-concentrations of deuterium: a first-principles molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mohan; Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Carter, Emily A.

    2015-12-17

    Because of lithium's possible use as a first wall material in a fusion reactor, a fundamental understanding of the interactions between liquid lithium (Li) and deuterium (D) is important. Here, we predict structural and dynamical properties of liquid Li samples with high concentrations of D, as derived from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Liquid Li samples with four concentrations of inserted D atoms (LiD$_{\\beta}$ , $\\beta =0.25$ , 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00) are studied at temperatures ranging from 470 to 1143 K. Densities, diffusivities, pair distribution functions, bond angle distribution functions, geometries, and charge transfer between Li and D atoms are calculated and analyzed. The analysis suggests liquid–solid phase transitions can occur at some concentrations and temperatures, forming rock-salt LiD within liquid Li. Finally, we observed the formation of some D2 molecules at high D concentrations.

  14. Rock-salt structure lithium deuteride formation in liquid lithium with high-concentrations of deuterium: a first-principles molecular dynamics study

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Mohan; Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Because of lithium's possible use as a first wall material in a fusion reactor, a fundamental understanding of the interactions between liquid lithium (Li) and deuterium (D) is important. Here, we predict structural and dynamical properties of liquid Li samples with high concentrations of D, as derived from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Liquid Li samples with four concentrations of inserted D atoms (LiDmore » $$_{\\beta}$$ , $$\\beta =0.25$$ , 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00) are studied at temperatures ranging from 470 to 1143 K. Densities, diffusivities, pair distribution functions, bond angle distribution functions, geometries, and charge transfer between Li and D atoms are calculated and analyzed. The analysis suggests liquid–solid phase transitions can occur at some concentrations and temperatures, forming rock-salt LiD within liquid Li. Finally, we observed the formation of some D2 molecules at high D concentrations.« less

  15. Spectroscopic identification of the lithium ion transporting species in LiTFSI-doped ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lassègues, Jean-Claude; Grondin, Joseph; Aupetit, Christian; Johansson, Patrik

    2009-01-08

    The solvation of the lithium ion in LiTFSI-doped ionic liquids based on alkyl-substituted imidazolium cations and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anions (TFSI-) was investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The spectral changes occurring for some TFSI- vibrations sensitive to the lithium coordination were analyzed with the help of DFT calculations. In addition, the vibrations of the lithium ion in its solvating cage were found to produce a broad IR absorption band centered at 374 cm(-1). For low to moderate LiTFSI mole fractions, 0.08 < x < 0.2, the [Li(TFSI)2]- solvating cage was found to involve bidentate coordinations of Li+ with two oxygen atoms of one anion in the trans (C2) conformation and two oxygen atoms of the other anion in the cis (C1) conformation. At higher LiTFSI concentration, up to x = 0.5, the lithium ion-TFSI coordination number progressively becomes less than 2, indicating the possible formation of aggregates.

  16. Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Ionic Liquids in APTES Crosslinked Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent free polymer electrolytes were made consisting of Li(+) and pyrrolidinium salts of trifluoromethanesulfonimide added to a series of hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO). The polymers were connected by triazine linkages and crosslinked by a sol-gel process to provide mechanical strength. The connecting PEO groups were varied to help understand the effects of polymer structure on electrolyte conductivity in the presence of ionic liquids. Polymers were also made that contain poly(dimethylsiloxane) groups, which provide increased flexibility without interacting with lithium ions. When large amounts of ionic liquid are added, there is little dependence of conductivity on the polymer structure. However, when smaller amounts of ionic liquid are added, the inherent conductivity of the polymer becomes a factor. These electrolytes are more conductive than those made with high molecular weight PEO imbibed with ionic liquids at ambient temperatures, due to the amorphous nature of the polymer.

  17. Highly reversible lithium metal secondary battery using a room temperature ionic liquid/lithium salt mixture and a surface-coated cathode active material.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shiro; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashiro, Hajime; Ohno, Yasutaka; Usami, Akira; Mita, Yuichi; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Terada, Nobuyuki

    2006-02-07

    For the purpose of realizing high-voltage, high-capacity, long-life and safe rechargeable batteries, a lithium secondary battery that uses high-voltage stable ZrO2-coated LiCoO2 cathode powder and a nonvolatile high-safety room temperature ionic liquid was fabricated.

  18. Liquid lithium applications for solving challenging fusion reactor issues and NSTX-U contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, M.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Hirooka, Y.; Gray, T. K.

    2016-08-05

    Steady-state fusion reactor operation presents major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both steady-state and transients. In addition to those issues, there are unresolved issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety issues. It has been suggested that radiative liquid lithium divertor concepts with a modest lithium-loop could provide a possible solution for these outstanding fusion reactor technology issues while potentially improving the reactor plasma performance. The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peak heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-free core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid lithium divertor (RLLD) concept and its variant, the active liquid lithium divertor concept (ARLLD), taking advantage of the enhanced Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. It was estimated that only a few moles/sec of lithium injection would be needed to significantly reduce the divertor heat flux in a tokamak fusion power plant. By operating at lower temperatures ≤ 500°C than the first wall ~ 600 – 700°C, the LL-covered divertor chamber wall surfaces can serve as an effective particle pump, as impurities generally migrate toward lower temperature LL divertor surfaces. To maintain the LL purity, a closed LL loop system with a modest circulating capacity of ~ 1 liter/second (l/sec) is envisioned to sustain the steady-state operation of a 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant. By running the Li loop continuously, it can carry the dust particles and impurities generated in the vacuum vessel to outside where the dust / impurities are removed by relatively simple filter and cold/hot trap systems. Using a cold trap system, it can recover in tritium (T) in real time from LL at a

  19. Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium (SFLiLi) systems for tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Gentile, Charles; Roquemore, Lane

    2013-10-01

    The present approach to magnetic fusion which relies on high recycling plasma-wall interaction has exhausted itself at the level of TFTR, JET, JT-60 devices with no realistic path to the burning plasma. Instead, magnetic fusion needs a return to its original idea of insulation of the plasma from the wall, which was the dominant approach in the 1970s and upon implementations has a clear path to the DEMO device with PDT ~= 100 MW and Qelectric > 1 . The SFLiLi systems of this talk is the technology tool for implementation of the guiding idea of magnetic fusion. It utilizes the unique properties of flowing LiLi to pump plasma particles and, thus, insulate plasma from the walls. The necessary flow rate, ~= 1 g3/s, is very small, thus, making the use of lithium practical and consistent with safety requirements. The talk describes how chemical activity of LiLi, which is the major technology challenge of using LiLi in tokamaks, is addressed by SFLiLi systems at the level of already performed (HT-7) experiment, and in ongoing implementations for a prototype of SFLiLi for tokamak divertors and the mid-plane limiter for EAST tokamak (to be tested in the next experimental campaign). This work is supported by US DoE contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  20. Synergistic Effects of Mixing Sulfone and Ionic Liquid as Safe Electrolytes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-11-26

    A strategy of mixing both an ionic liquid and sulfone is reported to give synergistic effects of reducing viscosity, increasing ionic conductivity, reducing polysulfide dissolution, and improving safety. The mixtures of ionic liquids and sulfones also show distinctly different physicochemical properties, including thermal properties and crystallization behavior. By using these electrolytes, lithium sulfur batteries assembled with lithium and mesoporous carbon composites show a reversible specific capacity of 1265 mAhg-1 (second cycle) by using 40% 1.0 M lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in N-methyl-Npropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide with 60% 1.0 M LiTFSI in methylisopropylsulfone in the first cycle. This capacity is slightly lower than that obtained in pure 1.0 M LiTFSI as the sulfone electrolyte; however, it exhibits excellent cycling stability and remains as high as 655 mAhg1 even after 50 cycles. This strategy provides a method to alleviate polysulfide dissolution and redox shuttle phenomena, at the same time, with improved ionic conductivity.

  1. Effect of zwitterion on the lithium solid electrolyte interphase in ionic liquid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, N.; Howlett, P. C.; MacFarlane, D. R.; Smith, M. E.; Howes, A.; Hollenkamp, A. F.; Bastow, T.; Hale, P.; Forsyth, M.

    An understanding of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that forms on the lithium-metal surface is essential to the further development of rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. Currently, the formation of dendrites during cycling, which can lead to catastrophic failure of the cell, has mostly halted research on these power sources. The discovery of ionic liquids as electrolytes has rekindled the possibility of safe, rechargeable, lithium-metal batteries. The current limitation of ionic liquid electrolytes, however, is that when compared with conventional non-aqueous electrolytes the device rate capability is limited. Recently, we have shown that the addition of a zwitterion such as N-methyl- N-(butyl sulfonate) pyrrolidinium resulted in enhancement of the achievable current densities by 100%. It was also found that the resistance of the SEI layer in the presence of a zwitterion is 50% lower. In this study, a detailed chemical and electrochemical analysis of the SEI that forms in both the presence and absence of a zwitterion has been conducted. Clear differences in the chemical nature and also the thickness of the SEI are observed and these may account for the enhancement of operating current densities.

  2. Synergistic effects of mixing sulfone and ionic liquid as safe electrolytes for lithium sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A strategy of mixing both an ionic liquid and sulfone is reported to give synergistic effects of reducing viscosity, increasing ionic conductivity, reducing polysulfide dissolution, and improving safety. The mixtures of ionic liquids and sulfones also show distinctly different physicochemical properties, including thermal properties and crystallization behavior. By using these electrolytes, lithium sulfur batteries assembled with lithium and mesoporous carbon composites show a reversible specific capacity of 1265 mAh g(-1) (second cycle) by using 40 % 1.0 M lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide with 60 % 1.0 M LiTFSI in methylisopropylsulfone in the first cycle. This capacity is slightly lower than that obtained in pure 1.0 M LiTFSI as the sulfone electrolyte; however, it exhibits excellent cycling stability and remains as high as 655 mAh g(-1) even after 50 cycles. This strategy provides a method to alleviate polysulfide dissolution and redox shuttle phenomena, at the same time, with improved ionic conductivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synergistic Effects of Mixing Sulfone and Ionic Liquid as Safe Electrolytes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; ...

    2014-11-26

    A strategy of mixing both an ionic liquid and sulfone is reported to give synergistic effects of reducing viscosity, increasing ionic conductivity, reducing polysulfide dissolution, and improving safety. The mixtures of ionic liquids and sulfones also show distinctly different physicochemical properties, including thermal properties and crystallization behavior. By using these electrolytes, lithium sulfur batteries assembled with lithium and mesoporous carbon composites show a reversible specific capacity of 1265 mAhg-1 (second cycle) by using 40% 1.0 M lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in N-methyl-Npropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide with 60% 1.0 M LiTFSI in methylisopropylsulfone in the first cycle. This capacity is slightly lower than thatmore » obtained in pure 1.0 M LiTFSI as the sulfone electrolyte; however, it exhibits excellent cycling stability and remains as high as 655 mAhg1 even after 50 cycles. This strategy provides a method to alleviate polysulfide dissolution and redox shuttle phenomena, at the same time, with improved ionic conductivity.« less

  4. Atomistic Simulation and Electronic Structure of Lithium Doped Ionic Liquids: Structure, Transport, and Electrochemical Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Lawson, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Zero-temperature density functional theory (DFT), density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD), and classical molecular dynamics using polarizable force fields (PFF-MD) are employed to evaluate the influence of Lithium ion on the structure, transport, and electrochemical stability of three potential ionic liquid electrolytes: N--methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([pyr14][TFSI]), N--methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide ([pyr13][FSI]), and 1-ethyl-3--methylimidazolium boron tetrafluoride ([EMIM][BF4]). We characterize the Lithium ion solvation shell through zero-temperature DFT simulations of [Li(Anion)sub n](exp n-1) -clusters, DFT-MD simulations of isolated lithium ions in small ionic liquid systems, and PFF-MD simulations with high Li-doping levels in large ionic liquid systems. At low levels of Li-salt doping, highly stable solvation shells having 2-3 anions are seen in both [pyr14][TFSI] and [pyr13][FSI], while solvation shells with 4 anions dominate in [EMIM][BF sub 4]. At higher levels of doping, we find the formation of complex Li-network structures that increase the frequency of 4 anion-coordinated solvation shells. A comparison of computational and experimental Raman spectra for a wide range of [Li(Anion) sub n](exp n -1) - clusters shows that our proposed structures are consistent with experiment. We estimate the ion diffusion coefficients and quantify both size and simulation time effects. We find estimates of lithium ion diffusion are a reasonable order of magnitude and can be corrected for simulation time effects. Simulation size, on the other hand, is also important, with diffusion coefficients from long PFF-MD simulations of small cells having 20-40% error compared to large-cell values. Finally, we compute the electrochemical window using differences in electronic energy levels of both isolated cation/anion pairs and small ionic liquid systems with Li-salt doping. The single pair and liquid

  5. TFSI and TDI Anions: Probes for Solvate Ionic Liquid and Disproportionation-Based Lithium Battery Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Piotr; Dranka, Maciej; Wieczorek, Władysław; Johansson, Patrik

    2017-08-03

    Highly concentrated electrolytes based on Li-salts and chelating solvents, such as glymes, are promising as electrolytes for lithium batteries. This is due to their unique properties, such as higher electrochemical stabilities, compliance with high-voltage electrodes, low volatility and flammability, and inertness toward aluminum current collector corrosion. The nature of these properties originates from the molecular-level structure created in either solvate ionic liquids (SILs) or the less common ionic aggregates by disproportionation reactions. The nature of the anion plays a crucial role, and here, we present a computational study using TFSI and TDI anions as probes, revealing increasing differences upon increased salt concentration. TFSI-based electrolytes preferably form SILs, while TDI-based electrolytes form ionic aggregates. The latter lead to an unexpected creation of "free" cationic species even at (very) high salt concentrations and thus promise of ample lithium ion transport.

  6. An advanced lithium-air battery exploiting an ionic liquid-based electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Elia, G A; Hassoun, J; Kwak, W-J; Sun, Y-K; Scrosati, B; Mueller, F; Bresser, D; Passerini, S; Oberhumer, P; Tsiouvaras, N; Reiter, J

    2014-11-12

    A novel lithium-oxygen battery exploiting PYR14TFSI-LiTFSI as ionic liquid-based electrolyte medium is reported. The Li/PYR14TFSI-LiTFSI/O2 battery was fully characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, capacity-limited cycling, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of this extensive study demonstrate that this new Li/O2 cell is characterized by a stable electrode-electrolyte interface and a highly reversible charge-discharge cycling behavior. Most remarkably, the charge process (oxygen oxidation reaction) is characterized by a very low overvoltage, enhancing the energy efficiency to 82%, thus, addressing one of the most critical issues preventing the practical application of lithium-oxygen batteries.

  7. Strong tendency of homeotropic alignment and anisotropic lithium ion conductivity of sulfonate functionalized zwitterionic imidazolium ionic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Rondla, Rohini; Lin, Joseph C Y; Yang, C T; Lin, Ivan J B

    2013-09-17

    Here, we report the first attempt to investigate the liquid crystal (LC) behavior of SO3(-) functionalized imidazolium zwitterionic (SO3(-)ImZI) salts, which display homeotropic alignment on a glass slide without the aid of any aligning approach. Doping lithium salt to ImZI salts lowers the melting temperatures and raises the clearing temperatures substantially to form room temperature ImZILCs. Excellent anisotropic lithium ion conductivity is achieved; which is strengthened by their tendency for homeotropic alignment.

  8. Electrochemical reduction of an anion for ionic-liquid molecules on a lithium electrode studied by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Yasunobu; Kawamura, Yoshiumi; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Otani, Minoru

    2014-09-01

    We report ab initio molecular dynamics studies with electric field that reveal chemical stability of room temperature ionic liquid for charge transfer from lithium and nickel electrodes. Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) is oxidized on the nickel electrode under a high positive bias condition as expected. However, TFSI is reduced on the lithium electrode under both positive and negative bias conditions, because the lithium electrode acts as a strong reductant. The decomposition of TFSI anion might induce the formation of LiF as a solid electrolyte interphase, which could restrain the TFSI reduction. The stability of an cation under reductant conditions is presented.

  9. The effects of carbon and nitrogen on the corrosion resistance of type 316 stainless steel to liquid lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, M. G.; Frankham, S. A.

    1982-06-01

    Type 316 stainless steel plates have been exposed at 600°C to liquid lithium containing carbon and nitrogen at various chemical activities for periods of up to 672 h. The corrosion products Li 9CrN 5 and M 23C 6 have been identified on the plate surfaces and in the grain boundaries. Scanning electron microscopy has shown preferential nickel and chromium depletion at the steel surface in lithium with high nitrogen content. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in type 316 stainless steel from a lithium source was found to be 6.5 × 10 t 1¯5 m 2/s.

  10. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of liquids and lithium batterymaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Augustsson, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Lithium ion insertion into electrode materials is commonly used in rechargeable battery technology. The insertion implies changes in both the crystal structure and the electronic structure of the electrode material. Side-reactions may occur on the surface of the electrode which is exposed to the electrolyte and form a solid electrolyte interface (SEI). The understanding of these processes is of great importance for improving battery performance. The chemical and physical properties of water and alcohols are complicated by the presence of strong hydrogen bonding. Various experimental techniques have been used to study geometrical structures and different models have been proposed to view the details of how these liquids are geometrically organized by hydrogen bonding. However, very little is known about the electronic structure of these liquids, mainly due to the lack of suitable experimental tools. In this thesis examples of studies of lithium battery electrodes and liquid systems using soft x-ray emission spectroscopy will be presented. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation has been used to accomplish selective excitation, in terms of energy and polarization. The electronic structure of graphite electrodes has been studied, before and after lithium intercalation. Changes in the electronic structure upon lithiation due to transfer of electrons into the graphite π-bands have been observed. Transfer of electrons in to the 3d states of transition metal oxides upon lithiation have been studied, through low energy excitations as dd- and charge transfer-excitations. A SEI was detected on cycled graphite electrodes. By the use of selective excitation different carbon sites were probed in the SEI. The local electronic structure of water, methanol and mixtures of the two have been examined using a special liquid cell, to separate the liquid from the vacuum in the experimental chamber. Results from the study of liquid water showed a strong influence on the 3a1 molecular

  11. Development and performance of aluminum nitride insulating coatings for application in a lithium environment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R.C.

    1997-10-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. Based on the requirement that an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material must minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field, aluminum nitride (AlN) is considered a candidate coating material for the lithium self-cooled blanket concept. Detailed investigations were conducted on the fabrication, metallurgical microstructure, compatibility in liquid Li, and electrical characteristics of AlN as a coating material. A nonindentation technique was used to evaluate the hardness of the coated samples in as-coated condition, after a hardening treatment, and after exposure to Li. Lithium compatibility studies were conducted in static systems by exposure of AlN-coated specimens for several time periods, at various temperatures, and in various lithium chemistries. Electrical resistance of the specimens was measured at room temperature before and after exposure to liquid Li. This paper discusses the results from ongoing activities on the development of AlN coatings.

  12. Liquid lithium loop system to solve challenging technology issues for fusion power plant

    DOE PAGES

    Ono, Masayuki; Majeski, Richard P.; Jaworski, Michael A.; ...

    2017-07-12

    Here, steady-state fusion power plant designs present major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both in steady-state and during transients. In addition to these concerns, there are the unresolved technology issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety issues. It has been suggested that radiation-based liquid lithium (LL) divertor concepts with a modest lithium-loop could provide a possible solution for these outstanding fusion reactor technology issues, while potentially improving reactor plasma performance. The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peakmore » heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-free core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid lithium divertor (RLLD) concept and its variant, the active liquid lithium divertor concept (ARLLD), taking advantage of the enhanced or non-coronal Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. To maintain the LL purity in a 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant, a closed LL loop system with a modest circulating capacity of ~ 1 liter/second (l/sec) is envisioned. We examined two key technology issues: 1) dust or solid particle removal and 2) real time recovery of tritium from LL while keeping the tritium inventory level to an acceptable level. By running the LL-loop continuously, it can carry the dust particles and impurities generated in the vacuum vessel to the outside where the dust / impurities can be removed by relatively simple dust filter, cold trap and/or centrifugal separation systems. With ~ 1 l/sec LL flow, even a small 0.1% dust content by weight (or 0.5 g per sec) suggests that the LL-loop could carry away nearly 16 tons of dust per year. In a 1 GW-electric (or ~ 3 GW fusion power) fusion power plant, about 0.5 g / sec of

  13. Research proposal for development of an electron stripper using a thin liquid lithium film for rare isotope accelerator.

    SciTech Connect

    Momozaki, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-03-06

    Hydrodynamic instability phenomena in a thin liquid lithium film, which has been proposed for the first stripper in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), were discussed. Since it was considered that film instability could significantly impair the feasibility of the liquid lithium film stripper concept, potential issues and research tasks in the RIA project due to these instability phenomena were raised. In order to investigate these instability phenomena, a research proposal plan was developed. In the theoretical part of this research proposal, a use of the linear stability theory was suggested. In the experimental part, it was pointed out that the concept of Reynolds number and Weber number scaling may allow conducting a preliminary experiment using inert simulants, hence reducing technical difficulty, complexity, and cost of the experiments. After confirming the thin film formation in the preliminary experiment using simulants, demonstration experiments using liquid lithium were proposed.

  14. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  15. Ionic liquid electrolytes for Li-air batteries: lithium metal cycling.

    PubMed

    Grande, Lorenzo; Paillard, Elie; Kim, Guk-Tae; Monaco, Simone; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-05-08

    In this work, the electrochemical stability and lithium plating/stripping performance of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) are reported, by investigating the behavior of Li metal electrodes in symmetrical Li/electrolyte/Li cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and galvanostatic cycling at different temperatures are performed to analyze the influence of temperature on the stabilization of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), showing that TFSI-based ionic liquids (ILs) rank among the best candidates for long-lasting Li-air cells.

  16. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Li–Air Batteries: Lithium Metal Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Lorenzo; Paillard, Elie; Kim, Guk-Tae; Monaco, Simone; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the electrochemical stability and lithium plating/stripping performance of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) are reported, by investigating the behavior of Li metal electrodes in symmetrical Li/electrolyte/Li cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and galvanostatic cycling at different temperatures are performed to analyze the influence of temperature on the stabilization of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), showing that TFSI-based ionic liquids (ILs) rank among the best candidates for long-lasting Li–air cells. PMID:24815072

  17. Upgrades toward high-heat flux, liquid lithium plasma-facing components in the NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, M. A.; Brooks, A.; Kaita, R.; Lopes-Cardozo, N.; Ono, M.; Rindt, P.

    2016-08-08

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) provide numerous potential advantages over solid-material components. One critique of the approach is the relatively less developed technologies associated with deploying these components in a fusion plasma-experiment. Exploration of the temperature limits of liquid lithium PFCs in a tokamak divertor and the corresponding consequences on core operation are a high priority informing the possibilities for future liquid lithium PFCs. An all-metal NSTX-U is envisioned to make direct comparison between all high-Z wall operation and liquid lithium PFCs in a single device. By executing the all-metal upgrades incrementally, scientific productivity will be maintained while enabling physics and engineering-science studies to further develop the solid- and liquid-metal components. Six major elements of a flowing liquid-metal divertor system are described and a three-step program for implementing this system is laid out. The upgrade steps involve the first high-Z divertor target upgrade in NSTX-U, pre-filled liquid metal targets and finally, an integrated, flowing liquid metal divertor target. As a result, two example issues are described where the engineering and physics experiments are shown to be closely related in examining the prospects for future liquid metal PFCs.

  18. Upgrades toward high-heat flux, liquid lithium plasma-facing components in the NSTX-U

    DOE PAGES

    Jaworski, M. A.; Brooks, A.; Kaita, R.; ...

    2016-08-08

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) provide numerous potential advantages over solid-material components. One critique of the approach is the relatively less developed technologies associated with deploying these components in a fusion plasma-experiment. Exploration of the temperature limits of liquid lithium PFCs in a tokamak divertor and the corresponding consequences on core operation are a high priority informing the possibilities for future liquid lithium PFCs. An all-metal NSTX-U is envisioned to make direct comparison between all high-Z wall operation and liquid lithium PFCs in a single device. By executing the all-metal upgrades incrementally, scientific productivity will be maintained while enabling physicsmore » and engineering-science studies to further develop the solid- and liquid-metal components. Six major elements of a flowing liquid-metal divertor system are described and a three-step program for implementing this system is laid out. The upgrade steps involve the first high-Z divertor target upgrade in NSTX-U, pre-filled liquid metal targets and finally, an integrated, flowing liquid metal divertor target. As a result, two example issues are described where the engineering and physics experiments are shown to be closely related in examining the prospects for future liquid metal PFCs.« less

  19. Upgrades toward high-heat flux, liquid lithium plasma-facing components in the NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, M. A.; Brooks, A.; Kaita, R.; Lopes-Cardozo, N.; Ono, M.; Rindt, P.

    2016-08-08

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) provide numerous potential advantages over solid-material components. One critique of the approach is the relatively less developed technologies associated with deploying these components in a fusion plasma-experiment. Exploration of the temperature limits of liquid lithium PFCs in a tokamak divertor and the corresponding consequences on core operation are a high priority informing the possibilities for future liquid lithium PFCs. An all-metal NSTX-U is envisioned to make direct comparison between all high-Z wall operation and liquid lithium PFCs in a single device. By executing the all-metal upgrades incrementally, scientific productivity will be maintained while enabling physics and engineering-science studies to further develop the solid- and liquid-metal components. Six major elements of a flowing liquid-metal divertor system are described and a three-step program for implementing this system is laid out. The upgrade steps involve the first high-Z divertor target upgrade in NSTX-U, pre-filled liquid metal targets and finally, an integrated, flowing liquid metal divertor target. As a result, two example issues are described where the engineering and physics experiments are shown to be closely related in examining the prospects for future liquid metal PFCs.

  20. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  1. Physics Design Requirements for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Liquid Lithium Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, W.; Bell, M.; Berzak,L.; Brooks, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.; Harjes, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Menard, J.; Nygren,R. E.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stotler, D.; Wakeland, P.; Zakharov L. E.

    2008-09-26

    Recent NSTX high power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on PFC's to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) to achieve density control for inductionless current drive capability (e.g., about a 15-25% ne decrease from present highest non-inductionless fraction discharges which often evolve toward the density limit, ne/nGW~1), to enable ne scan capability (x2) in the H-mode, to test the ability to operate at significantly lower density for future ST-CTF reactor designs (e.g., ne/nGW = 0.25), and eventually to investigate high heat-flux power handling (10 MW/m2) with longpulse discharges (>1.5s). The first step (LLD-1) physics design encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization.

  2. Polymeric ionic liquid-plastic crystal composite electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Li, Sijian; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2016-03-01

    In this work, composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs), that is, 80%[(1-x)PIL-(x)SN]-20%LiTFSI, are successfully prepared by using a pyrrolidinium-based polymeric ionic liquid (P(DADMA)TFSI) as a polymer host, succinonitrile (SN) as a plastic crystal, and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as a lithium salt. XRD and DSC measurements confirm that the as-obtained CPEs have amorphous structures. The 80%[50%PIL-50%SN]-20%LiTFSI (50% SN) electrolyte reveals a high room temperature ionic conductivity of 5.74 × 10-4 S cm-1, a wide electrochemical window of 5.5 V, as well as good mechanical strength with a Young's modulus of 4.9 MPa. Li/LiFePO4 cells assembled with the 50% SN electrolyte at 0.1C rate can deliver a discharge capacity of about 150 mAh g-1 at 25 °C, with excellent capacity retention. Furthermore, such cells are able to achieve stable discharge capacities of 131.8 and 121.2 mAh g-1 at 0.5C and 1.0C rate, respectively. The impressive findings demonstrate that the electrolyte system prepared in this work has great potential for application in lithium ion batteries.

  3. Compatiblitity of hydrophobic ionic liquids with high performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes-Mason, Ezekial Robert

    Lithium batteries are widely seen as the best choice for the future of energy storage but significant improvements are still required. One important area for improvement is searching for new cathode materials that incorporate lithium at higher capacities and voltages. This increases the energy and power available from an individual electrochemical cell, which reduces the number of cells required thereby reducing the size of a battery pack. While several high voltage cathode materials have been discovered, research has been hindered due to safety concerns with current standard electrolytes at high voltages. Ionic liquids are a new class of materials that exhibit excellent electrochemical and thermal stability as well as high ionic conductivity. These qualities make them excellent candidates to replace current battery electrolytes but difficulties in purification and the sheer number of possible chemistries have inhibited their study. In this study four hydrophobic ionic liquids based on pyrrolidinium and piperidinium cations paired with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions were synthesized using bench top methods. These ionic liquids were successfully incorporated into working half-cells with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co 1/3O2, a high capacity layered cathode and LiNi0.5Mn 1.5O4, a high voltage spinel type cathode. By comparing the behavior of the ionic liquids a clear relationship between cation size and rate capability was shown. The improved performance and safety at elevated temperatures was also demonstrated showing that ionic liquids are excellent candidates for use as battery electrolytes.

  4. Hydrofluoric Acid-Free Electroless Deposition of Metals on Silicon in Ionic Liquids and Its Enhanced Performance in Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Lu, Tianqi; Behrens, Niklas; Borisenko, Natalia; Li, Guozhu; Endres, Frank

    2017-04-05

    Metal nanoparticles such as Au, Ag, Pt, and so forth have been deposited on silicon by electroless deposition in the presence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) for applications such as oxygen reduction reaction, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, as well as for lithium ion batteries. Here, we show an HF-free process wherein metals such as Sb and Ag could be deposited onto electrodeposited silicon in ionic liquids. We further show that, compared to electrodeposited silicon, Sb-modified Si demonstrates a better performance for lithium storage. The present study opens a new paradigm for the electroless deposition technique in ionic liquids for developing and modifying functional materials.

  5. Development of liquid-lithium film jet-flow for the target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reactions for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Miura, Kuniaki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Aritomi, Masanori

    2014-06-01

    A feasibility study on liquid lithium target in the form of a flowing film was performed to evaluate its potential use as a neutron generation target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction in BNCT. The target is a windowless-type flowing film on a concave wall. Its configuration was adapted for a proton beam which is 30mm in diameter and with energy and current of up to 3MeV and 20mA, respectively. The flowing film of liquid lithium was 0.6mm in thickness, 50mm in width and 50mm in length. The shapes of the nozzle and concave back wall, which create a stable flowing film jet, were decided based on water experiments. A lithium hydrodynamic experiment was performed to observe the stability of liquid lithium flow behavior. The flowing film of liquid lithium was found to be feasible at temperatures below the liquid lithium boiling saturation of 342°C at the surface pressure of 1×10(-3)Pa. Using a proto-type liquid lithium-circulating loop for BNCT, the stability of the film flow was confirmed for velocities up to 30m/s at 220°C and 250°C in vacuum at a pressure lower than 10(-3) Pa. It is expected that for practical use, a flowing liquid lithium target of a windowless type can solve the problem of radiation damage and target cooling.

  6. Experimental Characterization of Thermo-electric Driven Liquid Lithium Flow in Narrow Trenches for Magnetic Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenyu; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Curreli, Davide; Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David

    2013-10-01

    The application of liquid metal, especially liquid lithium has become an important topic for plasma facing component (PFC) design. A liquid PFC can effectively eliminate the erosion and thermal stress problems compared to the solid PFC while transferring heat and prolong the lifetime limit of the PFCs. A liquid lithium surface can also suppress the hydrogen isotopes recycling and getter the impurities in fusion reactors. The Lithium/metal infused trench (LiMIT) concept successfully proved that the thermoelectric effect can be utilized to drive liquid lithium flow within horizontally placed metallic open trenches in transverse magnetic field. A limiter based on this concept was tested in HT-7 and gave out positive results. However a broader application of this concept may require the trench be tilted or even placed vertically, for which strong capillary force caused by narrow trenches may be the solution. A new LiMIT design with very narrow trenches have been manufactured and tested in University of Illinois and related results will be presented. Based on this idea new limiters are designed for EAST and LTX and scheduled experiments on both devices will be discussed. This project is supported by DOE/ALPS contract: DEFG02- 99ER54515.

  7. Ionic liquids in lithium battery electrolytes: Composition versus safety and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilken, Susanne; Xiong, Shizhao; Scheers, Johan; Jacobsson, Per; Johansson, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    Ionic liquids have been highlighted as non-flammable, environmentally friendly, and suggested as possible solvents in lithium ion battery electrolytes. Here, the application of two ionic liquids from the EMIm-family in a state-of-the-art carbonate solvent based electrolyte is studied with a focus on safety improvement. The impact of the composition on physical and safety related properties is investigated for IL concentrations of additive (∼5 wt%) up to co-solvent concentrations (∼60 wt%). Furthermore, the role of the lithium salt concentration is separately addressed by studying a set of electrolytes at 0.5 M, 1 M, and 2 M LiPF6 concentrations. A large impact on the electrolyte properties is found for the electrolytes containing EMImTFSI and high salt concentrations. The composition 2 M LiPF6 EC:DEC:IL (1:1:3 wt%) is found non-flammable for both choices of ILs added. The macroscopic observations are complemented by a Raman spectroscopy analysis whereby a change in the Li+ solvation is detected for IL concentrations >4.5 mol%.

  8. Ionomer-Liquid Electrolyte Hybrid Ionic Conductor for High Cycling Stability of Lithium Metal Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2015-01-01

    The inhomogeneous Li electrodeposition of lithium metal electrode has been a major impediment to the realization of rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Although single ion conducting ionomers can induce more homogeneous Li electrodeposition by preventing Li+ depletion at Li surface, currently available materials do not allow room-temperature operation due to their low room temperature conductivities. In the paper, we report that a highly conductive ionomer/liquid electrolyte hybrid layer tightly laminated on Li metal electrode can realize stable Li electrodeposition at high current densities up to 10 mA cm−2 and permit room-temperature operation of corresponding Li metal batteries with low polarizations. The hybrid layer is fabricated by laminating few micron-thick Nafion layer on Li metal electrode followed by soaking 1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC (1/1) electrolyte. The Li/Li symmetric cell with the hybrid layer stably operates at a high current density of 10 mA cm−2 for more than 2000 h, which corresponds to more than five-fold enhancement compared with bare Li metal electrode. Also, the prototype Li/LiCoO2 battery with the hybrid layer offers cycling stability more than 350 cycles. These results demonstrate that the hybrid strategy successfully combines the advantages of bi-ionic liquid electrolyte (fast Li+ transport) and single ionic ionomer (prevention of Li+ depletion). PMID:26411701

  9. Synergistic Effects of Mixing Sulfone and Ionic Liquid as Safe Electrolytes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-11-26

    Here we report a strategy of mixing both the ionic liquid and sulfone with synergistic effects of reducing viscosity, increasing ionic conductivity, reducing the polysulfide dissolution, and improving the safety. The mixtures of the ionic liquids and sulfones also show distinctly different physicochemical properties, including the thermal properties and crystallization behavior. Using these electrolytes, lithium sulfur batteries assembled with lithium and mesoporous carbon composites show a reversible specific capacity of 1265 mAh g-1 (second cycle) by using 40% 1.0 M LiTFSI in MPPY∙TFSI with 60% 1.0 M LiTFSI in MIPS in the first cycle. This capacity is slightly lower than what was obtained in the pure 1.0 M LiTFSI in the sulfone electrolytes; however, it exhibits an excellent cycling stability and remains as high as 655 mAh g-1 even after 50 cycles. Our strategy provides a method to alleviate the polysulfide dissolution and redox shuttle phenomenon, with an improved ionic conductivity at the same time.

  10. First-principles molecular dynamics simulations of high-concentration deuterium implantation in liquid lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mohan; Abrams, Tyler; Jaworski, Michael; Carter, Emily

    2015-03-01

    First-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) is performed to study liquid lithium (Li) samples with high-concentration deuterium (D) implantation. First, we validate FPMD against experimental properties of solid and liquid Li and LiD. The calculated properties of both Li and LiD include relative stabilities and bulk moduli of several solid phases, melting temperatures, pair distribution functions, and bond angle distribution functions. Excellent agreement is obtained between FPMD and available experimental data. Next, we randomly implant D atoms at four different concentrations into liquid Li at different temperatures. Specifically, the ratios of D:Li atoms studied are 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00, and the temperatures range from 400 to 1143 K. FPMD reveals several interesting properties of these liquid Li samples with implanted D atoms. For example, we observe fast nucleation of rock-salt structures of LiD for samples at temperatures lower than the melting point of LiD (960 K). We find that the pure Li component is quickly suppressed with increased concentration of D atoms, and that no D clusters form. Finally, because measured diffusivities of D in liquid Li vary by several orders of magnitude, we predict the diffusivities of both Li and D atoms in all samples.

  11. Measurement of hydrogen solubility and desorption rate in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium-calcium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Erck, R.; Park, E.T.

    1997-04-01

    Hydrogen solubility in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium-calcium was measured at a hydrogen pressure of 9.09 x 10{sup {minus}4} torr at temperatures between 250 and 700{degrees}C. Hydrogen solubility in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium decreased with temperature. The measured desorption rate of hydrogen in V-4Cr-4Ti is a thermally activated process; the activation energy is 0.067 eV. Oxygen-charged V-4Cr-4Ti specimens were also investigated to determine the effect of oxygen impurity on hydrogen solubility and desorption in the alloy. Oxygen in V-4Cr-4Ti increases hydrogen solubility and desorption kinetics. To determine the effect of a calcium oxide insulator coating on V-4Cr-4Ti, hydrogen solubility in lithium-calcium alloys that contained 0-8.0 percent calcium was also measured. The distribution ratio R of hydrogen between liquid lithium or lithium-calcium and V-4Cr-4Ti increased as temperature decreased (R {approx} 10 and 100 at 700 and 250{degrees}C, respectively). However at <267{degrees}C, solubility data could not be obtained by this method because of the slow kinetics of hydrogen permeation through the vanadium alloy.

  12. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  13. Liquid lithium applications for solving challenging fusion reactor issues and NSTX-U contributions

    DOE PAGES

    Ono, M.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; ...

    2016-08-05

    Steady-state fusion reactor operation presents major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both steady-state and transients. In addition to those issues, there are unresolved issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety issues. It has been suggested that radiative liquid lithium divertor concepts with a modest lithium-loop could provide a possible solution for these outstanding fusion reactor technology issues while potentially improving the reactor plasma performance. The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peak heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-freemore » core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid lithium divertor (RLLD) concept and its variant, the active liquid lithium divertor concept (ARLLD), taking advantage of the enhanced Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. It was estimated that only a few moles/sec of lithium injection would be needed to significantly reduce the divertor heat flux in a tokamak fusion power plant. By operating at lower temperatures ≤ 500°C than the first wall ~ 600 – 700°C, the LL-covered divertor chamber wall surfaces can serve as an effective particle pump, as impurities generally migrate toward lower temperature LL divertor surfaces. To maintain the LL purity, a closed LL loop system with a modest circulating capacity of ~ 1 liter/second (l/sec) is envisioned to sustain the steady-state operation of a 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant. By running the Li loop continuously, it can carry the dust particles and impurities generated in the vacuum vessel to outside where the dust / impurities are removed by relatively simple filter and cold/hot trap systems. Using a cold trap system, it can recover in tritium (T) in real time from LL

  14. Nanostructure of mixtures of protic ionic liquids and lithium salts: effect of alkyl chain length.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Rodríguez, Julio R; Cabeza, Óscar; Gallego, Luis J; Russina, Olga; Varela, Luis M

    2015-02-21

    The bulk structure of mixtures of two protic ionic liquids, propylammonium nitrate and butylammonium nitrate, with a salt with a common anion, is analyzed at room temperature by means of small angle X-ray scattering and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The study of several structural properties, such as density, radial distribution functions, spatial distribution functions, hydrogen bonds, coordination numbers and velocity autocorrelation functions, demonstrates that increasing the alkyl chain length of the alkylammonium cation results in more segregated, better defined polar and apolar domains, the latter having a larger size. This increase, ascribed to the erosion of the H-bond network in the ionic liquid polar regions as salt is added, is confirmed by means of small angle X-ray scattering measurements, which show a clear linear increase of the characteristic spatial sizes of the studied protic ionic liquids with salt concentration, similar to that previously reported for ethylammonium nitrate (J. Phys. Chem. B, 2014, 118, 761-770). In addition, larger ionic liquid cations lead to a lower degree of hydrogen bonding and to more sparsely packed three-dimensional structures, which are more easily perturbed by the addition of lithium salts.

  15. Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Shao, Nan; Bell, Jason R; Guo, Bingkun; Luo, Huimin; Jiang, Deen; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

  16. The Influence of lithium environment on tensile behavior and microstructure of V-4Cr-4Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meimei; Hoelzer, D. T.; Grossbeck, M. L.

    2009-07-01

    Thermal tests exposed V-4Cr-4Ti in static liquid lithium at 700 and 800 °C for 250, 500, and 1000 h. Post-exposure examination included chemical analysis of interstitial impurities in V-4Cr-4Ti to monitor impurity transfer, and tensile tests at room temperature and 500 °C. Microstructures were characterized by room-temperature electrical resistivity measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Oxygen was not depleted from V-4Cr-4Ti when nitrogen pickup occurred during lithium exposures. In spite of a significant increase in interstitial impurity concentration, the matrix interstitial solute content was reduced due to precipitation. Plate-shaped precipitates in the matrix and globular precipitates at grain boundaries were formed during lithium exposures at 700 °C, while only globular precipitates were observed at grain boundaries at 800 °C. Increases in strength, decreases in ductility, and reduced dynamic strain aging resulted. Ductility remained high after 1000 h exposures at both 700 and 800 °C.

  17. Realisation of an all solid state lithium battery using solid high temperature plastic crystal electrolytes exhibiting liquid like conductivity.

    PubMed

    Shekibi, Youssof; Rüther, Thomas; Huang, Junhua; Hollenkamp, Anthony F

    2012-04-07

    Replacement of volatile and combustible electrolytes in conventional lithium batteries is desirable for two reasons: safety concerns and increase in specific energy. In this work we consider the use of an ionic organic plastic crystal material (IOPC), N-ethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate, [C2mpyr][BF(4)], as a solid-state electrolyte for lithium battery applications. The effect of inclusion of 1 to 33 mol% lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF(4), into [C2mpyr][BF(4)] has been investigated over a wide temperature range by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and cycling of full Li|LiFePO(4) batteries. The increases in ionic conductivity by orders of magnitude observed at higher temperature are most likely associated with an increase in Li ion mobility in the highest plastic phase. At concentrations >5 mol% LiBF(4) the ionic conductivity of these solid-state composites is comparable to the ionic conductivity of room temperature ionic liquids. Galvanostatic cycling of Li|Li symmetrical cells showed that the reversibility of the lithium metal redox reaction at the interface of this plastic crystal electrolyte is sufficient for lithium battery applications. For the first time we demonstrate an all solid state lithium battery incorporating solid electrolytes based on IOPC as opposed to conventional flammable organic solvents.

  18. Ionic liquid electrodeposition of strain-released Germanium nanowires as stable anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jian; Yang, Yu; Zhao, Jiupeng; Liu, Xusong; Endres, Frank; Chi, Caixia; Wang, Binsheng; Liu, Xiaoxu; Li, Yao

    2017-06-22

    With the growing demand for portable and wearable electronic devices, it is imperative to develop high performance Li-ion batteries with long life times. Germanium-based materials have recently demonstrated excellent lithium-ion storage ability and are being considered as the most promising candidates for the anodes of lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, the practical implementation of Ge-based materials to Li-ion batteries is greatly hampered by the poor cycling ability that resulted from the huge volume variation during lithiation/delithiation processes. Herein, we develop a simple and efficient method for the preparation of Ge nanowires without catalyst nanoparticles and templates, using ionic liquid electrodeposition with subsequent annealing treatment. The Ge nanowire anode shows improved electrochemical performance compared with the Ge dense film anode. A capacity of ∼1200 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles at 0.1 C is obtained, with an initial coulombic efficiency of 81.3%. In addition, the Ge nanowire anode demonstrates superior rate capability with excellent capacity retention and stability (producing highly stable discharge capacities of about 620 mA h g(-1) at 5 C). The improved electrochemical performance is the result of the enhanced electron migration and electron transport paths of the nanowires, and sufficient elasticity to buffer the volume expansion. This approach encompasses a low energy processing method where all the material is electrochemically active and binder free. The improved cycling stability and rate performance characteristics make these anodes highly attractive for the most demanding lithium-ion applications.

  19. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  20. High velocity proton collision with liquid lithium: a time dependent density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Bi, Gang; Kang, Jun; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2017-03-29

    Liquid lithium is often used as a coating material in fusion reaction chambers, where it is under constant bombardment from high speed neutrons and protons. However, numerous fundamental questions are unanswered, for example whether a single proton impact can cause Li atom sputtering, and what is the electron excitation energy profile after a collision particularly for extremely high energy projectiles. Herein, we use a real-time dependent density functional method to study these questions for proton energies in the range of 30 eV to 1 MeV. The calculated stopping power agrees well with experiment, and it is found that the stopping power cannot be described by the single electron exciting spectrum based on the adiabatic eigen energies, and Li atom sputtering is not observed within our simulation time.

  1. Liquid-lithium cooling for 100-kW ISOL and fragmentation targets.

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, J. A.; Reed, C. B.,Hassanein, A.,Gomes, I. C.

    2000-11-10

    Advanced exotic beam facilities that are currently being developed will use powerful driver accelerator for the production of short-lived rare isotopes. Multi-beam-drivers capable of producing high power beams from very light to very heavy ions are now technically feasible. A challenge for such facilities is the development of production targets to be used for a variety of reaction mechanisms with beam powers of about 100 kilowatts. This paper presents engineering concepts that have been developed recently for using liquid lithium coolant for two types of targets, one for use with light-ion beams on high atomic number (Z) targets and the other for heavy-ion beams on low-Z targets.

  2. An aprotic lithium/polyiodide semi-liquid battery with an ionic shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y. X.; Liu, M.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, L.; Wu, M. C.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we report a high-energy-density lithium/polyiodide (Li/PI) semi-liquid battery with soluble polyiodide in ether-based solvents as the catholyte. The challenge of shuttle effect is addressed by adopting a hybrid membrane coated with negatively charged sulfonate-ended perfluoroalkyl polymer, which allows for inhibition of polyiodide shuttles due to the electrostatic repulsion. The assembled Li/PI battery demonstrates a superior volumetric energy density (170.5 Wh L-1), a stable cycling performance (>100 cycles, averaged decay < 0.16% at 0.2 C), a high energy efficiency (>84%, 100 cycles at 2 C), and a high coulombic efficiency (>95%, 100 cycles at 2 C). These high performances achieved suggest that the aprotic Li/polyiodide battery with a compact architecture has the potential for various energy storage applications.

  3. Observation of electrodeposited lithium by optical microscope in room temperature ionic liquid-based electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, H.; Sakaebe, H.; Matsumoto, H.

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were applied to a lithium (Li) metal battery system, and the behavior of Li electrodeposition on nickel electrodes in RTILs was investigated using in situ optical microscopy with/without an organic additive, vinylene carbonate (VC), in the RTILs. Two RTILs, PP13[TFSA] (N-methyl- N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide) and EMI[FSA] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide), were chosen as the base electrolytes. Dendritic particles were obtained in the case of EMI[FSA] with and without VC, and PP13[TFSA] without VC, while non-dendritic fine particles were obtained in the case of PP13[TFSA] with VC.

  4. Lithium-sulphur battery with activated carbon cloth-sulphur cathode and ionic liquid as electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiderska-Mocek, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    In this study a binder-free activated carbon cloth-sulphur (ACC-S) composite cathode is presented. Such a cathode was obtained using the impregnating technique of microporous activated carbon cloth with elemental melted sulphur. The surface morphology of an activated carbon cloth-sulphur electrode was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which was equipped with an EDX spectroscopy attachment. Electrochemical properties of the ACC-S composite cathode was tested in an ionic liquid electrolyte consisting of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide (EtMeImNTf2) and bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide (LiNTf2). The ACC-sulphur cathode working together with lithium anode was tested with the use of cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The capacity and cyclic stability of the ACC-S composite cathode were much better than those for the sulphur cathode (a mixture of sulphur from graphene nanoplatelets and carbon black) tested in the same ionic liquid electrolyte. The ACC-sulphur cathode showed good cyclability and coulombic efficiency (99%) with the ionic liquid electrolyte. The reversible capacity of the ACC-S|electrolyte|Li cell was ca. 830 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles.

  5. Lithium-Ion-Conducting Electrolytes: From an Ionic Liquid to the Polymer Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Fernicola, A.; Weise, F. C.; Greenbaum, S. G.; Kagimoto, J.; Scrosati, B.; Soleto, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work concerns the design, the synthesis, and the characterization of the N-butyl-N-ethylpiperidinium N,N-bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (PP24TFSI) ionic liquid (IL). To impart Li-ion transport, a suitable amount of lithium N,N-bis-(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) is added to the IL. The Li–IL mixture displays ionic conductivity values on the order of 10−4 S cm−1 and an electrochemical stability window in the range of 1.8–4.5 V vs Li+/Li. The voltammetric analysis demonstrates that the cathodic decomposition gives rise to a passivating layer on the surface of the working electrode, which kinetically extends the stability of the Li/IL interface as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The LiTFSI–PP24TFSI mixture is incorporated in a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) matrix to form various electrolyte membranes with different LiTFSI–PP24TFSI contents. The ionic conductivity of all the membranes resembles that of the LiTFSI–IL mixture, suggesting an ionic transport mechanism similar to that of the liquid component. NMR measurements demonstrate a reduction in the mobility of all ions following the addition of LiTFSI to the PP24TFSI IL and when incorporating the mixture into the membrane. Finally, an unexpected but potentially significant enhancement in Li transference number is observed in passing from the liquid to the membrane electrolyte system. PMID:20354582

  6. Lithium-Ion-Conducting Electrolytes: From an Ionic Liquid to the Polymer Membrane.

    PubMed

    Fernicola, A; Weise, F C; Greenbaum, S G; Kagimoto, J; Scrosati, B; Soleto, A

    2009-05-05

    This work concerns the design, the synthesis, and the characterization of the N-butyl-N-ethylpiperidinium N,N-bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (PP(24)TFSI) ionic liquid (IL). To impart Li-ion transport, a suitable amount of lithium N,N-bis-(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) is added to the IL. The Li-IL mixture displays ionic conductivity values on the order of 10(-4) S cm(-1) and an electrochemical stability window in the range of 1.8-4.5 V vs Li(+)/Li. The voltammetric analysis demonstrates that the cathodic decomposition gives rise to a passivating layer on the surface of the working electrode, which kinetically extends the stability of the Li/IL interface as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The LiTFSI-PP(24)TFSI mixture is incorporated in a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) matrix to form various electrolyte membranes with different LiTFSI-PP(24)TFSI contents. The ionic conductivity of all the membranes resembles that of the LiTFSI-IL mixture, suggesting an ionic transport mechanism similar to that of the liquid component. NMR measurements demonstrate a reduction in the mobility of all ions following the addition of LiTFSI to the PP(24)TFSI IL and when incorporating the mixture into the membrane. Finally, an unexpected but potentially significant enhancement in Li transference number is observed in passing from the liquid to the membrane electrolyte system.

  7. The Liquid Crystal Shutter In Automotive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haven, Thomas J.; Melcher, Dean

    1988-10-01

    The Liquid Crystal Shutter (LCS) is being developed for the automotive market. Liquid crystal material that meets operation to 85°C has been screened. Thin film heaters have been explored to obtain -40°C operation. Sunlight viewability has been improved and system colors have been matched to standard vacuum fluorescent automotive instrumentation. Successful completion of automotive humidity and thermal cycling tests have led to the adaptation of a flex connector.

  8. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  9. Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Liquid Lithium Divertor and Scrape-Off-Layer Interactions on the National Spherical Torus Experiment:2010 ₋2013 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzic, David N.; Andruczyk, Daniel

    2013-08-27

    The implementation of the liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) in NSTX presented a unique opportunity in plasma-material interactions studies. A high density Langmuir Probe (HDLP) array utilizing a dense pack of triple Langmuir probes was built at PPPL and the electronics designed and built by UIUC. It was shown that the HDLP array could be used to characterize the modification of the EEDF during lithium experiments on NSTX as well as characterize the transient particle loads during lithium experiments as a means to study ELMs. With NSTX being upgraded and a new divertor being installed, the HDLP array will not be used in NSTX-U. However UIUC is currently helping to develop two new systems for depositing lithium into NSTX-U, a Liquid Lithium Pellet Dripper (LLPD) for use with the granular injector for ELM mitigation and control studies as well as an Upward-Facing Lithium Evaporator (U-LITER) based on a flash evaporation system using an electron beam. Currently UIUC has Daniel Andruczyk Stationed at PPPL and is developing these systems as well as being involved in preparing the Materials Analysis Particle Probe (MAPP) for use in LTX and NSTX-U. To date the MAPP preparations have been completed. New sample holders were designed by UIUC?s Research Engineer at PPPL and manufactured at PPPL and installed. MAPP is currently being used on LTX to do calibration and initial studies. The LLPD has demonstrated that it can produce pellets. There is still some adjustments needed to control the frequency and particle size. Equipment for the U-LITER has arrived and initial test are being made of the electron beam and design of the U-LITER in progress. It is expected to have these ready for the first run campaign of NSTX-U.

  11. Effect of adding ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate on the coordination environment of Li+ ions in propylene carbonate, according to data from IR spectroscopy and quantum chemical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A. F.; Yudina, A. V.; Tulibaeva, G. Z.; Shul'ga, Yu. M.; Ignatova, A. A.; Yarmolenko, O. V.

    2017-08-01

    The effect ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate has on the coordination environment of Li+ cations in carbonate solvents is studied by means of IR spectroscopy and quantum chemical modeling using the example of propylene carbonate (PC). LiBF4 is used as the lithium salt. This system is promising for use as an electrolyte in lithium power sources (LPSs), but the mechanism of ionic conductivity by Li+ ions in such systems has yet to be studied in full.

  12. Transport properties and phase behaviour in binary and ternary ionic liquid electrolyte systems of interest in lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Bayley, Paul M; Best, Adam S; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

    2011-03-14

    A binary ionic liquid (IL) system based on a common cation, N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium (C(3) mpyr(+)), and either bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf(2) (-)) or bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (FSI(-) as the anion is explored over its entire composition range. Phase behavior, determined by DSC, shows the presence of a eutectic temperature at 247 K and composition around an anion ratio of 2:1 (FSI(-) :NTf(2)(-)) with the phase diagram for this system proposed (under the thermal conditions used). Importantly for electrochemical devices, the single phase melting transition at the eutectic is well below ambient temperatures (247 K). To investigate the effect of such anion mixing on the lithium ion speciation, conductivity and PFG-NMR diffusion measurements were performed in both the binary IL system as well as the Li-NTf(2) -containing ternary system. The addition of the lithium salt to the mixed IL system resulted in a decrease in conductivity, as is commonly observed in the single-component IL systems. For a fixed lithium salt composition, both conductivity and ion diffusion have linear behaviour as a function of the anion ratio, however, the rate of change of the diffusion coefficient seems greater in the presence of lithium. From the application point of view, the addition of the FSI(-) to the NTf(2)(-) IL results in a considerable increase in lithium ion diffusivity at room temperature and no evidence of additional complex ion behaviour.

  13. Dissociation of doubly charged clusters of lithium acetate: Asymmetric fission and breakdown of the liquid drop model: Dissociation of doubly charged clusters of lithium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Anil

    2016-06-08

    Unimolecular and collision-induced dissociation of doubly charged lithium acetate clusters, (CH3COOLi)nLi22+, demonstrated that Coulomb fission via charge separation is the dominant dissociation process with no contribution from the neutral evaporation processes for all such ions from the critical limit to larger cluster ions, although latter process have normally been observed in all earlier studies. These results are clearly in disagreement with the Rayleigh’s liquid drop model that has been used successfully to predict the critical size and explain the fragmentation behavior of multiply charged clusters.

  14. Fiber optics in liquid propellant rocket engine environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcher, R.; Dinnsen, D.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fiber optics have recently been seen to offer several major benefits in liquid-fuel rocket engine applications. Fiber-optic sensors can provide measurements that cannot be made with conventional techniques. Fiber optics also can reduce harness weight, provide lightning immunity, and increase frequency response. This paper discusses the results of feasibility testing optical fibers in simulated liquid-fuel rocket engine environments. The environments included cryogenic and high temperatures, and high vibration levels.

  15. Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) as conducting salt for nonaqueous liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries: Physicochemical and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Si-Si; Zhang, Dai-Jun; Feng, Shao-Wei; Li, Li-Fei; Liu, Kai; Feng, Wen-Fang; Nie, Jin; Li, Hong; Huang, Xue-Jie; Armand, Michel; Zhou, Zhi-Bin

    Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) has been studied as conducting salt for lithium-ion batteries, in terms of the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the neat LiFSI salt and its nonaqueous liquid electrolytes. Our pure LiFSI salt shows a melting point at 145 °C, and is thermally stable up to 200 °C. It exhibits far superior stability towards hydrolysis than LiPF 6. Among the various lithium salts studied at the concentration of 1.0 M (= mol dm -3) in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (3:7, v/v), LiFSI shows the highest conductivity in the order of LiFSI > LiPF 6 > Li[N(SO 2CF 3) 2] (LiTFSI) > LiClO 4 > LiBF 4. The stability of Al in the high potential region (3.0-5.0 V vs. Li +/Li) has been confirmed for high purity LiFSI-based electrolytes using cyclic voltammetry, SEM morphology, and chronoamperometry, whereas Al corrosion indeed occurs in the LiFSI-based electrolytes tainted with trace amounts of LiCl (50 ppm). With high purity, LiFSI outperforms LiPF 6 in both Li/LiCoO 2 and graphite/LiCoO 2 cells.

  16. New Ether-functionalized Morpholinium- and Piperidinium-based Ionic Liquids as Electrolyte Components in Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Navarra, Maria Assunta; Fujimura, Kanae; Sgambetterra, Mirko; Tsurumaki, Akiko; Panero, Stefania; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Scrosati, Bruno

    2017-06-09

    Here, two ionic liquids, N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (M1,2O2 TFSI) and N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P1,2O2 TFSI) were synthesized and compared. Fundamental relevant properties, such as thermal and electrochemical stability, density, and ionic conductivity were analyzed to evaluate the effects caused by the presence of the ether bond in the side chain and/or in the organic cation ring. Upon lithium salt addition, two electrolytes suitable for lithium batteries applications were found. Higher conducting properties of the piperidinium-based electrolyte resulted in enhanced cycling performances when tested with LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode in lithium cells. When mixing the P1,2O2 TFSI/LiTFSI electrolyte with a tailored alkyl carbonate mixture, the cycling performance of both Li and Li-ion cells greatly improved, with prolonged cyclability delivering very stable capacity values, as high as the theoretical one in the case of Li/LFP cell configurations. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Evaluation of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel for liquid-lithium containment. III. Effect of velocity and lead content. Unabridged final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, B.D.; Edwards, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    The intergranular penetration of specially heat treated 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel by lead-lithium liquids containing 0, 17.6, and 53 w/o lead has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600/sup 0/C and for times to 1000 hours. Limited tests using a 99.3 w/o lead-lithium liquid were also conducted.

  18. A 20 kw beam-on-target test of a high-power liquid lithium target for RIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Claude B.; Nolen, Jerry A.; Specht, James R.; Novick, Vincent J.; Plotkin, Perry

    2004-12-01

    The high-power heavy-ion beams produced by the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac have large energy deposition density in solids and in many cases no solid materials would survive the full beam power. Liquid lithium technology has been proposed to solve this problem in RIA. Specifically, a windowless target for the production of radioactive ions via fragmentation, consisting of a jet of about 3 cm thickness of flowing liquid lithium, exposed to the beamline vacuum [1,2] is being developed. To demonstrate that power densities equivalent to a 200-kW RIA uranium beam, deposited in the first 4 mm of a flowing lithium jet, can be handled by the windowless target design, a high power 1 MeV Dynamitron was leased and a test stand prepared to demonstrate the target's capability of absorbing and carrying away a 20kW heat load without disrupting either the 5 mm × 10 mm flowing lithium jet target or the beam line vacuum.

  19. Measurement and modeling of surface temperature dynamics of the NSTX liquid lithium divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, A. G.; Gan, K. F.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Maingi, R.; Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Nygren, R. E.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2013-07-01

    Dual-band infrared (IR) measurements of the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) are reported that demonstrate liquid Li is more effective at removing plasma heat flux than Li-conditioned graphite. Extended dwell of the outer strike point (OSP) on the LLD caused an incrementally larger area to be heated above the Li melting point through the discharge leading to enhanced D retention and plasma confinement. Measurement of Tsurface near the OSP demonstrates a significant reduction of the LLD surface temperature compared to that of Li-coated graphite at the same major radius. Modeling of these data with a 2-D simulation of the LLD structure in the DFLUX code suggests that the structure of the LLD was successful at handling up to q⊥,peak = 5 MW/m2 inter-ELM and up to 10 MW/m2 during ELMs from its plasma-facing surface as intended, and provide an innovative method for inferring the Li layer thickness.

  20. Stable silicon-ionic liquid interface for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Molina Piper, Daniela; Evans, Tyler; Leung, Kevin; Watkins, Tylan; Olson, Jarred; Kim, Seul Cham; Han, Sang Sub; Bhat, Vinay; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Buttry, Daniel A; Lee, Se-Hee

    2015-02-25

    We are currently in the midst of a race to discover and develop new battery materials capable of providing high energy-density at low cost. By combining a high-performance Si electrode architecture with a room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte, here we demonstrate a highly energy-dense lithium-ion cell with an impressively long cycling life, maintaining over 75% capacity after 500 cycles. Such high performance is enabled by a stable half-cell coulombic efficiency of 99.97%, averaged over the first 200 cycles. Equally as significant, our detailed characterization elucidates the previously convoluted mechanisms of the solid-electrolyte interphase on Si electrodes. We provide a theoretical simulation to model the interface and microstructural-compositional analyses that confirm our theoretical predictions and allow us to visualize the precise location and constitution of various interfacial components. This work provides new science related to the interfacial stability of Si-based materials while granting positive exposure to ionic liquid electrochemistry.

  1. New thin lithium-ion batteries using a liquid electrolyte with thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Norio; Sekino, Masahiro; Ohsaki, Takahisa; Kanda, Motoya; Yamamoto, Masao

    New thin lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using a laminated film bag, an organic liquid electrolyte, and a mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber (MCF) anode exhibited high discharge performance, a very low swelling under a high-temperature storage, and excellent safety performance. A 1.5 M solution of LiBF 4 in an ethylene carbonate (EC)/γ-butyrolactone (GBL) mixed solvent was found to be a promising liquid electrolyte for the thin LIBs because the electrolyte has a high flame point of 129°C, a high boiling point of 216°C, a low vapor pressure, and a high conductivity of 2.1 mS/cm at -20°C. It was demonstrated that the thin LIB using B-doped MCF anode has a high energy density of 172 Wh/kg, high rate capability, high capacity at -20°C, and a long cycle life of 500 cycles. The safety of thin LIBs under overcharging tests and oven tests was superior to that of conventional prismatic LIBs and PLBs. The very low swelling and the excellent safety performance were attributable to the stability of LiBF 4-EC/GBL electrolyte against LiCoO 2 cathode material.

  2. Protected Lithium-Metal Anodes in Batteries: From Liquid to Solid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunpeng; Fu, Kun; Zhang, Ying; Hitz, Emily; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-09-01

    High-energy lithium-metal batteries are among the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. With a high specific capacity and a low reduction potential, the Li-metal anode has attracted extensive interest for decades. Dendritic Li formation, uncontrolled interfacial reactions, and huge volume effect are major hurdles to the commercial application of Li-metal anodes. Recent studies have shown that the performance and safety of Li-metal anodes can be significantly improved via organic electrolyte modification, Li-metal interface protection, Li-electrode framework design, separator coating, and so on. Superior to the liquid electrolytes, solid-state electrolytes are considered able to inhibit problematic Li dendrites and build safe solid Li-metal batteries. Inspired by the bright prospects of solid Li-metal batteries, increasing efforts have been devoted to overcoming the obstacles of solid Li-metal batteries, such as low ionic conductivity of the electrolyte and Li-electrolyte interfacial problems. Here, the approaches to protect Li-metal anodes from liquid batteries to solid-state batteries are outlined and analyzed in detail. Perspectives regarding the strategies for developing Li-metal anodes are discussed to facilitate the practical application of Li-metal batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. "Ionic liquids-in-salt"--a promising electrolyte concept for high-temperature lithium batteries?

    PubMed

    Marczewski, Maciej J; Stanje, Bernhard; Hanzu, Ilie; Wilkening, Martin; Johansson, Patrik

    2014-06-28

    A novel electrolyte concept for lithium-ion batteries, termed "ionic liquid-in-salt", is introduced. Our feasibility study on (1 - x)EMIMTFSI:(x)LiTFSI, 0.66 ≤ x ≤ 0.97, showed that at elevated temperatures the various dual liquid and solid phase regions are characterized by a wide thermal stability window, high ionic conductivities and appreciable mechanical integrity. The highest conductivity values are obtained for the compositions x = 0.70 and x = 0.75 (σ ≈ 6 × 10(-3) S cm(-1)) and are related to the final melting of the materials. Overall, high conductivities are observed for 0.70 < x < 0.90 while low ones are found for x > 0.90. Raman and NMR spectroscopies reveal the presence of highly mobile Li-containing species, partly identified as [Li(TFSI)2](-), albeit rather unexpected for these high x values, which might explain the high ionic conductivities observed. To prove the general value of our concept in more detail, some first results on BMIMTFSI and PY13TFSI based systems are also presented.

  4. Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Lozano, Terence J.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Zhang, Jiguang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, lithium anode has re-attracted broad interest because of the necessity of employing lithium metal in the next-generation battery technologies such as lithium sulfur (Li-S) and lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Fast capacity degradation and safety issue associated with rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been reported, although the fundamental understanding on the failure mechanism of lithium metal at high charge rate is still under debate due to the complicated interfacial chemistry between lithium metal and electrolyte. Herein, we demonstrate that, at high current density, the quick growth of porous solid electrolyte interphase towards bulk lithium, instead of towards the separator, dramatically builds up the cell impedance that directly leads to the cell failure. Understanding the lithium metal failure mechanism is very critical to gauge the various approaches used to address the stability and safety issues associated with lithium metal anode. Otherwise, all cells will fail quickly at high rates before the observation of any positive effects that might be brought from adopting the new strategies to protect lithium.

  5. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H.

    1999-12-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  6. Mesoporous silica/ionic liquid quasi-solid-state electrolytes and their application in lithium metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yin, Kun; Yang, Li; Tachibana, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, is chosen as the matrix for the first time to prepare quasi-solid-state electrolytes (QSSEs) with an ionic liquid, LiTFSI salt and PVdF-HFP. The as-obtained QSSEs are evaluated by electrochemical methods. Lithium metal batteries containing these QSSEs exhibit high discharge capacity and good cycle performance at room temperature, indicating successful battery operation.

  7. CaO insulator coatings on a vanadium-base alloy in liquid 2 at.% calcium-lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-10-01

    The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-15%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy (round bottom samples 6-in. long by 0.25-in. dia.) to liquid lithium that contained 2 at.% dissolved calcium was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 300-464{degrees}C. The solute element, calcium in liquid lithium, reacted with the alloy substrate at these temperatures for 17 h to produce a calcium coating {approx}7-8 {mu}m thick. The calcium-coated vanadium alloy was oxidized to form a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer on V-15Cr-5Ti, measured in-situ in liquid lithium that contained 2 at.% calcium, was 1.0 x 10{sup 10} {Omega}-cm{sup 2} at 300{degrees}C and 400 h, and 0.9 x 10{sup 10} {Omega}-cm{sup 2} at 464{degrees}C and 300 h. Thermal cycling between 300 and 464{degrees}C changed the resistance of the coating layer, which followed insulator behavior. Examination of the specimen after cooling to room temperature revealed no cracks in the CaO coating. The coatings were evaluated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray analysis. Adhesion between CaO and vanadium alloys was enhanced as exposure time increased.

  8. Gas-Liquid Separation Strategies in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Reiss, Donald A.; Lehman, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Bubble entrainment in liquids represents a serious problem in the microgravity environment. Whenever bubbles are entrained in a liquid,they tend to remain stationary in the liquid bulk in the absence of any external forcing. This is due to the reduction or complete absence of the buoyancy force in the microgravity environment, Thus the buoyancy force can not the be exploited to place the bubbles at the top of the liquid volume as in Ig(sub o) conditions. This situation represents a serious drawback in many space based engineering and scientific applications. We have demonstrated in a series of low gravity experiments conducted during parabolic flight on board aircraft that bubbles can be controlled in such a manner as to increase,the probability of their expulsion from a liquid bulk. In these tests the liquid'bulk was made either to be contained within, or to flow through specially designed containers using capillary force alone. Such containers appear to facilitate bubble removal, from the liquid bulk. Different successful liquid flow configurations will be discussed and the efficacy of the resulting bubble expulsion mechanisms will be demonstrated.

  9. Gas-Liquid Separation Strategies in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Reiss, Donald A.; Lehman, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Bubble entrainment in liquids represents a serious problem in the microgravity environment. Whenever bubbles are entrained in a liquid,they tend to remain stationary in the liquid bulk in the absence of any external forcing. This is due to the reduction or complete absence of the buoyancy force in the microgravity environment, Thus the buoyancy force can not the be exploited to place the bubbles at the top of the liquid volume as in Ig(sub o) conditions. This situation represents a serious drawback in many space based engineering and scientific applications. We have demonstrated in a series of low gravity experiments conducted during parabolic flight on board aircraft that bubbles can be controlled in such a manner as to increase,the probability of their expulsion from a liquid bulk. In these tests the liquid'bulk was made either to be contained within, or to flow through specially designed containers using capillary force alone. Such containers appear to facilitate bubble removal, from the liquid bulk. Different successful liquid flow configurations will be discussed and the efficacy of the resulting bubble expulsion mechanisms will be demonstrated.

  10. Recent Progress in the NSTX/NSTX-U Lithium Program and Prospects for Reactor-Relevant Liquid-Lithium Based Divertor Development

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono, et al.

    2012-10-27

    Developing a reactor compatible divertor has been identified as a particularly challenging technology problem for magnetic confinement fusion. While tungsten has been identified as the most attractive solid divertor material, the NSTX/NSTX-U lithium (Li) program is investigating the viability of liquid lithium (LL) as a potential reactor compatible divertor plasma facing component (PFC) . In the near term, operation in NSTX-U is projected to provide reactor-like divertor heat loads < 40 MW/m^2 for 5 s. During the most recent NSTX campaign, ~ 0.85 kg of Li was evaporated onto the NSTX PFCs where a ~50% reduction in heat load on the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was observed, attributable to enhanced divertor bolometric radiation. This reduced divertor heat flux through radiation observed in the NSTX LLD experiment is consistent with the results from other lithium experiments and calculations. These results motivate an LL-based closed radiative divertor concept proposed here for NSTX-U and fusion reactors. With an LL coating, the Li is evaporated from the divertor strike point surface due to the intense heat. The evaporated Li is readily ionized by the plasma due to its low ionization energies, and the ionized Li ions can radiate strongly, resulting in a significant reduction in the divertor heat flux. Due to the rapid plasma transport in divertor plasma, the radiation values can be significantly enhanced up to ~ 11 MJ/cc of LL. This radiative process has the desired function of spreading the focused divertor heat load to the entire divertor chamber facilitating the divertor heat removal. The LL divertor surface can also provide a "sacrificial" surface to protect the substrate solid material from transient high heat flux such as the ones caused by the ELMs. The closed radiative LLD concept has the advantages of providing some degree of partition in terms of plasma disruption forces on the LL, Li particle divertor retention, and strong divertor pumping action from the

  11. Solid and liquid lithium enthalpy: Experimental investigation near the melting point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.; Roschupkin, V. V.; Fordeyeva, L. C.

    1983-09-01

    Lithium enthalpy experimental data in the range from 320 to 700 K are obtained by the drop method with use of an ice calorimeter. The lithium enthalpy of fusion calculated from the experimental data is equal to 435.4±3.9 J·g-1. The vacancy formation energy calculated from the solid lithium heat capacity data is equal to 0.6±0.2 eV.

  12. Utilization of Low Gravity Environment for Measuring Liquid Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is used for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in order to allow for examining large volumes affording much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible for smaller volumes available under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. Results are presented for method validation experiments recently performed on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. While the numerical solution was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, glycerine at room temperature, was determined using the liquid coalescence method. The results from these experiments will be discussed.

  13. Determination of ginsenoside compound K in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of lithium adducts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunhui; Lu, Youming; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Liang; Zhong, Dafang

    2015-09-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (GCK), the main metabolite of protopanaxadiol constituents of Panax ginseng, easily produces alkali metal adduct ions during mass spectrometry particularly with lithium. Accordingly, we have developed a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for analysis of GCK in human plasma based on formation of a lithium adduct. The analyte and paclitaxel (internal standard) were extracted from 50 µL human plasma using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50 mm×2.0 mm; 5 μm) using stepwise gradient elution with acetonitrile-water and 0.2 mmol/L lithium carbonate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 629→449 for the GCK-lithium adduct and m/z 860→292 for the adduct of paclitaxel. The assay was linear in the concentration range 1.00-1000 ng/mL (r (2)>0.9988) with intra- and inter-day precision of ±8.4% and accuracy in the range of -4.8% to 6.5%. Recovery, stability and matrix effects were all satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving administration of a single GCK 50 mg tablet to healthy Chinese volunteers.

  14. Study on hydrogen isotopes permeation in fluidized state of liquid lithium-lead

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, S.; Yoshimura, R.; Okada, M.; Fukada, S.; Edao, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Lithium-lead (Li-Pb) is one of the most promising candidate materials for the liquid blanket of fusion reactors. Hydrogen transfer under a fluidized condition of Li-Pb is investigated experimentally to design a Li-Pb blanket system. Li-Pb eutectic alloy flows inside a Ni tube in the experimental system, where H{sub 2} permeates into and out of the forced Li-Pb flow. The overall H{sub 2} permeation rate is analyzed using a mass balance model. Hydrogen atoms diffuse in Ni and Li-Pb. The steady-state H{sub 2} permeation rate obtained by this experiment is smaller than the result of the calculation model. A resistance factor is introduced to the present analysis in order to evaluate the influence of other H{sub 2} transfer mechanisms, such as diffusion in Li-Pb and dissolution reaction between Ni and Li-Pb. The contribution of the resistance to the overall H{sub 2} permeation rate becomes large when the flow rate of Li-Pb is low. This is because the boundary layer thickness between Ni and Li-Pb affects the overall H{sub 2} permeation rate. When the flow velocity of Li-Pb increases, the thickness of the boundary layer becomes thin, and the driving force of H{sub 2} permeation through the Ni wall becomes bigger. (authors)

  15. Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Xiqing; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

  16. How does lithium oxalyldifluoroborate enable the compatibility of ionic liquids and carbon-based capacitors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Rong; He, Zhouying; Wu, Feng; Li, Li

    2015-02-01

    Lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiODFB) has several unique characteristics, such as high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range and the ability to form and stabilize solid electrolyte interface films on graphite surfaces. A series of binary, room-temperature, molten electrolytes composed of LiODFB and organic compounds with acylamino groups (acetamide, oxazolidinone or OZO) have been synthesized. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that Cdbnd O and N-H functional groups undergo blue or red shifts upon addition of LiODFB. The electrolytes have excellent thermal stabilities and electrochemical characteristics that allow them to be promising electrolytes for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Here, we examine 1:5 molar ratio LiODFB and acetamide/OZO ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes in EDLCs. IL compatibility with two types of carbon-based electrodes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. We simulate possible structures and ion diameters for the ILs, which must be compatible with pore sizes of the carbon electrodes. Mesoporous activated carbon AC2, with a pore size similar to the ionic diameter of LiODFB-acetamide, has a specific capacitance of 154.2 Fg-1 at 20 m Ag-1. Additionally, typical capacitive and reversibility behaviors can be seen in the charge-discharge curves over 0-2 V. Finally, the EDLCs exhibit good charging/discharging performances.

  17. Two-Dimensional Optical Measurement of Waves on Liquid Lithium Jet Simulating IFMIF Target Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuhiro Itoh; Hiroyuki Koterazawa; Taro Itoh; Yutaka Kukita; Hiroo Kondo; Nobuo Yamaoka; Hiroshi Horiike; Mizuho Ida; Hideo Nakamura; Hiroo Nakamura; Takeo Muroga

    2006-07-01

    Waves on a liquid-lithium jet flow, simulating a proposed high-energy beam target design, have been measured using an optical technique based on specular reflection of a single laser beam on the jet surface. The stream-wise and spanwise fluctuations of the local free-surface slope were least-square fitted with a sinusoidal curve to makeup the signals lost due to the constriction in the optical arrangement. The waveform was estimated with an assumption that wave phase speed can be calculated using the dispersion relation for linear capillary-gravity waves. The direction of propagation on the jet surface was also evaluated so that the wave amplitudes, calculated by integral of slope angle signal, agree consistently in stream-wise and spanwise direction. These measurements and analyses show that the waves at the measurement location for a jet velocity of 1.2 m/s can best be represented by oblique waves with an inclination of 1.23 rad, a wavelength of 3.8 mm and a wave amplitude of about 0.05 mm. (authors)

  18. Validation of liquid lithium target stability for an intense neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, H.; Kanemura, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hirakawa, Y.; Wakai, E.; Knaster, J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on validation results for the stability of a liquid lithium (Li) target intended for use as an intense fusion neutron source such as for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), an advanced fusion neutron source (A-FNS), and a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO)-oriented neutron source (DONES). The variation in the thickness of a Li target must be suppressed to within  ±1 mm inside a deuteron beam footprint to both maintain the integrity of the Li target and guarantee the desired level of neutron flux. We achieved a stable Li target with an average thickness variation of just 0.17 mm inside the beam footprint under standard IFMIF operating conditions (target speed: 15 m s-1 vacuum pressure: 10-3 Pa; and Li temperature: 250 °C). Moreover, the mean and maximum wave amplitudes at the beam center under such conditions were found to be 0.26 mm and 1.46 mm, respectively; these are small enough to satisfy operational requirements. Finally, it was determined that the stability of the Li target remained unchanged despite using it for an extended period of 1561 h. This finding is regarded as a significant step toward the realization of the IFMIF and the potential use of relevant neutron sources such as A-FNS and DONES.

  19. Ether and siloxane functionalized ionic liquids and their mixtures as electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Santosh N; Tiwari, Aarti; Nagaiah, Tharamani C; Mandal, Debaprasad

    2016-06-28

    The present study deals with an investigation of two novel imidazolium ionic liquids bearing ether-ether (1O2O2-Im-2O1) or ether-siloxane (1O2O2-Im-1SiOSi) functionalities with TFSI anion and their mixtures with propylene carbonate as electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The electrochemical stability and conductivity of these novel ILs were analyzed by electrochemical studies, such as cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and impedance measurements. The applicability of these ILs as electrolytes in Li-ion batteries was studied in the presence of a high concentration of LiTFSI (1 mol kg(-1) electrolyte) and the ether-ether IL was shown to possess a high electrochemical stability window (ESW) of 5.9 V and good conductivity of 2.2 mS cm(-1). The electrochemical stability and conductivity were further complimented by self-diffusion of different ions using pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR, viscosity and thermal properties like TGA and DSC analysis. More importantly, we explored the effect of temperature on the electrochemical stability and conductivity of these ILs by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  20. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ˜2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ˜127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ˜76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  1. Controlled environment vitrification system for preparation of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Bellare, J.R.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E. II; Talmon, Y.

    1988-06-28

    A system is described for preparing specimens in a controlled environment to insure that a liquid or partially liquid specimen is maintained in its original state while it is being prepared, and once prepared the specimen is vitrified or solidified with minimal alteration of its microstructure. The controlled environment is provided within a chamber where humidity and temperature can be controlled precisely while the specimen is prepared. The specimen is mounted on a plunger and a shutter controlled opening is opened substantially simultaneously with release of the plunger so the specimen is propelled through the shutter into an adjacent cryogenic bath. 7 figs.

  2. Controlled environment vitrification system for preparation of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Bellare, Jayesh R.; Davis, Howard T.; Scriven, II, L. Edward; Talmon, Yeshayahu

    1988-01-01

    A system for preparing specimens in a controlled environment to insure that a liquid or partially liquid specimen is maintained in its original state while it is being prepared, and once prepared the specimen is vitrified or solidified with minimal alteration of its microstructure. The controlled environment is provided within a chamber where humidity and temperature can be controlled precisely while the specimen is prepared. The specimen is mounted on a plunger and a shutter controlled opening is opened substantially simultaneously with release of the plunger so the specimen is propelled through the shutter into an adjacent cryogenic bath.

  3. The Effects of Temperature and Oxidation on Deuterium Retention in Solid and Liquid Lithium Films on Molybdenum Plasma-Facing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capece, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) enable in-situ renewal of the surface, thereby offering a solution to neutron damage, erosion, and thermal fatigue experienced by solid PFCs. Lithium in particular has a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, which has resulted in reduced recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices including TFTR, T11-M, FTU, CDX-U, LTX, TJ-II, and NSTX. A key component to the improvement in plasma performance is deuterium retention in Li; however, this process is not well understood in the complex tokamak environment. Recent surface science experiments conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory have used electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption to understand the mechanisms for D retention in Li coatings on Mo substrates. The experiments were designed to give monolayer-control of Li films and were conducted in ultrahigh vacuum under controlled environments. An electron cyclotron resonance plasma source was used to deliver a beam of deuterium ions to the surface over a range of ion energies. Our work shows that D is retained as LiD in metallic Li films. However, when oxygen is present in the film, either by diffusion from the subsurface at high temperature or as a contaminant during the deposition process, Li oxides are formed that retain D as LiOD. Experiments indicate that LiD is more thermally stable than LiOD, which decomposes to liberate D2 gas and D2O at temperatures 100 K lower than the LiD decomposition temperature. Other experiments show how D retention varies with substrate temperature to provide insight into the differences between solid and liquid lithium films. This work was supported by DOE Contract No. DE AC02-09CH11466.

  4. Synergistic and additive effects of enriched environment and lithium on the generation of new cells in adult mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; Cerulli, Fabiana G; Souza, Hélio O X; Catanozi, Sergio; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2014-07-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is reported in several neuropathological disorders. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a brain region where adult neurogenesis constitutively occurs. There are some reports suggesting the ability of endogenous neurogenesis to initiate neuronal repair in the hippocampus in response to neuropathological conditions, but its capacity to compensate for neuronal loss is limited. Among strategies to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis are enriched environment and lithium. This study aimed to assess whether both strategies could interact to potentiate the generation of new cells in the adult DG. Healthy adult male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four treatment groups for 28 days: control, lithium, enriched environment, enriched environment plus lithium. The animals were injected with BrdU (cell proliferation marker) shortly before the start of the treatments and killed 28 days later for analysis of newly generated cells. Two-way ANOVA followed by post hoc test revealed a significant synergistic interaction between enriched environment and lithium in the total number of BrdU(+) cells in the entire DG (p = 0.019), a trend towards significant synergistic interaction in the dorsal DG (p = 0.075), and a significant additive effect in the ventral DG (p = 0.001). These findings indicate that the combination of enriched environment and lithium has both synergistic and additive effects on the generation of new cells in the healthy adult DG (these effects being possibly segregated along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus), and suggest that it might be worth investigating whether this combination would have a similar effect in neuropathological conditions.

  5. Mobile Robot for Exploring Cold Liquid/Solid Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergh, Charles; Zimmerman, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Planetary Autonomous Amphibious Robotic Vehicle (PAARV), now at the prototype stage of development, was originally intended for use in acquiring and analyzing samples of solid, liquid, and gaseous materials in cold environments on the shores and surfaces, and at shallow depths below the surfaces, of lakes and oceans on remote planets. The PAARV also could be adapted for use on Earth in similar exploration of cold environments in and near Arctic and Antarctic oceans and glacial and sub-glacial lakes.

  6. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, Robert F.; Meadows, George E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  7. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  8. Electron Solvation in Liquid Ammonia: Lithium, Sodium, Magnesium, and Calcium as Electron Sources.

    PubMed

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-03-10

    A free electron in solution, known as a solvated electron, is the smallest possible anion. Alkali and alkaline earth atoms serve as electron donors in solvents that mediate outer-sphere electron transfer. We report herein ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of lithium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium in liquid ammonia at 250 K. By analyzing the electronic properties and the ionic and solvation structures and dynamics, we systematically characterize these metals as electron donors and ammonia molecules as electron acceptors. We show that the solvated metal strongly modifies the properties of its solvation shells and that the observed effect is metal-specific. Specifically, the radius and charge exhibit major impacts. The single solvated electron present in the alkali metal systems is distributed more uniformly among the solvent molecules of each metal's two solvation shells. In contrast, alkaline earth metals favor a less uniform distribution of the electron density. Alkali and alkaline earth atoms are coordinated by four and six NH3 molecules, respectively. The smaller atoms, Li and Mg, are stronger electron donors than Na and Ca. This result is surprising, as smaller atoms in a column of the periodic table have higher ionization potentials. However, it can be explained by stronger electron donor-acceptor interactions between the smaller atoms and the solvent molecules. The structure of the first solvation shell is sharpest for Mg, which has a large charge and a small radius. Solvation is weakest for Na, which has a small charge and a large radius. Weak solvation leads to rapid dynamics, as reflected in the diffusion coefficients of NH3 molecules of the first two solvation shells and the Na atom. The properties of the solvated electrons established in the present study are important for radiation chemistry, synthetic chemistry, condensed-matter charge transfer, and energy sources.

  9. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ying; Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  10. A Long-Life Lithium Ion Battery with Enhanced Electrode/Electrolyte Interface by Using an Ionic Liquid Solution.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Ulissi, Ulderico; Mueller, Franziska; Reiter, Jakub; Tsiouvaras, Nikolaos; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-10

    In this paper, we report an advanced long-life lithium ion battery, employing a Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI non-flammable ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte, a nanostructured tin carbon (Sn-C) nanocomposite anode, and a layered LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. The IL-based electrolyte is characterized in terms of conductivity and viscosity at various temperatures, revealing a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) trend. Lithium half-cells employing the Sn-C anode and NMC cathode in the Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI electrolyte are investigated by galvanostatic cycling at various temperatures, demonstrating the full compatibility of the electrolyte with the selected electrode materials. The NMC and Sn-C electrodes are combined into a cathode-limited full cell, which is subjected to prolonged cycling at 40 °C, revealing a very stable capacity of about 140 mAh g(-1) and retention above 99 % over 400 cycles. The electrode/electrolyte interface is further characterized through a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations upon cell cycling. The remarkable performances reported here definitively indicate that IL-based lithium ion cells are suitable batteries for application in electric vehicles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Liquid propellant reorientation in a low-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.

    1978-01-01

    An existing empirical analysis relating to the reorientation of liquids in cylindrical tanks due to propulsive settling in a low gravity environment was extended to include the effects of geyser formation in the Weber number range from 4 to 10. Estimates of the minimum velocity increment required to be imposed on the propellant tank to achieve liquid reorientation were made. The resulting Bond numbers, based on tank radius, were found to be in the range from 3 to 5, depending upon the initial liquid fill level, with higher Bond number required for high initial fill levels. The resulting Weber numbers, based on tank radius and the velocity of the liquid leading edge, were calculated to be in the range from 6.5 to 8.5 for cylindrical tanks having a fineness ratio of 2.0, with Weber numbers of somewhat greater values for longer cylindrical tanks. It, therefore, appeared to be advantageous to allow small geysers to form and then dissipate into the surface of the collected liquid in order to achieve the minimum velocity increment. The Bond numbers which defined the separation between regions in which geyser formation did and did not occur due to propulsive settling in a spherical tank configuration ranged from 2 to 9 depending upon the liquid fill level.

  12. Influence of Polar Organic Solvents in an Ionic Liquid Containing Lithium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide: Effect on the Cation-Anion Interaction, Lithium Ion Battery Performance, and Solid Electrolyte Interphase.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Li, Guozhu; Olschewski, Mark; Endres, Frank

    2016-12-14

    Ionic liquid-organic solvent mixtures have recently been investigated as potential battery electrolytes. However, contradictory results with these mixtures have been shown for battery performance. In this manuscript, we studied the influence of the addition of polar organic solvents into the ionic liquid electrolyte 1 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide (LiFSI)-1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide ([Py1,4]FSI) and tested it for lithium ion battery applications. From infrared and Raman spectroscopy, clear changes in the lithium solvation and cation-anion interactions in the ionic liquid were observed on addition of organic solvents. From the lithiation/delithiation studies on electrodeposited Ge, the storage capacity for the ionic liquid-highly polar organic solvent (acetonitrile) mixture was found to be the highest at low C-rates (0.425 C) compared to using an ionic liquid alone and ionic liquid-less polar solvent (dimethyl carbonate) mixtures. Furthermore, XPS and AFM were used to evaluate the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and to correlate its stability with Li storage capacity.

  13. Determination of ginsenoside compound K in human plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry of lithium adducts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunhui; Lu, Youming; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Liang; Zhong, Dafang

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (GCK), the main metabolite of protopanaxadiol constituents of Panax ginseng, easily produces alkali metal adduct ions during mass spectrometry particularly with lithium. Accordingly, we have developed a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method for analysis of GCK in human plasma based on formation of a lithium adduct. The analyte and paclitaxel (internal standard) were extracted from 50 µL human plasma using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50 mm×2.0 mm; 5 μm) using stepwise gradient elution with acetonitrile–water and 0.2 mmol/L lithium carbonate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 629→449 for the GCK-lithium adduct and m/z 860→292 for the adduct of paclitaxel. The assay was linear in the concentration range 1.00–1000 ng/mL (r2>0.9988) with intra- and inter-day precision of ±8.4% and accuracy in the range of −4.8% to 6.5%. Recovery, stability and matrix effects were all satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving administration of a single GCK 50 mg tablet to healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:26579476

  14. Enhanced low-temperature lithium storage performance of multilayer graphene made through an improved ionic liquid-assisted synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccichini, Rinaldo; Varzi, Alberto; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Kübel, Christian; Balducci, Andrea; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    The electrochemical properties of graphene are strongly depending on its synthesis. Between the different methods proposed so far, liquid phase exfoliation turns out to be a promising method for the production of graphene. Unfortunately, the low yield of this technique, in term of solid material obtained, still limit its use to small scale applications. In this article we propose a low cost and environmentally friendly method for producing multilayer crystalline graphene with high yield. Such innovative approach, involving an improved ionic liquid assisted, microwave exfoliation of expanded graphite, allows the production of graphene with advanced lithium ion storage performance, for the first time, at low temperatures (<0 °C), as low as -30 °C, with respect to commercially available graphite.

  15. Thermally-responsive, nonflammable phosphonium ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium metal batteries: operating at 100 degrees celsius.

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Kavian, R; Lu, Y; Hu, Q; Shao-Horn, Y; Grinstaff, M W

    2015-11-13

    Rechargeable batteries such as Li ion/Li metal batteries are widely used in the electronics market but the chemical instability of the electrolyte limits their use in more demanding environmental conditions such as in automotive, oil exploration, or mining applications. In this study, a series of alkyl phosphonium ionic liquid electrolyte are described with high thermal stability and solubility for LiTFSI. A lithium metal battery (LMB) containing a tailored phosphonium ionic liquid/LiTFSI electrolyte operates at 100 °C with good specific capacities and cycling stability. Substantial capacity is maintained during 70 cycles or 30 days. Instant on-off battery operation is realized via the significant temperature dependence of the electrolyte material, demonstrating the robustness and potential for use at high temperature.

  16. Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BFMB) anion based ionic liquid as an additive for lithium-ion battery electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liao, Chen; Baggetto, Loïc; Guo, Bingkun; Unocic, Raymond R.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng

    2014-02-21

    Propylene carbonate (PC) is a good solvent for lithium ion battery applications due to its low melting point and high dielectric constant. But, PC is easily intercalated into graphite causing it to exfoliate, killing its electrochemical performance. We report on the synthesis of a new ionic liquid electrolyte based on partially fluorinated borate anion, 1-butyl-1,2-dimethylimidazolium bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BDMIm.BFMB), which can be used as an additive in 1 M LiPF6/PC electrolyte to suppress graphite exfoliation and improve cycling performance. Additionally, both PC and BDMIm.BFMB can be used synergistically as additive to 1.0M LiPF6/methyl isopropyl sulfone (MIPS) to dramatically improve its cycling performance. It is also found that the chemistry nature of the ionic liquids has dramatic effect on their role as additive in PC based electrolyte.

  17. Enhanced energy capacity of lithium-oxygen batteries with ionic liquid electrolytes by addition of ammonium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Shoichi; Uosaki, Kohei; Nakanishi, Shuji

    2017-07-01

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries with ionic liquid-based electrolytes have attracted much attention because of their superior battery performance and high safety. However, the practical energy capacities achieved to date are markedly lower than those of Li-ion batteries. A dominant factor that limits the energy capacities of Li-O2 batteries is the insulating characteristics and insolubility of lithium peroxide (Li2O2), which gradually accumulates on the positive electrode as a discharge product. Herein, we report that ammonium ions function as a promoter for the solution-route formation of Li2O2, which results in a significant improvement of the energy capacity of Li-O2 cells. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that the structure of Li2O2 changed from spherical particles to toroidal particles with an increase in the ammonium ions concentration. Ionic additives that have been reported to function as promoters the solution-route formation of Li2O2 in ether-based electrolyte systems do not exhibit a promoting effect in ionic liquid-based electrolytes.

  18. Analysis of the solid electrolyte interphase formed with an ionic liquid electrolyte for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shizhao; Xie, Kai; Blomberg, Erik; Jacobsson, Per; Matic, Aleksandar

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on lithium electrodes in the presence of an ionic liquid electrolyte with a particular focus on the influence of polysulfides present in the electrolyte on the SEI. The electrochemical performance of symmetric cells with lithium electrodes and electrolytes composed of N-Methyl-(n-butyl)pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14-TFSI) and LiTFSI, with and without the addition of polysulfides, were analyzed as well as the chemical composition of the SEI, before and after cycling. The cycling behavior of the symmetrical cells shows that the SEI films are relatively stable in the ionic liquid electrolyte, also in the presence of polysulfides. However, the presence of polysulfides results in a higher SEI layer resistance (RSEI) and a higher activation energy. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), with argon-ion sputtering for depth profiling, we find that the SEI is formed by decomposition products from both cations and anions of the electrolyte. The XPS spectra show that the presence of polysulfides alters the decomposition process of the electrolyte, resulting in a SEI film with different chemical composition and structure, in line with the results from the electrochemical performance.

  19. Cycling performance and thermal stability of lithium polymer cells assembled with ionic liquid-containing gel polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ye Sun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Sang-Young; Shim, Eun-Gi; Kim, Dong-Won

    Gel polymer electrolytes containing 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and a small amount of additive (vinylene carbonate, fluoroethylene carbonate, and ethylene carbonate) are prepared, and their electrochemical properties are investigated. The cathodic limit of the gel polymer electrolytes can be extended to 0 V vs. Li by the formation of a protective solid electrolyte interphase on the electrode surface. Using these gel polymer electrolytes, lithium metal polymer cells composed of a lithium anode and a LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 cathode are assembled, and their cycling performances are evaluated at room temperature. The cells show good cycling performance, comparable to that of a cell assembled with gel polymer electrolyte containing standard liquid electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate/diethylene carbonate). Flammability tests and differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the presence of the ionic liquid in the gel polymer electrolyte considerably improves the safety and thermal stability of the cells.

  20. Synthesis and Compatibility of Ionic Liquid Containing Rod-Coil Polyimide Gel Electrolytes with Lithium Metal Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Palker, Allyson E.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.

    2008-01-01

    A highly cross-linked polyimide-polyethylene oxide copolymer has been synthesized that is capable of holding large volumes of liquid component, simultaneously maintaining good dimensional stability. An amine end capped oligomer was made that was imidized in solution, followed by reaction with a triisocyanate in the presence of desired additives at ambient temperature. Polymer films are able to hold over 4 times their weight in room temperature ionic liquid RTIL or carbonate solvent. Electrolytes were studied that contained varying amounts of RTIL, lithium trifluoromethanesulfonimide LiTFSi, and alumina nanoparticles. Electrochemical stability of these electrolytes with lithium metal electrodes was studied by galvanic cycling and impedance spectroscopy. Improved cycling stability and decreased interfacial resistance were observed when increasing amounts of RTIL and LiTFSi were added. The addition of small amounts of alumina further decreased interfacial resistance by nearly an order of magnitude. During the course of the study, cycling stability increased from less than 3 to greater than 1000 h at 60 C and 0.25 mA/cm2 current density.

  1. Synthesis and Compatibility of Ionic Liquid Containing Rod-Coil Polyimide Gel Electrolytes with Lithium Metal Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Palker, Allyson E.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.

    2008-01-01

    A highly cross-linked polyimide-polyethylene oxide copolymer has been synthesized that is capable of holding large volumes of liquid component, simultaneously maintaining good dimensional stability. An amine end capped oligomer was made that was imidized in solution, followed by reaction with a triisocyanate in the presence of desired additives at ambient temperature. Polymer films are able to hold over 4 times their weight in room temperature ionic liquid RTIL or carbonate solvent. Electrolytes were studied that contained varying amounts of RTIL, lithium trifluoromethanesulfonimide LiTFSi, and alumina nanoparticles. Electrochemical stability of these electrolytes with lithium metal electrodes was studied by galvanic cycling and impedance spectroscopy. Improved cycling stability and decreased interfacial resistance were observed when increasing amounts of RTIL and LiTFSi were added. The addition of small amounts of alumina further decreased interfacial resistance by nearly an order of magnitude. During the course of the study, cycling stability increased from less than 3 to greater than 1000 h at 60 C and 0.25 mA/cm2 current density.

  2. Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide-PYR 14TFSI ionic liquid electrolyte compatible with graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nádherná, Martina; Reiter, Jakub; Moškon, Jože; Dominko, Robert

    Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR 14TFSI) was successfully tested as an electrolyte for graphite composite anodes at elevated temperature of 55 °C. The graphite anode showed a good cyclability during the galvanostatic testing at C/10 rate and 55 °C with the capacity close to theoretical. The formation of SEI in different electrolytes was the subject of study using impedance spectroscopy on symmetrical cells containing two lithium electrodes. The 0.7 m LiFSI in PYR 14TFSI exhibits a good ionic conductivity (5.9 mS cm -1 at 55 °C) along with high electrochemical stability and high thermal stability. These properties allow their potential application in large-scale lithium ion batteries with improved safety.

  3. Study of the corrosion behaviors of 304 austenite stainless steel specimens exposed to static liquid lithium at 600 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiancai; Zuo, Guizhong; Ren, Jun; Xu, Wei; Sun, Zhen; Huang, Ming; Hu, Wangyu; Hu, Jiansheng; Deng, Huiqiu

    2016-11-01

    Investigation of corrosion behavior of stainless steel served as one kind of structure materials exposed to liquid lithium (Li) is one of the keys to apply liquid Li as potential plasma facing materials (PFM) or blanket coolant in the fusion device. Corrosion experiments of 304 austenite stainless steel (304 SS) were carried out in static liquid Li at 600 K and up to1584 h at high vacuum with pressure less than 4 × 10-4 Pa. After exposure to liquid Li, it was found that the weight of 304 SS slightly decreased with weight loss rate of 5.7 × 10-4 g/m2/h and surface hardness increased by about 50 HV. Lots of spinel-like grains and holes were observed on the surface of specimens measured by SEM. By further EDS, XRD and metallographic analyzing, it was confirmed that the main compositions of spinel-like grains were M23C6 carbides, and 304 SS produced a non-uniform corrosion behavior by preferential grain boundary attack, possibly due to the easy formation of M23C6 carbides and/or formation of Li compound at grain boundaries.

  4. Method of forming single crystals of beta silicon carbide using liquid lithium as a solvent

    DOEpatents

    Lundberg, Lynn B.

    1982-01-01

    A method of growing single crystals of beta SiC from solution using molten lithium as a solvent for polycrystalline SiC feed material. Reasonable growth rates are accomplished at temperatures in the range of about 1330.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C.

  5. Effect of ion structure on conductivity in lithium-doped ionic liquid electrolytes: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongjun; Maginn, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to examine the role cation and anion structure have on the performance of ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes for lithium conduction over the temperature range of 320-450 K. Two model ionic liquids were studied: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium pyrrolide ([bmpyr][pyl]) doped with Li[Tf2N] and Li[pyl], respectively. The results have demonstrated that the Li+ doped IL containing the planar [bmpyr] cation paired with the planar [pyl] anion significantly outperformed the [bmim][Tf2N] IL. The different coordination of Li+ with the [Tf2N]- or [pyl]- anions produces a remarkable change in IL structure with a concomitant effect on the transport of all ions. For the doped [bmim][Tf2N], each Li+ is coordinated by four oxygen atoms from [Tf2N]- anions. Formation of a rigid structure between Li+ and [Tf2N]- induces a decrease in the mobility of all ions. In contrast, for the doped [bmpyr][pyl], each Li+ is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms from [pyl]- anions. The original alternating structure cation|anion|cation in the neat [bmpyr][pyl] is replaced by another alternating structure cation|anion|Li+|anion|cation in the doped [bmpyr][pyl]. Increases of Li+ mole fraction in doped [bmpyr][pyl] affects the dynamics to a much lesser extent compared with [bmim][Tf2N] and leads to reduced diffusivities of cations and anions, but little change in the dynamics of Li+. More importantly, the calculations predict that the Li+ ion conductivity of doped [bmpyr][pyl] is comparable to that observed in organic liquid electrolytes and is about an order of magnitude higher than that of doped [bmim][Tf2N]. Such Li+ conductivity improvement suggests that this and related ILs may be promising candidates for use as electrolytes in lithium ion batteries and capacitors.

  6. Sulfonic Acid- and Lithium Sulfonate-Grafted Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Electrospun Mats As Ionic Liquid Host for Electrochromic Device and Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Liu, Wanshuang; Leong, Yew Wei; Xu, Jianwei; Lu, Xuehong

    2015-08-05

    Electrospun polymer nanofibrous mats loaded with ionic liquids (ILs) are promising nonvolatile electrolytes with high ionic conductivity. The large cations of ILs are, however, difficult to diffuse into solid electrodes, making them unappealing for application in some electrochemical devices. To address this issue, a new strategy is used to introduce proton conduction into an IL-based electrolyte. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) copolymer is functionalized with sulfonic acid through covalent attachment of taurine. The sulfonic acid-grafted P(VDF-HFP) electrospun mats consist of interconnected nanofibers, leading to remarkable improvement in dimensional stability of the mats. IL-based polymer electrolytes are prepared by immersing the modified mats in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM(+)BF4(-)). It is found that the SO3(-) groups can have Lewis acid-base interactions with the cations (BMIM(+)) of IL to promote the dissociation of ILs, and provide additional proton conduction, resulting in significantly improved ionic conductivity. Using this novel electrolyte, polyaniline-based electrochromic devices show higher transmittance contrast and faster switching behavior. Furthermore, the sulfonic acid-grafted P(VDF-HFP) electrospun mats can also be lithiated, giving additional lithium ion conduction for the IL-based electrolyte, with which Li/LiCoO2 batteries display enhanced C-rate performance.

  7. A binary ionic liquid system composed of N-methoxyethyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide: A new promising electrolyte for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, S.; Quartarone, E.; Mustarelli, P.; Magistris, A.; Protti, S.; Lazzaroni, S.; Fagnoni, M.; Albini, A.

    Room temperature ionic liquids are nowadays the most appealing research target in the field of liquid electrolytes for lithium batteries, due to their high thermal stability, ionic conductivity and wide electrochemical windows. The cation structure of such solvents strictly influences their physical and chemical properties, in particular the viscosity and conductivity. In this paper we report on the preparation and characterization of a complete series of solutions between lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and the promising N-methoxyethyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (PY 1,2O1) ionic liquid. A wide molality range has been explored in order to identify the optimal compositions in terms of conductivity and electrochemical stability. Our thermal results show that the solutions are amorphous independently on the LiTFSI content. Up to salt concentration of 0.4 mol kg -1 the solutions have a very low viscosity (η ∼ 36 cP), a high ionic conductivity, even at temperatures below 0 °C, and a good electrochemical stability. Cations transport numbers ranging between 0.05 and 0.39 have been determined as a function of LiTFSI content. The combination of these properties makes the PY 1,2O1-based solutions potentially attractive liquid electrolytes for lithium batteries.

  8. Lithium-system corrosion/erosion studies for the FMIT project

    SciTech Connect

    Bazinet, G D

    1983-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment has been studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The liquid lithium test resources and the capabilities of several laboratories were used to study specific concerns associated with the overall objective. Testing conditions ranged from approx. 3700 hours to approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/C to 270/sup 0/C and static lithium at temperatures from 200/sup 0/C to 500/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects of FMIT lithium system materials (largely Type 304 and Type 304L austenitic stainless steels) and candidate materials for major system components.

  9. Effect of lithium hydroxide on stability of fuel cladding oxide film in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water environments

    SciTech Connect

    Saario, T.; Taehtinen, S.; Piippo, J.

    1997-09-01

    The trend in pressurized water reactors (PWR) toward higher burnups, increasing lithium concentrations, and higher coolant temperatures imposes a demand for better fuel cladding corrosion and hydriding properties. There is a lack of reliable and fast in-situ techniques to investigate zirconium alloys in high-temperature water environments. The contact electric resistance (CER) technique was used to measure the electric resistance of the oxide growing on a zirconium-based fuel cladding material. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) decreased electric resistance of the oxide when LiOH was in excess of {approximately} 70 ppm in PWR water at 300 C. Electric resistance of the oxide was dependent upon LiOH concentration and was shown to correlate inversely with the effect of LiOH on weight gain. Kinetics of the decrease of electric resistance indicated the mechanism of degradation was a phase transformation rather than a diffusion-limited process.

  10. Lithium-modulated conduction band edge shifts and charge-transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells based on a dicyanamide ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Peng

    2011-04-19

    Lithium ions are known for their potent function in modulating the energy alignment at the oxide semiconductor/dye/electrolyte interface in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), offering the opportunity to control the associated multichannel charge-transfer dynamics. Herein, by optimizing the lithium iodide content in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide-based ionic liquid electrolytes, we present a solvent-free DSC displaying an impressive 8.4% efficiency at 100 mW cm(-2) AM1.5G conditions. We further scrutinize the origins of evident impacts of lithium ions upon current density-voltage characteristics as well as photocurrent action spectra of DSCs based thereon. It is found that, along with a gradual increase of the lithium content in ionic liquid electrolytes, a consecutive diminishment of the open-circuit photovoltage arises, primarily owing to a noticeable downward movement of the titania conduction band edge. The conduction band edge displacement away from vacuum also assists the formation of a more favorable energy offset at the titania/dye interface, and thereby leads to a faster electron injection rate and a higher exciton dissociation yield as implied by transient emission measurements. We also notice that the adverse influence of the titania conduction band edge downward shift arising from lithium addition upon photovoltage is partly compensated by a concomitant suppression of the triiodide involving interfacial charge recombination. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Novel choline-based ionic liquids as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Tianqiao; Zhang, Lingzhi; Wang, Jinglun; Mai, Yongjin; Yan, Xiaodan; Zhao, Xinyue

    2016-10-01

    Three choline-based ionic liquids functionalized with trimethylsilyl, allyl, and cynoethyl groups are synthesized in an inexpensive route as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries. The thermal stabilities, viscosities, conductivities, and electrochemical windows of these ILs are reported. Hybrid electrolytes were formulated by doping with 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M lithium oxalydifluoroborate (LiODFB) as salts and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent. By using 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M LiODFB trimethylsilylated choline-based IL (SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC as electrolyte, LiCoO2/graphite full cell showed excellent cycling performance with a capacity of 152 mAh g-1 and 99% capacity retention over 90 cycles at a cut-off voltage of 4.4 V. The propagation rate of SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC electrolyte is only one quarter of the commercial electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC/DMC, v/v/v = 1/1/1), suggesting a better safety feature.

  12. Note: Proton irradiation at kilowatt-power and neutron production from a free-surface liquid-lithium target

    SciTech Connect

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Weissman, L.; Aviv, O.; Berkovits, D.; Dudovitch, O.; Eisen, Y.; Eliyahu, I.; Haquin, G.; Hazenshprung, N.; Kreisel, A.; Mardor, I.; Shimel, G.; Shor, A.; Silverman, I.; Yungrais, Z.; Paul, M. Tessler, M.

    2014-05-15

    The free-surface Liquid-Lithium Target, recently developed at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), was successfully used with a 1.9 MeV, 1.2 mA (2.3 kW) continuous-wave proton beam. Neutrons (∼2 × 10{sup 10} n/s having a peak energy of ∼27 keV) from the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction were detected with a fission-chamber detector and by gold activation targets positioned in the forward direction. The setup is being used for nuclear astrophysics experiments to study neutron-induced reactions at stellar energies and to demonstrate the feasibility of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

  13. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Steinberg, D; Nagler, A; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Polacheck, I; Srebnik, M

    2009-07-01

    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor.

  14. Nano-Sponge Ionic Liquid-Polymer Composite Electrolytes for Solid-State Lithium Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    images of these solid thin films indicate that these polymer gel electrolytes have the structure of nano-sponges, with a sub-micron pore size. For these... thin film batteries, 150 charge–discharge cycles are run for LixCoO2 where x is cycled between 0.95 down to 0.55. Minimal internal resistance effects...9702;C; exhibiting a significant advancement in the safety of lithium batteries. Atomic force microscopy images of these solid thin films indicate

  15. Detection of bacterial signaling molecules in liquid or gaseous environments.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, Peter; Stubbs, Desmond; Hunt, William

    2011-01-01

    The detection of bacterial signaling molecules in liquid or gaseous environments has been occurring in nature for billions of years. More recently, man-made materials and systems has also allowed for the detection of small molecules in liquid or gaseous environments. This chapter will outline some examples of these man-made detection systems by detailing several acoustic-wave sensor systems applicable to quorum sensing. More importantly though, a comparison will be made between existing bacterial quorum sensing signaling systems, such as the Vibrio harveyi two-component system and that of man-made detection systems, such as acoustic-wave sensor systems and digital communication receivers similar to those used in simple cell phone technology. It will be demonstrated that the system block diagrams for either bacterial quorum sensing systems or man-made detection systems are all very similar, and that the established modeling techniques for digital communications and acoustic-wave sensors can also be transformed to quorum sensing systems.

  16. Corrosion of refractory metals in liquid metal and gaseous environments

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    In general, refractory metals and alloys are very compatible with liquid or boiling alkali metals. However, corrosion resistance of niobium and tantalum requires maintaining low oxygen in the system. When the refractory metal contains a strong oxide former (Zr, Hf), additional oxygen in the solid metal can be tolerated if it is tied up as a stable oxide (ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}). In sodium or potassium systems, oxygen in either the liquid metal or refractory metal can contribute to reduced corrosion resistance. The mechanical properties of refractory metals are very sensitive to interstitial elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon. Oxidation in air or other oxidizing environments is rapid above 300 to 400{degree}C, and some type of protection must be provided (vacuum, inert gas, coating) if refractory metals are to be used at high temperatures. Oxidation of niobium and tantalum alloys is more complex than for molybdenum and tungsten due to the formation of different oxide phases that exhibit differing degrees of protectiveness. At low to intermediate temperatures niobium and tantalum also react with hydrogen environments, and embrittlement has been reported both from hydride formation as well as from solid solution effects. At high temperatures niobium and tantalum react with nitrogen or carbon to form very stable compounds while the nitrides and carbides of molybdenum and tungsten are considerably less stable. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Modelling of lithium erosion and transport in FTU lithium experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Kirschner, A.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Luo, G.-N.

    2013-07-01

    The ERO code has been used to simulate lithium erosion, transport and re-deposition from liquid lithium limiter experiments in FTU. Two different operational cases from LLL experiments with different plasma parameters and surface temperature are modelled. According to the effective lithium sputtering yields, for both cases the lithium erosion is mainly due to physical sputtering rather than evaporation. Furthermore, the modelled re-deposition fraction of evaporated lithium is much higher than that of sputtered lithium, which is due to the shorter ionisation mean free path of thermal lithium atoms. Therefore, the evaporation erosion effect can be neglected compared to physical sputtering when the surface temperature is below 450 °C. According to the simulations, most of the lithium impurities exist in the form of Li+, and the main plasma contamination by lithium ions is low because most of eroded lithium particles are not transported into the core plasma and stay outside of the LCFS.

  18. Li+ cation environment, transport, and mechanical properties of the LiTFSI doped N-methyl-N-alkylpyrrolidinium+TFSI- ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Borodin, Oleg; Smith, Grant D; Henderson, Wesley

    2006-08-31

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed on N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (mppy(+)TFSI(-)) and N,N-dimethyl- pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (mmpy(+)TFSI(+)) ionic liquids (ILs) doped with 0.25 mol fraction LiTFSI salt at 303-500 K. The liquid density, ion self-diffusion coefficients, and conductivity predicted by MD simulations were found to be in good agreement with experimental data, where available. MD simulations reveal that the Li(+) environment is similar in mppy(+)TFSI(-) and mmpy(+)TFSI(+) ILs doped with LiTFSI. The Li(+) cations were found to be coordinated on average by slightly less than four oxygen atoms with each oxygen atom being contributed by a different TFSI(-) anion. Significant lithium aggregation by sharing up to three TFSI(-) anions bridging two lithiums was observed, particularly at lower temperatures where the lithium aggregates were found to be stable for tens of nanoseconds. Polarization of TFSI(-) anions is largely responsible for the formation of such lithium aggregates. Li(+) transport was found to occur primarily by exchange of TFSI(-) anions in the first coordination shell with a smaller (approximately 30%) contribution also due to Li(+) cations diffusing together with their first coordination shell. In both ILs, ion self-diffusion coefficients followed the order Li(+) < TFSI(-) < mmpy(+) or mppy(+) with all ion diffusion in mmpy(+)TFSI(-) being systematically slower than that in mppy(+)TFSI(-). Conductivity due to the Li(+) cation in LiTFSI doped mppy(+)TFSI(-) IL was found to be greater than that for a model poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO)/LiTFSI polymer electrolyte but significantly lower than that for an ethylene carbonate/LiTFSI liquid electrolyte. Finally, the time-dependent shear modulus for the LiTFSI doped ILs was found to be similar to that for a model poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO)/LiTFSI polymer electrolyte on the subnanosecond time scale.

  19. Liquid Water, the ``Most Complex'' Liquid: New Results in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-03-01

    We will introduce some of the 63 anomalies of the most complex of liquids, water. We will demonstrate some recent progress in understanding these anomalies by combining information provided by recent experiments and simulations on water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. We will interpret evidence from recent experiments designed to test the hypothesis that liquid water may display ``polymorphism'' in that it can exist in two different phases---and discuss recent work on water's transport anomalies [1] as well as the unusual behavior of water in biological environments [2]. Finally, we will discuss how the general concept of liquid polymorphism [3] is proving useful in understanding anomalies in other liquids, such as silicon, silica, and carbon, as well as metallic glasses, which have in common that they are characterized by two characteristic length scales in their interactions. This work was supported by NSF Chemistry Division, and carried out in collaboration with a number of colleagues, chief among whom are C. A. Angell, M. C. Barbosa, M. C. Bellissent, L. Bosio, F. Bruni, S. V. Buldyrev, M. Canpolat, S. -H. Chen, P. G. Debenedetti, U. Essmann,G. Franzese, A. Geiger, N. Giovambattista, S. Han, P. Kumar, E. La Nave,G. Malescio, F. Mallamace, M. G. Mazza, O. Mishima, P. Netz, P. H. Poole, P. J. Rossky, R. Sadr,S. Sastry, A. Scala, F. Sciortino, A. Skibinsky, F. W. Starr, K. C. Stokely J. Teixeira, L. Xu, and Z. Yan.[4pt] [1] L. Xu, F. Mallamace, Z. Yan, F. W. Starr, S. V. Buldyrev, and H. E. Stanley, ``Appearance of a Fractional Stokes-Einstein Relation in Water and a Structural Interpretation of Its Onset,'' Nature Physics 5, 565--569 (2009). [0pt] [2] P. Kumar, Z. Yan, L. Xu, M. G. Mazza, S. V. Buldyrev, S. -H. Chen. S. Sastry, and H. E. Stanley, ``Glass Transition in Biomolecules and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Point of Water,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177802 (2006). [0pt] [3] H. E. Stanley, ed. , Liquid Polymorphism [Advances in Chemical Physics

  20. Hydrogen Retention and Helium Pumping by Flowing Liquid Lithium: A Path to a Compact (and therefore less costly) Magnetic Fusion Power Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzic, David

    2004-11-01

    The cost of a fusion power plant scales roughly as the volume of the torus. Scaling to a larger size typically allows almost any magnetic confinement concept to reach ignition, but also leads to a higher cost. The need for a larger size plasma results from the need to support a high core temperature while still preserving an edge temperature consistent with the requirements of the confinement scheme and the limitations of the wall material. Recent work has shown that a wall that has near-zero recycling will have very high edge plasma temperatures and can therefore support a high core temperature in a smaller volume.[1] The perceived difficulty with such concepts is that the only known low-Z, low-recycling surface is one composed of lithium, and lithium melts at 180C, has a very high vapor pressure at elevated temperatures, and is highly corrosive. The very fact that it is a low-recycling surface could be its downfall: what if it attracts so much tritium as to make the inventories untenable? In addition, a wall completely covered with lithium and a divertor protected by flowing lithium leaves no exit for the helium in a reactor concept. This talk will show results from the Flowing Illinois Lithium Retention Experiment[2] (FLIRE) which show that (1) the lithium adsorption of D (and by extension, T) is manageable, (2) the helium retention coefficient in flowing lithium may be high enough for He to be pumped, and (3) the corrosiveness of molten lithium is not beyond the technological capabilities of the fusion program. [1] L.E. Zakharov, N.N. Gorelenkov, R.B. White, S.I. Krasheninnikov, G.V. Pereverzev, Ignited spherical tokamaks and plasma regimes with Li walls, Fusion Engineering and Design, Sept. 2004. [2] J.P. Allain, M. Nieto, M.D. Coventry, R. Stubbers, D.N. Ruzic, "Studies of liquid-metal erosion and free surface flowing liquid-lithium retention of helium at the University of Illinois", Fusion Engineering and Design, Sept. 2004.

  1. New approaches to the design of polymer and liquid electrolytes for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they do not interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference, and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation complexing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach, since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion complexing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF 3SO 3-. The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane-based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2 M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in solubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6×10 -3 S cm -1. The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn 2O 4 cells.

  2. Local Environment Distribution in Ab Initio Liquid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Biswajit; Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Car, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    We have analyzed the distribution of local environments in liquid water at ambient conditions and its inherent potential energy surface (IPES) based on state-of-the-art ab initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on 128 molecules implementing hybrid PBE0 exchange [PRB 79, 085102 (2009)] and van der Waals (vdW) interactions [PRL 102, 073005 (2009)]. The local environments of molecules are characterized in terms of the local structure index (LSI) [JCP 104, 7671 (1996)] which is able to distinguish high- and low-density molecular environments. In agreement with simulations based on model potentials, we find that the distribution of LSI is unimodal at ambient conditions and bimodal in the IPES, consistent with the existence of polymorphism in amorphous phases of water. At ambient conditions spatial LSI fluctuations extend up to ~7 Å and their dynamical correlation decays on a time scale of ~3 ps, as found for density fluctuations in a recent study [PRL 106, 037801 (2011)]. DOE: DE-SC0008626, DOE: DE-SC0005180, NSF: CHE-0956500

  3. Rapid and simple pretreatment of human body fluids using electromembrane extraction across supported liquid membrane for capillary electrophoretic determination of lithium.

    PubMed

    Strieglerová, Lenka; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2011-05-01

    Electromembrane extraction was used for simultaneous sample cleanup and preconcentration of lithium from untreated human body fluids. The sample of a body fluid was diluted 100 times with 0.5 mM Tris solution and lithium was extracted by electromigration through a supported liquid membrane composed of 1-octanol into 100 mM acetic acid acceptor solution. Matrix compounds, such as proteins, red blood cells, and other high-molecular-weight compounds were efficiently retained on the supported liquid membrane. The liquid membrane was anchored in pores of a short segment of a polypropylene hollow fiber, which represented a low cost, single use, disposable extraction unit and was discarded after each use. Acceptor solutions were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D) and baseline separation of lithium was achieved in a background electrolyte solution consisting of 18 mM L-histidine and 40 mM acetic acid at pH 4.6. Repeatability of the electromembrane extraction-CE-C(4) D method was evaluated for the determination of lithium in standard solutions and real samples and was better than 0.6 and 8.2% for migration times and peak areas, respectively. The concentration limit of detection of 9 nM was achieved. The developed method was applied to the determination of lithium in urine, blood serum, blood plasma, and whole blood at both endogenous and therapeutic concentration levels. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Liquid oxygen LOX compatibility evaluations of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys: Investigation of the Alcoa 2090 and MMC weldalite 049 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility of aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys is investigated. Alloy systems of Alcoa 2090, vintages 1 to 3, and of Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) Weldalite 049 were evaluated for their behavior related to the LOX compatibility employing liquid oxygen impact test conditions under ambient pressures and up to 1000 psi. The developments of these aluminum lithium alloys are of critical and significant interest because of their lower densities and higher specific strengths and improved mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. Of the different LOX impact tests carried out at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), it is seen that in certain test conditions at higher pressures, not all Al-Li alloys are LOX compatible. In case of any reactivity, it appears that lithium makes the material more sensitive at grain boundaries due to microstructural inhomogeneities and associated precipitate free zones (PFZ). The objectives were to identify and rationalize the microstructural mechanisms that could be relaxed to LOX compatibility behavior of the alloy system in consideration. The LOX compatibility behavior of Al-Li 2090 and Weldalite 049 is analyzed in detail using microstructural characterization techniques with light optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis, and surface studies using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), electron spectroscopy in chemical analysis (ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Differences in the behavior of these aluminum lithium alloys are assessed and related to their chemistry, heat treatment conditions, and microstructural effects.

  5. Electrochemical characterisation of a lithium-ion battery electrolyte based on mixtures of carbonates with a ferrocene-functionalised imidazolium electroactive ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Forgie, John C; El Khakani, Soumia; MacNeil, Dean D; Rochefort, Dominic

    2013-05-28

    Electrolytic solutions of lithium-ion batteries can be modified with additives to improve their stability and safety. Electroactive molecules can be used as such additives to act as an electron (redox) shuttle between the two electrodes to prevent overcharging. The electroactive ionic liquid, 1-ferrocenylmethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (TFSI), was synthesised and its electrochemical properties were investigated when diluted with ethylene carbonate-diethyl carbonate solvent at various concentrations. Cyclic voltammetry data were gathered to determine the redox potential, diffusion coefficient and heterogeneous rate constants of the electroactive imidazolium TFSI ionic liquid in the carbonate solution. The properties of this molecule as an additive in lithium battery electrolytes were studied in standard coin cells with a metallic Li anode and a Li4Ti5O12 cathode.

  6. Addition of a thin-film inorganic solid electrolyte (Lipon) as a protective film in lithium batteries with a liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    Three rechargeable lithium cells have been fabricated using thin films of Li and sputter-deposited Li xMn 2- yO 4 as the electrodes, and a LiPF 6 organic liquid electrolyte. Cells were cycled up to 18 times between 4.5 and 2.5 V at 25°C both with and without the addition of the thin-film lithium phosphorus oxynitride solid electrolyte, known as Lipon. Of the cells tested, the Lipon film was most effective in maximizing the capacity and cycling efficiency when deposited in direct contact with the cathode; however, a significant improvement over the Lipon-free cell was also observed with Lipon sandwiched between layers of the liquid electrolyte. In the latter case, the Lipon was deposited onto a microporous polypropylene separator membrane.

  7. Method and apparatus to produce and maintain a thick, flowing, liquid lithium first wall for toroidal magnetic confinement DT fusion reactors

    DOEpatents

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

  8. Method and Apparatus to Produce and Maintain a thick, flowing, Liquid Lithium first wall for Toroidal Magnetic Confinement DT Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1998-10-21

    A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fission reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

  9. Benzonitrile as a probe of local environment in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiguo; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Xiangyuan; Lu, Liujin; He, Yude; Deng, Youquan

    2013-03-07

    Because of its sensitivity to chemical and electrostatic characteristics, nitrile group as an infrared (IR) probe to monitor the local structure, folding kinetics, and electrostatic environment of protein, or solvation of molecular solvents, has attracted increasing attention. Herein, by choosing benzonitrile and imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) as the IR probe and model ILs, respectively, we report that the nitrile stretching vibration (νCN) could be utilized as a simple and substantial IR probe to monitor the local environment of ILs such as hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) as well as intrinsic electric field. In 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based non-hydroxyl ILs, the νCN is in a "free" state, and is less affected by the alkyl chain, while it significantly decreases with the effective anion charge. In 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium-based hydroxyl ILs, however, a distinct anion-dependent νCN forming H-bonding with the hydroxyl is also observed besides the "free" νCN band. The "free" component of νCN can be further employed to determine the intrinsic electric field in both non-hydroxyl (directly) and hydroxyl (indirectly by subtracting H-bonding contribution) ILs by using vibrational Stark effect. Moreover, the result suggests that benzonitrile is preferentially located in the charge domain in ILs and it could be a more suitable probe to report the ionic network rather than the nonpolar domain in ILs.

  10. Corrosion resistance of lithium/iodine batteries fabricated in an extremely dry environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.R.; Holmes, C.F.; Stinebring, R.C.

    1981-10-01

    Early lithium/iodine pacemaker batteries employed considerable amounts of inert plastic materials to encase the active ingredients inside the stainless steel case. Several years ago the Wilson Greatbatch Ltd. (WGL) Model 755 cell was introduced and represented a significant change in lithium/iodine battery construction. In this design (1) the iodinepolyvinylpyridine (PVP) depolarizer material was placed in direct contact with the 304L stainless steel case and much of the inert material was eliminated. This change resulted in obtaining substantially more depolarizer in the battery thereby greatly increasing the electrical capacity for the same cell volume. A study was instituted to evaluate possible corrosion effects between the iodine in the depolarizer and the stainless steel case.

  11. Using lithium ion batteries in the aeromedical environment: a calculated risk?

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Andrew; Keogh, Sean

    2015-04-01

    Lithium ion batteries are increasingly utilised within helicopter emergency medical services. Their favourable chemical profile confers many desirable properties: they are small, lightweight and provide a high specific capacity (energy to weight ratio) coupled with a slow self-discharge rate, ensuring a longer functional availability for vital equipment. They are frequently used in routine medical equipment including ventilators, monitors and intravenous pumps, and in aviation specific items, such as satellite and mobile phones, VHF radios and navigation systems.

  12. Ionic liquid based lithium battery electrolytes: fundamental benefits of utilising both TFSI and FSI anions?

    PubMed

    Kerner, M; Plylahan, N; Scheers, J; Johansson, P

    2015-07-15

    Several IL based electrolytes with an imidazolium cation (EMI) have been investigated trying to elucidate a possible beneficial effect of mixing FSI and TFSI anions in terms of physico-chemical properties and especially Li(+) solvation. All electrolytes were evaluated in terms of phase transitions, densities and viscosities, thermal stabilities, ionic conductivities and local structure, i.e. charge carriers. The electrolytes with up to 20% of Li-salts showed to be promising for high temperature lithium ion battery application (ca. 100 °C) and a synergetic effect of having mixed anions is discernible with the LiTFSI0.2EMIFSI0.8 electrolyte giving the best overall performance. The determination of the charge carriers revealed the SN to be ca. 2 for all analysed electrolytes, and proved the analysis of the mixed anion electrolytes to be challenging and inherently leads to an ambiguous picture of the Li(+) solvation.

  13. Demonstration of a high-intensity neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Kreisel, A; Mardor, I; Shimel, G; Shor, A; Silverman, I; Tessler, M

    2015-12-01

    A free surface liquid-lithium jet target is operating routinely at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), bombarded with a ~1.91 MeV, ~1.2 mA continuous-wave narrow proton beam. The experiments demonstrate the liquid lithium target (LiLiT) capability to constitute an intense source of epithermal neutrons, for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The target dissipates extremely high ion beam power densities (>3 kW/cm(2), >0.5 MW/cm(3)) for long periods of time, while maintaining stable conditions and localized residual activity. LiLiT generates ~3×10(10) n/s, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional (7)Li(p,n)-based near threshold neutron sources. A shield and moderator assembly for BNCT, with LiLiT irradiated with protons at 1.91 MeV, was designed based on Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of BNCT-doses produced in a phantom. According to these simulations it was found that a ~15 mA near threshold proton current will apply the therapeutic doses in ~1h treatment duration. According to our present results, such high current beams can be dissipated in a liquid-lithium target, hence the target design is readily applicable for accelerator-based BNCT.

  14. Miniature magnetic fluid seal working in liquid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Durst, Christopher A.

    2017-06-01

    This study was carried out to develop a miniature magnetic fluid (MF) seal working in a liquid environment. The miniature MF seal is intended for use in a catheter blood pump. The requirements for the MF seal included a size of less than Ø4×4.5 mm, shaft diameter of 1 mm, sealing pressure of 200 mmHg, shaft speed of up to 40000 rpm, and life of one month. The miniature MF seal was composed of an NdFeB magnet (Ø4×Ø2×1) sandwiched between two pole pieces (Ø4×Ø1.1×0.5). A shield (Ø4×Ø1.2×1.5) was placed on the pole piece facing the liquid to minimize the influence of pump flow on the MF. The seal was installed on a Ø1 shaft. A seal was formed by injecting MF (Ms: 47.8 kA/m and η: 0.5 Pa·sec) into the gap between the pole pieces and the shaft. Total volume of the MF seal was 44 μL. A sealing pressure of 370 mmHg was obtained at motor speeds of 0-40,000 rpm. The seal remained perfect for 10 days in saline under the condition of a pump flow of 1.5 L/min (The test was terminated in accordance with plans). The seal remained intact after ethylene oxide sterilization during which the seal was exposed to high pressures. In conclusion, the newly developed MF seal will be useful for a catheter pump.

  15. Structures and Electronic Properties of Lithium Chelate-Based Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Si, Dawei; Chen, Kexian; Yao, Jia; Li, Haoran

    2016-04-28

    The conformations, electronic properties, and interaction energies of four chelate-based ionic liquids [Li(EA)][Tf2N], [Li(HDA)][Tf2N], [Li(DEA)][Tf2N], and [Li(DOBA)][Tf2N] have been theoretically explored. The reliability of the located conformers has been confirmed via the comparison between the simulated and experimental infrared spectra. Our results show that the N-Li and O-Li coordinate bonds in cation are elongated as the numbers of coordinate heteroatoms of alkanolamine ligands to Li(+) increased. Also the binding energies between Li(+) and ligands are increased and the interaction energies between cations and Tf2N anion are decreased. The cation-anion interaction energies follow the order of [Li(DOBA)][Tf2N] < [Li(HDA)][Tf2N] < [Li(DEA)][Tf2N] < [Li(EA)][Tf2N], which fall within the energetic ranges of conventional ionic liquids. Interestingly, the strongest stabilization orbital interactions in these ionic liquids and their cations revealed by the natural bond orbital analysis lie in the interaction between the lone pair (LP) of the coordinate heteroatoms in ligands or anion as donors and the vacant valence shell nonbonding orbital (LP*) of Li(+) as acceptors, which are very different from that of conventional ionic liquids. Moreover, the charges transferred from cations to anion are quite similar, and the charge of Li(+) is proposed for possibly predicting the order of the interaction energies of ionic liquids in series. The present study allows for the deeper understanding the differences between chelate-based ionic liquids and conventional ionic liquids.

  16. Ionic liquid enabled FeS2 for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler; Piper, Daniela Molina; Kim, Seul Cham; Han, Sang Sub; Bhat, Vinay; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-11-19

    High-energy-density FeS2 cathodes en-abled by a bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-) anion-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte are demonstrated. A TFSI-based ionic liquid (IL) significantly mitigates polysulfide dissolution, and therefore the parasitic redox shuttle mechanism, that plagues sulfur-based electrode chemistries. FeS2 stabilization with a TFSI(-) -based IL results in one of the highest energy density cathodes, 542 W h kg(-1) (normalized to cathode composite mass), reported to date.

  17. Heterogeneous Coordination Environments in Lithium-Neutralized Ionomers Identified Using 1H and 7Li MAS NMR

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Todd M.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Stevens, Mark J.; Frischknecht, Amalie L.; Buitrago, C. Francisco; Winey, Karen I.; Opper, Kathleen L.; Wagener, Kenneth B.

    2012-01-01

    The carboxylic acid proton and the lithium coordination environments for precise and random Li-neutralized polyethylene acrylic acid P(E-AA) ionomers were explored using high speed solid-state 1H and 7Li MAS NMR. While the 7Li NMR revealed only a single Li coordination environment, the chemical shift temperature variation was dependent on the precise or random nature of the P(E-AA) ionomer. The 1H MAS NMR revealed two different carboxylic acid proton environments in these materials. By utilizing 1H-7Li rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) MAS NMR experiments, it was demonstrated that the proton environments correspond to different average 1H-7Li distances, with the majority of the protonated carboxylic acids having a close through space contact with the Li. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the shortest 1H-7Li distance corresponds to un-neutralized carboxylic acids directly involved in the coordination environment of Li clusters. These solid-state NMR results show that heterogeneous structural motifs need to be included when developing descriptions of these ionomer materials.

  18. Lithium ion solvation in room-temperature ionic liquids involving bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide anion studied by Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Umebayashi, Yasuhiro; Mitsugi, Takushi; Fukuda, Shuhei; Fujimori, Takao; Fujii, Kenta; Kanzaki, Ryo; Takeuchi, Munetaka; Ishiguro, Shin-Ichi

    2007-11-15

    The solvation structure of the lithium ion in room-temperature ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (EMI(+)TFSI(-)) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (BMP(+0TFSI(-)) has been studied by Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Raman spectra of EMI(+)TFSI(-) and BMP(+)TFSI(-) containing Li(+)TFSI(-) over the range 0.144-0.589 and 0.076-0.633 mol dm(-3), respectively, were measured at 298 K. A strong 744 cm-1 band of the free TFSI(-) ion in the bulk weakens with increasing concentration of the lithium ion, and it revealed by analyzing the intensity decrease that the two TFSI(-) ions bind to the metal ion. The lithium ion may be four-coordinated through the O atoms of two bidentate TFSI(-) ions. It has been established in our previous work that the TFSI(-) ion involves two conformers of C(1) (cis) and C(2) (trans) symmetries in equilibrium, and the dipole moment of the C(1) conformer is significantly larger than that of the C(2) conformer. On the basis of these facts, the geometries and SCF energies of possible solvate ion clusters [Li(C(1)-TFSI(-))(2)](-), [Li(C(1)-TFSI(-))(C(2)-TFSI(-))](-), and [Li(C(2)-TFSI(-))(2)](-) were examined using the theoretical DFT calculations. It is concluded that the C(1) conformer is more preferred to the C(2) conformer in the vicinity of the lithium ion.

  19. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high-power lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2014-04-30

    Because of the increasing number of electric vehicles, there is an urgent need for effective recycling technologies to recapture the significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Previous studies have indicated, however, that Al and cathode materials were quite difficult to separate due to the strong binding force supplied by the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which was employed to bind cathode materials and Al foil. This research devoted to seek a new method of melting the PVDF binder with heated ionic liquid (IL) to separate Al foil and cathode materials from the spent high-power LiBs. Theoretical analysis based on Fourier's law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism of cathode material and to examine the relationship between heating temperature and retention time. All the experimental and theoretic results show that peel-off rate of cathode materials from Al foil could reach 99% when major process parameters were controlled at 180°C heating temperature, 300 rpm agitator rotation, and 25 min retention time. The results further imply that the application of IL for recycling Al foil and cathode materials from spent high-power LiBs is highly efficient, regardless of the application source of the LiBs or the types of cathode material. This study endeavors to make a contribution to an environmentally sound and economically viable solution to the challenge of spent LiB recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel polymer electrolytes based on thermoplastic polyurethane and ionic liquid/lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/propylene carbonate salt system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavall, R. L.; Ferrari, S.; Tomasi, C.; Marzantowicz, M.; Quartarone, E.; Magistris, A.; Mustarelli, P.; Lazzaroni, S.; Fagnoni, M.

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared from thermoplastic polyurethane with addition of mixture of ionic liquid N-ethyl(methylether)-N-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonimmide (PYRA 12O1TFSI), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfoneimide) salt and propylene carbonate. The electrolytes characterization was performed by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties were investigated in detail by impedance spectroscopy with the aid of equivalent circuit fitting of the impedance spectra. A model describing temperature evolution of ionic conductivity and the properties of electrolyte/blocking electrode interface was developed. The electrochemical stability of the electrolytes was studied by linear voltammetry. Our results indicate that the studied electrolytes have good self-standing characteristics, and also a sufficient level of thermal stability and a fairly good electrochemical window. The ionic conductivity increases with increasing amount of mixture, and the character of temperature dependence of conductivity indicates decoupling of ion transport from polymer matrix. For studied system, the highest value of ionic conductivity measured at room temperature was 10 -4 S cm -1.

  1. The influence of cations on lithium ion coordination and transport in ionic liquid electrolytes: a MD simulation study.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Volker; Li, Zhe; Bedrov, Dmitry; Borodin, Oleg; Heuer, Andreas

    2016-01-07

    The dynamical and structural properties in two ionic liquid electrolytes (ILEs) based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide ([emim][TFSI]) and N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide([pyr13][TFSI]) were compared as a function of lithium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (LiTFSI) salt concentrations using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The many-body polarizable APPLE&P force field has been utilized. The influence of anion polarization on the structure of the first coordination shell of Li(+) was examined. In particular, the reduction of the oxygen of the TFSI anion (OTFSI) polarizability from 1.36 Å(3) to 1.00 Å(3) resulted in an increased fraction of the TFSI anion bidentate coordination to the Li(+). While the overall dynamics in [pyr13][TFSI]-based ILEs was slower than in [emim][TFSI]-based ILEs, the exchange of TFSI anions in and out of the first coordination shell of Li(+) was found to be faster in pyr13-based systems. The Li(+) ion transference number is higher for these systems as well. These trends can be related to the difference in interaction of TFSI with the IL cation which is stronger for pyr13 than for emim.

  2. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Li+ solvation and transport properties in ionic liquid/lithium salt mixtures: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Smith, Grant D; Bedrov, Dmitry

    2012-10-25

    Molecular dynamics simulations of N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium (pyr(13)) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Ntf(2)) ionic liquid [pyr(13)][Ntf(2)] mixed with [Li][Ntf(2)] salt have been conducted using a polarizable force field. Mixture simulations with lithium salt mole fractions between 0% and 33% at 363 and 423 K yield densities, ion self-diffusion coefficients, and ionic conductivities in very good agreement with available experimental data. In all investigated electrolytes, each Li(+) cation was found to be coordinated, on average, by 4.1 oxygen atoms from surrounding anions. At lower concentrations (x ≤ 0.20), the Li(+) cation was found to be, on average, coordinated by slightly more than three Ntf(2) anions with two anions contributing a single oxygen atom and one anion contributing two oxygen atoms to Li(+) coordination. At the highest [Li][Ntf(2)] concentration, however, there were, on average, 3.5 anions coordinating each Li(+) cation, corresponding to fewer bidendate and more monodentate anions in the Li(+) coordination sphere. This trend is due to increased sharing of anions by Li(+) at higher salt concentrations. In the [pyr(13)][Ntf(2)]/[Li][Ntf(2)] electrolytes, the ion diffusivity is significantly smaller than that in organic liquid electrolytes due to not only the greater viscosity of the solvent but also the formation of clusters resulting from sharing of anions by Li(+) cations. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, with the effect being greater at the higher temperature. Finally, we found that the contribution of Li(+) to ionic conductivity does not increase proportionally to Li(+) concentration but saturates at higher doping levels.

  4. Passivation of Lithium Metal Anode via Hybrid Ionic Liquid Electrolyte toward Stable Li Plating/Stripping.

    PubMed

    Li, Nian-Wu; Yin, Ya-Xia; Li, Jin-Yi; Zhang, Chang-Huan; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2017-02-01

    Hybrid electrolyte of ionic liquid and ethers is used to passivate the surface of Li metal surface via modification of the as-formed solid electrolyte interphase with N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (Py13TFSI), thereby reducing the side reactions between the Li metal and electrolyte, leading to remarkably suppressed Li dendrite growth and mitigating Li metal corrosion.

  5. An approach of ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction for two coumarins preparation from Cortex fraxini.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zaizhi; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2015-10-23

    Ionic liquids/lithium salts solvent system was successfully introduced into the separation technique for the preparation of two coumarins (aesculin and aesculetin) from Cortex fraxini. Ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (ILSMP-UMSE) procedure was developed and optimized for the sufficient extraction of these two analytes. Several variables which can potentially influence the extraction yields, including pretreatment time and temperature, [C4mim]Br concentration, LiAc content, ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (UMSE) time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. Among seven variables, UMSE time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were the statistically significant variables and these three factors were further optimized by Box-Behnken design to predict optimal extraction conditions and find out operability ranges with maximum extraction yields. Under optimum operating conditions, ILSMP-UMSE showed higher extraction yields of two target compounds than those obtained by reference extraction solvents. Method validation studies also evidenced that ILSMP-UMSE is credible for the preparation of two coumarins from Cortex fraxini. This study is indicative of the proposed procedure that has huge application prospects for the preparation of natural products from plant materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Li+ transport in lithium sulfonylimide-oligo(ethylene oxide) ionic liquids and oligo(ethylene oxide) doped with LiTFSI.

    PubMed

    Borodin, Oleg; Smith, G D; Geiculescu, Olt; Creager, Stephen E; Hallac, Boutros; DesMarteau, Darryl

    2006-11-30

    The Li+ environment and transport in an ionic liquid (IL) comprised of Li+ and an anion of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion (TFSI-) tethered to oligoethylene oxide (EO) (EO(12)TFSI-/Li+) were determined and compared to those in a binary solution of the oligoethylene oxide with LiTFSI salt (EO(12)/LiTFSI) by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and AC conductivity measurements. The latter revealed that the AC conductivity is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less in the IL compared to the oligoether/salt binary electrolyte with greater differences being observed at lower temperatures. The conductivity of these electrolytes was accurately predicted by MD simulations, which were used in conjunction with a microscopic model to determine mechanisms of Li+ transport. It was discerned that structure-diffusion of the Li+ cation in the binary electrolyte (EO(12)/LiTFSI-) was similar to that in EO(12)TFSI-/Li+ IL at high temperature (>363 K), thus, one can estimate conductivity of IL at this temperature range if one knows the structure-diffusion of Li+ in the binary electrolyte. However, the rate of structure-diffusion of Li+ in IL was found to slow more dramatically with decreasing temperature than in the binary electrolyte. Lithium motion together with EO(12) solvent accounted for 90% of Li+ transport in EO(12)/LiTFSI-, while the Li+ motion together with the EO(12)TFSI- anion contributed approximately half to the total Li+ transport but did not contribute to the charge transport in IL.

  7. Leaching Characteristics of Lithium Adsorbents in Seawater and its Implication of Marine Environmental Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H. O.; Kim, J. A.; Jeong, S.; Chung, K. S.; Ryu, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The lithium-manganese oxide adsorbent material have been developed by KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) to recovery the lithium from seawater and pilot plant was conducted in Okgye Harbor, Gangneung, Korea. There is the possibility of release toxic substances to marine environments from lithium recovery adsorbents during the operation of lithium recovery process on the marine station. Therefore, the changes in marine environmental impact should be predicted to assure marine environmental integrity for application of lithium recovery adsorbents in real sea. In this study, the batch-scale experiments was conducted using natural seawater (NSW) and artificial seawater (ASW) to determine the leaching characteristics of lithium recovery adsorbents. Solid-liquid ratio was determine by considering the unit area of exposing lithium recovery adsorbents in pilot plant, NSW and ASW were exchanged every two days for 14 days to simulate the real marine environment. After agitating with 30 rpm to simulate water movement under 10 and 25°C (average seawater temperature in winter and summer in Okgye Harbor, respectively), dynamic leached substances (heavy metals) and their leaching rate were determined. This study provides the practical design factors, maximum dose of lithium recovery adsorbents, duration, and frequency, for lithium recovery from seawater based on marine environmental risk. Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the national research project titled "The Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Seawater" of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Ocean and Fisheries.

  8. Initial instability of round liquid jet at subcritical and supercritical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

    2016-07-15

    In the present experimental work, the behavior of laminar liquid jet in its own vapor as well as supercritical fluid environment is conducted. Also the study of liquid jet injection into nitrogen (N{sub 2}) environment is carried out at supercritical conditions. It is expected that the injected liquid jet would undergo thermodynamic transition to the chamber condition and this would alter the behavior of the injected jet. Moreover at such conditions there is a strong dependence between thermodynamic and fluid dynamic processes. Thus the thermodynamic transition has its effect on the initial instability as well as the breakup nature of the injected liquid jet. In the present study, the interfacial disturbance wavelength, breakup characteristics, and mixing behavior are analysed for the fluoroketone liquid jet that is injected into N{sub 2} environment as well as into its own vapor at subcritical to supercritical conditions. It is observed that at subcritical chamber conditions, the injected liquid jet exhibits classical liquid jet characteristics with Rayleigh breakup at lower Weber number and Taylor breakup at higher Weber number for both N{sub 2} and its own environment. At supercritical chamber conditions with its own environment, the injected liquid jet undergoes sudden thermodynamic transition to chamber conditions and single phase mixing characteristics is observed. However, the supercritical chamber conditions with N{sub 2} as ambient fluid does not have significant effect on the thermodynamic transition of the injected liquid jet.

  9. Initial instability of round liquid jet at subcritical and supercritical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

    2016-07-01

    In the present experimental work, the behavior of laminar liquid jet in its own vapor as well as supercritical fluid environment is conducted. Also the study of liquid jet injection into nitrogen (N2) environment is carried out at supercritical conditions. It is expected that the injected liquid jet would undergo thermodynamic transition to the chamber condition and this would alter the behavior of the injected jet. Moreover at such conditions there is a strong dependence between thermodynamic and fluid dynamic processes. Thus the thermodynamic transition has its effect on the initial instability as well as the breakup nature of the injected liquid jet. In the present study, the interfacial disturbance wavelength, breakup characteristics, and mixing behavior are analysed for the fluoroketone liquid jet that is injected into N2 environment as well as into its own vapor at subcritical to supercritical conditions. It is observed that at subcritical chamber conditions, the injected liquid jet exhibits classical liquid jet characteristics with Rayleigh breakup at lower Weber number and Taylor breakup at higher Weber number for both N2 and its own environment. At supercritical chamber conditions with its own environment, the injected liquid jet undergoes sudden thermodynamic transition to chamber conditions and single phase mixing characteristics is observed. However, the supercritical chamber conditions with N2 as ambient fluid does not have significant effect on the thermodynamic transition of the injected liquid jet.

  10. Optimization of Pore Structure of Cathodic Carbon Supports for Solvate Ionic Liquid Electrolytes Based Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiguo; Ikoma, Ai; Li, Zhe; Ueno, Kazuhide; Ma, Xiaofeng; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-10-04

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are a promising energy-storage technology owing to their high theoretical capacity and energy density. However, their practical application remains a challenge because of the serve shuttle effect caused by the dissolution of polysulfides in common organic electrolytes. Polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes, such as solvate ionic liquids (ILs), have recently emerged as alternative candidates and shown great potential in suppressing the shuttle effect and improving the cycle stability of Li-S batteries. Redox electrochemical reactions in polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes occur via a solid-state process at the interphase between the electrolyte and the composite cathode; therefore, creating an appropriate interface between sulfur and a carbon support is of great importance. Nevertheless, the porous carbon supports established for conventional organic electrolytes may not be suitable for polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes. In this work, we investigated the effect of the porous structure of carbon materials on the Li-S battery performance in polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes using solvate ILs as a model electrolyte. We determined that the pore volume (rather than the surface area) exerts a major influence on the discharge capacity of S composite cathodes. In particular, inverse opal carbons with three-dimensionally ordered interconnected macropores and a large pore volume deliver the highest discharge capacity. The battery performance in both polysulfide-soluble electrolytes and solvate ILs was used to study the effect of electrolytes. We propose a plausible mechanism to explain the different porous structure requirements in polysulfide-soluble and polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes.

  11. Influence of carbon and nitrogen impurities on the corrosion of structural materials in a flowing-lithium environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Hull, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical interactions involving nonmetallic elements play a dominant role in the corrosion behavior of ferrous and vanadium base alloys in lithium. Metallographic evaluations of the surface morphology and compositional changes of lithium-exposed ferrous and vanadium alloys are presented. Data on the corrosion behavior of several ferritic, austenitic, and vanadium-based structural materials in flowing lithium are reviewed and the effects of nonmetallic elements on corrosion are discussed. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

  13. Oxygen-selective immobilized liquid membranes for operation of lithium-air batteries in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Liu, Wei

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, nonaqueous-electrolyte-based Li-air batteries with O2-selective immobilized liquid membranes have been developed and operated in ambient air with 20~30% relative humidity(RH). Continuous anhydrous O2 can be supplied from the ambient through a membrane barrier layer at interface of the cathode and ambient air. The membranes allow O2 permeate through while blocking moisture. These membranes were prepared by loading O2-selective liquid fluids such as silicone oils into porous supports such as porous metal sheets and Teflon (PTFE) films. It was found that silicone oil of high viscosity shows better performance. The membrane performance was not affected by the oil loading temperature. The immobilized silicone oil (viscosity 100,000cst) membrane in porous PTFE film enabled the Li-air batteries with Ketjen black carbon air electrodes to operate in ambient air (with 20% RH) for 16.3 days with a specific capacity of 789 mAh/g carbon and a specific energy of 2182 Wh/kg carbon. Its performance is much better than reference battery assembled with the same battery material but by use of a commercial, porous PTFE diffusion membranes as the moisture barrier layer on the cathode, which only had a discharge time of 5.5 days corresponding to a specific capacity of 267 mAh/g carbon and a specific energy of 704 Wh/kg carbon. The Li-air battery with the present selective membrane barrier layer even showed better performance in ambient air operation (20% RH) than the reference battery tested in the dry air box (< 1% RH).

  14. Effect of LiNO3 additive and pyrrolidinium ionic liquid on the solid electrolyte interphase in the lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barghamadi, Marzieh; Best, Adam S.; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.; Mahon, Peter J.; Musameh, Mustafa; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery in which the ionic liquid (IL) C4mpyr-TFSI is a major component of the electrolyte has attracted much attention by researchers due to the ability of the IL to suppress the polysulfide shuttle effect, combined with advantageous properties of thermal, chemical and electrochemical stability. In a largely parallel stream of research, LiNO3 has come to be known as an additive for improving Li-S battery performance through its influence on protecting the lithium anode and beneficial interaction with the polysulfide shuttle. In this work a deeper understanding is sought of the combined effects of LiNO3 and C4mpyr-TFSI on the factors that impact Li-S cell performance. Specifically, we investigate the formation of the protective surface film on lithium anode and results are compared with those for a typical organic electrolyte for the Li-S battery, DOL:DME. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirms that the LiNO3 additive is vital to achieving acceptable levels of performance with the organic electrolyte. Although LiNO3 improves the performance of a battery assembled with IL containing electrolyte, it shows a higher impact in the organic electrolyte based battery. Furthermore X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra confirm the participation of C4mpyr-TFSI on the formation of the interphase layer on the anode.

  15. Failure Mechanism for Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries with Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Lozano, Terence; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, B; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Liu, Jun; Xiao, J

    2015-02-04

    In recent years, the Li metal anode has regained a position of paramount research interest because of the necessity for employing Li metal in next-generation battery technologies such as Li-S and Li-O2. Severely limiting this utilization, however, are the rapid capacity degradation and safety issues associated with rechargeable Li metal anodes. A fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of Li metal at high charge rates has remained elusive due to the complicated interfacial chemistry that occurs between Li metal and liquid electrolytes. Here, it is demonstrated that at high current density the quick formation of a highly resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) entangled with Li metal, which grows towards the bulk Li, dramatically increases up the cell impedance and this is the actual origin of the onset of cell degradation and failure. This is instead of dendritic or mossy Li growing outwards from the metal surface towards/through the separator and/or the consumption of the Li and electrolyte through side reactions. Interphase, in this context, refers to a substantive layer rather than a thin interfacial layer. Discerning the mechanisms and consequences for this interphase formation is crucial for resolving the stability and safety issues associated with Li metal anodes.

  16. Failure Mechanism for Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries with Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, DP; Shao, YY; Lozano, T; Bennett, WD; Graff, GL; Polzin, B; Zhang, JG; Engelhard, MH; Saenz, NT; Henderson, WA; Bhattacharya, P; Liu, J; Xiao, J

    2014-09-11

    In recent years, the Li metal anode has regained a position of paramount research interest because of the necessity for employing Li metal in next-generation battery technologies such as Li-S and Li-O-2. Severely limiting this utilization, however, are the rapid capacity degradation and safety issues associated with rechargeable Li metal anodes. A fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of Li metal at high charge rates has remained elusive due to the complicated interfacial chemistry that occurs between Li metal and liquid electrolytes. Here, it is demonstrated that at high current density the quick formation of a highly resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) entangled with Li metal, which grows towards the bulk Li, dramatically increases up the cell impedance and this is the actual origin of the onset of cell degradation and failure. This is instead of dendritic or mossy Li growing outwards from the metal surface towards/through the separator and/or the consumption of the Li and electrolyte through side reactions. Interphase, in this context, refers to a substantive layer rather than a thin interfacial layer. Discerning the mechanisms and consequences for this interphase formation is crucial for resolving the stability and safety issues associated with Li metal anodes.

  17. Violent oxidation of lithium-containing aluminum alloys in liquid oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalins, Ilmars; Karimi, Majid; Ila, Daryush

    1991-06-01

    A strong exothermic and quite well known thermite reaction involving aluminum, oxygen and transition metals (Fe, Cr, Ni, etc.) has apparently been initiated during impact testing of Alcoa aluminum alloy #2090 in liquid oxygen at NASA-MSFC. In some instances, this reaction, essentially an oxidation process, has been so intense that the Inconel 718 cup containing the aluminum alloy disk and associated impacter has melted raising certain safety concerns in the use of this alloy. Reaction products as well as the test specimen surfaces have been studied with surface science techniques like XPS/ESCA, SIMS and AES. Typically, in order to initiate the thermite reaction a temperature of approximately 1000°C is necessary. The mechanism responsible for this oxidation is of great interest. The analysis of the reaction products together with a theoretical analysis, including digital modeling has been pursued. There is strong evidence that the large relaxation energy of the aluminum oxide coating, formed during the aluminum alloy cleaning process, is causing a highly localized energy release during fracture or lattice deformation which is enhancing the oxidation process to a runaway condition. The presence of alkali atoms (Li) enhances the likelihood and intensity of the oxidation reaction. The details of the surface studies will be discussed.

  18. Natural abundance 17O nuclear magnetic resonance and computational modeling studies of lithium based liquid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Mary Y.; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2015-07-01

    Natural abundance 17O NMR measurements were conducted on electrolyte solutions consisting of Li[CF3SO2NSO2CF3] (LiTFSI) dissolved in the solvents of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and their mixtures at various concentrations. It was observed that 17O chemical shifts of solvent molecules change with the concentration of LiTFSI. The chemical shift displacements of carbonyl oxygen are evidently greater than those of ethereal oxygen, strongly indicating that Li+ ion is coordinated with carbonyl oxygen rather than ethereal oxygen. To understand the detailed molecular interaction, computational modeling of 17O chemical shifts was carried out on proposed solvation structures. By comparing the predicted chemical shifts with the experimental values, it is found that a Li+ ion is coordinated with four double bond oxygen atoms from EC, PC, EMC and TFSI- anion. In the case of excessive amount of solvents of EC, PC and EMC the Li+ coordinated solvent molecules are undergoing quick exchange with bulk solvent molecules, resulting in average 17O chemical shifts. Several kinds of solvation structures are identified, where the proportion of each structure in the liquid electrolytes investigated depends on the concentration of LiTFSI.

  19. Natural Abundance 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Computational Modeling Studies of Lithium Based Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Mary Y.; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Z.

    2015-07-01

    Natural abundance 17O NMR measurements were conducted on electrolyte solutions consisting of Li[CF3SO2NSO2CF3] (LiTFSI) dissolved in the solvents of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and their mixtures at various concentrations. It was observed that 17O chemical shifts of solvent molecules change with the concentration of LiTFSI. The chemical shift displacements of carbonyl oxygen are evidently greater than those of ethereal oxygen, strongly indicating that Li+ ion is coordinated with carbonyl oxygen rather than ethereal oxygen. To understand the detailed molecular interaction, computational modeling of 17O chemical shifts was carried out on proposed solvation structures. By comparing the predicted chemical shifts with the experimental values, it is found that a Li+ ion is coordinated with four double bond oxygen atoms from EC, PC, EMC and TFSI- anion. In the case of excessive amount of solvents of EC, PC and EMC the Li+ coordinated solvent molecules are undergoing quick exchange with bulk solvent molecules, resulting in average 17O chemical shifts. Several kinds of solvation structures are identified, where the proportion of each structure in the liquid electrolytes investigated depends on the concentration of LiTFSI.

  20. Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

    2012-05-15

    The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

  1. Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interfacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

    2012-05-01

    The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

  2. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  3. Pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids doped with lithium salts: how does Li(+) coordination affect its diffusivity?

    PubMed

    Castiglione, Franca; Famulari, Antonino; Raos, Guido; Meille, Stefano V; Mele, Andrea; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-11-26

    We present the characterization of LiX-doped room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) based on the N-butyl-N-methyl pyrrolidinium (PYR14) cation with two fluorinated anions: (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-(nonafluorobutanesulfonyl)imide (X═IM14) and bis(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl)imide (X═BETI). The new data are also compared with previous results on PYR14TFSI (bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide). Their local organization has been investigated via NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments for {(1)H-(19)F} and {(1)H-(7)Li} that give us details on PYR14(+)/X(-) and PYR14(+)/Li(+) contacts. We confirm the presence of [Li(X)2](-) coordinated species in all systems. The long-range, intermolecular NOEs have been detected and provide information on the ions' organization beyond the first solvation sphere. The ionic conductivity, viscosity and self-diffusion coefficients of the ionic mixtures have also been measured. The activation energies for the diffusion of the individual ions and for the fluidity are compared with those for the pure ILs. Finally, density functional calculations on [Li(BETI)2](-), [Li(IM14)2](-), and [Li(TFSI)2](-) complexes demonstrate that the minimum energy structures for all systems correspond to a tetrahedral coordination of the Li-ion by four oxygen atoms of the anions. Assuming very simple key steps for the Li(+) diffusion process (i.e., the concerted breaking and formation of Li-O bonds or the rearrangement around a tetrahedrally coordinated Li(+)), we calculate activation barriers that agree well with the experimental results (approximately 46 kJ/mol, in all systems).

  4. Variation of lithium isotope composition in the marine environment: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Luiheung; Edmond, J.M. )

    1988-06-01

    The Li isotopic compositions of ocean waters, lake water, hydrothermal solutions, altered and unaltered basalts have been determined using the technique of thermal ionization mass spectrometry of lithium tetraborate. Seawater appears to be homogeneous in Li isotopic composition. The mean {delta}{sup 6}Li value is {minus}32.3 {plus minus} 0.5{per thousand}, relative to an isotopic standard. Three lakes studied (Lake Tanganyika, Caspian Sea and Dead Sea) yield {delta}{sup 6}Li similar to the seawater isotopic composition. A fresh basalt glass from 21{degree}N, East Pacific Rise displays a {delta}{sup 6}Li value of {minus}4.7{per thousand}. A hydrothermal solution from a 21{degree}N vent field has {delta}{sup 6}Li of {minus}10{per thousand}, indicating incomplete extraction of Li from the igneous minerals or partial retention in secondary phases. The alteration margin of a basalt from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has {delta}{sup 6}Li of {minus}8.4{per thousand}. The isotope data of submarine basalts suggest preferential removal of {sup 6}Li from seawater into alteration minerals during low temperature weathering. The {delta}{sup 6}Li values of two hydrothermal solutions from Guaymas Basin were found to be {minus}5{per thousand} and {minus}10{per thousand}. The results can be interpreted as the net effect of Li addition from basalt and sediments and incorporation in hydrothermal precipitates as the hydrothermal fluids interact with basin sediments. The observed enrichment of {sup 7}Li in seawater relative to submarine hydrothermal solutions, its principal Li input, is tentatively attributed to isotopic fractionation associated with low temperature alteration of sea floor basalt and incorporation in authigenic sediments. It appears that the Li isotope system may have characteristics that can resolve the mass balance of Li in the ocean.

  5. Janus Solid-Liquid Interface Enabling Ultrahigh Charging and Discharging Rate for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Hou, Yuyang; Duan, Yandong; Song, Xiaohe; Wei, Yi; Liu, Tongchao; Hu, Jiangtao; Guo, Hua; Zhuo, Zengqing; Liu, Lili; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kang; Wang, Lin-Wang; Wu, Yuping; Pan, Feng

    2015-09-09

    LiFePO4 has long been held as one of the most promising battery cathode for its high energy storage capacity. Meanwhile, although extensive studies have been conducted on the interfacial chemistries in Li-ion batteries,1-3 little is known on the atomic level about the solid-liquid interface of LiFePO4/electrolyte. Here, we report battery cathode consisted with nanosized LiFePO4 particles in aqueous electrolyte with an high charging and discharging rate of 600 C (3600/600 = 6 s charge time, 1 C = 170 mAh g(-1)) reaching 72 mAh g(-1) energy storage (42% of the theoretical capacity). By contrast, the accessible capacity sharply decreases to 20 mAh g(-1) at 200 C in organic electrolyte. After a comprehensive electrochemistry tests and ab initio calculations of the LiFePO4-H2O and LiFePO4-EC (ethylene carbonate) systems, we identified the transient formation of a Janus hydrated interface in the LiFePO4-H2O system, where the truncated symmetry of solid LiFePO4 surface is compensated by the chemisorbed H2O molecules, forming a half-solid (LiFePO4) and half-liquid (H2O) amphiphilic coordination environment that eases the Li desolvation process near the surface, which makes a fast Li-ion transport across the solid/liquid interfaces possible.

  6. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  7. High-frequency electromechanical imaging of ferroelectrics in a liquid environment.

    PubMed

    Balke, Nina; Jesse, Stephen; Chu, Ying-Hao; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-06-26

    The coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena is a ubiquitous feature of many information and energy storage materials and devices. In addition to involvement in performance and degradation mechanisms, electromechanical effects underpin a broad spectrum of nanoscale imaging and spectroscopies including piezoresponse force and electrochemical strain microscopies. Traditionally, these studies are conducted under ambient conditions. However, applications related to imaging energy storage and electrophysiological phenomena require operation in a liquid phase and therefore the development of electromechanical probing techniques suitable to liquid environments. Due to the relative high conductivity of most liquids and liquid decomposition at low voltages, the transfer of characterization techniques from ambient to liquid is not straightforward. Here we present a detailed study of ferroelectric domain imaging and manipulation in thin film BiFeO(3) using piezoresponse force microscopy in liquid environments as model systems for electromechanical phenomena in general. We explore the use of contact resonance enhancement and the application of multifrequency excitation and detection principles to overcome the experimental problems introduced by a liquid environment. Understanding electromechanical sample characterization in liquid is a key aspect not only for ferroelectric oxides but also for biological and electrochemical sample systems.

  8. A long life 4 V class lithium-ion polymer battery with liquid-free polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Shono, Kumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasutaka; Tabuchi, Masato; Oka, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Miyashiro, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    Ether-based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) is one of the most well-known lithium ion conductors. Unlike the other inorganic electrolytes, SPE exhibits advantages of flexibility and large-area production, enabling low cost production of large size batteries. However, because the ether group is oxidized at 4 V versus Li/Li+ cathode, and due to its high irreversibility with the carbon anode, ether-based SPE was believed to be inapplicable to 4 V class lithium-ion batteries with carbon anode. Here we report a remarkably stable SPE in combination with a 4 V class cathode and carbon anode achieved by the proper design at the interface. The introduced boron-based lithium salt prohibits further oxidation of SPE at the cathode interface. The surface modification of graphite by the annealing of polyvinyl chloride mostly prohibits the continuous consumption of lithium at the graphite anode. Using above interface design, we achieved 60% capacity retention after 5400 cycles. The proposed battery provides a possible approach for realizing flammable electrolyte-free lithium-ion batteries, which achieve innovative safety improvements of large format battery systems for stationary use.

  9. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  10. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  11. Ionic liquids-lithium salts pretreatment followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Phyllostachys edulis leaves.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kexin; Chen, Fengli; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-29

    An efficient method for the extraction of vitexin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from Phyllostachys edulis leaves comprises heat treatment using an ionic liquid-lithium salt mixture (using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as the solvent and lithium chloride as the additive), followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction. To obtain higher extraction yields, the effects of the relevant experimental parameters (including heat treatment temperature and time, relative amounts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and lithium chloride, power and time of the ultrasound irradiation, and the liquid-solid ratio) are evaluated and response surface methodology is used to optimize the significant factors. The morphologies of the treated and untreated P. edulis leaves are studied by scanning electron microscopy. The improved extraction method proposed provides high extraction yield, good repeatability and precision, and has wide potential applications in the analysis of plant samples.

  12. Bacterial transport of colloids in liquid crystalline environments.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Rishi R; Maeda, Rina; Abbott, Nicholas L; Spagnolie, Saverio E; Weibel, Douglas B

    2015-11-21

    We describe the controlled transport and delivery of non-motile eukaryotic cells and polymer microparticles by swimming bacteria suspended in nematic liquid crystals. The bacteria push reversibly attached cargo in a stable, unidirectional path (or along a complex patterned director field) over exceptionally long distances. Numerical simulations and analytical predictions for swimming speeds provide a mechanistic insight into the hydrodynamics of the system. This study lays the foundation for using cargo-carrying bacteria in engineering applications and for understanding interspecies interactions in polymicrobial communities.

  13. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (σ=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors.

  14. Development of electrically insulating coatings for service in a lithium environment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Uz, M.; Wieder, S.

    2000-05-17

    Several experiments were conducted to develop electrically insulating CaO coatings on a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy for application in an Li environment. The coatings were developed by vapor phase transport external to Li, and also in-situ in an Li-Ca environment at elevated temperature. In the vapor phase study, several geometrical arrangements were examined to obtain a uniform coating of Ca on the specimens, which were typically coupons measuring 5 to 10 x 5 x 1 mm. After Ca deposition from the vapor phase, the specimens were oxidized in a high-purity argon environment at 600 C to convert the deposited metal into oxide. The specimens exhibited insulating characteristics after this oxidation step. Several promising coated specimens were then exposed to high-purity Li at 500 C for 48--68 h to determine coating integrity. Microstructural characteristics of the coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Electrical resistances of the coatings were measured by a two-probe method between room temperature and 700 C before and after exposure to Li.

  15. Towards Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2/graphite batteries with ionic liquid-based electrolytes. I. Electrodes' behavior in lithium half-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, E.; Maresca, G.; Appetecchi, G. B.; Kim, G.-T.; Loeffler, N.; Passerini, S.

    2016-11-01

    Lithium cells based on NMC cathodes or graphite anodes and ionic liquid-based electrolyte mixtures are investigated. The electrode tapes, using water-soluble natural binders, as well as the ionic liquid materials, are prepared through eco-friendly routes involving H2O as the only processing solvent. The Li/NMC and Li/graphite half-cells are studied by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling tests at different temperatures. The results herein reported, demonstrate the performance improvement in terms of cycling behavior and ageing resistance, granted by the ionic liquid mixtures with respect to the electrolytes reported in literature based on a single ionic liquid.

  16. Towards quantification of toxicity of lithium ion battery electrolytes - development and validation of a liquid-liquid extraction GC-MS method for the determination of organic carbonates in cell culture materials.

    PubMed

    Strehlau, Jenny; Weber, Till; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Bornhorst, Julia; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-08-03

    A novel method based on liquid-liquid extraction with subsequent gas chromatography separation and mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) for the quantification of organic carbonates in cell culture materials is presented. Method parameters including the choice of extraction solvent, of extraction method and of extraction time were optimised and the method was validated. The setup allowed for determination within a linear range of more than two orders of magnitude. The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.0002 and 0.002 mmol/L and the repeatability precisions were in the range of 1.5-12.9%. It could be shown that no matrix effects were present and recovery rates between 98 and 104% were achieved. The methodology was applied to cell culture models incubated with commercial lithium ion battery (LIB) electrolytes to gain more insight into the potential toxic effects of these compounds. The stability of the organic carbonates in cell culture medium after incubation was studied. In a porcine model of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, it could be shown that a transfer of organic carbonates into the brain facing compartment took place. Graphical abstract Schematic setup for the investigation of toxicity of lithium ion battery electrolytes.

  17. Temperature sensitive glassware for monitoring liquid or surface temperatures in a high power microwave environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSherry, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E.

    2005-06-01

    Temperature sensitive glassware has been developed to monitor liquid chemical temperature in a microwave environment. A combination of two phosphor powders is coated to the base of a Pyrex beaker & Quartz tube, which fluoresce under blue light stimulation. These temperature sensitive glassware monitors changes in liquid or surface temperature by observing ratios of peak emission intensities of the phosphors. The temperature sensitive Pyrex beaker is placed on an oven so that surface temperature can be accurately monitored. A fabricated coated Quartz tube is placed in an Industrial Free Electron Laser (IFEL), which provides the necessary microwave radiation to heat liquids and therefore provide liquid measurements. This paper describes the testing of the coating and its application in monitoring liquid temperature in an Industrial Free Electron Laser.

  18. Tribological coatings for liquid metal and irradiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    Several metallurgical coatings have been developed that provide good tribological performances in high-temperature liquid sodium and that are relatively unaffected by neutron fluences to 6 X 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The coatings that have consistently provided the best tribological performance have been the nickel aluminide diffusion coatings created by the pack cementation process, chromium carbide or Tribaloy 700 trade mark (a nickel-base hardfacing alloy) applied by the detonation-gun process, and chromium carbide and other hardfacing alloy) applied by the detonation-gun process, and chromium carbide and other hardfacing materials applied by the electro-spark deposition process. The latter process is a relatively recent development for nuclear applications and is expected to find wide usage. Other coating processes, such as plasma-spray coating, sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition, were candidates for use on various components, but the coatings did not pass the required qualification tests or were not economically competitive. The advantages and limitations of the three selected processes are discussed, the tribological performance of the coatings is reviewed, and representative applications and their performance requirements are described.

  19. Compatibility of poly(bisAEA4)-LiTFSI-MPPipTFSI ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte with Li4Ti5O12 lithium ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepniak, Izabela

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the use of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) as anode with ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte (IL-GPE) for application in lithium ion batteries. IL-GPE was obtained by in situ photopolymerization method of a mixture of ethoxylated bisphenol A diacrylate (bis(AEA4) and 0.4 M solution of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPipTFSI). The surface morphology of the IL-GPE was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stable, porous and flexible gel polymer electrolyte characterized high ionic conductivity (0.64 mS cm-1 at 25 °C) and a wide electrochemical stability window (ESW) (4.8 V). The performances of LTO/IL-GPE/Li cell were tested by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and galvanostatic charge/discharge. Good charge/discharge capacities and low capacity loss at medium C rates preliminary cycling was obtained.

  20. Functional Hybrid Materials Based on Manganese Dioxide and Lignin Activated by Ionic Liquids and Their Application in the Production of Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Szalaty, Tadeusz J.; Kurc, Beata; Stanisz, Małgorzata; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-01-01

    Kraft lignin (KL) was activated using selected ionic liquids (ILs). The activated form of the biopolymer, due to the presence of carbonyl groups, can be used in electrochemical tests. To increase the application potential of the system in electrochemistry, activated lignin forms were combined with manganese dioxide, and the most important physicochemical and morphological-microstructural properties of the novel, functional hybrid systems were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential analysis, thermal stability (TGA/DTG) and porous structure analysis. An investigation was also made of the practical application of the hybrid materials in the production of lithium ion batteries. The capacity of the anode (MnO2/activated lignin), working at a low current regime of 50 mA·g−1, was ca. 610 mAh·g−1, while a current of 1000 mA·g−1 resulted in a capacity of 570 mAh·g−1. Superior cyclic stability and rate capability indicate that this may be a promising electrode material for use in high-performance lithium ion batteries. PMID:28704933

  1. Stress-corrosion behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys in aqueous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Galvin, R. P.; Nelson, H. G.

    1983-01-01

    The stress corrosion susceptibility of two powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys, Al-Li-Cu and Al-Li-Cu-Mg two mechanically attrited (M/A) alloys, Al-Li-Cu and Al-Li-Mg; and two wrought, ingot alloys, X-2020 and AA7475, are compared. Time-dependent fracture in an aqueous sodium chloride environment under alternate immersion condition was found to vary significantly between alloys. The stress corrosion behavior of the two powder metallurgy processed alloys was studied in detail under conditions of crack initiation, static crack growth, and fatigue crack growth. A variety of stress corrosion tests were performed including smooth surface, time-to-failure tests; potentiostatic tests on smooth surfaces exposed to constant applied strain rates; and fracture mechanics-type tests under static and cyclic loads. Both alloys show surface pitting and subsequent intergranular corrosion. Pitting is more severe in the magnesium-bearing alloy and is associated with stringer particles strung along the extrusion direction as a result of P/M processing.

  2. Vibration response of piezoelectric microcantilever as ultrasmall mass sensor in liquid environment.

    PubMed

    Karimpour, Masoud; Ghaderi, Reza; Raeiszadeh, Farhad

    2017-07-24

    The present study aims to analyze the vibrating behavior of a piezoelectric microcantilever (MC) as a mass nanosensor. The vibrating behavior of the MC as well as its sensitivity as a mass nanosensor are investigated and compared in both air and liquid environments. To this end, Euler-Bernoulli theory was used to model the vibrating behavior of piezoelectric MC with added mass at its free end. Frequency analysis was conducted by considering geometric discontinuities and taking added mass into account. The effect of liquid environment applied to the MC (as hydrodynamic forces) was based on a string of spheres model. Since changes in resonance frequency are used as the measurement parameter in mass sensors, changes in resonance frequency during absorption of nanoparticles was selected as the main parameter to be investigated in this study. Ultimately, with the aim to achieve optimal geometric dimensions for the piezoelectric MC, sensitivity analysis was additionally performed in order to increase the frequency sensitivity. According to the results, frequency sensitivity of the piezoelectric MC decreased in liquid environment compared to air environments. Moreover, increases in fluid density and viscosity caused a decreased frequency sensitivity. Simulation results indicate that the second vibrating mode in air and liquid environments is the appropriate operating mode for this type of MC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses.

  4. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  5. Imidazolium ionic liquid induced one-step synthesis of 𝜶 -Fe2O3 nanorods and nanorod assemblies for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shuting; Lu, Fei; Liu, Shaojie; Zheng, Liqiang; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2016-12-01

    α -Fe2O3 nanorods and nanorod assemblies are prepared via a facile one-step method with the assistance of imidazolium-based ionic liquid. The aspect ratio of synthesized nanorods is determined by the alkyl chain length of [Cnmim]+. The inter-molecular π -π interaction and intra-molecular dipole-dipole interaction among imidazole rings of [C4mim]+[PhCOO]- play critical roles in both nucleation and assembly processes of α -Fe2O3 nanorods. The α -Fe2O3 nanorod assemblies show an excellent performance in lithium-ion batteries with a reversible capacity of 1007.3 mA h g-1 at the rate of 500 mA g-1 after 150 cycles.

  6. Application of bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquid electrolyte to silicon-nickel-carbon composite anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Toshinori; Atsumi, Yosuke; Kono, Michiyuki; Kikuta, Manabu; Ishiko, Eriko; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi

    An ionic liquid electrolyte containing bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (FSI) anion without any solvent is applied to a silicon-nickel-carbon (Si-Ni-carbon) composite anode for rechargeable lithium (Li)-ion batteries. The FSI-based ionic liquid electrolyte successfully provides a stable, reversible capacity for the Si-Ni-carbon anode, which is comparable to the performance observed in a typical commercialized solvent-based electrolyte, while a common ionic liquid electrolyte containing bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anion without FSI presents no reversible capacity to the anode at all. Ac impedance analysis reveals that the FSI-based electrolyte provides very low interfacial and charge-transfer resistances at the Si-based composite anode, even when compared to the corresponding resistances observed in a typical solvent-based electrolyte. Galvanostatic cycling of the Si-based composite anode in the FSI-based electrolyte with a charge limitation of 800 mAh g -1 is stable and provides a discharge capacity of 790 mAh g -1 at the 50th cycle, corresponding to a cycle efficiency of 98.8%.

  7. Lithium ion conducting PVdF-HFP composite gel electrolytes based on N-methoxyethyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, S.; Quartarone, E.; Mustarelli, P.; Magistris, A.; Fagnoni, M.; Protti, S.; Gerbaldi, C.; Spinella, A.

    Blends of PVdF-HFP and ionic liquids (ILs) are interesting for application as electrolytes in plastic Li batteries. They combine the advantages of the gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) swollen by conventional organic liquid electrolytes with the nonflammability, and high thermal and electrochemical stability of ILs. In this work we prepared and characterized PVdF-HFP composite membranes swollen with a solution of LiTFSI in ether-functionalized pyrrolidinium-imide ionic liquid (PYRA 12O1TFSI). The membranes were filled in with two different types of silica: (i) mesoporous SiO 2 (SBA-15) and (ii) a commercial nano-size one (HiSil™ T700). The ionic conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the gel electrolytes were studied in terms of the nature of the filler. The thermal and the transport properties of the composite membranes are similar. In particular, room temperature ionic conductivities higher than 0.25 mS cm -1 are easily obtained at defined filler contents. However, the mesoporous filler guarantees higher lithium transference numbers, a more stable electrochemical interface and better cycling performances. Contrary to the HiSil™-based membrane, the Li/LiFePO 4 cells with PVdF-HFP/PYRA 12O1TFSI-LiTFSI films containing 10 wt% of SBA-15 show good charge/discharge capacity, columbic efficiency close to unity, and low capacity losses at medium C-rates during 180 cycles.

  8. Kinetics of Accumulation of Damage in Surface Layers of Lithium-Containing Aluminum Alloys in Fatigue Tests with Rigid Loading Cycle and Corrosive Effect of Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, L. V.; Zhegina, I. P.; Grigorenko, V. B.; Fomina, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    High-resolution methods of metal physics research including electron, laser and optical microscopy are used to study the kinetics of the accumulation of slip lines and bands and the corrosion damage in the plastic zone of specimens of aluminum-lithium alloys 1441 and B-1469 in rigid-cycle fatigue tests under the joint action of applied stresses and corrosive environment. The strain parameters (the density of slip bands, the sizes of plastic zones near fracture, the surface roughness in singled-out zones) and the damage parameters (the sizes of pits and the pitting area) are evaluated.

  9. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  10. Surface tension induced convection in encapsulated liquid metals in a microgravity environment. Experiment MA-041

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. E.; Uelhoff, W.; Adair, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    The experiment was designed to detect possible convection caused by a steplike compositional variation in a liquid metal in a microgravity environment. Wetting and nonwetting ampoules were used to try to determine the extent of the stirring effects if they were present. Since stirring effects can be caused by temperature gradients, the temperature gradients were minimized. Steplike compositional variation was created by pressure bonding a lead-0.05 atom percent gold alloy to pure lead. Two diffusion temperatures (923 K and 723 K) were used; if no stirring effects were present, it was hoped that the liquid diffusion parameters for gold in lead could be obtained. Two identifical experimental arrangements were used to compare the transport mechanisms of gold in liquid lead in unit gravity and microgravity environments.

  11. Optical Mass Gauging System for Measuring Liquid Levels in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullenberger, Ryan M.; Munoz, Wesley M.; Lyon, Matt P.; Vogel, Kenny; Yalin, Azer P.; Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A compact and rugged fiber-coupled liquid volume sensor designed for flight on a sounding rocket platform is presented. The sensor consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer capable of measuring the amount of liquid contained in a tank under any gravitational conditions, including a microgravity environment, by detecting small changes in the index of refraction of the gas contained within a sensing region. By monitoring changes in the interference fringe pattern as the system undergoes a small compression provided by a piston, the ullage volume of a tank can be directly measured allowing for a determination of the liquid volume. To demonstrate the technique, data are acquired using two tanks containing different volumes of liquid, which are representative of the levels of liquid in a tank at different time periods during a mission. The two tanks are independently exposed to the measurement apparatus, allowing for a determination of the liquid level in each. In a controlled, laboratory test of the unit, the system demonstrated a capability of measuring a liquid level in an individual tank of 10.53 mL with a 2% error. The overall random uncertainty for the flight system is higher than that one test, at +/- 1.5 mL.

  12. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  13. PELS (Planetary Environmental Liquid Simulator): a new type of simulation facility to study extraterrestrial aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Martin, Derek; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-02-01

    Investigations of other planetary bodies, including Mars and icy moons such as Enceladus and Europa, show that they may have hosted aqueous environments in the past and may do so even today. Therefore, a major challenge in astrobiology is to build facilities that will allow us to study the geochemistry and habitability of these extraterrestrial environments. Here, we describe a simulation facility (PELS: Planetary Environmental Liquid Simulator) with the capability for liquid input and output that allows for the study of such environments. The facility, containing six separate sample vessels, allows for statistical replication of samples. Control of pressure, gas composition, UV irradiation conditions, and temperature allows for the precise replication of aqueous conditions, including subzero brines under martian atmospheric conditions. A sample acquisition system allows for the collection of both liquid and solid samples from within the chamber without breaking the atmospheric conditions, enabling detailed studies of the geochemical evolution and habitability of past and present extraterrestrial environments. The facility we describe represents a new frontier in planetary simulation-continuous flow-through simulation of extraterrestrial aqueous environments.

  14. Analysis of secondary cells with lithium anodes and immobilized fused-salt electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, E. J.; Rogers, G. L.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Secondary cells with liquid lithium anodes, liquid bismuth or tellurium cathodes, and fused lithium halide electrolytes immobilized as rigid pastes operate between 380 and 485 degrees. Applications include power sources in space, military vehicle propulsion and special commercial vehicle propulsion.

  15. A mixture of triethylphosphate and ethylene carbonate as a safe additive for ionic liquid-based electrolytes of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalia, Boor Singh; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Egashira, Minato; Morita, Masayuki

    A binary mixture of triethylphosphate (TEP) and ethylene carbonate (EC) has been examined as a new non-flammable additive for ionic liquid-based electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The optimized electrolyte composition consists of 0.6 mol dm -3 (=M) LiTFSI in PP13TFSI mixed with TEP and EC in volume ratio of 80:10:10, where TFSI and PP13 denote bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and N-methyl- N-propylpiperidinium, respectively. The ionic conductivity of PP13TFSI dissolving 0.4 M LiTFSI was improved from 8.2 × 10 -4 S cm -1 to 3.5 × 10 -3 S cm -1 (at 20 °C) with the addition of TEP and EC. The electrochemical behavior of 0.4 M LiTFSI/PP13TFSI with and without TEP and EC was studied by cyclic voltammetry, which showed no deteriorating effect by the addition of TEP and EC on the electrochemical window of PP13TFSI. The flammability of the electrolyte was tested by a direct flame test. The proposed ionic liquid-based electrolyte revealed significant improvements in the electrochemical charge-discharge characteristics for both graphite negative and LiMn 2O 4 positive electrodes.

  16. Influence of the structure of the anion in an ionic liquid electrolyte on the electrochemical performance of a silicon negative electrode for a lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuki; Domi, Yasuhiro; Usui, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Kuninobu; Nokami, Toshiki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the anions in ionic liquid electrolytes on the electrochemical performance of a silicon (Si) negative electrode for a lithium-ion battery. While the electrode exhibited poor cycle stability in tetrafluoroborate-based and propylene carbonate-based electrolytes, better cycle performance was achieved in bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide (FSA-)- and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (TFSA-)-based electrolytes, in which the discharge capacity of a Si electrode was more than 1000 mA h g-1 at the 100th cycle. It is considered that a surface film derived from FSA-- and TFSA--based electrolytes effectively suppressed continuous decomposition of the electrolyte. In a capacity limitation test, a discharge capacity of 1000 mA h g-1 was maintained even after about the 1600th cycle in the FSA--based electrolyte, which corresponds to a cycle life almost twice as long as that in TFSA--based electrolyte. This result should be explained by the high structural stability of FSA--derived surface film. In addition, better rate capability with a discharge capacity of 700 mA h g-1 was obtained at a high current rate of 6 C (21 A g-1) in FSA--based electrolyte, which was 7-fold higher than that in TFSA--based electrolyte. These results clarified that FSA--based ionic liquid electrolyte is the most promising candidate for Si-based negative electrodes.

  17. Ionic Liquid-Organic Carbonate Electrolyte Blends To Stabilize Silicon Electrodes for Extending Lithium Ion Battery Operability to 100 °C.

    PubMed

    Ababtain, Khalid; Babu, Ganguli; Lin, Xinrong; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Grinstaff, Mark W; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy

    2016-06-22

    Fabrication of lithium-ion batteries that operate from room temperature to elevated temperatures entails development and subsequent identification of electrolytes and electrodes. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) can address the thermal stability issues, but their poor ionic conductivity at room temperature and compatibility with traditional graphite anodes limit their practical application. To address these challenges, we evaluated novel high energy density three-dimensional nano-silicon electrodes paired with 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pip) ionic liquid/propylene carbonate (PC)/LiTFSI electrolytes. We observed that addition of PC had no detrimental effects on the thermal stability and flammability of the reported electrolytes, while largely improving the transport properties at lower temperatures. Detailed investigation of the electrochemical properties of silicon half-cells as a function of PC content, temperature, and current rates reveal that capacity increases with PC content and temperature and decreases with increased current rates. For example, addition of 20% PC led to a drastic improvement in capacity as observed for the Si electrodes at 25 °C, with stability over 100 charge/discharge cycles. At 100 °C, the capacity further increases by 3-4 times to 0.52 mA h cm(-2) (2230 mA h g(-1)) with minimal loss during cycling.

  18. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment

    DOEpatents

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth

    2016-01-12

    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  19. Liquid-propellant droplet vaporization and combustion in high pressure environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor

    1991-01-01

    In order to correct the deficiencies of existing models for high-pressure droplet vaporization and combustion, a fundamental investigation into this matter is essential. The objective of this research are: (1) to acquire basic understanding of physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the vaporization and combustion of isolated liquid-propellant droplets in both stagnant and forced-convective environments; (2) to establish droplet vaporization and combustion correlations for the study of liquid-propellant spray combustion and two-phase flowfields in rocket motors; and (3) to investigate the dynamic responses of multicomponent droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient flow oscillations.

  20. Normal Impingement of a Circular Liquid Jet onto a Screen in a Weightless Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, E. P.

    1976-01-01

    The normal impingement of a circular liquid jet onto a fine-mesh screen in a weightless environment was investigated. Equations were developed to predict the velocity of the emerging jet on the downstream side of the screen as a function of screen and liquid parameters and of the velocity of the impinging jet. Additionally, the stability of the emerging jet was found to be Weber number dependent. In general, excepting at high velocities, the screen behaved much as a baffle, deflecting the major portion of the impinging flow.

  1. Optical Gauging of Liquid and Solid Hydrogen in Zero-g Environments for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimi, F. M.; Kocak, D. M.; Justak, J. F.

    2006-04-01

    Knowledge of fuel reserve levels is required for propellant management systems and power considerations in many space applications. Although methods are known for gauging fuel amounts in gravitational environments, no simple passive method is known for quantifying fuel reserves in a zero-g environment. Current ground-based methods for cryogenic liquid quantification use wire resistance measurements or point sensors, combined with pressure and temperature measurements to arrive at the desired accuracy. This paper presents an optical sensor design based on existing radiometric and integrating sphere techniques that have the potential to provide quantification in both zero-g and ground based applications. The general approach relies upon optical absorption of liquid or solid hydrogen in a vibrational overtone spectral region. The cryogen storage tank is configured as an "Integrating Sphere." Inside the tank, in a zero-g environment, the liquid and/or gaseous fuel will be free-floating and/or attached to the walls. Incident light irradiates even the smallest portion of the sphere due to the integration. The amount of light absorbed in the tank will be proportional to the amount of fuel present. Therefore, regardless of scatter, all light passed through the medium in the sphere is contained and can be quantified. This paper presents simulations for various liquid hydrogen volumetric configurations and confirms utility of the method. Initial experimental results for a liquid hydrogen analyte in non-zero-g environments are provided. Using this sensor, it is possible to achieve a 10× increase in fuel measurement accuracy which can provide an increased orbit or payload capability.

  2. Large lithium loop experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430/sup 0/C and flow to 0.038 m/sup 3//s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed.

  3. Lithium battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasetty, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the use of lithium in electric batteries. Topics considered include solvents for lithium battery technology, transport properties and structure of nonaqueous electrolyte solutions, primary lithium batteries, lithium sulfur dioxide batteries, lithium oxyhalide batteries, medical batteries, ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium cells, high-temperature lithium batteries, and lithium ion-conducting solid electrolytes.

  4. An imidazolium-based polymerized ionic liquid via novel synthetic strategy as polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kun; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-Ichi

    2014-07-01

    An imidazolium-based polymerized ionic liquid (PIL), poly(1-ethyl-3-vinylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide)) is successfully synthesized via a new three-step process comprising the direct radical polymerization of the 1-vinylimidazole monomer, and subsequent quaternization reaction followed by an anion exchange procedure. Furthermore, polymer electrolytes are prepared by blending as-obtained PIL as the polymer host with an ionic liquid and LiTFSI salt. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that compared with polymer electrolytes containing the PIL host synthesized by the conventional route, polymer electrolytes containing the PIL host obtained by new synthetic process exhibit significantly improved capacity and cycling performance, which is due to higher ionic liquid content.

  5. Cooperation and Environment Characterize the Low-Lying Optical Spectrum of Liquid Water.

    PubMed

    P, Sudheer Kumar; Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2017-10-04

    The optical spectrum of liquid water is analyzed by subsystem time-dependent density functional theory. We provide simple explanations for several important (and so far elusive) features. Due to the disordered environment surrounding each water molecule, the joint density of states of the liquid is much broader than that of the vapor, thus explaining the red-shifted Urbach tail of the liquid compared to the gas phase. Confinement effects provided by the first solvation shell are responsible for the blue shift of the first absorption peak compared to the vapor. In addition, we also characterize many-body excitonic effects. These dramatically affect the spectral weights at low frequencies, contributing to the refractive index by a small but significant amount.

  6. Towards local electromechanical probing of cellular and biomolecular systems in a liquid environment.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Seal, Katyayani; Proksch, Roger; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Revenko, Irene; Thompson, Gary Lee; Vertegel, Alexey A

    2007-10-24

    Electromechanical coupling is ubiquitous in biological systems, with examples ranging from simple piezoelectricity in calcified and connective tissues to voltage-gated ion channels, energy storage in mitochondria, and electromechanical activity in cardiac myocytes and outer hair cell stereocilia. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) originally emerged as a technique to study electromechanical phenomena in ferroelectric materials, and in recent years has been employed to study a broad range of non-ferroelectric polar materials, including piezoelectric biomaterials. At the same time, the technique has been extended from ambient to liquid imaging on model ferroelectric systems. Here, we present results on local electromechanical probing of several model cellular and biomolecular systems, including insulin and lysozyme amyloid fibrils, breast adenocarcinoma cells, and bacteriorhodopsin in a liquid environment. The specific features of PFM operation in liquid are delineated and bottlenecks on the route towards nanometre-resolution electromechanical imaging of biological systems are identified.

  7. Ultrasonic liquid-level detector for varying temperature and pressure environments

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

    1981-10-26

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use in varying temperature and pressure environments, such as a pressurized water nuclear reactor vessel, is provided. The detector employs ultrasonic extensional and torsional waves launched in a multiplexed alternating sequence into a common sensor. The sensor is a rectangular cross section stainless steel rod which extends into the liquid medium whose level is to be detected. The sensor temperature derived from the extensional wave velocity measurements is used to compensate for the temperature dependence of the torsional wave velocity measurements which are also level dependent. The torsional wave velocity measurements of a multiple reflection sensor then provide a measurement of liquid level over a range of several meters with a small uncertainty over a temperature range of 20 to 250/sup 0/C and pressures up to 15 MPa.

  8. Molecular dynamics analysis of the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of ionic liquids and lithium salts.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Volker; Montes-Campos, Hadrián; Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Gallego, Luis Javier; Heuer, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Varela, Luis M

    2016-11-28

    We report a molecular dynamics study on the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of the aprotic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ([EMIM][TFSI]) doped with a lithium salt with the same anion at 298 K and 1 bar. In particular, we analyze the effect of electron density fluctuations on radial distribution functions, velocity autocorrelation functions, cage correlation functions, mean-squared displacements, and vibrational densities of states, comparing the predictions of the quantum-chemistry-based Atomistic Polarizable Potential for Liquids, Electrolytes, & Polymers (APPLE&P) with those of its nonpolarizable version and those of the standard non-polarizable Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations-All Atom (OPLS-AA). We found that the structure of the mixture is scarcely modified by the fluctuations in electron charge of their constituents, but their transport properties are indeed quite drastically changed, with larger mobilities being predicted for the different species in the bulk mixtures with the polarizable force field. Specifically, the mean-squared displacements are larger for the polarizable potentials at identical time intervals and the intermediate subdiffusive plateaus are greatly reduced, so the transition to the diffusive regime takes place much earlier than in the non-polarizable media. Moreover, the correlations of the added cations inside their cages are weakened out earlier and their vibrational densities of states are slightly red-shifted, reflecting the weakening effect of the electronic polarization on the Coulomb coupling in these dense ionic media. The comparison of OPLS-AA with non-polarizable APPLE&P indicates that adding polarization to OPLS-AA is not sufficient to achieve results close to experiments.

  9. Molecular dynamics analysis of the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of ionic liquids and lithium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesch, Volker; Montes-Campos, Hadrián; Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Gallego, Luis Javier; Heuer, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Varela, Luis M.

    2016-11-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study on the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of the aprotic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ([EMIM][TFSI]) doped with a lithium salt with the same anion at 298 K and 1 bar. In particular, we analyze the effect of electron density fluctuations on radial distribution functions, velocity autocorrelation functions, cage correlation functions, mean-squared displacements, and vibrational densities of states, comparing the predictions of the quantum-chemistry-based Atomistic Polarizable Potential for Liquids, Electrolytes, & Polymers (APPLE&P) with those of its nonpolarizable version and those of the standard non-polarizable Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations-All Atom (OPLS-AA). We found that the structure of the mixture is scarcely modified by the fluctuations in electron charge of their constituents, but their transport properties are indeed quite drastically changed, with larger mobilities being predicted for the different species in the bulk mixtures with the polarizable force field. Specifically, the mean-squared displacements are larger for the polarizable potentials at identical time intervals and the intermediate subdiffusive plateaus are greatly reduced, so the transition to the diffusive regime takes place much earlier than in the non-polarizable media. Moreover, the correlations of the added cations inside their cages are weakened out earlier and their vibrational densities of states are slightly red-shifted, reflecting the weakening effect of the electronic polarization on the Coulomb coupling in these dense ionic media. The comparison of OPLS-AA with non-polarizable APPLE&P indicates that adding polarization to OPLS-AA is not sufficient to achieve results close to experiments.

  10. Fabrication and performance testing of CaO insulator coatings on V-5%Cr-5%Ti in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.

    1995-04-01

    Corrosion resistance of structural materials, and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion, are major concerns in the design of liquid-metal blankets for magnetic fusion reactors (MFRs). The objective of this study is to develop in-situ stable coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on coatings that can be converted to an electrically insulating film to prevent adverse currents that are generated by the MHD force from passing through the structural walls. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5Cr-5Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5 - 8.5 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degree}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400-420{degree}C to produce a CaO coating.

  11. Characterizing droplet combustion of pure and multi-component liquid fuels in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gregory S.; Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The importance of understanding the effects of fuel composition, length scales, and other parameters on the combustion of liquid fuels has motivated the examination of simple flames which have easily characterized flow fields and hence, the potential of being modeled accurately. One such flame for liquid fuel combustion is the spherically symmetric droplet flame which can be achieved in an environment with sufficiently low gravity (i.e., low buoyancy). To examine fundamental characteristics of spherically symmetric droplet combustion, a drop tower facility has been employed to provide a microgravity environment to study droplet combustion. This paper gives a brief review of results obtained over the past three years under NASA sponsorship (grant NAG3-987).

  12. Amorphous SiC/c-ZnO-Based Quasi-Lamb Mode Sensor for Liquid Environments.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Cinzia; Hamidullah, Muhammad; Laidoudi, Farouk

    2017-05-25

    The propagation of the quasi-Lamb modes along a-SiC/ZnO thin composite plates was modeled and analysed with the aim to design a sensor able to detect the changes in parameters of a liquid environment, such as added mass and viscosity changes. The modes propagation was modeled by numerically solving the system of coupled electro-mechanical field equations in three media. The mode shape, the power flow, the phase velocity, and the electroacoustic coupling efficiency (K²) of the modes were calculated, specifically addressing the design of enhanced-coupling, microwave frequency sensors for applications in probing the solid/liquid interface. Three modes were identified that have predominant longitudinal polarization, high phase velocity, and quite good K²: the fundamental quasi symmetric mode (qS₀) and two higher order quasi-longitudinal modes (qL₁ and qL₂) with a dominantly longitudinal displacement component in one plate side. The velocity and attenuation of these modes were calculated for different liquid viscosities and added mass, and the gravimetric and viscosity sensitivities of both the phase velocity and attenuation were theoretically calculated. The present study highlights the feasibility of the a-SiC/ZnO acoustic waveguides for the development of high-frequency, integrated-circuit compatible electroacoustic devices suitable for working in a liquid environment.

  13. Amorphous SiC/c-ZnO-Based Quasi-Lamb Mode Sensor for Liquid Environments

    PubMed Central

    Caliendo, Cinzia; Hamidullah, Muhammad; Laidoudi, Farouk

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of the quasi-Lamb modes along a-SiC/ZnO thin composite plates was modeled and analysed with the aim to design a sensor able to detect the changes in parameters of a liquid environment, such as added mass and viscosity changes. The modes propagation was modeled by numerically solving the system of coupled electro-mechanical field equations in three media. The mode shape, the power flow, the phase velocity, and the electroacoustic coupling efficiency (K2) of the modes were calculated, specifically addressing the design of enhanced-coupling, microwave frequency sensors for applications in probing the solid/liquid interface. Three modes were identified that have predominant longitudinal polarization, high phase velocity, and quite good K2: the fundamental quasi symmetric mode (qS0) and two higher order quasi-longitudinal modes (qL1 and qL2) with a dominantly longitudinal displacement component in one plate side. The velocity and attenuation of these modes were calculated for different liquid viscosities and added mass, and the gravimetric and viscosity sensitivities of both the phase velocity and attenuation were theoretically calculated. The present study highlights the feasibility of the a-SiC/ZnO acoustic waveguides for the development of high-frequency, integrated-circuit compatible electroacoustic devices suitable for working in a liquid environment. PMID:28587065

  14. CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-02-01

    Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5--85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400--420{degrees}C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega} at 400{degrees}C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700{degrees}C changed the coating layer resistance. which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes(e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at {ge}360{degrees}C.

  15. In the search of anisotropic biocompatible liquid environments for bacterial motility studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, Ismael; Galstian, Tigran V.; Rainville, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Several experimental approaches are explored to introduce the E. coli bacteria in a liquid anisotropic host. Fonctionalization of the bacterial surface is experimented with 2 different molecules. The 5CB is first used as host and it is shown that, while the bacteria survive at short term in such an environment, they aggregate into colonies. Water solution of the cromolyn sodium salt is also explored with success and the time stability of corresponding sandwich-like structures is characterized.

  16. Tuning the electronic environment of the anion by using binary ionic liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Shuang; Licence, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The electronic environment of the anion is tuned by using binary ionic liquid mixtures employing a common anion and two cations with large difference in acidity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to monitor the change of the electronic environment of the anion by measuring the binding energy of elements present in the anion. It is found that due to the large difference in acidity of the two cations, noticeable shifts can be observed for all anion-based components, no matter how basic the anion is.

  17. The Structure, Density, and Local Environment Distribution in Ab Initio Liquid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Biswajit; Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    We have performed extensive ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of liquid water at ambient conditions in the canonical (NVT) and isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensembles to understand the individual and collective importance of exact exchange, van der Waals interactions, and nuclear quantum effects on the structural properties of liquid water. AIMD simulations which include these effects result in oxygen-oxygen radial distribution functions which are in excellent agreement with experiments and a liquid water structure having an equilibrium density within 1% of the experimental value of 1 g/cm3. A detailed analysis of the distribution of local structure in ambient liquid water has revealed that the inherent potential energy surface is bimodal with respect to high- and low-density molecular environments, consistent with the existence of polymorphism in the amorphous phases of water. With these findings in mind, the methodology presented herein overcomes the well-known limitations of semi-local density functional theory (GGA-DFT) providing a detailed and accurate microscopic description of ambient liquid water. DOE: DE-SC0008626, DOE: DE-SC0005180, NSF: CHE-0956500.

  18. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  19. CaO insulator and Be intermetallic coatings on V-base alloys for liquid-lithium fusion blanket applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop (a) stable CaO insulator coatings at the Liquid-Li/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coating that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the V-alloy wall, and (b) stable Be-V intermetallic coating for first-wall components that face the plasma. Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid-Li/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket application. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on oxygen-enriched surface layers of V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposing the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5-85 wt% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. Crack-free Be{sub 2}V intermetallic coatings were also produced by exposing V-alloys to liquid Li that contained Be as a solute. These techniques can be applied to various shapes (e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coatings are formed by liquid-phase reactions.

  20. Formation of prebiotic molecules in liquid water environments on the surface of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, Catherine Dorothy

    Saturn's moon Titan represents a unique locale for studying prebiotic chemistry. Reactions occurring in its thick nitrogen-methane atmosphere produce a wide variety of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen containing organic molecules. If these molecules are exposed to liquid water, they may react further to produce oxygen-containing species, a key step in the formation of terrestrial biomolecules. On average, Titan's surface is too cold for liquid water. However, models indicate that melting caused by impacts and/or cryovolcanism may lead to its episodic availability. One possible cryovolcanic dome, Ganesa Macula, was identified in early observations by the Cassini spacecraft. In this work, I estimate the height and morphology of this feature using a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image. I then use a thermal conduction code to calculate the freezing timescale for an initially liquid dome, yielding freezing timescales of ~10^2 - 10^5 years. To determine how far aqueous organic chemistry can proceed in liquid water environments on Titan, I measure the rate coefficients of Titan analogue organic molecules ("tholins") with low temperature aqueous solutions to produce oxygenated species. These reactions display first-order kinetics with half- lives between 0.4 and 7 days at 273 K (in water) and between 0.3 and 14 days at 253 K (in 13 wt. % ammonia-water). Tholin hydrolysis in aqueous solutions is thus very fast compared to the freezing timescales of impact melts and volcanic sites on Titan, which take hundreds to thousands of years to freeze. The fast incorporation of oxygen, along with new chemistry made available by the introduction of ammonia, may lead to the formation of molecules of prebiotic interest in these transient liquid water environments. This chemistry makes impact craters and cryovolcanoes important targets for future missions to Titan.

  1. Effects of compatibility of polymer binders with solvate ionic liquid electrolytes on discharge and charge reactions of lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Toshitada; Ikoma, Ai; Kido, Ryosuke; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical reactions in Li-S cells with a solvate ionic liquid (SIL) electrolyte composed of tetraglyme (G4) and Li[TFSA] (TFSA: bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide) are studied. The sulfur cathode (S cathode) comprises sulfur, carbon powder, and a polymer binder. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-x) with different degrees of saponification (x%) are used as binders to prepare the composite cathodes. For the Li-S cell containing PEO binder, lithium polysulfides (Li2Sm, 2 ≤ m ≤ 8), reaction intermediates of the S cathode, dissolve into the electrolyte, and Li2Sm acts as a redox shuttle in the Li-S cell. In contrast, in the Li-S cell with PVA-x binder, the dissolution of Li2Sm is suppressed, leading to high columbic efficiencies during charge-discharge cycles. The compatibility of the PVA-x binder with the SIL electrolyte changes depending on the degree of saponification. Decreasing the degree of saponification leads to increased electrolyte uptake by the PVA-x binder, increasing the charge and discharge capacities of Li-S cell. The rate capability of Li-S cell is also enhanced by the partial swelling of the PVA-x binder. The enhanced performance of Li-S cell containing PVA-x is attributed to the lowering of resistance of Li+ ion transport in the composite cathode.

  2. Heat Transfer to Liquid Lithium in a Straight Duct in the Presence of a Transverse Magnetic Field and a Gravity Field

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, Asad

    2000-03-15

    Heat transfer to liquid lithium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field and a gravity field was analyzed in a square cross-section duct. The duct had conducting vanadium walls. Magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions in the Cartesian coordinate system were solved. First, the Nusselt number was calculated with no magnetic field and a gravity field. Second, the Nusselt number was calculated for the case of a transverse magnetic field acting on the fluid. Third, the Nusselt number was calculated for the case of a transverse magnetic field and a gravity field acting on the fluid. Only one face of the channel was heated. It was found that the Nusselt number is not sensitive to application of a gravity field and is sensitive to application of a transverse magnetic field and it decreases when a transverse magnetic field is applied. It is observed that when the intensity of the transverse magnetic field reaches 0.11 T, further reduction in the value of the Nusselt number almost stops.

  3. Pseudocapacitive behavior of manganese oxide in lithium-ion-doped butylmethylpyrrolidinium-dicyanamide ionic liquid investigated using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Tsung; Li, Yun-Shan; Sun, I.-Wen; Chang, Jeng-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    Ideal pseudocapacitive behavior of α-MnO2 electrodes over a potential range of 3 V is found in lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI)-doped butylmethylpyrrolidinium-dicyanamide (BMP-DCA) ionic liquid (IL), which is non-flammable and has a decomposition temperature of as high as ∼300 °C. Accordingly, this electrolyte is promising for high-energy, high-power, and high-safety supercapacitor applications. The addition of 0.01 M LiTFSI in the IL improves the oxide capacitance from 90 F g-1 to 120 F g-1, which is due to the incorporated Li+ ions promoting Mn valent state variation (between trivalent and tetravalent) during charge-discharge. However, excessive LiTFSI doping causes a capacitance decay due to reduced electrolyte ionic conductivity. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the energy storage mechanism. A capacitance activation process of α-MnO2 in the Li+-doped BMP-DCA IL is found.

  4. Infrared studies of PVC-based electrolytes incorporated with lithium triflate and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate as ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkepeli, Nik A. S. Nik; Winie, Tan; Subban, R. H. Y.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIMCF3SO3) is employed as ionic liquid in PVC-based polymer electrolyte system with lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) as doping salt. The samples in film form were prepared by quantitatively varying the concentration of BMIMCF3SO3 to a fixed ratio of PVC-LiCF3SO3 using solution cast technique. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 1.120 × 10-7 Scm-1 was exhibited by PVC-LiCF3SO3-BMIMCF3SO3 containing 3 wt. % BMIMCF3SO3. FTIR spectra of the polymer electrolytes were examined to study the complexation of the PVC-based polymer electrolytes. Intensity of free ions, ion pairs, and ion aggregates were obtained from FTIR deconvolution in an attempt to correlate with ionic conductivity results. The intensity of free ions was found to be high for sample with 3 wt. % BMIMCF3SO3.

  5. One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Changdong Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. • Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. • The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. • 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidation–reduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chloride–ethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup −1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.

  6. Ionic liquid and plastic crystalline phases of pyrazolium imide salts as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser; Abouimrane, Ali; Alarco, Pierre-Jean; Armand, Michel

    A new member of the plastic crystal, pyrazolium imide family, N, N‧-diethyl-3-methylpyrazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (DEMPyr123) was prepared. It showed a single, plastic crystalline phase that extends from 4.2 °C to its melting at 11.3 °C. When 10 mol% LiTFSI salt was added, the mixture showed ionic conductivities reaching 1.7 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at 20 °C, in the liquid state and 6.9 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at 5 °C, in the solid, plastic phase. A wide electrochemical stability window's of 5.5 V was observed by cyclic voltammetry of the molten salt mixture. Batteries were assembled with LiFePO 4/Li 4Ti 5O 12 electrodes and the salt mixture as an electrolyte. They showed a charge/discharge efficiency of 93% and 87% in the liquid and the plastic phase, respectively. The capacity retention was very good in both states with 90% of the initial capacity still available after 40 cycles. In general, the batteries showed good rate capability and cycle life performance in the ionic liquid phase that were sustained when the electrolyte transformed to the plastic phase. Comparison of the battery results with those of a classic (non-plastic crystal) ionic liquid has proven the advantage of the dual state of matter character in this electrolyte.

  7. Amino acid-based ionic liquids: using XPS to probe the electronic environment via binding energies.

    PubMed

    Hurisso, Bitu Birru; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Licence, Peter

    2011-10-21

    Here we report the synthesis and characterisation by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of eight high purity amino acid-based ionic liquids (AAILs), each containing the 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C(8)C(1)Im](+), as a standard reference cation. All expected elements were observed and the electronic environments of these elements identified. A fitting model for the carbon 1s region of the AAILs is reported; the C aliphatic component of the cation was used as an internal reference to obtain a series of accurate and reproducible binding energies. Comparisons are made between XP spectra of the eight AAILs and selected non-functionalised ionic liquids. 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate was also studied as a model of the carboxyl containing amino acid anion. The influence of anionic substituent groups on the measured binding energies of all elements is presented, and communication between anion and cation is investigated. This data is interpreted in terms of hard and soft anions and compared to the Kamlet-Taft hydrogen bond acceptor ability, β, for the ionic liquids. A linear correlation is presented which suggests that the functional side chain, or R group, of the amino acid has little impact upon the electronic environment of the charge-bearing moieties within the anions and cations studied.

  8. Effect of spherical Au nanoparticles on nanofriction and wear reduction in dry and liquid environments

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Summary Nano-object additives are used in tribological applications as well as in various applications in liquids requiring controlled manipulation and targeting. On the macroscale, nanoparticles in solids and liquids have been shown to reduce friction and wear. On the nanoscale, atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies have been performed in single- and multiple-nanoparticle contact, in dry environments, to characterize friction forces and wear. However, limited studies in submerged liquid environments have been performed and further studies are needed. In this paper, spherical Au nanoparticles were studied for their effect on friction and wear under dry conditions and submerged in water. In single-nanoparticle contact, individual nanoparticles, deposited on silicon, were manipulated with a sharp tip and the friction force was determined. Multiple-nanoparticle contact sliding experiments were performed on nanoparticle-coated silicon with a glass sphere. Wear tests were performed on the nanoscale with AFM as well as on the macroscale by using a ball-on-flat tribometer to relate friction and wear reduction on the nanoscale and macroscale. Results indicate that the addition of Au nanoparticles reduces friction and wear. PMID:23213639

  9. Mapping nanoscale thermal transfer in-liquid environment-immersion scanning thermal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tovee, Peter D; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2013-11-22

    Nanoscale heat transport is of increasing importance as it often defines performance of modern processors and thermoelectric nanomaterials, and affects functioning of chemical sensors and biosensors. Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is the leading tool for nanoscale mapping of thermal properties, but it is often negatively affected by unstable tip-surface thermal contacts. While operating SThM in-liquid environment may allow unimpeded thermal contact and open new application areas, it has so far been regarded as impossible due to increased heat dissipation into the liquid, and the perceived reduced spatial thermal resolution. Nevertheless, in this paper we show that such liquid immersion SThM (iSThM) is fully feasible and, while its thermal sensitivity and spatial resolution is somewhat below that of in-air SThM, it has sufficient thermal contrast to detect thermal conductivity variations in few tens of nm thick graphite nanoflake and metal-polymer nanostructured interconnects. Our results confirm that thermal sensing in iSThM can provide nanoscale resolution on the order of 30 nm, that, coupled with the absence of tip snap-in due to the elimination of capillary forces, opens the possibility for nanoscale thermal mapping in liquids, including thermal phenomena in energy storage devices, catalysts and biosystems.

  10. Motor-operated globe valve performance in a liquid sodium environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, D. H.; Smith, M. S.; Drischler, J. D.

    This study investigates motor-operated globe valve (MOV) performance in a liquid sodium environment as reported to the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) from site representatives at several liquid metal reactors and liquid metal test facilities. The CREDO data base contains engineering histories for 179 motor-operated glove valves. Thirty-nine failures have been documented for these components in over 8.7 million hours of operation. The most common MOV events were anomalies with the limit and torque switches, although human initiated problems were also frequent causes of failures. The failure data suggest that an improved preventive maintenance program with a higher frequency of inspection of the limit and torque switches should increase MOV availability and reliability. The event rate for all failure modes was computed as 4.47 events per 10(exp 8) operating hours by assuming a Poisson distribution of failure over valve operating time. The 5 percent and 95 percent confidence limits based on a chi-squared probability distribution function were computed as 3.36 and 5.83 events per 10(exp 6) operating hours, respectively. The operating performance of these liquid metal MOVs was compared to similar data for MOVs in commercial light water reactors and was found to exhibit similar failure rates.

  11. Ab Initio Simulations and Electronic Structure of Lithium-Doped Ionic Liquids: Structure, Transport, and Electrochemical Stability.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Justin B; Bauschlicher, Charles W; Lawson, John W

    2015-11-19

    Density functional theory (DFT), density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD), and classical molecular dynamics using polarizable force fields (PFF-MD) are employed to evaluate the influence of Li(+) on the structure, transport, and electrochemical stability of three potential ionic liquid electrolytes: N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([pyr14][TFSI]), N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide ([pyr13][FSI]), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium boron tetrafluoride ([EMIM][BF4]). We characterize the Li(+) solvation shell through DFT computations of [Li(Anion)n]((n-1)-) clusters, DFT-MD simulations of isolated Li(+) in small ionic liquid systems, and PFF-MD simulations with high Li-doping levels in large ionic liquid systems. At low levels of Li-salt doping, highly stable solvation shells having two to three anions are seen in both [pyr14][TFSI] and [pyr13][FSI], whereas solvation shells with four anions dominate in [EMIM][BF4]. At higher levels of doping, we find the formation of complex Li-network structures that increase the frequency of four anion-coordinated solvation shells. A comparison of computational and experimental Raman spectra for a wide range of [Li(Anion)n]((n-1)-) clusters shows that our proposed structures are consistent with experiment. We then compute the ion diffusion coefficients and find measures from small-cell DFT-MD simulations to be the correct order of magnitude, but influenced by small system size and short simulation length. Correcting for these errors with complementary PFF-MD simulations, we find DFT-MD measures to be in close agreement with experiment. Finally, we compute electrochemical windows from DFT computations on isolated ions, interacting cation/anion pairs, and liquid-phase systems with Li-doping. For the molecular-level computations, we generally find the difference between ionization energy and electron affinity from isolated ions and interacting cation/anion pairs to

  12. Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Results and Discussion The initial ionic liquid selection was driven by the need to electrodeposit sodium and lithium from the same electrolyte...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Two ionic liquids , EMI-AlCl4 and N1114-TFSI, that support both lithium and sodium deposition/dissolution were studied as... ionic liquids , EMI-AlCl4 and N1114-TFSI, that support both lithium and sodium deposition/dissolution were studied as potential electrolytes for lithium

  13. Fabrication of Laser-reduced Graphene Oxide in Liquid Nitrogen Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Y. C.; Fang, Y. W.; Lim, G. C.; Zheng, H. Y.; Hong, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Porous structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) plays an important role in developing flexible graphene-based devices. In this work, we report a novel methodology for reduction of freestanding graphite oxide (GO) sheet by picosecond pulse laser direct writing in liquid nitrogen. Non-agglomerate and porous structure of rGO is fabricated successfully due to frozen effect during laser processing. Compared with laser-irradiated rGO developed in N2 gas at ambient environment, the frozen rGO developed in liquid N2 shows better ordered structure with less defects, crack-free morphology as well as better electron supercapacitor performance including 50–60 Ω/sq in sheet electrical resistance. Mechanism of cryotemperature photoreduction GO is also discussed. PMID:27345474

  14. Fabrication of Laser-reduced Graphene Oxide in Liquid Nitrogen Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Y. C.; Fang, Y. W.; Lim, G. C.; Zheng, H. Y.; Hong, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Porous structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) plays an important role in developing flexible graphene-based devices. In this work, we report a novel methodology for reduction of freestanding graphite oxide (GO) sheet by picosecond pulse laser direct writing in liquid nitrogen. Non-agglomerate and porous structure of rGO is fabricated successfully due to frozen effect during laser processing. Compared with laser-irradiated rGO developed in N2 gas at ambient environment, the frozen rGO developed in liquid N2 shows better ordered structure with less defects, crack-free morphology as well as better electron supercapacitor performance including 50-60 Ω/sq in sheet electrical resistance. Mechanism of cryotemperature photoreduction GO is also discussed.

  15. Liquid-like ionic conduction in solid lithium and sodium monocarba-closo-decaborates near or at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Wan Si; Matsuo, Motoaki; Wu, Hui; ...

    2016-02-05

    Both LiCB9H10 and NaCB9H10 exhibit liquid-like cationic conductivities (≥0.03 S cm–1) in their disordered hexagonal phases near or at room temperature. Furthermore, these unprecedented conductivities and favorable stabilities enabled by the large pseudoaromatic polyhedral anions render these materials in their pristine or further modified forms as promising solid electrolytes in next-generation, power devices.

  16. Effect of liquid environment on the titanium surface modification by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nisar; Bashir, Shazia; Umm-i-Kalsoom; Begum, Narjis; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Husinsky, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    The effect of liquid environment (de-ionized water and propanol) on surface, structural and mechanical properties of femtosecond laser ablated titanium has been investigated. For this purpose, Ti: sapphire laser (800 nm, 30 fs, 1 kHz) has been employed, at a fluence of 3.6 J/cm2 in ambient environments of de-ionized water, and propanol for various number of laser pulses i.e. 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000. The surface features, chemical composition, structural analysis and mechanical properties of irradiated targets have been evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X -ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy and Nano-hardness tester. Various features like dendritic structures, globules, porous granular morphology, cones, crater, circular ripples and thermal stress cracking are observed at the ablated area after irradiation. These features are instigated by various thermal and chemical phenomena induced by laser heating at the solid-liquid interface. Decrease in nano-hardness observed in both ambient environments is attributable to the formation of hydrides after irradiation in both media.

  17. Effect of a Surrounding Liquid Environment on the Electrical Disruption of Pendant Droplets.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A Said; Lopez-Herrera, Jose M; Herrada, Miguel A; Modesto-Lopez, Luis B; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M

    2016-07-12

    The effect of a surrounding, dielectric, liquid environment on the dynamics of a suddenly electrified liquid drop is investigated both numerically and experimentally. The onset of stability of the droplet is naturally dictated by a threshold value of the applied electric field. While below that threshold the droplet retains its integrity, reaching to a new equilibrium state through damped oscillations (subcritical regime), above it electrical disruption takes place (supercritical regime). In contrast to the oscillation regime, the dynamics of the electric droplet disruption in the supercritical regime reveals a variety of modes. Depending on the operating parameters and fluid properties, a drop in the supercritical regime may result in the well-known tip streaming mode (with and without whipping instability), in droplet splitting (splitting mode), or in the development of a steep shoulder at the elongating front of the droplet that expands radially in a sort of "splashing" (splashing mode). In both splitting and splashing modes, the sizes of the progeny droplets, generated after the breakup of the mother droplet, are comparable to that of the mother droplet. Furthermore, the development in the emission process of the shoulder leading to the splashing mode is described as a parametrical bifurcation, and the parameter governing that bifurcation has been identified. Physical analysis confirms the unexpected experimental finding that the viscosity of the dynamically active environment is absent in the governing parameter. However, the appearance of the splitting mode is determined by the viscosity of the outer environment, when that viscosity overcomes a certain large value. These facts point to the highly nonlinear character of the drop fission process as a function of the droplet volume, inner and outer liquid viscosities, and applied electric field. These observations may have direct implications in systems where precise control of the droplet size is critical, such

  18. In situ STM investigation of the lithium underpotential deposition on Au(111) in the air- and water-stable ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto, L H S; Borisenko, N; Bocchi, N; El Abedin, S Zein; Endres, F

    2009-12-21

    In the present paper the underpotential deposition (UPD) of lithium on Au(111) from 0.5 mol L(-1) LiTFSA in the air- and water stable ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, [Py(1,4)]TFSA, has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The pure [Py(1,4)]TFSA was found to be inert in the potential regime investigated. The results show that the lithium UPD on Au(111) in [Py(1,4)]TFSA begins at potentials considerably positive to the electrode potential of bulk deposition and follows a layer-by-layer mechanism with the formation of at least two monolayers. A large number of monoatomically deep pits appear when the potential reaches positive values, which is an indication that a Li-Au alloy was formed.

  19. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jobson Lopes de; Silva Júnior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Abreu, Krasnalhia Lívia Soares de; Rocha, Natália de Albuquerque; Franco, Luiz Fernando Leonavicius G; Araújo, Sônia Maria Holanda Almeida; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its renal toxicity includes impaired urinary concentrating ability and natriuresis, renal tubular acidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis progressing to chronic kidney disease and hypercalcemia. The most common adverse effect is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which affects 20-40% of patients within weeks of lithium initiation. Chronic nephropathy correlates with duration of lithium therapy. Early detection of renal dysfunction should be achieved by rigorous monitoring of patients and close collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists. Recent experimental and clinical studies begin to clarify the mechanisms by which lithium induces changes in renal function. The aim of this study was to review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological aspects and treatment of lithium-induced nephrotoxicity.

  20. Controlling Polarization Dynamics in a Liquid Environment: From Localized to Macroscopic Switching in Ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kim, S.-H.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2007-01-01

    The effect of disorder on polarization switching in ferroelectric materials is studied using piezoresponse force microscopy in a liquid environment. The spatial extent of the electric field created by a biased tip is controlled by the choice of medium, resulting in a transition from localized switching dictated by tip radius, to uniform switching across the film. In the localized regime, the formation of fractal domains has been observed with dimensionality controlled by the length scale of the frozen disorder. In the nonlocal regime, preferential nucleation at defect sites and the presence of long-range correlations has been observed.

  1. Biological membrane modeling with a liquid/liquid interface. Probing mobility and environment with total internal reflection excited fluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, L E; Weber, G

    1987-01-01

    Total internal reflection of exciting light, in combination with fluorescence intensity and polarization measurements, was used to selectively study fluorescent compounds adsorbed to the interface region between two immiscible liquids. A fluorometer was constructed which provided excitation at variable angles of incidence and allowed sensitive detection of polarized fluorescence emitted from the interface. The compound 4,4'-bis-1-phenylamino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (bis-ANS) was examined at a decalin/water interface and was found to possess remarkable affinity for the interface region with the bulk of the adsorbed molecule residing in the decalin phase. The adsorbed fluorophore displayed an apparent hindered rotation in the plane of the interface with a rotational diffusion coefficient 3- to 12-fold lower than that expected for bis-ANS in solution. While other dyes examined were not found to be significantly surface active, the addition of cationic surfactant sufficed to induce adsorption of the anionic fluorophore 1-aminonaphthalene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid. This fluoropore was found to reside in an aqueous environment when bound to the interface, and it also exhibited hindered rotation in the plane of the interface. As the concentrations of the dyes were increased, both adsorbed dyes exhibited polarization reductions consistent with excitation energy transfer. Adsorption of bis-ANS was reversed by addition of bovine serum albumin. The membrane protein cytochrome b5 was found not to bind at the decalin/water interface, indicating that interaction with lipid is required for its adherence to biological membranes. PMID:3651556

  2. Self-healing of defects in CaO coatings on V-5%Cr-5%Ti in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1994-11-01

    In-situ electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5-85 wt % dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at >360{degrees}C.

  3. High Resolution Electromechanical Imaging of Ferroelectric Materials in a Liquid Environment by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution imaging of ferroelectric materials using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is demonstrated in an aqueous environment. The elimination of both long-range electrostatic forces and capillary interactions results in a localization of the ac field to the tip-surface junction and allows the tip-surface contact area to be controlled. This approach results in spatial resolutions approaching the limit of the intrinsic domain-wall width. Imaging at frequencies corresponding to high-order cantilever resonances minimizes the viscous damping and added mass effects on cantilever dynamics and allows sensitivities comparable to ambient conditions. PFM in liquids will provide novel opportunities for high-resolution studies of ferroelectric materials, imaging of soft polymer materials, and imaging of biological systems in physiological environments on, ultimately, the molecular level.

  4. Femtosecond laser patterning of lithium-ion battery separator materials: impact on liquid electrolyte wetting and cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröll, J.; Schmitz, B.; Niemöeller, A.; Robertz, B.; Schäfer, M.; Torge, M.; Smyrek, P.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2015-03-01

    High capacity Li-ion batteries are composed of alternating stacked cathode and anode layers with thin separator membranes in between for preventing internal shorting. Such batteries can suffer from insufficient cell reliability, safety and electrochemical performance due to poor liquid electrolyte wetting properties. Within the electrolyte filling process, homogeneous wetting of cathode, separator and anode layers is strongly requested due to the fact that insufficient electrolyte wetting of battery components can cause limited capacity under challenging operation or even battery failure. The capacity of the battery is known to be limited by the quantity of wetting of the electrode and separator layers. Therefore, laser structuring processes have recently been developed for forming capillary micro-structures into cathode and anode layers leading to improved wetting properties. Additionally, many efforts have been undertaken to enhance the wettability and safety issues of separator layers, e.g. by applying thin coatings to polymeric base materials. In this paper, we present a rather new approach for ultrafast femtosecond laser patterning of surface coated separator layers. Laser patterning allows the formation of micro-vias and micro-channel structures into thin separator membranes. Liquid electrolyte wetting properties were investigated before and after laser treatment. The electrochemical cyclability of batteries with unstructured and laser-structured separators was tested in order to determine an optimal combination with respect to separator material, functional coating and laser-induced surface topography.

  5. Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: imaging protein complexes in their native environment in whole eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-04-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid, so-called Liquid STEM, is capable of imaging the individual subunits of macromolecular complexes in whole eukaryotic cells in liquid. This paper discusses this new microscopy modality within the context of state-of-the-art microscopy of cells. The principle of operation and equations for the resolution are described. The obtained images are different from those acquired with standard transmission electron microscopy showing the cellular ultrastructure. Instead, contrast is obtained on specific labels. Images can be recorded in two ways, either via STEM at 200 keV electron beam energy using a microfluidic chamber enclosing the cells, or via environmental scanning electron microscopy at 30 keV of cells in a wet environment. The first series of experiments involved the epidermal growth factor receptor labeled with gold nanoparticles. The labels were imaged in whole fixed cells with nanometer resolution. Since the cells can be kept alive in the microfluidic chamber, it is also feasible to detect the labels in unfixed, live cells. The rapid sample preparation and imaging allows studies of multiple whole cells.

  6. Nanoindentation in a wetting environment: the coupling effect of liquid and surface roughness on mechanical calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanggui; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Wei; Yangyang, Shi; Ding, Jianning; Ling, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In situ calibration of a sample’s mechanical properties in different mediums is of vital importance for engineering and biomedical applications. In this paper, we describe the nanomechanical calibration of two copper specimens with different roughness in dry nitrogen and deionized water. The hardness (H), reduced elastic modulus ({{E}\\text{r}} ), and creep properties of the copper specimen were accurately measured by a nanoindenter. Indentations on the two specimens were performed in both mediums by a spherical fluid cell probe (FCP). It is found that there is no apparent difference in both media for a smooth surface, and this demonstrates the validation of the FCP and the apparatus. Meanwhile, for rough surfaces, the maximum depth measured in a liquid at a given load is larger than that in nitrogen, thus the measured mechanical properties decrease, especially for rough surfaces. A molecular dynamics (MD) model is employed for further investigation of the indentation behaviours and the interaction mechanism at the liquid-solid interface. Our simulation results show that the liquid molecules confined in the narrow surface roughness valleys enlarge the maximum indention depth of the probe tip in a wetting environment, and this results in the corresponding change in the measured mechanical properties.

  7. Differential dynamic behaviors of undulatory nematodes in liquid vs. soft gel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Sung; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2015-03-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is an undulatory nematode which exhibits two distinct locomotion types of swimming and crawling. Although in its natural habitat C. elegans lives in complex fluidic environment, our current understanding has been limited to the behavior of C. elegans in a simple Newtonian fluid. Here, we present some experimental results on the penetrating behavior of C. elegans at the interface from liquid to solid environment. Once C. elegans, which otherwise swims freely in a liquid, makes a contact to the solid gel boundary, it begins to penetrate vertically to the surface by changing its stroke motion characterized by a stiffer body shape and a slow stroke frequency. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis reveals the flow streamlines produced by the stroke of worm. For the worm that crawls on a solid surface, we utilize a technique of traction force microscopy (TFM) to find that the crawling nematode forms localized force islands along the body where makes direct contacts to the gel surface. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) Grant 2013R1A1A2012420 and 2010-0016886.

  8. Additive effect of ionic liquids on the electrochemical property of a sulfur composite electrode for all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunji; Okuda, Kazuya; Machida, Nobuya; Shigematsu, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    We investigated additive effect of five kinds of ionic liquids, such as 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide [EMI][TFSI], 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate [EMI][BF4], 1-buthyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethane- sulfonyl) imide [BMI][TFSI], 1-buthyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMI][BF4], and/or 1-buthyl-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide [BMI][I], on electrochemical properties of the sulfur composite electrode for all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The sulfur composite electrode that was composed of sulfur (29.9 wt%), vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF, 9.9 wt%), solid electrolyte (amorphous Li3PS4, 60.0 wt%), and [EMI][TFSI] (0.2 wt%) showed high initial specific capacity of 1270 mAh g-1 at 25 °C, which was calculated on the base of the weight of sulfur. To construct a laboratory-scale all-solid-state battery, amorphous Li3PS4 and meta-stable Li4.4Si alloy were used as solid electrolyte and as negative electrode materials, respectively. The laboratory-scale all-solid-state battery showed good discharge-charge cycle performance under a constant current density of 0.1 mA cm-2 (24 mA g-1) at room temperature and retained the large specific capacity more than 1230 mAh g-1 even after 50 cycles at 25 °C. The capacity after 50 cycles was about 97% of the initial capacity of the test cell.

  9. A Lithium/Polysulfide Battery with Dual-Working Mode Enabled by Liquid Fuel and Acrylate-Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Ren, Yuxun; Zhou, Dong; Jiang, Haoran; Kang, Feiyu; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-01-25

    The low density associated with low sulfur areal loading in the solid-state sulfur cathode of current Li-S batteries is an issue hindering the development of this type of battery. Polysulfide catholyte as a recyclable liquid fuel was proven to enhance both the energy density and power density of the battery. However, a critical barrier with this lithium (Li)/polysulfide battery is that the shuttle effect, which is the crossover of polysulfides and side deposition on the Li anode, becomes much more severe than that in conventional Li-S batteries with a solid-state sulfur cathode. In this work, we successfully applied an acrylate-based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) to the Li/polysulfide system. The GPE layer can effectively block the detrimental diffusion of polysulfides and protect the Li metal from the side passivation reaction. Cathode-static batteries utilizing 2 M catholyte (areal sulfur loading of 6.4 mg cm(-2)) present superior cycling stability (727.4 mAh g(-1) after 500 cycles at 0.2 C) and high rate capability (814 mAh g(-1) at 2 C) and power density (∼10 mW cm(-2)), which also possess replaceable and encapsulated merits for mobile devices. In the cathode-flow mode, the Li/polysulfide system with catholyte supplied from an external tank demonstrates further improved power density (∼69 mW cm(-2)) and stable cycling performance. This novel and simple Li/polysulfide system represents a significant advancement of high energy density sulfur-based batteries for future power sources.

  10. Ionic Liquid Hybrid Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Key Role of the Separator-Electrolyte Interface in Battery Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Huie, Matthew M; DiLeo, Roberta A; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-06-10

    Batteries are multicomponent systems where the theoretical voltage and stoichiometric electron transfer are defined by the electrochemically active anode and cathode materials. While the electrolyte may not be considered in stoichiometric electron-transfer calculations, it can be a critical factor determining the deliverable energy content of a battery, depending also on the use conditions. The development of ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolytes has been a research area of recent reports by other researchers, due, in part, to opportunities for an expanded high-voltage operating window and improved safety through the reduction of flammable solvent content. The study reported here encompasses a systematic investigation of the physical properties of IL-based hybrid electrolytes including quantitative characterization of the electrolyte-separator interface via contact-angle measurements. An inverse trend in the conductivity and wetting properties was observed for a series of IL-based electrolyte candidates. Test-cell measurements were undertaken to evaluate the electrolyte performance in the presence of functioning anode and cathode materials, where several promising IL-based hybrid electrolytes with performance comparable to that of conventional carbonate electrolytes were identified. The study revealed that the contact angle influenced the performance more significantly than the conductivity because the cells containing IL-tetrafluoroborate-based electrolytes with higher conductivity but poorer wetting showed significantly decreased performance relative to the cells containing IL-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide electrolytes with lower conductivity but improved wetting properties. This work contributes to the development of new IL battery-based electrolyte systems with the potential to improve the deliverable energy content as well as safety of lithium-ion battery systems.

  11. Charge carrier dynamics and relaxation in (polyethylene oxide-lithium-salt)-based polymer electrolyte containing 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, A; Ghosh, A

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we report the dynamics of charge carriers and relaxation in polymer electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO), lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMPTFSI) ionic liquid prepared by solution cast technique. It has been observed that the incorporation of BMPTFSI into PEO-LiTFSI electrolyte is an effective way for increasing the amorphous phase to a large extent. It has also been observed that both the glass transition and melting temperatures decrease with the increase of BMPTFSI concentration. The ionic conductivity of these polymer electrolytes increases with the increase of BMPTFSI concentration. The highest ionic conductivity obtained at 25 °C is ~3×10(-4) S cm(-1) for the electrolyte containing 60 wt % BMPTFSI and ethylene oxide (EO)/Li ratio of 20. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity and the hopping frequency show Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The frequency dependence of the ac conductivity exhibits a power law with an exponent n which decreases with the increase of temperature. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and BMPTFSI concentrations. We have also presented the electric modulus data which have been analyzed in the framework of a Havriliak-Negami equation and the shape parameters obtained by the analysis show slight temperature dependence, but change sharply with BMPTFSI concentration. The stretched exponent β obtained from Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts fit to the modulus data is much lower than unity signifying that the relaxation is highly nonexponential. The decay function obtained from analysis of experimental modulus data is highly asymmetric with time.

  12. Charge carrier dynamics and relaxation in (polyethylene oxide-lithium-salt)-based polymer electrolyte containing 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we report the dynamics of charge carriers and relaxation in polymer electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO), lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMPTFSI) ionic liquid prepared by solution cast technique. It has been observed that the incorporation of BMPTFSI into PEO-LiTFSI electrolyte is an effective way for increasing the amorphous phase to a large extent. It has also been observed that both the glass transition and melting temperatures decrease with the increase of BMPTFSI concentration. The ionic conductivity of these polymer electrolytes increases with the increase of BMPTFSI concentration. The highest ionic conductivity obtained at 25 °C is ˜3×10-4 S cm-1 for the electrolyte containing 60 wt % BMPTFSI and ethylene oxide (EO)/Li ratio of 20. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity and the hopping frequency show Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The frequency dependence of the ac conductivity exhibits a power law with an exponent n which decreases with the increase of temperature. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and BMPTFSI concentrations. We have also presented the electric modulus data which have been analyzed in the framework of a Havriliak-Negami equation and the shape parameters obtained by the analysis show slight temperature dependence, but change sharply with BMPTFSI concentration. The stretched exponent β obtained from Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts fit to the modulus data is much lower than unity signifying that the relaxation is highly nonexponential. The decay function obtained from analysis of experimental modulus data is highly asymmetric with time.

  13. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  15. Spectral Differences Between Palagonite Tuffs Formed in Sub-Glacial Versus Liquid Water Environments: Relevance to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Lane, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The reflectance and emissivity spectra of palagonite tuffs formed in sub-glacial environments are compared with those formed in liquid water environments. The relevance to palagonites produced by water-magma interactions on Mars is discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Environment-friendly cathodes using biopolymer chitosan with enhanced electrochemical behavior for use in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, K; Subburaj, T; Jo, Yong Nam; Lee, Won Jong; Lee, Chang Woo

    2015-04-22

    The biopolymer chitosan has been investigated as a potential binder for the fabrication of LiFePO4 cathode electrodes in lithium ion batteries. Chitosan is compared to the conventional binder, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Dispersion of the active material, LiFePO4, and conductive agent, Super P carbon black, is tested using a viscosity analysis. The enhanced structural and morphological properties of chitosan are compared to the PVDF binder using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Using an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the LiFePO4 electrode with the chitosan binder is observed to have a high ionic conductivity and a smaller increase in charge transfer resistance based on time compared to the LiFePO4 electrode with the PVDF binder. The electrode with the chitosan binder also attains a higher discharge capacity of 159.4 mAh g(-1) with an excellent capacity retention ratio of 98.38% compared to the electrode with the PVDF binder, which had a discharge capacity of 127.9 mAh g(-1) and a capacity retention ratio of 85.13%. Further, the cycling behavior of the chitosan-based electrode is supported by scrutinizing its charge-discharge behavior at specified intervals and by a plot of dQ/dV.

  17. [Lithium nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Ireneusz; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2013-01-01

    Lithium salts are the first-line drug therapy in the treatment of uni- and bipolar disorder since the sixties of the twentieth century. In the mid-70s, the first information about their nephrotoxicity appeared. Lithium salts have a narrow therapeutic index. Side effects during treatment are polyuria, polydipsia and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Accidental intoxication can cause acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy while receiving long-term lithium salt can lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. The renal biopsy changes revealed a type of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. The imaging studies revealed the presence of numerous symmetric microcysts. Care of the patient receiving lithium should include regular determination of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and monitoring of urine volume. In case of deterioration of renal function reducing the dose should be considered.

  18. Lithium toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lithonate Note: Lithium is also commonly found in batteries, lubricants, high performance metal alloys, and soldering supplies. ... Kidney failure Memory problems Movement disorders Problems ... your body Psychosis (disturbed thought processes, unpredictable ...

  19. Non-volatile polymer electrolyte based on poly(propylene carbonate), ionic liquid, and lithium perchlorate for electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Chuanxiang; Yee, Wu-Aik; Kong, Junhua; Ding, Guoqiang; Lu, Xuehong

    2013-06-27

    A series of solvent-free ionic liquid (IL)-based polymer electrolytes composed of amorphous and biodegradable poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) host, LiClO4, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM(+)BF4(-)) were prepared and characterized for the first time. FTIR studies reveal that the interaction between PPC chains and imidazolium cations weakens the complexation between PPC chains and Li(+) ions. Thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) results show that the incorporation of BMIM(+)BF4(-) into PPC/LiClO4 remarkably decreases the glass transition temperature and improves the thermal stability of the electrolytes. AC impedance results show that the ionic conductivities of the electrolytes are significantly increased with the increase of BMIM(+)BF4(-) amount, the ambient ionic conductivity of the electrolyte at a PPC/LiClO4/BMIM(+)BF4(-) weight ratio of 1/0.2/3 is 1.5 mS/cm, and the ionic transport behavior follows the Arrhenius equation. Both PPC/LiClO4/BMIM(+)BF4(-) and PPC/BMIM(+)BF4(-) electrolytes were applied in electrochromic devices with polyaniline as the electrochromic layer. The PPC/LiClO4/BMIM(+)BF4(-)-based device exhibits much better electrochromic performance in terms of optical contrast and switching time due to the presence of much smaller cations.

  20. Low-polarization lithium oxygen battery using N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N-methylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide (DEMETFSI) ionic liquid electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Ulderico; Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Jeong, Sangsik; Mueller, Franziska; Reiter, Jakub; Tsiouvaras, Nikolaos; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2017-09-29

    The room temperature molten salt mixture of N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N-methylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (DEMETFSI) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt is herein reported as electrolyte for application in lithium oxygen batteries. The DEMETFSI-LITFSI solution is studied in terms of ionic conductivity, viscosity, electrochemical stability and compatibility with lithium metal at 30°C, 40°C and 60°C. The electrolyte shows suitable properties for application in lithium oxygen battery, allowing a reversible, low-polarization discharge-charge performance with a capacity of about 13 Ah per gram of carbon in the positive electrode and coulombic efficiency approaching 100%. The reversibility of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)/oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is demonstrated by ex situ XRD and SEM studies. Furthermore, the study of the cycling behavior of the lithium oxygen cell using the DEMETFSI-LITFSI electrolyte at increasing temperatures (from 30°C to 60°C) evidences enhanced energy efficiency together with morphology changes of the deposit. In addition, the use of carbon-coated Zn0.9Fe0.1O (TMO-C) lithium-conversion anode in an IL-based Li-ion oxygen configuration is preliminarily demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias [Westmont, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  2. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  3. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias [Bolingbrook, IL; Amine, Khalil [Oak Brook, IL

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  4. Optimization of liquid scintillation measurements applied to smears and aqueous samples collected in industrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapon, Arnaud; Pigrée, Gilbert; Putmans, Valérie; Rogel, Gwendal

    Search for low-energy β contaminations in industrial environments requires using Liquid Scintillation Counting. This indirect measurement method supposes a fine control from sampling to measurement itself. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the definition of a measurement method, as generic as possible, for both smears and aqueous samples' characterization. That includes choice of consumables, sampling methods, optimization of counting parameters and definition of energy windows, using the maximization of a Figure of Merit. Detection limits are then calculated considering these optimized parameters. For this purpose, we used PerkinElmer Tri-Carb counters. Nevertheless, except those relative to some parameters specific to PerkinElmer, most of the results presented here can be extended to other counters.

  5. Unit operations for gas-liquid mass transfer in reduced gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Allen, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Basic scaling rules are derived for converting Earth-based designs of mass transfer equipment into designs for a reduced gravity environment. Three types of gas-liquid mass transfer operations are considered: bubble columns, spray towers, and packed columns. Application of the scaling rules reveals that the height of a bubble column in lunar- and Mars-based operations would be lower than terrestrial designs by factors of 0.64 and 0.79 respectively. The reduced gravity columns would have greater cross-sectional areas, however, by factors of 2.4 and 1.6 for lunar and Martian settings. Similar results were obtained for spray towers. In contract, packed column height was found to be nearly independent of gravity.

  6. Surface characterization of diamond film tool grinding on the monocrystal sapphire under different liquid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei; Lu, Wenzhuang; Zhou, Hai; Yang, Bin; Zuo, Dunwen

    2016-11-01

    Surface characterization of diamond film tool on the monocrystal sapphire under H2O, 3% ethylene glycol and 3% ethylenediamine was investigated. The typical components and chemical changes of the surface of diamond thick film were studied by means of Raman and XPS. Results showed that tribological properties of diamond film tool were associated with the liquid environment located the grinding. Diamond film tool under 3% ethylenediamine solution exhibited the minimum value of friction coefficient, while that under H2O exhibited maximum value of friction coefficient. As the ethylenediamine and ethylene glycol were added during the grinding process, the reaction between diamond film and the sapphire pieces occurred, and the chemical composition change of the surface was also studied. Under the same process parameters, a better surface quality of sapphire under the grinding fluid of ethylenediamine can be obtained.

  7. Double-Layer Mediated Electromechanical Response of Amyloid Fibrils in Liquid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforov, M.P.; Thompson, G.L.; Reukov, V.V.; Jesse, S.; Guo, S.; Rodriguez, B.J.; Seal, K.; Vertegel, A.A.; Kalinin, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Harnessing electrical bias-induced mechanical motion on the nanometer and molecular scale is a critical step towards understanding the fundamental mechanisms of redox processes and implementation of molecular electromechanical machines. Probing these phenomena in biomolecular systems requires electromechanical measurements be performed in liquid environments. Here we demonstrate the use of band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy for probing electromechanical coupling in amyloid fibrils. The approaches for separating the elastic and electromechanical contributions based on functional fits and multivariate statistical analysis are presented. We demonstrate that in the bulk of the fibril the electromechanical response is dominated by double-layer effects (consistent with shear piezoelectricity of biomolecules), while a number of electromechanically active hot spots possibly related to structural defects are observed. PMID:20088597

  8. Double-layer mediated electromechanical response of amyloid fibrils in liquid environment.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, M P; Thompson, G L; Reukov, V V; Jesse, S; Guo, S; Rodriguez, B J; Seal, K; Vertegel, A A; Kalinin, S V

    2010-02-23

    Harnessing electrical bias-induced mechanical motion on the nanometer and molecular scale is a critical step toward understanding the fundamental mechanisms of redox processes and implementation of molecular electromechanical machines. Probing these phenomena in biomolecular systems requires electromechanical measurements be performed in liquid environments. Here we demonstrate the use of band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy for probing electromechanical coupling in amyloid fibrils. The approaches for separating the elastic and electromechanical contributions based on functional fits and multivariate statistical analysis are presented. We demonstrate that in the bulk of the fibril the electromechanical response is dominated by double-layer effects (consistent with shear piezoelectricity of biomolecules), while a number of electromechanically active hot spots possibly related to structural defects are observed.

  9. Experimental investigations of the entrapment and persistence of organic liquid contaminants in the subsurface environment.

    PubMed Central

    Abriola, L M; Bradford, S A

    1998-01-01

    Organic liquids are common polluters of the subsurface environment. Once released, these nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) tend to become entrapped within soils and geologic formations where they may serve as long-term contaminant reservoirs. The interphase mass transfer from such entrapped residuals will ultimately control environmental exposure levels as well as the persistence and/or remedial recovery of these contaminants in the subsurface. This paper summarizes National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-sponsored research designed to investigate and quantify NAPL entrapment and interphase mass transfer in natural porous media. Results of soil column and batch experiments are presented that highlight research findings over the past several years. These experiments explore dissolution and volatilization of hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in sandy porous media. Initial concentration levels and long-term recovery rates are shown to depend on fluid flow rate, soil structure, NAPL composition, and soil wetting characteristics. These observations are explained in the context of conceptual models that describe entrapped NAPL morphology and boundary layer transport. The implications of these laboratory findings on the subsurface persistence and recovery of entrapped NAPLs are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 9 PMID:9703497

  10. Effect of carbon nanohorns on nanofriction and wear reduction in dry and liquid environments.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Dave; Bhushan, Bharat; Iijima, Sumio

    2013-06-15

    Nano-objects in dry and liquid conditions have shown reductions in friction and wear on the macroscale. In this research, for the first time, carbon nanohorn (CNH) nanoparticles were studied on the nanoscale under dry and low viscosity liquid environments for their effect on friction and wear reduction. The data were compared with gold (Au) nanoparticles and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanotubes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments on the nanoscale were performed in single-nano-object contact with an AFM tip, where nano-objects were laterally manipulated and multiple-nano-object contact with a tip attached to a glass sphere sliding over several nano-objects. Wear tests were performed on the nanoscale with an AFM as well as on the macroscale by using a ball-on-flat tribometer to relate friction and wear reduction on both scales. Results indicate CNH nanoparticles contribute to friction and wear reduction due to the reduced contact area and low meniscus force contribution.

  11. Muramic Acid Measurements for Bacterial Investigations in Marine Environments by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Toru; Romano, Jean-Claude

    1985-01-01

    Muramic acid, a constituent of procaryotic cell walls, was assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography in samples from several marine environments (water column, surface microlayer, and sediment) and a bacterial culture. It is used as a microbial biomass indicator. The method gave a good separation of muramic acid from interfering compounds with satisfactory reproducibility. A pseudomonad culture had a muramic acid content of 4.7 × 10−10 to 5.3 × 10−10 μg per cell during growth. In natural water samples, highly significant relationships were found between muramic acid concentrations and bacterial numbers for populations of 108 to 1011 cells per liter. The muramic acid content in natural marine water decreased from 5.3 × 10−10 to 1.6 × 10−10 μg per cell with increasing depth. In coastal sediments exposed to sewage pollution, concentrations of muramic acid, ATP, organic carbon, and total amino acids displayed a parallel decrease with increasing distance from the sewage outlet. Advantages of muramic acid measurement by high-pressure liquid chromatography are its high sensitivity and reduction of preparation steps, allowing a short time analysis. PMID:16346848

  12. Ultrafast vibrational dynamics of BH{sub 4}{sup −} ions in liquid and crystalline environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tyborski, Tobias Costard, Rene; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2014-07-21

    Ultrafast vibrational dynamics of BH{sub 4}{sup −} ions, the key units in boron hydride materials for hydrogen storage, are studied in diluted polar liquid solution and in NaBH{sub 4} crystallites by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy. Two-color pump-probe experiments reveal v = 1 lifetimes of 3 ps for the asymmetric BH{sub 4}{sup −} stretching mode ν{sub 3} and of 3.6 ps for the asymmetric bending mode ν{sub 4} in the solvent isopropylamine. We provide direct evidence for the BH{sub 4}{sup −} stretching relaxation pathway via the asymmetric bending mode ν{sub 4} by probing the latter after femtosecond excitation of ν{sub 3}. Pump-probe traces measured in the crystalline phase show signatures of radiative coupling between the densely packed BH{sub 4}{sup −} oscillators, most clearly manifested in an accelerated subpicosecond depopulation of the v = 1 state of the ν{sub 4} mode. The radiative decay is followed by incoherent vibrational relaxation similar to the liquid phase. The excess energy released in the relaxation processes of the BH{sub 4}{sup −} intramolecular modes is transferred into the environment with thermal pump-probe signals being much more pronounced in the dense solid than in the diluted solution.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721... Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9668 - Organotin lithium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Organotin lithium compound. 721.9668... Substances § 721.9668 Organotin lithium compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as an organotin lithium compound (PMN P-93-1119...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9668 - Organotin lithium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organotin lithium compound. 721.9668... Substances § 721.9668 Organotin lithium compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as an organotin lithium compound (PMN P-93-1119...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9668 - Organotin lithium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organotin lithium compound. 721.9668... Substances § 721.9668 Organotin lithium compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as an organotin lithium compound (PMN P-93-1119...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9668 - Organotin lithium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organotin lithium compound. 721.9668... Substances § 721.9668 Organotin lithium compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as an organotin lithium compound (PMN P-93-1119...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9668 - Organotin lithium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organotin lithium compound. 721.9668... Substances § 721.9668 Organotin lithium compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as an organotin lithium compound (PMN P-93-1119...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the rotational and translational motions of ionic liquids composed of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide anions and their binary systems including lithium salts.

    PubMed

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2011-08-28

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are stable liquids composed of anions and cations. 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium (EMIm, EMI) is a popular and important cation that produces thermally stable ILs with various anions. In this study two amide-type anions, bis(trifluoro-methanesulfonyl)amide [N(SO(2)CF(3))(2), TFSA, TFSI, NTf(2), or Tf(2)N] and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide [(N(SO(2)F)(2), FSA, or FSI] were investigated by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. In addition to EMIm-TFSA and EMIm-FSA, lithium-salt-doped binary systems were prepared (EMIm-TFSA-Li and EMIm-FSA-Li). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) were measured by (1)H, (19)F, and (7)Li NMR spectroscopy and the correlation times of (1)H NMR, τ(c)(EMIm) (8 × 10(-10) to 3 × 10(-11) s) for the librational molecular motion of EMIm and those of (7)Li NMR, τ(c)(Li) (5 × 10(-9) to 2 × 10(-10) s) for a lithium jump were evaluated in the temperature range between 253 and 353 K. We found that the bulk viscosity (η) versus τ(c)(EMIm) and cation diffusion coefficient D(EMIm) versus the rate 1/τ(c)(EMIm) have good relationships. Similarly, linear relations were obtained for the η versus τ(c)(Li) and the lithium diffusion coefficient D(Li) versus the rate 1∕τ(c)(Li). The mean one-jump distances of Li were calculated from τ(c)(Li) and D(Li). The experimental values for the diffusion coefficients, ionic conductivity, viscosity, and density in our previous paper were analyzed by the Stokes-Einstein, Nernst-Einstein, and Stokes-Einstein-Debye equations for the neat and binary ILs to clarify the physicochemical properties and mobility of individual ions. The deviations from the classical equations are discussed.

  10. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  11. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sichta; J. Dong; R. Gernhardt; G. Gettelfinger; H. Kugel

    2003-10-27

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI.

  12. Structure, ion transport, and relaxation dynamics of polyethylene oxide/poly (vinylidene fluoride co-hexafluoropropylene)—lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide blend polymer electrolyte embedded with ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied structure, ion transport, and relaxation dynamics in polyethylene oxide/poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)-lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide blend polymer electrolytes embedded with 1-propyl-3-methyleimidazoliuum bis(trifluromethyle-sulfonyl)imide ionic liquid. Structural property and ion-polymer interaction of polymer electrolytes have been studied using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The addition of ionic liquid decreases glass transition temperature and reduces crystalline phase in the polymer matrix. It is also observed that surface becomes smooth with increase of ionic liquid content. The temperature dependence of the Li ion conductivity follows Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher type behaviour when a sufficient amount of ionic liquid is added to polymer matrix. The electric modulus has been studied using Havriliak-Negami function for the understanding of ion dynamics. The modulus data have been analyzed using non-exponential Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function. It is observed that the non-exponential parameter β is quite lower than unity, suggesting existence of a non-exponential relaxation. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time also follows Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher relation for compositions with higher ionic liquid content.

  13. Lithium nitrate and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate ammoniates for electrolytes in lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahys, B.; Herlem, M.

    1991-03-01

    The liquid ammonia solutions of lithium nitrate and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) have been found to be highly conductive inorganic electrolytes with low vapor pressures. The important phases of the LiNO3-xNH3 solutions (x between values of 1.5 and 3.1) those of the LiSO3CF3-yNH3 solutions (y between values of 1.5 and 3.5) are documented. In addition, the temperature dependence of their conductivities, their electrical stability windows, and their NH3 vapor pressures were determined. In summary, the lithium triflate ammoniate (LiCF3SO3-2NH3) pressures were determined. In summary, the lithium triflate ammoniate (LiCF3SO3-2NH3) remains a liquid down to -10 C. It has an electroactivity range of 3.8 V and a conductivity of 0.0006/ohm per cm at -10 C. The NH3 vapor pressure is less than 1 bar at 60 C. The lithium nitrate ammoniate (LiNO3-2NH3) has an electroactivity range of 3.5 V and a conductivity of 0.025/ohm per cm at 20 C. The freezing point of the nitrate ammoniate is between 3 C and -10 C depending on the stoichiometry. Its NH3 vapor pressure remains below 1 bar up to 40 C. Li/MnO2 batteries were constructed and tested using the above mentioned electrolytes.

  14. Novel polymer electrolyte from poly(carbonate-ether) and lithium tetrafluoroborate for lithium-oxygen battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qi; Gao, Yonggang; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Ji; Wang, Xianhong; Wang, Fosong

    2013-11-01

    Novel polymer electrolyte based on low-molecular weight poly(carbonate-ether) and lithium tetrafluoroborate has been prepared and used in lithium-oxygen battery for the first time, the electrolyte with approximate 17% of LiBF4 showed ionic conductivity of 1.57 mS cm-1. Infrared spectra analysis indicates that obvious interaction between the lithium ions and partial oxygen atoms in the host polymer exists, and the lithium salt and the host polymer have good miscibility. The lithium-oxygen battery from this polymer electrolyte shows similar cyclic stability to traditional liquid electrolyte observed by FT-IR, AFM and electrochemical measurements, which may provide a new choice for fabrication of all-solid-state high-capacity rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery with better safety.

  15. Performance analysis of no-vent fill process for liquid hydrogen tank in terrestrial and on-orbit environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Zhang, Feini; Ma, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Two finite difference computer models, aiming at the process predictions of no-vent fill in normal gravity and microgravity environments respectively, are developed to investigate the filling performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank. In the normal gravity case model, the tank/fluid system is divided into five control volume including ullage, bulk liquid, gas-liquid interface, ullage-adjacent wall, and liquid-adjacent wall. In the microgravity case model, vapor-liquid thermal equilibrium state is maintained throughout the process, and only two nodes representing fluid and wall regions are applied. To capture the liquid-wall heat transfer accurately, a series of heat transfer mechanisms are considered and modeled successively, including film boiling, transition boiling, nucleate boiling and liquid natural convection. The two models are validated by comparing their prediction with experimental data, which shows good agreement. Then the two models are used to investigate the performance of no-vent fill in different conditions and several conclusions are obtained. It shows that in the normal gravity environment the no-vent fill experiences a continuous pressure rise during the whole process and the maximum pressure occurs at the end of the operation, while the maximum pressure of the microgravity case occurs at the beginning stage of the process. Moreover, it seems that increasing inlet mass flux has an apparent influence on the pressure evolution of no-vent fill process in normal gravity but a little influence in microgravity. The larger initial wall temperature brings about more significant liquid evaporation during the filling operation, and then causes higher pressure evolution, no matter the filling process occurs under normal gravity or microgravity conditions. Reducing inlet liquid temperature can improve the filling performance in normal gravity, but cannot significantly reduce the maximum pressure in microgravity. The presented work benefits the

  16. A lithium superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-07-31

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

  17. A lithium superionic conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10-2 S cm-1) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li10GeP2S12 that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm-1 at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

  18. Stable Lithium Deposition Generated from Ceramic-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Anode.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chih-Hao; Hsiao, Yang-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Han; Kuo, Ping-Lin

    2016-06-22

    In this work, a composite gel electrolyte comprising ceramic cross-linker and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix is shown to have superior resistance to lithium dendrite growth and be applicable to gel polymer lithium batteries. In contrast to pristine gel electrolyte, these nanocomposite gel electrolytes show good compatibility with liquid electrolytes, wider electrochemical window, and a superior rate and cycling performance. These silica cross-linkers allow the PEO to form the lithium ion pathway and reduce anion mobility. Therefore, the gel not only features lower polarization and interfacial resistance, but also suppresses electrolyte decomposition and lithium corrosion. Further, these nanocomposite gel electrolytes increase the lithium transference number to 0.5, and exhibit superior electrochemical stability up to 5.0 V. Moreover, the lithium cells feature long-term stability and a Coulombic efficiency that can reach 97% after 100 cycles. The SEM image of the lithium metal surface after the cycling test shows that the composite gel electrolyte with 20% silica cross-linker forms a uniform passivation layer on the lithium surface. Accordingly, these features allow this gel polymer electrolyte with ceramic cross-linker to function as a high-performance lithium-ionic conductor and reliable separator for lithium metal batteries.

  19. Space-charge at the lithium-lithium chloride interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamnik, J.; Gaberscek, M.; Meden, A.; Pejovnik, S.

    1991-06-01

    The electrical properties of the passive layer formed on lithium as the product of the corrosion reaction in thionyl chloride are discussed. The passive layer is regarded as a thin layer of an ionic crystal placed between two party blocking electrodes (i.e., lithium and liquid electrolyte). After a short review of thermodynamic properties of the system, a model for description of the electric properties of the static space-charge regions is presented. On this basis, a comment on and partial reinterpretation of impedance measurements of the passive layer is given. The suggested approach leads to the conclusion that the quality of Li/SOCl2 batteries decisively depends on the properties of the lithium passive layer interface. Finally, experiments to confirm the model are suggested.

  20. Using Environment-Sensitive Fluorescent Probes to Characterize Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Supersaturated Solutions of Poorly Water Soluble Compounds.

    PubMed

    Raina, Shweta A; Alonzo, David E; Zhang, Geoff G Z; Gao, Yi; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-11-01

    Highly supersaturated aqueous solutions of poorly soluble compounds can undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) when the concentration exceeds the "amorphous solubility". This phenomenon has been widely observed during high throughput screening of new molecular entities as well as during the dissolution of amorphous solid dispersions. In this study, we have evaluated the use of environment-sensitive fluorescence probes to investigate the formation and properties of the non-crystalline drug-rich aggregates formed in aqueous solutions as a result of LLPS. Six different environment-sensitive fluorophores were employed to study LLPS in highly supersaturated solutions of several model compounds, all dihydropyridine derivatives. Each fluoroprobe exhibited a large hypsochromic shift with decreasing environment polarity. Upon drug aggregate formation, the probes partitioned into the drug-rich phase and exhibited changes in emission wavelength and intensity consistent with sensing a lower polarity environment. The LLPS onset concentrations determined using the fluorescence measurements were in good agreement with light scattering measurements as well as theoretically estimated amorphous solubility values. Environment-sensitive fluorescence probes are useful to help understand the phase behavior of highly supersaturated aqueous solutions, which in turn is important in the context of developing enabling formulations for poorly soluble compounds.

  1. Oleoylethanolamide-based lyotropic liquid crystals as vehicles for delivery of amino acids in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Mohammady, Sayed Z; Pouzot, Matthieu; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2009-02-18

    We have investigated the phase behavior of self-assembled lyotropic liquid crystals (LC) formed by ternary mixtures of oleoylethanolamide (OEA), water and arginine. OEA, a natural analog of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide involved in the peripheral regulation of feeding, was selected as a main component due to its capacity to induce efficient decreases in food intake and gains in body mass. Arginine was selected as representative hydrophilic amino acid and added to the OEA-water mixture at different concentrations. The phase diagrams were determined by combining cross-polarized optical microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. First, the phase diagram for the OEA-water system was determined. It was shown that these two compounds give rise to reverse Ia3d double gyroid and reverse Pn3m double diamond cubic phases existing in bulk over a large window of temperature and composition, and that for water content beyond 25% Pn3m coexisted with excess water. Successively, the influence of arginine as guest molecule in the water channels of the reverse LC was investigated. For the sake of comparison, results for the OEA-water-arginine system were compared with analog series of OEA-water-glucose. The results showed that, at a fixed water content and temperature, the phase behavior of the liquid crystalline phases is strongly dependent on arginine concentration. In more detail, arginine could be encapsulated in the bulk OEA-water LC up to 2.0% wt, whereas transitions from Ia3d to Pn3m cubic phase were observed with increasing arginine concentration. Interestingly, upon an increase of water concentration beyond 20-25%, Pn3m phase started to coexist with excess water releasing the arginine in external water solution. Quantitative measurements of arginine content inside the LC water channels and in the excess external water solution revealed a complete release of the amino acid, demonstrating that the investigated lyotropic liquid crystalline systems can be used as

  2. Initiation of geyser during the resettlement of cryogenic liquid under impulsive reverse gravity acceleration in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    The requirement to settle or to position liquid fluid over the outlet end of spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. Resettlement or reorientation of liquid propellant can be accomplished by providing optimal acceleration to the spacecraft such that the propellant is reoriented over the tank outlet without any vapor entrainment, any excessive geysering, or any other undesirable fluid motion for the space fluid management under microgravity environment. The purpose of present study is to investigate most efficient technique for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. Comparison between the constant reverse gravity acceleration and impulsive reverse gravity acceleration to be used for the activation of propellant resettlement, it shows that impulsive reverse gravity thrust is superior to constant reverse gravity thrust for liquid reorientation in a reduced gravity environment.

  3. Liquid-like layers on ice in the environment: bridging the quasi-liquid and brine layer paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, M. H.; Moussa, S. G.; McNeill, V. F.

    2011-03-01

    Liquid-like layers on ice significantly influence atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. In the absence of impurities a nanoscale region of surface disorder known as the "quasi-liquid layer" (QLL) may exist below the bulk melting point (down to ~-30 °C). Surface and bulk impurities are known to modulate the QLL thickness. In aqueous systems containing ionic solutes, a liquid brine layer (BL) may form upon freezing due to the exclusion of impurities from the ice crystal lattice coupled with freezing point depression in the concentrated surface layer. Brine layers are conceptually distinct from the QLL, which can exist in the absence of impurities. We have developed a unified model for liquid-like layers in environmental ice systems that is valid over a wide range of temperatures and solute concentrations, spanning the QLL and BL regimes. The model consists of two coupled modules describing the thickness of the BL and the QLL. The BL module is derived from fundamental equlibrium thermodynamics, whereas the QLL formulation is derived semi-empirically based on statistical mechanical principles and previously published QLL thickness data. The resulting unified model has been tested against experimental data from literature and applied to several environmentally important systems, such as HCl(g)-ice, HNO3(g)-ice, and frozen sea ice. This model can be used to improve the representation of air-ice chemical interactions in polar atmospheric chemistry models.

  4. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-20

    The Early Flight Fission -- Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  5. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  6. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper will discuss the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  7. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a “one-sensor-one-packaging_technology” concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a “floating-concept”, capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not “floating” but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA. PMID:26295235

  8. Twin Astir: An irradiation experiment in liquid Pb Bi eutectic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bosch, J.; Al Mazouzi, A.; Benoit, Ph.; Bosch, R. W.; Claes, W.; Smolders, B.; Schuurmans, P.; Abderrahim, H. Aït

    2008-06-01

    The Twin Astir irradiation program, currently under irradiation in the BR2 reactor at SCK.CEN is aimed at determining the separate and possibly synergetic effects of a liquid lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) environment and neutron irradiation. It will lead to a parameterisation of the key influencing factors on the mechanical properties of the candidate structural materials for the future experimental accelerator driven system (ADS). The experiment consists of six capsules containing mainly mini tensile samples and one capsule containing mini DCT's (disc shaped compact tension specimens). Three of the tensile containing capsules and half of the DCT containing capsule are filled each with approximately 20 ml of low oxygen (10 -6 wt%) LBE. To complete the filling of these capsules with LBE under controlled conditions a dedicated filling installation was constructed at SCK.CEN. The other three tensile containing capsules are subjected to PWR water conditions, in order to discriminate the effect of PbBi under irradiation from the effect of the irradiation itself. To extract the effect of the PbBi corrosion itself on the material properties, one of the capsules is undergoing the thermal cycles of the BR2 reactor without being subjected to irradiation. This results in a matrix of three irradiation doses in LBE (0, 1.5 and 2.5 dpa) and two environments (PbBi and PWR water conditions). Here we will present the detailed concept and the status of the Twin Astir project, describe the materials under irradiation and report on our experience with the licensing of the experiment.

  9. Design and testing of a liquid cooled garment for hot environments.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tinghui; Shang, Bofeng; Duan, Bin; Luo, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Liquid cooled garments (LCGs) are considered a viable method to protect individuals from hyperthermia and heat-related illness when working in thermally stressful environments. While the concept of LCGs was proposed over 50 years ago, the design and testing of these systems is undeveloped and stands in need of further study. In this study, a detailed heat transfer model of LCG in a hot environment was built to analyze the effects of different factors on the LCG performance, and to identify the main limitations to achieve maximum performance. An LCG prototype was designed and fabricated. Series of tests were done by a modified thermal manikin method to validate the heat transfer model and to evaluate the thermal properties. Both experimental and predicted results show that the heat flux components match the heat balance equation with an error of less than 10% at different flowrate. Thermal resistance analysis also manifests that the thermal resistance between the cooling water and the ambient (R2) is more sensitive to the flowrate than to the one between the skin surface and the cooling water (R1). When the flowrate increased from 225 to 544 mL/min, R2 decreased from 0.5 to 0.3 °C m(2)/W while R1 almost remained constant. A specific duration time was proposed to assess the durability and an optimized value of 1.68 h/kg was found according to the heat transfer model. The present heat transfer model and specific duration time concept could be used to optimize and evaluate this kind of LCG respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-08-18

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a "one-sensor-one-packaging_technology" concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a "floating-concept", capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not "floating" but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA.

  11. Risk Assessment for Titanium Pressure Vessels Operating Inside the ARES I's Liquid Hydrogen Tank Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium alloy (Ti-6-4) is currently being proposed for the manufacturing of pressure vessels (PV) for storage of compressed helium gas, which are mounted inside the ARES I's liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank. At cryogenic temperature, titanium alloys usually have the highest strength-to-weight ratio property and have been considered as the metallic materials of choice for lightweight PV operating in LH2 environment. Titanium PV s are also considered as heritage hardware because they have been used by NASA for the Saturn IV-B rocket s LH2 tank in the mid 1960 s. However, hydrogen embrittlement is possible if Ti-6-4 alloy is exposed to gaseous hydrogen at certain pressure and temperature during the LH2 tank filling and draining operations on the launch pad, and during the J2X engine burn period for the ARES I s upper stage. Additionally, the fracture toughness and ductility properties of Ti-6-4 are significantly decreased at cryogenic temperature. These factors do not necessary preclude the use of titanium PV in hydrogen or at cryogenic applications; however, their synergistic effects and the material damage tolerance must be accounted for in the mission life assessment for PV s, which are considered as fracture critical hardware. In this paper, an overview of the risk assessment for Ti-6-4 alloy, strategy to control hydrogen embrittlement and brief metallic material trade study for PV operating in LH2 tank will be presented.

  12. Variable Temperature Setup for Scanning Electron Microscopy in Liquids and Atmospheric Pressure Gaseous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jianbo; Denault, Lauraine; Potyrailo, Radislav; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2014-03-01

    A thermoelectric cooling / heating setup for commercial Quantomix QX WETSEM scanning electron microscopy environmental cells was designed and tested. This addition allows extending ambient pressure in situ studies to be conducted in a wide temperature range both in liquid and gaseous environments. Instead of cooling/heating the entire body of QX-WETCELL, ultrathin polyimide electron transparent membrane window supported by metal mesh on the top of the cell has been used as an agent for heat transfer to/ from the Pelltier element. A butterfly wing of Morph sulkowskyi has been used as a model object in the QX-WETCELL's chamber due to its unique micro/nanostructure and peculiar wettability behavior. The dynamics of the water desorption, condensation and freezing processes were observed complementary using both optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy in vivo. The observations revel that the initial droplet formation were most likely taking place on the top of the wing ridges due to the waxy component of its surface. In addition, The SEM observation showed that the high intensity electron beam can heat the butterfly wing locally delaying the water condensation and freezing processes.

  13. Parametric noise squeezing and parametric resonance of microcantilevers in air and liquid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Gyan; Raman, Arvind; Rhoads, Jeffrey; Reifenberger, Ronald G.

    2012-06-01

    In this work, parametric noise squeezing and parametric resonance are realized through the use of an electronic feedback circuit to excite a microcantilever with a signal proportional to the product of the microcantilever's displacement and a harmonic signal. The cantilever's displacement is monitored using an optical lever technique. By adjusting the gain of an amplifier in the feedback circuit, regimes of parametric noise squeezing/amplification and the principal and secondary parametric resonances of fundamental and higher order eigenmodes can be easily accessed. The exceptionally symmetric amplitude response of the microcantilever in the narrow frequency bandwidth is traced to a nonlinear parametric excitation term that arises due to the cubic nonlinearity in the output of the position-sensitive photodiode. The feedback circuit, working in both the regimes of parametric resonance and noise squeezing, allows an enhancement of the microcantilever's effective quality-factor (Q-factor) by two orders of magnitude under ambient conditions, extending the mass sensing capabilities of a conventional microcantilever into the sub-picogram regime. Likewise, experiments designed to parametrically oscillate a microcantilever in water using electronic feedback also show an increase in the microcantilever's effective Q-factor by two orders of magnitude, opening the field to high-sensitivity mass sensing in liquid environments.

  14. Parametric noise squeezing and parametric resonance of microcantilevers in air and liquid environments.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Gyan; Raman, Arvind; Rhoads, Jeffrey; Reifenberger, Ronald G

    2012-06-01

    In this work, parametric noise squeezing and parametric resonance are realized through the use of an electronic feedback circuit to excite a microcantilever with a signal proportional to the product of the microcantilever's displacement and a harmonic signal. The cantilever's displacement is monitored using an optical lever technique. By adjusting the gain of an amplifier in the feedback circuit, regimes of parametric noise squeezing/amplification and the principal and secondary parametric resonances of fundamental and higher order eigenmodes can be easily accessed. The exceptionally symmetric amplitude response of the microcantilever in the narrow frequency bandwidth is traced to a nonlinear parametric excitation term that arises due to the cubic nonlinearity in the output of the position-sensitive photodiode. The feedback circuit, working in both the regimes of parametric resonance and noise squeezing, allows an enhancement of the microcantilever's effective quality-factor (Q-factor) by two orders of magnitude under ambient conditions, extending the mass sensing capabilities of a conventional microcantilever into the sub-picogram regime. Likewise, experiments designed to parametrically oscillate a microcantilever in water using electronic feedback also show an increase in the microcantilever's effective Q-factor by two orders of magnitude, opening the field to high-sensitivity mass sensing in liquid environments.

  15. Chemical and morphological characteristics of lithium electrode surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Vasquez, R. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Somoano, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Lithium electrode surfaces were analyzed for chemical and morphological characteristics, using electron spectroscopy chemical analysis (ESCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples included lithium metal and lithium electrodes which were cycled in a 1.5 M lithium arsenic hexafluoride/two-methyl tetrahydrofuran electrolyte. Results show that the surface of the as-received lithium metal was already covered by a film composed of LiO2 and an Li2O/CO2 adduct with a thickness of approximately 100-200 A. No evidence of Ni3 was found. Upon exposure of the lithium electrode to a 1.5 M LiAsF6/2-Me-THF electrochemical environment, a second film was observed to form on the surface, consisting primarily of As, Si, and F, possibly in the form of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides or lithium fluorosilicates. It is suggested that the film formation may be attributed to salt degradation.

  16. Chemical and morphological characteristics of lithium electrode surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Vasquez, R. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Somoano, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Lithium electrode surfaces were analyzed for chemical and morphological characteristics, using electron spectroscopy chemical analysis (ESCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples included lithium metal and lithium electrodes which were cycled in a 1.5 M lithium arsenic hexafluoride/two-methyl tetrahydrofuran electrolyte. Results show that the surface of the as-received lithium metal was already covered by a film composed of LiO2 and an Li2O/CO2 adduct with a thickness of approximately 100-200 A. No evidence of Ni3 was found. Upon exposure of the lithium electrode to a 1.5 M LiAsF6/2-Me-THF electrochemical environment, a second film was observed to form on the surface, consisting primarily of As, Si, and F, possibly in the form of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides or lithium fluorosilicates. It is suggested that the film formation may be attributed to salt degradation.

  17. Hydrogen trapping by yttrium in low-temperature lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Katsuta, H.

    1983-01-01

    A test to determine the lithium compatibility and impurity gettering capabilities of various materials including yttrium was performed in Beryllium-7 Experimental Lithium Loop (7BELL) at 270/sup 0/C. Yttrium coupons were exposed in liquid lithium for a total of 3718 hours. X-ray diffraction and bulk chemical analysis data indicated that yttrium absorbs hydrogen from liquid lithium at 270/sup 0/C and transforms to yttrium dihydride (YH/sub 2/). The transformation of yttrium to YH/sub 2/ resulted in embrittlement of the coupons and subsequent fragmentation to small pieces. Additional analysis, based on the equilibrium hydrogen pressures for the transition of yttrium to HY/sub 2/, and Sievert's relationship for hydrogen in equilibrium with hydrogen in lithium, indicates that the temperature of yttrium cannot exceed 280/sup 0/C to control the hydrogen concentration in lithium at below 1 wt ppM.

  18. Ambient temperature secondary lithium cells containing inorganic electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    The history and current status of rechargeable lithium cells using electrolytes based on liquid sulfur dioxide are reviewed. Three separate approaches currently under development include lithium/lithium dithionite/carbon cells with a supporting electrolyte salt; lithium/cupric chloride cells using sulfur dioxide/lithium tetrachloroaluminate; and several adaptations of a lithium/carbon cell using sulfur dioxide/lithium tetrachloroaluminate in which the discharge reaction involves the incorporation of aluminum into the positive electrode. The latter two chemistries have been studied in prototype hardware. For AA size cells with cupric chloride, 157 Whr/1 at 24 W/1 for 230 cycles was reported. For AA size cells containing 2LiCl-CaCl2-4AlCl3-12SO2, energy densities as high as 265 Whr/liter and 100 Whr/kg have been observed, but, at 26 W/1, for only 10 cycles. The advantages and remaining problems are discussed.

  19. Temperature Dependence of Lithium Reactions with Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, Roman; Skinner, C. H.; Koel, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Liquid lithium plasma facing components (PFCs) are being developed to handle long pulse, high heat loads in tokamaks. Wetting by lithium of its container is essential for this application, but can be hindered by lithium oxidation by residual gases or during tokamak maintenance. Lithium PFCs will experience elevated temperatures due to plasma heat flux. This work presents measurements of lithium reactions at elevated temperatures (298-373 K) when exposed to natural air. Cylindrical TZM wells 300 microns deep with 1 cm2 surface area were filled with metallic lithium in a glovebox containing argon with less than 1.6 ppm H20, O2, and N2. The wells were transferred to a hot plate in air, and then removed periodically for mass gain measurements. Changes in the surface topography were recorded with a microscope. The mass gain of the samples at elevated temperatures followed a markedly different behavior to that at room temperature. One sample at 373 K began turning red indicative of lithium nitride, while a second turned white indicative of lithium carbonate formation. Data on the mass gain vs. temperature and associated topographic changes of the surface will be presented. Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship funded by Department of Energy.

  20. Self-pressurization of a spherical liquid hydrogen storage tank in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal stratification and self-pressurization of partially filled liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks under microgravity condition is studied theoretically. A spherical tank is subjected to a uniform and constant wall heat flux. It is assumed that a vapor bubble is located in the tank center such that the liquid-vapor interface and tank wall form two concentric spheres. This vapor bubble represents an idealized configuration of a wetting fluid in microgravity conditions. Dimensionless mass and energy conservation equations for both vapor and liquid regions are numerically solved. Coordinate transformation is used to capture the interface location which changes due to liquid thermal expansion, vapor compression, and mass transfer at liquid-vapor interface. The effects of tank size, liquid fill level, and wall heat flux on the pressure rise and thermal stratification are studied. Liquid thermal expansion tends to cause vapor condensation and wall heat flux tends to cause liquid evaporation at the interface. The combined effects determine the direction of mass transfer at the interface. Liquid superheat increases with increasing wall heat flux and liquid fill level and approaches an asymptotic value.

  1. Self-pressurization of a spherical liquid hydrogen storage tank in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal stratification and self-pressurization of partially filled liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks under microgravity condition is studied theoretically. A spherical tank is subjected to a uniform and constant wall heat flux. It is assumed that a vapor bubble is located in the tank center such that the liquid-vapor interface and tank wall form two concentric spheres. This vapor bubble represents an idealized configuration of a wetting fluid in microgravity conditions. Dimensionless mass and energy conservation equations for both vapor and liquid regions are numerically solved. Coordinate transformation is used to capture the interface location which changes due to liquid thermal expansion, vapor compression, and mass transfer at liquid-vapor interface. The effects of tank size, liquid fill level, and wall heat flux on the pressure rise and thermal stratification are studied. Liquid thermal expansion tends to cause vapor condensation and wall heat flux tends to cause liquid evaporation at the interface. The combined effects determine the direction of mass transfer at the interface. Liquid superheat increases with increasing wall heat flux and liquid fill level and approaches an asymptotic value.

  2. The Impact Of Lithium Wall Coatings On NSTX Discharges And The Engineering Of The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski, H. Kugel and R. Kaita

    2010-03-18

    Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown the benefits of solid lithium coatings on carbon PFC's to diverted plasma performance, in both Land H- mode confinement regimes. Better particle control, with decreased inductive flux consumption, and increased electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate were observed. Successive increases in lithium coverage resulted in the complete suppression of ELM activity in H-mode discharges. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD), which will employ the porous molybdenum surface developed for the LTX shell, is being installed on NSTX for the 2010 run period, and will provide comparisons between liquid walls in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) and liquid divertor targets in NSTX. LTX, which recently began operations at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the world's first confinement experiment with full liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs). All materials and construction techniques in LTX are compatible with liquid lithium. LTX employs an inner, heated, stainless steel-faced liner or shell, which will be lithium-coated. In order to ensure that lithium adheres to the shell, it is designed to operate at up to 500 - 600 oC to promote wetting of the stainless by the lithium, providing the first hot wall in a tokamak to operate at reactor-relevant temperatures. The engineering of LTX will be discussed.

  3. Lithium in 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  4. Development of a bipolar cell for electrochemical production of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Mack, G.; Peterman, K.; Weinland, S.; McKenzie, P.

    1995-02-22

    Lithium metal can be electrolytically refined from aqueous solutions of its compounds by partial reduction to form a lithium amalgam, followed by reduction of the amalgam to liquid lithium in a molten salt cell at 225 C. A bipolar cell (with a continuous, amalgam electrode circulating between the aqueous and salt cells) was designed, constructed and successfully tested on the bench scale, as a proof of principle of an efficient, safe and low-temperature alternative to existing processes.

  5. Liquid hydrogen suction dip and slosh wave excitation during draining under normal and reduced gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, slosh wave excitation under normal and reduced gravity and different flow rates during liquid hydrogen draining. Liquid residuals at the incipience of suction dip increase as the values of gravity decrease. Also liquid residuals increase with the draining flow rates. Lower ratio of Bond number and Weber number are unable to excite slosh waves. Lower flow rates and higher gravity excites waves with lower frequencies and higher wave amplitude slosh waves.

  6. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    1985-03-01

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150 °C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. he lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0 °C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60 °C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  7. LiTFSI in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide: a possible electrolyte for ionic liquid based lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Schubert, Thomas J S; Iliev, Boyan; Endres, Frank

    2015-05-07

    In this communication, we show that the combination of 1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide (LiTFSI/[Py1,4]FSI) can be regarded as a possible stable electrolyte for IL based lithium ion batteries. We compare the charge-discharge results with the electrolyte 1 M LiTFSI in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([Py1,4]TFSI) on an electrodeposited Ge electrode and show using a charge-discharge analysis and Raman spectroscopy that 1 M LiTFSI/[Py1,4]FSI is advantageous in maintaining the charge capacity as well as electrolyte stability at high current densities.

  8. Changes in the local environment surrounding magnesium ions in fragile MgO-SiO{sub 2} liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilding, M. C.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K. R.; X-Ray Science Division; Aberystwyth Univ.; Materials Development Inc.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected in situ for a series of magnesium silicate liquids between and including the two mineral compositions enstatite and forsterite (MgSiO{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). The pair distribution functions obtained from these data show that the local oxygen environment around the magnesium ions contrasts with that found in the equivalent glasses. We identify a transition window between 42 and 38 mole %SiO{sub 2} where the average magnesium coordination number changes on cooling from a Mg-O coordination number of {approx}5.1 {+-} 0.2 in the liquid state to a value of 4.5 {+-} 0.1 in the glass. This change in structure reflects a competition between a sparsely polymerized silicate network and a disordered magnesium framework in the liquid, while the silicate network dominates in the glass.

  9. Decoupling of dynamic processes in surfactant-based liquid mixtures: the case of lithium-containing bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid/bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine systems.

    PubMed

    Nicotera, Isabella; Oliviero Rossi, Cesare; Turco Liveri, Vincenzo; Calandra, Pietro

    2014-07-22

    Pure surfactant liquids and their binary mixtures, because of the amphiphilic nature of the molecules involved, can exhibit nanosegregation and peculiar transport properties. The idea that inspired this work is that the possibility of including in such media salts currently used for technological applications should lead to a synergy between the properties of the salt and those of the medium. Therefore, the dynamic features of bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine (BEEA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) liquid mixtures were investigated as a function of composition and temperature by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and rheometry. Inclusion of litium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiT) has been investigated by infrared spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient NMR, and conductimetry methods to highlight the solubilizing and confining properties of these mixtures as well as the lithium conductivity. It was found that BEEA/HDEHP binary liquid mixtures show zero-threshold percolating self-assembly with a maximum in viscosity and a minimum in molecular diffusion at a 1:1 composition. Dissolution of LiT in such system can occur via confinement in the locally self-assembled polar domains. Despite this confinement, Li(+) conduction is scarcely dependent on the medium composition because of the possibility of a field-induced hopping decoupled by the structural and dynamical features of the medium.

  10. Studies on the translational and rotational motions of ionic liquids composed of N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13) cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide anions and their binary systems including lithium salts.

    PubMed

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Fujii, Kenta; Suenaga, Masahiko; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-21

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, IL) are stable liquids composed of anions and cations. N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P(13), Py(13), PYR(13), or mppy) is an important cation and produces stable ILs with various anions. In this study two amide-type anions, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide [N(SO(2)CF(3))(2), TFSA, TFSI, NTf(2), or Tf(2)N] and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide [N(SO(2)F)(2), FSA, or FSI], were investigated. In addition to P(13)-TFSA and P(13)-FSA, lithium salt doped samples were prepared (P(13)-TFSA-Li and P(13)-FSA-Li). The individual ion diffusion coefficients (D) and spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) were measured by (1)H, (19)F, and (7)Li NMR. At the same time, the ionic conductivity (σ), viscosity (η), and density (ρ) were measured over a wide temperature range. The van der Waals volumes of P(13), TFSA, FSA, Li(TFSA)(2), and Li(FSA)(3) were estimated by molecular orbital calculations. The experimental values obtained in this study were analyzed by the classical Stokes-Einstein, Nernst-Einstein (NE), and Stokes-Einstein-Debye equations and Walden plots were also made for the neat and binary ILs to clarify physical and mobile properties of individual ions. From the temperature-dependent velocity correlation coefficients for neat P(13)-TFSA and P(13)-FSA, the NE parameter 1-ξ was evaluated. The ionicity (electrochemical molar conductivity divided by the NE conductivity from NMR) and the 1-ξ had exactly the same values. The rotational and translational motions of P(13) and jump of a lithium ion are also discussed.

  11. Studies on the translational and rotational motions of ionic liquids composed of N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13) cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide anions and their binary systems including lithium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Fujii, Kenta; Suenaga, Masahiko; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, IL) are stable liquids composed of anions and cations. N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13, Py13, PYR13, or mppy) is an important cation and produces stable ILs with various anions. In this study two amide-type anions, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide [N(SO2CF3)2, TFSA, TFSI, NTf2, or Tf2N] and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide [N(SO2F)2, FSA, or FSI], were investigated. In addition to P13-TFSA and P13-FSA, lithium salt doped samples were prepared (P13-TFSA-Li and P13-FSA-Li). The individual ion diffusion coefficients (D) and spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) were measured by H1, F19, and L7i NMR. At the same time, the ionic conductivity (σ), viscosity (η), and density (ρ) were measured over a wide temperature range. The van der Waals volumes of P13, TFSA, FSA, Li(TFSA)2, and Li(FSA)3 were estimated by molecular orbital calculations. The experimental values obtained in this study were analyzed by the classical Stokes-Einstein, Nernst-Einstein (NE), and Stokes-Einstein-Debye equations and Walden plots were also made for the neat and binary ILs to clarify physical and mobile properties of individual ions. From the temperature-dependent velocity correlation coefficients for neat P13-TFSA and P13-FSA, the NE parameter 1-ξ was evaluated. The ionicity (electrochemical molar conductivity divided by the NE conductivity from NMR) and the 1-ξ had exactly the same values. The rotational and translational motions of P13 and jump of a lithium ion are also discussed.

  12. Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Solid Electrolyte Membrane and Lithium Polysulfide Catholyte.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xingwen; Bi, Zhonghe; Zhao, Feng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-08-05

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are receiving great attention as the most promising next-generation power source with significantly high charge-storage capacity. However, the implementation of Li-S batteries is hampered by a critical challenge because of the soluble nature of the intermediate polysulfide species in the liquid electrolyte. The use of traditional porous separators unavoidably allows the migration of the dissolved polysulfide species from the cathode to the lithium-metal anode and results in continuous loss of capacity. In this study, a LiSICON (lithium super ionic conductor) solid membrane is used as a cation-selective electrolyte for lithium-polysulfide (Li-PS) batteries to suppress the polysulfide diffusion. Ionic conductivity issue at the lithium metal/solid electrolyte interface is successfully addressed by insertion of a "soft", liquid-electrolyte integrated polypropylene interlayer. The solid LiSICON lithium-ion conductor maintains stable ionic conductivity during the electrochemical cycling of the cells. The Li-PS battery system with a hybrid solid/liquid electrolyte exhibits significantly enhanced cyclability relative to the cells with the traditional liquid-electrolyte integrated porous separator.

  13. Mass Transfer in the Dissolution of a Multi-Component Liquid Droplet in an Immiscible Liquid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jonathan T.; Needham, David

    2013-01-01

    The Epstein Plesset equation has recently been shown to accurately predict the dissolution of a pure liquid microdroplet into a second immiscible solvent, such as oil into water. Here, we present a series of new experiments and a modification to this equation to model the dissolution of a two-component oil-mixture microdroplet into a second immiscible solvent, in which the two materials of the droplet have different solubilities. The model is based upon a reduced surface area approximation and the assumption of ideal homogenous mixing: Massfluxdmidt=AfraciDi(ci-cs){1R+1πDit}, where Afraci is the area fraction of component I; ci and cs are the initial and saturation concentrations of the droplet material in the surrounding medium; R is the radius of the droplet; t is time; and Di is the coefficient of diffusion of component I in the surrounding medium. This new model has been tested by use of a two-chamber micropipette-based method, which measured the dissolution of single individual microdroplets of mutually-miscible liquid mixtures (ethyl acetate/butyl acetate, and butyl acetate/amyl acetate) into water. We additionally measured the diffusion coefficient of the pure materials: ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, and amyl acetate, in water at 22 deg C. Diffusion coefficients for the pure acetates in water were: 8.65 x 10−6, 7.61 x 10−6, and 9.14 x 10−6 cm2/s respectively. This model accurately predicts the dissolution of microdroplets for the ethyl acetate/butyl acetate and butyl acetate/amyl acetate systems given the solubility and diffusion coefficients of each of the individual components in water as well as the initial droplet radius. The average mean squared error was 8.96%. The dissolution of a spherical ideally mixed multi-component droplet closely follows the modified Epstein Plesset model presented here. PMID:24050124

  14. 2,4-Toluene Diisocyanate Detection in Liquid and Gas Environments through Electrochemical Oxidation in an Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lu; Rehman, Abdul; Chi, Xiaowei; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) in an ionic liquid (IL) has been systematically characterized to determine plausible electrochemical and chemical reaction mechanisms and to define the optimal detection methods for such a highly significant analyte. It has been found that the use of an IL as the electrolyte allows the oxidation of 2,4-TDI to occur at a less positive anodic potential with no side reactions as compared to traditional acetonitrile based electrolytes. UV-Vis, FT-IR, Cyclic Voltammetry and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) studies have revealed the unique mechanisms of dimerization of 2,4-TDI at the electrode interface by self-addition reactions, which can be utilized to improve the selectivity of detection. The study of 2,4-TDI redox chemistry further facilitates the development of a robust amperometric sensing methodology by selecting a hydrophobic IL ([C4mpy][NTf2]) and by restricting the potential window to only include the oxidation process. Thus, this innovative electrochemical sensor is capable of avoiding the two most ubiquitous interferents in ambient conditions (i.e. humidity and oxygen), thereby enhancing the sensor performance and reliability for real world applications. The method was established to detect 2,4–TDI in both liquid and gas phases. The limits of detection (LOD) values were 130.2 ppm and 0.7862 ppm, respectively, for the two phases, and are comparable to the safety standards reported by NIOSH. The as-developed 2.4-TDI amperometric sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 1.939 μA/ppm. Moreover, due to the simplicity of design and the use of an IL both as a solvent and non-volatile electrolyte, the sensor has the potential to be miniaturized for smart sensing protocols in distributed sensor applications. PMID:26763507

  15. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Influence of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability on Liquid Propellant Reorientation in a Low-Gravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhang-Guo; Liu, Qiu-Sheng; Liu, Rong; Hu, Wei; Deng, Xin-Yu

    2009-11-01

    A computational simulation is conducted to investigate the influence of Rayleigh-Taylor instability on liquid propellant reorientation flow dynamics for the tank of CZ-3A launch vehicle series fuel tanks in a low-gravity environment. The volume-of-fluid (VOF) method is used to simulate the free surface flow of gas-liquid. The process of the liquid propellant reorientation started from initially flat and curved interfaces are numerically studied. These two different initial conditions of the gas-liquid interface result in two modes of liquid flow. It is found that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability can be reduced evidently at the initial gas-liquid interface with a high curve during the process of liquid reorientation in a low-gravity environment.

  16. Influence of surface charge on the transport characteristics of nanowire-field effect transistors in liquid environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Daijiro E-mail: research@nano.tu-dresden.de; Kunstmann, Jens; Zörgiebel, Felix; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2015-05-18

    One dimensional nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) are a promising platform for sensor applications. The transport characteristics of NW-FETs are strongly modified in liquid environment due to the charging of surface functional groups accompanied with protonation or deprotonation. In order to investigate the influence of surface charges and ionic concentrations on the transport characteristics of Schottky-barrier NW-FETs, we have combined the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Landauer-Büttiker transport formalism. For a typical device, the model is able to capture the reduction of the sensitivity of NW-FETs in ionic solutions due to the screening from counter ions as well as a local gating from surface functional groups. Our approach allows to model, to investigate, and to optimize realistic Schottky-barrier NW-FET devices in liquid environment.

  17. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study. Appendix B: Liquid rocket booster acoustic and thermal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The ascent thermal environment and propulsion acoustic sources for the Martin-Marietta Corporation designed Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRB) to be used with the Space Shuttle Orbiter and External Tank are described. Two designs were proposed: one using a pump-fed propulsion system and the other using a pressure-fed propulsion system. Both designs use LOX/RP-1 propellants, but differences in performance of the two propulsion systems produce significant differences in the proposed stage geometries, exhaust plumes, and resulting environments. The general characteristics of the two designs which are significant for environmental predictions are described. The methods of analysis and predictions for environments in acoustics, aerodynamic heating, and base heating (from exhaust plume effects) are also described. The acoustic section will compare the proposed exhaust plumes with the current SRB from the standpoint of acoustics and ignition overpressure. The sections on thermal environments will provide details of the LRB heating rates and indications of possible changes in the Orbiter and ET environments as a result of the change from SRBs to LRBs.

  18. Bubble Induced Disruption of a Planar Solid-Liquid Interface During Controlled Directional Solidification in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.; Anilkumar, Amrutur V.

    2013-01-01

    Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) experiments were conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station with the intent of better understanding the role entrained porosity/bubbles play during controlled directional solidification. The planar interface in a slowing growing succinonitrile - 0.24 wt% water alloy was being observed when a nitrogen bubble traversed the mushy zone and remained at the solid-liquid interface. Breakdown of the interface to shallow cells subsequently occurred, and was later evaluated using down-linked data from a nearby thermocouple. These results and other detrimental effects due to the presence of bubbles during solidification processing in a microgravity environment are presented and discussed.

  19. Thermally-responsive, nonflammable phosphonium ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium metal batteries: operating at 100 degrees celsius† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed ionic liquids synthesis, characterization, conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, battery cycling and those of other compositions; SEM images; energy density calculation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01518a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, X.; Kavian, R.; Lu, Y.; Hu, Q.; Shao-Horn, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries such as Li ion/Li metal batteries are widely used in the electronics market but the chemical instability of the electrolyte limits their use in more demanding environmental conditions such as in automotive, oil exploration, or mining applications. In this study, a series of alkyl phosphonium ionic liquid electrolyte are described with high thermal stability and solubility for LiTFSI. A lithium metal battery (LMB) containing a tailored phosphonium ionic liquid/LiTFSI electrolyte operates at 100 °C with good specific capacities and cycling stability. Substantial capacity is maintained during 70 cycles or 30 days. Instant on-off battery operation is realized via the significant temperature dependence of the electrolyte material, demonstrating the robustness and potential for use at high temperature. PMID:28757963

  20. Magnetic ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system coupled with high performance liquid chromatography: A rapid approach for determination of chloramphenicol in water environment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tian; Yao, Shun

    2017-01-20

    A novel organic magnetic ionic liquid based on guanidinium cation was synthesized and characterized. A new method of magnetic ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (MILATPs) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was established to preconcentrate and determine trace amount of chloramphenicol (CAP) in water environment for the first time. In the absence of volatile organic solvents, MILATPs not only has the excellent properties of rapid extraction, but also exhibits a response to an external magnetic field which can be applied to assist phase separation. The phase behavior of MILATPs was investigated and phase equilibrium data were correlated by Merchuk equation. Various influencing factors on CAP recovery were systematically investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the preconcentration factor was 147.2 with the precision values (RSD%) of 2.42% and 4.45% for intra-day (n=6) and inter-day (n=6), respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.14ngmL(-1) and 0.42ngmL(-1), respectively. Fine linear range of 12.25ngmL(-1)-2200ngmL(-1) was obtained. Finally, the validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of CAP in some environmental waters with the recoveries for the spiked samples in the acceptable range of 94.6%-99.72%. Hopefully, MILATPs is showing great potential to promote new development in the field of extraction, separation and pretreatment of various biochemical samples.

  1. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication.

  2. Temporal evolution of liquid-assisted hard bio-tissue ablation with infrared pulsed lasers under a liquid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Faner; Li, Qiang; Hua, Mingxin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Xie, Shusen; Zhang, Xianzeng

    2016-10-01

    Liquid-assisted hard biotissue ablation with the pulsed lasers takes advantages in precision and compatibility than mechanical tools in traditional surgery. The objective of this study was to monitor the dynamic process of the cavitation bubble evolution induced by Ho:YAG laser under water and identify the opening time of channel formation between the fiber tip to the target tissue surface. A free-running Ho:YAG laser was used in the experiment. The wavelength was 2.1 μm with a pulse duration of 350 us and pulse energy varied from 500 mJ to 2000 mJ. The high-speed camera (PCO. dimax, Germany, PCO) applied to monitor the whole ablation process was setting at a frame rate of 52000 frames/s. The results showed that the cavitation bubble induced by laser energy experienced an oscillation process including occurrence, expansion, contraction and subsequent collapse. A channel connected the fiber tip and target tissue surface was formed during the dynamic process which allowed the following pulse energy transmitted through the channel with a relative low absorption and directly interacted with the target tissue. The beginning time of channel formation, as well as the duration of channel opening, as functions of incident laser energy were also presented. A micro-explosion was observed near the tissue surface during the bubble collapse, which may contribute to produce a clean cut, reduce the thermal injury and improve the morphology of ablation crater.

  3. Recent developments and future prospects for lithium rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, A. G.

    Possible future developments of lithium rechargeable batteries are discussed. Lithium ion liquid electrolyte batteries are now well established, with energy densities of up to around 150 Wh kg -1. There are prospects of increases in the energy density to perhaps 200-250 Wh kg -1 by using new cathode materials (lithium nickel cobalt oxide) and light weight construction. High power cells make it possible for these batteries to find new uses, e.g. in military applications. Some new materials could reduce the cost, which might make lithium rechargeable batteries economic for electric vehicles.

  4. Mechanisms of nanoparticle formation by ultra-short laser ablation of metals in liquid environment.

    PubMed

    Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E; Itina, Tatiana E; Levashov, Pavel R; Khishchenko, Konstantin V

    2013-03-07

    Laser ablation in liquids is now commonly used to produce colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) that have found numerous applications in different areas. In experiments, NPs of different materials can be rather easily obtained by using laser systems with various pulse durations, shapes, wavelengths, and fluences. In this paper, we focus our attention on metal (gold) NPs produced by ultra-short laser pulses. To better understand the mechanisms of the NPs formation, we perform modeling of femtosecond laser interactions with a gold target in the presence of liquid (water). Simulation of the ablation process over several nanoseconds shows that most of the primary NPs originate from the ablated metastable liquid layer, whereas only a minority is formed by condensation inside the cavitation bubble. These particles will further grow/evaporate, and coagulate during a much longer collision stage in the liquid colloid.

  5. Fundamental Study of Nano-Scale Adhesion and Friction Properties of Graphene in Ambient Air and Liquid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramayanam, Sai Suvineeth

    The aim of this study is to understand the fundamental tribological interactions of model contacts developed between a 'single' asperity silicon tip and a few layer graphene surface in ambient air, ionic liquid, and lubricating oil environments. The motivation to investigate such fundamental interactions stems from the need to gain an understanding of the tribological properties, morphology and defects of few layer graphene with respect to different synthesis methods including both bottom-up and top-down approaches. In particular, the surface properties of atomically thin sheets of graphene synthesized by three methods; (i) liquid phase exfoliation of graphene, (ii) chemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide, on a silicon oxide substrate, and (iii) graphene synthesis by halogen based plasma etching on a silicon carbide substrate are studied using atomic force microscopy, lateral force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Friction of Si 'single' asperities sliding against a few layer graphene surface in ambient air, ionic liquid, and lubricating oil environments is reported. It is found that oxygen based defects play a major role in controlling the friction and adhesion properties of few layer graphene surfaces. The role of substrate and its bonding with the few layer graphene is also an important parameter. In liquids, we report a newly observed Stribeck like behavior in the nanoscale. This work can lead to important device applications with reduced friction such as contact-based microelectromechanical systems. It also sheds light on liquid-graphene interfacial characteristics which can be proved vital in applications spanning from electrochemical energy devices to nanolubricants.

  6. Heteroaromatic-based electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Gang; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2017-04-18

    The present invention provides an electrolyte for lithium and/or lithium-ion batteries comprising a lithium salt in a liquid carrier comprising heteroaromatic compound including a five-membered or six-membered heteroaromatic ring moiety selected from the group consisting of a furan, a pyrazine, a triazine, a pyrrole, and a thiophene, the heteroaromatic ring moiety bearing least one carboxylic ester or carboxylic anhydride substituent bound to at least one carbon atom of the heteroaromatic ring. Preferred heteroaromatic ring moieties include pyridine compounds, pyrazine compounds, pyrrole compounds, furan compounds, and thiophene compounds.

  7. Selective Recovery of Lithium from Cathode Materials of Spent Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Akitoshi; Ankei, Naoki; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    2016-10-01

    Selective recovery of lithium from four kinds of cathode materials, manganese-type, cobalt-type, nickel-type, and ternary-type, of spent lithium ion battery was investigated. In all cathode materials, leaching of lithium was improved by adding sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) as an oxidant in the leaching solution, while the leaching of other metal ions (manganese, cobalt, and nickel) was significantly suppressed. Optimum leaching conditions, such as pH, temperature, amount of Na2S2O8, and solid/liquid ratio, for the selective leaching of lithium were determined for all cathode materials. Recovery of lithium from the leachate as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) was then successfully achieved by adding sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to the leachate. Optimum recovery conditions, such as pH, temperature, and amount of Na2CO3, for the recovery of lithium as Li2CO3 were determined for all cases. Purification of Li2CO3 was achieved by lixiviation in all systems, with purities of the Li2CO3 higher than 99.4%, which is almost satisfactory for the battery-grade purity of lithium.

  8. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  9. Study of plasma-facing components in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment with the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Boyle, D. P.; Granstedt, E. M.; Jacobson, C. M.; Schmitt, J. C.; Allain, J. P.; Bedoya, F.; Gonderman, S.

    2013-10-01

    The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) is a spherical torus designed to accommodate solid or liquid lithium as the primary plasma-facing component (PFC). We present initial results from the implementation on LTX of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) diagnostic, a collaboration among PPPL, Purdue University, and the University of Illinois. MAPP is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, and its operation on LTX will provide the first ever in situ surface measurements of a tokamak first wall environment. With MAPP's analysis techniques, we will study the evolution of the surface chemistry of LTX's first wall as a function of varied temperature and lithium coating. During its 2013 run campaign, LTX will use an electron beam to evaporate lithium onto the first wall from an in-vessel reservoir. We will use two quartz crystal microbalances to estimate thickness of lithium coatings thus applied to the MAPP probe. We have recently installed a set of triple Langmuir probes on LTX, and they will be used to relate LTX edge plasma parameters to MAPP results. We will combine data from MAPP and the triple probes to estimate the local edge recycling coefficient based on desorption of retained hydrogen. This work was supported by U.S. DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. Results of R and D for lithium/vanadium breeding blanket design

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Reed, C.B.; Park, J.H.; Kirillov, I.R.; Strebkov, Yu.S.; Rusanov, A.E.; Votinov, S.N.

    1997-04-01

    The self-cooled lithium/vanadium blanket concept has several attractive features for fusion power systems, including reduced activation, resistance to radiation damage, accommodation of high heat loads and operating to temperatures of 650--700 C. The primary issue associated with the lithium/vanadium concept is the potentially high MHD pressure drop experienced by the lithium as it flows through the high magnetic field of the tokamak. The solution to this issue is to apply a thin insulating coating to the inside of the vanadium alloy to prevent the generation of eddy currents within the structure that are responsible for the high MHD forces and pressure drop. This paper presents progress in the development of an insulator coating that is capable of operating in the severe fusion environment, progress in the fabrication development of vanadium alloys, and a summary of MHD testing. A large number of small scale tests of vanadium alloy specimens coated with CaO and AlN have been conducted in liquid lithium to determine the resistivity and stability of the coating. In-situ measurements in lithium have determined that CaO coatings, {approximately} 5 {micro}m thick, have resistivity times thickness values exceeding 10{sup 6} {Omega}-cm{sup 2}. These results have been used to identify fabrication procedures for coating a large vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) test section that was tested in the ALEX (Argonne Liquid metal Experiment) facility. Similar test sections have been produced in both Russia and the US.

  11. Probing the electronic environment of binary and ternary ionic liquid mixtures by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Shuang; Licence, Peter

    2017-10-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to probe the electronic environment of cations and anions for three binary and one ternary chlorostannate ionic liquid mixtures. The impact of the weighting of Cl- on the electronic environment of the cation-based nitrogen atom is revealed in detail. With the increasing of the concentration of Cl-, the N 1s binding energy is decreased. The electronic environment of the anion-based component is also compared based upon Sn 3d5/2 and Cl 2p3/2 binding energies. It is found that with the increasing of the weighting of Cl-, binding energies of Sn 3d5/2 and Cl 2p3/2 both decrease.

  12. Thermal and structural study of the crystal phases and mesophases in the lithium and thallium(i) propanoates and pentanoates binary systems: formation of mixed salts and stabilization of the ionic liquid crystal phase.

    PubMed

    Martínez Casado, F J; Ramos Riesco, M; da Silva, I; Labrador, A; Redondo, M I; García Pérez, M V; López-Andrés, S; Rodríguez Cheda, J A

    2010-08-12

    The temperature and enthalpy vs composition phase diagrams of the binary systems [xC(2)H(5)CO(2)Li + (1 - x)C(2)H(5)CO(2)Tl], and [x(n-C(4)H(9)CO(2)Li) + (1 - x)n-C(4)H(9)CO(2)Tl], where x is the mole fraction, were determined by DSC. Both binary systems display the formation of one 2:1 mixed salt each (at x = 0.667) that appear as a peritectic (incongruent melting) at T(fus) = 512.0 K, and T(fus) = 461.1 K, with Delta(fus)H(m) = 13.76 and 8.08 kJ.mol(-1) for Li-Tl (I) propanoates, and n-pentanoate mixed salts, respectively. The thermotropic liquid crystal of the thallium(I) n-pentanoate transforms into a more stable liquid-crystal phase, which appears in the phase diagram between 380 and 488 K and for x = 0 up to x = 0.56. The crystal structure of thallium(I) propanoate and of the two mixed salts were obtained via X-ray synchrotron radiation diffraction measurements. These compounds present a bilayered structure similar to the two pure lithium salts previously found by our group.

  13. Nondisruptive Dissolution of Hyperpolarized 129 Xe into Viscous Aqueous and Organic Liquid Crystalline Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Truxal, Ashley E.; Slack, Clancy C.; Gomes, Muller D.; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Wemmer, David E.; Pines, Alexander

    2016-03-08

    Studies of hyperpolarized xenon-129 in media such as liquid crystals and cell suspensions are in demand for applications ranging from biomedical imaging to materials engineering but have been hindered by the inability to bubble Xe through the desired media as a result of viscosity or perturbations caused by bubbles. This research reports on a device that can be reliably used to dissolve hp- 129 Xe into viscous aqueous and organic samples without bubbling. This method is robust, requires small sample volumes ( < 60 μL), is compatible with existing NMR hardware, and is made from readily available materials. Experiments show that Xe can be introduced into viscous and aligned media without disrupting molecular order. We detected dissolved xenon in an aqueous liquid crystal that is disrupted by the shear forces of bubbling, and we observed liquid-crystal phase transitions in (MBBA). This tool allows an entirely new class of samples to be investigated by hyperpolarized-gas NMR spectroscopy. Blending into the crowd: A new device that facilitates the direct dissolution of hyperpolarized 129 Xe into viscous liquid-crystalline media is presented. 129 Xe and 2 H NMR spectra show the nondisruptive dissolution of xenon, the presence of ordered phases, and, in the case of the thermotropic liquid crystal N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline, a nematic-isotropic phase transition.

  14. Influence of Melt Convection on Solid-Liquid Interface Under Terrestrial and Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Solidification and crystal growth processes involve thermal and solutal gradients within a molten phase. In the presence of gravity, such gradients result in convective flows which interact with diffusion fields at the solid-liquid interface. Dendritic growth kinetics was studied in transparent model systems which freeze similarily to most metals. Succinonitrile shows a strong influence of convection at supercoolings below about 1K. Fluid flows adjacent to solid-liquid interfaces and the behavior of shear flows in vertical annular geometries are studied. Novel low-frequency eigenstates were discovered and classified as coupled modes, for their involvement with interfacial deformation coupled to the fluid flow, and are unknown in systems without deformable interfaces. The dependence of coupled convection modes on interfacial geometry, gravity, fluid properties, and transformation characteristics studied for several annual flow arrangements with nominally pure solid-liquid systems.

  15. Determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in the aquatic environment using hollow fibre supported liquid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtibe, A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Phthalates are known to be carcinogenic, teratogenic as well as endocrine disruptors. The potential risk to human and animals health generated from them has drawn great attention all over the world. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) online with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater. Toluene, di-n-hexyl ether and undecane were used as liquid barriers separating both donor (sample) and acceptor phase. Toluene performed much better than undecane and was used in sample preparation. The presence of toluene showed the potential for the enrichment and removal of phthalates to the concentrations ranges from 0 to 1.7 mg L-1.

  16. Development of a Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane System for Propionic Acid Separation in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jin; Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Wiencek, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Perstractive fermentation is a good way to increase the productivity of bioreactors. Using Propionibacteria as the model system, the feasibility of using supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) for perstractive fermentation is assessed in this study. Five industrial solvents were considered as the solvent for preparing the SELM. The more polar a solvent is, the higher the partition coefficient. However, toxicity of a solvent also increases with its polarity. CO-1055 (industrial decanol/octanol blend) has the highest partition coefficient toward propionic acid among the solvents that has no molecular toxicity toward Propionibacteria. A preliminary extraction study was conducted using tetradecane as solvent in a hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. The result confirmed that SELM eliminates the equilibrium limitation of conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and allows the use of a non-toxic solvent with low partition coefficient.

  17. Development of a Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane System for Propionic Acid Separation in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jin; Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Wiencek, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Perstractive fermentation is a good way to increase the productivity of bioreactors. Using Propionibacteria as the model system, the feasibility of using supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) for perstractive fermentation is assessed in this study. Five industrial solvents were considered as the solvent for preparing the SELM. The more polar a solvent is, the higher the partition coefficient. However, toxicity of a solvent also increases with its polarity. CO-1055 (industrial decanol/octanol blend) has the highest partition coefficient toward propionic acid among the solvents that has no molecular toxicity toward Propionibacteria. A preliminary extraction study was conducted using tetradecane as solvent in a hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. The result confirmed that SELM eliminates the equilibrium limitation of conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and allows the use of a non-toxic solvent with low partition coefficient.

  18. Mechanisms of enhanced lithium intercalation into thin film V2O5 in ionic liquids investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Luis; Światowska, Jolanta; Lair, Virginie; Zanna, Sandrine; Seyeux, Antoine; Melendez-Ceballos, Arturo; Tran-Van, Pierre; Cassir, Michel; Marcus, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) attract much attention as a new type of environmentally benign electrolytes for Li-ion batteries due to their numerous interesting physicochemical properties. Here, in this paper, Li intercalation/deintercalation in presence of the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR14TFSI) and N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR13FSI) containing 0.3 M LiTFSI, was evaluated in a thin 100 nm layer of V2O5 deposited on Al substrate by atomic layer deposition. Potentiodynamic tests performed in LiTFSI/Pyr14TFSI show a quasi-reversible Li intercalation during 10 cycles (between 2.4 and 5 V) with an average coulombic efficiency of 99%. The capacity, calculated from the 1st cycle, is found to be 182 mAh g-1, about 19% (±2%) higher than the theoretical capacity reported for V2O5 (147 mAh g-1). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirms that the intercalation of more than 1 mol of Li+ per V2O5 is achieved as also the possible presence of a solid permeable interface (SPI) layer on the V2O5 surface. Likewise, the Li+ in-depth distribution on the V2O5 layer after intercalation in RTILs measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry ion depth profiles, show small irreversible electrode modifications with the presence of lithium through the entire V2O5 layer with significant lithium trapping at the V2O5 layer/Al substrate interface.

  19. Pressure-coupled vaporization and combustion responses of liquid-fuel droplets in high-pressure environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor; Shuen, J. S.; Hsiao, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic responses of liquid-fuel droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient pressure oscillations are examined. The analysis is based on the complete sets of conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates detailed treatments of finite-rate chemical kinetics and variable properties. With a full account of thermodynamic phase equilibrium at the droplet surface, the model enables a systematic examination of the effects of ambient flow conditions on the droplet behavior. The responses of hydrocarbon fuel droplets in both sub- and super-critical environments are investigated. Results indicate that the droplet gasification and burning mechanisms depend greatly on the ambient pressure. In particular, a rapid enlargement of the vaporization and combustion responses occurs when the droplet surface reaches its critical point, mainly due to the strong variations of latent heat of vaporization and thermophysical properties at the critical state.

  20. Thermochemistry of tantalum-wall cooling system with lithium and sodium working fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.

    1972-01-01

    Plots are presented which show the distribution of oxygen between liquid lithium and tantalum or niobium, and between liquid sodium and tantalum at elevated temperatures. Additional plots showing the composition of the gas phase above the solutions of oxygen and alkali metal are presented. The use of the plots is illustrated by an example tantalum heat pipe filled with lithium.

  1. High-resolution quantitative imaging of subcellular morphology and cell refractometry in a liquid environment via endogenous mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Kert; Farahi, Faramarz

    2014-03-01

    Biological cells are composed primarily of water; and as such are challenging to image without staining since the induced intensity modulation of transmitted or reflected light is typically insufficient to permit acceptable contrast for optical imaging. This issue may be resolved with the aid of exogenous contrast agents, but this often has a deleterious effect on the cell and precludes in vivo imaging. A unique approach to this problem is afforded by the phase contrast microscope in which optical-path differences in transmitted light is exploited as a contrast mechanism for qualitative imaging. In recent years however, several quantitative phase imaging techniques have been developed which allow for diffraction limited endogenous-contrast imaging with excellent temporal resolution. We hereby present a laser scanning technique for quantitative phase imaging which achieves sub-diffraction limited resolution at the expense of temporal resolution. This instrument is based on a stabilized fiber interfometer which is incorporated into a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) for tri-modal imaging. Our latest results will focus on modifications made to this system to facilitate imaging in a liquid environment. A simple approach for achieving stable shear-force feedback operation in a liquid will be presented. Acquired high resolution images of white blood cells revealed detailed sub-cellular features. Images of fibroblast cells in air and in a liquid environment confirm the efficacy of the feedback operation in a liquid. Moreover, we demonstrate cell refractometry capability without the need for ad hoc modifications. These results clearly highlight the unique potential of this instrument for the study of living cells.

  2. Hydrophobic optical elements for near-field optical analysis (NOA) in liquid environment--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sommer, A P; Franke, R-P

    2002-01-01

    Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) in liquid environment is expected to allow time resolved morphological mappings on cellular surfaces on the nanoscale level. Near-field Optical Analysis (NOA) via NSOM exploits the energy transfer from the tip of an optical element (tip diameter > or = 20nm), oscillating within the range of the characteristic length of the energy transfer ( approximately 10nm) in the near-field of the surface to be analysed. In NOA, a molecular assembly is monitored by visible light with a resolution far below the wavelength of visible light. Actually, NOA is successfully applied in mapping local optical contrasts, for instance in photonic crystals with dielectric periodicities on the nanoscale. NSOM could in principle be performed in two different modes: tapping mode, with tip-oscillations perpendicular, or shear force mode, with tip-oscillations parallel to the substrate. Both basic modes have specific advantages and disadvantages. In biological systems (e.g. in cell cultures), where scanning in liquids is prevalent, elongated optical elements non-invasively operated in the shear force modus could have some specific advantages when compared to contact modus systems. While tapping mode NSOM provides satisfactory nanoscale images even on solid surfaces covered with millimetres of liquids, the performance of shear force mode NSOM is presently largely confined to operations on dry samples. This is due to the inability of conventional shear force mode NSOM systems to provide sharp topographic images of sample surfaces substantially covered with liquids. By equipping a conventional NSOM system with hydrophobic optical elements, shear force mode based topographic images could be obtained on biological samples in dry as well as in aqueous environment, and with resolutions on the nanoscale level.

  3. Pitting Behavior of L415 Pipeline Steel in Simulated Leaching Liquid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, H. X.; Yang, X. J.; Liu, Z. Y.; Song, D. D.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.

    2017-02-01

    The corrosion behavior and laws of the west-east gas pressure pipeline of L415 steel were studied in simulated leaching liquid. The failure of the L415 steel during the pressure testing process was investigated using electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test. The corrosion rate of the L415 steel increased with ion concentration in the leaching liquid. This rate reached about 0.8 mm a-1 and belonged to the severe corrosion grade. Pitting corrosion was observed in various simulated solutions with different aggressive species concentrations. The original ion concentration in the leaching liquid (1×) is the key factor influencing pitting initiation and development. Pitting showed easy nucleation, and its growth rate was relatively slow, in the basic simulating solution of the leach liquid (i.e., the ion content is compactable to the real condition in the rust on the inner steel pipe surface). Pitting was also highly sensitive and easily grew in the solution with doubled ion concentration in the basic simulating solution (2×). A uniform corrosion, instead of pitting, mainly occurred when the ion concentration was up to 10× of the basic solution.

  4. Pitting Behavior of L415 Pipeline Steel in Simulated Leaching Liquid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, H. X.; Yang, X. J.; Liu, Z. Y.; Song, D. D.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.

    2016-12-01

    The corrosion behavior and laws of the west-east gas pressure pipeline of L415 steel were studied in simulated leaching liquid. The failure of the L415 steel during the pressure testing process was investigated using electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test. The corrosion rate of the L415 steel increased with ion concentration in the leaching liquid. This rate reached about 0.8 mm a-1 and belonged to the severe corrosion grade. Pitting corrosion was observed in various simulated solutions with different aggressive species concentrations. The original ion concentration in the leaching liquid (1×) is the key factor influencing pitting initiation and development. Pitting showed easy nucleation, and its growth rate was relatively slow, in the basic simulating solution of the leach liquid (i.e., the ion content is compactable to the real condition in the rust on the inner steel pipe surface). Pitting was also highly sensitive and easily grew in the solution with doubled ion concentration in the basic simulating solution (2×). A uniform corrosion, instead of pitting, mainly occurred when the ion concentration was up to 10× of the basic solution.

  5. Sustainable design for environment-friendly mono and dicationic cholinium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    E Silva, Francisca A; Siopa, Filipa; Figueiredo, Bruna F H T; Gonçalves, Ana M M; Pereira, Joana L; Gonçalves, Fernando; Coutinho, João A P; Afonso, Carlos A M; Ventura, Sónia P M

    2014-10-01

    Cholinium-based ionic liquids are receiving crescent interest in diverse areas of application given their biological compatibility and potential for industrial application. In this work, mono and dicationic cholinium ionic liquids as well as cholinium derivatives were synthesized and their toxicity assessed using the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. A range of cholinium derivatives was synthesized, using different amines and the correspondent brominated derivatives, through the alkylation of the amine with the halide in MeCN. The results indicate that their toxicity is highly dependent on the structural modifications of the cholinium cation, mainly related to the alkyl side or linkage chain length, number of hydroxyethyl groups and insertion of carbon-carbon multiple bonds. The data indicated that it is possible to perform environmentally advantageous structural alterations, namely the addition of double bonds, which would not negatively affect V. fischeri. Moreover, the dicationic compounds revealed a significantly lower toxicity than the monocationic counterparts. The picture emerging from the results supports the idea that cholinium derivatives are promising ionic liquids with a low environmental impact, emphasizing the importance of a careful and directed design of ionic liquid structures.

  6. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  7. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  8. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  9. A Study of Bubble and Slug Gas-Liquid Flow in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of gravity on the two-phase flow dynamics is obvious.As the gravity level is reduced,there is a new balance between inertial and interfacial forces, altering the behavior of the flow. In bubbly flow,the absence of drift velocity leads to spherical-shaped bubbles with a rectilinear trajectory.Slug flow is a succession of long bubbles and liquid slug carrying a few bubbles. There is no flow reversal in the thin liquid film as the long bubble and liquid slug pass over the film. Although the flow structure seems to be simpler than in normal gravity conditions,the models developed for the prediction of flow behavior in normal gravity and extended to reduced gravity flow are unable to predict the flow behavior correctly.An additional benefit of conducting studies in microgravity flows is that these studies aide the development of understanding for normal gravity flow behavior by removing the effects of buoyancy on the shape of the interface and density driven shear flows between the gas and the liquid phases. The proposal calls to study specifically the following: 1) The dynamics of isolated bubbles in microgravity liquid flows will be analyzed: Both the dynamics of spherical isolated bubbles and their dispersion by turbulence, their interaction with the pipe wall,the behavior of the bubbles in accelerated or decelerated flows,and the dynamics of isolated cylindrical bubbles, their deformation in accelerated/decelerated flows (in converging or diverging channels), and bubble/bubble interaction. Experiments will consist of the use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimeters (LDV) to study single spherical bubble and single and two cylindrical bubble behavior with respect to their influence on the turbulence of the surrounding liquid and on the wall 2) The dynamics of bubbly and slug flow in microgravity will be analyzed especially for the role of the coalescence in the transition from bubbly to slug flow (effect of fluid properties and

  10. A Study of Bubble and Slug Gas-Liquid Flow in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of gravity on the two-phase flow dynamics is obvious.As the gravity level is reduced,there is a new balance between inertial and interfacial forces, altering the behavior of the flow. In bubbly flow,the absence of drift velocity leads to spherical-shaped bubbles with a rectilinear trajectory.Slug flow is a succession of long bubbles and liquid slug carrying a few bubbles. There is no flow reversal in the thin liquid film as the long bubble and liquid slug pass over the film. Although the flow structure seems to be simpler than in normal gravity conditions,the models developed for the prediction of flow behavior in normal gravity and extended to reduced gravity flow are unable to predict the flow behavior correctly.An additional benefit of conducting studies in microgravity flows is that these studies aide the development of understanding for normal gravity flow behavior by removing the effects of buoyancy on the shape of the interface and density driven shear flows between the gas and the liquid phases. The proposal calls to study specifically the following: 1) The dynamics of isolated bubbles in microgravity liquid flows will be analyzed: Both the dynamics of spherical isolated bubbles and their dispersion by turbulence, their interaction with the pipe wall,the behavior of the bubbles in accelerated or decelerated flows,and the dynamics of isolated cylindrical bubbles, their deformation in accelerated/decelerated flows (in converging or diverging channels), and bubble/bubble interaction. Experiments will consist of the use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimeters (LDV) to study single spherical bubble and single and two cylindrical bubble behavior with respect to their influence on the turbulence of the surrounding liquid and on the wall 2) The dynamics of bubbly and slug flow in microgravity will be analyzed especially for the role of the coalescence in the transition from bubbly to slug flow (effect of fluid properties and

  11. Liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, J.; Mizuhashi, M.; Kamimori, T.

    1990-12-31

    In contrast to lithium batteries, the electrochromic windows are used under the sunlight, which requires the stability against UV-light, in addition to the usual electrochemical and thermal stabilities. Thus, the selection of the electrode materials and the combination with the electrolytes should be carefully performed in terms of stability requirements. Recently many reports in relation to those subjects were published. Therefore only fundamental properties of liquid electrolytes required for the electrochromic research are reviewed in this chapter.

  12. Stabilization of tokamak plasma by lithium streams

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Zakharov

    2000-08-07

    The stabilization theory of free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in tokamaks by liquid lithium streams driven by magnetic propulsion is formulated. While the conventional, wall-locked, resistive wall mode can be well suppressed by the flow, a new, stream-locked mode determines the limits of the flow stabilization.

  13. CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium system

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1995-09-01

    Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. Electrical resistance of CaO coatings that were produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li containing 0.5-85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400-420{degrees}C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega} at 400{degrees}C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700{degrees}C changed the coating layer resistance, which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes (e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at {>=}360{degrees}C.

  14. Initial Lithium Capabilities for NSTX-U and Plans for Mitigating Associated Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaita, R.; Blanchard, W.; Cai, D.; Jaworski, M.; Lunsford, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Schneider, H.; Cadwallader, L.

    2015-11-01

    The effect on plasma performance of lithium plasma-facing components (PFCs) is an important research focus on NSTX-U. Lithium evaporators (LITERs) are mounted at two upper dome locations to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region. The introduction of lithium into NSTX-U will also be conducted by the injection of small granules from a lithium granule injector (LGI). The main risk for the LITERs and the LGI is commensurate to the state of the lithium. The lithium used in the LGI is in the form of solid, micron-sized granules, and relatively few granules would enter NSTX-U should any possible failure modes occur. Each LITER, however, can operate with up to 80 grams of liquid lithium. The PFC water-cooling lines will thus be emptied during lithium operations, to prevent exposure of liquid lithium to water if there is a simultaneous LITER structural failure and a water leak. If there is a simultaneous LITER structural failure and a large air leak, the graphite PFCs could then be subject to high heat from rapid lithium oxidation. The likelihood that it would cause serious PFC damage is being evaluated. A mitigation scheme is a gas purge system that fills the vacuum vessel with argon should there be a significant pressure excursion when the lithium is at elevated temperature. Work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. Spreading of lithium on a stainless steel surface at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2015-11-10

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices and liquid lithium plasma facing components are under consideration for future machines. A key factor in the performance of liquid lithium components is the wetting by lithium of its container. We have observed the surface spreading of lithium from a mm-scale particle to adjacent stainless steel surfaces using a scanning Auger microprobe that has elemental discrimination. Here, the spreading of lithium occurred at room temperature (when lithium is a solid) from one location at a speed of 0.62 μm/day under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Separate experiments using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) investigated bonding energetics between monolayer-scale films of lithium and stainless steel. While multilayer lithium desorption from stainless steel begins to occur just above 500 K (Edes = 1.54 eV), sub-monolayer Li desorption occurred in a TPD peak at 942 K (Edes = 2.52 eV) indicating more energetically favorable lithium-stainless steel bonding (in the absence of an oxidation layer) than lithium lithium bonding.

  16. Spreading of lithium on a stainless steel surface at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; ...

    2015-11-10

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices and liquid lithium plasma facing components are under consideration for future machines. A key factor in the performance of liquid lithium components is the wetting by lithium of its container. We have observed the surface spreading of lithium from a mm-scale particle to adjacent stainless steel surfaces using a scanning Auger microprobe that has elemental discrimination. Here, the spreading of lithium occurred at room temperature (when lithium is a solid) from one location at a speed of 0.62 μm/day under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Separatemore » experiments using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) investigated bonding energetics between monolayer-scale films of lithium and stainless steel. While multilayer lithium desorption from stainless steel begins to occur just above 500 K (Edes = 1.54 eV), sub-monolayer Li desorption occurred in a TPD peak at 942 K (Edes = 2.52 eV) indicating more energetically favorable lithium-stainless steel bonding (in the absence of an oxidation layer) than lithium lithium bonding.« less

  17. Growth of plant root cultures in liquid- and gas-dispersed reactor environments.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, S A; Gehrig, J A; Hollar, K A; Curtis, W R

    1993-01-01

    The growth of Agrobacterium transformed "hairy root" cultures of Hyoscyamus muticus was examined in various liquid- and gas-dispersed bioreactor configurations. Reactor runs were replicated to provide statistical comparisons of nutrient availability on culture performance. Accumulated tissue mass in submerged air-sparged reactors was 31% of gyratory shake-flask controls. Experiments demonstrate that poor performance of sparged reactors is not due to bubble shear damage, carbon dioxide stripping, settling, or flotation of roots. Impaired oxygen transfer due to channeling and stagnation of the liquid phase are the apparent causes of poor growth. Roots grown on a medium-perfused inclined plane grew at 48% of gyratory controls. This demonstrates the ability of cultures to partially compensate for poor liquid distribution through vascular transport of nutrients. A reactor configuration in which the medium is sprayed over the roots and permitted to drain down through the root tissue was able to provide growth rates which are statistically indistinguishable (95% T-test) from gyratory shake-flask controls. In this type of spray/trickle-bed configuration, it is shown that distribution of the roots becomes a key factor in controlling the rate of growth. Implications of these results regarding design and scale-up of bioreactors to produce fine chemicals from root cultures are discussed.

  18. Development of an extrinsic optical fibre temperature sensor for monitoring liquid temperature in harsh industrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSherry, Mary; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Lewis, Elfed; Wylie, Steve; Wright, Colin; Al-Shamma'a, Ahmed; Lucas, Jim

    2005-06-01

    A novel phosphor coated glassware based technique for measuring liquid temperature up to 120 °C has been investigated and developed. The active coating consists of a mixture of two phosphor powders which is applied to three different test vessels. One test vessel containing 40 ml of water is heated by a heating coil and its phosphor coating is connected by two optical fibres positioned directly beneath the external base of the beaker, which are used to transmit and receive light. The remaining two test vessels are individually placed in an industrial free electron laser (IFEL), which provides the necessary microwave radiation for heating liquids. Thermal quenching dominates the luminescence characteristics of one phosphor while the second phosphor does not undergo thermal quenching. Ratios of their emission intensities are calculated and analysed. The resulting ratio decreases linearly as temperature increases. The results presented indicate a temporal response of 1 s as well as good repeatability when calibrated against a thermocouple in the laboratory. This paper also describes testing of the coating and its application in monitoring liquid temperature in an IFEL.

  19. Lithium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Lithium and Pregnancy Saturday, 20 September 2014 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to lithium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  20. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.