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Sample records for liquid phase cyclohexane

  1. Cyclohexane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 008 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF CYCLOHEXANE ( CAS No . 110 - 82 - 7 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in

  2. Effect of alkyl chain of room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs) on the phase behavior of [C2mim][C(n)SO4]/TX-100/cyclohexane microemulsions: solvent and rotational relaxation study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Rao, Vishal Govind; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-05-16

    In this investigation, we present microemulsions comprising a nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX-100), cyclohexane as nonpolar phase, and room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as a polar medium. To investigate the effect of alkyl chain length of ionic liquid on the physicochemical properties of microemulsions, we have used 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium n-butyl sulfate [C2mim][C4SO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium n-hexyl sulfate [C2mim][C6SO4], and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium n-octyl sulfate [C2mim][C8SO4] as polar media. The phase behavior of these ternary systems is investigated by direct observation of transition from clear transparent solution to turbid solution by using UV-vis spectrophotometer at 298 K. The single-phase region is found to increase with increase in chain length of RTIL anion. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements revealed the formation of highly stable nano-sized RTIL-containing microemulsions. The size of the microemulsions increases with the addition of ionic liquid. The maximum increase in size is observed with the addition of [C2mim][C4SO4]. It is proposed that the long octyl chain of octyl sulfate allows the anion to align itself along the TX-100 molecules which increases the rigidity of microemulsions, whereas in case of [C2mim][C4SO4], the short butyl chain is apparently unable to do the same. The dynamics of solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 480 (C-480) has also been investigated in these ionic liquid containing microemulsions ([C2mim][C4SO4]/TX-100/cyclohexane, [C2mim][C6SO4]/TX-100/cyclohexane, and [C2mim][C8SO4]/TX-100/cyclohexane) using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. In RTIL microemulsions, solvent relaxation becomes retarded compared to neat RTIL. We have also shown that with increasing R value, the solvation dynamics becomes faster and the decrease in average solvation time is more pronounced in [C2mim][C4SO4]/TX-100/cyclohexane compared to [C2mim][C6SO4]/TX-100/cyclohexane and [C2mim][C8SO4

  3. Vapor-phase infrared and Raman spectra and ab-initio calculations of the axial and equatorial forms of cyclohexane-d1 and d11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Hye Jin; Ocola, Esther J.; Laane, Jaan

    2016-11-01

    The vapor-phase infrared and Raman spectra of cyclohexane-d11 in the C-H stretching region show two bands at 2891 and 2921 cm-1 corresponding to the axial and equatorial C-H stretching modes respectively. Similarly, cyclohexane-d1 has two C-D stretching modes at 2145 and 2164 cm-1 (Mátrai and Gal, 1984) corresponding to the two forms. Force constants were calculated for these vibrations and these confirm the theoretical calculations, which show the equatorial bonds to be shorter and stronger. The force constant for the equatorial C-H stretching is 2% higher than for the axial.

  4. Vapor-liquid equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures of cyclohexane, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and octane at 101.3 kPa

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.C.; Tang, M.; Chen, Y.P.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibria were measured at 101.3 kPa for the three binary and one ternary mixtures of cyclohexane, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and octane. The isobaric T-x-y data were reported, including an azeotropic point for the binary mixture cyclohexane + 3-methyl-2-butanone. The virial equation of state truncated after the second coefficient was used to calculate the vapor-phase fugacity coefficients. The Tsonopoulos correlation equation was applied to determine the second virial coefficients. Various activity coefficient models of the Wilson, the NRTL, and the UNIQUAC equations were used to correlate the binary experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium results. Optimally-fitted binary parameters of the activity coefficient models were obtained and those parameters of the NRTL model were employed to predict the ternary vapor-liquid equilibria. Satisfactory results were presented for the correlation and prediction of the vapor-liquid equilibrium data on binary and ternary mixtures.

  5. Volumetric, Viscometric, and Ultrasonic Properties of Liquid Mixtures of Cyclohexane with Alkanols at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anwar; Tasneem, Shadma; Nabi, Firdosa

    2010-09-01

    The densities (ρ), viscosities (η), and ultrasonic speeds (u) of pure cyclohexane, 1-butanol, 2- butanol, and those of their binary mixtures, with cyclohexane as common component, covering the whole composition range have been measured at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K. From the experimental data the excess molar volume (VE), deviations in isentropic compressibility (Δks), deviations in viscosity (Δη), deviations in ultrasonic speed (Δu), deviations in acoustic impedance (ΔZ), deviations in internal pressure (ΔPi), excess Gibbs free energy of activation (ΔG*E), entropies (ΔS*), and enthalpies (ΔH*) of activation of viscous flow have been determined. The sign and magnitude of these parameters were found to be sensitive towards interactions prevailing in the studied systems. Partial molar volumes (V0φ,2) and partial molar compressibilities (K0φ,2) of 1-butanol and 2-butanol in cyclohexane have also been evaluated. Moreover, VE values were theoretically predicted by using Flory's statistical theory. The variations of derived parameters mentioned above with composition offer a convenient method to study the nature and extent of interactions between the component molecules of the liquid mixtures, not easily obtained by other means

  6. Saturated liquid densities of benzene, cyclohexane, and hexane from 298. 15 to 473. 15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Shafkat; Tukur, N.M.; Al-Harbi, D.K.; Hamad, E.Z. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    The results of measurements of saturated liquid densities using a high-pressure stainless steel pycnometer system over a wide variation of temperature from 298.15 to 473.15 K are presented for benzene, cyclohexane, and hexane. Experimental densities were compared with those predicted by the Spencer-Danner-modified Rackett equation (SDR) and the Hankinson-Brobst-Thompson correlation (HBT). The SDR showed an average deviation of 0.22% while the HBT predicted the densities of the three organic solvents with an average deviation of 0.28%. The data obtained have also been compared with the available data reported in the literature.

  7. Microemulsions with surfactant TX100, cyclohexane, and an ionic liquid investigated by conductance, DLS, FTIR measurements, and study of solvent and rotational relaxation within this microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Rajib; Sarkar, Souravi; Ghatak, Chiranjib; Rao, Vishal Govind; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2010-06-10

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), N,N,N-trimethyl-N-propyl ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide ([N(3111)][Tf(2)N]), were substituted for polar water and formed nonaqueous microemulsions with cyclohexane by the aid of nonionic surfactant TX-100. The phase behavior of the ternary system was investigated, and microregions of [N(3111)][Tf(2)N]-in-cyclohexane (IL/O), bicontinuous, and cyclohexane-in-[N(3111)][Tf(2)N] (O/IL) were identified by traditional electrical conductivity measurements. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed the formation of the IL microemulsions. The FTIR study of O-H stretching band of TX100 also supports this finding. The dynamics of solvent and rotational relaxation have been investigated in [N(3111)][Tf(2)N]/TX100/cyclohexane microemulsions using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool and coumarin 480 (C-480) as a fluorescence probe. The size of the microemulsions increases with gradual addition of [N(3111)][Tf(2)N], which revealed from DLS measurement. This leads to the faster collective motions of cation and anions of [N(3111)][Tf(2)N], which contributes to faster solvent relaxation in microemulsions.

  8. Mutual diffusion of binary liquid mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Janzen, Tatjana; Muñoz-Muñoz, Y Mauricio; Vrabec, Jadran

    2016-03-28

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of all 20 binary liquid mixtures that can be formed out of methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride without a miscibility gap are studied at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in the entire composition range. The considered mixtures show a varying mixing behavior from almost ideal to strongly non-ideal. Predictive molecular dynamics simulations employing the Green-Kubo formalism are carried out. Radial distribution functions are analyzed to gain an understanding of the liquid structure influencing the diffusion processes. It is shown that cluster formation in mixtures containing one alcoholic component has a significant impact on the diffusion process. The estimation of the thermodynamic factor from experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data is investigated, considering three excess Gibbs energy models, i.e., Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC. It is found that the Wilson model yields the thermodynamic factor that best suits the simulation results for the prediction of the Fick diffusion coefficient. Four semi-empirical methods for the prediction of the self-diffusion coefficients and nine predictive equations for the Fick diffusion coefficient are assessed and it is found that methods based on local composition models are more reliable. Finally, the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity are predicted and in most cases favorably compared with experimental literature values.

  9. Solubility dynamic of methyl yellow and carbon black in microemulsions and lamellar liquid crystal of water, non ionic surfactants and cyclohexane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, A.; Harfianto, R.; Dewi, W. Y.; Beri, D.; Putra, A.

    2016-02-01

    Solubility dynamics of methyl yellow and carbon black in microemulsions and liquid crystals of water, non-ionic surfactants and cyclohexane system, have been investigated. Actually, solubility dynamics of these dyes both in microemulsion (w/o microemulsions) and the lamellar liquid crystal (LLC) were strongly related to the chemical composition, nature and characteristics of microemulsions and the lamellar liquid crystals.

  10. Second virial coefficient of bmimBF4/triton X-100/ cyclohexane ionic liquid microemulsion as investigated by microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Shaohua; Zheng, Liqiang; Gao, Yan'an; Yu, Li

    2008-04-01

    The second virial coefficient of the ionic liquid (IL) microemulsion was obtained for the first time using microcalorimetry. The heat of dilution of the microemulsion solutions was measured by isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), and the second virial coefficient was derived from the heat of dilution and the number density of the IL microemulsion solutions on the basis of a hard-sphere interaction potential assumption and as a function of the second-order polynomial. The validity of the second virial coefficient was confirmed by the percolation behavior of different ionic liquid microemulsion solutions of Triton X-100 in cyclohexane with or without added salts. The information obtained from the second virial coefficient shows that the interactions between ionic liquid microemulsion droplets are much stronger than those for traditional microemulsions, which may be attributed to the relatively larger size of the microemulsion droplets.

  11. Mise en évidence d'états excités dans les spectres de photoionisation du cyclohexane et du diméthyl 2-2-butane liquides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanovas, J.; Guelfucci, J. P.; Caselles, O.

    1991-07-01

    Excited states are probably occurring, at an intermediate stage, in the VUV photoionization process of liquid hydrocarbons, as suggested by a Stern-Volmer behaviour when interacting with electron quenchers. They are here detected in the VUV photoionization spectrum of cyclohexane and dimethyl-2-2-butane in liquid phase. Some of the discernable peaks can be assigned as valence and Rydberg states, yet observed in gas phase. Supplementary peaks are observed, the existence of which is to be interpretated. L'existence d'états excités dans le processus de photoionisation VUV des hydrocarbures en phase liquide - précédemment suggérée par l'observation de la loi de Stern-Volmer lors de l'interaction avec des capteurs d'électrons - est ici détectée en traçant le spectre de photoionisation VUV du cyclohexane et du diméthyl-2-2-butane purs en phase liquide. Certains des pics observés coïncident avec les états de valence et de Rydberg de ces mêmes corps en phase gaz. Il apparaît des pics supplémentaires dont la nature doit être précisée.

  12. Transport properties of the binary mixtures of the three organic liquids toluene, methanol, and cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeira, E.; Gebhardt, M.; Triller, T.; Mialdun, A.; Köhler, W.; Shevtsova, V.; Bou-Ali, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the measurements of diffusion (D), thermodiffusion (DT), and Soret (ST) coefficients in binary pairs of the ternary system toluene-methanol-cyclohexane using different instrumental techniques: microgravity measurements (SODI/DCMIX2) on the International Space Station, thermogravitational column in combination with sliding symmetric tubes, optical beam deflection, optical digital interferometry, and counter flow cell. The binary systems have large regions where the mixtures are either not miscible or the Soret coefficient is negative. All the coefficients have been measured over a wide composition range with the exception of a miscibility gap. Results from different instruments and literature data are in favorable agreement over a broad composition range. Additionally, we have carefully measured the physical properties and the optical contrast factors (∂n/∂c ) p ,T and (∂n/∂T ) p ,c. The latter ones were also calculated using the Looyenga equation. The measurements in methanol-cyclohexane mixture revealed a decay of the diffusion coefficient when approaching the miscibility gap. We have interpreted this in the spirit of the pseudospinodal concept.

  13. Sliding Luttinger liquid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan; Kane, C. L.; Lubensky, T. C.

    2001-07-01

    We study systems of coupled spin-gapped and gapless Luttinger liquids. First, we establish the existence of a sliding Luttinger liquid phase for a system of weakly coupled parallel quantum wires, with and without disorder. It is shown that the coupling can stabilize a Luttinger liquid phase in the presence of disorder. We then extend our analysis to a system of crossed Luttinger liquids and establish the stability of a non-Fermi-liquid state: the crossed sliding Luttinger liquid phase. In this phase the system exhibits a finite-temperature, long-wavelength, isotropic electric conductivity that diverges as a power law in temperature T as T-->0. This two-dimensional system has many properties of a true isotropic Luttinger liquid, though at zero temperature it becomes anisotropic. An extension of this model to a three-dimensional stack exhibits a much higher in-plane conductivity than the conductivity in a perpendicular direction.

  14. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

  15. Acoustic and Thermophysical Properties of Binary Liquid Mixtures of Primary Butanols with Hexane and Cyclohexane at 293.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebek, K.; Strugała-Wilczek, A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental density and speed of ultrasound measurements, along with literature data, were used to calculate adiabatic and isothermal compressibility coefficients, the specific heat ratio, and isobaric thermal expansion coefficients for the binaries of 1-butanol with hexane and cyclohexane. They were also used to determine Beyer’s parameter of nonlinearity, B/ A, and free intermolecular lengths, L. The free intermolecular lengths, L, calculated according to the Jacobson equation, were compared with values estimated from thermoacoustical parameters.

  16. Polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy affording time-resolved simultaneous detection of surface and liquid phase species at catalytic solid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Meier, Daniel M; Urakawa, Atsushi; Baiker, Alfons

    2009-09-01

    Polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) combined with concentration modulation allows simultaneous monitoring of dynamic evolutions of surface and liquid phase species during reactions at catalytic interfaces as demonstrated for the Pt-catalysed oxidation of CO by O2 in cyclohexane.

  17. Syntheses and crystal structures of benzene-sulfonate and -carboxylate copper polymers and their application in the oxidation of cyclohexane in ionic liquid under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Susanta; Ribeiro, Ana P C; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Nieto de Castro, Carlos A; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2016-09-21

    The syntheses, crystal structures and catalytic activities of the polymers derived from 2-(2-pyridylmethyleneamino)benzenesulfonic acid (HL), viz. [CuL(H2tma)]n (1) and [{Cu2L2(H2pma)}·(8H2O)]n (2) [H3tma = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic (trimesic) acid and H4pma = benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic (pyromellitic) acid], are presented. Despite the comparable combinations and compositions of ligands (sulfonate and carboxylate) in these two polymers the bridging moiety in 1 is sulfonate while in 2 it is carboxylate. Complexes 1 and 2 act as catalysts in the peroxidative oxidation of cyclohexane under mild conditions using either the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF6] or acetonitrile as the solvent. The ionic liquid medium leads to increases in the yields and in the turnover numbers, achieved in shorter reaction times in comparison with those when using the conventional acetonitrile solvent. A simple recycling of the catalysts in the ionic liquid medium is achieved without loss of activity and selectivity.

  18. Water-Induced Phase Transition in Cyclohexane/n-Hexanol/Triton X-100 Mixtures at a Molar Composition of 1/16/74 Studied by NMR.

    PubMed

    Flores, Mario E; Martínez, Francisco; Olea, Andrés F; Shibue, Toshimichi; Sugimura, Natsuhiko; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio

    2017-02-02

    Molecular aggregation in a mixture of Triton X-100/n-hexanol/cyclohexane at a molar ratio of 1/16/74 is studied upon addition of small amounts of water. The composition of organic components has been chosen at a ratio n-hexanol/cyclohexane where a well-formed hydrogen bond network has been described. The ratio Triton X-100/n-hexanol has been chosen to afford a stoichiometry of ethylene oxide (EO) residues/n-hexanol of 1/2. At these conditions the addition of water consecutively produces the appearance of three defined phases: a clear solution, a lamellar phase, and a microemulsion. The two corresponding transitions occur at water/EO/n-hexanol molar ratios of 2/1/2 (clear to lamella), and 3/1/2 (lamella to microemulsion), while phase separation occurs at a molar ratio of 4/1/2, highlighting the important role of stoichiometry. Molecular dynamics measured by (1)H NMR techniques, such as DOSY, and calculations of T1 and T2 relaxation times allow distinguishing the transition between the different phases and justifying their structure. Molecular assembly in the three phases is organized around hydrogen bond networks in which the hydroxyl groups of both TX-100 and n-hexanol, ethylene oxide groups of TX-100, and water participate. 1D (1)H NMR spectral changes correlate with the different characteristics of the different phases. As the main characteristics of the lamellar phase we find a very restricted mobility of the molecules involved, and water chemical shifts in 1D (1)H NMR spectra of around 5.0 ppm, higher than that of bulk water appearing at 4.7 ppm.

  19. Liquid Phase Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Industry spends billions of dollars each year on machine tools to manufacture products out of metal. This includes tools for cutting every kind of metal part from engine blocks to Shuttle main engine components. Cutting tool tips often break because of weak spots or defects in their composition. Based on a new concept called defect trapping, space offers a novel environment to study defect formation in molten metal materials as they solidify. After the return of these materials from space, researchers can evaluate the source of the defect and seek ways to eliminate them in products prepared on Earth. A widely used process for cutting tip manufacturing is liquid phase sintering. Compared to Earth-sintered samples which slump due to buoyancy induced by gravity, space samples are uniformly shaped and defects remain where they are formed. By studying metals sintered in space the US tool industry can potentially enhance its worldwide competitiveness. The Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with Wyle Labs, Teledyne Advanced Materials, and McDornell Douglas have conducted experiments in space.

  20. PHASE CHANGE LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron

    2006-03-01

    Work is being performed to develop a new shipping system for frozen environmental samples (or other materials) that uses an optimal phase change liquid (PCL) formulation and an insulated shipping container with an on-board digital temperature data logger to provide a history of the temperature profile within the container during shipment. In previous work, several PCL formulations with temperatures of fusion ranging from approximately -14 to -20 C were prepared and evaluated. Both temperature of fusion and heat of fusion of the formulations were measured, and an optimal PCL formulation was selected. The PCL was frozen in plastic bags and tested for its temperature profile in a cooler using a digital temperature data logger. This testing showed that the PCL formulation can maintain freezer temperatures (< -7 to -20 C) for an extended period, such as the time for shipping samples by overnight courier. The results of the experiments described in this report provide significant information for use in developing an integrated freezer system that uses a PCL formulation to maintain freezer temperatures in coolers for shipping environmental samples to the laboratory. Experimental results show the importance of the type of cooler used in the system and that use of an insulating material within the cooler improves the performance of the freezer system. A new optimal PCL formulation for use in the system has been determined. The new formulation has been shown to maintain temperatures at < -7 to -20 C for 47 hours in an insulated cooler system containing soil samples. These results are very promising for developing the new technology.

  1. Solvent systems with n-hexane and/or cyclohexane in countercurrent chromatography--Physico-chemical parameters and their impact on the separation of alkyl hydroxybenzoates.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Vetter, Walter

    2014-05-16

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is an efficient preparative separation technique based on the liquid-liquid distribution of compounds between two phases of a biphasic liquid system. The crucial parameter for the successful application is the selection of the solvent system. Especially for nonpolar analytes the selection options are limited. On the search for a suitable solvent system for the separation of an alkyl hydroxybenzoate homologous series, we noted that the substitution of cyclohexane with n-hexane was accompanied with unexpected differences in partitioning coefficients of the individual analytes. In this study, we investigated the influence of the subsequent substitution of n-hexane with cyclohexane in the n-hexane/cyclohexane/tert-butylmethylether/methanol/water solvent system family. Exact phase compositions and polarity, viscosity and density differences were determined to characterize the different mixtures containing n-hexane and/or cyclohexane. Findings were confirmed by performing CCC separations with different mixtures, which led to baseline resolution for positional isomers when increasing the amount of cyclohexane while the resolution between two pairs of structural isomers decreased. With the new methodology described, structurally similar compounds could be resolved by choosing a certain ratio of n-hexane to cyclohexane.

  2. Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper is a literature evaluation focusing on DNAPLs and provides an overview from a conceptual fate and transport point of view of DNAPL phase distribution, monitoring, site characterization, remediation, and modeling.

  3. Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, David O.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed and used in the unit operations laboratory course at the University of Wyoming. Involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, and is relevant to adsorption processes in general. (TW)

  4. Measuring experimental cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge.

    PubMed

    Rustenburg, Ariën S; Dancer, Justin; Lin, Baiwei; Feng, Jianwen A; Ortwine, Daniel F; Mobley, David L; Chodera, John D

    2016-11-01

    Small molecule distribution coefficients between immiscible nonaqueuous and aqueous phases-such as cyclohexane and water-measure the degree to which small molecules prefer one phase over another at a given pH. As distribution coefficients capture both thermodynamic effects (the free energy of transfer between phases) and chemical effects (protonation state and tautomer effects in aqueous solution), they provide an exacting test of the thermodynamic and chemical accuracy of physical models without the long correlation times inherent to the prediction of more complex properties of relevance to drug discovery, such as protein-ligand binding affinities. For the SAMPL5 challenge, we carried out a blind prediction exercise in which participants were tasked with the prediction of distribution coefficients to assess its potential as a new route for the evaluation and systematic improvement of predictive physical models. These measurements are typically performed for octanol-water, but we opted to utilize cyclohexane for the nonpolar phase. Cyclohexane was suggested to avoid issues with the high water content and persistent heterogeneous structure of water-saturated octanol phases, since it has greatly reduced water content and a homogeneous liquid structure. Using a modified shake-flask LC-MS/MS protocol, we collected cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for a set of 53 druglike compounds at pH 7.4. These measurements were used as the basis for the SAMPL5 Distribution Coefficient Challenge, where 18 research groups predicted these measurements before the experimental values reported here were released. In this work, we describe the experimental protocol we utilized for measurement of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients, report the measured data, propose a new bootstrap-based data analysis procedure to incorporate multiple sources of experimental error, and provide insights to help guide future iterations of this valuable exercise in predictive modeling.

  5. Measuring experimental cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustenburg, Ariën S.; Dancer, Justin; Lin, Baiwei; Feng, Jianwen A.; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Mobley, David L.; Chodera, John D.

    2016-11-01

    Small molecule distribution coefficients between immiscible nonaqueuous and aqueous phases—such as cyclohexane and water—measure the degree to which small molecules prefer one phase over another at a given pH. As distribution coefficients capture both thermodynamic effects (the free energy of transfer between phases) and chemical effects (protonation state and tautomer effects in aqueous solution), they provide an exacting test of the thermodynamic and chemical accuracy of physical models without the long correlation times inherent to the prediction of more complex properties of relevance to drug discovery, such as protein-ligand binding affinities. For the SAMPL5 challenge, we carried out a blind prediction exercise in which participants were tasked with the prediction of distribution coefficients to assess its potential as a new route for the evaluation and systematic improvement of predictive physical models. These measurements are typically performed for octanol-water, but we opted to utilize cyclohexane for the nonpolar phase. Cyclohexane was suggested to avoid issues with the high water content and persistent heterogeneous structure of water-saturated octanol phases, since it has greatly reduced water content and a homogeneous liquid structure. Using a modified shake-flask LC-MS/MS protocol, we collected cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for a set of 53 druglike compounds at pH 7.4. These measurements were used as the basis for the SAMPL5 Distribution Coefficient Challenge, where 18 research groups predicted these measurements before the experimental values reported here were released. In this work, we describe the experimental protocol we utilized for measurement of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients, report the measured data, propose a new bootstrap-based data analysis procedure to incorporate multiple sources of experimental error, and provide insights to help guide future iterations of this valuable exercise in predictive modeling.

  6. Phase equilibria and modeling of pyridinium-based ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Królikowski, Marek; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Letcher, Trevor M; Tumba, Kaniki

    2010-11-25

    The phase diagrams of the ionic liquid (IL) N-butyl-4-methylpyridinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide ([BM(4)Py][NTf(2)]) with water, an alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol), an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene), an alkane (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane), or cyclohexane have been measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic method. This work includes the characterization of the synthesized compound by water content and also by differential scanning calorimetry. Phase diagrams for the binary systems of [BM(4)Py][NTf(2)] with all solvents reveal eutectic systems with regards to (solid-liquid) phase equilibria and show immiscibility in the liquid phase region with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) in most of the mixtures. The phase equilibria (solid, or liquid-liquid) for the binary systems containing aliphatic hydrocarbons reported here exhibit the lowest solubility and the highest immiscibility gap, a trend which has been observed for all ILs. The reduction of experimental data has been carried out using the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) correlation equation. The phase diagrams reported here have been compared with analogous phase diagrams reported previously for systems containing the IL N-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tosylate and other pyridinium-based ILs. The influence of the anion of the IL on the phase behavior has been discussed.

  7. APPARATUS FOR LIQUID PHASE EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Hicks, T.R.; Lehman, H.R.; Rubin, B.

    1958-09-16

    operation is described. It comprises a tubular colunm having upper and lower enlarged terminal portions, and a constricted central section containing fluid dispersal packing. Pulsing means are coupled to the upper portion of the column. The inlet for the less dense phase is located above the inlet for the denser phase and both are positioned so that liquids enter the constricted packingfilled central section. The apparatos also includes an interfacing level control, and means fer sensing the level of the interface actuate apparatus for controlling the rate of flow of input or discharge. The outlet for the less dense phase is located in the upper packing free portion of the colunm and that of the denser phase in the lower portion.

  8. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOEpatents

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  9. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOEpatents

    Voigtman, Edward G.; Winefordner, James D.; Jurgensen, Arthur R.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

  10. Models for a liquid-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Giovambattista, N.; Malescio, G.; Sadr-Lahijany, M. R.; Scala, A.; Skibinsky, A.; Stanley, H. E.

    2002-02-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study two- and three-dimensional models with the isotropic double-step potential which in addition to the hard core has a repulsive soft core of larger radius. Our results indicate that the presence of two characteristic repulsive distances (hard core and soft core) is sufficient to explain liquid anomalies and a liquid-liquid phase transition, but these two phenomena may occur independently. Thus liquid-liquid transitions may exist in systems like liquid metals, regardless of the presence of the density anomaly. For 2D, we propose a model with a specific set of hard core and soft core parameters, that qualitatively reproduces the phase diagram and anomalies of liquid water. We identify two solid phases: a square crystal (high density phase), and a triangular crystal (low density phase) and discuss the relation between the anomalies of liquid and the polymorphism of the solid. Similarly to real water, our 2D system may have the second critical point in the metastable liquid phase beyond the freezing line. In 3D, we find several sets of parameters for which two fluid-fluid phase transition lines exist: the first line between gas and liquid and the second line between high-density liquid (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL). In all cases, the LDL phase shows no density anomaly in 3D. We relate the absence of the density anomaly with the positive slope of the LDL-HDL phase transition line.

  11. Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)

  12. Effect of water on the solvent relaxation dynamics in an ionic liquid containing microemulsion of 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate/TritonX-100/cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Rajib; Sarkar, Souravi; Ghatak, Chiranjib; Setua, Palash; Rao, Vishal Govind; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2010-04-01

    The dynamics of solvent and rotational relaxation have been investigated in [bmim][BF 4]/TX-100/cyclohexane microemulsions with addition of water-using steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool and coumarin 480 (C-480) as a fluorescence probe. The added water decreases the size of the microemulsions; consequently solvent relaxation time increases. The rotational relaxation time of C-480 in microemulsions is almost unchanged with increase in amount of water in microemulsions.

  13. Vapors-liquid phase separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Brown, G. S.; Chuang, C.; Kamioka, Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, J. M.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1980-10-01

    The use of porous plugs, mostly with in the form of passive devices with constant area were considered as vapor-liquid phase separators for helium 2 storage vessels under reduced gravity. The incorporation of components with variable cross sectional area as a method of flow rate modification was also investigated. A particular device which uses a shutter-type system for area variation was designed and constructed. This system successfully permitted flor rate changes of up to plus or minus 60% from its mean value.

  14. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOEpatents

    Glaeser, Andreas M.

    1994-01-01

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  15. Liquid-Phase Beam Pen Lithography.

    PubMed

    He, Shu; Xie, Zhuang; Park, Daniel J; Liao, Xing; Brown, Keith A; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Zhou, Yu; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-02-24

    Beam pen lithography (BPL) in the liquid phase is evaluated. The effect of tip-substrate gap and aperture size on patterning performance is systematically investigated. As a proof-of-concept experiment, nanoarrays of nucleotides are synthesized using BPL in an organic medium, pointing toward the potential of using liquid phase BPL to perform localized photochemical reactions that require a liquid medium.

  16. Phase equilibria study of the binary systems (N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate ionic liquid + organic solvent or water).

    PubMed

    Królikowska, Marta; Karpińska, Monika; Zawadzki, Maciej

    2012-04-12

    Liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of binary mixtures containing a room-temperature ionic liquid N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate, [HiQuin][SCN] with an aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-hexane, n-heptane), aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene), cyclohexane, thiophene, water, and 1-alcohol (1-ethanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol) have been determined using a dynamic method from room temperature to the boiling-point of the solvent at ambient pressure. N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate, [HiQuin][SCN] has been synthesized from N-hexyl-isoquinolinium bromide as a substrate. Specific basic characterization of the new compound including NMR spectra, elementary analysis, and water content have been done. The density and viscosity of pure ionic liquid were determined over a wide temperature range from 298.15 to 348.15 K. The mutual immiscibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) for the binary systems {IL + aliphatic hydrocarbon, cyclohexane, or water} was detected. In the systems of {IL + aromatic hydrocarbon or thiophene} an immiscibility gap with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was observed. Complete miscibility in the liquid phase, over a whole range of ionic liquid mole fraction, was observed for the binary mixtures containing IL and an 1-alcohol. For the tested binary systems with immiscibility gap {IL + aliphatic hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, cyclohexane, thiophene, or water}, the parameters of the LLE correlation have been derived using the NRTL equation. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, the glass-transition temperature as well as the heat capacity at the glass-transition temperature, have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition of the IL was detected by simultaneous thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) experiments.

  17. Liquid phase chromatography on microchips.

    PubMed

    Kutter, Jörg P

    2012-01-20

    Over the past twenty years, the field of microfluidics has emerged providing one of the main enabling technologies to realize miniaturized chemical analysis systems, often referred to as micro-Total Analysis Systems (uTAS), or, more generally, Lab-on-a-Chip Systems (LOC) [1,2]. While microfluidics was driven forward a lot from the engineering side, especially with respect to ink jet and dispensing technology, the initial push and interest from the analytical chemistry community was through the desire to develop miniaturized sensors, detectors, and, very early on, separation systems. The initial almost explosive development of, in particular, chromatographic separation systems on microchips, has, however, slowed down in recent years. This review takes a closer, critical look at how liquid phase chromatography has been implemented in miniaturized formats over the past several years, what is important to keep in mind when developing or working with separations in a miniaturized format, and what challenges and pitfalls remain.

  18. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Hurford, A.C.

    1989-05-09

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1,600 C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase. 4 figs.

  19. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Cutler, Raymond A.; Virkar, Anil V.; Hurford, Andrew C.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1600.degree. C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase.

  20. Modeling liquid-liquid phase transitions and quasicrystal formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skibinsky, Anna

    In this thesis, studies which concern two different subjects related to phase transitions in fluids and crystalline solids are presented. Condensed matter formation, structure, and phase transitions are modeled using molecular dynamics simulations of simple discontinuous potentials with attractive and repulsive interactions. Novel phase diagrams are proposed for quasicrystals, crystals, and liquids. In the first part of the thesis, the formation of a quasicrystal in a two dimensional monodisperse system is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations of hard sphere particles interacting via a two-dimensional square-well potential. It is found that for certain values of the square-well parameters more than one stable crystalline phase can form. By quenching the liquid phase at a very low temperature, an amorphous phase is obtained. When this the amorphous phase is heated, a quasicrystalline structure with five-fold symmetry forms. From estimations of the Helmholtz potentials of the stable crystalline phases and of the quasicrystal, it is concluded that within a specific temperature range, the observed quasicrystal phase can be the stable phase. The second part of the thesis concerns a study of the liquid-liquid phase transition for a single-component system in three dimensions, interacting via an isotropic potential with a repulsive soft-core shoulder at short distance and an attractive well at an intermediate distance. The potential is similar to potentials used to describe such liquid systems as colloids, protein solutions, or liquid metals. It is shown that the phase diagram for such a potential can have two lines of first-order fluid-fluid phase transitions: one separating a gas and a low-density liquid (LDL), and another between the LDL and a high-density liquid (HDL). Both phase transition lines end in a critical point, a gas-LDL critical point and, depending on the potential parameters, either a gas-HDL critical point or a LDL-HDL critical point. A

  1. Application of ionic liquid in liquid phase microextraction technology.

    PubMed

    Han, Dandan; Tang, Baokun; Lee, Yu Ri; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel nonmolecular solvents. Their unique properties, such as high thermal stability, tunable viscosity, negligible vapor pressure, nonflammability, and good solubility for inorganic and organic compounds, make them excellent candidates as extraction media for a range of microextraction techniques. Many physical properties of ILs can be varied, and the structural design can be tuned to impart the desired functionality and enhance the analyte extraction selectivity, efficiency, and sensitivity. This paper provides an overview of the applications of ILs in liquid phase microextraction technology, such as single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber based liquid phase microextraction, and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The sensitivity, linear calibration range, and detection limits for a range of target analytes in the methods were analyzed to determine the advantages of ILs in liquid phase microextraction.

  2. Recent development of ionic liquid stationary phases for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Xu, Guowang

    2015-11-13

    Based on their particular physicochemical characteristics, ionic liquids have been widely applied in many fields of analytical chemistry. Many types of ionic liquids were immobilized on a support like silica or monolith as stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Moreover, different approaches were developed to bond covalently ionic liquids onto the supporting materials. The obtained ionic liquid stationary phases show multi-mode mechanism including hydrophobic, hydrophilic, hydrogen bond, anion exchange, π-π, and dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, they could be used in different chromatographic modes including ion-exchange, RPLC, NPLC and HILIC to separate various classes of compounds. This review mainly summarizes the immobilized patterns and types of ionic liquid stationary phases, their retention mechanisms and applications in the recent five years.

  3. An Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of Cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Liu, Jun; Penoncello, Steven G.; Lemmon, Eric W.

    2014-12-01

    An equation of state for cyclohexane has been developed using the Helmholtz energy as the fundamental property with independent variables of density and temperature. Multi-property fitting technology was used to fit the equation of state to data for pρT, heat capacities, sound speeds, virial coefficients, vapor pressures, and saturated densities. The equation of state was developed to conform to the Maxwell criteria for two-phase vapor-liquid equilibrium states, and is valid from the triple-point temperature to 700 K, with pressures up to 250 MPa and densities up to 10.3 mol dm-3. In general, the uncertainties (k = 2, indicating a level of confidence of 95%) in density for the equation of state are 0.1% (liquid and vapor) up to 500 K, and 0.2% above 500 K, with higher uncertainties within the critical region. Between 283 and 473 K with pressures lower than 30 MPa, the uncertainty is as low as 0.03% in density in the liquid phase. The uncertainties in the speed of sound are 0.2% between 283 and 323 K in the liquid, and 1% elsewhere. Other uncertainties are 0.05% in vapor pressure and 2% in heat capacities. The behavior of the equation of state is reasonable within the region of validity and at higher and lower temperatures and pressures. A detailed analysis has been performed in this article.

  4. An Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of Cyclohexane

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yong Liu, Jun; Penoncello, Steven G.; Lemmon, Eric W.

    2014-12-15

    An equation of state for cyclohexane has been developed using the Helmholtz energy as the fundamental property with independent variables of density and temperature. Multi-property fitting technology was used to fit the equation of state to data for pρT, heat capacities, sound speeds, virial coefficients, vapor pressures, and saturated densities. The equation of state was developed to conform to the Maxwell criteria for two-phase vapor-liquid equilibrium states, and is valid from the triple-point temperature to 700 K, with pressures up to 250 MPa and densities up to 10.3 mol dm{sup −3}. In general, the uncertainties (k = 2, indicating a level of confidence of 95%) in density for the equation of state are 0.1% (liquid and vapor) up to 500 K, and 0.2% above 500 K, with higher uncertainties within the critical region. Between 283 and 473 K with pressures lower than 30 MPa, the uncertainty is as low as 0.03% in density in the liquid phase. The uncertainties in the speed of sound are 0.2% between 283 and 323 K in the liquid, and 1% elsewhere. Other uncertainties are 0.05% in vapor pressure and 2% in heat capacities. The behavior of the equation of state is reasonable within the region of validity and at higher and lower temperatures and pressures. A detailed analysis has been performed in this article.

  5. Far infrared studies of solid cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciesinska, E.; Sciesinski, J.; Wasiutynski, T.; Godlewska, M.; Wurflinger, A.

    1992-03-01

    Far infrared spectra of cyclohexane C 6H 12 in the frequency range of 100 - 650 cm -1 and C 6D 12 in the range of 50 - 650 cm -1 for phases I and II were measured at various temperatures. In the spectra some Raman active internal modes are observed. Four crystal multiplet components of the ν 16(e u) mode for phase II are resolved and assigned using the oriented gas model. Temperature dependence of the ν 32(e u) and ν 16(a 2u) vibrational excitons for phase II is discussed.

  6. Environmental exposure to the plasticizer 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) in US adults (2000—2012)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manori J.; Jia, Tao; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2015-01-01

    1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a complex mixture of nine carbon branched-chain isomers. It has been used in Europe since 2002 as a plasticizer to replace phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP). Urinary concentrations of the oxidative metabolites of DINCH, namely cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-monocarboxy isooctyl ester (MCOCH); cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(oxo-isononyl) ester (MONCH); and cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(hydroxy-isononyl) ester (MHNCH), can potentially be used as DINCH exposure biomarkers. The concentrations of MCOCH, MONCH and MHNCH were measured by online solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in urine collected in 2000 (n=114), 2001 (n=57), 2007 (n=23), 2009 (n=118), 2011 (n=94) and 2012 (n=121) from convenience groups of anonymous U.S. adult volunteers with no known DINCH exposure. None of the DINCH metabolites were detected in samples collected in 2000 and 2001. Only one sample collected in 2007 had measureable concentrations of DINCH metabolites. The detection rate for all three metabolites increased from 2007 to 2012. The presence of oxidative metabolites of DINCH in urine suggests that these oxidative metabolites can be used as DINCH biomarkers for exposure assessment even at environmental exposure levels. PMID:23777640

  7. Randomized Grain Boundary Liquid Crystal Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Wang, H.; Li, M.; Glaser, M.; Maclennan, J.; Clark, N.

    2012-02-01

    The formation of macroscopic, chiral domains, in the B4 and dark conglomerate phases, for example, is a feature of bent-core liquid crystals resulting from the interplay of chirality, molecular bend and molecular tilt. We report a new, chiral phase observed in a hockey stick-like liquid crystal molecule. This phase appears below a smectic A phase and cools to a crystal phase. TEM images of the free surface of the chiral phase show hundreds of randomly oriented smectic blocks several hundred nanometers in size, similar to those seen in the twist grain boundary (TGB) phase. However, in contrast to the TGB phase, these blocks are randomly oriented. The characteristic defects in this phase are revealed by freeze-fracture TEM images. We will show how these defects mediate the randomized orientation and discuss the intrinsic mechanism driving the formation of this phase. This work is supported by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR0820579 and NSF Grant DMR0606528.

  8. Reference Correlation of the Thermal Conductivity of Cyclohexane from the Triple Point to 640 K and up to 175 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutian, A.; Assael, M. J.; Huber, M. L.; Perkins, R. A.

    2017-03-01

    New, wide-range reference equations for the thermal conductivity of cyclohexane as a function of temperature and density are presented. The equations are based in part upon a body of experimental data that has been critically assessed for internal consistency and for agreement with theory whenever possible. We estimate the uncertainty (at the 95% confidence level) for the thermal conductivity of cyclohexane from the triple point (279.86 K) to 650 K at pressures up to 175 MPa to be 4% for the compressed liquid and supercritical phases. For the low-pressure gas phase (up to 0.1 MPa) over the temperature range 280-680 K, the estimated uncertainty is 2.5%. Uncertainties in the critical region are much larger, since the thermal conductivity approaches infinity at the critical point and is very sensitive to small changes in density.

  9. Glass phase and other multiple liquid-to-liquid transitions resulting from two-liquid phase competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Robert F.

    2016-11-01

    Melt supercooling leads to glass formation. Liquid-to-liquid phase transitions are observed depending on thermal paths. Viscosity, density and surface tension thermal dependences measured at heating and subsequent cooling show hysteresis below a branching temperature and result from the competition of two-liquid phases separated by an enthalpy difference depending on temperature. The nucleation classical equation of these phases is completed by this enthalpy saving existing at all temperatures. The glass phase thermodynamic parameters and their thermal variation have already been determined in such a two-liquid model. They are used at high temperatures to predict liquid-to-liquid transitions in some metallic glass-forming melts.

  10. Generic mechanism for generating a liquid-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzese, Giancarlo; Malescio, Gianpietro; Skibinsky, Anna; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2001-02-01

    Recent experimental results indicate that phosphorus-a single-component system-can have a high-density liquid (HDL) and a low-density liquid (LDL) phase. A first-order transition between two liquids of different densities is consistent with experimental data for a variety of materials, including single-component systems such as water, silica and carbon. Molecular dynamics simulations of very specific models for supercooled water, liquid carbon and supercooled silica predict a LDL-HDL critical point, but a coherent and general interpretation of the LDL-HDL transition is lacking. Here we show that the presence of a LDL and a HDL can be directly related to an interaction potential with an attractive part and two characteristic short-range repulsive distances. This kind of interaction is common to other single-component materials in the liquid state (in particular, liquid metals), and such potentials are often used to describe systems that exhibit a density anomaly. However, our results show that the LDL and HDL phases can occur in systems with no density anomaly. Our results therefore present an experimental challenge to uncover a liquid-liquid transition in systems like liquid metals, regardless of the presence of a density anomaly.

  11. Comparison of different solid-phase-extraction cartridges for a fatty acid cleanup of the ethyl acetate/cyclohexane based multi-pesticide residue method EN 12393.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Philipp; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-01-03

    SPE cartridges of different anion exchange materials and florisil were compared regarding their efficiency to remove free fatty acids from ethylacetate/cyclohexane (1:1) extracts, their elution profiles and recovery rates for 38 representative pesticides, their contribution to an elevated background during gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and on possible matrix effects caused by the cartridge material itself. From the seven tested cartridges, only Varian PSA (PSA) and Silicycle SiliaPrep Diamine (SPD) were very well able to retain fatty acids from ethylacetate/cyclohexane solutions and provided satisfying recoveries and elution profiles for the tested pesticides. Thus, with both cartridges a fast and simple cleanup was developed and tested with 86 pesticides as well as with EN 12393 GPC extracts of oat flour. The SPE cleanup clearly improved the identification of pesticides and reduced false negative findings due to retention time shifts and superimpositions of quantifier and/or qualifier ions. As compared with dispersive SPE it was shown, that depending on the amount of sorbent the cleanup efficiency was comparable, but recoveries were generally better for cartridge SPE procedures.

  12. Liquid-phase chlorination of perchloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Levanova, S.V.; Evstigneev, O.V.; Rodova, R.M.; Berlin, E.R.; Ul'yanov, A.A.

    1988-06-01

    The relationships in the liquid-phase chlorination of perchloroethylene to hexachlorethane in a thermal process and in the presence of an initiator have been studied. The rate constants and the activation parameters of the process have been determined.

  13. Correlation of three-liquid-phase equilibria involving ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Escontrela, I; Arce, A; Soto, A; Marcilla, A; Olaya, M M; Reyes-Labarta, J A

    2016-08-03

    The difficulty in achieving a good thermodynamic description of phase equilibria is finding a model that can be extended to a large variety of chemical families and conditions. This problem worsens in the case of systems containing more than two phases or involving complex compounds such as ionic liquids. However, there are interesting applications that involve multiphasic systems, and the promising features of ionic liquids suggest that they will play an important role in many future processes. In this work, for the first time, the simultaneous correlation of liquid-liquid and liquid-liquid-liquid equilibrium data for ternary systems involving ionic liquids has been carried out. To that end, the phase diagram of the water + [P6 6 6 14][DCA] + hexane system has been determined at 298.15 K and 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The importance of this system lies in the possibility of using the surface active ionic liquid to improve surfactant enhanced oil recovery methods. With those and previous measurements, thirteen sets of equilibrium data for water + ionic liquid + oil ternary systems have been correlated. The isoactivity equilibrium condition, using the NRTL model, and some pivotal strategies are proposed to correlate these complex systems. Good agreement has been found between experimental and calculated data in all the regions (one triphasic and two biphasic) of the diagrams. The geometric aspects related to the Gibbs energy of mixing function obtained using the model, together with the minor common tangent plane equilibrium condition, are valuable tools to check the consistency of the obtained correlation results.

  14. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, Y. I.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1983-01-01

    Porous plugs serve as both entropy rejection devices and phase separation components separating the vapor phase on the downstream side from liquid Helium 2 upstream. The liquid upstream is the cryo-reservoir fluid needed for equipment cooling by means of Helium 2, i.e Helium-4 below its lambda temperature in near-saturated states. The topics outlined are characteristic lengths, transport equations and plug results.

  15. Solid-liquid phase transition in argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Tang, H. T.

    1978-01-01

    Starting from the Lennard-Jones interatomic potential, a modified cell theory has been used to describe the solid-liquid phase transition in argon. The cell-size variations may be evaluated by a self-consistent condition. With the inclusion of cell-size variations, the transition temperature, the solid and liquid densities, and the liquid-phase radial-distribution functions have been calculated. These ab initio results are in satisfactory agreement with molecular-dynamics calculations as well as experimental data on argon.

  16. Ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Eastoe, Julian; Gold, Sarah; Rogers, Sarah E; Paul, Alison; Welton, Tom; Heenan, Richard K; Grillo, Isabelle

    2005-05-25

    Phase stability and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data show that surfactant-stabilized nanodomains of a typical ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim][BF4]) may be dispersed by the nonionic surfactant Triton-X100 in cyclohexane. Analyses of these SANS data are consistent with the formation of ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion droplets.

  17. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W. Jr. ); Cochran, H.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Molecular Caging of Graphene with Cyclohexane: Transfer and Electrical Transport

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Transfer of large, clean, crack- and fold-free graphene sheets is a critical challenge in the field of graphene-based electronic devices. Polymers, conventionally used for transferring two-dimensional materials, irreversibly adsorb yielding a range of unwanted chemical functions and contaminations on the surface. An oil–water interface represents an ideal support for graphene. Cyclohexane, the oil phase, protects graphene from mechanical deformation and minimizes vibrations of the water surface. Remarkably, cyclohexane solidifies at 7 °C forming a plastic crystal phase molecularly conforming graphene, preventing the use of polymers, and thus drastically limiting contamination. Graphene floating at the cyclohexane/water interface exhibits improved electrical performances allowing for new possibilities of in situ, flexible sensor devices at a water interface. PMID:28058279

  19. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Equilibria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    1978-01-01

    Indicates some of the information that may be obtained from a binary solid-liquid phase equilibria experiment and a method to write a computer program that will plot an ideal phase diagram to which the experimental results may be compared. (Author/CP)

  20. Phase separation in transparent liquid-liquid miscibility gap systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S. H.; Bhat, B. N.; Laub, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A program to be carried out on transparent liquid-phase miscibility gap materials was developed for the purpose of acquiring additional insight into the separation process occurring in these systems. The transparency feature allows the reaction to be viewed directly through light scattering and holographic methods.

  1. Liquid-Liquid phase transition in a single component system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzese, Giancarlo; Skibinsky, Anna; Buldyrev, Sergey; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2001-06-01

    Recent experimental results indicate that phosphorus, a single-component system, can have a high-density liquid (HDL) and a low-density liquid (LDL) phase. A first-order LDL-HDL transition line ending in a critical point is consistent with experimental data and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for a variety of single-component systems such as water, silica and carbon, but a coherent and general interpretation of the LDL-HDL transition is lacking. By means of MD, we show that the LDL-HDL transition can be directly related to an interaction potential with an attractive part and with not one but `two' preferred short-range repulsive distances. This kind of interaction is common to other single-component materials in the liquid state, in particular liquid metals. For the fisrt time, we show that the LDL-HDL transition can occur in systems with no density anomaly, opening an experimental challenge to uncover a liquid-liquid transition in systems like liquid metals, regardless of the presence of the density anomaly.

  2. Phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Lee H.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of phase separation in the succinonitrile-water system are being investigated. Experiments involve initial physical mixing of the two immiscible liquids at a temperature above the consolute, decreasing the temperature into the miscibility gap, followed by iamging of the resultant microstructure as it evolves with time. Refractive index differences allow documentation of the changing microstructures by noninvasive optical techniques without the need to quench the liquid structures for analysis.

  3. Phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics of phase separation in the succinonitrile-water system are being investigated. Experiments involve initial physical mixing of the two immiscible liquids at a temperature above the consolute, decreasing the temperature into the miscibility gap, followed by imaging of the resultant microstructure as it evolves with time. Refractive index differences allow documentation of the changing microstructures by noninvasive optical techniques without the need to quench the liquid structures for analysis.

  4. Ultrasonic atomization: effect of liquid phase properties.

    PubMed

    Avvaru, Balasubrahmanyam; Patil, Mohan N; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2006-02-01

    Experiments have been conducted to understand the mechanism by which the ultrasonic vibration at the gas liquid interface causes the atomization of liquid. For this purpose, aqueous solutions having different viscosities and liquids showing Newtonian (aqueous solution of glycerin) and non-Newtonian behavior (aqueous solution of sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose) were employed. It has been found that the average droplet size produced by the pseudo-plastic liquid is less than that produced by the viscous Newtonian liquid having viscosity equal to zero-shear rate viscosity of the shear thinning liquid. The droplet size was found to increase initially with an increase in the viscosity up to a certain threshold viscosity after which the droplet size was found to decrease again. Also droplet size distribution is found to be more compact (uniform sizes) with an increasing viscosity of the atomizing liquid. The presence of the cavitation and its effect on the atomization has been semi quantitatively confirmed using energy balance and by the measurement of the droplet ejection velocities and validated on the basis of the decomposition of the aqueous KI solution. A correlation has been proposed for the prediction of droplet size for aqueous Newtonian fluids and fluids showing non-Newtonian behavior based on the dimensionless numbers incorporating the operating parameters of the ultrasonic atomizer and the liquid phase physico-chemical properties.

  5. Polymorphism in glassy silicon: Inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2015-02-01

    Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 1014 K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL).

  6. Diffraction from a liquid crystal phase grating.

    PubMed

    Kashnow, R A; Bigelow, J E

    1973-10-01

    The diffraction of light by a sinusoidal perturbation of the optic axis in a nematic liquid crystal is discussed. This corresponds to experiments at the electrohydrodynamic instability thresholds. An interesting qualitative feature appears: The diffraction pattern exhibits a contribution at half of the expected spatial frequency, corresponding to nonorthogonal traversals of the thick phase grating.

  7. Liquid phase sintered compacts in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, T. K.; Mcanelly, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A model that will explain the effect of gravity on liquid phase sintering was developed. Wetting characteristics and density segregation which are the two important phenomena in liquid phase sintering are considered in the model development. Experiments were conducted on some selected material combinations to study the gravity effects on liquid phase sintering, and to verify the validity of the model. It is concluded that: (1) The surface tension forces acting on solid particles in a one-g environment are not appreciably different from those anticipated in a 0.00001g/g sub 0 (or lower) environment. (2) The capillary forces are dependent on the contact angle, the quantity of the liquid phase, and the distance between solid particles. (3) The pores (i.e., bubbles) do not appear to be driven to the surface by gravity-produced buoyancy forces. (4) The length of time to produce the same degree of settling in a low-gravity environment will be increased significantly. (5) A low gravity environment would appear to offer a unique means of satisfactorily infiltrating a larger and/or complex shaped compact.

  8. Improved Boat For Liquid-Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid-phase epitaxial (LPE) growth boat redesigned. Still fabricated from ultra-high-purity graphite, but modified to permit easy disassembly and cleaning, along with improved wiping action for more complete removal of melt to reduce carry-over of gallium. Larger substrates and more uniform composition obtained.

  9. DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS -- A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    site characterization, and, therefore, DNAPL remediation, can be expected. Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface are long-term sources of ground-water contamination, and may persist for centuries before dissolving completely in adjacent ground water. In respo...

  10. Vapor-liquid equilibria of n-hexane + cyclohexane + n-heptane and the three constituent binary systems at 101. 0 kPa

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, D.S.; Shiau, H.Y.; Tsai, F.N. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the title ternary system and the three constituent binary systems have been measured at 101.0 kPa by using a dynamic equilibrium still. The binary data were tested for thermodynamic consistency and were correlated by the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations. Predictions for the ternary system by these equations have been compared with the experimental data.

  11. Reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with central composite design optimization for preconcentration and HPLC determination of oleuropein.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Payman; Raeisi, Fatemeh; Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Rahimi, Akram

    2010-03-15

    A reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (RP-DLLME) method was developed for the preconcentration and direct HPLC determination of oleuropein in olive's processing wastewater (OPW) and olive leaves extracts. In conventional DLLME, the sedimented phase is a micro-drop of a chlorinated organic solvent that is not compatible with RP-HPLC. Therefore, solvent evaporation and reconstitution with an appropriate solvent is often required. In RP-DLLME, this problem was overcome by overturning the solvent polarity in the ordinary DLLME and replacing the organic solvent with water. A central composite chemometrics design was used for multivariate optimization of the effects of five different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of the method. In the optimized conditions, a mixture of 1.4 mL of an ethyl acetate extract of sample and 40 microL water (pH 5.0) was rapidly injected into 5.3 mL of cyclohexane. After centrifugation of the formed cloudy mixture, a micro-drop of the aqueous phase was sedimented at the conical bottom of the centrifuge tube. This phase, that contained the preconcentrated and partially purified analyte, was directly injected into an RP-HPLC column for analysis. A mean extraction recovery of 102.5 (+/-4.5) % with enrichment factors exceeding 38, was obtained for five replicated analysis. The detection limit of the method (3 sigma) for OE was 0.02 microg L(-1) for OPW and 2 x 10(-3) mg kg(-1) for olive leaves samples. The results showed that, RP-DLLME is a promising technique which is quick, easily operated and can be directly coupled to HPLC.

  12. Liquid crystal display for phase shifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos-Mendoza, B.; Granados-Agustín, F. S.; Aguirre-Aguirre, D.; Cornejo-Rodríguez, A.

    2013-11-01

    This work arises based on the idea proposed by Millered et al. in 2004, where they show how to get in one shot interferograms with phase shift using a mask with micro-polarizers, in this work we pretend to obtain phase shift in localized areas of an interferogram using the properties of polarization and the pixelated configuration of a liquid crystal display (LCD) for testing optical surfaces. In this work we describes the process of characterization of a liquid crystal display CRL Opto and XGA2P01 model, which is introduced in one arm of a Twyman Green interferometer. Finally we show the experimental interferograms with phase shifts which are caused by different gray levels displayed in the LCD.

  13. Gravitational Role in Liquid Phase Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upadhyaya, Anish; Iacocca, Ronald G.; German, Randall M.

    1998-01-01

    To comprehensively understand the gravitational effects on the evolution of both the microstructure and the macrostructure during liquid phase sintering, W-Ni-Fe alloys with W content varying from 35 to 98 wt.% were sintered in microgravity. Compositions that slump during ground-based sintering also distort when sintered under microgravity. In ground-based sintering, low solid content alloys distort with a typical elephant-foot profile, while in microgravity, the compacts tend to spheroidize. This study shows that microstructural segregation occurs in both ground-based as well as microgravity sintering. In ground-based experiments, because of the density difference between the solid and the liquid phase, the solid content increases from top to the bottom of the sample. In microgravity, the solid content increases from periphery to the center of the samples. This study also shows that the pores during microgravity sintering act as a stable phase and attain anomalous shapes.

  14. Liquid Crystalline Phases of Polymer Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Kiana; Abukhdeir, Nasser; Matsen, Mark

    The phase behavior of liquid-crystal polymeric brushes in solvent are investigated using self-consistent field theory. The polymers are modeled as freely-jointed chain consisting of N rigid segments. The isotropic interactions between the polymer and the solvent are treated using the standard Flory-Huggins theory, while the anisotropic liquid-crystalline (LC) interactions between rigid segments are taken into account using the Mayer-Saupe theory. For weak LC interactions, the brush exhibits the conventional parabolic-like profile, while for strong LC interactions, the polymers crystallize into a dense brush with a step-like profile. At intermediate interaction strengths, we find the microphase-segregated phase observed previously for lattice-model calculations. In this phase, the brush exhibits a crystalline layer next to the grafting surface with an external layer similar to the conventional brush. This work was supported by NSERC of Canada.

  15. The gravitational effects on liquid phase sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kipphut, C. M.; German, Randall M.; Bose, A.; Kishi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The liquid-phase sintering of heavy-metal PM alloys containing 78, 83, 88, 93, or 98 wt pct W plus Ni and Fe in a 7:3 ratio is investigated experimentally. The focus is on the potential role of gravity in phenomena such as specimen slumping and distortion, liquid migration, and microstructural coarsening. The results are presented in extensive graphs and micrographs and discussed in detail, and a preliminary grain-growth model is developed which accounts for the effects of contiguity and the volume fraction of solid.

  16. Phase transitions in liquid crystal + aerosil gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanoglu, Mehmet Kerim

    Liquid Crystals (LCs) are found in many different phases, the most well-known, basic ones being Isotropic (I), Nematic (N), and Smectic-A (SmA). LCs show a rich variety of phase transitions between these phases. This makes them very interesting materials in which to study the basics of phase transitions and related topics. In the low symmetry phases, LCs show both positional and directional orders. X-ray scattering is an important tool to study these phase transitions as it probes the instantaneous positional correlations in these phases. Random forces have a nontrivial effect on ordering in nature, and the problem of phase transitions in the presence of a random field is a current and not well-understood topic. It has been found that aerosils posses a quenched randomness in the mixture of LC+aerosil samples, forming a gel random network which destroys long-range order (LRO) in the SmA phase. This can be modeled as a random field problem. In the N to SmA phase transition in 4O.8 LC (butyloxybenzlidene octylaniline), orientational order (N ) is modified by a 1-D density wave describing 2-D fluid layer spacing structure (SmA). Likewise the I to Sm A phase transition in 10CB LC (decylcyanobiphenyl), a transitional ordered phase develops without going through an orientational ordered phase. To study these phase transitions with aerosil dispersion carries the opportunity to probe the effect of induced quenched random disorder on phase transitions, which are 2nd order in the first case and 1st order in the second case. A two-component line-shape analysis is developed to define the phases in all temperature ranges. It consists of the thermal and the static structure factors. The reentered nematic (RN) phase of the [6:8]OCB+aerosil gels ([6:8]OCB is a mixture of hexyloxycyanobiphenyl and octyloxcyanobiphenyl) is another interesting case in which to study the quenched random disorder effects. The weak SmA phase of [6:8]OCB+aerosil gels is followed by a RN phase at low

  17. Liquid-phase electroepitaxy - Dopant segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Jastrzebski, L.; Gatos, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented which accounts for the dopant segregation in liquid-phase electroepitaxy in terms of dopant transport in the liquid phase (by electromigration and diffusion), the growth velocity, and the Peltier effect at the substrate-solution interface. The contribution of dopant electromigration to the magnitude of the effective segregation coefficient is dominant in the absence of convection; the contribution of the Peltier effect becomes significant only in the presence of pronounced convection. Quantitative expressions which relate the segregation coefficient to the growth parameters also permit the determination of the diffusion constant and electromigration mobility of the dopant in the liquid phase. The model was found to be in good agreement with the measured segregation characteristics of Sn in the electroepitaxial growth of GaAs from Ga-As solutions. For Sn in Ga-As solution at 900 C the diffusion constant was found to be 4 x 10 to the -5 sq cm/s and the electromigration velocity (toward the substrate with a positive polarity 2 x 10 to the -5 cm/s current density of 10 A/sq cm.

  18. Phase Segregation at the Liquid-Air Interface Prior to Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Salguero, Carolina; Gracia-Fadrique, Jesús

    2015-08-13

    Binary systems with partial miscibility segregate into two liquid phases when their overall composition lies within the interval defined by the saturation points; out of this interval, there is one single phase, either solvent-rich or solute-rich. In most systems, in the one-phase regions, surface tension decreases with increasing solute concentration due to solute adsorption at the liquid-air interface. Therefore, the solute concentration at the surface is higher than in the bulk, leading to the hypothesis that phase segregation starts at the liquid-air interface with the formation of two surface phases, before the liquid-liquid equilibrium. This phenomenon is called surface segregation and is a step toward understanding liquid segregation at a molecular level and detailing the constitution of fluid interfaces. Surface segregation of aqueous binary systems of alkyl acetates with partial miscibility was theoretically demonstrated by means of a thermodynamic stability test based on energy minimization. Experimentally, the coexistence of two surface regions was verified through Brewster's angle microscopy. The observations were further interpreted with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations, which show the diffusion of the acetates from the bulk toward the liquid-air interface, where acetates aggregate into acetate-rich domains.

  19. Frustration of crystallisation by a liquid-crystal phase.

    PubMed

    Syme, Christopher D; Mosses, Joanna; González-Jiménez, Mario; Shebanova, Olga; Walton, Finlay; Wynne, Klaas

    2017-02-17

    Frustration of crystallisation by locally favoured structures is critically important in linking the phenomena of supercooling, glass formation, and liquid-liquid transitions. Here we show that the putative liquid-liquid transition in n-butanol is in fact caused by geometric frustration associated with an isotropic to rippled lamellar liquid-crystal transition. Liquid-crystal phases are generally regarded as being "in between" the liquid and the crystalline state. In contrast, the liquid-crystal phase in supercooled n-butanol is found to inhibit transformation to the crystal. The observed frustrated phase is a template for similar ordering in other liquids and likely to play an important role in supercooling and liquid-liquid transitions in many other molecular liquids.

  20. Monodomain Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Layers for Phase Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Oton, E.; Netter, E.; Nakano, T.; D.-Katayama, Y.; Inoue, F.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid crystal “Blue Phases” (BP) have evolved, in the last years, from a scientific curiosity to emerging materials for new photonic and display applications. They possess attractive features over standard nematic liquid crystals, like submillisecond switching times and polarization- independent optical response. However, BPs still present a number of technical issues that prevent their use in practical applications: their phases are only found in limited temperature ranges, thus requiring stabilization of the layers; stabilized BP layers are inhomogeneous and not uniformly oriented, which worsen the optical performance of the devices. It would be essential for practical uses to obtain perfectly aligned and oriented monodomain BP layers, where the alignment and orientation of the cubic lattice are organized in a single 3D structure. In this work we have obtained virtually perfect monodomain BP layers and used them in devices for polarization independent phase modulation. We demonstrate that, under applied voltage, well aligned and oriented layers generate smoother and higher values of the phase shift than inhomogeneous layers, while preserving polarization independency. All BP devices were successfully stabilized in BPI phase, maintaining the layer monodomain homogeneity at room temperature, covering the entire area of the devices with a unique BP phase. PMID:28281691

  1. Monodomain Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Layers for Phase Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oton, E.; Netter, E.; Nakano, T.; D.-Katayama, Y.; Inoue, F.

    2017-03-01

    Liquid crystal “Blue Phases” (BP) have evolved, in the last years, from a scientific curiosity to emerging materials for new photonic and display applications. They possess attractive features over standard nematic liquid crystals, like submillisecond switching times and polarization- independent optical response. However, BPs still present a number of technical issues that prevent their use in practical applications: their phases are only found in limited temperature ranges, thus requiring stabilization of the layers; stabilized BP layers are inhomogeneous and not uniformly oriented, which worsen the optical performance of the devices. It would be essential for practical uses to obtain perfectly aligned and oriented monodomain BP layers, where the alignment and orientation of the cubic lattice are organized in a single 3D structure. In this work we have obtained virtually perfect monodomain BP layers and used them in devices for polarization independent phase modulation. We demonstrate that, under applied voltage, well aligned and oriented layers generate smoother and higher values of the phase shift than inhomogeneous layers, while preserving polarization independency. All BP devices were successfully stabilized in BPI phase, maintaining the layer monodomain homogeneity at room temperature, covering the entire area of the devices with a unique BP phase.

  2. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of Oil Bodies from Seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentally, oil bodies are discrete storage organelles found in oilseeds, comprising a hydrophobic triacylglycerol core surrounded by a half-unit phospholipid membrane and an outer shell of specialized proteins known as oleosins. Oil bodies possess a number of attributes that were exploited by SemBioSys Genetics to isolate highly enriched fractions of oil bodies through liquid-liquid phase separation for a number of commercial applications. The current chapter provides a general guide for the isolation of oil bodies from Arabidopsis and/or safflower seed, from which protocols can be refined for different oilseed sources. For SemBioSys Genetic's recombinant technology, therapeutic proteins were covalently attached to oleosins or fused in-frame with ligands which bound oil bodies, facilitating their recovery to high levels of purity during "upstream processing" of transformed seed. Core to this technology was oil body isolation consisting of simple manipulation including homogenization of seeds to free the oil bodies, followed by the removal of insoluble fractions, and phase separation to recover the oil bodies. During oil body enrichment (an increase in oil body content concomitant with removal of impurities), a number of options and tips are provided to aid researchers in the manipulation and monitoring of these robust organelles.

  3. Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, Gregory G.

    2004-02-19

    Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid or "NPAL" is a term that most environmental professionals are familiar with because NAPL has been recognized in the literature as a significant source of groundwater contamination. There are two types of NAPL: DNAPL and LNAPL. DNAPL is a ‘dense’ non-aqueous phase liquid. In this context, dense means having a density greater than water (1.0 kg/L). Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachioroethylene (PCE) are examples of DNAPL compounds. A compound that is heaver than water means this type of NAPL will sink in an aquifer. Conversely, LNAPL is a ‘light’ non-aqueous phase liquid with a density less than water, and will float on top of the aquifer. Examples of LNAPL’s are benzene and toluene. LNAPL or DNAPL often manifest as a complex, multi-component mixture of organic compounds that can occur in environmental media. Complex multi-component mixtures distributed in soil pore-air, pore-water, soil particles and in free phase complicate residual saturation of single and multi component NAPL compounds in soil samples. The model output also includes estimates of the NAPL mass and volume and other physical and chemical properties that may be useful for characterization, modeling, and remedial system design and operation. The discovery of NAPL in the aquifer usually leads to a focused characterization for possible sources of NAPL in the vadose zone using a variety of innovative technologies and characterization methods. Often, the analytical data will indicated the presence of NAPL, yet, the NAPL will go unrecognized. Failure to recognize the NAPL can be attributed to the complicated processes of inter-media transfer or a general lack of knowledge about the physical characteristics of complex organic mixtures in environmental samples.

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,3-Dioxane C4H8O2 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1511, LB5121_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,3-Dioxane C4H8O2 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1511, LB5121_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexane C6H12 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4558_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexane C6H12 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4558_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexane C6H12 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4564_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexane C6H12 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4564_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  7. A Crossed Sliding Luttinger Liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan; Kane, C. L.; Lubensky, T. C.

    2001-03-01

    It was recently demonstrated [1] that a stack of weakly coupled 2D planar XY-models can exhibit a sliding phase characterized by correlations that die off as a power-law with distance within a plane and exponentially with distance in the perpendicular direction. In this talk we investigate how these ideas can be extended to two-dimensional arrays of coupled quantam wires. In particular, we will focus on a crossed array of wires and demonstrate the existence of the so-called "crossed sliding Luttinger liquid" phase [2]. This phase is characterized by power-law correlations, and a two-dimensional isotropic in-plane conductivity that diverges as a power-law in temperature T as T goes to 0. It thus represents a nearly isotropic non-Fermi liquid state in two dimensions. 1. C.S. O'Hern, T.C. Lubensky, and J.Toner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2745 (1999). 2. Ranjan Mukhopadhyay, C.L. Kane, and T.C. Lubensky, condmat/0007039.

  8. Wide Angle Liquid Crystal Optical Phased Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xing-Hua; Wang, Bin; Bos, Philip J.; Anderson, James E.; Pouch, John J.; Miranda, Felix A.; McManamon, Paul F.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate modeling of a high resolution, liquid crystal (LC) based, optical phased array (OPA) is shown. The simulation shows excellent agreement with a test 2-D LC OPA. The modeling method is extendable to cases where the array element size is close to the wavelength of light. The fringing fields of such a device are first studied, and subsequently reduced. This results in a device that demonstrates plus or minus 7.4 degrees of continuous beam steering at a wavelength of 1550 nm, and a diffraction efficiency (DE) higher than 72%.

  9. MSPD sample preparation approach for reversed-phase liquid chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in stem of coconut palm.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jordana Alves; Santos, Luís Fabrício Santana; Souza, Nicaellen Roberta da Silva; Navickiene, Sandro; de Oliveira, Frederico Alberto; Talamini, Viviane

    2013-08-01

    A method was developed using matrix solid-phase dispersion, together with liquid chromatography with ultraviolet diode array detector for determination of carbofuran, difenoconazole, β-cyfluthrin, spirodiclofen and thiophanate-methyl in stem of coconut palm. The best results were obtained using 2.0 g of stem, 1.6 g of Florisil as sorbent and cyclohexane:acetone mixture (4:1). The method was validated using stem samples spiked with pesticides at four concentration levels (0.05-2.0 μg/g). Average recoveries ranged from 70 % to 114.3 %, with relative standard deviations between 1.2 % and 19.2 %. Detection and quantification limits were in the ranges 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.1 μg/g, respectively.

  10. Liquid-liquid phase transitions and water-like anomalies in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascaris, Erik

    In this thesis we employ computer simulations and statistical physics to understand the origin of liquid-liquid phase transitions and their relationship with anomalies typical of liquid water. Compared with other liquids, water has many anomalies. For example the density anomaly: when water is cooled below 4 °C the density decreases rather than increases. This and other anomalies have also been found to occur in a few other one-component liquids, sometimes in conjunction with the existence of a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) between a low-density liquid (LDL) and a high-density liquid (HDL). Using simple models we explain how these anomalies arise from the presence of two competing length scales. As a specific example we investigate the cut ramp potential, where we show the importance of "competition" in this context, and how one length scale can sometimes be zero. When there is a clear energetic preference for either LDL or HDL for all pressures and temperatures, then there is insufficient competition between the two liquid structures and no anomalies occur. From the simple models it also follows that anomalies can occur without the presence of a LLPT and vice versa. It remains therefore unclear if water has a LLPT that ends in a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP), a hypothesis that was first proposed based on simulations of the ST2 water model. We confirm the existence of a LLCP in this model using finite size scaling and the Challa-Landau-Binder parameter, and show that the LLPT is not a liquid-crystal transition, as has recently been suggested. Previous research has indicated the possible existence of a LLCP in liquid silica. We perform a detailed analysis of two different silica models (WAC and BKS) at temperatures much lower than was previously simulated. Within the accessible temperature range we find no LLCP in either model, although in the case of WAC potential it is closely approached. We compare our results with those obtained for other

  11. On liquid phases in cometary nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Richard; Faillace, George A.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we review the relevant literature and investigate conditions likely to lead to melting of H2O ice, methanol (CH3OH) ice, ethane (C2H6) ice and other volatile ices in cometary nuclei. On the basis of a heat balance model which takes account of volatiles loss, we predict the formation of occasional aqueous and hydrocarbon liquid phases in subsurface regions at heliocentric distances, rh of 1-3 AU, and 5-12 AU, respectively. Low triple-point temperatures and low vapour pressures of C2H6, C3H8, and some higher-order alkanes and alkenes, favour liquid phase formation in cometary bodies at high rh. Microporosity and the formation of a stabilization crust occluding the escape of volatiles facilitate liquid-phase formation. Characteristics of the near-surface which favour subsurface melting include; low effective surface emissivity (at low rh), high amorphous carbon content, average pore sizes of ˜10 μm or less, presence of solutes (e.g. CH3OH), mixtures of C2-C6 hydrocarbons (for melting at high rh), diurnal thermal cycling, and slow rotation rate. Applying the principles of soil mechanics, capillary forces are shown to initiate pre-melting phenomena and subsequent melting, which is expected to impart considerable strength of ˜104 Pa in partially saturated layers, reducing porosity and permeability, enhancing thermal conductivity and heat transfer. Diurnal thermal cycling is expected to have a marked effect on the composition and distribution of H2O ice in the near-surface leading to frost heave-type phenomena even where little if any true melting occurs. Where melting does take place, capillary suction in the wetted zone has the potential to enhance heat transfer via capillary wetting in a low-gravity environment, and to modify surface topography creating relatively smooth flat-bottomed features, which have a tendency to be located within small depressions. An important aspect of the "wetted layer" model is the prediction that diurnal melt-freeze cycles

  12. Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…

  13. Transient liquid phase bonding of intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yimin

    The present work was undertaken to examine the applicability of transient liquid phase bonding to structural intermetallics. This research was based on an investigation of the mechanisms governing microstructural development in the joint and adjacent substrates during the joining process. The bonding systems investigated included polycrystalline NiAl/Cu/Ni, polycrystalline NiAl/Cu/superalloys (Martin-Marietta (MM)-247, Inconel (IN) 718 and Nimonic 90), single-crystal NiAl (with 1.5 at % Hf) joined to MM-247 using different filler metals (Cu foil, powder filler metal and electro-plated thin Cu film), and martensitic NiAl joined with martensitic NiTi using Cu foil and specially designed powder filler metals. In polycrystalline NiAl/Cu/Ni bonds, the mechanism of isothermal solidification is considered. Changes in the microstructure of the bond centerline due to element redistribution are discussed. The precipitation of both L1sb2 type gammasp' and B2 type beta phase at the joint centerline is investigated. The formation of martensitic L1sb0 type NiAl is also examined. The mechanical properties of the joints are investigated using shear strength and microhardness tests. In TLP bonding of polycrystalline NiAl with MM-247, both the epitaxial growth of the beta phase NiAl into the joint and the formation of non-epitaxial beta-phase layers are considered. The formation of second-phases, including the gammasp' phase, carbides, and sigma-phase intermetallics is also examined. Bond-line and adjacent substrate microstructures for the NiAl/Cu/MM-247 bonds are correlated with joint mechanical properties determined by room temperature shear testing. Single-crystal NiAl (1.5 at % Hf)/Cu/MM-247 joints are examined and compared with polycrystalline NiAl/Cu/MM247 joints. The effect of Hf on the microstructure of joints is investigated. The influence of different filler metals (i.e., wide-gap powder filler metal and electro-plated thin film filler metal) on the joining process is also

  14. Confinement effect on the adsorption from a binary liquid system near liquid/liquid phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Gernot; Woywod, Dirk; Schoen, Martin; Findenegg, Gerhard H.

    2004-06-01

    The preferential adsorption of one component of a binary system at the inner surfaces of mesoporous silica glasses was studied in a wide composition range at temperatures close to liquid/liquid phase separation. Confinement effects on the adsorption were investigated by using three controlled-pore glass (CPG-10) materials of different mean pore size (10 to 50 nm). For the experimental system (2-butoxyethanol+water), which exhibits an upper miscibility gap, strong preferential adsorption of water occurs, as the coexistence curve is approached at bulk compositions, at which water is the minority component. In this strong adsorption regime the area-related surface excess amount of adsorbed water decreases with decreasing pore width, while the shift in the volume-related mean composition of the pore liquid shows an opposite trend, i.e., greatest deviation from bulk composition occurring in the most narrow pores. A simple mean-field lattice model of a liquid mixture confined by parallel walls is adopted to rationalize these experimental findings. This model reproduces the main findings of the confinement effect on the adsorption near liquid/liquid phase separation.

  15. Two-phase liquid-liquid flows generated by impinging liquid jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaoulidis, Dimitrios; Li, Qi; Angeli, Panagiota

    2015-11-01

    Two-phase flows in intensified small-scale systems find increasing applications in (bio)chemical analysis and synthesis, fuel cells, polymerisation, and separation processes (solvent extraction). Current nuclear spent fuel reprocessing separation technologies have been developed many decades ago and have not taken account recent advances on process intensification which can drive down plant size and economics. In this work, intensified impinging jets will be developed to create dispersions by bringing the two liquid phases into contact through opposing small channels. A systematic set of experiments has been undertaken, to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics, to develop predictive models, and enable comparisons with other contactors. Drop size distribution and mixing intensity will be investigated for liquid-liquid mixtures as a function of various parameters using high speed imaging and conductivity probes.

  16. Electronic structure of cyclohexane on Ni(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, W.; Zebisch, P.; Bornemann, T.; Steinrück, H.-P.

    1990-12-01

    Mono- and multilayers of cyclohexane adsorbed on a Ni(111) surface have been studied by angle resolved UV photoelectron spectroscopy (ARUPS) using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Cyclohexane is molecularly adsorbed on Ni(111) at temperatures below 200 K and desorbs without dehydrogenation. Desorption from the first layer exhibits zeroth-order desorption behavior indicative of desorption from two-dimensional islands. The first layer exhibits a well ordered ( 7 × 7)R19.1° LEED structure starting at coverages of 0.04 ML up to the saturation coverage of 0.143 ML, also indicative of island formation. For cyclohexane in the first layer the binding energies of the various molecular levels are, apart from an overall shift to smaller values by 0.7 eV, within ± 0.1 eV identical to those of condensed cyclohexane. This absence of chemical shifts indicates that there is only very weak (if any) chemical interaction between cyclohexane and the Ni(111) surface. From the normal emission ARUPS spectra and symmetry selection rules we conclude that the symmetry of cyclohexane adsorbed on Ni(111) is lower than C 3v. This is attributed to a slightly inclined adsorption geometry with intramolecular C 3v symmetry of the adsorbed molecules.

  17. Computer simulations of liquid silica: Equation of state and liquid-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Sciortino, Francesco; Poole, Peter H.

    2001-01-01

    We conduct extensive molecular dynamics computer simulations of two models for liquid silica [the model of Woodcock, Angell and Cheeseman, J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1565 (1976); and that of van Beest, Kramer, and van Santen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1955 (1990)] to determine their thermodynamic properties at low temperature T across a wide density range. We find for both models a wide range of states in which isochores of the potential energy U are a linear function of T3/5, as recently proposed for simple liquids [Rosenfeld and P. Tarazona, Mol. Phys. 95, 141 (1998)]. We exploit this behavior to fit an accurate equation of state to our thermodynamic data. Extrapolation of this equation of state to low T predicts the occurrence of a liquid-liquid phase transition for both models. We conduct simulations in the region of the predicted phase transition, and confirm its existence by direct observation of phase separating droplets of atoms with distinct local density and coordination environments.

  18. Microemulsions with an ionic liquid surfactant and room temperature ionic liquids as polar pseudo-phase.

    PubMed

    Zech, Oliver; Thomaier, Stefan; Bauduin, Pierre; Rück, Thomas; Touraud, Didier; Kunz, Werner

    2009-01-15

    In this investigation we present for the first time microemulsions comprising an ionic liquid as surfactant and a room-temperature ionic liquid as polar pseudo-phase. Microemulsions containing the long- chain ionic liquid1-hexadecyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([C16mim][Cl]) as surfactant, decanol as cosurfactant, dodecaneas continuous phase and room temperature ionic liquids (ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim

  19. Coal-Face Fracture With A Two-Phase Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    In new method for mining coal without explosive, two-phase liquid such as CO2 and water, injected at high pressure into deeper ends of holes drilled in coal face. Liquid permeates coal seam through existing microfractures; as liquid seeps back toward face, pressure eventually drops below critical value at which dissolved gas flashvaporizes, breaking up coal.

  20. Defects and order in liquid crystal phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shilpa

    This thesis investigates the partial destruction of ordering in liquid crystalline systems due to the influence of defects and thermal fluctuations. The systems under consideration are hexagonal columnar crystals with crystalline order perpendicular to the columns, and two-dimensional smectics with order perpendicular to the layers. We first study the possibility of reentrant melting of a hexagonal columnar crystal of flexible charged polymers at high enough densities. The Lindemann criterion is employed in determining the melting point. Lattice fluctuations are calculated in the Debye model, and an analogy with the Abrikosov vortex lattice in superconductors is exploited in estimating both the elastic constants of the hexagonal lattice, and the appropriate Lindemann constant. We also discuss the unusual functional integral describing the statistical mechanics of a single polymer in an Einstein cage model using the path-integral formulation. A crossover as a function of an external field along the column axis is discussed as well. Next, we study defects in a columnar crystal in the form of vacancy/interstitial loops or strings of vacancies and interstitials bounded by column "heads" and "tails". These defect strings are oriented by the columnar lattice and can change size and shape by movement of the ends and forming kinks along the length. Hence an analysis in terms of directed living polymers is appropriate to study their size and shape distribution, volume fraction, etc. If the entropy of transverse fluctuations overcomes the string line tension in the crystalline phase, a string proliferation transition occurs, leading to a "supersolid" phase with infinitely long vacancy or interstitial strings. We estimate the wandering entropy and examine the behaviour in the transition regime. We also calculate numerically the line tension of various species of vacancies and interstitials in a triangular lattice for power-law potentials as well as for a modified Bessel

  1. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-01-01

    We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses. PMID:21614201

  2. Liquid Crystals: The Phase of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondris-Crawford, Renate; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays are currently utilized to convey information via graphic displays. Presents experiments and explanations that employ the concept of liquid crystals to learn concepts related to the various states of matter, electric and magnetic forces, refraction of light, and optics. Discusses applications of liquid crystal technology.…

  3. Methods to control phase inversions and enhance mass transfer in liquid-liquid dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Tsouris, Constantinos; Dong, Junhang

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the effects of applied electric fields on liquid-liquid dispersions. In general, the present invention is directed to the control of phase inversions in liquid-liquid dispersions. Because of polarization and deformation effects, coalescence of aqueous drops is facilitated by the application of electric fields. As a result, with an increase in the applied voltage, the ambivalence region is narrowed and shifted toward higher volume fractions of the dispersed phase. This permits the invention to be used to ensure that the aqueous phase remains continuous, even at a high volume fraction of the organic phase. Additionally, the volume fraction of the organic phase may be increased without causing phase inversion, and may be used to correct a phase inversion which has already occurred. Finally, the invention may be used to enhance mass transfer rates from one phase to another through the use of phase inversions.

  4. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, A. K.; You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Carreras-Sospedra, M.; Hiranuma, N.; Smith, M.; Zhang, X.; Weber, R.; Shilling, J. E.; Dabdub, D.; Martin, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contain both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles may be affected. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we present images that show the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using simulated atmospheric conditions. These results show that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations.

  5. Phase equilibria study of the binary systems (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ionic liquid + organic solvent or water).

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Laskowska, M; Pobudkowska, Aneta

    2009-05-07

    (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria (SLE) for the binary systems, ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM][SCN] with an alcohol (1-octanol, 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, 1-undecanol, or 1-dodecanol) or water, and (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria (LLE) for the binary systems of [BMIM][SCN] with an alkane (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, or n-decane), benzene, an alkylbenzenes (toluene or ethylbenzene), tetrahydrofuran (THF), cycloalkanes (cyclohexane or cycloheptane), or ethers (di-n-propyl ether, di-n-butyl ether, di-n-pentyl ether, n-butylmethyl ether, tert-butylmethyl ether (MTBE), or tert-butylethyl ether (ETBE)) have been determined at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from 250 to 430 K. In the case of systems IL + alkane, cycloalkane, or ether, the mutual immiscibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) was detected, and in the systems of IL + benzene, alkylbenzene, or THF, the mutual immiscibility with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was observed. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to determine the very small compositions of the IL in the n-hexane (about 2 x 10(-5) IL mole fraction), benzene (about 2 x 10(-3) IL mole fraction), cyclohexane (about 2 x 10(-5) IL mole fraction), and THF (about 1.2 x 10(-2) IL mole fraction). For the binary systems containing alcohol, it was noticed that with increasing chain length of an alcohol, the solubility decreases. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, the glass-transition temperature as well as the heat capacity at the glass-transition temperature, have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition of the IL was detected by the simultaneous TG/DTA experiments. Well-known UNIQUAC, Wilson, and NRTL equations have been used to correlate the experimental SLE data sets for alcohols and water. For the systems containing immiscibility gaps {IL + alkane

  6. Multiple liquid crystal phases of DNA at high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Strzelecka, T E; Davidson, M W; Rill, R L

    1988-02-04

    DNA packaging in vivo is very tight, with volume concentrations approaching 70% w/v in sperm heads, virus capsids and bacterial nucleoids. The packaging mechanisms adopted may be related to the natural tendency of semi-rigid polymers to form liquid crystalline phases in concentrated solutions. We find that DNA forms at least three distinct liquid crystalline phases at concentrations comparable to those in vivo, with phase transitions occurring over relatively narrow ranges of DNA concentration. A weakly birefringent, dynamic, 'precholesteric' mesophase with microscopic textures intermediate between those of a nematic and a true cholesteric phase forms at the lowest concentrations required for phase separation. At slightly higher DNA concentrations, a second mesophase forms which is a strongly birefringent, well-ordered cholesteric phase with a concentration-dependent pitch varying from 2 to 10 micron. At the highest DNA concentrations, a phase forms which is two-dimensionally ordered and resembles smectic phases of thermotropic liquid crystals observed with small molecules.

  7. Dynamic Percolation and Swollen Behavior of Nanodroplets in 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Trifluoromethanesulfonate/Triton X-100/Cyclohexane Microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Adhip; Rahman, M Muhibur; Mollah, M Yousuf A; Susan, Md Abu Bin Hasan

    2016-07-21

    Microemulsions comprising an ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([emim][OTf]), as the polar component, Triton X-100 as a surfactant, and cyclohexane as the nonpolar medium were prepared and characterized. Conductivity and dynamic viscosity data were critically analyzed to confirm dynamic percolation among the droplets that are in continuous motion, aggregation, and fission. The transition from oil-continuous phase to bicontinuous phase was observed at the conductance and viscosity percolation thresholds and sharp changes in the values of conductivity and dynamic viscosity could be identified. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed swelling of the droplets, which varied within the hydrodynamic diameter range of 10-100 nm. Diffusivity of the droplets suggested less Brownian movement with increased amount of the IL. Moreover, changes in the droplet sizes and diffusivity with increase in IL content supported dynamic percolation within the systems.

  8. Observations on shock induced chemistry of cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Akin, M C; Chau, R

    2013-07-14

    We use double pass absorption spectroscopy to examine shock induced reactions in situ in cyclohexane and benzene at pressures up to 33.1 GPa. Reactions in cyclohexane begin by 27 GPa and complete by 33.1 GPa. Reactions in benzene are observed to begin by 12 GPa and are complete by 18 GPa. Absorption spectra indicate that the first reaction in cyclohexane occurs within or near the shock front, and that a metastable local equilibrium is reached in the post-shock state. A second process may be observed upon reshock at the lower pressures, suggesting a new equilibrium is reached post-reshock as well. Absorption bands are consistent with the formation of short radicals or fragments upon decomposition; however, spectral resolution is too low to confirm this mechanism.

  9. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. I. Liquid phase structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.; Giles, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    X-ray scattering experiments at room temperature were performed for the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2]. The peak in the diffraction data characteristic of charge ordering in [N1444][NTf2] is shifted to longer distances in comparison to [N1114][NTf2], but the peak characteristic of short-range correlations is shifted in [N1444][NTf2] to shorter distances. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for these ionic liquids using force fields available from the literature, although with new sets of partial charges for [N1114]+ and [N1444]+ proposed in this work. The shifting of charge and adjacency peaks to opposite directions in these ionic liquids was found in the static structure factor, S(k), calculated by MD simulations. Despite differences in cation sizes, the MD simulations unravel that anions are allowed as close to [N1444]+ as to [N1114]+ because anions are located in between the angle formed by the butyl chains. The more asymmetric molecular structure of the [N1114]+ cation implies differences in partial structure factors calculated for atoms belonging to polar or non-polar parts of [N1114][NTf2], whereas polar and non-polar structure factors are essentially the same in [N1444][NTf2]. Results of this work shed light on controversies in the literature on the liquid structure of tetraalkylammonium based ionic liquids.

  10. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. I. Liquid phase structure.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thamires A; Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C; Giles, Carlos

    2016-06-14

    X-ray scattering experiments at room temperature were performed for the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2]. The peak in the diffraction data characteristic of charge ordering in [N1444][NTf2] is shifted to longer distances in comparison to [N1114][NTf2], but the peak characteristic of short-range correlations is shifted in [N1444][NTf2] to shorter distances. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for these ionic liquids using force fields available from the literature, although with new sets of partial charges for [N1114](+) and [N1444](+) proposed in this work. The shifting of charge and adjacency peaks to opposite directions in these ionic liquids was found in the static structure factor, S(k), calculated by MD simulations. Despite differences in cation sizes, the MD simulations unravel that anions are allowed as close to [N1444](+) as to [N1114](+) because anions are located in between the angle formed by the butyl chains. The more asymmetric molecular structure of the [N1114](+) cation implies differences in partial structure factors calculated for atoms belonging to polar or non-polar parts of [N1114][NTf2], whereas polar and non-polar structure factors are essentially the same in [N1444][NTf2]. Results of this work shed light on controversies in the literature on the liquid structure of tetraalkylammonium based ionic liquids.

  11. Ferrofluid-based liquid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Yufeng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2010-11-19

    A new mode of liquid-phase microextraction based on a ferrofluid has been developed. The ferrofluid was composed of silica-coated magnetic particles and 1-octanol as the extractant solvent. The 1-octanol was firmly confined within the silica-coated particles, preventing it from being lost during extraction. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used as model compounds in the development and evaluation of the extraction procedure in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. The optimal conditions were as follows: 20mL sample volume, 10mg of the silica-coated magnetic particles (28mg of ferrofluid), agitation at 20Hz, 20min extraction time, and 2min by sonication with 100μL acetonitrile as the final extraction solvent. Under optimal extraction conditions, enrichment factors ranging from 102- to 173-fold were obtained for the analytes. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 16.8 and 56.7pgmL(-1) and 0.06 and 0.19ngmL(-1), respectively. The linearities were between 0.5-100 and 1-100ngmL(-1) for different PAHs. As the ferrofluid can respond to and be attracted by a magnet, the extraction can be easily achieved by reciprocating movement of an external magnet that served to agitate the sample. No other devices were needed in this new approach of extraction. This new technique is affordable, efficient and convenient for microextraction, and offers portability for potential onsite extraction.

  12. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transformation in Silicon: Evidence from First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.

    2007-11-01

    We report results of first principles molecular dynamics simulations that confirm early speculations on the presence of liquid-liquid phase transition in undercooled silicon. However, we find that structural and electronic properties of both low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL) phases are quite different from those obtained by empirical calculations, the difference being more pronounced for the HDL phase. The discrepancy between quantum and classical simulations is attributed to the inability of empirical potentials to describe changes in chemical bonds induced by density and temperature variations.

  13. Phase Diagram Characterization Using Magnetic Beads as Liquid Carriers.

    PubMed

    Blumenschein, Nicholas; Han, Daewoo; Steckl, Andrew J

    2015-09-04

    Magnetic beads with ~1.9 µm average diameter were used to transport microliter volumes of liquids between contiguous liquid segments with a tube for the purpose of investigating phase change of those liquid segments. The magnetic beads were externally controlled using a magnet, allowing for the beads to bridge the air valve between the adjacent liquid segments. A hydrophobic coating was applied to the inner surface of the tube to enhance the separation between two liquid segments. The applied magnetic field formed an aggregate cluster of magnetic beads, capturing a certain liquid amount within the cluster that is referred to as carry-over volume. A fluorescent dye was added to one liquid segment, followed by a series of liquid transfers, which then changed the fluorescence intensity in the neighboring liquid segment. Based on the numerical analysis of the measured fluorescence intensity change, the carry-over volume per mass of magnetic beads has been found to be ~2 to 3 µl/mg. This small amount of liquid allowed for the use of comparatively small liquid segments of a couple hundred microliters, enhancing the feasibility of the device for a lab-in-tube approach. This technique of applying small compositional variation in a liquid volume was applied to analyzing the binary phase diagram between water and the surfactant C12E5 (pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether), leading to quicker analysis with smaller sample volumes than conventional methods.

  14. Modeling of the primary rearrangement stage of liquid phase sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik Tahir, Abdul; Malik, Amer; Amberg, Gustav

    2016-10-01

    The dimensional variations during the rearrangement stage of liquid phase sintering could have a detrimental effect on the dimensional tolerances of the sintered product. A numerical approach to model the liquid phase penetration into interparticle boundaries and the accompanied dimensional variations during the primary rearrangement stage of liquid phase sintering is presented. The coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and the Navier-Stokes equations is used to model the penetration of the liquid phase, whereas the rearrangement of the solid particles due to capillary forces is modeled using the equilibrium equation for a linear elastic material. The simulations are performed using realistic physical properties of the phases involved and the effect of green density, wettability and amount of liquid phase is also incorporated in the model. In the first step, the kinetics of the liquid phase penetration and the rearrangement of solid particles connected by a liquid bridge is modeled. The predicted and the calculated (analytical) results are compared in order to validate the numerical model. The numerical model is then extended to simulate the dimensional changes during primary rearrangement stage and a qualitative match with the published experimental data is achieved.

  15. Transient-Liquid-Phase and Liquid-Film-Assisted Joining ofCeramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sugar, Joshua D.; McKeown, Joseph T.; Akashi, Takaya; Hong, SungM.; Nakashima, Kunihiko; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2005-02-09

    Two joining methods, transient-liquid-phase (TLP) joining and liquid-film-assisted joining (LFAJ), have been used to bond alumina ceramics. Both methods rely on multilayer metallic interlayers designed to form thin liquid films at reduced temperatures. The liquid films either disappear by interdiffusion (TLP) or promote ceramic/metal interface formation and concurrent dewetting of the liquid film (LFAJ). Progress on extending the TLP method to lower temperatures by combining low-melting-point (<450 C) liquids and commercial reactive-metal brazes is described. Recent LFAJ work on joining alumina to niobium using copper films is presented.

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Cyclohexane as a Cryoscopic Solvent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffel, Margaret J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that cyclohexane be used as a solvent in experiments usually using benzene, which has been placed on the list of chemicals that are confirmed carcinogens. Reasons for selection of cyclohexane and experimental procedures using this solvent are described. (CS)

  17. Liquid-liquid transition without macroscopic phase separation in a water-glycerol mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Ken-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hajime

    2012-05-01

    The existence of more than two liquid states in a single-component substance and the ensuing liquid-liquid transitions (LLTs) has attracted considerable attention because of its counterintuitive nature and its importance in the fundamental understanding of the liquid state. Here we report direct experimental evidence for a genuine (isocompositional) LLT without macroscopic phase separation in an aqueous solution of glycerol. We show that liquid I transforms into liquid II by way of two types of kinetics: nucleation and growth, and spinodal decomposition. Although liquid II is metastable against crystallization, we could access both its static and dynamical properties experimentally. We find that liquids I and II differ in density, refractive index, structure, hydrogen bonding state, glass transition temperature and fragility, and that the transition between the two liquids is mainly driven by the local structuring of water rather than of glycerol, suggesting a link to a plausible LLT inpure water.

  18. Measurements of liquid-phase turbulence in gas-liquid two-phase flows using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinquan; Doup, Benjamin; Sun, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Liquid-phase turbulence measurements were performed in an air-water two-phase flow loop with a circular test section of 50 mm inner diameter using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. An optical phase separation method--planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique—which uses fluorescent particles and an optical filtration technique, was employed to separate the signals of the fluorescent seeding particles from those due to bubbles and other noises. An image pre-processing scheme was applied to the raw PIV images to remove the noise residuals that are not removed by the PLIF technique. In addition, four-sensor conductivity probes were adopted to measure the radial distribution of the void fraction. Two benchmark tests were performed: the first was a comparison of the PIV measurement results with those of similar flow conditions using thermal anemometry from previous studies; the second quantitatively compared the superficial liquid velocities calculated from the local liquid velocity and void fraction measurements with the global liquid flow rate measurements. The differences of the superficial liquid velocity obtained from the two measurements were bounded within ±7% for single-phase flows and two-phase bubbly flows with the area-average void fraction up to 18%. Furthermore, a preliminary uncertainty analysis was conducted to investigate the accuracy of the two-phase PIV measurements. The systematic uncertainties due to the circular pipe curvature effects, bubble surface reflection effects and other potential uncertainty sources of the PIV measurements were discussed. The purpose of this work is to facilitate the development of a measurement technique (PIV-PLIF) combined with image pre-processing for the liquid-phase turbulence in gas-liquid two-phase flows of relatively high void fractions. The high-resolution data set can be used to more thoroughly understand two-phase flow behavior, develop liquid-phase turbulence models, and assess high

  19. 40 CFR 721.10305 - Modified cyclohexane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified cyclohexane esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10305 Modified cyclohexane esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... cyclohexane esters (PMN P-00-1108) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10305 - Modified cyclohexane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified cyclohexane esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10305 Modified cyclohexane esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... cyclohexane esters (PMN P-00-1108) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10305 - Modified cyclohexane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified cyclohexane esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10305 Modified cyclohexane esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... cyclohexane esters (PMN P-00-1108) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. Thermomorphic phase separation in ionic liquid-organic liquid systems--conductivity and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Berg, Rolf W; van Hal, Roy; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2005-08-21

    Electrical conductivity, FT-Raman and NMR measurements are demonstrated as useful tools to probe and determine phase behavior of thermomorphic ionic liquid-organic liquid systems. To illustrate the methods, consecutive conductivity measurements of a thermomorphic methoxyethoxyethyl-imidazolium ionic liquid/1-hexanol system are performed in the temperature interval 25-80 degrees C using a specially constructed double-electrode cell. In addition, FT-Raman and 1H-NMR spectroscopic studies performed on the phase-separable system in the same temperature interval confirm the mutual solubility of the components in the system, the liquid-liquid equilibrium phase diagram of the binary mixture, and signify the importance of hydrogen bonding between the ionic liquid and the hydroxyl group of the alcohol.

  3. The liquid-liquid phase transition in silicon revealed by snapshots of valence electrons.

    PubMed

    Beye, Martin; Sorgenfrei, Florian; Schlotter, William F; Wurth, Wilfried; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2010-09-28

    The basis for the anomalies of water is still mysterious. Quite generally tetrahedrally coordinated systems, also silicon, show similar thermodynamic behavior but lack--like water--a thorough explanation. Proposed models--controversially discussed--explain the anomalies as a remainder of a first-order phase transition between high and low density liquid phases, buried deeply in the "no man's land"--a part of the supercooled liquid region where rapid crystallization prohibits any experimental access. Other explanations doubt the existence of the phase transition and its first-order nature. Here, we provide experimental evidence for the first-order-phase transition in silicon. With ultrashort optical pulses of femtosecond duration we instantaneously heat the electronic system of silicon while the atomic structure as defined by the much heavier nuclear system remains initially unchanged. Only on a picosecond time scale the energy is transferred into the atomic lattice providing the energy to drive the phase transitions. With femtosecond X-ray pulses from FLASH, the free-electron laser at Hamburg, we follow the evolution of the valence electronic structure during this process. As the relevant phases are easily distinguishable in their electronic structure, we track how silicon melts into the low-density-liquid phase while a second phase transition into the high-density-liquid phase only occurs after the latent heat for the first-order phase transition has been transferred to the atomic structure. Proving the existence of the liquid-liquid phase transition in silicon, the hypothesized liquid-liquid scenario for water is strongly supported.

  4. Gas-Liquid Flows and Phase Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John

    2004-01-01

    Common issues for space system designers include:Ability to Verify Performance in Normal Gravity prior to Deployment; System Stability; Phase Accumulation & Shedding; Phase Separation; Flow Distribution through Tees & Manifolds Boiling Crisis; Heat Transfer Coefficient; and Pressure Drop.The report concludes:Guidance similar to "A design that operates in a single phase is less complex than a design that has two-phase flow" is not always true considering the amount of effort spent on pressurizing, subcooling and phase separators to ensure single phase operation. While there is still much to learn about two-phase flow in reduced gravity, we have a good start. Focus now needs to be directed more towards system level problems .

  5. Analyzing Benzene and Cyclohexane Emulsion Droplet Collisions on Ultramicroelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Deng, Haiqiang; Dick, Jeffrey E; Bard, Allen J

    2015-11-03

    We report the collisions of single emulsion oil droplets with extremely low dielectric constants (e.g., benzene, ε of 2.27, or cyclohexane, ε of 2.02) as studied via emulsion droplet reactor (EDR) on an ultramicroelectrode (UME). By applying appropriate potentials to the UME, we observed the electrochemical effects of single-collision signals from the bulk electrolysis of single emulsion droplets. Different hydrophobic redox species (ferrocene, decamethyl-ferrocene, or metalloporphyrin) were trapped in a mixed benzene (or cyclohexane) oil-in-water emulsion using an ionic liquid as the supporting electrolyte and emulsifier. The emulsions were prepared using ultrasonic processing. Spike-like responses were observed in each i-t response due to the complete electrolysis of all of the above-mentioned redox species within the droplet. On the basis of these single-particle collision results, the collision frequency, size distribution, i-t decay behavior of the emulsion droplets, and possible mechanisms are analyzed and discussed. This work demonstrated that bulk electrolysis can be achieved in a few seconds in these attoliter reactors, suggesting many applications, such as analysis and electrosynthesis in low dielectric constant solvents, which have a much broader potential window.

  6. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.

    2001-05-08

    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  7. Relationship between the liquid liquid phase transition and dynamic behaviour in the Jagla model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Limei; Ehrenberg, Isaac; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2006-09-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study a spherically symmetric 'two-scale' Jagla potential with both repulsive and attractive ramps. This potential displays a liquid-liquid phase transition with a positively sloped coexistence line ending at a critical point well above the equilibrium melting line. We study the dynamic behaviour in the vicinity of this liquid-liquid critical point. Below the critical point, we find that the dynamics in the more ordered high density liquid (HDL) are much slower then the dynamics in the less ordered low density liquid (LDL). Moreover, the behaviour of the diffusion constant and relaxation time in the HDL phase follows approximately an Arrhenius law, while in the LDL phase the slope of the Arrhenius fit increases upon cooling. Above the critical pressure, as we cool the system at constant pressure, the behaviour of the dynamics smoothly changes with temperature. It resembles the behaviour of the LDL at high temperatures and resembles the behaviour of the HDL at low temperatures. This dynamic crossover happens in the vicinity of the Widom line (the extension of the coexistence line into the one-phase region) which also has a positive slope. Our work suggests a possible general relation between a liquid-liquid phase transition and the change in dynamics.

  8. Green aspects, developments and perspectives of liquid phase microextraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-02-01

    Determination of analytes at trace levels in complex samples (e.g. biological or contaminated water or soils) are often required for the environmental assessment and monitoring as well as for scientific research in the field of environmental pollution. A limited number of analytical techniques are sensitive enough for the direct determination of trace components in samples and, because of that, a preliminary step of the analyte isolation/enrichment prior to analysis is required in many cases. In this work the newest trends and innovations in liquid phase microextraction, like: single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) have been discussed, including their critical evaluation and possible application in analytical practice. The described modifications of extraction techniques deal with system miniaturization and/or automation, the use of ultrasound and physical agitation, and electrochemical methods. Particular attention was given to pro-ecological aspects therefore the possible use of novel, non-toxic extracting agents, inter alia, ionic liquids, coacervates, surfactant solutions and reverse micelles in the liquid phase microextraction techniques has been evaluated in depth. Also, new methodological solutions and the related instruments and devices for the efficient liquid phase micoextraction of analytes, which have found application at the stage of procedure prior to chromatographic determination, are presented.

  9. Possible quantum liquid crystal phases of helium monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.; Matsui, K.; Matsui, T.; Fukuyama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    The second-layer phase diagrams of 4He and 3He adsorbed on graphite are investigated. Intrinsically rounded specific-heat anomalies are observed at 1.4 and 0.9 K, respectively, over extended density regions in between the liquid and incommensurate solid phases. They are identified to anomalies associated with the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young type two-dimensional melting. The prospected low temperature phase (C2 phase) is a commensurate phase or a quantum hexatic phase with quasi-bond-orientational order, both containing zero-point defectons. In either case, this would be the first atomic realization of the quantum liquid crystal, a new state of matter. From the large enhancement of the melting temperature over 3He, we propose to assign the observed anomaly of 4He-C 2 phase at 1.4 K to the hypothetical supersolid or superhexatic transition.

  10. High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Li, Yan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2011-04-15

    We demonstrate a tunable phase grating using a polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal. Because of the electric-field-induced rectangularlike phase profile, a high diffraction efficiency of 40% is achieved. Moreover, this device shows submillisecond response time. The proposed tunable phase grating holds great potential for photonics and display applications.

  11. Entropy Calculations for a Supercooled Liquid Crystalline Blue Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, U.

    2007-01-01

    We observed, using polarized light microscopy, the supercooling of the blue phase (BPI) of cholesteryl proprionate and measured the corresponding liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures. From these temperatures and additional published data we have provided, for the benefit of undergraduate physics students, a nontraditional example…

  12. Fabrication of Janus droplets by evaporation driven liquid-liquid phase separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingquan; Xu, Meng; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhao, Wenfeng; Zong, Chenghua; Yu, Yang; Wang, Qi; Gai, Hongwei

    2016-04-11

    We present a universal and scalable method to fabricate Janus droplets based on evaporation driven liquid-liquid phase separation. In this work, the morphologies and chemical properties of separate parts of the Janus droplets can be flexibly regulated, and more complex Janus droplets (such as core-shell Janus droplets, ternary Janus droplets, and multiple Janus droplets) can be constructed easily.

  13. Phase behavior and dynamics of a cholesteric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.; Fragiadakis, D.; Roland, C. M.; Dabrowski, R.; Dziaduszek, J.; Urban, S.

    2014-02-21

    The synthesis, equation of state, phase diagram, and dielectric relaxation properties are reported for a new liquid crystal, 4{sup ′}-butyl-4-(2-methylbutoxy)azoxybenzene (4ABO5*), which exhibits a cholesteric phase at ambient temperature. The steepness of the intermolecular potential was characterized from the thermodynamic potential parameter, Γ = 4.3 ± 0.1 and the dynamic scaling exponent, γ = 3.5 ± 0.2. The difference between them is similar to that seen previously for nematic and smectic liquid crystals, with the near equivalence of Γ and γ consistent with the near constancy of the relaxation time of 4ABO5* at the cholesteric to isotropic phase transition (i.e., the clearing line). Thus, chirality does not cause deviations from the general relationship between thermodynamics and dynamics in the ordered phase of liquid crystals. The ionic conductivity of 4ABO5* shows strong coupling to the reorientational dynamics.

  14. GROUND WATER ISSUE: DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue paper is a literature evaluation focusing on DNAPLs and provides an overview from a conceptual fate and transport point of view of DNAPL phase distribution, monitoring, site characterization, remediation, and modeling.

  15. A superconductor to superfluid phase transition in liquid metallic hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Babaev, Egor; Sudbø, Asle; Ashcroft, N W

    2004-10-07

    Although hydrogen is the simplest of atoms, it does not form the simplest of solids or liquids. Quantum effects in these phases are considerable (a consequence of the light proton mass) and they have a demonstrable and often puzzling influence on many physical properties, including spatial order. To date, the structure of dense hydrogen remains experimentally elusive. Recent studies of the melting curve of hydrogen indicate that at high (but experimentally accessible) pressures, compressed hydrogen will adopt a liquid state, even at low temperatures. In reaching this phase, hydrogen is also projected to pass through an insulator-to-metal transition. This raises the possibility of new state of matter: a near ground-state liquid metal, and its ordered states in the quantum domain. Ordered quantum fluids are traditionally categorized as superconductors or superfluids; these respective systems feature dissipationless electrical currents or mass flow. Here we report a topological analysis of the projected phase of liquid metallic hydrogen, finding that it may represent a new type of ordered quantum fluid. Specifically, we show that liquid metallic hydrogen cannot be categorized exclusively as a superconductor or superfluid. We predict that, in the presence of a magnetic field, liquid metallic hydrogen will exhibit several phase transitions to ordered states, ranging from superconductors to superfluids.

  16. Fast Method for Computing Chemical Potentials and Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria of Macromolecular Solutions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2016-08-25

    Chemical potential is a fundamental property for determining thermodynamic equilibria involving exchange of molecules, such as between two phases of molecular systems. Previously, we developed the fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based method for Modeling Atomistic Protein-crowder interactions (FMAP) to calculate excess chemical potentials according to the Widom insertion. Intermolecular interaction energies were expressed as correlation functions and evaluated via FFT. Here, we extend this method to calculate liquid-liquid phase equilibria of macromolecular solutions. Chemical potentials are calculated by FMAP over a wide range of molecular densities, and the condition for coexistence of low- and high-density phases is determined by the Maxwell equal-area rule. When benchmarked on Lennard-Jones fluids, our method produces an accurate phase diagram at 18% of the computational cost of the current best method. Importantly, the gain in computational speed increases dramatically as the molecules become more complex, leading to many orders of magnitude in speed up for atomistically represented proteins. We demonstrate the power of FMAP by reporting the first results for the liquid-liquid coexistence curve of γII-crystallin represented at the all-atom level. Our method may thus open the door to accurate determination of phase equilibria for macromolecular mixtures such as protein-protein mixtures and protein-RNA mixtures, that are known to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Thermal-cycling-induced spectral diffusion and thermal barriers in anisole-doped cyclohexane, an unusual multiphase host-guest system.

    PubMed

    Somoza, Mark M; Friedrich, Josef

    2006-09-28

    The host-guest system of anisole incorporated into a cyclohexane matrix was investigated in a series of hole-burning experiments. This system is unusual in that cyclohexane can freeze into coexisting solid phases. The hole-burning experiments support the existence of two crystalline phases and one disordered phase. A second surprising characteristic of this system is that the quasi-line absorption features of the spectra appear inverted at low temperature because of unexpected dominance of fluorescence and phosphorescence.

  18. Microgravity Studies of Liquid-Liquid Phase Transitions in Alumina-Yttria Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, Buddy (Technical Monitor); Weber, Richard; Nordine, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The scientific objective of this research is to increase the fundamental knowledge base for liquid- phase processing of technologically important oxide materials. The experimental objective is to define conditions and hardware requirements for microgravity flight experiments to test and expand the experimental hypotheses that: 1. Liquid phase transitions can occur in undercooled melts by a diffusionless process. 2. Onset of the liquid phase transition is accompanied by a large change in the temperature dependence of melt viscosity. Experiments on undercooled YAG (Y3A15012)- and rare earth oxide aluminate composition liquids demonstrated a large departure from an Arrhenian temperature dependence of viscosity. Liquid YAG is nearly inviscid at its 2240 K melting point. Glass fibers were pulled from melts undercooled by ca. 600 K indicating that the viscosity is on the order of 100 Pans (1000 Poise) at 1600 K. This value of viscosity is 500 times greater than that obtained by extrapolation of data for temperatures above the melting point of YAG. These results show that the liquids are extremely fragile and that the onset of the highly non-Arrhenian viscosity-temperature relationship occurs at a temperature considerably below the equilibrium melting point of the solid phases. Further results on undercooled alumina-yttria melts containing 23-42 mole % yttrium oxide indicate that a congruent liquid-liquid phase transition occurs in the undercooled liquids. The rates of transition are inconsistent with a diffusion-limited process. This research is directed to investigation of the scientifically interesting phenomena of polyamorphism and fragility in undercooled rare earth oxide aluminum oxide liquids. The results bear on the technologically important problem of producing high value rare earth-based optical materials.

  19. Surface-functionalized ionic liquid crystal-supported ionic liquid phase materials: ionic liquid crystals in mesopores.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Florian T U; Morain, Bruno; Weiss, Alexander; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wagner, Valentin; Melcher, Berthold U; Wang, Xinjiao; Meyer, Karsten; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2011-12-23

    The influence of confinement on the ionic liquid crystal (ILC) [C(18)C(1)Im][OTf] is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The ILC studied is supported on Si-based powders and glasses with pore sizes ranging from 11 to 50 nm. The temperature of the solid-to-liquid-crystalline phase transition seems mostly unaffected by the confinement, whereas the temperature of the liquid-crystalline-to-liquid phase transition is depressed for smaller pore sizes. A contact layer with a thickness in the order of 2 nm is identified. The contact layer exhibits a phase transition at a temperature 30 K lower than the solid-to-liquid-crystalline phase transition observed for the neat ILC. For applications within the "supported ionic liquid phase (SILP)" concept, the experiments show that in pores of diameter 50 nm a pore filling of α>0.4 is sufficient to reproduce the phase transitions of the neat ILC.

  20. Phase Equilibria of Ternary and Quaternary Systems Containing Diethyl Carbonate with Water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Wen, Caiyu; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zeng, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this study liquid phase equilibrium compositions were measured at 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure for (water + propan-1-ol + diethyl carbonate (DEC) + benzene or cyclohexane or heptane) quaternary systems and (water + DEC + propan-1-ol or benzene or cyclohexane) ternary systems. Good correlation of the experimental LLE data was seen for the measured systems by both modified and extended UNIQUAC models. The solubility of DEC in aqueous and organic phases is shown by equilibrium distribution coefficients calculated from the LLE data.

  1. Stabilizing the boat conformation of cyclohexane rings

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, S.; Goddard, W.A. III; Moldowan, J.M.; Carlson, R.M.K.; Goddard, W.A. III.

    1995-06-21

    In calculating the energetics for various conformers of the A, B, and C series of hopanoid hydrocarbons present in mature oil reservoirs, we find that the B series prefers the boat conformation (by 1.3-2.5 kcal/mol) for the D cyclohexane ring. We analyze the structural elements responsible for stabilizing this boat conformation, identify the key features, and illustrate how one might stabilize boat conformations of other systems. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The effects of three-body dispersion interactions on liquid-liquid phase equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, P. D.

    1989-02-01

    Using perturbation theory, we show that three-body dispersion interactions influence the phase diagrams of partially miscible liquid mixtures. In our model mixtures, the argon-like particles interact through Maitland-Smith pair potentials and Axilrod-Teller three-body potentials. We find that ternary liquid-liquid coexistence curves are sensitive to vABC, the strength of the Axilrod-Teller interaction appearing for the first time in the ternary mixture. Effective pair potentials predict the ternary phase diagrams well if vABC satisfies Tang's rule.

  3. Accurate equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Demaison, Jean; Craig, Norman C; Groner, Peter; Écija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J; Lesarri, Alberto; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter

    2015-03-05

    Extended and improved microwave (MW) measurements are reported for the isotopologues of piperidine. New ground state (GS) rotational constants are fitted to MW transitions with quartic centrifugal distortion constants taken from ab initio calculations. Predicate values for the geometric parameters of piperidine and cyclohexane are found from a high level of ab initio theory including adjustments for basis set dependence and for correlation of the core electrons. Equilibrium rotational constants are obtained from GS rotational constants corrected for vibration-rotation interactions and electronic contributions. Equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane are fitted by the mixed estimation method. In this method, structural parameters are fitted concurrently to predicate parameters (with appropriate uncertainties) and moments of inertia (with uncertainties). The new structures are regarded as being accurate to 0.001 Å and 0.2°. Comparisons are made between bond parameters in equatorial piperidine and cyclohexane. Another interesting result of this study is that a structure determination is an effective way to check the accuracy of the ground state experimental rotational constants.

  4. Nature of the first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Yu, Y. J.; Tan, X. M.

    2015-08-01

    The first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled Si is revisited by long-time first-principle molecular dynamics simulations. As the focus of the present paper, its nature is revealed by analyzing the inherent structures of low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL). Our results show that it is a transition between a sp3-hybridization LDL and a white-tin-like HDL. This uncovers the origin of the semimetal-metal transition accompanying it and also proves that HDL is the metastable extension of high temperature equilibrium liquid into the supercooled regime. The pressure-temperature diagram of supercooled Si thus can be regarded in some respects as shifted reflection of its crystalline phase diagram.

  5. Containerless Liquid-Phase Processing of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. K. Richard (Principal Investigator); Nordine, Paul C.

    1996-01-01

    The present project builds on the results of research supported under a previous NASA grant to investigate containerless liquid-phase processing of molten ceramic materials. The research used an aero-acoustic levitator in combination with cw CO2 laser beam heating to achieve containerless melting, superheating, undercooling, and solidification of poorly-conducting solids and liquids. Experiments were performed on aluminum oxide, binary aluminum oxide-silicon dioxide materials, and oxide superconductors.

  6. The Molecular Structure of the Liquid Ordered Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, Edward

    2014-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations reveal substructures within the liquid-ordered phase of lipid bilayers. These substructures, identified in a 10 μsec all-atom trajectory of liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered coexistence (Lo/Ld) , are composed of saturated hydrocarbon chains packed with local hexagonal order, and separated by interstitial regions enriched in cholesterol and unsaturated chains. Lipid hydrocarbon chain order parameters calculated from the Lo phase are in excellent agreement with 2H NMR measurements; the local hexagonal packing is also consistent with 1H-MAS NMR spectra of the Lo phase, NMR diffusion experiments, and small angle X-ray- and neutron scattering. The balance of cholesterol-rich to local hexagonal order is proposed to control the partitioning of membrane components into the Lo regions. The latter have been frequently associated with formation of so-called rafts, platforms in the plasma membranes of cells that facilitate interaction between components of signaling pathways.

  7. Polarization effects in reconfigurable liquid crystal phase holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarčević, Miloš; Manolis, Ilias G.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Crossland, William A.

    2005-01-01

    An improved configuration for achieving true polarization insensitive reconfigurable phase holograms for optical switches using homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal devices is presented. Previous experimental results have been analyzed and explained using numerical modeling of the nematic liquid crystal orientation and associated optical modulation. Twisting of the liquid crystal optical axis from the optimal 45° orientation from the quarter waveplate is shown to degrade the polarization insensitive performance. The alternative direction of surface alignment perpendicular to the long pixel edge eliminates the twist of the director during switching. True polarization insensitivity is predicted with our model for this mode of operation.

  8. Nematic-like stable glasses without equilibrium liquid crystal phases.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Jaritza; Gujral, Ankit; Huang, Chengbin; Bishop, Camille; Yu, Lian; Ediger, M D

    2017-02-07

    We report the thermal and structural properties of glasses of posaconazole, a rod-like molecule, prepared using physical vapor deposition (PVD). PVD glasses of posaconazole can show substantial molecular orientation depending upon the choice of substrate temperature, Tsubstrate, during deposition. Ellipsometry and IR measurements indicate that glasses prepared at Tsubstrate very near the glass transition temperature (Tg) are highly ordered. For these posaconazole glasses, the orientation order parameter is similar to that observed in macroscopically aligned nematic liquid crystals, indicating that the molecules are mostly parallel to one another and perpendicular to the interface. To our knowledge, these are the most anisotropic glasses ever prepared by PVD from a molecule that does not form equilibrium liquid crystal phases. These results are consistent with a previously proposed mechanism in which molecular orientation in PVD glasses is inherited from the orientation present at the free surface of the equilibrium liquid. This mechanism suggests that molecular orientation at the surface of the equilibrium liquid of posaconazole is nematic-like. Posaconazole glasses can show very high kinetic stability; the isothermal transformation of a 400 nm glass into the supercooled liquid occurs via a propagating front that originates at the free surface and requires ∼10(5) times the structural relaxation time of the liquid (τα). We also studied the kinetic stability of PVD glasses of itraconazole, which is a structurally similar molecule with equilibrium liquid crystal phases. While itraconazole glasses can be even more anisotropic than posaconazole glasses, they exhibit lower kinetic stability.

  9. Nematic-like stable glasses without equilibrium liquid crystal phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Jaritza; Gujral, Ankit; Huang, Chengbin; Bishop, Camille; Yu, Lian; Ediger, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    We report the thermal and structural properties of glasses of posaconazole, a rod-like molecule, prepared using physical vapor deposition (PVD). PVD glasses of posaconazole can show substantial molecular orientation depending upon the choice of substrate temperature, Tsubstrate, during deposition. Ellipsometry and IR measurements indicate that glasses prepared at Tsubstrate very near the glass transition temperature (Tg) are highly ordered. For these posaconazole glasses, the orientation order parameter is similar to that observed in macroscopically aligned nematic liquid crystals, indicating that the molecules are mostly parallel to one another and perpendicular to the interface. To our knowledge, these are the most anisotropic glasses ever prepared by PVD from a molecule that does not form equilibrium liquid crystal phases. These results are consistent with a previously proposed mechanism in which molecular orientation in PVD glasses is inherited from the orientation present at the free surface of the equilibrium liquid. This mechanism suggests that molecular orientation at the surface of the equilibrium liquid of posaconazole is nematic-like. Posaconazole glasses can show very high kinetic stability; the isothermal transformation of a 400 nm glass into the supercooled liquid occurs via a propagating front that originates at the free surface and requires ˜105 times the structural relaxation time of the liquid (τα). We also studied the kinetic stability of PVD glasses of itraconazole, which is a structurally similar molecule with equilibrium liquid crystal phases. While itraconazole glasses can be even more anisotropic than posaconazole glasses, they exhibit lower kinetic stability.

  10. Bubbles in liquids with phase transition. Part 1. On phase change of a single vapor bubble in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Wolfgang; Duderstadt, Frank; Hantke, Maren; Warnecke, Gerald

    2012-11-01

    In the forthcoming second part of this paper a system of balance laws for a multi-phase mixture with many dispersed bubbles in liquid is derived where phase transition is taken into account. The exchange terms for mass, momentum and energy explicitly depend on evolution laws for total mass, radius and temperature of single bubbles. Therefore in the current paper we consider a single bubble of vapor and inert gas surrounded by the corresponding liquid phase. The creation of bubbles, e.g. by nucleation is not taken into account. We study the behavior of this bubble due to condensation and evaporation at the interface. The aim is to find evolution laws for total mass, radius and temperature of the bubble, which should be as simple as possible but consider all relevant physical effects. Special attention is given to the effects of surface tension and heat production on the bubble dynamics as well as the propagation of acoustic elastic waves by including slight compressibility of the liquid phase. Separately we study the influence of the three phenomena heat conduction, elastic waves and phase transition on the evolution of the bubble. We find ordinary differential equations that describe the bubble dynamics. It turns out that the elastic waves in the liquid are of greatest importance to the dynamics of the bubble radius. The phase transition has a strong influence on the evolution of the temperature, in particular at the interface. Furthermore the phase transition leads to a drastic change of the water content in the bubble. It is shown that a rebounding bubble is only possible, if it contains in addition an inert gas. In Part 2 of the current paper the equations derived are sought in order to close the system of equations for multi-phase mixture balance laws for dispersed bubbles in liquids involving phase change.

  11. Liquid-liquid phase separation in supersaturated lysozyme solutions and associated precipitate formation/crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschol, Martin; Rosenberger, Franz

    1997-08-01

    Using cloud point determinations, the phase boundaries (binodals) for metastable liquid-liquid (L-L) separation in supersaturated hen egg white lysozyme solutions with 3%, 5%, and 7% (w/v) NaCl at pH=4.5 and protein concentrations c between 40 and 400 mg/ml were determined. The critical temperature for the binodal increased approximately linearly with salt concentration. The coexisting liquid phases both remained supersaturated but differed widely in protein concentration. No salt repartitioning was observed between the initial and the two separated liquid phases. After the L-L separation, due to the presence of the high protein concentration phase, crystallization occurred much more rapidly than in the initial solution. At high initial protein concentrations, a metastable gel phase formed at temperatures above the liquid binodal. Both crystal nucleation and gel formation were accelerated in samples that had been cycled through the binodal. Solutions in the gel and L-L regions yielded various types of precipitates. Based on theoretical considerations, previous observations with other proteins, and our experimental results with lysozyme, a generic phase diagram for globular proteins is put forth. A limited region in the (T,c) plane favorable for the growth of protein single crystals is delineated.

  12. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Supersaturated Lysozyme Solutions and Associated Precipitate Formation/Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muschol, Martin; Rosenberger, Franz

    1997-01-01

    Using cloud point determinations, the phase boundaries (binodals) for metastable liquid-liquid (L-L) separation in supersaturated hen egg white lysozyme solutions with 3%, 5%, and 7% (wlv) NaCl at pH= 4.5 and protein concentrations c between 40 and 400 mg/ml were determined. The critical temperature for the binodal increased approximately linearly with salt concentration. The coexisting liquid phases both remained supersaturated but differed widely in protein concentration. No salt repartitioning was observed between the initial and the two separated liquid phases. After the L-L separation, due to the presence of the high protein concentration phase, crystallization occurred much more rapidly than in the initial solution. At high initial protein concentrations, a metastable gel phase formed at temperatures above the liquid binodal. Both crystal nucleation and gel formation were accelerated in samples that had been cycled through the binodal. Solutions in the gel and L-L regions yielded various types of precipitates. Based on theoretical considerations, previous observations with other proteins, and our experimental results with lysozyme, a generic phase diagram for globular proteins is put forth. A limited region in the (T,c) plane favorable for the growth of protein single crystals is delineated.

  13. Diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Huang, Shuaijia; Su, Yikai

    2016-09-01

    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has been attractive for display and photonic applications for its sub-millisecond response time, no need for surface alignment, and an optically isotropic dark state. Because of these advantages, diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals have great potential for wide applications. In this work, we present several BPLC diffractive devices. The operation principles, fabrication and experimental measurements will be discussed in details for two BPLC gratings realized by holographic method and a BPLC Fresnel lens using a spatial light modulator projector. All of these devices exhibit several attractive features such as sub-millisecond response, relatively high spatial resolution and polarization-independence.

  14. Cluster Monte Carlo and numerical mean field analysis for the water liquid-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Marco G.; Stokely, Kevin; Strekalova, Elena G.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Franzese, Giancarlo

    2009-04-01

    Using Wolff's cluster Monte Carlo simulations and numerical minimization within a mean field approach, we study the low temperature phase diagram of water, adopting a cell model that reproduces the known properties of water in its fluid phases. Both methods allow us to study the thermodynamic behavior of water at temperatures, where other numerical approaches - both Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics - are seriously hampered by the large increase of the correlation times. The cluster algorithm also allows us to emphasize that the liquid-liquid phase transition corresponds to the percolation transition of tetrahedrally ordered water molecules.

  15. Adaptive optics fundus camera using a liquid crystal phase modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Nakazawa, Naoki; Bessho, Kenichiro; Kitaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Naoyuki; Fujikado, Takashi; Mihashi, Toshifumi

    2008-05-01

    We have developed an adaptive optics (AO) fundus camera to obtain high resolution retinal images of eyes. We use a liquid crystal phase modulator to compensate the aberrations of the eye for better resolution and better contrast in the images. The liquid crystal phase modulator has a wider dynamic range to compensate aberrations than most mechanical deformable mirrors and its linear phase generation makes it easy to follow eye movements. The wavefront aberration was measured in real time with a sampling rate of 10 Hz and the closed loop system was operated at around 2 Hz. We developed software tools to align consecutively obtained images. From our experiments with three eyes, the aberrations of normal eyes were reduced to less than 0.1 μm (RMS) in less than three seconds by the liquid crystal phase modulator. We confirmed that this method was adequate for measuring eyes with large aberrations including keratoconic eyes. Finally, using the liquid crystal phase modulator, high resolution images of retinas could be obtained.

  16. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  17. Intrinsic response of polymer liquid crystals in photochemical phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Tomiki; Sasaki, Takeo; Kim, Haengboo )

    1991-01-24

    Time-resolved measurements were performed on the photochemically induced isothermal phase transition of polymer liquid crystals (PLC) with mesogenic side chains of phenyl benzoate (PAPB3) and cyanobiphenyl (PACB3) under conditions wherein the photochemical reaction of the doped photoresponsive molecule (4-butyl-4-{prime}-methoxyazobenzene, BMAB) was completed within {approximately} 10 ns, and the subsequent phase transition of the matrix PLC from nematic (N) to isotropic (I) state was followed by time-resolved measurements of the birefringence of the system. Formation of a sufficient amount of the cis isomer of BMAB with a single pulse of a laser lowered the N-I phase transition temperature of the mixture, inducing the N-I phase transition of PLCs isothermally in a time range of {approximately} 200 ms. This time range is comparable to that of low molecular weight liquid crystals, indicating that suppression in mobility of mesogens in PLCs does not affect significantly the thermodynamically controlled process.

  18. Phases formed during rapid quenching of liquid carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharin, A. Yu.; Dozhdikov, V. S.; Dubinchuk, V. T.; Kirillin, A. V.; Lysenko, I. Yu.; Turchaninov, M. A.

    2009-05-01

    Pulsed laser action upon a sample of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in a gasostat filled with helium at a pressure above that corresponding to the triple point of carbon, followed by rapid quenching of the liquid phase at a rate of about 106 K/s leads to the formation of a crater with a periodic spatial structure at the surface. The composition and structure of nongraphite carbon phases in the near-surface region of the crater have been studied using the Raman scattering spectroscopy, electron microdiffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. It is established that rapidly quenched carbon possesses predominantly a hybrid structure of glassy carbon formed as a result of the high-temperature treatment, with inclusions of crystalline carbyne, chaoite, and a hybrid cubic phase of ultradense carbon (C8). The hybrid phases of glassy carbon and C8 had not been reported until now as possible products of solidification of liquid carbon.

  19. Dimensionless ratios: Characteristics of quantum liquids and their phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi-Cong; Chen, Yang-Yang; Lin, Hai-Qing; Römer, Rudolf A.; Guan, Xi-Wen

    2016-11-01

    Dimensionless ratios of physical properties can characterize low-temperature phases in a wide variety of materials. As such, the Wilson ratio (WR), the Kadowaki-Woods ratio, and the Wiedemann-Franz law capture essential features of Fermi liquids in metals, heavy fermions, etc. Here we prove that the phases of many-body interacting multicomponent quantum liquids in one dimension (1D) can be described by WRs based on the compressibility, susceptibility, and specific heat associated with each component. These WRs arise due to additivity rules within subsystems reminiscent of the rules for multiresistor networks in series and parallel—a novel and useful characteristic of multicomponent Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids (TLL) independent of microscopic details of the systems. Using experimentally realized multispecies cold atomic gases as examples, we prove that the Wilson ratios uniquely identify phases of TLL, while providing universal scaling relations at the boundaries between phases. Their values within a phase are solely determined by the stiffnesses and sound velocities of subsystems and identify the internal degrees of freedom of said phase such as its spin degeneracy. This finding can be directly applied to a wide range of 1D many-body systems and reveals deep physical insights into recent experimental measurements of the universal thermodynamics in ultracold atoms and spins.

  20. Adiabatic nucleation in the liquid-vapor phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sá, Elon M.; Meyer, Erich; Soares, Vitorvani

    2001-05-01

    The fundamental difference between classical (isothermal) nucleation theory (CNT) and adiabatic nucleation theory (ANT) is discussed. CNT uses the concept of isothermal heterophase fluctuations, while ANT depends on common fluctuations of the thermodynamic variables. Applications to the nonequilibrium liquid to vapor transition are shown. However, we cannot yet calculate nucleation frequencies. At present, we can only indicate at what temperatures and pressures copious homogeneous nucleation is expected in the liquid to vapor phase transition. It is also explained why a similar general indication cannot be made for the inverse vapor to liquid transition. Simultaneously, the validity of Peng-Robinson's equation of state [D.-Y. Peng and D. B. Robinson, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 15, 59 (1976)] is confirmed for highly supersaturated liquids.

  1. Depositing spacing layers on magnetic film with liquid phase epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, J. W.; Shaw, R. W.; Sanfort, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy spacing layer is compatible with systems which are hard-bubble proofed by use of second magnetic garnet film as capping layer. Composite is superior in that: circuit fabrication time is reduced; adherence is superior; visibility is better; and, good match of thermal expansion coefficients is provided.

  2. In situ monitoring of liquid phase electroepitaxial growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, A.; Isozumi, S.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    In situ monitoring of the layer thickness during liquid phase electroepitaxy (LPEE) was achieved with a submicron resolution through precise resistance measurements. The new approach to the study and control of LPEE was applied to growth of undoped and Ge-doped GaAs layers. The in situ determined growth kinetics was found to be in excellent agreement with theory.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), principally petroleum products, affect ground-water quality at numerous sites across this country and throughout the world. Petroleum products are typically multi-component organic mixtures composed of chemicals with a wide range of solubi...

  4. Novel mode of liquid-phase microextraction: A magnetic stirrer as the extractant phase holder.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Hai-Yan; Shi, Zhi-Guo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a novel configuration of liquid-phase microextraction was proposed, in which a magnetic stirrer with a groove was used as the extractant phase holder. It was termed as magnetic stirrer liquid-phase microextraction. In this way, the stability of the organic solvent was much improved under high stirring speed; the extraction efficiency was enhanced due to the enormously enlarged contact area between the organic solvent and aqueous phase. The extraction performance of the magnetic stirrer liquid-phase microextraction was studied using chlorobenzenes as the probe analytes. A wide linearity range (20 pg/mL to 200 ng/mL) with a satisfactory linearity coefficient (r(2) > 0.998) was obtained. Limits of detection ranged from 9.0 to 12.0 pg/mL. Good reproducibility was achieved with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations <4.8%. The proposed magnetic stirrer liquid-phase microextraction was simple, environmentally friendly and efficient; compared to single-drop microextraction, it had obvious advantages in terms of reproducibility and extraction efficiency. It is a promising miniaturized liquid-phase technology for real applications.

  5. Liquid-phase reactions induced by atmospheric pressure glow discharge with liquid electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi; Shirai, Naoki; Uchida, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally investigated some of the initial reactions in a liquid induced by electron or positive-ion irradiation from an atmospheric-pressure dc glow discharge in contact with the liquid. We used an H-shaped glass reactor to observe the effects of electron irradiation and positive-ion irradiation on the liquid-phase reaction separately and simultaneously. Aqueous solutions of NaCl, AgNO3, HAuCl4, and FeCl2 are used as the electrolyte. Solutions of AgNO3 and HAuCl4 are used for the generation of Ag and Au nanoparticles, respectively. Solution of FeCl2 is used for the generation of ferromagnetic particles. Experimental results showed that electron irradiation of the liquid surface generates OH- in water and that positive-ion irradiation of the liquid surface generates H+ in water even without the dissolution of gas-phase nitrogen oxide. A possible reaction process is qualitatively discussed. We also showed that the control of reductive and oxidative environment in the liquid is possible not only by the gas composition for the plasma generation but also by the liquid composition.

  6. Crystal growth in a three-phase system: Diffusion and liquid-liquid phase separation in lysozyme crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijna, M. C. R.; van Enckevort, W. J. P.; Vlieg, E.

    2007-07-01

    In the phase diagram of the protein hen egg-white lysozyme, a region is present in which the lysozyme solution demixes and forms two liquid phases. In situ observations by optical microscopy show that the dense liquid droplets dissolve when crystals grow in this system. During this process the demixed liquid region retracts from the crystal surface. The spatial distribution of the dense phase droplets present special boundary conditions for Fick’s second law for diffusion. In combination with the cylindrical symmetry provided by the kinetically roughened crystals, this system allows for a full numerical analysis. Using experimental data for setting the boundary conditions, a quasi-steady-state solution for the time-dependent concentration profile was shown to be valid. Comparison of kinetically rough growth in a phase separated system and in a nonseparated system shows that the growth kinetics for a three-phase system differs from a two-phase system, in that crystals grow more slowly but the duration of growth is prolonged.

  7. Crystal growth in a three-phase system: diffusion and liquid-liquid phase separation in lysozyme crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Heijna, M C R; van Enckevort, W J P; Vlieg, E

    2007-07-01

    In the phase diagram of the protein hen egg-white lysozyme, a region is present in which the lysozyme solution demixes and forms two liquid phases. In situ observations by optical microscopy show that the dense liquid droplets dissolve when crystals grow in this system. During this process the demixed liquid region retracts from the crystal surface. The spatial distribution of the dense phase droplets present special boundary conditions for Fick's second law for diffusion. In combination with the cylindrical symmetry provided by the kinetically roughened crystals, this system allows for a full numerical analysis. Using experimental data for setting the boundary conditions, a quasi-steady-state solution for the time-dependent concentration profile was shown to be valid. Comparison of kinetically rough growth in a phase separated system and in a nonseparated system shows that the growth kinetics for a three-phase system differs from a two-phase system, in that crystals grow more slowly but the duration of growth is prolonged.

  8. Microstructure evolution and densification of alumina in liquid phase sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Weimin

    The microstructure evolution and densification of alumina during liquid phase sintering were quantified. Quantification included the evolution of pore-size distribution, the redistribution of liquid phase, the densification kinetics, and the fraction of closed and open pores. The results revealed that the small and large pores were filled simultaneously. This is inconsistent with Shaw's model in which liquid fills preferentially the smaller low-coordination-number pores in order to reach a low-energy configuration. The results also recommended that the pressure build-up of the trapped gases in pores due to the closure of open pores might have a significantly negative contribution to the driving force, and consequently cause the termination of the densification of alumina. To demonstrate whether the trapped gases played an important role in the microstructure evolution and the densification of alumina during liquid phase sintering, the following two experiments have been conducted. First, alumina preforms containing artificial pores were penetrated by glass. The results indicated that the trapped gases in pores had a considerable influence on the pore filling process, and ultimately caused the termination of the densification of the alumina preforms. Second, alumina compacts containing different amount of glass were sintered in vacuum. The alumina compact containing 20 vol. % reached full density during vacuum sintering, indicating that the pressure build-up of the trapped gases in pores was the main factor causing the termination of the densification of alumina in the final stage of liquid phase sintering. The limiting relative densities of compacts were calculated theoretically on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the variation of the capillary pressure and gas pressure in pores with pore size and pore number. The capillary pressure and gas pressure in alumina compact during liquid phase sintering were analyzed on the basis of the above theoretical models

  9. Anomalous properties and the liquid-liquid phase transition in gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Renzhong; Sun, Gang; Xu, Limei

    2016-08-01

    A group of materials including water and silicon exhibit many anomalous behaviors, e.g., density anomaly and diffusivity anomaly (increase upon compression). These materials are hypothesized to have a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) and the critical fluctuation in the vicinity of the liquid-liquid critical point is considered as the origin of different anomalies. Liquid gallium was also reported to have a LLPT, yet whether it shows similar water-like anomalies is not yet studied. Using molecular dynamics simulations on a modified embedded-atom model, we study the thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural properties of liquid gallium as well as its LLPT. We find that, similar to water-like materials predicted to have the LLPT, gallium also shows different anomalous behaviors (e.g., density anomaly, diffusivity anomaly, and structural anomaly). We also find that its thermodynamic and structural response functions are continuous and show maxima in the supercritical region, the loci of which asymptotically approach to the other and merge to the Widom line. These phenomena are consistent with the supercritical phenomenon in a category of materials with a liquid-liquid critical point, which could be common features in most materials with a LLPT.

  10. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W .L.; Wu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Zhai, W.; Zhang, X. M.; Wei, B.

    2015-01-01

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66 ~ 810 μm diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate. PMID:26552711

  11. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Wu, Y H; Li, L H; Zhai, W; Zhang, X M; Wei, B

    2015-11-10

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66 ~ 810 μm diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate.

  12. Predictions of Phase Distribution in Liquid-Liquid Two-Component Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Xiaodong; Duval, Walter M.

    2011-06-01

    Ground-based liquid-liquid two-component flow can be used to study reduced-gravity gas-liquid two-phase flows provided that the two liquids are immiscible with similar densities. In this paper, we present a numerical study of phase distribution in liquid-liquid two-component flows using the Eulerian two-fluid model in FLUENT, together with a one-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) that takes into account fluid particle interactions, such as coalescence and disintegration. This modeling approach is expected to dynamically capture changes in the interfacial structure. We apply the FLUENT-IATE model to a water-Therminol 59® two-component vertical flow in a 25-mm inner diameter pipe, where the two liquids are immiscible with similar densities (3% difference at 20°C). This study covers bubbly (drop) flow and bubbly-to-slug flow transition regimes with area-averaged void (drop) fractions from 3 to 30%. Comparisons of the numerical results with the experimental data indicate that for bubbly flows, the predictions of the lateral phase distributions using the FLUENT-IATE model are generally more accurate than those using the model without the IATE. In addition, we demonstrate that the coalescence of fluid particles is dominated by wake entrainment and enhanced by increasing either the continuous or dispersed phase velocity. However, the predictions show disagreement with experimental data in some flow conditions for larger void fraction conditions, which fall into the bubbly-to-slug flow transition regime. We conjecture that additional fluid particle interaction mechanisms due to the change of flow regimes are possibly involved.

  13. Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zheng-Hong; Chen, Chao-Ping; Zhu, Ji-Liang; Yuan, Ya-Chao; Li, Yan; Hu, Wei; Li, Xiao; Li, Hong-Jing; Lu, Jian-Gang; Su, Yi-Kai

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative approach to fabricating an electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating. This grating is obtained by preforming a polymer template comprised of periodic fringes, and then refilling it with a blue phase liquid crystal. Compared with conventional holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings, our grating can remarkably reduce its switching voltage from 200 V to 43 V while maintaining a sub-millisecond response time. The holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal (HPTBPLC) grating is free from electrode patterning, thus leading to a lower cost and more flexible applications. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328804), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61307028), the Funds from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Grant Nos. 11JC1405300, 13ZR1420000, and 14ZR1422300), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. XDJK 2011C047).

  14. Two Spin Liquid phases in the anisotropic triangular Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorella, Sandro

    2005-03-01

    Recently there have been rather clean experimental realizations of the quantum spin 1/2 Heisenberg Hamiltonian on a 2D triangular lattice geometry in systems like Cs2Cu Cl4 and organic compounds like k-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3. These materials are nearly two dimensional and are characterized by an anisotropic antiferromagnetic superexchange. The strength of the spatial anisotropy can increase quantum fluctuations and can destabilize the magnetically ordered state leading to non conventional spin liquid phases. In order to understand these interesting phenomena we have studied, by Quantum Monte Carlo methods, the triangular lattice Heisenberg model as a function of the strength of this anisotropy, represented by the ratio r between the intra-chain nearest neighbor coupling J' and the inter-chain one J. We have found evidence of two spin liquid regions, well represented by projected BCS wave functions[1,2] of the type proposed by P. W. Anderson at the early stages of High temperature superconductivity [3]. The first spin liquid phase is stable for small values of the coupling r 0.6 and appears gapless and fractionalized, whereas the second one is a more conventional spin liquid, very similar to the one realized in the quantum dimer model in the triangular lattice[4]. It is characterized by a spin gap and a finite correlation length, and appears energetically favored in the region 0.6 r 0.9. The various phases are in good agreement with the experimental findings and supports the existence of spin liquid phases in 2D quantum spin-half systems. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 1cm *[1] L. Capriotti F. Becca A. Parola and S. Sorella , Phys. Rev. Letters 87, 097201 (2001). *[2] S. Yunoki and S. Sorella Phys. Rev. Letters 92, 15003 (2004). *[3] P. W. Anderson, Science 235, 1186 (1987). *[4] P. Fendley, R. Moessner, and S. L. Sondhi Phys. Rev. B 66, 214513 (2002).

  15. String theory, quantum phase transitions, and the emergent Fermi liquid.

    PubMed

    Cubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2009-07-24

    A central problem in quantum condensed matter physics is the critical theory governing the zero-temperature quantum phase transition between strongly renormalized Fermi liquids as found in heavy fermion intermetallics and possibly in high-critical temperature superconductors. We found that the mathematics of string theory is capable of describing such fermionic quantum critical states. Using the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence to relate fermionic quantum critical fields to a gravitational problem, we computed the spectral functions of fermions in the field theory. By increasing the fermion density away from the relativistic quantum critical point, a state emerges with all the features of the Fermi liquid.

  16. 4He glass phase: A model for liquid elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Robert F.; Bossy, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    The specific heat of liquid helium confined under pressure in nanoporous material and the formation, in these conditions, of a glass phase accompanied by latent heat are known. These properties are in good agreement with a recent model predicting, in liquid elements, the formation of ultrastable glass having universal thermodynamic properties. The third law of thermodynamics involves that the specific heat decreases at low temperatures and consequently the effective transition temperature of the glass increases up to the temperature where the frozen enthalpy becomes equal to the predicted value. The glass residual entropy is about 23.6% of the melting entropy.

  17. Superfluid helium 2 liquid-vapor phase separation: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A literature survey of helium 2 liquid vapor phase separation is presented. Currently, two types of He 2 phase separators are being investigated: porous, sintered metal plugs and the active phase separator. The permeability K(P) shows consistency in porous plug geometric characterization. Both the heat and mass fluxes increase with K(P). Downstream pressure regulation to adjust for varying heat loads and both temperatures is possible. For large dynamic heat loads, the active phase separator shows a maximum heat rejection rate of up to 2 W and bath temperature stability of 0.1 mK. Porous plug phase separation performance should be investigated for application to SIRTF and, in particular, that plugs of from 10 to the minus ninth square centimeters to 10 to the minus eighth square centimeters in conjunction with downstream pressure regulation be studied.

  18. Thermal Vibrational Convection in a Two-phase Stratified Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Qingming; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    2007-01-01

    The response of a two-phase stratified liquid system subject to a vibration parallel to an imposed temperature gradient is analyzed using a hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann method (HTLB). The vibrations considered correspond to sinusoidal translations of a rigid cavity at a fixed frequency. The layers are thermally and mechanically coupled. Interaction between gravity-induced and vibration-induced thermal convection is studied. The ability of applied vibration to enhance the flow, heat transfer and interface distortion is investigated. For the range of conditions investigated, the results reveal that the effect of vibrational Rayleigh number and vibrational frequency on a two-phase stratified fluid system is much different than that for a single-phase fluid system. Comparisons of the response of a two-phase stratified fluid system with a single-phase fluid system are discussed.

  19. Glass and liquid phase diagram of a polyamorphic monatomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, Shaina; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a monatomic system with Fermi-Jagla (FJ) pair potential interactions. This model system exhibits polyamorphism both in the liquid and glass state. The two liquids, low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL), are accessible in equilibrium MD simulations and can form two glasses, low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) solid, upon isobaric cooling. The FJ model exhibits many of the anomalous properties observed in water and other polyamorphic liquids and thus, it is an excellent model system to explore qualitatively the thermodynamic properties of such substances. The liquid phase behavior of the FJ model system has been previously characterized. In this work, we focus on the glass behavior of the FJ system. Specifically, we perform systematic isothermal compression and decompression simulations of LDA and HDA at different temperatures and determine "phase diagrams" for the glass state; these phase diagrams varying with the compression/decompression rate used. We obtain the LDA-to-HDA and HDA-to-LDA transition pressure loci, PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T), respectively. In addition, the compression-induced amorphization line, at which the low-pressure crystal (LPC) transforms to HDA, PLPC-HDA(T), is determined. As originally proposed by Poole et al. [Phys. Rev. E 48, 4605 (1993)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.4605 simulations suggest that the PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T) loci are extensions of the LDL-to-HDL and HDL-to-LDL spinodal lines into the glass domain. Interestingly, our simulations indicate that the PLPC-HDA(T) locus is an extension, into the glass domain, of the LPC metastability limit relative to the liquid. We discuss the effects of compression/decompression rates on the behavior of the PLDA-HDA(T), PHDA-LDA(T), PLPC-HDA(T) loci. The competition between glass polyamorphism and crystallization is also addressed. At our "fast rate," crystallization can be partially suppressed and the

  20. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of a Monoclonal Antibody and Nonmonotonic Influence of Hofmeister Anions

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bruce D.; Zhang-van Enk, Jian; Zhang, Le; Remmele, Richard L.; Zhang, Jifeng

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation was studied for a monoclonal antibody in the monovalent salt solutions of KF, KCl, and KSCN under different pH conditions. A modified Carnahan-Starling hard-sphere model was utilized to fit the experimental data, establish the liquid-liquid coexistence curve, and determine antibody-antibody interactions in the form of Tc (critical temperature) under the different solution conditions. The liquid-liquid phase separation revealed the complex relationships between antibody-antibody interactions and different solution conditions, such as pH, ionic strength, and the type of anion. At pH 7.1, close to the pI of the antibody, a decrease of Tc versus ionic strength was observed at low salt conditions, suggesting that the protein-protein interactions became less attractive. At a pH value below the pI of the antibody, a nonmonotonic relationship of Tc versus ionic strength was apparent: initially as the ionic strength increased, protein-protein interactions became more attractive with the effectiveness of the anions following the inverse Hofmeister series; then the interactions became less attractive following the direct Hofmeister series. This nonmonotonic relationship may be explained by combining the charge neutralization by the anions, perhaps with the ion-correlation force for polarizable anions, and their preferential interactions with the antibody. PMID:21112304

  1. Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids and Plasma/Liquid Phase Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, Mark Jay

    2014-07-10

    In this research project, the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with multi-phase media was computationally investigated. Multi-phase media includes liquids, particles, complex materials and porous surfaces. Although this investigation addressed fundamental plasma transport and chemical processes, the outcomes directly and beneficially affected applications including biotechnology, medicine and environmental remediation (e.g., water purification). During this project, we made advances in our understanding of the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use computer modeling to represent these complex processes. We determined the method that atmospheric pressure plasmas flow along solid and liquid surfaces, and through endoscopic like tubes, deliver optical and high energy ion activation energy to organic and liquid surfaces, and produce reactivity in thin liquid layers, as might cover a wound. We determined the mechanisms whereby plasmas can deliver activation energy to the inside of liquids by sustaining plasmas in bubbles. These findings are important to the advancement of new technology areas such as plasma medicine

  2. Toward Consistent Terminology for Cyclohexane Conformers in Introductory Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Donna J.; Brammer, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Recommended changes in use of cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature will remedy inconsistencies in cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature that exist across currently used organic chemistry textbooks. These inconsistencies prompted this logical analysis and the resulting recommendations. Recommended conformer names are "chair",…

  3. Dynamics of a discotic liquid crystal in the isotropic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Fruchey, Kendall; Fayer, M. D.

    2006-11-01

    Optically heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments are conducted to study the orientational dynamics of a discotic liquid crystal 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(pentyloxy)triphenylene (HPT) in the isotropic phase near the columnar-isotropic (C-I) phase transition. The OHD-OKE signal of HPT is characterized by an intermediate power law t-0.76±0.02 at short times (a few picoseconds), a von Schweidler power law t-0.26±0.01 at intermediate times (hundreds of picoseconds), and an exponential decay at long times (tens of nanoseconds). The exponential decay has Arrhenius temperature dependence. The functional form of the total time dependent decay is identical to the one observed previously for a large number of molecular supercooled liquids. The mode coupling theory schematic model based on the Sjögren [Phys. Rev. A 33, 1254 (1986)] model is able to reproduce the HPT data over a wide range of times from <1ps to tens of nanoseconds. The studies indicate that the HPT C-I phase transition is a strong first order transition, and the dynamics in the isotropic phase display a complex time dependent profile that is common to other molecular liquids that lack mesoscopic structure.

  4. Phase-Changing Ionic Liquids: CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids Involving Phase Change

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Notre Dame is developing a new CO2 capture process that uses special ionic liquids (ILs) to remove CO2 from the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. ILs are salts that are normally liquid at room temperature, but Notre Dame has discovered a new class of ILs that are solid at room temperature and change to liquid when they bind to CO2. Upon heating, the CO2 is released for storage, and the ILs re-solidify and donate some of the heat generated in the process to facilitate further CO2 release. These new ILs can reduce the energy required to capture CO2 from the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant when compared to state-ofthe- art technology.

  5. Structure, Hydrodynamics, and Phase Transition of Freely Suspended Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Noel A.

    2000-01-01

    Smectic liquid crystals are phases of rod shaped molecules organized into one dimensionally (1D) periodic arrays of layers, each layer being between one and two molecular lengths thick. In the least ordered smectic phases, the smectics A and C, each layer is a two dimensional (2D) liquid. Additionally there are a variety of more ordered smectic phases having hexatic short range translational order or 2D crystalline quasi long range translational order within the layers. The inherent fluid-layer structure and low vapor pressure of smectic liquid crystals enable the long term stabilization of freely suspended, single component, layered fluid films as thin as 30A, a single molecular layer. The layering forces the films to be an integral number of smectic layers thick, quantizing their thickness in layer units and forcing a film of a particular number of layers to be physically homogeneous with respect to its layer structure over its entire area. Optical reflectivity enables the precise determination of the number of layers. These ultrathin freely suspended liquid crystal films are structures of fundamental interest in condensed matter and fluid physics. They are the thinnest known stable condensed phase fluid structures and have the largest surface-to-volume ratio of any stable fluid preparation, making them ideal for the study of the effects of reduced dimensionality on phase behavior and on fluctuation and interface phenomena. Their low vapor pressure and quantized thickness enable the effective use of microgravity to extend the study of basic capillary phenomena to ultrathin fluid films. Freely suspended films have been a wellspring of new liquid crystal physics. They have been used to provide unique experimental conditions for the study of condensed phase transitions in two dimensions. They are the only system in which the hexatic has been unambiguously identified as a phase of matter, and the only physical system in which fluctuations of a 2D XY system and

  6. Switchable water: microfluidic investigation of liquid-liquid phase separation mediated by carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lestari, Gabriella; Abolhasani, Milad; Bennett, Darla; Chase, Preston; Günther, Axel; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2014-08-27

    Increase in the ionic strength of water that is mediated by the reaction of carbon dioxide (CO2) with nitrogenous bases is a promising approach toward phase separation in mixtures of water with organic solvents and potentially water purification. Conventional macroscale studies of this complicated process are challenging, due to its occurrence via several consecutive and concurrent steps, mass transfer limitation, and lack of control over gas-liquid interfaces. We report a new microfluidic strategy for fundamental studies of liquid-liquid phase separation mediated by CO2 as well as screening of the efficiency of nitrogenous agents. A single set of microfluidic experiments provided qualitative and quantitative information on the kinetics and completeness of water-tetrahydrofuran phase separation, the minimum amount of CO2 required to complete phase separation, the total CO2 uptake, and the rate of CO2 consumption by the liquid mixture. The efficiency of tertiary diamines with different lengths of alkyl chain was examined in a time- and labor-efficient manner and characterized with the proposed efficiency parameter. A wealth of information obtained using the MF methodology can facilitate the development of new additives for switchable solvents in green chemistry applications.

  7. Common path point diffraction interferometer using liquid crystal phase shifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A common path point diffraction interferometer uses dyed, parallel nematic liquid crystals which surround an optically transparent microsphere. Coherent, collimated and polarized light is focused on the microsphere at a diameter larger than that of the microsphere. A portion of the focused light passes through the microsphere to form a spherical wavefront reference beam and the rest of the light is attenuated by the dyed liquid crystals to form an object beam. The two beams form an interferogram which is imaged by a lens onto an electronic array sensor and into a computer which determines the wavefront of the object beam. The computer phase shifts the interferogram by stepping up an AC voltage applied across the liquid crystals without affecting the reference beam.

  8. Dynamical and structural heterogeneities close to liquid-liquid phase transitions: The case of gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Alex; Cajahuaringa, Samuel; de Koning, Maurice

    2013-03-01

    Liquid-liquid phase transitions (LLPT) have been proposed in order to explain the thermodynamic anomalies exhibited by some liquids. Recently, it was found, through molecular dynamics simulations, that liquid elemental gallium, described by a modified embedded-atom model, exhibits a LLPT between a high-density liquid (HDL) and a low-density liquid (LDL), about 60 K below the melting temperature. In this work, we studied the dynamics of supercooled liquid gallium close to the LLPT. Our results show a large increase in the plateau of the self-intermediate scattering function (β-relaxation process) and in the non-Gaussian parameter, indicating a pronounced dynamical heterogeneity upon the onset of the LLPT. The dynamical heterogeneity of the LDL is closely correlated to its structural heterogeneity, since the fast diffusing atoms belong to high-density domains of predominantly 9-fold coordinated atoms, whereas the slow diffusing ones are mostly in low-density domains of 8-fold coordinated atoms. The energetics suggests that the reason for the sluggish dynamics of LDL is due to its larger cohesive energy as compared to that of the HDL. Work supported by FAPESP, CNPq, CAPES, and FAEPEX/UNICAMP

  9. Development of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals with Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Properties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-24

    cyclic cores known to produce the smectic C* phase are benzene, cyclohexane, pyridine , and pyrimidine. The tails could be n -alkyl chains containing...one or more chiral centers. Locally, the molecules self-organize into smetic liquid crystal layers with the director n tilted with respect to the...manifested through a spontaneous polarization P. defined by: P = (z x n )P. The spontaneous polarization magnitude is a function of the chiral center in

  10. Liquid phase oxidation chemistry in continuous-flow microreactors.

    PubMed

    Gemoets, Hannes P L; Su, Yuanhai; Shang, Minjing; Hessel, Volker; Luque, Rafael; Noël, Timothy

    2016-01-07

    Continuous-flow liquid phase oxidation chemistry in microreactors receives a lot of attention as the reactor provides enhanced heat and mass transfer characteristics, safe use of hazardous oxidants, high interfacial areas, and scale-up potential. In this review, an up-to-date overview of both technological and chemical aspects of liquid phase oxidation chemistry in continuous-flow microreactors is given. A description of mass and heat transfer phenomena is provided and fundamental principles are deduced which can be used to make a judicious choice for a suitable reactor. In addition, the safety aspects of continuous-flow technology are discussed. Next, oxidation chemistry in flow is discussed, including the use of oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and other oxidants in flow. Finally, the scale-up potential for continuous-flow reactors is described.

  11. Liquid-phase sintering of iron aluminide-bonded ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, J.H.; Carmichael, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Iron aluminide intermetallics exhibit excellent oxidation and sulfidation resistance and are therefore considered as the matrix in metal matrix composites, or the binder in hard metals or cermets. In this paper the authors discuss the processing and properties of liquid-phase sintered iron aluminide-bonded ceramics. It is found that ceramics such as TiB{sub 2}, ZrB{sub 2}, TiC, and WC may all be liquid phase-sintered. nearly complete densification is achieved for ceramic volume fractions ranging up to 60%. Depending on the composition, room temperature three point-bend strengths and fracture toughnesses reaching 1,500 MPa and 30 MPa m{sup 1/2}, respectively, have been found. Since the processing was carried out in a very simple manner, optimized processing is likely to result in further improvements.

  12. Powder metallurgy: Solid and liquid phase sintering of copper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Rex; Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Basic powder metallurgy (P/M) principles and techniques are presented in this laboratory experiment. A copper based system is used since it is relatively easy to work with and is commercially important. In addition to standard solid state sintering, small quantities of low melting metals such as tin, zinc, lead, and aluminum can be added to demonstrate liquid phase sintering and alloy formation. The Taguchi Method of experimental design was used to study the effect of particle size, pressing force, sintering temperature, and sintering time. These parameters can be easily changed to incorporate liquid phase sintering effects and some guidelines for such substitutions are presented. The experiment is typically carried out over a period of three weeks.

  13. Densification and shape distortion in liquid-phase sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; German, R.M.

    1999-12-01

    Densification and dimensional control are important aspects of liquid-phase sintering. The capillary force and the solid bonding affect both densification and shape preservation. Capillarity, which is orientated isotropically, causes uniform shrinkage and holds grains together to preserve the component shape in the early stage of sintering. On the other hand, solid bonding resists viscous flow and inhibits densification and shape distortion. The capillary force decreases with densification and approaches zero as pores are eliminated. Thus, shape retention eventually requires solid-grain bonding. The solid-grain bonding provides compact rigidity, which is represented by compact strength. Shape distortion occurs when the compact loses its strength. For every situation, there is a critical compact strength above which no shape distortion occurs. Distortion in liquid-phase sintering indicates that the compact strength passed below a critical level.

  14. ENHANCED SOURCE REMOVAL OF NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID CONTAMINANTS BY CHEMICAL-BASED FLOODING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as gasoline and halogenated solvents (trichloroethylene (TCE) and teterachloroethylene (PCE), etc) enter the subsurface after a spill, or from leaking underground storage tanks. The presence of residual dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) ...

  15. D2-D1 phase transition of columnar liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. F.; Swift, J.

    1986-04-01

    The D2-D1 phase transition in columnar liquid crystals of the HAT series [e.g., HAT11 (triphenelene hexa-n-dodecanoate)] is discussed within the framework of Landau theory. The order parameters which describe the transition are abstracted from a tensor density function, and are associated with two irreducible representations of the symmetry group of the high-temperature D2 phase. A mechanism for a first-order transition is then suggested in accordance with both theoretical considerations and the experimental result for the D2-D1 transition. Two possible arrangements of the herringbone structure of the D1 phase are obtained, each of which gives six orientational states in the low-temperature D1 phase.

  16. Terraces in the cholesteric phase of DNA liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, D.H. ); Davidson, M.W. ); Rill, R.L. )

    1992-10-15

    Near the transition to the columnar phase, the cholesteric liquid crystal phase in an aqueous solution of DNA fragments with contour lengths approximating the persistence length undergoes an unwinding of the cholesteric pitch. Unwinding of the cholesteric with planar alignment of the fragments was studied by polarized light microscopy. Terraces or Grandjean planes'' of cholesteric are seen as uniformly birefringent fields of distinct hues (typically blue), bounded by lines which moved as the local concentration of DNA increased. These lines are interpreted as disclination lines, bounding regions of different total twist, which move as the intrinsic pitch of the cholesteric varies with concentration.

  17. Perhydroazulene-based liquid-crystalline materials with smectic phases.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zakir; Hopf, Henning; Eichhorn, S Holger

    2012-01-01

    New liquid-crystalline materials with a perhydroazulene core were synthesized and the stereochemistry of these compounds was investigated. The mesomorphic properties of the new LC compounds were investigated by differential scanning colorimetry, polarizing optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. We report here on the LC properties of nonchiral materials, which predominantly exhibit smectic phases and display nematic phases only within narrow temperature ranges. The dependence of the mesogenic behavior of the new materials on the stereochemistry of the core system was also investigated. All newly synthesized compounds were fully characterized by the usual spectroscopic and analytical methods.

  18. A fundamental study of liquid phase particle breakup. Revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    Combustion efficiency of aluminized propellants in solid rocket motors is reduced by incomplete aluminum combustion and two-phase nozzle flow losses. Combustion of these propellants can produce large Al/Al2O3 agglomerates. As a direct result of agglomerate breakup, the aluminum combustion rate is increased, and the thermal energy released is more efficiently transferred into exhaust kinetic energy. This research sought to obtain physical data to characterize the mechanisms of aerodynamic droplet breakup. Experiments have been completed in which conventional liquids and a liquid metal (mercury) was studied. The primary goal of the conventional liquid experiments was to examine the effect of liquid properties (viscosity and surface tension) on the breakup mechanism, time scale, and fragment size distribution. The goal of the mercury experiments was to examine the effect of the much higher surface tension more characteristic of liquid aluminum. A key element of the experimental effort is the use of nonintrusive laser diagnostics including pulsed laser holography (PLH) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). The exceptional temporal and spatial resolution of PLH provided the ability to resolve the mechanism of breakup and the size distribution of the fragments. LDV was used to determine drop velocity distributions along the nozzle revealing the rapid acceleration of the flattened droplets and then, surprisingly, the milder acceleration of the fragments.

  19. Phase-locked measurements of gas-liquid horizontal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadrazil, Ivan; Matar, Omar; Markides, Christos

    2014-11-01

    A flow of gas and liquid in a horizontal pipe can be described in terms of various flow regimes, e.g. wavy stratified, annular or slug flow. These flow regimes appear at characteristic gas and liquid Reynolds numbers and feature unique wave phenomena. Wavy stratified flow is populated by low amplitude waves whereas annular flow contains high amplitude and long lived waves, so called disturbance waves, that play a key role in a liquid entrainment into the gas phase (droplets). In a slug flow regime, liquid-continuous regions travel at high speeds through a pipe separated by regions of stratified flow. We use a refractive index matched dynamic shadowgraphy technique using a high-speed camera mounted on a moving robotic linear rail to track the formation and development of features characteristic for the aforementioned flow regimes. We show that the wave dynamics become progressively more complex with increasing liquid and gas Reynolds numbers. Based on the shadowgraphy measurements we present, over a range of conditions: (i) phenomenological observations of the formation, and (ii) statistical data on the downstream velocity distribution of different classes of waves. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  20. Confinement-Driven Phase Separation of Quantum Liquid Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisk, T. R.; Pantalei, C.; Kaiser, H.; Sokol, P. E.

    2012-08-01

    We report small-angle neutron scattering studies of liquid helium mixtures confined in Mobil Crystalline Material-41 (MCM-41), a porous silica glass with narrow cylindrical nanopores (d=3.4nm). MCM-41 is an ideal model adsorbent for fundamental studies of gas sorption in porous media because its monodisperse pores are arranged in a 2D triangular lattice. The small-angle scattering consists of a series of diffraction peaks whose intensities are determined by how the imbibed liquid fills the pores. Pure He4 adsorbed in the pores show classic, layer-by-layer film growth as a function of pore filling, leaving the long range symmetry of the system intact. In contrast, the adsorption of He3-He4 mixtures produces a structure incommensurate with the pore lattice. Neither capillary condensation nor preferential adsorption of one helium isotope to the pore walls can provide the symmetry-breaking mechanism. The scattering is consistent with the formation of randomly distributed liquid-liquid microdomains ˜2.3nm in size, providing evidence that confinement in a nanometer scale capillary can drive local phase separation in quantum liquid mixtures.

  1. Vortex motion phase separator for zero gravity liquid transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor); Fraser, Wilson M., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vortex motion phase separator is disclosed for transferring a liquid in a zero gravity environment while at the same time separating the liquid from vapors found within either the sender or the receiving tanks. The separator comprises a rigid sender tank having a circular cross-section and rigid receiver tank having a circular cross-section. A plurality of ducts connects the sender tank and the receiver tank. Disposed within the ducts connecting the receiver tank and the sender tank is a pump and a plurality of valves. The pump is powered by an electric motor and is adapted to draw either the liquid or a mixture of the liquid and the vapor from the sender tank. Initially, the mixture drawn from the sender tank is directed through a portion of the ductwork and back into the sender tank at a tangent to the inside surface of the sender tank, thereby creating a swirling vortex of the mixture within the sender tank. As the pumping action increases, the speed of the swirling action within the sender tank increases creating an increase in the centrifugal force operating on the mixture. The effect of the centrifugal force is to cause the heavier liquid to migrate to the inside surface of the sender tank and to separate from the vapor. When this separation reaches a predetermined degree, control means is activated to direct the liquid conveyed by the pump directly into the receiver tank. At the same time, the vapor within the receiver tank is directed from the receiver tank back into the sender tank. This flow continues until substantially all of the liquid is transferred from the sender tank to the receiver tank.

  2. Dynamic evolution of liquid-liquid phase separation during continuous cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, S. D.; Gibbs, P. J.; Katz, M. R.; Ott, T. J.; Patterson, B. M.; Lee, W. -K.; Fezzaa, K.; Cooley, J. C.; Clarke, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Solidification from a multiphase fluid involves many unknown quantities due to the difficulty of predicting the impact of fluid flow on chemical partitioning. Real-time x-ray radiography has been used to observe liquideliquid phase separation in Al90In10 prior to solidification. Quantitative image analysis has been used to measure the motion and population characteristics of the dispersed indium-rich liquid phase during cooling. Here we determine that the droplet growth characteristics resemble well known steady-state coarsening laws with likely enhancement by concurrent growth due to supersaturation. Simplistic views of droplet motion are found to be insufficient until late in the reaction due to a hydrodynamic instability caused by the large density difference between the dispersed and matrix liquid phases.

  3. Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul A. Lessing

    2012-03-01

    Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

  4. Modeling the solid-liquid phase transition in saturated triglycerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pink, David A.; Hanna, Charles B.; Sandt, Christophe; MacDonald, Adam J.; MacEachern, Ronald; Corkery, Robert; Rousseau, Dérick

    2010-02-01

    We investigated theoretically two competing published scenarios for the melting transition of the triglyceride trilaurin (TL): those of (1) Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], in which the average state of each TL molecule in the liquid phase is a discotic "Y" conformer whose three chains are dynamically twisted, with an average angle of ˜120° between them, and those of (2) Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid-state conformation of the TL molecule in the liquid phase is a nematic h∗-conformer whose three chains are in a modified "chair" conformation. We developed two competing models for the two scenarios, in which TL molecules are in a nematic compact-chair (or "h") conformation, with extended, possibly all-trans, chains at low-temperatures, and in either a Y conformation or an h∗ conformation in the liquid state at temperatures higher than the phase-transition temperature, T∗=319 K. We defined an h-Y model as a realization of the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], and explored its predictions by mapping it onto an Ising model in a temperature-dependent field, performing a mean-field approximation, and calculating the transition enthalpy ΔH. We found that the most plausible realization of the h-Y model, as applied to the solid-liquid phase transition in TL, and likely to all saturated triglycerides, gave a value of ΔH in reasonable agreement with the experiment. We then defined an alternative h-h∗ model as a realization of the proposal of Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid phase exhibits an average symmetry breaking similar to an h conformation, but with twisted chains, to see whether it could describe the TL phase transition. The h-h∗ model gave a value of ΔH that was too small by a factor of ˜3-4. We also predicted the temperature dependence of the 1132 cm-1 Raman band for both models, and performed measurements of the ratios of three TL Raman

  5. Device for measuring the liquid portion of a two-phase flow of gas and liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimann-Jensen, A.H.

    1986-09-02

    A device is described for measuring the liquid portion of a two-phase flow of gas and liquid, particularly in conveying a liquid by means of a gas, in which two-phase flow the ratio of mixture between gas and liquid is widely varying. The device consists of a tubular housing and a turbine wheel with axial throw-flow rotatably mounted therein, the turbine wheel being provided with at least one magnetic element at a radially outward portion thereof, the element having limited extent axially and peripherally of the turbine wheel. The device furthermore consists of magnetic pick-up means adapted to emit output signals responsive to the rotary speed of the turbine wheel, the wheel being mounted for axial movement in the direction of flow from an initial position against a biassing force, characterized in that pick-up means are arranged axially spaced along the housing for allowing a measuring of rotary speed of the turbine wheel at various positions of movement within the housing responsive to density as well as speed changes of the flow and hence a determination of the liquid portion thereof by means of a converting device connected to all of the pick-up means. The tubular housing preferably is mounted vertically with the turbine wheel in its initial position being located lowermost.

  6. Extraction of proteins with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system based on guanidine ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Li, Na; Huang, Xiu; Ding, Xueqin; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Songyun; Liu, Xiaojie

    2013-11-15

    Eight kinds of green ionic liquids were synthesized, and an ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandine acrylate (TMGA) guanidine ionic liquid was first time studied for the extraction of proteins. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was influenced by the mass of IL, K2HPO4 and BSA, also related to the separation time and temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through orthogonal experiment by the five factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.6243%. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were 0.8156% (n=5), 1.6173% (n=5) and 1.6292% (n=5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and ionic liquid in the extraction process, and the conformation of the protein was not changed after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and the salt out effect played important roles in the transferring process, and the aggregation and embrace phenomenon was the main driving force for the separation. All these results proved that guanidine ionic liquid-based ATPSs have the potential to offer new possibility in the extraction of proteins.

  7. Boson peak, Ioffe-Regel Crossover, and Liquid-Liquid phase transition in Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pradeep

    We have investigated the onset of Boson peak in a model of liquid water which exhibits a clear first-order phase transition between a low-density liquid phase and a high-density liquid phase of water at low temperature and high pressure. We find that the at low pressures, the onset of Boson peak coincides with the Widom-line of the system. At high pressures, the onset occurs at the transition temperature between the two liquids. Furthermore, we show that at both low and high pressure, the frequency of the Boson peak coincides with the Ioffe-Regel crossover of the transverse phonons, suggesting that the breakdown of Debye behavior is a general feature of Ioffe-Regel limit crossover in supercooled water. The frequency of the Boson peak is weakly pressure dependent and decreases with increasing pressure. Our work bridges gap between the experimental results on the Boson peak nanoconfined water and the behavior that one would expect from a bulk system.

  8. Mechanism of phase transition, from vapor to solid: Transient liquid phase is between the two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, A. K.; Wang, Junyong; Zhang, Hongwei; Han, Min

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of phase transition, from vapor to solid, is studied by producing non-stoichiometric ZnO and CdS nanoclusters (NCs) by low-energy cluster beam deposition technique, and examining their morphological and compositional evolution over a long span of time. It is concluded that the transition of vapor to solid goes through a transient liquid phase: coagulation of a large number of atomic clusters first forms liquid NCs which then solidify. The nature of the material and the experimental conditions determine crystallinity and shape of the NCs during the solidification process.

  9. Electrostatic levitation studies of supercooled liquids and metastable solid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustan, Gustav Errol

    been carried out to study the metastable phase formation in an Fe83B17 near eutectic alloy. Initial supercooling measurements using the ISU-ESL identified the formation of three metastable phases: a precipitate phase that shows stable coexistence with the deeply supercooled liquid, and two distinct bulk solidification phases. To identify the structure of the metastable phases, the Washington University Beamline ESL (WU-BESL) has been used to perform in-situ high energy x-ray diffraction measurements of the metastable phases. Based on the x-ray results, the precipitate phase has been identified as bcc-Fe, and the more commonly occurring bulk solidification product has been found to be a two-phase mixture of Fe23B6 plus fcc-Fe, which appears, upon cooling, to transform into a three phase mixture of Fe23B6, bcc-Fe, and an as-yet unidentified phase, with the transformation occurring at approximately the expected fcc-to-bcc transformation temperature of pure Fe. To further characterize the multi-phase metastable alloy, the ISU-ESL has been used to perform measurements of volume thermal expansion via the videographic technique, as well as RF susceptibility via the TDO technique. The results of the thermal expansion and susceptibility data have been found to be sensitive indicators of additional structural changes that may be occurring in the metastable solid at temperatures below 1000 K, and the susceptibility data has revealed that three distinct ferromagnetic phase transitions take place within the multi-phase mixture. Based on these results, it has been hypothesized that there may be an additional transformation taking place that leads to the formation of either bct- or o-Fe3B in addition to the Fe23B6 phase, although further work is required to test this hypothesis.

  10. Frozen cyclohexane-in-water emulsion as a sacrificial template for the synthesis of multilayered polyelectrolyte microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Khapli, Sachin; Kim, Jin Ryoun; Montclare, Jin Kim; Levicky, Rastislav; Porfiri, Maurizio; Sofou, Stavroula

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports the application of frozen cyclohexane-in-water emulsions as sacrificial templates for the fabrication of hollow microcapsules through layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes, poly(styrenesulfonate sodium salt), and poly(allylamine hydrochloride). Extraction of the cyclohexane phase from frozen emulsions stabilized with 11 polyelectrolyte layers by compatibilization with 30% v/v ethanol leads to the formation of water-filled microcapsules while preserving the spherical geometry. The majority of microcapsules (>90%) are prepared with intact polyelectrolyte membranes as measured by their deformation induced by osmotic pressure. This work provides a new route for the synthesis of hollow multilayered microcapsules under mild operating conditions.

  11. Temperature selectivity in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dolan, John W

    2002-08-02

    Column temperature plays two important roles in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC): control of retention (k) and control of selectivity (a). While changes in retention as a function of temperature are ubiquitous, selectivity changes for any given solute pair are more pronounced for ionized samples and samples with more polar substituents. With many samples, column temperature can be selected in a manner that optimizes resolution. The selectivity effects observed for temperature changes in RP-HPLC generally are complementary to those observed for mobile phase strength changes, so it is often possible to improve resolution by simultaneous optimization of temperature and mobile phase percent organic or gradient steepness. Computer simulation is a powerful tool for such optimization experiments. This paper reviews the influence of temperature on chromatographic selectivity for RP-HPLC.

  12. Asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating in nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chang-Yu; Shi, Hong-Xin; Ai, Yan-Bao; Yin, Xiang-Bao; Wang, Feng; Ding, Hong-Wei

    2016-09-01

    A new scheme for recording a dynamic phase grating with an asymmetric profile in C60-doped homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) was presented. An oblique incidence beam was used to record the thin asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating. The diffraction efficiency we achieved is more than 40%, exceeding the theoretical limit for symmetric profile gratings. Both facts can be explained by assuming that a grating with an asymmetric saw-tooth profile is formed in the NLC. Finally, physical mechanism and mathematical model for characterizing the asymmetric phase holographic grating were presented, based on the photo-refractive-like (PR-like) effect. Project supported by the Science and Technology Programs of the Educational Committee of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. 12541730) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405057).

  13. Amphitropic liquid crystal phases from polyhydroxy sugar surfactants: Fundamental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Zied, Osama K.; Hashim, Rauzah; Timimi, B. A.

    2015-03-01

    The self-assembly phenomena on a special class of poly-hydroxy sugar surfactant have been studied extensively. This class of material is classified as amphitropic liquid crystals since they exhibit both thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline properties. Hence the potential applications of these non-ionic surfactants are more versatile than those from the conventional lyotropic liquid crystals including those from thermotropic phases, but the latters are yet to be realized. Unfortunately, due to the lack of interest (or even awareness), fundamental studies in thermotropic glycolipids are scanty to support application development, and any tangible progress is often mired by the complexity of the sugar stereochemistry. However, some applications may be pursued from these materials by taking the advantage of the sugar chirality and the tilted structure of the lipid organization which implies ferroelectric behavior. Here, we present our studies on the stereochemical diversity of the sugar units in glycosides that form the thermotropic/lyotropic phases. The structure to property relationship compares different chain designs and other popular polyhydroxy compounds, such as monooleins and alkylpolyglucosides. Different structural properties of these glycosides are discussed with respect to their self-assembly organization and potential applications, such as delivery systems and membrane mimetic study.

  14. Modified phase-field-crystal model for solid-liquid phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai

    2015-07-01

    A modified phase-field-crystal (PFC) model is proposed to describe solid-liquid phase transitions by reconstructing the correlation function. The effects of fitting parameters of our modified PFC model on the bcc-liquid phase diagram, numerical stability, and solid-liquid interface properties during planar interface growth are examined carefully. The results indicate that the increase of the correlation function peak width at k =km will enhance the stability of the ordered phase, while the increase of peak height at k =0 will narrow the two-phase coexistence region. The third-order term in the free-energy function and the short wave-length of the correlation function have significant influences on the numerical stability of the PFC model. During planar interface growth, the increase of peak width at k =km will decrease the interface width and the velocity coefficient C , but increase the anisotropy of C and the interface free energy. Finally, the feasibility of the modified phase-field-crystal model is demonstrated with a numerical example of three-dimensional dendritic growth of a body-centered-cubic structure.

  15. Modified phase-field-crystal model for solid-liquid phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai

    2015-07-01

    A modified phase-field-crystal (PFC) model is proposed to describe solid-liquid phase transitions by reconstructing the correlation function. The effects of fitting parameters of our modified PFC model on the bcc-liquid phase diagram, numerical stability, and solid-liquid interface properties during planar interface growth are examined carefully. The results indicate that the increase of the correlation function peak width at k=k(m) will enhance the stability of the ordered phase, while the increase of peak height at k=0 will narrow the two-phase coexistence region. The third-order term in the free-energy function and the short wave-length of the correlation function have significant influences on the numerical stability of the PFC model. During planar interface growth, the increase of peak width at k=k(m) will decrease the interface width and the velocity coefficient C, but increase the anisotropy of C and the interface free energy. Finally, the feasibility of the modified phase-field-crystal model is demonstrated with a numerical example of three-dimensional dendritic growth of a body-centered-cubic structure.

  16. Crystallization and Phase Changes in Paracetamol from the Amorphous Solid to the Liquid Phase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    For the case of paracetamol, we show how terahertz time-domain spectroscopy can be used to characterize the solid and liquid phase dynamics. Heating of supercooled amorphous paracetamol from 295 K in a covered sample under vacuum leads to its crystallization at 330 K. First, form III is formed followed by the transformation of form III to form II at 375 K, to form I at 405 K, and finally melting is observed around 455 K. We discuss the difference between the featureless spectra of the supercooled liquid and its liquid melt. Lastly, we studied the onset of crystallization from the supercooled liquid in detail and quantified its kinetics based on the Avrami–Erofeev model. We determined an effective rate constant of k = 0.056 min–1 with a corresponding onset of crystallization at T = 329.5 K for a heating rate of 0.4 K min–1. PMID:24579729

  17. Effect of dimensionality on vapor-liquid phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2014-04-24

    Dimensionality play significant role on ‘phase transitions’. Fluids in macroscopic confinement (bulk or 3-Dimensional, 3D) do not show significant changes in their phase transition properties with extent of confinement, since the number of molecules away from the surrounding surfaces is astronomically higher than the number of molecules in close proximity of the confining surfaces. In microscopic confinement (quasi 3D to quasi-2D), however, the number of molecules away from the close proximity of the surface is not as high as is the case with macroscopic (3D) confinement. Hence, under the same thermodynamic conditions ‘phase transition’ properties at microscopic confinement may not remain the same as the macroscopic or 3D values. Phase transitions at extremely small scale become very sensitive to the dimensions as well as the surface characteristics of the system. In this work our investigations reveal the effect of dimensionality on the phase transition from 3D to quasi-2D to 2D behavior. We have used grand canonical transition matrix Monte Carlo simulation to understand the vapor–liquid phase transitions from 3D to quasi-2D behavior. Such studies can be helpful in understanding and controlling the fluid film behaviour confined between solid surfaces of few molecular diameters, for example, in lubrication applications.

  18. Liquid Crystal Phase Behaviour of Attractive Disc-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A.

    2013-01-01

    We employ a generalized van der Waals-Onsager perturbation theory to construct a free energy functional capable of describing the thermodynamic properties and orientational order of the isotropic and nematic phases of attractive disc particles. The model mesogen is a hard (purely repulsive) cylindrical disc particle decorated with an anisotropic square-well attractive potential placed at the centre of mass. Even for isotropic attractive interactions, the resulting overall inter-particle potential is anisotropic, due to the orientation-dependent excluded volume of the underlying hard core. An algebraic equation of state for attractive disc particles is developed by adopting the Onsager trial function to characterize the orientational order in the nematic phase. The theory is then used to represent the fluid-phase behaviour (vapour-liquid, isotropic-nematic, and nematic-nematic) of the oblate attractive particles for varying values of the molecular aspect ratio and parameters of the attractive potential. When compared to the phase diagram of their athermal analogues, it is seen that the addition of an attractive interaction facilitates the formation of orientationally-ordered phases. Most interestingly, for certain aspect ratios, a coexistence between two anisotropic nematic phases is exhibited by the attractive disc-like fluids. PMID:23965962

  19. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of bismuth based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, J.; Miyashita, S.; Inoue, T.; Komatsu, H.

    1996-05-01

    The liquid phase epitaxial growth of superconducting films of Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O y (2212 phase) and Bi 2Sr 2CuO z (2201 phase) were carried out on three types of substrates; SrTiO 3, LaAlO 3 and NdGaO 3. Twinning structures of the 2212 phase were observed in the films grown on the SrTiO 3 (100) and LaAlO 3 (100) substrates which belong to the cubic crystal system, while nearly twin-free structures were obtained when the film was grown on the NdGaO 3 (001) substrate (orthorhombic system). Atomic force microscopy revealed a 2201 phase film with a reasonably flat area (several μm 2) grown on the LaAlO 3 (100) substrate. It was observed that the 2212 phase nucleated on the substrate following the Volmer-Weber type mechanism (three-dimensional island growth mode). The enlarging processes of the island layers were discussed.

  20. Drug Release and Skin Permeation from Lipid Liquid Crystalline Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Balogh, F. O.; Sparr, E.; Sousa, J. J. S.; Pais, A. A. C. C.

    We have studied drug release and skin permeation from several different liquid crystalline lipid formulations that may be used to control the respective release rates. We have studied the release and permeation through human skin of a water-soluble and amphiphilic drug, propranolol hydrochloride, from several formulations prepared with monoolein and phytantriol as permeation enhancers and controlled release excipients. Diolein and cineol were added to selected formulations. We observed that viscosity decreases with drug load, wich is compatible with the occurrence of phase changes. Diolein stabilizes the bicontinuous cubic phases leading to an increase in viscosity and sustained release of the drug. The slowest release was found for the cubic phases with higher viscosity. Studies on skin permeation showed that these latter formulations also presented lower permeability than the less viscous monoolein lamellar phases. Formulations containing cineol originated higher permeability with higher enhancement ratios. Thus, the various formulations are adapted to different circumstances and delivery routes. While a slow release is usually desired for drug sustained delivery, the transdermal route may require a faster release. Lamellar phases, which are less viscous, are more adapted to transdermal applications. Thus, systems involving lamellar phases of monoolein and cineol are good candidates to be used as skin permeation enhancers for propranolol hydrochloride.

  1. Supercritical phenomenon of hydrogen beyond the liquid-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Renzhong; Chen, Ji; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Enge; Xu, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, we investigate the supercritical phenomenon associated with the liquid-liquid phase transition of hydrogen by studying the isothermal response functions, such as electric conductivity, molecular dissociation coefficient and isothermal compressibility, with respect to pressure. We find that, along each isotherm in the supercritical region, each of these response functions shows a maximum, the location of which is different for different response functions. As temperature decreases, the loci of these maxima asymptotically converge to a line of zero ordering field, known as the Widom line along which the magnitude of the response function maxima becomes larger and larger until it diverges as the critical point is approached. Thus, our study provides a possible way to locate the liquid-liquid critical point of hydrogen from the supercritical region at lower pressures. It also indicates that the supercritical phonomenon near the critical point of hydrogen is a rather general feature of second-order phase transition, it is not only true for classical systems with weak interactions but also true for highly condensed system with strong inter-atomic interactions.

  2. Partitioning and phase equilibria of PEGylated excipients in fluorinated liquids.

    PubMed

    Paul, Alison; Talbot, Gemma L; Bowles, James W; James, Jennifer; Griffiths, Peter C; Rogueda, Philippe G

    2010-03-15

    Mixtures of common polymeric excipients and hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) liquids show rich and complex phase behaviour. Phase diagrams and phase compositions are reported for poly(ethylene glycol)s with varying levels of end-group methylation in mixed solvent systems consisting of the model propellant 2H,3H-perfluoropentane (HPFP) and the fully fluorinated analogue perfluoropentane (PFP). Studies have been performed as a function of molecular weight as well as end group chemistry (monomethyl, MM; dimethyl, DM; and dihydroxyl, DH), and for binary polymer mixtures in HPFP/PFP solvent systems. The solvent composition required to induce phase separation by addition of the non-hydrogen bonding PFP is strongly dependent on end-group concentrations. It shows a linear increase with increasing methylation, whilst remaining insensitive to OH group concentration in dihydroxylated PEG systems. For single polymer systems it is observed that strong partitioning of the polymer is observed, and changes in polymer concentration occurring across the phase diagram are a result of changing solvent partitioning between upper and lower phases. These solvent effects are dependent on the composition (wt% PFP) in the solvent mixture. The linear dependence of solvent composition required to induce phase separation at fixed polymer concentration on end group concentrations can be used to predict the phase behaviour for mixtures of monomethylated PEG with either dimethyl or dihydroxyl PEGs, whereas mixtures of dihydroxyl with dimethyl end-capped PEGs show a deviation from linear behaviour with dominance of the dihydroxyl end groups, which is reflected in the obtained phase diagrams. This study hence progresses understanding of factors that influence solubility of PEG-type polymers in HFAs and will facilitate the identification of predictive methodologies for formulation.

  3. Phase-Shifting Liquid Crystal Interferometers for Microgravity Fluid Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon W.; Marshall, Keneth L.

    2002-01-01

    The initial focus of this project was to eliminate both of these problems in the Liquid Crystal Point-Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI). Progress toward that goal will be described, along with the demonstration of a phase shifting Liquid Crystal Shearing Interferometer (LCSI) that was developed as part of this work. The latest LCPDI, other than a lens to focus the light from a test section onto a diffracting microsphere within the interferometer and a collimated laser for illumination, the pink region contained within the glass plates on the rod-mounted platform is the complete interferometer. The total width is approximately 1.5 inches with 0.25 inches on each side for bonding the electrical leads. It is 1 inch high and there are only four diffracting microspheres within the interferometer. As a result, it is very easy to align, achieving the first goal. The liquid crystal electro-optical response time is a function of layer thickness, with thinner devices switching faster due to a reduction in long-range viscoelastic forces between the LC molecules. The LCPDI has a liquid crystal layer thickness of 10 microns, which is controlled by plastic or glass microspheres embedded in epoxy 'pads' at the corners of the device. The diffracting spheres are composed of polystyrene/divinyl benzene polymer with an initial diameter of 15 microns. The spheres deform slightly when the interferometer is assembled to conform to the spacing produced by the microsphere-filled epoxy spacer pads. While the speed of this interferometer has not yet been tested, previous LCPDIs fabricated at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics switched at a rate of approximately 3.3 Hz, a factor of 10 slower than desired. We anticipate better performance when the speed of these interferometers is tested since they are approximately three times thinner. Phase shifting in these devices is a function of the AC voltage level applied to the liquid crystal. As the voltage increases, the dye in the liquid crystal

  4. Supersolidus Liquid Phase Sintering Modeling of Inconel 718 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur, David; Brochu, Mathieu

    2016-02-01

    Powder metallurgy of Inconel 718 superalloy is advantageous as a near-net shape process for complex parts to reduce the buy-to-fly ratio and machining cost. However, sintering Inconel 718 requires the assistance of supersolidus liquid formation to achieve near full density and involves the risk of distortion at high temperatures. The present work is focused on modeling the onset of sintering and distortion as a function of temperature, grain size, and part geometry for Inconel 718. Using experimental sintering results and data available in the literature, the supersolidus liquid phase sintering of Inconel 718 was modeled. The model was used to define a processing window where part distortion would be avoided.

  5. Transient liquid-phase bonding using coated metal powders

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, W.D.; Eagar, T.W.

    1997-04-01

    Powder particles coated with a small amount of melting point depressant (MPD) reveal different sintering behavior in comparison to an uncoated powder mixture of the same composition. Interlayers consisting of the coated powder particles were used in the transient liquid-phase (TLP) bonding process. The coating material and the thickness of the deposit are important parameters that influence shrinkage. The amount of MPD was controlled such that the volume fraction of the liquid was very small but existed at all contacts, thus improving densification of the interlayer. Ni-20Cr and 304L stainless steel powders coated with Ni-10P were applied to join 304 stainless steels. Fully dense joints with mechanical properties comparable to those of the base metals were obtained with Ni-20Cr powder interlayers, whereas joints with 304L stainless steel powder interlayers showed inferior mechanical properties due to residual porosity in the joints.

  6. Selective air oxidation of cyclohexane in supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Li; Buelow, S.J.; Tumas, W.

    1996-12-31

    We have explored the use of molecular oxygen as the oxidant for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane using cobalt catalysts in supercritical CO{sub 2}. We have chosen to use supercritial CO{sub 2} as a co-solvent for reasons: (1) oxygen, cyclohexane and acetic acid are miscible in supercritical CO{sub 2} and therefore oxidation can occur in a homogeneous phase; (2) C02 is inert for oxidation and can be easily separated from the reaction mixture; (3) CO{sub 2} is environmentally benign. Adipic acid was formed at 80 % selectivity with 5% conversion. Reaction rates and product selectivity will be reported as a function of temperature and pressure.

  7. Liquid-liquid phase separation of a monoclonal antibody at low ionic strength: Influence of anion charge and concentration.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Katharina; Hartl, Josef; Blume, Alfred; Garidel, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of a monoclonal antibody solution was investigated at low ionic strength in the presence of oligovalent anions, such as citrate, trimellitate, pyromellitate and mellitate. Phase separation was observed at the isoelectric point of the antibody at pH8.7 as well as in more acidic pH regions in the presence of the tested oligovalent ions. This can be attributed to charge neutralization via binding of the oligovalent anions to the positively charged antibody. The influence of the anion concentration on liquid-liquid phase separation with respect to the net charge of the antibody was examined. Similarities to the formation of a complex coacervate were shown to apply. These findings enable us to understand the usage of excipients to rationally induce or avoid liquid-liquid phase separation at low ionic strength. Furthermore we present a method to directly examine the competition of different ions for the solvation shell, called buffer equilibration.

  8. Disappearance of Widom Line for Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition with Horizontal Coexistence Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiayuan; Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey; Angell, Austen; Stanley, Gene

    2012-02-01

    The study of spherically symmetric two-scale Jagla model with both repulsive and attractive ramps has been very successful in demonstrating the anomalous behavior of liquids (especially water) and its relation with respect to the existence of a liquid-liquid (LL) critical point. However, the co-existence line of Jagla model shows a positive slope, which is opposite to what has been found in the simulations of water. To more convincingly link the result of the study on Jagla model with that of water, we applied discrete molecular dynamics to Gibson and Wilding's modified Jagla model and found that by shrinking both the attractive and repulsive ramps, the slope of the coexistence line can be reduced to zero. However, at these values of the parameters, the LL critical point becomes completely unstable with respect to crystal and glass. We further studied the Widom line, defined as extreme of response functions and also continuation of the coexistence line into one phase region, and found Widom line disappeared in the case of zero slope of the coexistence line, due to the equal enthalpy of low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL).

  9. An experimental investigation of two-phase liquid oxygen pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an experimental program to explore the feasibility of pumping two-phase oxygen (liquid and gas) at the pump inlet are reported. Twenty-one cavitation tests were run on a standard J-2 oxygen pump at the MSFC Components Test Laboratory. All tests were run with liquid oxygen 5 to 10 K above the normal boiling point temperature. During ten tests run at approximately at the pump inlet were noted before complete pump performance 50 percent of the nominal operating speed, two phase conditions were achieved. Vapor volumes of 40 to 50 percent at the pump inlet were noted before complete pump performance loss. The experimental results compared to predictions. Nine cavitation tests run at the nominal pump speed over a 5 K temperature range showed progressively lower net positive suction head (NPSH) requirements as temperature was increased. Two-phase operation was not achieved. The temperature varying NPSH data were used to calculate thermodynamic effects on NPSH, and the results were compared to existing data.

  10. System for exchange of hydrogen between liquid and solid phases

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Johnson, J.R.; Winsche, W.E.

    1985-02-22

    The reversible reaction M + x/2 H/sub 2/ reversible MH/sub x/, wherein M is a reversible metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under an inert liquid, thereby reducing contamination, providing better temperature control, providing in situ mobility of the reactants, and increasing flexibility in process design. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to a temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen and to release previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the actual H/sub 2/ pressure is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the actual pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  11. Effect of Foam on Liquid Phase Mobility in Porous Media

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, A. A.; Farajzadeh, R.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the assumption that foam in porous media reduces the mobility of gas phase only and does not impact the liquid-phase mobility. The foam is generated by simultaneous injection of nitrogen gas and a surfactant solution into sandstone cores and its strength is varied by changing surfactant type and concentration. We find, indeed, that the effect of foam on liquid-phase mobility is not pronounced and can be ignored. Our new experimental results and analyses resolve apparent discrepancies in the literature. Previously, some researchers erroneously applied relative permeability relationships measured at small to moderate capillary numbers to foam floods at large capillary number. Our results indicate that the water relative permeability in the absence of surfactant should be measured with the capillary pressure ranging up to values reached during the foam floods. This requires conducting a steady-state gas/water core flood with capillary numbers similar to that of foam floods or measuring the water relative-permeability curve using a centrifuge. PMID:28262795

  12. Effect of Foam on Liquid Phase Mobility in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, A. A.; Farajzadeh, R.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the validity of the assumption that foam in porous media reduces the mobility of gas phase only and does not impact the liquid-phase mobility. The foam is generated by simultaneous injection of nitrogen gas and a surfactant solution into sandstone cores and its strength is varied by changing surfactant type and concentration. We find, indeed, that the effect of foam on liquid-phase mobility is not pronounced and can be ignored. Our new experimental results and analyses resolve apparent discrepancies in the literature. Previously, some researchers erroneously applied relative permeability relationships measured at small to moderate capillary numbers to foam floods at large capillary number. Our results indicate that the water relative permeability in the absence of surfactant should be measured with the capillary pressure ranging up to values reached during the foam floods. This requires conducting a steady-state gas/water core flood with capillary numbers similar to that of foam floods or measuring the water relative-permeability curve using a centrifuge.

  13. System for exchange of hydrogen between liquid and solid phases

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, James J.; Grohse, Edward W.; Johnson, John R.; Winsche, deceased, Warren E.

    1988-01-01

    The reversible reaction M+x/2 H.sub.2 .rarw..fwdarw.MH.sub.x, wherein M is a reversible metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH.sub.x in the presence of H.sub.2, generally used to store and recall H.sub.2, is found to proceed under an inert liquid, thereby reducing contamination, providing better temperature control, providing in situ mobility of the reactants, and increasing flexibility in process design. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to a temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H.sub.2, to store hydrogen and to release previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H.sub.2 through the liquid is dependent upon the H.sub.2 pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the actual H.sub.2 pressure is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particles. When the actual pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  14. Comparison of liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography mobile phases for enantioselective separations on polysaccharide stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Khater, Syame; Lozac'h, Marie-Anne; Adam, Isabelle; Francotte, Eric; West, Caroline

    2016-10-07

    Analysis and production of enantiomerically pure compounds is a major topic of interest when active pharmaceutical ingredients are concerned. Enantioselective chromatography has become a favourite both at the analytical and preparative scales. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are dominating the scene and are often seen as complementary techniques. Nowadays, for economic and ecologic reasons, SFC may be preferred over normal-phase HPLC (NPLC) as it allows significant reductions in solvent consumption. However, the transfer of NPLC methods to SFC is not always straightforward. In this study, we compare the retention of achiral molecules and separation of enantiomers under supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide with ethanol or isopropanol) and liquid normal-phase (heptane with ethanol or isopropanol) elution modes with polysaccharide stationary phases in order to explore the differences between the retention and enantioseparation properties between the two modes. Chemometric methods (namely quantitative structure-retention relationships and discriminant analysis) are employed to compare the results obtained on a large set of analytes (171 achiral probes and 97 racemates) and gain some understanding on the retention and separation mechanisms. The results indicate that, contrary to popular belief, carbon dioxide - solvent SFC mobile phases are often weaker eluents than liquid mobile phases. It appears that SFC and NPLC elution modes provide different retention mechanisms. While some enantioseparations are unaffected, facilitating the transfer between the two elution modes, other enantioseparations may be drastically different due to different types and strength of interactions contributing to enantioselectivity.

  15. Control of column temperature in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wolcott, R G; Dolan, J W; Snyder, L R; Bakalyar, S R; Arnold, M A; Nichols, J A

    2000-02-11

    When separations by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) are carried out at temperatures other than ambient, resulting retention times and bandwidths can depend on the equipment used. As a result, an RP-LC separation that is adequate when carried out on one LC system may prove inadequate when the separation is repeated on a second system. In the present study, various temperature-related problems which can result in a failure of method transfer for non-ambient RP-LC methods were examined. Means for correcting for such effects and thereby ensuring method transferability are described.

  16. Vapors-liquid phase separator. [infrared telescope heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Brown, G. S.; Chuang, C.; Kamioka, Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, J. M.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1980-01-01

    The use of porous plugs, mostly with in the form of passive devices with constant area were considered as vapor-liquid phase separators for helium 2 storage vessels under reduced gravity. The incorporation of components with variable cross sectional area as a method of flow rate modification was also investigated. A particular device which uses a shutter-type system for area variation was designed and constructed. This system successfully permitted flor rate changes of up to plus or minus 60% from its mean value.

  17. Liquid phase synthesis of copper indium diselenide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jakhmola, Priyanka; Agarwal, Garima; Jha, Prafulla K.; Bhatnagar, S. P.

    2014-04-24

    Nanoparticles of Copper Indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}), belongs to I-III-VI{sub 2} family has been synthesized via liquid phase route using ethylenediamine as a solvent. Characterization of as-grown particles is done by XRD, HRTEM, DLS, optical microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed that the CuInSe2 nanoparticles obtained reveals chalcopyrite structure. Particle size evaluated from dynamic light scattering of as grown particle possessing radius of 90 nm. The bandgap of 1.05eV is obtained from UV-Vis spectrum which will applicable to the solar cell devices.

  18. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

  19. Dense nonaqueous phase liquid tracer tests: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Burt, R A; Christians, G L; Williams, S P; Wilson, D J

    2001-12-01

    Two dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) tracer tests were carried out in a shallow aquifer north of Fort Worth, TX. i-Propanol was used as the nonpartitioning tracer: n-hexanol and n-octanol were the partitioning tracers. Field data, mathematical modeling, the results of column tests, and field tracer tests with NaCl were used in designing the DNAPL tracer tests. The results indicated the presence of DNAPL at both sites tested; semi-quantitative estimates of the amounts of DNAPL present were obtained by mathematical modeling. Interpretation was complicated by heterogeneity of the aquifer and mass transport effects.

  20. Investigating materials formation with liquid-phase and cryogenic TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Yoreo, J. J.; N. A. J. M., Sommerdijk

    2016-08-01

    The recent advent of liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and advances in cryogenic TEM are transforming our understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms underlying the formation of materials in synthetic, biological and geochemical systems. These techniques have been applied to study the dynamic processes of nucleation, self-assembly, crystal growth and coarsening for metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles, (bio)minerals, electrochemical systems, macromolecular complexes, and organic and inorganic self-assembling systems. New instrumentation and methodologies that are currently on the horizon promise new opportunities for advancing the science of materials synthesis.

  1. Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Daming; Yuan, Jiamin; Schadt, Martin; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizing a photopolymer-embedded blue phase liquid crystal precursor with linearly polarized UV light is investigated experimentally. When the UV polarization axis is perpendicular to the stripe electrodes of an in-plane-switching cell, anisotropic polymer networks are formed through the linear photo-polymerization process and the electrostriction effect is suppressed. As a result, the measured hysteresis is dramatically reduced from 6.95% to 0.36% and the response time shortened by ˜2× compared to unpolarized UV exposure. To induce larger anisotropy in polymer networks for mitigating the electrostriction effect, high-intensity linearly polarized UV exposure is preferred.

  2. Containerless liquid-phase processing of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. K. R.; Nordine, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    Containerless melting and solidification provides a powerful tool for investigation and synthesis of ceramic and glass materials. The work described in this article explored and extended the limits of ground-based experimentation by using aero-acoustic and aerodynamic levitation in combination with laser beam heating and melting to investigate ceramic and glass processing. Results of liquid-phase processing experiments on calcia-gallia and calcia-gallia-silica glass-forming mixtures, aluminum oxide, and ceramic superconductors are summarized. The work is discussed in the context of low gravity experimental and materials synthesis requirements and opportunities.

  3. Liquid-Phase Processing of Barium Titanate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David Thomas

    Processing of thin films introduces strict limits on the thermal budget due to substrate stability and thermal expansion mismatch stresses. Barium titanate serves as a model system for the difficulty in producing high quality thin films because of sensitivity to stress, scale, and crystal quality. Thermal budget restriction leads to reduced crystal quality, density, and grain growth, depressing ferroelectric and nonlinear dielectric properties. Processing of barium titanate is typically performed at temperatures hundreds of degrees above compatibility with metalized substrates. In particular integration with silicon and other low thermal expansion substrates is desirable for reductions in costs and wider availability of technologies. In bulk metal and ceramic systems, sintering behavior has been encouraged by the addition of a liquid forming second phase, improving kinetics and promoting densification and grain growth at lower temperatures. This approach is also widespread in the multilayer ceramic capacitor industry. However only limited exploration of flux processing with refractory thin films has been performed despite offering improved dielectric properties for barium titanate films at lower temperatures. This dissertation explores physical vapor deposition of barium titanate thin films with addition of liquid forming fluxes. Flux systems studied include BaO-B2O3, Bi2O3-BaB2O 4, BaO-V2O5, CuO-BaO-B2O3, and BaO-B2O3 modified by Al, Si, V, and Li. Additions of BaO-B2O3 leads to densification and an increase in average grain size from 50 nm to over 300 nm after annealing at 900 °C. The ability to tune permittivity of the material improved from 20% to 70%. Development of high quality films enables engineering of ferroelectric phase stability using residual thermal expansion mismatch in polycrystalline films. The observed shifts to TC match thermodynamic calculations, expected strain from the thermal expansion coefficients, as well as x-ray diffract measurements

  4. Dynamic phase coexistence in glass-forming liquids.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Raffaele; Coniglio, Antonio; Ciamarra, Massimo Pica

    2015-07-09

    One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the heterogeneous dynamics of glasses postulates the temporary coexistence of two phases characterized by a high and by a low diffusivity. In this scenario, two phases with different diffusivities coexist for a time of the order of the relaxation time and mix afterwards. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure the single-particle diffusivities to test this hypothesis. Indeed, although the non-Gaussian shape of the van-Hove distribution suggests the transient existence of a diffusivity distribution, it is not possible to infer from this quantity whether two or more dynamical phases coexist. Here we provide the first direct observation of the dynamical coexistence of two phases with different diffusivities, by showing that in the deeply supercooled regime the distribution of the single-particle diffusivities acquires a transient bimodal shape. We relate this distribution to the heterogeneity of the dynamics and to the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation, and we show that the coexistence of two dynamical phases occurs up to a timescale growing faster than the relaxation time on cooling, for some of the considered models. Our work offers a basis for rationalizing the dynamics of supercooled liquids and for relating their structural and dynamical properties.

  5. Espresso coffee foam delays cooling of the liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Arii, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Kaho

    2017-04-01

    Espresso coffee foam, called crema, is known to be a marker of the quality of espresso coffee extraction. However, the role of foam in coffee temperature has not been quantitatively clarified. In this study, we used an automatic machine for espresso coffee extraction. We evaluated whether the foam prepared using the machine was suitable for foam analysis. After extraction, the percentage and consistency of the foam were measured using various techniques, and changes in the foam volume were tracked over time. Our extraction method, therefore, allowed consistent preparation of high-quality foam. We also quantitatively determined that the foam phase slowed cooling of the liquid phase after extraction. High-quality foam plays an important role in delaying the cooling of espresso coffee.

  6. Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2015-05-07

    We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.

  7. Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: Imaging at the Nanometer Scale

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Lundt, Nils; You, Yuan; Bertram, Allan K.; Leone, Stephen R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2015-04-21

    Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micron sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), a, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS with apparent core-shell particle morphology were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RH’s above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the shell. The shell composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 50:50% organic to inorganic mix in the shell. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in-situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles.

  8. Dual-period tunable phase grating using polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Xing, Yufei; Li, Qing

    2015-10-01

    Dual-period tunable phase grating using polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal is demonstrated by controlling its driving scheme. High efficiencies of 35.3% for the small-period phase grating and 28.7% for the large-period phase grating have been achieved because of the rectangular-like phase profile which shows good agreement with the simulation results. The diffraction angle can be alternatively tuned, as well as the diffraction efficiency. Moreover, this device also possesses polarization independency and fast response with a rise time of 826 μs and a decay time of 1.143 ms which shows great potential for diffractive optics.

  9. Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Jau, Hung-Chang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-02-01

    This work demonstrates a polymer-stabilized blue phase (PSBP) liquid crystal phase grating, which is made of hybrid PSBPs with two different Kerr constants. The Kerr constant of a PSBP is related to the morphology of the polymer network which can be controlled by the phase separation temperature. Owing to the non-patterned electrode and the optical isotropy of the PSBP, the diffraction effect can be completely switched off when the voltage is absent. The diffraction intensity increases when a uniform applied electrical field induces the phase difference in the hybrid PSBP. The phase grating is completely independent of the polarization of the incident light. Furthermore, the response time to switching is in the sub-millisecond range.

  10. Three-phase slug flow in microchips can provide beneficial reaction conditions for enzyme liquid-liquid reactions.

    PubMed

    Cech, Jiří; Přibyl, Michal; Snita, Dalimil

    2013-01-01

    Here, we introduce a solution to low stability of a two-phase slug flow with a chemical reaction occurring at the phase interface in a microfluidic reactor where substantial merging of individual reacting slugs results in the loss of uniformity of the flow. We create a three-phase slug flow by introducing a third fluid phase into the originally two-phase liquid-liquid slug flow, which generates small two-phase liquid slugs separated by gas phase. Introduction of the third phase into our system efficiently prevents merging of slugs and provides beneficial reaction conditions, such as uniform flow pattern along the whole reaction capillary, interfacial area with good reproducibility, and intensive water-oil interface renewal. We tested the three-phase flow on an enzyme hydrolysis of soybean oil and compared the reaction conversion with those from unstable two-phase slug flows. We experimentally confirmed that the three-phase slug flow arrangement provides conversions and pressure drops comparable or even better with two-phase liquid-liquid arrangements.

  11. Experimental investigation of bioethanol liquid phase dehydration using natural clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Samira; Ghobadian, Barat; Omidkhah, Mohammad-Reza; Towfighi, Jafar; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study of bioethanol adsorption on natural Iranian clinoptilolite was carried out. Dynamic breakthrough curves were used to investigate the best adsorption conditions in bioethanol liquid phase. A laboratory setup was designed and fabricated for this purpose. In order to find the best operating conditions, the effect of liquid pressure, temperature and flow rate on breakthrough curves and consequently, maximum ethanol uptake by adsorbent were studied. The effects of different variables on final bioethanol concentration were investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results showed that by working at optimum condition, feed with 96% (v/v) initial ethanol concentration could be purified up to 99.9% (v/v). In addition, the process was modeled using Box-Behnken model and optimum operational conditions to reach 99.9% for final ethanol concentration were found equal to 10.7 °C, 4.9 bar and 8 mL/min for liquid temperature, pressure and flow rate, respectively. Therefore, the selected natural Iranian clinoptilolite was found to be a promising adsorbent material for bioethanol dehydration process.

  12. Experimental investigation of bioethanol liquid phase dehydration using natural clinoptilolite

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Samira; Ghobadian, Barat; Omidkhah, Mohammad-Reza; Towfighi, Jafar; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of bioethanol adsorption on natural Iranian clinoptilolite was carried out. Dynamic breakthrough curves were used to investigate the best adsorption conditions in bioethanol liquid phase. A laboratory setup was designed and fabricated for this purpose. In order to find the best operating conditions, the effect of liquid pressure, temperature and flow rate on breakthrough curves and consequently, maximum ethanol uptake by adsorbent were studied. The effects of different variables on final bioethanol concentration were investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results showed that by working at optimum condition, feed with 96% (v/v) initial ethanol concentration could be purified up to 99.9% (v/v). In addition, the process was modeled using Box–Behnken model and optimum operational conditions to reach 99.9% for final ethanol concentration were found equal to 10.7 °C, 4.9 bar and 8 mL/min for liquid temperature, pressure and flow rate, respectively. Therefore, the selected natural Iranian clinoptilolite was found to be a promising adsorbent material for bioethanol dehydration process. PMID:27222748

  13. Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY N"m A.R. TURNER AND A. WHITE...TO biEPROOU.; AND SELL THIS REPORT Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography A.R...8217/......... .. Availability Cooes Dist Avaiardlo A-i Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  14. Behavior of solute adsorbed at the liquid-liquid interface during solvent extraction with porous-membrane phase separators

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, G.; Xiu-min, T.; Cantwell, F.F.

    1987-01-01

    Porous membranes are used effectively as phase separators in analytical solvent extraction. When the solute involved can be adsorbed at the liquid-liquid interface, it is found that more vigorous agitation of the mixture causes a decrease in concentration of solute in the liquid flowing through the porous membrane. It is shown experimentally for the interfacially adsorbed component methylene blue perchlorate that the distribution isotherm between chloroform and water is the same in stirred and unstirred mixtures. This suggests that the interfacially adsorbed solute remains at the interface and does not enter the bulk liquid phases during the membrane-induced coalescence and phase separation. Hydrodynamic and diffusion rate calculations confirm this conclusion by showing that the residence time of the solute deposited at the liquid-liquid interface near the membrane (0.1 s) is too short for solute to diffuse through the stagnant Nernst diffusion layer.

  15. Surface confined ionic liquid as a stationary phase for HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian; Baker, Gary A; Baker, Sheila N; Colon, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Trimethoxysilane ionosilane derivatives of room temperature ionic liquids based on alkylimidazolium bromides were synthesized for attachment to silica support material. The derivatives 1-methyl-3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)imidazolium bromide and 1-butyl-3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)imidazolium bromide were used to modify the surface of 3 {micro}m diameter silica particles to act as the stationary phase for HPLC. The modified particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopies. The surface modification procedure rendered particles with a surface coverage of 0.84 {micro}mol m{sup -2} for the alkylimidazolium bromide. The ionic liquid moiety was predominantly attached to the silica surface through two siloxane bonds of the ionosilane derivative (63%). Columns packed with the modified silica material were tested under HPLC conditions. Preliminary evaluation of the stationary phase for HPLC was performed using aromatic carboxylic acids as model compounds. The separation mechanism appears to involve multiple interactions including ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and other electrostatic interactions.

  16. Dynamic headspace time-extended helix liquid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Chen, Pai-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da

    2009-05-15

    Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) has been proved to be a fast, inexpensive and effective sample pre-treatment technique for the analyses of pesticides and many other compounds. In this investigation, a new headspace microextraction technique, dynamic headspace time-extended helix liquid-phase microextraction (DHS-TEH-LPME), is presented. In this work, use of a solvent cooling system, permits the temperature of the extraction solvent to be lowered. Lowering the temperature of the extraction solvent not only reduces solvent loss but also extends the feasible extraction time, thereby improving extraction efficiency. Use of a larger volume of the solvent not only extends the feasible extraction time but also, after extraction, leaves a larger volume to be directly injected into the gas chromatography (GC) to increase extraction efficiency and instrument signal. The DHS-TEH-LPME technique was used to extract six organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from 110ml water samples that had been spiked with the analytes at ng/l levels, and stirred for 60min. The proposed method attained enrichments up to 2121 fold. The effects of extraction solvent identity, sample agitation, extraction time, extraction temperature, and salt concentration on extraction performance were also investigated. The method detection limits (MDLs) varied from 0.2 to 25ng/l. The calibration curves were linear for at least 2 orders of magnitude with R(2)>==0.996. Relative recoveries in river water were more than 86%.

  17. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.; Ferreira, Fabio F.; Costa, Fanny N.; Giles, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N1444][NTf2] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N1114][NTf2] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  18. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thamires A; Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C; Ferreira, Fabio F; Costa, Fanny N; Giles, Carlos

    2016-06-14

    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N1444][NTf2] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N1114][NTf2] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  19. Liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with automated movement of the acceptor and the donor phase for the extraction of phenoxyacetic acids prior to liquid chromatography detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Chiang; Melwanki, Mahaveer B; Huang, Shang-Da

    2006-02-03

    A simple liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with automated movement of the acceptor and the donor phase (LLLME/AMADP) technique is described for the quantitative determination of five phenoxyacetic acids in water using a disposable and ready to use hollow fiber. The target compounds were extracted from the acidified sample solution (donor phase) into the organic solvent residing in the pores of the hollow fiber and then back extracted into the alkaline solution (acceptor phase) inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The fiber was held by a conventional 10-microl syringe. The acceptor phase was sandwiched between the plunger and a small volume of the organic solvent (microcap). The acceptor solution was repeatedly moved in and out of the hollow fiber assisted by a programmable syringe pump. This repeated movement provides a fresh acceptor phase to come in-contact with the organic phase and thus enhancing extraction kinetics leading to high enrichment of the analytes. The microcap separates the aqueous acceptor phase and the donor phase in addition of being partially responsible for mass transfer of the analytes from donor solution (moving in and out of the hollow fiber from the open end of the fiber) to the acceptor solution. Separation and quantitative analyses were then performed using liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 280 nm. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency viz. type of organic solvent used for immobilization in the pores of the hollow fiber, extraction time, stirring speed, effect of sodium chloride, and concentration of donor and acceptor phases were studied. Repeatability (RSD, 3.2-7.4%), correlation coefficient (0.996-0.999), detection limit (0.2-2.8 ng ml(-1)) and enrichment factors (129-240) were also investigated. Relative recovery (87-101%) and absolute recoveries (4.6-13%) have also been calculated. The developed method was applied for the analysis of river water.

  20. The ionic liquid isopropylammonium formate as a mobile phase modifier to improve protein stability during reversed phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Danielson, Neil D

    2013-12-01

    The room temperature ionic liquid isopropylammonium formate (IPAF) is studied as a reversed phase HPLC mobile phase modifier for separation of native proteins using a polymeric column and the protein stability is compared to that using acetonitrile (MeCN) as the standard organic mobile phase modifier. A variety of important proteins with different numbers of subunits are investigated, including non-subunit proteins: albumin, and amyloglucosidase (AMY); a two subunit protein: thyroglobulin (THY); and four subunit proteins: glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A significant enhancement in protein stability is observed in the chromatograms upon using IPAF as a mobile phase modifier. The first sharper peak at about 2min represented protein in primarily the native form and a second broader peak more retained at about 5-6min represented substantially denatured or possibly aggregated protein. The investigated proteins (except LDH) could maintain the native form within up to 50% IPAF, while a mobile phase, with as low as 10% MeCN, induced protein denaturation. The assay for pyruvate using LDH has further shown that enzymatic activity can be maintained up to 30% IPAF in water in contrast to no activity using 30% MeCN.

  1. Liquid crystal gratings from nematic to blue phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan-qing; Hu, Wei; Lin, Xiao-wen; Srivastava, Abhishek; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.

    2012-10-01

    Some of our recent progress on liquid crystal (LC) gratings, from nematic to blue phase, is reviewed in this invited talk. The first kind of grating is fabricated by periodically adjusting the LC directors to form alternate micro phase retarders and polarization rotators in a cell placed between crossed polarizers. The second one is demonstrated by means of photoalignment technique with alternate orthogonal homogeneously-aligned domains. To improve the response time of the gratings, several approaches are also proposed by using dual-frequency addressed nematic LC, ferroelectric LC and blue phase LC, which shows great performance including high transmittance, polarization independency and submillisecond response. At last, to obtain other controllable LC microstructures rather than simple 1D/2D gratings, we develop a micro-lithography system with a digital micro-mirror device as dynamic mask forms. It may instantly generate arbitrary micro-images on photoalignment layers and further guides the LC molecule orientations. Besides normal phase gratings, more complex patterns such as quasicrystal structures are demonstrated. Some new applications such as tunable multiport optical switching and vector beam generations are expected.

  2. Biodegradation of naphthalene from nonaqueous-phase liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.; Ramaswami, A.

    1995-12-31

    Dissolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a non-aqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) to the aqueous phase renders these compounds bioavailable to microorganisms. Subsequent biodegradation of organic phase PAH then results in a depletion of PAH from the NAPL. This study focuses on identifying the rate-controlling processes affecting naphthalene biomineralization from a complex multicomponent NAPL, coal tar, and a simple two-component NAPL. A simplified dissolution degradation model is presented to identify quantitative criteria to assess whether mass transfer or biokinetic limitations control the overall rate of biotransformation of PAH compounds. Results show that the rate of mass transfer may control the overall rate of biotransformation in certain systems. Mass transfer does not limit biodegradation in slurry systems when coal tar is distributed in the micropores of a large number of small microporous silica particles. The end points of naphthalene degradation from the NAPLs have been evaluated, and results suggest that depletion of a significant mass of naphthalene from the NAPL phase is possible.

  3. Phase-Shifting Liquid Crystal Point-Diffraction Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon W.; Marshall, Kenneth L.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2000-01-01

    , the limited spatial resolution and the methods required for data reduction suggest that a more useful instrument needs to be developed. The category of interferometers known as common path interferometers can eliminate much of the vibration sensitivity associated with traditional interferometry as described above. In these devices, division of the amplitude of the wavefront following the test section produces the reference beam. Examples of these instruments include shearing and point diffraction interferometers. In the latter case, shown schematically, a lens focuses light passing through the test section onto a small diffracting object. Such objects are typically either a circle of material on a high quality glass plate or a small sphere in a glass cell. The size of the focused spot is several times larger than the object so that the light not intercepted by the diffracting object forms the test beam while the diffracted light generates a spherical reference beam. While this configuration is mechanically stable, phase shifting one beam with respect to the other is difficult due to the common path. Phase shifting enables extremely accurate measurements of the phase of the interferogram using only gray scale intensity measurements and is the de facto standard of industry. Mercer and Creath 2 demonstrated phase shifting in a point diffraction interferometer using a spherical spacer in a liquid crystal cell as the diffracting object. By changing the voltage across the cell, they were able to shift the phase of the undiffracted beam relative to the reference beam generated by diffraction from the sphere. While they applied this technology to fluid measurements, the device shifted phase so slowly that it was not useful for studying transient phenomena. We have identified several technical problems that precluded operation of the device at video frame rates and intend to solve them to produce a phase-shifting liquid crystal point-diffraction interferometer operating at

  4. Morphology and crystal phase evolution of GeO 2 in liquid phase deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Chengbin; Sun, Wei; Wang, Wei; Li, Yi; Chu, Junhao

    2012-01-01

    Morphology and crystal phase evolution of GeO 2 in liquid phase deposition (LPD) process is investigated. Rod-like solid phases precipitate out of solution ahead of truncated cube-like phases. SEM, XRD and TEM analyses reveal that the two sorts of solid phases are tetragonal GeO 2 and hexagonal GeO 2, respectively. The tetragonal GeO 2 phases start to experience a re-dissolving process as soon as the hexagonal phases come into being. The prior precipitation of the rod-like phase arises from a relatively low solute saturation of tetragonal GeO 2. Fast growth of a tetragonal GeO 2 phase along [111] direction leads to development of a rod-like shape. The re-dissolving phenomenon does not agree with the classic growth kinetics of crystals but is strongly favored by our calculations based on thermodynamics. The GeO 2 solutes are released in a fluctuant way by germanate ions, which promotes the occurrence of the re-dissolution phenomenon. The current researches open a door for room-temperature LPD growth of not only the hexagonal GeO 2 particles and film but also the one-dimensional tetragonal GeO 2 product.

  5. Comparison of electrical and optical characteristics in gas-phase and gas-liquid phase discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazi, H. I. A.; Nie, Qiu-Yue; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Bao, Cheng-Yu

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an AC-excited argon discharge generated using a gas-liquid (two-phase) hybrid plasma reactor, which mainly consists of a powered needle electrode enclosed in a conical quartz tube and grounded deionized water electrode. The discharges in the gas-phase, as well as in the two-phase, exhibit two discharge modes, i.e., the low current glow-like diffuse mode and the high current streamer-like constrict mode, with a mode transition, which exhibits a negative resistance of the discharges. The optical emission spectral analysis shows that the stronger diffusion of the water vapor into the discharge region in the two-phase discharges boosts up the generation of OH (A-X) radicals, and consequently, leads to a higher rotational temperature in the water-phase plasma plume than that of the gas-phase discharges. Both the increase of the power input and the decrease of the argon flow rate result in the increase of the rotational temperature in the plasma plume of the water-phase discharge. The stable two-phase discharges with a long plasma plume in the water-phase under a low power input and gas flow rate may show a promising prospect for the degradation of organic pollutants, e.g., printing and dyeing wastewater, in the field of environmental protection.

  6. Comparison of electrical and optical characteristics in gas-phase and gas-liquid phase discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Qazi, H. I. A.; Li, He-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Bao, Cheng-Yu; Nie, Qiu-Yue

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents an AC-excited argon discharge generated using a gas-liquid (two-phase) hybrid plasma reactor, which mainly consists of a powered needle electrode enclosed in a conical quartz tube and grounded deionized water electrode. The discharges in the gas-phase, as well as in the two-phase, exhibit two discharge modes, i.e., the low current glow-like diffuse mode and the high current streamer-like constrict mode, with a mode transition, which exhibits a negative resistance of the discharges. The optical emission spectral analysis shows that the stronger diffusion of the water vapor into the discharge region in the two-phase discharges boosts up the generation of OH (A–X) radicals, and consequently, leads to a higher rotational temperature in the water-phase plasma plume than that of the gas-phase discharges. Both the increase of the power input and the decrease of the argon flow rate result in the increase of the rotational temperature in the plasma plume of the water-phase discharge. The stable two-phase discharges with a long plasma plume in the water-phase under a low power input and gas flow rate may show a promising prospect for the degradation of organic pollutants, e.g., printing and dyeing wastewater, in the field of environmental protection.

  7. Kinetics of diffusional droplet growth in a liquid/liquid two-phase system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glickman, M. E.; Fradkov, V. E.

    1995-01-01

    A new powerful experimental technique based on holographic observations, developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, now permits observation of small liquid droplets coarsening. This technique was developed and used for mixed-dimensional coarsening studies. Experiments were conducted on an isopycnic two-phase alloy of succinonitrile and water, annealed isothermally over a four-month period. The succinonitrile-rich droplets precipitate from a water-rich liquid matrix having a density very close to that of the droplets. The matrix and droplets, however, have different optical indices. The results of these experiments, along with the results of computer simulation based on the quasi-static diffusion approximation developed at Rensselaer are reported. These results were published recently. Copies of these papers are attached to this report.

  8. Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria and Interactions between Droplets in Water-in-Oil Microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tianxiang; Wang, Mingjie; Tao, Xiaoyi; Shen, Weiguo

    2016-12-20

    The liquid-liquid phase equilibria of [water/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-decane] with the molar ratio w0 of water to AOT being 37.9 and [water/AOT/ethoxylated-2,5,8,11-tetramethyl-6-dodecyne-5,8-diol(Dynol-604)/n-decane] with w0 = 37.9 and the mole fraction α of Dynol-604 in the total surfactants being 0.158 were measured in this study. From the data collected in the critical region, the critical exponent β corresponding to the width of the coexistence curve was determined, which showed good agreement with the 3D-Ising value. A thermodynamic approach based on the Carnahan-Starling-van der Waals type equation was proposed to describe the coexistence curves and to deduce the interaction properties between droplets in the microemulsions. The interaction enthalpies were found to be positive for the studied systems, which evidenced that the entropy effect dominated the phase separations as the temperature increased. The addition of Dynol-604 into the (water/AOT/n-decane) microemulsion resulted in the decrease in the critical temperature and the interaction enthalpy. Combining the liquid-liquid equilibrium data for (water/AOT/n-decane) microemulsions with various w0 values determined previously, it was shown that the interaction enthalpy decreased with w0 and tended to change its sign at low w0, which coincided with the results from the isothermal titration calorimetry investigation. All of these behaviors were interpreted by the effects of entropy and enthalpy and their competition, which resulted from the release of solvent molecules entrapped in the interface of microemulsion droplets and were dependent on the rigidity of the surfactant layers and the size of the droplet.

  9. How to separate ionic liquids: use of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mixed mode phases.

    PubMed

    Lamouroux, C; Foglia, G; Le Rouzo, G

    2011-05-20

    This chromatographic study deals with the development of a convenient and versatile method to separate Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Different modes of chromatography were studied. The study attempts to answer the following question: "what were the most important interactions for the separation of ionic liquids?". The results show that the essential interactions to assure a good retention of RTILs are the ionic ones and that hydrophobic interactions play a role in the selectivity of the separation. The separation of five imidazolium salt with a traditional diol columns in Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) was demonstrated. It shows that neutral diol grafted column allows an important retention that we assume is due to the capability of diol to develop a thick layer of water. Furthermore, stationary phase based on mixed interaction associating ion exchange and hydrophobic properties were studied. Firstly, it will be argued that it is possible to separate RTILs with a convenient retention and resolution according to a reverse phase elution with the Primesep columns made of a brush type long alkyl chain with an embedded negatively charged functional group. Secondly, a sucessful separation of RTILs in HILIC mode with a mixed phase column containing a cationic exchanger and a hydrophobic octyl chain length will be demonstrated.

  10. Method for forming single phase, single crystalline 2122 BCSCO superconductor thin films by liquid phase epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Raghvendra K. (Inventor); Raina, Kanwal (Inventor); Solayappan, Narayanan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A substantially single phase, single crystalline, highly epitaxial film of Bi.sub.2 CaSr.sub.2 Cu.sub.2 O.sub.8 superconductor which has a T.sub.c (zero resistance) of 83 K is provided on a lattice-matched substrate with no intergrowth. This film is produced by a Liquid Phase Epitaxy method which includes the steps of forming a dilute supercooled molten solution of a single phase superconducting mixture of oxides of Bi, Ca, Sr, and Cu having an atomic ratio of about 2:1:2:2 in a nonreactive flux such as KCl, introducing the substrate, e.g., NdGaO.sub.3, into the molten solution at 850.degree. C., cooling the solution from 850.degree. C. to 830.degree. C. to grow the film and rapidly cooling the substrate to room temperature to maintain the desired single phase, single crystalline film structure.

  11. Diffraction based phase compensation method for phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices in operation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zichen; Yang, Haining; Robertson, Brian; Redmond, Maura; Pivnenko, Mike; Collings, Neil; Crossland, William A; Chu, Daping

    2012-06-10

    A method to measure the optical response across the surface of a phase-only liquid crystal on silicon device using binary phase gratings is described together with a procedure to compensate its spatial optical phase variation. As a result, the residual power between zero and the minima of the first diffraction order for a binary grating can be reduced by more than 10 dB, from -15.98 dB to -26.29 dB. This phase compensation method is also shown to be useful in nonbinary cases. A reduction in the worst crosstalk by 5.32 dB can be achieved when quantized blazed gratings are used.

  12. Magnetic liquid metal two-phase flow research. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.D.

    1983-04-01

    The Phase I research demonstrates the feasibility of the magnetic liquid metal (MLM) two-phase flow concept. A dispersion analysis is presented based on a complete set of two-phase-flow equations augmented to include stresses due to magnetic polarization of the fluid. The analysis shows that the stability of the MLM two-phase flow is determined by the magnetic Mach number, the slip ratio, geometry of the flow relative to the applied magnetic field, and by the voidage dependence of the interfacial forces. Results of a set of experiments concerned with magnetic effects on the dynamics of single bubble motion in an aqueous-based, viscous, conducting magnetic fluid are presented. Predictions in the theoretical literature are qualitatively verified using a bench-top experimental apparatus. In particular, applied magnetic fields are seen to lead to reduced bubble size at fixed generating orifice pressure.

  13. Thickness Mismatch of Coexisting Liquid Phases in Non-Canonical Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Bleecker, Joan V.; Cox, Phillip A.; Foster, Rami N.; Litz, Jonathan P.; Blosser, Matthew C.; Castner, David G.; Keller, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid composition dictates membrane thickness, which in turn can influence membrane protein activity. Lipid composition also determines whether a membrane demixes into coexisting liquid-crystalline phases. Previous direct measurements of demixed lipid membranes have always found a liquid-ordered phase that is thicker than the liquid-disordered phase. Here we investigated non-canonical ternary lipid mixtures designed to produce bilayers with thicker disordered phases than ordered phases. The membranes were comprised of short, saturated (ordered) lipids; long, unsaturated (disordered) lipids; and cholesterol. We found that few of these systems yield coexisting liquid phases above 10 °C. For membranes that do demix into two liquid phases, we measured the thickness mismatch between the phases by atomic force microscopy and found that not one of the systems yields thicker disordered than ordered phases under standard experimental conditions. We found no monotonic relationship between demixing temperatures of these ternary systems and either estimated thickness mismatches between the liquid phases or the physical parameters of single-component membranes comprised of the individual lipids. These results highlight the robustness of a membrane’s liquid-ordered phase to be thicker than the liquid-disordered phase, regardless of the membrane’s lipid composition. PMID:26890258

  14. Two-phase and three-phase liquid-phase microextraction of hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Panahi, Homayon; Ejlali, Maryam; Chabouk, Monireh

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the applicability of two-phase and three-phase hollow fiber based liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) for the extraction of hydrochlorothiazide (HYD) and triamterene (TRM) from human urine. The HYD in two-phase HF-LPME is extracted from 24 mL of the aqueous sample into an organic phase with microliter volume located inside the pores and lumen of a polypropylene hollow fiber as acceptor phase, but the TRM in three-phase HF-LPME is extracted from aqueous donor phase to organic phase and then back-extracted to the aqueous acceptor phase, which can be directly injected into HPLC for analysis. Under optimized conditions preconcentration factors of HYD and TRM were obtained as 128 and 239, respectively. The calibration curves were linear (R(2)  ≥ 0.995) in the concentration range of 1.0-100 µg/L for HYD and 2.0-100 µg/L for TRM. The limits of detection for HYD and TRM were 0.5 µg/L. The intra-day and inter-day RSD based on four replicates were obtained as ≤5.8 and ≤9.3%, respectively. The methods were successfully applied for determining the concentration of the drugs in urine samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A phase-stepped point diffraction interferometer using liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Creath, Katherine; Rashidnia, Nasser

    1995-01-01

    A new instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), has been developed for the measurement of phase objects. This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linnik's point diffraction interferometer (PDI) and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wavefronts with high data density and with automated data reduction. The design of the LCPDI is briefly discussed. An algorithm is presented for eliminating phase measurement error caused by object beam intensity variation from frame-to-frame. The LCPDI is demonstrated by measuring the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. The measured results are compared to independently measured results and show excellent agreement with them. It is expected that this instrument will have application in the fluid sciences as a diagnostic tool, particularly in space based applications where autonomy, robustness, and compactness are desirable qualities. It should also be useful for the testing of optical elements, provided a master is available for comparison.

  16. Metabolism of Cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid by Alcaligenes Strain W1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, David G.; Trudgill, Peter W.

    1978-01-01

    Thirty-three microorganisms capable of growth with cyclohexane carboxylate as the sole source of carbon were isolated from mud, water, and soil samples from the Aberystwyth area. Preliminary screening and whole-cell oxidation studies suggested that, with one exception, all of the strains metabolized the growth substrate by beta-oxidation of the coenzyme A ester. This single distinctive strain, able to oxidize rapidly trans-4-hydroxycyclohexane carboxylate, 4-ketocyclohexane carboxylate, p-hydroxybenzoate, and protocatechuate when grown with cyclohexane carboxylate, was classified as a strain of Alcaligenes and given the number W1. Enzymes capable of converting cyclohexane carboxylate to p-hydroxybenzoate were induced by growth with the alicyclic acid and included the first unambiguous specimen of a cyclohexane carboxylate hydroxylase. Because it is a very fragile protein, attempts to stabilize the cyclohexane carboxylate hydroxylase so that a purification procedure could be developed have consistently failed. In limited studies with crude cell extracts, we found that hydroxylation occurred at the 4 position, probably yielding the trans isomer of 4-hydroxycyclohexane carboxylate. Simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidation, coupled with an assessment of reactant stoichiometry, showed the enzyme to be a mixed-function oxygenase. Mass spectral analysis enabled the conversion of cyclohexane carboxylate to p-hydroxybenzoate by cell extracts to be established unequivocally, and all of our data were consistent with the pathway: cyclohexane carboxylate → trans-4-hydroxycyclohexane carboxylate → 4-ketocyclohexane carboxylate → p-hydroxybenzoate. The further metabolism of p-hydroxybenzoate proceeded by meta fission and by the oxidative branch of the 2-hydroxy-4-carboxymuconic semialde-hyde-cleaving pathway. PMID:207665

  17. Relative hydrophobicity between the phases and partition of cytochrome-c in glycine ionic liquids aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changzeng; Wang, Jianji; Li, Zhiyong; Jing, Jun; Wang, Huiyong

    2013-08-30

    In this work, glycine ionic liquids tetramethylammonium glycine ([N1111][Gly]), tetraethylammonium glycine ([N2222][Gly]), tetra-n-butylammonium glycine ([N4444][Gly]), tetra-n-butylphosphonium glycine ([P4444][Gly]) and tetra-n-pentylammonium glycine ([N5555][Gly]) were synthesized and used to prepare aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) in the presence of K2HPO4. Binodal curves of such ATPSs and partition coefficients of a series of dinitrophenylated (DNP) amino acids in these ATPSs were determined at 298.15K to understand the effect of cationic structure of the ionic liquids on the phase-forming ability of glycine ionic liquids, relative hydrophobicity between the phases in the ionic liquids ATPSs, and polarity of the ionic liquids-rich phases. With the attempt to correlate the relative hydrophobicity of the phases in the ATPSs with their extraction capability for proteins, partition coefficients of cytochrome-c in the ATPSs were also determined. It was shown that partition coefficients of cytochrome-c were in the range from 2.83 to 20.7 under the studied pH conditions. Then, hydrophobic interactions between cytochrome-c and the ionic liquid are suggested to be the main driving force for the preferential partition of cytochrome-c in the glycine ionic liquid-rich phases of the ATPSs. Result derived from polarity of the ionic liquids-rich phases supports this mechanism.

  18. Toward the observation of a liquid-liquid phase transition in patchy origami tetrahedra: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Ciarella, Simone; Gang, Oleg; Sciortino, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    We evaluate the phase diagram of a model of tetrameric particles where the arms of the tetrahedra are made by six hard cylinders. An interacting site is present on each one of the four vertices allowing the particles to form a bonded network. These model particles provide a coarse-grained but realistic representation of recently synthesised DNA origami tetrahedra. We show that the resulting network is sufficiently empty to allow for partial interpenetration and it is sufficiently flexible to avoid crystallisation (at least on the numerical time scale), satisfying both criteria requested for the observation of a liquid-liquid critical point in tetrahedrally coordinated particles. Grand-canonical simulations provide evidence that, in silico, the model is indeed characterised, in addition to the gas-liquid transition, by a transition between two distinct liquid phases. Our results suggest that an experimental observation of a liquid-liquid transition in a colloidal system can be achieved in the near future.

  19. Fluoride waveguide lasers grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starecki, Florent; Bolaños, Western; Brasse, Gurvan; Benayad, Abdelmjid; Doualan, Jean-Louis; Braud, Alain; Moncorgé, Richard; Camy, Patrice

    2013-03-01

    High optical quality rare-earth-doped LiYF4 (YLF) epitaxial layers were grown on pure YLF substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Thulium, praseodymium and ytterbium YLF crystalline waveguides co-doped with gadolinium and/or lutetium were obtained. Spectroscopic and optical characterization of these rare-earth doped waveguides are reported. Internal propagation losses as low as 0.11 dB/cm were measured on the Tm:YLF waveguide and the overall spectroscopic characteristics of the epitaxial layers were found to be comparable to bulk crystals. Laser operation was achieved at 1.87 μm in the Tm3+ doped YLF planar waveguide with a very good efficiency of 76% with respect to the pump power. Lasing was also demonstrated in a Pr3+ doped YLF waveguide in the red and orange regions and in a Yb3+:YLF planar waveguide at 1020 nm and 994 nm.

  20. Liquid-phase oxidation of cyclohexanone over cerium oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, H.C. ); Weng, H.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Catalytic oxidation of cyclohexanone in the liquid phase with glacial acetic acid as the solvent over cerium oxide was studied between 5 and 15 atm and 98 and 118 {degrees} C in a batch reactor. The products were adipic acid, glutaric acid, succinic acid, caprolactone, carbon oxides, etc. The reaction undergoes a short induction period prior to a rapid reaction regime. In both regimes, the reaction is independent of oxygen pressure when the system pressure is above 10 atm. The induction period is inversely proportional to both of the catalyst weight and cyclohexanone concentration.During the rapid reaction regime, the reaction rate was found to be proportional to the 0.5 power of the catalyst weight and to the 1.5 power of the cyclohexanone concentration. Reaction mechanisms and rate expressions are proposed. The carbon oxides produced in this study were much lower than those previously reported. The cerium oxide catalyst is stable during the reaction.

  1. Acoustic levitation of liquid drops: Dynamics, manipulation and phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Zang, Duyang; Yu, Yinkai; Chen, Zhen; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Hongjing; Geng, Xingguo

    2017-03-18

    The technique of acoustic levitation normally produces a standing wave and the potential well of the sound field can be used to trap small objects. Since no solid surface is involved it has been widely applied for the study of fluid physics, nucleation, bio/chemical processes, and various forms of soft matter. In this article, we survey the works on drop dynamics in acoustic levitation, focus on how the dynamic behavior is related to the rheological properties and discuss the possibility to develop a novel rheometer based on this technique. We review the methods and applications of acoustic levitation for the manipulation of both liquid and solid samples and emphasize the important progress made in the study of phase transitions and bio-chemical analysis. We also highlight the possible open areas for future research.

  2. Transient liquid-phase bonding of ODS steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noto, H.; Ukai, S.; Hayashi, S.

    2011-10-01

    The use of transient liquid-phase bonding of 9CrODS steels using Fe-3B-2Si-0.5C filler was investigated for bonding temperature of 1180 °C and hold times of 0.5-4.0 h. The sequential process, consisting of isothermal melting, solidification and homogenization, was confirmed for bonding the 9CrODS steel. The precipitation of chromium boride found in 19CrODS steel is avoided in 9CrODS steel due to the lower Cr content. Silicon tends to be slightly enriched inside the bonding zone. Agglomeration and coarsening of Y 2O 3 particles in 9CrODS steel lead to softening inside the bonding zone formed by incipient melting of the foil bonding alloy, and in a diffusion affected zone (DAZ) adjacent to the bonding zone.

  3. Phase diagrams of orientational transitions in absorbing nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolot'ko, A. S.; Ochkin, V. N.; Smayev, M. P.; Shvetsov, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    A theory of orientational transitions in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), which employs the expansion of optical torques acting on the NLC director with respect to the rotation angle, has been developed for NLCs with additives of conformationally active compounds under the action of optical and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Phase diagrams of NLCs are constructed as a function of the intensity and polarization of the light field, the strength of low-frequency electric field, and a parameter that characterizes the feedback between the rotation of the NLC director and optical torque. Conditions for the occurrence of first- and second-order transitions are determined. The proposed theory agrees with available experimental data.

  4. Phase diagrams of orientational transitions in absorbing nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zolot’ko, A. S. Ochkin, V. N.; Smayev, M. P.; Shvetsov, S. A.

    2015-05-15

    A theory of orientational transitions in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), which employs the expansion of optical torques acting on the NLC director with respect to the rotation angle, has been developed for NLCs with additives of conformationally active compounds under the action of optical and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Phase diagrams of NLCs are constructed as a function of the intensity and polarization of the light field, the strength of low-frequency electric field, and a parameter that characterizes the feedback between the rotation of the NLC director and optical torque. Conditions for the occurrence of first- and second-order transitions are determined. The proposed theory agrees with available experimental data.

  5. Liquid disordered-liquid ordered phase coexistence in bicelles containing unsaturated lipids and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Miranda L; Davis, James H

    2016-04-01

    Magnetically orienting bicelles are often made by combining the long chain phospholipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) with the short chain phospholipid 1,2-dicaproyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC) in buffer. These bicelles orient with their bilayer normals perpendicular to the external magnetic field. We have examined the phase behaviour of DMPC/DCPC bicelles and the effects of cholesterol and the unsaturated phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPoPC) as a function of temperature using static solid state (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As expected, cholesterol has an ordering effect on the long phospholipid chains and this is reflected in the phase behaviour of the bicelle mixtures. Liquid disordered-liquid ordered, fluid-fluid phase coexistence is observed in DMPC/cholesterol/DCPC bicelles with cholesterol mole fractions of 0.13 and higher. DPoPC/DMPC/cholesterol/DCPC bicelles also exhibit two fluid phase coexistence over a broad range of temperatures and compositions. Bicelles can provide a useful medium in which to study membrane bound peptides and proteins. The orientation parallel to the magnetic field is favourable for studying membrane peptides/proteins because information about the orientation of relevant molecular bonds or internuclear vectors can be obtained directly from the resulting (2)H spectra. Lanthanide ions can be used to flip the bicelles to have their bilayer normals parallel to the external magnetic field. Yb(3+) was used to flip the DPoPC/DMPC/cholesterol/DCPC bicelles while Eu(3+) was found to be ineffective at flipping bicelles containing cholesterol in the present work.

  6. Non-aqueous phase liquid spreading during soil vaporextraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Hunt, James R.

    2000-06-27

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are expected to spread at the air-water interface, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. In the vadose zone, this spreading should increase the surface area for mass transfer and the efficiency of volatile NAPL recovery by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Observations of spreading on water wet surfaces led to a conceptual model of oil spreading vertically above a NAPL pool in the vadose zone. Analysis of this model predicts that spreading can enhance the SVE contaminant recovery compared to conditions where the liquid does not spread. Experiments were conducted with spreading volatile oils hexane and heptane in wet porous media and capillary tubes, where spreading was observed at the scale of centimeters. Within porous medium columns up to a meter in height containing stagnant gas, spreading was less than ten centimeters and did not contribute significantly to hexane volatilization. Water film thinning and oil film pinning may have prevented significant oil film spreading, and thus did not enhance SVE at the scale of a meter. The experiments performed indicate that volatile oil spreading at the field scale is unlikely to contribute significantly to the efficiency of SVE.

  7. Thermal conductivity of alternative refrigerants in the liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yata, J.; Hori, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Minamiyama, T.

    1996-05-01

    Measurements of the thermal conductivity of five alternative refrigerants, namely, difluoromethane (HFC-32), pentafluoroethane (HFC-125), 1,1,1-trifluorethane (HFC-143a), and dichloropentafluoropropanes (HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb), are carried out in the liquid phase. The range of temperature is 253-324 K for HFC-32, 257-305 K for HFC-125, 268-314 K for HFC-134a, 267-325 K for HCF-225ca, and 286-345 K for HCFC-225cb. The pressure range is from saturation to 30 MPa. The reproducibility of the data is better than 0.5%, and the accuracy of the data is estimated to be of the order of 1%. The experimental results for the thermal conductivity of each substance are correlated by an equation which is a function of temperature and pressure. A short discussion is given to the comparison of the present results with literature values for HFC-125. The saturated liquid thermal conductivity values of HFC-32, HFC-125, and HFC-143a are compared with those of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) and tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and it is shown that the value of HFC-32 is highest, while that of HFC-125 is lowest, among these substances. The dependence of thermal conductivity on number of fluorine atoms among the refrigerants with the same number of carbon and hydrogen atoms is discussed.

  8. Non-aqueous phase liquid spreading during soil vapor extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are expected to spread at the air – water interface, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. In the vadose zone, this spreading should increase the surface area for mass transfer and the efficiency of volatile NAPL recovery by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Observations of spreading on water wet surfaces led to a conceptual model of oil spreading vertically above a NAPL pool in the vadose zone. Analysis of this model predicts that spreading can enhance the SVE contaminant recovery compared to conditions where the liquid does not spread. Experiments were conducted with spreading volatile oils hexane and heptane in wet porous media and capillary tubes, where spreading was observed at the scale of centimeters. Within porous medium columns up to a meter in height containing stagnant gas, spreading was less than ten centimeters and did not contribute significantly to hexane volatilization. Water film thinning and oil film pinning may have prevented significant oil film spreading, and thus did not enhance SVE at the scale of a meter. The experiments performed indicate that volatile oil spreading at the field scale is unlikely to contribute significantly to the efficiency of SVE. PMID:14734243

  9. Ionic liquids in solid-phase microextraction: a review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tien D; Canestraro, Anthony J; Anderson, Jared L

    2011-06-10

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has undergone a surge in popularity within the field of analytical chemistry in the past two decades since its introduction. Owing to its nature of extraction, SPME has become widely known as a quick and cost-effective sample preparation technique. Although SPME has demonstrated extraordinary versatility in sampling capabilities, the technique continues to experience a tremendous growth in innovation. Presently, increasing efforts have been directed towards the engineering of novel sorbent material in order to expand the applicability of SPME for a wider range of analytes and matrices. This review highlights the application of ionic liquids (ILs) and polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) as innovative sorbent materials for SPME. Characterized by their unique physico-chemical properties, these compounds can be structurally-designed to selectively extract target analytes based on unique molecular interactions. To examine the advantages of IL and PIL-based sorbent coatings in SPME, the field is reviewed by gathering available experimental data and exploring the sensitivity, linear calibration range, as well as detection limits for a variety of target analytes in the methods that have been developed.

  10. Single Lipid Extraction: The Anchoring Strength of Cholesterol in Liquid-Ordered and Liquid-Disordered Phases

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Frank W.S.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jungwirth, Pavel; Hugel, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is important for the formation of microdomains in supported lipid bilayers and is enriched in the liquid-ordered phase. To understand the interactions leading to this enrichment, we developed an AFM-based single-lipid-extraction (SLX) approach that enables us to determine the anchoring strength of cholesterol in the two phases of a phase-separated lipid membrane. As expected, the forces necessary for extracting a single cholesterol molecule from liquid-ordered phases are significantly higher than for extracting it from the liquid-disordered phases. Interestingly, application of the Bell model shows two energy barriers that correlate with the head and full length of the cholesterol molecule. The resulting lifetimes for complete extraction are 90 s and 11 s in the liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations of the very same experiment show similar force profiles and indicate that the stabilization of cholesterol in the liquid-ordered phase is mainly due to nonpolar contacts. PMID:25185552

  11. Microstructure and phase behavior in colloids and liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Matthew Alan

    This thesis describes our investigation of microstructure and phase behavior in colloids and liquid crystals. The first set of experiments explores the phase behavior of helical packings of thermoresponsive microspheres inside glass capillaries as a function of volume fraction. Stable helical packings are observed with long-range orientational order. Some of these packings evolve abruptly to disordered states as the volume fraction is reduced. We quantify these transitions using correlation functions and susceptibilities of an orientational order parameter. The emergence of coexisting metastable packings, as well as coexisting ordered and disordered states, is also observed. These findings support the notion of phase-transition-like behavior in quasi-one-dimensional systems. The second set of experiments investigates cross-over behavior from glasses with attractive interactions to sparse gel-like states. In particular, the vibrational modes of quasi-two-dimensional disordered colloidal packings of hard colloidal spheres with short-range attractions are measured as a function of packing fraction. A crossover from glassy to sparse gel-like states is indicated by an excess of low-frequency phonon modes. This change in vibrational mode distribution appears to arise from highly localized vibrations that tend to involve individual and/or small clusters of particles with few local bonds. These mode behaviors and corresponding structural insights may serve as a useful signature for glass-gel transitions in wider classes of attractive packings. A third set of experiments explores the director structures of aqueous lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) films created on square lattice cylindrical-micropost substrates. The structures are manipulated by modulating of the concentration-dependent elastic properties of LCLC s via drying. Nematic LCLC films exhibit preferred bistable alignment along the diagonals of the micropost lattice. Columnar LCLC films form two distinct

  12. Dynamic single-interface hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction of Cr(VI) using ionic liquid containing supported liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Pimparu, Rungaroon; Nitiyanontakit, Sira; Miró, Manuel; Varanusupakul, Pakorn

    2016-12-01

    The concept of dynamic single-interface hollow fiber membrane liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), where the target analyte was extracted on-line and eluted inside the lumen of the HF membrane, was explored. An ionic liquid containing supported liquid membrane was used for the trace determination of Cr(VI) as a model compound. Since the extraction took place on-line inside the hollow fiber membrane, the mass transfer behavior was described and discussed in comparison with the conventional HF-LPME. The extraction efficiency was improved by a recirculation configuration of the sample solution at relatively high sampling flow rates as a result of the increased effective contact area. The positive pressure observed to be built up during extraction was overcome by a flow-balancing pressure design. The dynamic single-interface HF-LPME method with an enrichment factor of 41, a detection limit of 1.2µgL(-1) and determination limit of 4.0µgL(-1) was successfully applied to the reliable determination of Cr(VI) from environmental water samples. The quantification limit is below the maximum contaminant level in drinking water, set at 10µgL(-1) of hexavalent chromium by the California Environmental Protection Agency.

  13. Hydrophobic polymer monoliths as novel phase separators: application in continuous liquid-liquid extraction systems.

    PubMed

    Peroni, Daniela; Vanhoutte, Dominique; Vilaplana, Francisco; Schoenmakers, Peter; de Koning, Sjaak; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2012-03-30

    Hydrophobic macroporous polymer monoliths are shown to be interesting materials for the construction of "selective solvent gates". With the appropriate surface chemistry and porous properties the monoliths can be made permeable only for apolar organic solvents and not for water. Different poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (BMA-EDMA) and poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) monoliths prepared with tailored chemistries and porosities were evaluated for this purpose. After extensive characterization, the PS-DVB monoliths were selected due to their higher hydrophobicity and their more suitable flow characteristics. BMA-EDMA monoliths are preferred for mid-polarity solvents such as ethyl acetate, for which they provide efficient separation from water. Breakthrough experiments confirmed that the pressures necessary to generate flow of organic solvents through PS-DVB monoliths were substantially lower than for water. A phase separator was constructed using the monoliths as the flow selector. This device was successfully coupled on-line with a chip-based continuous liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE) system with segmented flow. Efficient separation of different solvents was obtained across a wide range of flow rates (0.5-4.0 mL min(-1)) and aqueous-to-organic flow ratios (β=1-10). Good robustness and long life-time were also confirmed. The suitability of the device to perform simple, cheap, and reliable phase separation in a continuous LLE system prior to gas-chromatographic analysis was proven for some selected real-life applications.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Heparin by Liquid Phase Plasma Method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do-Jin; Kim, Hangun; Kim, Byung Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon; Lee, Heon; Park, Sung Hoon; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2015-08-01

    An liquid phase plasma process system was applied to the production of low molecular weight heparin. The molecular weight of produed heparin decreased with increasing liquid phase plasma treatment time. The abscission of the chemical bonds between the constituents of heparin by liquid phase plasma reaction did not alter the characteristics of heparin. Formation of any by-products due to side reaction was not observed. It is suggested that heparin was depolymerized by active oxygen radicals produced during the liquid phase plasma reaction.

  15. The Influence of Disorder on Thermotropic Nematic Liquid Crystals Phase Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Popa-Nita, Vlad; Gerlič, Ivan; Kralj, Samo

    2009-01-01

    We review the theoretical research on the influence of disorder on structure and phase behavior of condensed matter system exhibiting continuous symmetry breaking focusing on liquid crystal phase transitions. We discuss the main properties of liquid crystals as adequate systems in which several open questions with respect to the impact of disorder on universal phase and structural behavior could be explored. Main advantages of liquid crystalline materials and different experimental realizations of random field-type disorder imposed on liquid crystal phases are described. PMID:19865529

  16. Efficient catalyst removal and recycling in copolymerization of epoxides with carbon dioxide via simple liquid-liquid phase separation.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Koji; Fujie, Ryuhei; Shintani, Ryo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2013-10-18

    A simple and efficient catalyst removal system has been developed in the cobalt-salen-catalyzed copolymerization of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide. The present system requires no prior modification of the catalyst, and the removal is achieved by simple addition of myristic acid, followed by organic liquid-liquid phase separation.

  17. Extensive database of liquid phase diffusion coefficients of some frequently used test molecules in reversed-phase liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Song, Huiying; Vanderheyden, Yoachim; Adams, Erwin; Desmet, Gert; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2016-07-15

    Diffusion plays an important role in all aspects of band broadening in chromatography. An accurate knowledge of molecular diffusion coefficients in different mobile phases is therefore crucial in fundamental column performance studies. Correlations available in literature, such as the Wilke-Chang equation, can provide good approximations of molecular diffusion under reversed-phase conditions. However, these correlations have been demonstrated to be less accurate for mobile phases containing a large percentage of acetonitrile, as is the case in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. A database of experimentally measured molecular diffusion coefficients of some 45 polar and apolar compounds that are frequently used as test molecules under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed-phase conditions is therefore presented. Special attention is given to diffusion coefficients of polar compounds obtained in large percentages of acetonitrile (>90%). The effect of the buffer concentration (5-10mM ammonium acetate) on the obtained diffusion coefficients is investigated and is demonstrated to mainly influence the molecular diffusion of charged molecules. Diffusion coefficients are measured using the Taylor-Aris method and hence deduced from the peak broadening of a solute when flowing through a long open tube. The validity of the set-up employed for the measurement of the diffusion coefficients is demonstrated by ruling out the occurrence of longitudinal diffusion, secondary flow interactions and extra-column effects, while it is also shown that radial equilibration in the 15m long capillary is effective.

  18. Graphene via sonication assisted liquid-phase exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Artur; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-01-07

    Graphene, the 2D form of carbon based material existing as a single layer of atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, has set the science and technology sectors alight with interest in the last decade in view of its astounding electrical and thermal properties, combined with its mechanical stiffness, strength and elasticity. Two distinct strategies have been undertaken for graphene production, i.e. the bottom-up and the top-down. The former relies on the generation of graphene from suitably designed molecular building blocks undergoing chemical reaction to form covalently linked 2D networks. The latter occurs via exfoliation of graphite into graphene. Bottom-up techniques, based on the organic syntheses starting from small molecular modules, when performed in liquid media, are both size limited, because macromolecules become more and more insoluble with increasing size, and suffer from the occurrence of side reactions with increasing molecular weight. Because of these reasons such a synthesis has been performed more and more on a solid (ideally catalytically active) surface. Substrate-based growth of single layers can be done also by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or via reduction of silicon carbide, which unfortunately relies on the ability to follow a narrow thermodynamic path. Top-down approaches can be accomplished under different environmental conditions. Alongside the mechanical cleavage based on the scotch tape approach, liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) methods are becoming more and more interesting because they are extremely versatile, potentially up-scalable, and can be used to deposit graphene in a variety of environments and on different substrates not available using mechanical cleavage or growth methods. Interestingly, LPE can be applied to produce different layered systems exhibiting different compositions such as BN, MoS2, WS2, NbSe2, and TaS2, thereby enabling the tuning of numerous physico-chemical properties of the material. Furthermore, LPE can be

  19. Phase-Shifting Liquid Crystal Point-Diffraction Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon W.; Marshall, Kenneth L.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2000-01-01

    , the limited spatial resolution and the methods required for data reduction suggest that a more useful instrument needs to be developed. The category of interferometers known as common path interferometers can eliminate much of the vibration sensitivity associated with traditional interferometry as described above. In these devices, division of the amplitude of the wavefront following the test section produces the reference beam. Examples of these instruments include shearing and point diffraction interferometers. In the latter case, shown schematically, a lens focuses light passing through the test section onto a small diffracting object. Such objects are typically either a circle of material on a high quality glass plate or a small sphere in a glass cell. The size of the focused spot is several times larger than the object so that the light not intercepted by the diffracting object forms the test beam while the diffracted light generates a spherical reference beam. While this configuration is mechanically stable, phase shifting one beam with respect to the other is difficult due to the common path. Phase shifting enables extremely accurate measurements of the phase of the interferogram using only gray scale intensity measurements and is the de facto standard of industry. Mercer and Creath 2 demonstrated phase shifting in a point diffraction interferometer using a spherical spacer in a liquid crystal cell as the diffracting object. By changing the voltage across the cell, they were able to shift the phase of the undiffracted beam relative to the reference beam generated by diffraction from the sphere. While they applied this technology to fluid measurements, the device shifted phase so slowly that it was not useful for studying transient phenomena. We have identified several technical problems that precluded operation of the device at video frame rates and intend to solve them to produce a phase-shifting liquid crystal point-diffraction interferometer operating at

  20. Liquid-liquid phase separation in atmospheric aerosol particles: dependence on organic functionalities and mixture complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Marcolli, C.; Krieger, U. K.; Zuend, A.; Peter, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the troposphere, aerosol particles undergo phase transitions such as deliquescence and efflorescence during humidity cycles (Marcolli and Krieger, 2006). In addition, interactions between organic and inorganic compounds lead to liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) (Ciobanu et al., 2009). Recent studies on a limited number of model systems have shown that oxygen-to-carbon ratios (O:C) of the organic aerosol fraction might be a good predictor for LLPS in mixed organic/ammonium sulfate (AS) particles (Bertram et al., 2011; Song et al., 2011). However, in order to corroborate this hypothesis experiments with an organic fraction that consists of a higher number of components with different O:C ratios and functional groups are needed. In order to determine the influence of O:C ratio, the specific organic functionalities and the mixture complexity on LLPS, we subjected organic/AS particles deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate to relative humidity (RH) cycles and observed phase changes using optical microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. To determine the influence of mixture complexity, we mixed together up to 10 organic compounds. We also prepared mixtures that were rich in different types of functional groups like polyols, aromatics and dicarboxylic acids which were identified from field measurements. We screened for a miscibility gap by varying the organic-to-inorganic ratio from 2:1 to 1:6. AS in the investigated single particles effloresced at 27 - 50 %RH and deliquesced at 72 - 79 %RH during humidity cycles. The occurrence of LLPS is determined to a high degree by the O:C of the organics: there was no LLPS for mixtures with O:C > 0.8 and there was always LLPS for mixtures with O:C < 0.57. In the range in between, we observed a dependence on the specific functional groups: a high share of aromatic functionalities shifts the range of O:C for which LLPS occurs to lower values. A correlation was also found for the onset RH of LLPS as a function of O

  1. Purification of flavonoids from licorice using an off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Fu, Yanhui; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Mei; Jin, Yu

    2016-07-01

    An orthogonal (71.9%) off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method coupled with effective sample pretreatment was developed for separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. Most of the nonflavonoids were firstly removed using a self-made Click TE-Cys (60 μm) solid-phase extraction. In the first dimension, an industrial grade preparative chromatography was employed to purify the crude flavonoids. Click TE-Cys (10 μm) was selected as the stationary phase that provided an excellent separation with high reproducibility. Ethyl acetate/ethanol was selected as the mobile phase owing to their excellent solubility for flavonoids. Flavonoids co-eluted in the first dimension were selected for further purification using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Multiple compounds could be isolated from one normal-phase fraction and some compounds with bad resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography could be prepared in this two-dimensional system owing to the orthogonal separation. Moreover, this two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was beneficial for the preparation of relatively trace flavonoid compounds, which were enriched in the first dimension and further purified in the second dimension. Totally, 24 flavonoid compounds with high purity were obtained. The results demonstrated that the off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was effective for the preparative separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice.

  2. Liquid-phase syntheses of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkó, Katalin; Manek, Enikő; Meiszterics, Anikó; Havancsák, Károly; Vainio, Ulla; Peterlik, Herwig

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to synthesize cobalt-ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles using various liquid phase methods; sol-gel route, co-precipitation process, and microemulsion technique. The effects of experimental parameters on the particle size, size distribution, morphology, and chemical composition have been studied. The anions of precursors (chloride and nitrate), the solvents (water, n-propanol, ethanol, and benzyl alcohol), the precipitating agent (ammonia, sodium carbonate, and oxalic acid), the surfactants (polydimethylsiloxane, ethyl acetate, citric acid, cethyltrimethylammonium bromide, and sodium dodecil sulfate), their concentrations, and heat treatments were varied in the experiments. The smallest particles (around 40 nm) with narrow polydispersity and spherical shape could be achieved by a simple, fast sol-gel technique in the medium of propanol and ethyl acetate. The size characterization methods have also been investigated. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provide the comparison of methods. The SAXS data correspond with the sizes detected by SEM and differ from DLS data. The crystalline phases, morphology, and chemical composition of the particles with different shapes have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer.

  3. Hyperdoping silicon with selenium: solid vs. liquid phase epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Liu, Fang; Prucnal, S.; Gao, Kun; Khalid, M.; Baehtz, C.; Posselt, M.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.

    2015-01-01

    Chalcogen-hyperdoped silicon shows potential applications in silicon-based infrared photodetectors and intermediate band solar cells. Due to the low solid solubility limits of chalcogen elements in silicon, these materials were previously realized by femtosecond or nanosecond laser annealing of implanted silicon or bare silicon in certain background gases. The high energy density deposited on the silicon surface leads to a liquid phase and the fast recrystallization velocity allows trapping of chalcogen into the silicon matrix. However, this method encounters the problem of surface segregation. In this paper, we propose a solid phase processing by flash-lamp annealing in the millisecond range, which is in between the conventional rapid thermal annealing and pulsed laser annealing. Flash lamp annealed selenium-implanted silicon shows a substitutional fraction of ~ 70% with an implanted concentration up to 2.3%. The resistivity is lower and the carrier mobility is higher than those of nanosecond pulsed laser annealed samples. Our results show that flash-lamp annealing is superior to laser annealing in preventing surface segregation and in allowing scalability. PMID:25660096

  4. Impedance Spectroscopy of Liquid-Phase Sintered Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, D.S.; Sauti, G.; Vorster, A.; Hermann, M.

    2004-02-26

    Liquid-Phase Sintered Silicon Carbide (LPSSiC) materials were produced with different Y2O3: Al2O3 and Y2O3: SiO2 sintering additive ratios. Densification was achieved by hot pressing (HP). The ratio of the polytypes and the amount and crystalline composition of the grain boundary phases was determined using Rietveld analysis. Microstructures of the materials were related to the mechanical properties (hardness, fracture toughness and strength), which are not presented. The impedance Spectroscopy measurements were made at temperatures between 100 deg. C and 400 deg. C and analyzed using Effective Media Theories and the Brick Layer Model. In some cases, in order to correctly fit the results, it was necessary to use or model the frequency dependence of the conductivity or dielectric constant of the SiC grains using various theoretical models. The impedance arcs for the SiC grains in the different samples varied widely, probably more due to the 'semiconductor' doping of the grains or nonstoichiometry, than the SiC polytypes in the grains. The SiC grains all showed an Arrhenius behavior with energy gaps in the range 0.3 to 0.5eV.

  5. Tertiary phase diagram of cellulose, ionic liquid and organic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Henderson, Doug; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mao, Yimin; Briber, Robert M.; Wang, Howard

    Cellulose is the most abundant natural polymer on earth, and widely used in products from clothing to paper. Fundamental understanding of molecular solutions of cellulose is the key to realize advanced technologies beyond cellulose fibers. It has been reported that certain ionic liquid/organic solvent mixtures dissolve cellulose. In this study, the tertiary phase diagram of microcrystalline cellulose, 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc), and dimethylformamide (DMF) mixtures has been determined using optical cloud point method and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Data indicate that a molar ratio of EMIMAc to cellulose repeating unit equal or greater than 3 is necessary but not sufficient in forming one-phase homogeneous solutions. A miscibility gap exists in the dilute regime, where a minimum of 5 mol% of EMIM Ac in DMF is needed to form homogenous solutions. SANS show that cellulose chains adopt Gaussian-like conformation in homogenous solutions. The solutions exhibit the characteristics of upper critical solution temperature. Clustering of cellulose chains occurs at low EMIMAc/DMF or EMIMAc/cellulose ratio, or at low temperatures. The mechanism of cellulose dissolution in tertiary mixture is discussed.

  6. Liquid phase deposition synthesis of hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Deki, Shigehito; Beleke, Alexis Bienvenu; Kotani, Yuki; Mizuhata, Minoru

    2009-09-15

    Hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films with good crystallinity and high purity have been fabricated by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) technique using molybdic acid (H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) dissolved in 2.82% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as precursors. The crystal was found to belong to a hexagonal hydrate system MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (napprox0.56). The unit cell lattice parameters are a=10.651 A, c=3.725 A and V=365.997 A{sup 3}. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the as-deposited samples showed well-shaped hexagonal rods nuclei that grew and where the amount increased with increase in reaction time. X-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed a Gaussian shape of the doublet of Mo 3d core level, indicating the presence of Mo{sup 6+} oxidation state in the deposited films. The deposited films exhibited an electrochromic behavior by lithium intercalation and deintercalation, which resulted in coloration and bleaching of the film. Upon dehydration at about 450 deg. C, the hexagonal MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O was transformed into the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic phase. - Abstract: SEM photograph of typical h-MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O thin film nuclei obtained after 36 h at 40 deg. C by the LPD method. Display Omitted

  7. Liquid-phase synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sinkó, Katalin; Szabó, Géza; Zrínyi, Miklós

    2011-05-01

    Various liquid-phase syntheses of CoO and Co3O4 nanoparticles have been studied. The experiments focus on two synthesis routes: the coprecipitation and the sol-gel methods combined with thermal decomposition. The effect of synthesis route, the type of precursors (cobalt nitrate/chloride) and precipitation agent (carbonate, hydroxide, oxalic acid, and ammonia), the chemical compositions, pH, application of surfactants (PDMS, Triton X-100, NaDS, NaDBS, TTAB, ethyl acetate, citric acid), and the heat treatments on the properties of particles were investigated. The particle size and distribution have been determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The phases and the morphology of products have been analysed by XRD and SEM. The coprecipitation technique is less able to shape the particles than sol-gel technique. PDMS can be applied efficiently as surfactant in preparation methods. The finest particles (around 85 nm) with narrow polydispersity (70-100 nm) and spherical shape could be achieved by using sol-gel technique in medium of 1-propanol and ethyl acetate.

  8. Hyperdoping silicon with selenium: solid vs. liquid phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Liu, Fang; Prucnal, S; Gao, Kun; Khalid, M; Baehtz, C; Posselt, M; Skorupa, W; Helm, M

    2015-02-09

    Chalcogen-hyperdoped silicon shows potential applications in silicon-based infrared photodetectors and intermediate band solar cells. Due to the low solid solubility limits of chalcogen elements in silicon, these materials were previously realized by femtosecond or nanosecond laser annealing of implanted silicon or bare silicon in certain background gases. The high energy density deposited on the silicon surface leads to a liquid phase and the fast recrystallization velocity allows trapping of chalcogen into the silicon matrix. However, this method encounters the problem of surface segregation. In this paper, we propose a solid phase processing by flash-lamp annealing in the millisecond range, which is in between the conventional rapid thermal annealing and pulsed laser annealing. Flash lamp annealed selenium-implanted silicon shows a substitutional fraction of ~ 70% with an implanted concentration up to 2.3%. The resistivity is lower and the carrier mobility is higher than those of nanosecond pulsed laser annealed samples. Our results show that flash-lamp annealing is superior to laser annealing in preventing surface segregation and in allowing scalability.

  9. Multi-spatial-frequency and phase-shifting profilometry using a liquid crystal phase modulator.

    PubMed

    Joo, Kyung-Il; Park, Chang-Sub; Park, Min-Kyu; Park, Kyung-Woo; Park, Ji-Sub; Seo, Youngmin; Hahn, Joonku; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2012-05-10

    Optical profilometry is widely applied for measuring the morphology of objects by projecting predetermined patterns on them. In this technique, the compact size is one of the interesting issues for practical applications. The generation of pattern by the interference of coherent light sources has a potential to reduce the dimension of the illumination part. Moreover, this method can make fine patterns without projection optics, and the illumination part is free of restriction from the numerical aperture of the projection optics. In this paper, a phase-shifting profilometry is implemented by using a single liquid crystal (LC) cell. The LC phase modulator is designed to generate the interference patterns with several different spatial frequencies by changing selection of the spacing between the micro-pinholes. We manufactured the LC phase modulator and calibrated it by measuring the phase modulation amount depending on an applied voltage. Our optical profilometry using the single LC cell can generate multi-spatial frequency patterns as well as four steps of the phase-shifted patterns. This method can be implemented compactly, and the reconstructed depth profile is obtained without a phase-unwrapping algorithm.

  10. Ionic liquid expedites partition of curcumin into solid gel phase but discourages partition into liquid crystalline phase of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Elsy D; Patra, Digambara

    2013-08-22

    The hydrolysis of curcumin in alkaline and neutral buffer conditions is of interest because of the therapeutic applicability of curcumin. We show that hydrolysis of curcumin can be remarkably suppressed in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) liposomes. The fluorescence of curcumin sensitively detects the phase transition temperature of liposomes. However, at greater concentrations, curcumin affects the phase transition temperature, encouraging fusion of two membrane phases. The interaction of curcumin with DMPC is found to be strong, with a partition coefficient value of Kp = 2.78 × 10(5) in the solid gel phase, which dramatically increases in the liquid crystalline phase to Kp = 1.15 × 10(6). The importance of ionic liquids as green solvents has drawn interest because of their toxicological effect on human health; however, the impact of ionic liquids (ILs) on liposomes is not yet understood. The present study establishes that ILs such as 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride (moic) affect the permeability and fluidity of liposomes and thus influence parition of curcumin into DMPC liposomes, helping in the solid gel phase but diminishing in the liquid crystalline phase. The Kp value of curcumin does not change appreciably with moic concentration in the solid gel state but decreases with moic concentration in the liquid crystalline phase. Curcumin, a rotor sensitive to detect phase transition temperature, is applied to investigate the influence of ionic liquids such as 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride, 1-buytl-3-methyl imadazolium tetrafluoroborate, and 1-benzyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate on DMPC liposome properties. 1-Methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride lowers the phase transition temperature, but 1-buytl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-benzyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate do not perceptibly modify the phase transition temperature; rather, they broaden the phase transition.

  11. Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M D Asiqur; Mohd Said, Suhana; Balamurugan, S

    2015-01-01

    The blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) is a highly ordered liquid crystal (LC) phase found very close to the LC–isotropic transition. The BPLC has demonstrated potential in next-generation display and photonic technology due to its exceptional properties such as sub-millisecond response time and wide viewing angle. However, BPLC is stable in a very small temperature range (0.5–1 °C) and its driving voltage is very high (∼100 V). To overcome these challenges recent research has focused on solutions which incorporate polymers or nanoparticles into the blue phase to widen the temperature range from around few °C to potentially more than 60 °C. In order to reduce the driving voltage, strategies have been attempted by modifying the device structure by introducing protrusion or corrugated electrodes and vertical field switching mechanism has been proposed. In this paper the effectiveness of the proposed solution will be discussed, in order to assess the potential of BPLC in display technology and beyond. PMID:27877782

  12. Determination of liquid-liquid critical point composition using 90∘ laser light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, J. Charles; Brown, Allison M.; Helvie, Elise N.; Dean, Kevin M.

    2016-04-01

    Despite over a century of characterization efforts, liquid-liquid critical point compositions are difficult to identify with good accuracy. Reported values vary up to 10% for even well-studied systems. Here, a technique is presented for high-precision determination of the critical composition of a partially miscible binary liquid system. Ninety-degree laser light-scattering intensities from single-phase samples are analyzed using an equation derived from nonclassical power laws and the pseudospinodal approximation. Results are reported for four liquid-liquid systems (aniline + hexane, isobutyric acid + water, methanol + cyclohexane, and methanol + carbon disulfide). Compared to other methods, the 90∘ light-scattering approach has a strong dependence on composition near the critical point, is less affected by temperature fluctuations, and is insensitive to the presence of trace impurities in the samples. Critical compositions found with 90∘ light scattering are precise to the parts-per-thousand level and show long-term reproducibility.

  13. Determination of liquid-liquid critical point composition using 90^{∘} laser light scattering.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J Charles; Brown, Allison M; Helvie, Elise N; Dean, Kevin M

    2016-04-01

    Despite over a century of characterization efforts, liquid-liquid critical point compositions are difficult to identify with good accuracy. Reported values vary up to 10% for even well-studied systems. Here, a technique is presented for high-precision determination of the critical composition of a partially miscible binary liquid system. Ninety-degree laser light-scattering intensities from single-phase samples are analyzed using an equation derived from nonclassical power laws and the pseudospinodal approximation. Results are reported for four liquid-liquid systems (aniline + hexane, isobutyric acid + water, methanol + cyclohexane, and methanol + carbon disulfide). Compared to other methods, the 90^{∘} light-scattering approach has a strong dependence on composition near the critical point, is less affected by temperature fluctuations, and is insensitive to the presence of trace impurities in the samples. Critical compositions found with 90^{∘} light scattering are precise to the parts-per-thousand level and show long-term reproducibility.

  14. Two-Phase Model of Liquid-Liquid Interactions With Interface Capturing: Application to Water Assisted Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luisa; Lanrivain, Rodolphe; Zerguine, Walid; Rodriguez-Villa, Andrès; Coupez, Thierry

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, a two phase model to compute liquid-liquid flows is presented. We consider that one phase is a highly viscous thermodependent liquid (polymer phase), whereas the second one is a low viscosity low temperature fluid (water). The first part of this paper concerns capture of the interface between the water and the polymer (or determination of the phase field function). Classical VOF and Level set techniques have been implemented and were ameliorated using mesh adaptation techniques. To accurately determine the velocity field, a two-phase formulation is considered, based in the theory of mixtures, and we introduce a scalar parameter, the phase fraction quantifying the presence of each phase in each point of the computational domain. A friction type coupling between both phases is retained. Using the mixed finite element method within an eulerian framework, we calculate in a single system the whole kinematic variables for both liquids (velocity and pressure of each phase). Results are shown, for 2D and 3D parts.

  15. Magnetic field effects on liquid-phase reactive sintering of MnBi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Abematsu, Ken-ichi; Umetsu, Rie Y.; Takahashi, Kohki; Koyama, Keiichi

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic fields effects on liquid-phase reaction sintering on MnBi were investigated. The liquid-phase reaction was so fast even in a zero field that the fraction of in-field sintered ferromagnetic MnBi phase was independent of the external magnetic field. However, the ferromagnetic MnBi crystals in the in-field sintered sample were oriented along the external magnetic field direction. The Lotgering factor of the in-field sintered sample was 0.99. This result indicated that almost completely anisotropic MnBi phase could be obtained by in-field liquid phase reactive sintering.

  16. Effect of liquid phase on coarsening behavior in porous single-phase and duplex microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Fernando Jorge Lino

    1997-11-01

    A systematic investigation of the influence of different glass volume fractions (Vsb{f}) on the grain growth behavior of single-phase alumina (Alsb2Osb3), c-zirconia (c-ZrOsb2) and duplex Alsb2Osb3+50 vol.% c-ZrOsb2 (AZ50), has been conducted. Grain growth was studied for porous single-phase alumina and c-zirconia for one glass (anorthite) composition and different Vsb{f}. Grain growth on dense single-phase alumina and c-zirconia was also studied and compared with the results obtained for porous samples. It was observed that glass additions to porous (≈1 vol.% porosity) single-phase alumina or c-zirconia increase the grain growth rate constant (K) up to a critical Vsb{f}, above which further glass additions decrease K. This behavior is contrary to that of dense single-phase materials, for which K decreases continuously with Vsb{f}. This can be explained by the fact that very small amounts of glass can coat pore surfaces with a very thin (nanometer scale) liquid film, which promotes a faster diffusion path for atoms, thereby increasing K. However, as Vsb{f} increases, glass pockets are continuously enlarged, the diffusion distances across these pockets thus increase as well, and hence K starts to decrease. The grain growth rate equation for the final stage of sintering was adapted to describe the kinetic behavior observed in porous single-phase materials, for small amounts of glass. Special emphasis was given to the residual porosity, the microstructural features of alumina and c-zirconia grains, and to the grain growth controlling mechanism(s). Grain growth was studied for AZ50 for two glass compositions and different Vsb{f}. Unlike dense single-phase materials, glass additions to AZ50 were shown to promote grain growth. K increases continuously with Vsb{f} because the grain growth rate in duplex systems is controlled by long range diffusion which is enhanced by the presence of the liquid phase. As Vsb{f} increases, glass pockets are continuously enlarged and K

  17. Preparation and evaluation of surface-bonded tricationic ionic liquid silica as stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2015-05-29

    Two tricationic ionic liquids were prepared and then bonded onto the surface of supporting silica materials through "thiol-ene" click chemistry as new stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography. The obtained columns of tricationic ionic liquids were evaluated respectively in the reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) mode and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode, and possess ideal column efficiency of 80,000 plates/m in the RPLC mode with naphthalene as the test solute. The tricationic ionic liquid stationary phases exhibit good hydrophobic and shape selectivity to hydrophobic compounds, and RPLC retention behavior with multiple interactions. In the HILIC mode, the retention and selectivity were evaluated through the efficient separation of nucleosides and bases as well as flavonoids, and the typical HILIC retention behavior was demonstrated by investigating retention changes of hydrophilic solutes with water volume fraction in mobile phase. The results show that the tricationic ionic liquid columns possess great prospect for applications in analysis of hydrophobic and hydrophilic samples.

  18. Continuous cyclohexane oxidation to cyclohexanol using a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Acidovorax sp. CHX100 in recombinant P. taiwanensis VLB120 biofilms.

    PubMed

    Karande, Rohan; Debor, Linde; Salamanca, Diego; Bogdahn, Fabian; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich; Buehler, Katja; Schmid, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The applications of biocatalysts in chemical industries are characterized by activity, selectivity, and stability. One key strategy to achieve high biocatalytic activity is the identification of novel enzymes with kinetics optimized for organic synthesis by Nature. The isolation of novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes from Acidovorax sp. CHX100 and their functional expression in recombinant Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120 enabled efficient oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol. Although initial resting cell activities of 20 U gCDW (-1) were achieved, the rapid decrease in catalytic activity due to the toxicity of cyclohexane prevented synthetic applications. Cyclohexane toxicity was reduced and cellular activities stabilized over the reaction time by delivering the toxic substrate through the vapor phase and by balancing the aqueous phase mass transfer with the cellular conversion rate. The potential of this novel CYP enzyme was exploited by transferring the shake flask reaction to an aqueous-air segmented flow biofilm membrane reactor for maximizing productivity. Cyclohexane was continuously delivered via the silicone membrane. This ensured lower reactant toxicity and continuous product formation at an average volumetric productivity of 0.4 g L tube (-1) h(-1) for several days. This highlights the potential of combining a powerful catalyst with a beneficial reactor design to overcome critical issues of cyclohexane oxidation to cyclohexanol. It opens new opportunities for biocatalytic transformations of compounds which are toxic, volatile, and have low solubility in water.

  19. The Boson peak in confined water: An experimental investigation of the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-10-01

    The Boson peak (BP) of deeply cooled confined water is studied by using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in a large interval of the ( P, T) phase plane. By taking into account the different behavior of such a collective vibrational mode in both strong and fragile glasses as well as in glass-forming materials, we were able to determine the Widom line that characterizes supercooled bulk water within the frame of the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) hypothesis. The peak frequency and width of the BP correlated with the water polymorphism of the LLPT scenario, allowing us to distinguish the "low-density liquid" (LDL) and "high-density liquid" (HDL) phases in deeply cooled bulk water.Moreover, the BP properties afford a further confirmation of theWidom line temperature T W as the ( P, T) locus in which the local structure of water transforms from a predominately LDL form to a predominately HDL form.

  20. Orientational order in the nematogenic homologous series trans-4-alkyl (4-cyanophenyl)-cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoh, M. M. M.; Srinivasa, Shivaprakash, N. C.; Prasad, J. Shashidhara

    1982-09-01

    The temperature variation of refractive indices (ne,no), birefringence (Δn), density (ρ), and order parameter of the homologous compounds trans-4-alkyl (4-cyanophenyl)-cyclohexane are reported in the nematic and isotropic phases. The principal molecular polarizabilities (αe,αo) and the order parameters S have been evaluated using the anisotropic internal field model (Neugebauer's approach). The theoretical estimations of the mean and principal molecular polarizabilities made by two different approaches, viz., the additivity rule of bond polarizability and the modified Lippincott-δ-function potential model are in close agreement with the values evaluated from the experimental studies.

  1. Liquid-liquid phase equilibrium and core-shell structure formation in immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingyang; Jia, Peng; Sun, Xiaofei; Geng, Haoran; Zuo, Min; Zhao, Degang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the liquid-phase separation of ternary immiscible Al45Bi19.8Sn35.2 and Al60Bi14.4Sn25.6 melts was studied with resistivity and thermal analysis methods at different temperature. The resistivity-temperature curves appear abrupt and anomalously change with rising temperature, corresponding to the anomalous and low peak of melting process in DSC curves, indicative of the occurrence of the liquid-phase separation. The anomalous behavior of the resistivity temperature dependence is attributable to concentration-concentration fluctuations. The effect of composition and melt temperature on the liquid-phase separation and core-shell structure formation in immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys was studied. The liquid-phase separation and formation of the core-shell structure in immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys are readily acquired when the alloy compositions fall into liquid miscibility gap. What's more, the cross-sectional structure changes from irregular, dispersed to core-type shapes under the actions of Marangoni motion with increasing melt temperature. This study provides some clues for the preparation of core-shell microspheres of immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys via liquid-phase separation.

  2. Microwave-immobilized polybutadiene stationary phase for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Nilva P; Collins, Kenneth E; Jardim, Isabel C S F

    2004-03-19

    Polybutadiene (PBD) has been immobilized on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) silica by microwave radiation at various power levels (52-663 W) and actuation times (3-60 min). Columns prepared from these reversed-phase HPLC materials, as well as from similar non-irradiated materials, were tested with standard sample mixtures and characterized by elemental analysis (%C) and infrared spectroscopy. A microwave irradiation of 20 min at 663 W gives a layer of immobilized PBD that presented good performance. Longer irradiation times give thicker immobilized layers having less favorable chromatographic properties.

  3. Characterization of annular two-phase gas-liquid flows in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousman, W. Scott; McQuillen, John B.

    1994-08-01

    A series of two-phase gas-liquid flow experiments were developed to study annular flows in microgravity using the NASA Lewis Learjet. A test section was built to measure the liquid film thickness around the perimeter of the tube permitting the three dimensional nature of the gas-liquid interface to be observed. A second test section was used to measure the film thickness, pressure drop and wall shear stress in annular microgravity two-phase flows. Three liquids were studied to determine the effects of liquid viscosity and surface tension. The result of this study provide insight into the wave characteristics, pressure drop and droplet entrainment in microgravity annular flows.

  4. Phase behavior of metastable liquid silicon at negative pressure: Ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Yu, Y. J.; Yan, J. L.; Ding, M. C.; Zhao, X. G.; Wang, H. Y.

    2016-04-01

    Extensive first-principle molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the phase behavior of metastable liquid Si at negative pressure. Our results show that the high-density liquid (HDL) and HDL-vapor spinodals indeed form a continuous reentrant curve and the liquid-liquid critical point seems to just coincide with its minimum. The line of density maxima also has a strong tendency to pass through this minimum. The phase behaviour of metastable liquid Si therefore tends to be a critical-point-free scenario rather than a second-critical-point one based on SW potential.

  5. Characterization of annular two-phase gas-liquid flows in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, W. Scott; Mcquillen, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of two-phase gas-liquid flow experiments were developed to study annular flows in microgravity using the NASA Lewis Learjet. A test section was built to measure the liquid film thickness around the perimeter of the tube permitting the three dimensional nature of the gas-liquid interface to be observed. A second test section was used to measure the film thickness, pressure drop and wall shear stress in annular microgravity two-phase flows. Three liquids were studied to determine the effects of liquid viscosity and surface tension. The result of this study provide insight into the wave characteristics, pressure drop and droplet entrainment in microgravity annular flows.

  6. Water quantitatively induces the mucoadhesion of liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Young, S A; Kellaway, I W

    2001-05-01

    The possible role of water in the mucoadhesion phenomenon exhibited by the liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate was investigated using an in-vitro tensile strength technique. The mucoadhesion of the liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate was found to occur following uptake of water. The mucoadhesive force of the cubic phase was consistent since it is not capable of taking up additional water. An increase in pre-load period greatly facilitated the mucoadhesion of glyceryl monooleate (0% w/w initial water content), suggesting that the mucoadhesion is dependent upon the extent of the dehydration of the substrate. A good linear relationship between initial water content of the liquid crystalline phases and mucoadhesive force led to the conclusion that the mucoadhesive force increased with decreasing initial water concentration. Rheological properties of the liquid crystalline phases were also studied to allow a correlation between physical changes and mucoadhesion of the liquid crystalline phases, revealing that higher water concentrations in the liquid crystalline phases led to a more ordered structure that showed less mucoadhesion. The results of this study indicated that the mucoadhesive force of the liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate is determined by the capability to take up water from a water-rich environment. It may, therefore, be advantageous to use the lamellar phase as a buccal drug carrier as opposed to the relatively less mucoadhesive cubic phase.

  7. Phase Transition and Dynamics in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid Crystals through a Metastable Highly Ordered Smectic Phase.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Keito; Tomida, Kenji; Taniguchi, Natsumi; Hara, Hironori; Takikawa, Yoshinori; Sadakane, Koichiro; Nakamura, Kenji; Konishi, Takashi; Fukao, Koji

    2016-06-16

    The phase transition behavior and dynamics of ionic liquid crystals, 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with various alkyl chain lengths, were investigated by X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy to elucidate the mechanism of their structural and phase changes. A metastable phase was found to appear via a supercooled smectic phase on cooling. In the metastable phase, disorder in the smectic phase is partially frozen; thus, the phase has order higher than that of the smectic phase but lower than that of the crystalline phase. During the subsequent heating process, the frozen disorder activates, and a crystalline phase appears in the supercooled smectic phase before entering the smectic phase. The relationship between the phase behavior and the dynamics of charge carriers such as ions is also discussed.

  8. Molecular Modeling of Non-Trivial Cyclohexane Derivatives and Analogs: A Discovery Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Gail

    2004-01-01

    Conformational analysis of cyclohexanes is a fundamental, requisite topic covered in undergraduate organic chemistry. A molecular modeling experiment is designed with the view of extending students' boundaries of knowledge about cyclohexane conformational stabilities.

  9. Crosslinked polymeric ionic liquids as solid-phase microextraction sorbent coatings for high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Honglian; Merib, Josias; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-03-18

    Neat crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coatings for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) compatible with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reported for the first time. Six structurally different PILs were crosslinked to nitinol supports and applied for the determination of select pharmaceutical drugs, phenolics, and insecticides. Sampling conditions including sample solution pH, extraction time, desorption solvent, desorption time, and desorption solvent volume were optimized using design of experiment (DOE). The developed PIL sorbent coatings were stable when performing extractions under acidic pH and remained intact in various organic desorption solvents (i.e., methanol, acetonitrile, acetone). The PIL-based sorbent coating polymerized from the IL monomer 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl) imidazolium chloride [VC10OHIM][Cl] and IL crosslinker 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylimidazolium) dodecane dichloride [(VBIM)2C12] 2[Cl] exhibited superior extraction performance compared to the other studied PILs. The extraction efficiency of pharmaceutical drugs and phenolics increased when the film thickness of the PIL-based sorbent coating was increased while many insecticides were largely unaffected. Satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.2 to 2 μg L(-1) for the target analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recovery of analytes in real water samples, including tap water and lake water, with recoveries varying from 50.2% to 115.9% and from 48.8% to 116.6%, respectively.

  10. Laser-induced separation of hydrogen isotopes in the liquid phase

    DOEpatents

    Freund, Samuel M.; Maier, II, William B.; Beattie, Willard H.; Holland, Redus F.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope separation is achieved by either (a) dissolving a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound in a liquid solvent, or (b) liquefying a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound, the liquid phase thus resulting being kept at a temperature at which spectral features of the feedstock relating to a particular hydrogen isotope are resolved, i.e., a clear-cut isotope shift is delineated, irradiating the liquid phase with monochromatic radiation of a wavelength which at least preferentially excites those molecules of the feedstock containing a first hydrogen isotope, inducing photochemical reaction in the excited molecules, and separating the reaction product containing the first isotope from the liquid phase.

  11. Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Dan, K; Roy, M; Datta, A

    2015-09-07

    The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ΔCp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (β) > 5 K min(-1), consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for β ≤ 5 K min(-1) and the rapid reduction in the ΔCp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln β vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (ΔH) on the initial temperature (at fixed β-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the

  12. Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, K.; Roy, M.; Datta, A.

    2015-09-01

    The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ΔCp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (β) > 5 K min-1, consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for β ≤ 5 K min-1 and the rapid reduction in the ΔCp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln β vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (ΔH) on the initial temperature (at fixed β-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the

  13. Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs): Review of Emerging Characterization and Remediation Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids ( DNAPLs ): Review of Emerging Characterization and Remediation Technologies Prepared by Interstate Technology and...Regulatory Cooperation Work Group DNAPLs /Chemical Oxidation Work Team June 2000 Technology Overview Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids ( DNAPLs ): Review of Emerging Characterization and Remediation Technologies 5a. CONTRACT

  14. A binary phase field crystal study for liquid phase heteroepitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanli; Peng, Yingying; Chen, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    The liquid phase heteroepitaxial growth on predefined crystalline substrate is studied with binary phase field crystal (PFC) model. The purpose of this paper focuses on changes of the morphology of epitaxial films, influences of substrate vicinal angles on epitaxial growth, characteristics of islands growth on both sides of the substrate as well. It is found that the morphology of epitaxial films undergoes the following transitions: layer-by-layer growth, islands formation, mismatch dislocations nucleation and climb towards the film-substrate interface. Meanwhile, the density of steps and islands has obviously direct ratio relations with the vicinal angles. Also, preferential regions are found when islands grow on both sides of the substrate. For thinner substrate, the arrangement of islands is more orderly and the appearance of preferential growth is more obvious than that of thicker substrate. Also, the existing of preferential regions is much more valid for small substrate vicinal angles in contrast for big substrate vicinal angles.

  15. Effects of cyclohexane, an industrial solvent, on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on isolated yeast mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, S.; Rangel, P.; Espinola, G.; Aguirre, G. )

    1990-07-01

    Little information on the effects of cyclohexane at the cellular or subcellular level is available. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cyclohexane inhibited respiration and diverse energy-dependent processes. In mitochondria isolated from S. cerevisiae, oxygen uptake and ATP synthesis were inhibited, although ATPase activity was not affected. Cyclohexane effects were similar to those reported for beta-pinene and limonene, suggesting that the cyclohexane ring in these monoterpenes may be a determinant for their biological activities.

  16. Going full circle: phase-transition thermodynamics of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Ulrich; Verevkin, Sergey P; Koslowski, Thorsten; Krossing, Ingo

    2011-05-27

    We present the full enthalpic phase transition cycle for ionic liquids (ILs) as examples of non-classical salts. The cycle was closed for the lattice, solvation, dissociation, and vaporization enthalpies of 30 different ILs, relying on as much experimental data as was available. High-quality dissociation enthalpies were calculated at the G3 MP2 level. From the cycle, we could establish, for the first time, the lattice and solvation enthalpies of ILs with imidazolium ions. For vaporization, lattice, and dissociation enthalpies, we also developed new prediction methods in the course of our investigations. Here, as only single-ion values need to be calculated and the tedious optimization of an ion pair can be circumvented, the computational time is short. For the vaporization enthalpy, a very simple approach was found, using a surface term and the calculated enthalpic correction to the total gas-phase energy. For the lattice enthalpy, the most important constituent proved to be the calculated conductor-like screening model (COSMO) solvation enthalpy in the ideal electric conductor. A similar model was developed for the dissociation enthalpy. According to our assessment, the typical error of the lattice enthalpy would be 9.4 kJ mol(-1), which is less than half the deviation we get when using the (optimized) Kapustinskii equation or the recent volume-based thermodynamics (VBT) theory. In contrast, the non-optimized VBT formula gives lattice enthalpies 20 to 140 kJ mol(-1) lower than the ones we assessed in the cycle, because of the insufficient description of dispersive interactions. Our findings show that quantum-chemical calculations can greatly improve the VBT approaches, which were parameterized for simple, inorganic salts with ideally point-shaped charges. In conclusion, we suggest the term "augmented VBT", or "aVBT", to describe this kind of theoretical approach.

  17. Centrifugal contactor with liquid mixing and flow control vanes and method of mixing liquids of different phases

    DOEpatents

    Jubin, Robert T.; Randolph, John D.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to a centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction systems. The centrifugal contactor is provided with an annular vertically oriented mixing chamber between the rotor housing and the rotor for mixing process liquids such as the aqueous and organic phases of the solvent extraction process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing. A set of stationary helically disposed vanes carried by the housing is in the lower region of the mixing chamber at a location below the process-liquid inlets for the purpose of urging the liquids in an upward direction toward the inlets and enhancing the mixing of the liquids and mass transfer between the liquids. The upper region of the mixing vessel above the inlets for the process liquids is also provided with a set helically disposed vanes carried by the housing for urging the process liquids in a downward direction when the liquid flow rates through the inlets are relatively high and the liquids contact the vane set in the upper region. The use of these opposing vane sets in the mixing zone maintains the liquid in the mixing zone at suitable levels.

  18. Relation between the Widom line and the dynamic crossover in systems with a liquid-liquid phase transition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Limei; Kumar, Pradeep; Buldyrev, S V; Chen, S-H; Poole, P H; Sciortino, F; Stanley, H E

    2005-11-15

    We investigate, for two water models displaying a liquid-liquid critical point, the relation between changes in dynamic and thermodynamic anomalies arising from the presence of the liquid-liquid critical point. We find a correlation between the dynamic crossover and the locus of specific heat maxima C(P)(max) ("Widom line") emanating from the critical point. Our findings are consistent with a possible relation between the previously hypothesized liquid-liquid phase transition and the transition in the dynamics recently observed in neutron scattering experiments on confined water. More generally, we argue that this connection between C(P)(max) and dynamic crossover is not limited to the case of water, a hydrogen bond network-forming liquid, but is a more general feature of crossing the Widom line. Specifically, we also study the Jagla potential, a spherically symmetric two-scale potential known to possess a liquid-liquid critical point, in which the competition between two liquid structures is generated by repulsive and attractive ramp interactions.

  19. Spatially resolved phase imaging of a programmable liquid-crystal grating.

    PubMed

    Friedman, L J; Hobbs, D S; Lieberman, S; Corkum, D L; Nguyen, H Q; Resler, D P; Sharp, R C; Dorschner, T A

    1996-11-01

    Phase imaging is used to compare near-field measurements with the corresponding far-field intensity distribution. A liquid-crystal device serves as a phase object that can be programmed as a variable grating. Real-time phase visualization then provides an avenue for direct optimization of complex phase gratings.

  20. Gravitational effects on microstructural development in liquid phase sintered materials

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, T.H.

    1996-09-01

    In this review the author has tried to place in perspective differing viewpoints concerning the effect of gravity in LPS. Gravity induced settling can be roughly separated into two stages; free settling of isolated particles and skeletal settling of a connected solid structure. There is disagreement over the solid phase volume fraction needed to establish a skeletal structure. The author noted that such a criterion can only be determined by examination of structures sintered for times less than that at which skeletal settling commences. If this protocol is not followed, the measured critical volume fraction is greater than the one at which a skeleton first forms. The author reviewed two mechanisms for skeletal settling. While the process is complicated, previous work strongly suggests that particles are, more-or-less, extricated from the skeleton one at a time. They then settle a distance comparable to the interparticle spacing. Repetition leads to the slow slumping observed, for example, in heavy metals. Conversely, extrication in Fe-Cu alloys leads to floating of Fe particles. Details of the extrication process have not yet been clarified, and continued work in this area might be fruitful. The author also noted that a recent model put forth to describe skeletal settling in LPS systems seems physically unrealistic. In addition, the physics underlying the model do not apply to a system in which the solid has a lesser density than the liquid.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Liquid-Vapor Phase Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esmaeeli, Asghar; Arpaci, Vedat S.

    2001-01-01

    We implemented a two- and three-dimensional finite difference/front tracking technique to solve liquid-vapor phase change problems. The mathematical and the numerical features of the method were explained in great detail in our previous reports, Briefly, we used a single formula representation which incorporated jump conditions into the governing equations. The interfacial terms were distributed as singular terms using delta functions so that the governing equations would be the same as conventional conservation equations away from the interface and in the vicinity of the interface they would provide correct jump conditions. We used a fixed staggered grid to discretize these equations and an unstructured grid to explicitly track the front. While in two dimensions the front was simply a connection of small line segments, in three dimensions it was represented by a connection of small triangular elements. The equations were written in conservative forms and during the course of computations we used regriding to control the size of the elements of the unstructured grid. Moreover, we implemented a coalescence in two dimensions which allowed the merging of different fronts or two segments of the same front when they were sufficiently close. We used our code to study thermocapillary migration of bubbles, burst of bubbles at a free surface, buoyancy-driven interactions of bubbles, evaporation of drops, rapid evaporation of an interface, planar solidification of an undercooled melt, dendritic solidification, and a host of other problems cited in the reference.

  2. Homogeneous Liquid Phase Transfer of Graphene Oxide into Epoxy Resins.

    PubMed

    Amirova, Lyaysan; Surnova, Albina; Balkaev, Dinar; Musin, Delus; Amirov, Rustem; Dimiev, Ayrat M

    2017-04-05

    The quality of polymer composite materials depends on the distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix. Due to the presence of the oxygen functional groups, graphene oxide (GO) has a strong affinity to epoxy resins, providing potential opportunity for the uniform distribution of GO sheets in the matrix. Another advantage of GO over its nonoxidized counterpart is its ability to exfoliate to single-atomic-layer sheets in water and in some organic solvents. However, these advantages of GO have not yet been fully realized due to the lack of the methods efficiently introducing GO into the epoxy resin. Here we develop a novel homogeneous liquid phase transfer method that affords uniform distribution, and fully exfoliated condition of GO in the polymer matrix. The most pronounced alteration of properties of the cured composites is registered at the 0.10%-0.15% GO content. Addition of as little as 0.10% GO leads to the increase of the Young's modulus by 48%. Moreover, we demonstrate successful introduction of GO into the epoxy matrix containing an active diluent-modifier; this opens new venues for fabrication of improved GO-epoxy-modifier composites with a broad range of predesigned properties. The experiments done on reproducing the two literature methods, using alternative GO introduction techniques, lead to either decrease or insignificant increase of the Young's modulus of the resulting GO-epoxy composites.

  3. Dynamic headspace liquid-phase microextraction of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad

    2005-01-07

    A method was developed using dynamic headspace liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for extraction and determination of 9 alcohols from water samples. Four different solvents, hexyl acetate, n-octanol, o-xylene and n-decane were studied as extractants. The analytes were extracted using 0.8 microl of n-octanol from the headspace of a 2 ml sample solution. The effect of sampling volume, solvent volume, sample temperature, syringe plunger withdrawal rate and ionic strength of the solution on the extraction performance were studied. A semiautomated system including a variable speed stirring motor was used to ensure a uniform movement of syringe plunger through the barrel. The method provided a fairly good precision for all compounds (5.5-9.3%), except methanol (16.4%). Detection limits were found to be between 1 and 97 microg/l within an extraction time of approximately 9.5 min under GC-MS in full scan mode.

  4. On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Organic compounds and liquid water are major aerosol constituents in the southeast United States (SE US). Water associated with inorganic constituents (inorganic water) can contribute to the partitioning medium for organic aerosol when relative humidities or organic matter to organic carbon (OM ∕ OC) ratios are high such that separation relative humidities (SRH) are below the ambient relative humidity (RH). As OM ∕ OC ratios in the SE US are often between 1.8 and 2.2, organic aerosol experiences both mixing with inorganic water and separation from it. Regional chemical transport model simulations including inorganic water (but excluding water uptake by organic compounds) in the partitioning medium for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) when RH  >  SRH led to increased SOA concentrations, particularly at night. Water uptake to the organic phase resulted in even greater SOA concentrations as a result of a positive feedback in which water uptake increased SOA, which further increased aerosol water and organic aerosol. Aerosol properties, such as the OM ∕ OC and hygroscopicity parameter (κorg), were captured well by the model compared with measurements during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013. Organic nitrates from monoterpene oxidation were predicted to be the least water-soluble semivolatile species in the model, but most biogenically derived semivolatile species in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were hig

  5. A Fiber Optic Colorimeter For Liquid Phase Chromatography Of Aminoacids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, S.; Tambosso, T.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid phase chromatography is a well known technique routinely used in analytical chemistry for assays and measurements of aminoacids 1,2. Basically, the solution is pumped at high pressure in a long capillary tube (the chromatographic column) to fraction out the constituents, is mixed to a suitable reactant (usually ninhydrine) so as to develop a spectral absorbance, and is finally analyzed in a flow cell by a colorimeter. With ninhydrine, the reaction product is DIDA (diketo-hydrindilidene-diketolhydrin diamine) which exhibits absorbance peaks at 440 nm (blue) and 570 nm (yellow) in a proportion dependent on the specific aminoacid (Fig. 1), while the amplitude of peaks is proportional to the aminoacid concentration in view of Lambert-Beer law. Besides the two measurement channels of absorbance, either of which or the sum of which is taken as the output signal, a third channel at the wavelength 690 nm at which DIDA is transparent (Ar = 0), is used internally as the reference to the first two. Thus, the colorimeter is actually a spectrophotometer with two fixed-wavelength channels, each referenced in wavelength. In this paper, we report on the design and engineering of a colorimeter aimed to medium/high performances, high reliability and low cost. Use of fiber optics as the beamsplitter of the optical channels is shown to give substantial advantages.

  6. Effect of Excipients on Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation and Aggregation in Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin Protein Solutions.

    PubMed

    Raut, Ashlesha S; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2016-03-07

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and aggregation can reduce the physical stability of therapeutic protein formulations. On undergoing LLPS, the protein-rich phase can promote aggregation during storage due to high concentration of the protein. Effect of different excipients on aggregation in protein solution is well documented; however data on the effect of excipients on LLPS is scarce in the literature. In this study, the effect of four excipients (PEG 400, Tween 80, sucrose, and hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD)) on liquid-liquid phase separation and aggregation in a dual variable domain immunoglobulin protein solution was investigated. Sucrose suppressed both LLPS and aggregation, Tween 80 had no effect on either, and PEG 400 increased LLPS and aggregation. Attractive protein-protein interactions and liquid-liquid phase separation decreased with increasing concentration of HPβCD, indicating its specific binding to the protein. However, HPβCD had no effect on the formation of soluble aggregates and fragments in this study. LLPS and aggregation are highly temperature dependent; at low temperature protein exhibits LLPS, at high temperature protein exhibits aggregation, and at an intermediate temperature both phenomena occur simultaneously depending on the solution conditions.

  7. Low voltage and high resolution phase modulator based on blue phase liquid crystals with external compact optical system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Xing, Yufei; Guo, Zhengbo; Li, Qing

    2015-06-15

    Liquid crystal phase modulators are emerging as a new technological advancement, since they can be used for a wide range of applications. To improve their performance, polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) phase modulators with fast response time and accurate phase profile become a necessary. Here, we proposed a facile PS-BPLC phase modulator to achieve particularly low voltage and high resolution. By employing a specific external compact optical system setup, the driving voltage is reduced to 26.09V to obtain 2π phase change at the wavelength of 532 nm. An accurate numerical modeling is also conducted to provide a systematic investigation of the fringing electric field effect to the performance of high resolution PS-BPLC phase modulator. The wavefront distortion caused by the fringing electric field can be automatically compensated to generate accurate phase profile for fast response liquid crystal phase modulator. This work provides a new protocol to realize liquid crystal on silicon based fast response and high resolution phase modulator.

  8. Metastable liquid-liquid phase transition in a single-component system with only one crystal phase and no density anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzese, G.; Malescio, G.; Skibinsky, A.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Stanley, H. E.

    2002-11-01

    We investigate the phase behavior of a single-component system in three dimensions with spherically-symmetric, pairwise-additive, soft-core interactions with an attractive well at a long distance, a repulsive soft-core shoulder at an intermediate distance, and a hard-core repulsion at a short distance, similar to potentials used to describe liquid systems such as colloids, protein solutions, or liquid metals. We showed [Nature (London) 409, 692 (2001)] that, even with no evidence of the density anomaly, the phase diagram has two first-order fluid-fluid phase transitions, one ending in a gas-low-density-liquid (LDL) critical point, and the other in a gas-high-density-liquid (HDL) critical point, with a LDL-HDL phase transition at low temperatures. Here we use integral equation calculations to explore the three-parameter space of the soft-core potential and perform molecular dynamics simulations in the interesting region of parameters. For the equilibrium phase diagram, we analyze the structure of the crystal phase and find that, within the considered range of densities, the structure is independent of the density. Then, we analyze in detail the fluid metastable phases and, by explicit thermodynamic calculation in the supercooled phase, we show the absence of the density anomaly. We suggest that this absence is related to the presence of only one stable crystal structure.

  9. Determination of the liquid crystals phase transition temperatures using optical rotation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiao-ling; Liu, Wei-guo; Liu, Peng; Cai, Chang-long

    2011-11-01

    Using optical rotation effect, a sensitive, simple optical analytical system is developed for determining the phase transition temperatures of liquid crystals (LCs). When a monochromatic polarized light passes through LCs sample and analyzer, the light intensity changes with temperature. Especially, during the phase transition process, the intensity varies greatly due to optical rotation effect. The variation of light intensity versus variation of temperature curve shows the phase transition temperatures of LCs clearly. The phase transition temperatures of three cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) and a nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) were detected by this method, and compared with those of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized light microscope (PLM) methods.

  10. Nanoparticles for Nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiemvarangkul, Pijit

    Nanotechnology has gained attention in various fields of science and engineering for more than decades. Many nanotechnologies using nanosorbents, nanosensors, and nanoparticles have been developed, studied, and used to solve environmental problems. This dissertation contributes to the applications of two types of nanoparticles: 1) using zero valent iron nanoparticle technology (nZVI) for treatment of groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons and study effect of polyelectrolyte polymers on enhancing the mobility of nZVI in porous media and 2) testing a new type of nanoparticle, nano-scale calcium peroxide (CaO2) particles (nano-peroxide); particles have been synthesized and preliminarily tests on their chemical properties and oxidizing reactions with petroleum hydrocarbons investigated. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the high toxic, dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) and it is one of the major problems of groundwater contamination. The direct reaction of nano-scale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles and TCE liquid phase batch experiments shows that nZVI has capability to remove pure phase TCE and there is the reduction reaction occurred with reaction byproduct. Mass balance of nZVI-TCE reaction demonstrates that 7--9 % TCE mass was trapped in 1 g of nZVI sludge indicating that absorption occurred during the removal process confirming the absorption of TCE into nZVI sludge. The reaction and absorption abilities of nZVI are depended upon its surface areas. Increasing amount of nZVI reduces the space of batch experiment systems, so TCE removal efficiency of nZVI is decreased. These experiments show the practicability of using nZVI to directly remove TCE from contaminated groundwater. The transport of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles stabilized by three polyelectrolytes: polyvinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate-co-itaconic acid (PV3A), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and soy proteins were examined. The study shows the increase in nZVI mobility by

  11. Digital phase-shifting interferometer with an electrically addressed liquid-crystal spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Bitou, Youichi

    2003-09-01

    A digital phase-shifting interferometer with a liquid-crystal-display coupled, parallel aligned, nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulator is developed. The optical phase shift in the Michelson-type polarization interferometer is achieved by a digital phase shift of a grating displayed on the spatial light modulator. Accurate experimental results of using the heterodyne system for pi/2 phase steps were demonstrated. A phase-shifting interferometer with no moving parts and no requirement for calibration of the value of the phase shift was achieved.

  12. Bubbles in liquids with phase transition—part 2: on balance laws for mixture theories of disperse vapor bubbles in liquid with phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Wolfgang; Hantke, Maren; Warnecke, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    We study averaging methods for the derivation of mixture equations for disperse vapor bubbles in liquids. The carrier liquid is modeled as a continuum, whereas simplified assumptions are made for the disperse bubble phase. An approach due to Petrov and Voinov is extended to derive mixture equations for the case that there is a phase transition between the carrier liquid and the vapor bubbles in water. We end up with a system of balance laws for a multi-phase mixture, which is completely in divergence form. Additional non-differential source terms describe the exchange of mass, momentum and energy between the phases. The sources depend explicitly on evolution laws for the total mass, the radius and the temperature of single bubbles. These evolution laws are derived in a prior article (Dreyer et al. in Cont Mech Thermodyn. doi:10.1007/s00161-0225-6, 2011) and are used to close the system. Finally, numerical examples are presented.

  13. Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

  14. Pervaporation for the mixture of benzene and cyclohexane through PPOP membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.M.; Chen, Y.K.; Wu, C.H.; Lin, A.

    1999-03-01

    Pervaporation and sorption for the liquid mixture of benzene and cyclohexane by using poly[bis(phenoxy)phosphazene] (PPOP) membranes were characterized. Diffusivities, solubilities, interaction parameters, plasticization coefficients, and heats of sorption for benzene and cyclohexane in the membrane were determined from the vapor sorption kinetics and isotherms, which were measured gravimetrically by a continuous microbalance. Pervaporation operations offered a maximum selectivity of 3 at 35 C and the 35--50% feed concentration level of benzene. Normalized fluxes increased but the pervaporation selectivity decreased slightly with temperature. The binary transport in the membrane was modeled by the solution-diffusion model with an exponential form diffusivity to the concentration of each permeant. Coupling coefficients imbedded in the model were numerically determined by a proposed computation method. The model can illustrate not only concentration and diffusivity profiles for the permeants within the membrane, but their transport mechanism, which is consistent with the hypothesis of two layers in the membrane. The analysis of activation energy for transport indicates that the permeation barrier for pervaporation is reduced much more than that of the single-vapor permeation through an unswollen membrane.

  15. Analysis of selected ionic liquid cations by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stepnowski, Piotr; Mrozik, Wojciech

    2005-02-01

    The chromatographic behavior of 8 ionic liquids - 7 homologues of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium - has been investigated with a strong cation exchange adsorbent. In particular, the dependence of the retention properties of these solutes on mobile phase composition, pH, and buffer concentration was evaluated with the aim of optimizing and improving the selectivity and retention of solute separation. While using the SCX stationary phase, several interactions occurred with varying strengths, depending on the mobile phase composition. Cation exchange, nonspecific hydrophobic interactions, and adsorption chromatography behavior were observed. Reversed phase chromatography occurred at low concentrations of acetonitrile, electrostatic and adsorption interactions at higher organic modifier concentrations. Elevated buffer concentrations lowered the retention factors without affecting the selectivity of ionic liquids. Obtained results were further compared to the chromatographic behaviour of ionic liquids in the reversed phase system. All analyzed ionic liquids follow reversed-phase behavior while being separated. Much lower selectivity in the range of highly hydrophilic compounds is obtained. This suggests preferred use of ion chromatography for separation and analysis of compounds below 4 carbon atoms in the alkyl side chain.

  16. A Liquid-Liquid Thermoelectric Heat Exchanger as a Heat Pump for Testing Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Makinen, Janice; Le, Hung V.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of the Phase Change HX payload on the International Space Station (ISS) is to test and demonstrate the viability and performance of Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers (PCM HX). The system was required to pump a working fluid through a PCM HX to promote the phase change material to freeze and thaw as expected on Orion's Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. Due to limitations on ISS's Internal Thermal Control System, a heat pump was needed on the Phase Change HX payload to help with reducing the working fluid's temperature to below 0degC (32degF). This paper will review the design and development of a TEC based liquid-liquid heat exchanger as a way to vary to fluid temperature for the freeze and thaw phase of the PCM HX. Specifically, the paper will review the design of custom coldplates and sizing for the required heat removal of the HX.

  17. Rapid removal of nitrobenzene in a three-phase ozone loaded system with gas-liquid-liquid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Shiyin; Zhu, Jiangpeng; Wang, Guoxiang; Ni, Lixiao; Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the removal rate of nitrobenzene (NB) using a new gas-liquid-liquid (G-L-L) three-phase ozone loaded system consisting of a gaseous ozone, an aqueous solvent phase, and a fluorinated solvent phase (perfluorodecalin, or FDC). The removal rate of NB was quantified in relation to six factors including 1) initial pH, 2) initial NB dosage, 3) gaseous ozone dosage, 4) free radical scavenger, 5) FDC pre-aerated gaseous ozone, and 6) reuse of FDC. The NB removal rate is positively affected by the first three factors. Compared with the conventional gas-liquid (water) (G-L) two-phase ozonation system, the free radical scavenger (tertiary butyl alcohol) has much less influence on the removal rate of NB in the G-L-L system. The FDC loaded ozone acts as an ozone reservoir and serves as the main reactive phase in the G-L-L three-phase system. The reuse of FDC has little influence on the removal rate of NB. These experimental results suggest that the oxidation efficiency of ozonation in the G-L-L three-phase system is better than that in the conventional G-L two-phase system.

  18. Two phase flow of liquids in a narrow gap: Phase interference and hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Salim; Hejazi, S. Hossein; Gates, Ian D.

    2016-07-01

    Co-current flow of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water in a planar fracture, exhibits nonlinear structures which become important in many natural and engineering systems such as subsurface flows, multiphase flows in lubrication joints, and coating flows. In this context, co-current flow of oil and water with variable rates is experimentally studied in a Hele-Shaw cell, various flow regimes are classified, and relative permeabilities for the phases are analysed thoroughly. Similar to multiphase pipe flows, multiphase flow in planar gaps shows various flow regimes, each having different flow rate/pressure gradient behaviour. As well as recovering the known results in the immiscible displacements in Hele-Shaw cell where the fluid-fluid interface remains stable/unstable for favorable/adverse viscosity ratios, it is found that the co-current flow of two fluids with different viscosities results in three distinct flow regimes. Before breakthrough of non-wetting phase, i.e, water, a "linear displacement" flow regime initially establishes at very low water injection rates. This stable movement turns into a "fingering advancement" flow regime at high water flow rates and Saffman-Taylor instability develops normal to the direction of the flow. After the breakthrough, a "droplet formation" flow regime is identified where the droplets of wetting phase, oil, are trapped in the water phase. For subsurface flow applications, we quantify these regimes through relative permeability curves. It is reported that as the water flow rate increases, the relative permeabilities and flow channels become smooth and regular. This behaviour of relative permeability and saturations shows dominance of capillary forces at low flow rates and viscous forces at higher flow rates. Variable injection rates provide the interface structures for both drainage and imbibition process, where the wetting phase saturation decreases and increases respectively. It is shown that relative permeability

  19. Chiral liquid crystals: the vestigial chiral phases of T, O, I matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissinen, Jaakko; Liu, Ke; Slager, Robert-Jan; Wu, Kai; Zaanen, Jan

    We show how chiral order develops in vestigial isotropic phases of T , O and I liquid crystalline systems in three dimensions. The liquid crystal phases are realized in a lattice model of orientational degrees of freedom with point group symmetries G ⊂ O (3) , represented as O (3) -rotors coupled to G gauge fields. The model incorporates also disclinations via the gauge fields, features an ordered nematic phase with unbroken G rotations at low temperatures and a high temperature isotropic liquid phase. We observe an intermediate phase with spontaneous chirality but isotropic SO (3) symmetry (a liquid) for the gauge groups T, O, and I, the proper symmetry groups of the tetrahedron, cube and icosahedron, respectively. For the other subgroups of SO (3) , Cn <= ∞ and Dn <= ∞, there is generically only a single phase transition from the nematic phase to the isotropic liquid. We discuss the nature of the phase transitions and conditions under which the chiral phase is stabilized by the nematic order parameter fluctuations. The nature of the vestigial chiral phase is reminiscent of the so-called Ising nematic phase in iron based superconductors. Research supported by the Netherlands foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM).

  20. Electro-optical behavior of polymer dispersed blue phase liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemiklioglu, E.; Chien, L.-C.

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated a new form of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) electro-optical films comprised of blue phase liquid crystal and polymer prepared by the solvent evaporation method. In this method, polymer dispersed blue phase (PDBP) films, which were laminated between two indium-tin-oxidecoated conductive substrates, demonstrated two switching modes between light scattering and transparent states in response to an applied electric field across the film. The electro-optical properties of PDBP liquid crystals can be altered by changing the concentrations of liquid crystal and polymer. The compositions, film preparations, physical and morphological behaviors, and electro-optical properties of PDBP films are described.

  1. Direct Imaging of Carbon Nanotube Liquid-Crystalline Phase Development in True Solutions.

    PubMed

    Kleinerman, Olga; Liberman, Lucy; Behabtu, Natnael; Pasquali, Matteo; Cohen, Yachin; Talmon, Yeshayahu

    2017-04-13

    Using direct-imaging cryogenic transmission and scanning electron microscopy, we show different stages of liquid-crystalline phase development in progressively more concentrated solutions of carbon nanotubes in chlorosulfonic acid: a dilute phase of individually dissolved carbon nanotubes; semidilute and concentrated isotropic phases; coexisting concentrated isotropic and nematic phases in local equilibrium with each other; and a fully liquid-crystalline phase. Nanometric resolution of cryogenic electron microscopy reveals carbon nanotube self-assembly into liquid-crystalline domains of several nanometers in width at very early stages. We find significant differences in carbon nanotube liquid-crystalline domain morphology as a function of the carbon nanotube aspect ratio, diameter, and degree of purity.

  2. Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Li, Qing; Hu, Kai

    2013-10-01

    A polarization independent switchable phase grating based on polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal is proposed. A high efficiency of the phase grating has been achieved because of the sharp rectangular phase profile which shows good agreement with the simulation results. The diffraction efficiency of the 1st order is 38%, the response time is in the submillisecond range, and the phase grating is independent of the polarization of the incident light. The voltage-induced hysteresis characteristics are also investigated.

  3. Phase equilibria in ionic liquid-aromatic compound mixtures, including benzene fluorination effects.

    PubMed

    Blesic, Marijana; Lopes, José N Canongia; Pádua, Agílio A H; Shimizu, Karina; Gomes, Margarida F Costa; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N

    2009-05-28

    This work extends the scope of previous studies on the phase behavior of mixtures of ionic liquids with benzenes or its derivatives by determining the solid-liquid and liquid-liquid phase diagrams of mixtures containing an ionic liquid and a fluorinated benzene. The systems studied include 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide plus hexafluorobenzene or 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate or N-ethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide plus benzene. The phase diagrams exhibit different kinds of solid-liquid behavior: the (usual) occurrence of eutectic points; the (not-so-usual) presence of congruent melting points and the corresponding formation of inclusion crystals; or the observation of different ionic liquid crystalline phases (polymorphism). These different types of behavior can be controlled by temperature annealing during crystallization or by the nature of the aromatic compound and can be interpreted, at a molecular level, taking into account the structure of the crystals or liquid mixtures, together with the unique characteristics of ionic liquids, namely the dual nature of their interactions with aromatic compounds.

  4. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, N. R.; Chimankar, O. P.; Bhandakkar, V. D.; Padole, N. N.

    2012-12-01

    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.

  5. Dielectric spectroscopy of isotropic liquids and liquid crystal phases with dispersed graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zangana, Shakhawan; Iliut, Maria; Boran, Gökçen; Turner, Michael; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Dierking, Ingo

    2016-08-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) flakes of different sizes were prepared and dispersed in isotropic and nematic (anisotropic) fluid media. The dielectric relaxation behaviour of GO-dispersions was examined for a wide temperature (25-60 oC) and frequency range (100 Hz-2 MHz). The mixtures containing GO flakes exhibited varying dielectric relaxation processes, depending on the size of the flakes and the elastic properties of the dispersant fluid. Relaxation frequencies of the GO doped isotropic media, such as isopropanol IPA, were observed to be much lower than the GO doped thermotropic nematic medium 5CB. It is anticipated that the slow relaxation frequencies (~10 kHz) could be resulting from the relaxation modes of the GO flakes while the fast relaxation frequencies (~100 kHz) could indicate strongly slowed down molecular modes of the nematogenic molecules, which are anchored to the GO flakes via dispersion interactions. The relaxation frequencies decreased as the size of the GO flakes in the isotropic solvent was increased. Polarizing microscopy showed that GO flakes with a mean diameter of 10 μm, dispersed in water, formed a lyotropic nematic liquid crystal phase. This lyotropic nematic exhibited the slowest dielectric relaxation process, with relaxation frequencies in the order of 2 kHz, as compared to the GO-isotropic suspension and the GO-doped 5CB.

  6. Dielectric spectroscopy of isotropic liquids and liquid crystal phases with dispersed graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zangana, Shakhawan; Iliut, Maria; Boran, Gökçen; Turner, Michael; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Dierking, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) flakes of different sizes were prepared and dispersed in isotropic and nematic (anisotropic) fluid media. The dielectric relaxation behaviour of GO-dispersions was examined for a wide temperature (25–60 oC) and frequency range (100 Hz–2 MHz). The mixtures containing GO flakes exhibited varying dielectric relaxation processes, depending on the size of the flakes and the elastic properties of the dispersant fluid. Relaxation frequencies of the GO doped isotropic media, such as isopropanol IPA, were observed to be much lower than the GO doped thermotropic nematic medium 5CB. It is anticipated that the slow relaxation frequencies (~10 kHz) could be resulting from the relaxation modes of the GO flakes while the fast relaxation frequencies (~100 kHz) could indicate strongly slowed down molecular modes of the nematogenic molecules, which are anchored to the GO flakes via dispersion interactions. The relaxation frequencies decreased as the size of the GO flakes in the isotropic solvent was increased. Polarizing microscopy showed that GO flakes with a mean diameter of 10 μm, dispersed in water, formed a lyotropic nematic liquid crystal phase. This lyotropic nematic exhibited the slowest dielectric relaxation process, with relaxation frequencies in the order of 2 kHz, as compared to the GO-isotropic suspension and the GO-doped 5CB. PMID:27555475

  7. Liquid Phase Sintering of Boron-Containing Powder Metallurgy Steel with Chromium and Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Wei; Fan, Yu-Chi; Huang, Her-Yueh; Cai, Wen-Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Liquid phase sintering is an effective method to improve the densification of powder metallurgy materials. Boron is an excellent alloying element for liquid phase sintering of Fe-based materials. However, the roles of chromium and carbon, and particularly that of the former, on liquid phase sintering are still undetermined. This study demonstrated the effects of chromium and carbon on the microstructure, elemental distribution, boride structure, liquid formation, and densification of Fe-B-Cr and Fe-B-Cr-C steels during liquid phase sintering. The results showed that steels with 0.5 wt pct C densify faster than those without 0.5 wt pct C. Moreover, although only one liquid phase forms in Fe-B-Cr steel, adding 0.5 wt pct C reduces the formation temperature of the liquid phase by about 50 K (°C) and facilitates the formation of an additional liquid, resulting in better densification at 1473 K (1200 °C). In both Fe-B-Cr and Fe-B-Cr-C steels, increasing the chromium content from 1.5 to 3 wt pct raises the temperature of liquid formation by about 10 K (°C). Thermodynamic simulations and experimental results demonstrated that carbon atoms dissolved in austenite facilitate the eutectic reaction and reduce the formation temperature of the liquid phase. In contrast, both chromium and molybdenum atoms dissolved in austenite delay the eutectic reaction. Furthermore, the 3Cr-0.5Mo additive in the Fe-0.4B steel does not change the typical boride structure of M2B. With the addition of 0.5 wt pct C, the crystal structure is completely transformed from M2B boride to M3(B,C) boro-carbide.

  8. Changes in adsorption and optical properties of liquid crystal langmuir films at structural phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, V. B.; Levshin, N. L.; Khlybov, S. V.; Yudin, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    The adsorption isotherms of water molecules, absorption spectra, and spectra of diffuse scattering and polarization of reflected light are studied for ultrathin Langmuir films prepared based on liquid crystals. A structural phase transition near 70°C is detected. Some specific features of the reflection spectra at the phase transition temperature are found. Suggestions are made regarding the nature of the phase transition.

  9. New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Philip John

    1996-04-23

    This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

  10. The phase diagram of molybdenum at extreme conditions and the role of local liquid structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M

    2008-08-15

    Recent DAC measurements made of the Mo melting curve by the x-ray diffraction studies confirms that, up to at least 110 GPa (3300K) melting is directly from bcc to liquid, evidence that there is no basis for a speculated bcc-hcp or fcc transition. An examination of the Poisson Ratio, obtained from shock sound speed measurements, provides evidence that the 210 GPa (4100K) transition detected from shock experiments is a continuation of the bcc-liquid melting, but is from a bcc-to a solid-like mixed phase rather than to liquid. Calculations, modeled to include the free energy of liquid local structures, predict that the transition from the liquid to the mixed phase is near 150 GPa(3500K). The presence of local structures provides the simplest and most direct explanation for the Mo phase diagram, and the low melting slopes.

  11. Applications of liquid-phase microextraction techniques in natural product analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yunyan; Chen, Xuan; Hu, Shuang; Bai, Xiaohong

    2014-11-14

    Over the last years, liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) as a simple, rapid, practical and effective sample-preparation technique, coupled with various instrumental analytical methods, has been increasingly and widely used to research and determine trace or ultra-micro-levels of both inorganic and organic analytes from different matrix-complex samples. In this review, different kinds of LPMEs such as single drop liquid-phase microextraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction are summarized and recent applications of LPMEs in trace compounds in vivo and in vitro from different natural product matrice analysis such as tea, vegetables, seeds, herbs, and galenical are also discussed. Finally, future developments and applications of LPMEs in complex sample analysis are prospected.

  12. Formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal composites by a surface-controlled anisotropic phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hong; Khoo, Iam Choon; Yu, Chang-Jae; Jung, Min-Sik; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2005-01-10

    We report on formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal (PLC) composites using a surface-controlled phase separation method. The binary nature of the PLC phase gratings is produced by employing a single step photo-ablation through an amplitude photomask which precisely controls the interfacial interactions between the LC and the photopolymer on the alignment layer. A subsequent illumination of the ultraviolet light onto the whole PLC promotes an anisotropic phase separation resulting in the formation of distinct binary patterns for the PLC structure. The electrically tunable diffraction properties of the binary phase gratings are presented.

  13. Phase conversion and interface growth in phase-separated 3He - 4He liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Haruka; Satoh, Takeo; Burmistrov, Serguei N.

    2005-10-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the transmission coefficient of a sound propagating through the interface in phase-separated He3-He4 liquid mixtures. The method and the results are described with discussions by examining the phase-conversion process of He3 quasiparticles driven to flow across the interface. From the data, we have determined the kinetic growth coefficient of the interface, ξ(T,P,ω) , as a function of temperature, pressure, and frequency. The temperature range of the present investigation is about 2-100mK at the pressure mainly around 1bar with sound frequency 9.64, 14.4, and 32.4MHz . The main specific features observed for the kinetic growth coefficient are, as follows: (i) there is a maximum at some temperature Tm(ω) depending on the frequency, (ii) above Tm(ω) , ξ decreases with the increase of temperature as ∝ω5/2T-3 , and (iii) below Tm(ω) , ξ becomes frequency independent and diminishes as a cube of temperature, T3 .

  14. Properties of columns with several pyridinium and imidazolium ionic liquid stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Shashkov, M V; Sidelnikov, V N

    2013-09-27

    Recent advances in the development of new liquid phases (ILs) made it possible to use some classes of ILs as polar stationary liquid phases (SLP). In our days only alkylimidazolium- and alkylphosphonium-based ILs are widely used as polar SLP. In present work some other types of ILs - pyridinium and cyanopropyl/hydroxypropyl imidazolium were investigated as SLP. Columns with efficiencies 2000-2500 plates/m by high-pressure static method were prepared. Polarity and selectivity of these phases were measured. Selectivity was described in terms of intermolecular interactions by using Abraham solvatation parameter model. The set of the regularities between cation structure of ionic liquid and selectivity has been shown. The number and position of methyl groups in ionic liquid pyridinium ring were shown to have the sufficient influence on all type of molecular interactions. Finally the resolutions of test mixture for the several ionic liquid SLP were obtained. For columns with some ionic liquids the dependencies of the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) and sample loading capacity were obtained and compared with the conventional phases. It was found that the optimal efficiency for the IL columns is attained at lower carrier gas velocities in comparison with traditional phases. Nevetheless sample loading capacity of IL phases is comparable to those of conventional GC phases.

  15. Quasi-liquid layer theory based on the bulk first-order phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhkin, I. A. Petrenko, V. F.

    2009-01-15

    The theory of the superionic phase transition (bulk first-order transition) proposed in [1] is used to explain the existence of a quasi-liquid layer at an ice surface below its melting point. An analytical expression is derived for the quasi-liquid layer thickness. Numerical estimates are made and compared with experiment. Distinction is made between the present model and other quasi-liquid layer theories.

  16. Paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition in achiral liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pociecha, Damian; Gorecka, Ewa; Čepič, Mojca; Vaupotič, Nataša; Gomola, Kinga; Mieczkowski, Jozef

    2005-12-01

    Critical freezing of molecular rotation in an achiral smectic phase, which leads to polar ordering through the second order paraelectric-antiferroelectric (Sm-A→Sm-APA) phase transition is studied theoretically and experimentally. Strong softening of the polar mode in the Sm-A phase and highly intensive dielectric mode in the Sm-APA phase are observed due to weak antiferroelectric interactions in the system. In the Sm-APA phase the dielectric response behaves critically upon biasing by a dc electric field. Such a behavior is found general for the antiferroelectric smectic phase with significant quadrupolar interlayer coupling.

  17. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  18. Reversed-phase liquid chromatographic determination of cromolyn sodium in drug substance and select dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Ng, L L

    1994-01-01

    This study, presented as a technical communication, describes a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method for select commercial formulations, namely, inhalation solution, nasal solution, capsule and inhalation aerosol. Miscellaneous validation parameters are also discussed.

  19. Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  20. HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was obtained on polysaccharide enantioselective HPLC columns using alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, fonofos, fenamiph...

  1. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  2. Investigating the Retention Mechanisms of Liquid Chromatography Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mary E.; Musial, Beata A.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.; Ca, Diep

    2009-01-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) experiments for the undergraduate analytical laboratory course often illustrate the application of reversed-phase LC to solve a separation problem, but rarely compare LC retention mechanisms. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography instrument may be beyond what some small colleges can purchase. Solid-phase…

  3. Active role of the liquid phase of developer in revealing surface flaws by capillary methods

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorenko, P.P.; Dezhkunov, N.V.; Stoicheva, I.V.

    1988-08-01

    The article investigates the interaction of two chemically nonreacting liquids after they have been brought into contact with each other in a capillary. It is established that the liquid phase of the developer is not only a passive carrier of the developing component but also exerts an active influence on the process of development, and consequently, on the detectability of flaws.

  4. Thermodynamics and phase behavior of acid-tethered block copolymers with ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ha Young; Park, Moon Jeong

    2016-12-21

    We investigate the phase behavior of acid-tethered block copolymers with and without ionic liquids. Two phosphonated block copolymers and their sulfonated analogs were synthesized by fine-tuning the degree of polymerization and the acid content. The block copolymers carrying acid groups with ionic liquids exhibited rich phase sequences, i.e., disorder-lamellae (LAM), gyroid-LAM, gyroid-hexagonal cylinder (HEX), and gyroid-A15 lattice, and the cation/anion ratio in the ionic liquid exerted profound effects on the segregation strength and topology of the self-assembled structures. Additionally, using ionic liquids with excessive cation content was found to enhance the effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, χeff, of the samples. However, as the anion content of the ionic liquids increased the segregation strength decreased. This is attributed to the packing frustration accompanied by the prevailing repulsive electrostatic interactions of the anions in the ionic liquid and the polymer matrix. As the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquids increased, well-defined ordered phases emerged in the phosphonated block copolymers with increased anion content, contrary to the disordered phases of the sulfonated samples. Thus, the balance between solvation energy of the anions and the electrostatic interactions is a key determinant of the thermodynamics of acid-tethered block copolymers containing ionic liquids.

  5. Conformational preferences of 1-amino-2-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a phenylalanine cyclohexane analogue

    PubMed Central

    Alemán, Carlos; Jiménez, Ana I.; Cativiela, Carlos; Nussinov, Ruth; Casanovas, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic conformational preferences of the restricted phenylalanine analogue generated by including the α and β carbon atoms into a cyclohexane ring (1-amino-2-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid, c6Phe) have been determined using quantum mechanical calculations. Specifically, the conformational profile of the N-acetyl-N’-methylamide derivative of the c6Phe stereoisomers exhibiting either a cis or a trans relative orientation between the amino and phenyl substituents has been analyzed in different environments (gas phase, chloroform and aqueous solutions). Calculations were performed using B3LYP, MP2 and HF methods combined with the 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets, and a self-consistent reaction-field (SCRF) method was applied to analyze the influence of the solvent. The amino acids investigated can be viewed as constrained phenylalanine analogues with a rigidly oriented aromatic side chain that may interact with the peptide backbone not only sterically but also electronically through the aromatic π orbitals. Their conformational propensities have been found to be strongly influenced by the specific orientation of the aromatic substituent in each stereoisomer and the conformation adopted by the cyclohexane ring, as well as by the environment. PMID:19772338

  6. Selective oxidation of cyclohexane using Ce1-xMnxO2 nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Selvamani, A; Selvaraj, M; Gurulakshmi, M; Ramya, R; Shanthi, K

    2014-04-01

    The Ce1-xMnxO2 nanocatalysts (x = 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 wt.%) were synthesized by sol-gel method. The catalysts were characterized using various techniques such as XRD, N2 sorption study, DRSUV-Vis, TPR, SEM and TEM. The incorporation of Mn ions into the ceria lattice was confirmed by XRD analysis. DRUV-Vis spectra confirm the presence of Ce3+ ions in the lattice of Ce1-xMnxO2. H2-TPR study revealed the oxygen storage capacity of the catalyst. The 3D flowerlike morphology of the nanocatalysts was confirmed from FESEM and HRTEM images. The catalytic activity was tested for the vapor phase oxidation of cyclohexane using air as an oxidant. The key reaction parameters were varied to study the stability, activity and selectivity of the catalysts. The study concluded that suitable amount of manganese content is essential for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane at low temperature and Ce0.25Mn0.75O2 is the most suitable catalyst for high conversion and selectivity under the given reaction conditions. The activity of the catalyst is correlated with the characterization results.

  7. Use of free silicon in liquid phase sintering of silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOEpatents

    Raj, Rishi; Baik, Sunggi

    1985-11-12

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic.

  8. V-structures of ethylene glycol and monoethanolamine in the temperature range of the liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabaev, N. K.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Solonina, I. A.; Shirokova, E. V.; Sirotkin, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Vibration-averaged V-structures for liquid ethylene glycol (EG) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are found in the temperature range of the solvents' liquid phase by means of molecular dynamics. The obtained V-structures' characteristics are compared to X-ray diffraction data on the crystalline phases of these compounds. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental data is observed. The V-structures are compared to that of water.

  9. Double phase (liquid/gas) xenon scintillation detector for WIMPs direct search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, M.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Suzuki, S.

    2003-10-01

    A double phase (liquid/gas) xenon prototype detector of a 0.3 l active volume for WIMPs direct search has been constructed and tested. Proportional scintillation signals are observed by a multi-wire anode mounted in gas phase after ionization electrons drifted successfully long distance in liquid xenon. Both direct and proportional scintillation were used to discriminate electron recoil from nuclear recoil. Basic performances of the detector and the rejection efficiency of background gamma rays were demonstrated.

  10. Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste Processing Facilities - Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, R.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  11. Evaluation of mercury in liquid waste processing facilities - Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Edwards, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  12. Use of free silicon in liquid phase sintering of silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOEpatents

    Raj, R.; Baik, S.

    1985-11-12

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic. 4 figs.

  13. A two-phase model for subcooled and superheated liquid jets

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidhar, R.; Jersey, G.R.; Krambeck, F.J.; Sundaresan, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a two-phase jet model for predicting the liquid rainout (capture) and composition of subcooled and superheated HF/additive pressurized liquid releases. The parent droplets of the release mixture constitute the fist phase. The second phase can in general be a vapor-liquid fog. The drops are not in equilibrium with the fog phase with which they exchange mass and energy. The fog at any location is assumed to be in local equilibrium. Correlations are developed for predicting the initial drop size for hydrodynamic breakup of jets. Applications are discussed in this paper for HF/additive mixtures. The fog phase calculations account for HF oligomerization and HF-water complex formation in the vapor phase and equilibrium between the liquid and vapor in the fog. The model incorporates jet trajectory calculations and hence can predict the amount of liquid rained out (liquid capture) and the capture distance. The HF captures predicted by the model for various release conditions are in agreement with small and large scale release experiments.

  14. Phase grating wavefront curvature sensor based on liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Li, Xiaoyang; Yang, Xu

    2015-08-01

    The phase grating wavefront curvature sensor based on liquid crystal spatial light modulator is introduced. A close-loop phase retrieval method based on Eigen functions of Laplacian is proposed, and its accuracy and efficiency are analyzed through numerical experiments of atmospheric phase retrieval. The results show that the close-loop phase retrieval method has a high accuracy. Moreover, it is stable regardless of modal cross coupling.

  15. Direct Raman evidence for a weak continuous phase transition in liquid water.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Natalie K; Dillon, Stephanie R; Dougherty, Ralph C; Galligan, Dawn K; Howard, Louis N

    2006-06-22

    This paper presents the Raman depolarization ratio of degassed ultrapure water as a function of temperature, in the range 303.4-314.4 K (30.2-41.2 degrees C). The pressure of the sample was the vapor pressure of water at the measurement temperature. The data provide a direct indication of the existence of a phase transition in the liquid at 307.7 K, 5.8 kPa (34.6 degrees C, 0.057 atm). The minimum in the heat capacity, C(p)(), of water occurs at 34.5 degrees C, 1.0 atm (J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 1939, 23, 197(1)). The minimum in C(p)() is shallow, and the transition is a weak-continuous phase transition. The pressure coefficient of the viscosity of water changes sign as pressure increases for temperatures below 35 degrees C (Nature 1965, 207, 620(2)). The viscosity minimum tracks the liquid phase transition in the P, T plane where it connects with the minimum in the freezing point of pure water in the same plane (Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 1911-12, 47, 441(3)). Previously we argued (J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 109, 7379(4)) that the minimum in the pressure coefficient of viscosity signaled the elimination of three-dimensional connectivity in liquid water. These observations coupled with recent measurements of the coordination shell of water near 300 K (Science 2004, 304, 995(5)) suggest that the structural component that changes during the phase transition is tetrahedrally coordinated water. At temperatures above the transition, there is no tetrahedrally coordinated water in the liquid and locally planar water structures dominate the liquid structure. Water is a structured liquid with distinct local structures that vary with temperature. Furthermore, liquid water has a liquid-liquid phase transition near the middle of the normal liquid range.

  16. Frustrated smectic liquid crystalline phases in lactic acid derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glogarová, M.; Novotná, V.

    2016-08-01

    We have prepared and studied a series of compounds with different types of molecular core and lactate unit in the chiral terminal chain. We draw a survey and comparison of their mesomorphic properties with respect to the occurrence of twist grain boundary (TGB) phases. The materials exhibit extremely wide TGBA phase more than 60K broad, unique TGBA-TGBC-SmC*-SmCA* phase sequence and unique re-entrant TGBA phase below the SmA phase. TGB phases have been induced in binary mixtures of molecules with different molecular shape and chirality (chiral lactic acid derivative and non-chiral hockey-stick mesogen). Unique effect is observed for compounds with TGBA phase, where the applied electric field transforms the planar texture into the homeotropic one, homogeneously dark in crossed polarizers. The process is analogy of the Frederiks transition so far known only for nematics. This effect, changing the bright state to the dark one, is promising for applications.

  17. Phase diagrams of mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external field

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2014-11-14

    We present a mean field theory to describe phase behaviors in mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external magnetic or electric field. Taking into account a chiral coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal under the external field, we examine twist-untwist phase transitions and phase separations in the mixtures. It is found that a cholesteric-nematic phase transition can be induced by not only the external field but also concentration and temperature. Depending on the strength of the external field, we predict cholesteric-paranematic (Ch+pN), nematic-paranematic (N+pN), cholesteric-nematic (Ch+N) phase separations, etc., on the temperature-concentration plane. We also discuss mixtures of a non-chiral nematic liquid crystal and a chiral dopant.

  18. Temperature tuning of lasing emission from dye-doped liquid crystal at intermediate twisted phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Ja-Hon; Jian, Li-Hao; Chen, Yao-Hui; Wu, Jin-Jei

    2015-07-01

    Temperature tuning of lasing emission from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) at intermediate twisted phase has been demonstrated in this work. With heavily doping of 42.5% chiral molecules into the nematic liquid crystals, the shifts of photonic bandgap versus temperature is obviously as thermal controlling of the sample below the certain value. By the differential scanning calorimetr measuremet, we demonstrate the phase transition from the CLC to the smectic phase when the temperature is lowered to be about 15°C. Between CLC and smectic phase, the liquid crystal mixtures are operated at intermediate twisted phase that can be used the temperature related refractive mirror. After pump by the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, the lasing emission from this dye doped LC mixtures has been demonstrated whose emission wavelength can be tuned from 566 to 637 nm with 1.4°C variation.

  19. Opalescence of an IgG2 monoclonal antibody solution as it relates to liquid-liquid phase separation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Bruce D; Zhang, Le; Remmele, Richard L; Zhang, Jifeng

    2011-11-01

    Opalescence for a monoclonal antibody solution was systematically studied with respect to temperature, protein concentration, ionic strength (using KCl), and pH conditions. Multiple techniques, including measurement of light scattering at 90° and transmission, Tyndall test, and microscopy, were deployed to examine the opalescence behavior. Near the vicinity of the critical point on the liquid-liquid coexistence curve in the temperature-protein concentration phase diagram, the enhanced concentration fluctuations significantly contributed to the critical opalescence evidently by formation of small liquid droplets. Furthermore, our data confirm that away from the critical point, the opalescence behavior is related to the antibody self-association (agglomeration) caused by the attractive antibody-antibody interactions. As expected, at a pH near the pI of the antibody, the solution became less opalescent as the ionic strength increased. However, at a pH below the pI, the opalescence of the solution became stronger, reached a maximum, and then began to drop as the ionic strength further increased. The change in the opalescence correlated well with the trends of protein-protein interactions revealed by the critical temperature from the liquid-liquid phase separation.

  20. Liquid-crystal phase grating based on in-plane switching.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, I

    2001-12-01

    A simple phase grating is constructed by insertion of a liquid-crystal layer between two glass plates, upon one of which a pair of transparent interdigitated electrodes is formed. With a bias application, liquid-crystal molecules align themselves along the electric field lines, which are substantially parallel to the glass plates. By controlling the degree of this in-plane switching for the liquid-crystal molecules, one can generate various phase-shift distributions for the light passing through the device. The grating characteristics are altered accordingly. Versatile design and ease of fabrication are potential advantages of this device for some future applications.

  1. Liquid Disordered-Liquid Ordered Phase Coexistence in Lipid/Cholesterol Mixtures: A Deuterium 2D NMR Exchange Study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Miranda L; Davis, James H

    2017-02-28

    Model membranes composed of two types of long chain phospholipids, one unsaturated and one saturated, along with cholesterol can exhibit two coexisting fluid phases (liquid disordered ([Formula: see text]) and liquid ordered ([Formula: see text])) at various temperatures and compositions. Here we used 1D and 2D (2)H NMR to compare the behavior of multilamellar dispersions, magnetically oriented bicelles, and mechanically aligned bilayers on glass plates, all of which contain the same proportions of dipalmitoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DPoPC), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), and cholesterol. We found that multilamellar dispersions and bilayers aligned on glass plates behave very similarly. These samples were close to a critical composition and exhibit exchange of the lipids between the two fluid phases at temperatures near the [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] phase boundary. On the other hand, when a short chain lipid is added to the ternary long chain lipid/cholesterol mixture to form bicelles, the phase behavior is changed significantly and the [Formula: see text] phase occurs at a higher than expected temperature. In addition, there was no evidence of exchange of lipids between the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] phases or critical fluctuations at the temperature where the bulk of the sample enters the two-phase region for these bicelles. It appears that the addition of the short chain lipid results in these samples no longer being near a critical composition.

  2. Cloud Point and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Behavior of Thermosensitive Polymer L61 and Salt Aqueous Two-Phase System.

    PubMed

    Rao, Wenwei; Wang, Yun; Han, Juan; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tong; Liu, Yan; Ni, Liang

    2015-06-25

    The cloud point of thermosensitive triblock polymer L61, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO), was determined in the presence of various electrolytes (K2HPO4, (NH4)3C6H5O7, and K3C6H5O7). The cloud point of L61 was lowered by the addition of electrolytes, and the cloud point of L61 decreased linearly with increasing electrolyte concentration. The efficacy of electrolytes on reducing cloud point followed the order: K3C6H5O7 > (NH4)3C6H5O7 > K2HPO4. With the increase in salt concentration, aqueous two-phase systems exhibited a phase inversion. In addition, increasing the temperature reduced the concentration of salt needed that could promote phase inversion. The phase diagrams and liquid-liquid equilibrium data of the L61-K2HPO4/(NH4)3C6H5O7/K3C6H5O7 aqueous two-phase systems (before the phase inversion but also after phase inversion) were determined at T = (25, 30, and 35) °C. Phase diagrams of aqueous two-phase systems were fitted to a four-parameter empirical nonlinear expression. Moreover, the slopes of the tie-lines and the area of two-phase region in the diagram have a tendency to rise with increasing temperature. The capacity of different salts to induce aqueous two-phase system formation was the same order as the ability of salts to reduce the cloud point.

  3. Incorporation of ionic liquid into porous polymer monoliths to enhance the separation of small molecules in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiafei; Bai, Ligai; Wei, Zhen; Qin, Junxiao; Ma, Yamin; Liu, Haiyan

    2015-06-01

    An ionic liquid was incorporated into the porous polymer monoliths to afford stationary phases with enhanced chromatographic performance for small molecules in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The effect of the ionic liquid in the polymerization mixture on the performance of the monoliths was studied in detail. While monoliths without ionic liquid exhibited poor resolution and low efficiency, the addition of ionic liquid to the polymerization mixture provides highly increased resolution and high efficiency. The chromatographic performances of the monoliths were demonstrated by the separations of various small molecules including aromatic hydrocarbons, isomers, and homologues using a binary polar mobile phase. The present column efficiency reached 27 000 plates/m, which showed that the ionic liquid monoliths are alternative stationary phases in the separation of small molecules by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  4. Analysis of Developing Gas/liquid Two-Phase Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Elena A. Tselishcheva; Michael Z. Podowski; Steven P. Antal; Donna Post Guillen; Matthias Beyer; Dirk Lucas

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a mechanistically based CFD model that can be used to simulate process equipment operating in the churn-turbulent regime. The simulations were performed using a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics code, NPHASE–CMFD [Antal et al,2000]. A complete four-field model, including the continuous liquid field and three dispersed gas fields representing bubbles of different sizes, was first carefully tested for numerical convergence and accuracy, and then used to reproduce the experimental results from the TOPFLOW test facility at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. Institute of Safety Research [Prasser et al,2007]. Good progress has been made in simulating the churn-turbulent flows and comparison the NPHASE-CMFD simulations with TOPFLOW experimental data. The main objective of the paper is to demonstrate capability to predict the evolution of adiabatic churn-turbulent gas/liquid flows. The proposed modelling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for dispersed bubble fields [Tselishcheva et al, 2009]. Along with closure laws based on interaction between bubbles and continuous liquid, the effect of height on air density has been included in the model. The figure below presents the developing flow results of the study, namely total void fraction at different axial locations along the TOPFLOW facility test section. The complete model description, as well as results of simulations and validation will be presented in the full paper.

  5. Single-phase liquid jet impingement heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, B.W.; Ma, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    Impinging liquid jets have been demonstrated to be an effective means of providing high heat/mass transfer rates in industrial transport processes. When a liquid jet strikes a surface, thin hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers from in the region directly beneath due to the jet deceleration and the resulting increase in pressure. The flow is then forced to accelerate in a direction parallel to the target surface in what is termed the wall jet or parallel flow zone. The thickness of the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers in the stagnation region may be of the order of tens of micrometers. Consequently, very high heat/mass transfer coefficients exist in the stagnation zone directly under the jet. Transport coefficients characteristic of parallel flow prevail in the wall jet region. The high heat transfer coefficients make liquid jet impingement an attractive cooling option where high heat fluxes are the norm. Some industrial applications include the thermal treatment of metals, cooling of internal combustion engines, and more recently, thermal control of high-heat-dissipation electronic devices. Both circular and planar liquid jets have attracted research attention. 180 refs., 35 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Student Understanding of Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Andrew; Campbell, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Student understanding of the equilibrium coexistence of a liquid and its vapor was the subject of an extended investigation. Written assessment questions were administered to undergraduates enrolled in introductory physics and chemistry courses. Responses have been analyzed to document conceptual and reasoning difficulties in sufficient detail to…

  7. Gold nanoparticle decorated graphene oxide/silica composite stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xusheng; Ren, Haixia; Jiang, Shengxiang; Wang, Licheng; Liu, Shujuan

    2014-06-01

    In the initial phase of this study, graphene oxide (GO)/silica was fabricated by assembling GO onto the silica particles, and then gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were used to modify the GO/silica to prepare a novel stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography. The new stationary phase could be used in both reversed-phase chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography modes. Good separations of alkylbenzenes, isomerides, amino acids, nucleosides, and nucleobases were achieved in both modes. Compared with the GO/silica phase and GNPs/silica phase, it is found that except for hydrophilicity, large π-electron systems, hydrophobicity, and coordination functions, this new stationary phase also exhibited special separation performance due to the combination of 2D GO with zero-dimensional GNPs.

  8. Influence of ester functional groups on the liquid-phase structure and solvation properties of imidazolium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Pensado, Alfonso S; Pádua, Agílio A H; Costa Gomes, Margarida F

    2011-04-14

    The incorporation of ester functions in the side chains in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations seems to increase the biodegradability of these ionic liquids. We study here how the presence of ester functional groups affects the liquid-state structure (namely, the microphase segregation between polar and nonpolar domains in these ionic liquids) and the way in which the solvation of gases can be understood in these solvents. We use molecular simulation to study the structure of the ionic liquids 3-methyl-1-(pentoxycarbonylmethyl)imidazolium octylsulfate, [C(1)COOC(5)C(1)im][C(8)SO(4)]; and 3-methyl-1-(pentoxycarbonylmethyl)imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C(1)COOC(5)C(1)im][NTf(2)] in the liquid phase and to assess the molecular mechanisms of solvation of carbon dioxide and ethane. The presence of ester functions influences the relative size of the polar and nonpolar domains in the ionic liquids, but does not significantly affect the solvation of gases.

  9. Phase equilibria and modeling of ammonium ionic liquid, C2NTf2, solutions.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Marciniak, Andrzej; Królikowski, Marek

    2008-01-31

    Novel quaternary ammonium ionic liquid, ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylammonium bis(trifluomethylsulfonyl)imide (C2NTf2), has been prepared from N,N-dimethylethanolamine as a substrate. The paper includes a specific basic characterization of the synthesized compound by NMR and the basic thermophysical properties: the melting point, enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of solid-solid phase transition, glass transition determined by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature of decomposition, and water content. The density of the new compound was measured. The solid-liquid or liquid-liquid phase equilibria of binary mixtures containing {C2NTf2+water or an alcohol (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol, decan-1-ol), aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene), aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-octane), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or tetrahydrofuran (THF)} have been measured by a dynamic method in a wide range of temperatures from 230 to 430 K. These data were correlated by means of the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) equation utilizing temperature-dependent parameters derived from the solid-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibrium. From the solubility results, the negative value of the partition coefficient of ionic liquid in binary system octan-1-ol/water (log P) at 298.15 K has been calculated.

  10. Dynamic evolution of liquid–liquid phase separation during continuous cooling

    DOE PAGES

    Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Katz, Martha R.; ...

    2015-01-06

    Solidification from a multiphase fluid involves many unknown quantities due to the difficulty of predicting the impact of fluid flow on chemical partitioning. Real-time x-ray radiography was used to observe liquid-liquid phase separation in Al90In10 prior to solidification. Quantitative image analysis was used to measure the motion and population characteristics of the dispersed indium-rich liquid phase during cooling. Here we determine that the droplet growth characteristics resemble well known steady-state coarsening laws with likely enhancement by concurrent growth due to supersaturation. Simplistic views of droplet motion are found to be insufficient until late in the reaction due to a hydrodynamicmore » instability caused by the large density difference between the dispersed and matrix liquid phases.« less

  11. Dynamic evolution of liquid–liquid phase separation during continuous cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Katz, Martha R.; Ott, Thomas J.; Patterson, Brian M.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Cooley, Jason C.; Clarke, Amy J.

    2015-01-06

    Solidification from a multiphase fluid involves many unknown quantities due to the difficulty of predicting the impact of fluid flow on chemical partitioning. Real-time x-ray radiography was used to observe liquid-liquid phase separation in Al90In10 prior to solidification. Quantitative image analysis was used to measure the motion and population characteristics of the dispersed indium-rich liquid phase during cooling. Here we determine that the droplet growth characteristics resemble well known steady-state coarsening laws with likely enhancement by concurrent growth due to supersaturation. Simplistic views of droplet motion are found to be insufficient until late in the reaction due to a hydrodynamic instability caused by the large density difference between the dispersed and matrix liquid phases.

  12. Empty liquid phase of colloidal ellipsoids: the role of shape and interaction anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Varga, Szabolcs; Meneses-Júarez, Efrain; Odriozola, Gerardo

    2014-04-07

    We study the effect of anisotropic excluded volume and attractive interactions on the vapor-liquid phase transition of colloidal ellipsoids. In our model, the hard ellipsoid is embedded into an ellipsoidal well, where both the shape of the hard ellipsoid and that of the added enclosing ellipsoidal well can be varied independently. The bulk properties of these particles are examined by means of a van der Waals type perturbation theory and validated with replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that both the critical volume fraction (ηc) and the critical temperature (Tc) of the vapor-liquid phase transition vanish with increasing shape anisotropy for oblate shapes, while ηc → 0 and Tc ≠ 0 are obtained for very elongated prolate shapes. These results suggest that the chance to stabilize empty liquids (a liquid phase with vanishing density) is higher in suspensions of rod-like colloidal ellipsoids than in those of plate-like ones.

  13. Determination of three estrogens and bisphenol A by functional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuehuang; Tang, Tingting; Cao, Zhen; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2015-06-01

    A hydroxyl-functionalized ionic liquid, 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was employed in an improved dispersive liquid-phase microextraction method coupled with ultra high performance liquid chromatography for the enrichment and determination of three estrogens and bisphenol A in environmental water samples. The introduced hydroxyl group acted as the H-bond acceptor that dispersed the ionic liquid effectively in the aqueous phase without dispersive solvent or external force. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the hydroxyl group of the cation of the ionic liquid enhanced the combination of extractant and analytes through the formation of hydrogen bonds. The improvement of the extraction efficiency compared with that with the use of alkyl ionic liquid was proved by a comparison study. The main parameters including volume of extractant, temperature, pH, and extraction time were investigated. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 5.0-1000 μg/L for estrone, estradiol, and bisphenol A, and 10.0-1000 μg/L for estriol. The detection limits were in the range of 1.7-3.4 μg/L. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by enrichment factor that were between 85 and 129. The proposed method was proved to be simple, low cost, and environmentally friendly for the determination of the four endocrine disruptors in environmental water samples.

  14. Heterogeneity of the Liquid Phase, and Vapor Separation in Los Azufres (Mexico) Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nieva, D.; Quijano, L.; Garfias, A.; Barragan, R.M.; Laredo, F.

    1983-12-15

    Data of chemical and isotopic composition of fluids from Los Azufres geothermal wells is interpreted in order to characterize the composition of the liquid phase, and to define the relation between this phase and fluids from steam-producing wells. Chemical and specific enthalpy data show that most wells considered are fed a mixture of steam and liquid. Thus, flashing occurs in the formation. This poses a problem on the interpretation of isotopic data, because the composition of the feeding mixture need not be representative of the composition of the liquid phase in the reservoir. Two extreme alternatives for the interpretation of isotopic data are considered. In the first alternative the composition of the total discharge is considered to be the same as that of the liquid in the reservoir. In the second alternative the feeding fluid is considered to be a mixture of the liquid phase in the reservoir and the calculated fraction of steam. In addition, this steam is assumed to separate from a much larger mass of that liquid phase at the downhole temperature. The contribution of steam is then subtracted from the total discharge to yield the composition of the liquid phase. Using data for silica concentration in total discharge and separated water, the chloride concentration in the reservoir liquid is calculated. This result is used to calculate the fraction of steam in the feeding mixture of each well. The isotopic data is then corrected as proposed for the second alternative, to yield the composition of the liquid phase. Comparison of the corrected and uncorrected isotopic values shows that the correction has an important effect only when the steam mass fraction in the feeding mixture is large (> 20%). The correction tends to reduce the dispersion of data points in a {delta} D vs {delta}{sup 18}O diagram. Points representing composition of liquid phase show an approximately linear distribution, suggesting a process of mixing of two fluids. Available data appears to

  15. Extraction of hydroxyaromatic compounds in river water by liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with automated movement of the acceptor and the donor phase.

    PubMed

    Melwanki, Mahaveer B; Huang, Shang-Da

    2006-08-01

    Liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with automated movement of the acceptor and the donor phase technique is described for the extraction of six hydroxyaromatic compounds in river water using a disposable and ready to use hollow fiber. Separation and quantitative analyses were performed using LC with UV detection at 254 nm. Analytes were extracted from the acidified sample solution (donor phase) into the organic solvent impregnated in the pores of the hollow fiber and then back extracted into the alkaline solution (acceptor phase) inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The fiber was held by a conventional 10 microL LC syringe. The acceptor phase was sandwitched between the plunger and a small volume of the organic solvent (microcap). The acceptor solution was repeatedly moved in and out of the hollow fiber using a syringe pump. This movement provides a fresh acceptor phase to come in contact with the organic phase and thus enhancing extraction kinetics thereby leading to the improvement in enrichment of the analytes. The microcap separates the acceptor phase and the donor phase in addition to being partially responsible for mass transfer of the analytes from the donor solution to the acceptor solution. Under stirring, a fresh donor phase will enter through the open end of the fiber that will also contribute to the mass transfer. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency viz type of organic solvent, extraction time, stirring speed, effect of sodium chloride, and concentration of donor and acceptor phases were studied. RSD (3.9-5.6%), correlation coefficient (0.995-0.997), detection limit (2.0-51.2 ng/mL), enrichment factor (339-630), relative recovery (93.2-97.9%), and absolute recovery (33.9-63.0%) have also been investigated. The developed method was applied for the analysis of river water.

  16. Models of retention of adamantylamidrazones in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, S. V.; Kurbatova, S. V.

    2011-05-01

    Rules governing the chromatographic behavior of some amidrazones of the adamantane series were studied under the conditions of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The characteristics of the retention of sorbates in elution by aqueous-acetonitrile phases with various compositions were calculated. Correlations between the structure and physicochemical characteristics of sorbate molecules and their retention were studied.

  17. Light-controllable reflection wavelength of blue phase liquid crystals doped with azobenzene-dimers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingwu; Wang, Ling; Li, Chenyue; Xiao, Jiumei; Ding, Hangjun; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoguang; He, Wanli; Yang, Huai

    2013-10-03

    A new series of azobenzene-dimers were synthesized and doped into the blue phase liquid crystals to broaden the temperature range of BPs. It is found that not only can the reflection wavelength of BPI be reversibly controlled but BPI can also be transformed into the cholesteric phase owing to isomerization of azobenzene induced by light.

  18. Two parametric flow measurement in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Chen, C.; Xu, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    The importance and current development of two parametric measurement during two-phase flow are briefly reviewed in this paper. Gas-liquid two-phase two parametric metering experiments were conducted by using an oval gear meter and a sharp edged orifice mounted in series in a horizontal pipe. Compressed air and water were used as gas and liquid phases respectively. The correlations, which can be used to predict the total flow rate and volumetric quality of two-phase flow or volumetric flow rate of each phase, have also been proposed in this paper. Comparison of the calculated values of flow rate of each phase from the correlations with the test data showed that the root mean square fractional deviation for gas flow rate is 2.9 percent and for liquid flow rate 4.4 percent. The method proposed in this paper can be used to measure the gas and liquid flow rate in two-phase flow region without having to separate the phases.

  19. SYNTHESIS REPORT ON FIVE DENSE, NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUID (DNAPL) REMEDIATION PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) poses a difficult problem for subsurface remediation because it serves as a continuing source to dissolved phase ground water contamination and is difficult to remove from interstitial pore space or bedrock fractures in the subsurface. Numer...

  20. Simplified computer program for the analysis of phase change in liquid face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchak, M.; Hughes, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    A simplified computer program is presented which allows for the prediction of boiling (phase change) in liquid face seals. The program determines if and when boiling occurs and then calculates the location of the boiling interface, pressure and temperature profiles, and load. The main assumption which allows for a simplified analysis is the assumption of an isothermal gas phase.

  1. Formation of smectic phases in binary liquid crystal mixtures with a huge length ratio

    PubMed Central

    Knecht, Friederike; Hartley, C Scott; Roberts, Jeffrey C; Lemieux, Robert P; Giesselmann, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Summary A system of two liquid-crystalline phenylpyrimidines differing strongly in molecular length was studied. The phase diagram of these two chemically similar mesogens, with a length ratio of 2, was investigated, and detailed X-ray diffraction and electrooptical measurements were performed. The phase diagram revealed a destabilization of the nematic phase, which is present in the pure short compound, while the smectic state was stabilized. The short compound forms smectic A and smectic C phases, whereas the longer compound forms a broad smectic C phase and a narrow higher-ordered smectic phase. Nevertheless, in the mixtures, the smectic C phase is destabilized and disappears rapidly, whereas smectic A is the only stable phase observed over a broad concentration range. In addition, the smectic translational order parameters as well as the tilt angles of the mixtures are reduced. The higher-ordered smectic phase of the longer mesogen was identified as a smectic F phase. PMID:23019439

  2. Physico-chemical properties and phase behaviour of pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula

    2010-04-21

    A review of the relevant literature on 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids has been presented. The phase diagrams for the binary systems of {1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) [EMPYR][CF(3)SO(3)] + water, or + 1-butanol} and for the binary systems of {1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) [PMPYR][CF(3)SO(3)] + water, or + an alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol)} have been determined at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic method. The influence of alcohol chain length was discussed for the [PMPYR][CF(3)SO(3)]. A systematic decrease in the solubility was observed with an increase of the alkyl chain length of an alcohol. (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria with complete miscibility in the liquid phase region were observed for the systems involving water and alcohols. The solubility of the ionic liquid increases as the alkyl chain length on the pyrrolidinium cation increases. The correlation of the experimental data has been carried out using the Wilson, UNIQUAC and the NRTL equations. The phase diagrams reported here have been compared to the systems published earlier with the 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids. The influence of the cation and anion on the phase behaviour has been discussed. The basic thermal properties of pure ILs, i.e., melting temperature and the enthalpy of fusion, the solid-solid phase transition temperature and enthalpy have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique.

  3. Physico-Chemical Properties and Phase Behaviour of Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Domańska, Urszula

    2010-01-01

    A review of the relevant literature on 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids has been presented. The phase diagrams for the binary systems of {1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) [EMPYR][CF3SO3] + water, or + 1-butanol} and for the binary systems of {1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) [PMPYR][CF3SO3] + water, or + an alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol)} have been determined at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic method. The influence of alcohol chain length was discussed for the [PMPYR][CF3SO3]. A systematic decrease in the solubility was observed with an increase of the alkyl chain length of an alcohol. (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria with complete miscibility in the liquid phase region were observed for the systems involving water and alcohols. The solubility of the ionic liquid increases as the alkyl chain length on the pyrrolidinium cation increases. The correlation of the experimental data has been carried out using the Wilson, UNIQUAC and the NRTL equations. The phase diagrams reported here have been compared to the systems published earlier with the 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids. The influence of the cation and anion on the phase behaviour has been discussed. The basic thermal properties of pure ILs, i.e., melting temperature and the enthalpy of fusion, the solid-solid phase transition temperature and enthalpy have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique. PMID:20480044

  4. Characterization of rhamnolipids by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Beate; Engelen, Jeannine; Tiso, Till; Blank, Lars Mathias; Hayen, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are surface-active agents with a broad application potential that are produced in complex mixtures by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis from fermentation broth is often characterized by laborious sample preparation and requires hyphenated analytical techniques like liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to obtain detailed information about sample composition. In this study, an analytical procedure based on chromatographic method development and characterization of rhamnolipid sample material by LC-MS as well as a comparison of two sample preparation methods, i.e., liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, is presented. Efficient separation was achieved under reversed-phase conditions using a mixed propylphenyl and octadecylsilyl-modified silica gel stationary phase. LC-MS/MS analysis of a supernatant from Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 pVLT33_rhlABC grown on glucose as sole carbon source and purified by solid-phase extraction revealed a total of 20 congeners of di-rhamnolipids, mono-rhamnolipids, and their biosynthetic precursors 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) with different carbon chain lengths from C8 to C14, including three rhamnolipids with uncommon C9 and C11 fatty acid residues. LC-MS and the orcinol assay were used to evaluate the developed solid-phase extraction method in comparison with the established liquid-liquid extraction. Solid-phase extraction exhibited higher yields and reproducibility as well as lower experimental effort.

  5. Directed liquid phase assembly of highly ordered metallic nanoparticle arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yueying; Dong, Nanyi; Fu, Shaofang; ...

    2014-04-01

    Directed assembly of nanomaterials is a promising route for the synthesis of advanced materials and devices. We demonstrate the directed-assembly of highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of hierarchical nanostructures with tunable size, spacing and composition. The directed assembly is achieved on lithographically patterned metal films that are subsequently pulse-laser melted; during the brief liquid lifetime, the pattened nanostructures assemble into highly ordered primary and secondary nanoparticles, with sizes below that which was originally patterned. Complementary fluid-dynamics simulations emulate the resultant patterns and show how the competition of capillary forces and liquid metal–solid substrate interaction potential drives the directed assembly. Lastly, asmore » an example of the enhanced functionality, a full-wave electromagnetic analysis has been performed to identify the nature of the supported plasmonic resonances.« less

  6. Directed liquid phase assembly of highly ordered metallic nanoparticle arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yueying; Dong, Nanyi; Fu, Shaofang; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Kondic, Lou; Vincenti, Maria A.; de Ceglia, Domenico; Rack, Philip D.

    2014-04-01

    Directed assembly of nanomaterials is a promising route for the synthesis of advanced materials and devices. We demonstrate the directed-assembly of highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of hierarchical nanostructures with tunable size, spacing and composition. The directed assembly is achieved on lithographically patterned metal films that are subsequently pulse-laser melted; during the brief liquid lifetime, the pattened nanostructures assemble into highly ordered primary and secondary nanoparticles, with sizes below that which was originally patterned. Complementary fluid-dynamics simulations emulate the resultant patterns and show how the competition of capillary forces and liquid metal–solid substrate interaction potential drives the directed assembly. Lastly, as an example of the enhanced functionality, a full-wave electromagnetic analysis has been performed to identify the nature of the supported plasmonic resonances.

  7. Liquid-gas phase transitions in a multicomponent nuclear system with Coulomb and surface effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. J.; Mekjian, A. Z.

    2001-04-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition is studied in a multicomponent nuclear system using a local Skyrme interaction with Coulomb and surface effects. Some features are qualitatively the same as the results of Mu''ller and Serot where a relativistic mean field was used without Coulomb and surface effects. Surface tension brings the coexistence binodal surface to lower pressure. The Coulomb interaction makes the binodal surface smaller and causes another pair of binodal points at low pressure and large proton fraction with fewer protons in the liquid phase and more protons in the gas phase.

  8. Setting up a liquid crystal phase screen to simulate atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Michael K.; Seward, Anthony J.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Rha, Jungtae; Jimenez, Ray

    2000-11-01

    Phase screens are often used to simulate atmospheric turbulence in systems designed to test adaptive optics techniques. This paper presents the design and implementation of a dynamic phase screen using a simple and inexpensive twisted nematic liquid crystal display taken from a video projector and placed in a pupil plane. The details of the optical system layout, the system alignment procedure, and the operating parameters of the liquid crystal display are discussed. Examples of turbulence (having strength and statistics similar to measured values of atmospheric turbulence in a variety of scenarios) are written to the phase screen, and the effects of the turbulence on image quality are measured and presented.

  9. Optical phase conjugation in azo-dye doped chiral liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinski, Pawel; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2012-10-01

    We report on optical phase conjugation phenomenon observed in chiral nematic liquid crystal showing band gap type Bragg reflection. The phase conjugate to the signal beam is observable only in the small temperature interval when the Bragg condition is fulfilled and only for circularly polarized light. The optical phase conjugation signals were observed at low cw laser light intensities (<100 mW/cm2, λ = 532 nm). Estimated value of third order optical susceptibility χ(3) = 2.8 × 10-17 m2/V2 is attributed to enhancement due to photoisomerisation of azo-dye (disperse red 1) inducing molecular reorientation process of liquid crystal molecules.

  10. Phase equilibria and liquid phase epitaxy growth of PbSnSeTe lattice matched to PbSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Patrick J.; Fonstad, Clifton G.; Fuchs, Jacob; Feit, Ze'ev

    1987-01-01

    The necessary phase diagram data for growing lattice-matched layers of PbSnSeTe on PbSe are presented. Solid compounds of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Se(1-y)Te(y) lattice-matched to PbSe were grown from liquid melts consisting of (Pb/1-x/Sn/x/)(1-z)(Se/1-y/Te/y/)(z); phase equilibria data were determined together with liquidus data for values of x(liquid) from 0 to 40 percent and y(liquid) from 0 to 40 percent for temperatures between 450 and 540 C. It was found that relatively large amounts of Te must be added to the melt to achieve lattice matching because of its low segregation coefficient relative to Se. A significant lattice-pulling effect was discovered for the 5-percent Sn case, and a similar effect is expected for the 10- and 20-percent Sn cases.

  11. Transitional liquid crystalline phases between the hexagonal and lamellar phases in ternary cesium N-tetradecanoate-water-additive mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, J.C.; Kilpatrick, P.K. )

    1993-04-01

    The effects of added salt (CsOH, CsCl), long-chain carboxylic acid, and long-chain alcohol on the lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior in the cesium n-tetradecanoate (CsTD)-water system is reported. The transitional region between the hexagonal (H) and lamellar (L) phases was the compositional range of focus. Three transitional phases were observed: (i) the ribbon (R) phase, a biaxial phase consisting of cylinders of ellipsoidal cross section; (ii) the viscous isotropic (VI) phase, an isotropic phase thought to consist of interconnected rods on an Ia3d lattice; and (iii) the intermediate (Int) phase, a uniaxial anisotropic phase thought to consist of interconnected rods on a planar lattice. The effect of the additives was to decrease the interfacial curvature of the surfactant head group layer by varying head group repulsion and by varying the surfactant tail volume relative to the surfactant head group area. These changes resulted in formation of transitional phases seeming to possess curvature between that of the cylindrical H phase and the planar L phase. The ionic repulsion between carboxylate head groups was reduced by the addition of CsOH or CsCl, and resulted in destabilization of the VI phase and the formation of the anisotropic Int phase. With the addition of cosurfactants, n-tetradecanoic acid (TDA) and 1-tetradecanol (TDOH), no Int phase was observed. With 7 wt% added TDA the R phase was stabilized up to temperatures of 336 K, above the 330 K temperature limit in the binary CsTD-D[sub 2]O system. In all four systems, sufficient additive (5-10 wt%) resulted in a transition to the L phase, which was stable over a large portion of the compositional range. In order of apparently decreasing mean curvature, the phase sequence is: hexagonal, ribbon, viscous isotropic, intermediate, and lamellar.

  12. A numerical study of aerosol influence on mixed-phase stratiform clouds through modulation of the liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Hashino, T.; Tripoli, G. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2013-02-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out in a high-resolution two-dimensional framework to increase our understanding of aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase stratiform clouds. Aerosol characteristics explored include insoluble particle type, soluble mass fraction, influence of aerosol-induced freezing point depression and influence of aerosol number concentration. Simulations were analyzed with a focus on the processes related to liquid phase microphysics, and ice formation was limited to droplet freezing. Of the aerosol properties investigated, aerosol insoluble mass type and its associated freezing efficiency was found to be most relevant to cloud lifetime. Secondary effects from aerosol soluble mass fraction and number concentration also alter cloud characteristics and lifetime. These alterations occur via various mechanisms, including changes to the amount of nucleated ice, influence on liquid phase precipitation and ice riming rates, and changes to liquid droplet nucleation and growth rates. Alteration of the aerosol properties in simulations with identical initial and boundary conditions results in large variability in simulated cloud thickness and lifetime, ranging from rapid and complete glaciation of liquid to the production of long-lived, thick stratiform mixed-phase cloud.

  13. Hidden amorphous phase and reentrant supercooled liquid in Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, S.; Ren, Y.; Wei, X. Y.; Wang, B.; Gilbert, E. P.; Shibayama, T.; Watanabe, S.; Ohnuma, M.; Wang, X.-L.

    2017-03-01

    An anomaly in differential scanning calorimetry has been reported in a number of metallic glass materials in which a broad exothermal peak was observed between the glass and crystallization temperatures. The mystery surrounding this calorimetric anomaly is epitomized by four decades long studies of Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses, arguably the best glass-forming alloys. Here we show, using a suite of in situ experimental techniques, that Pd-Ni-P alloys have a hidden amorphous phase in the supercooled liquid region. The anomalous exothermal peak is the consequence of a polyamorphous phase transition between two supercooled liquids, involving a change in the packing of atomic clusters over medium-range length scales as large as 18 Å. With further temperature increase, the alloy reenters the supercooled liquid phase, which forms the room-temperature glass phase on quenching. The outcome of this study raises a possibility to manipulate the structure and hence the stability of metallic glasses through heat treatment.

  14. Glucaminium ionic liquid-functionalized stationary phase for the separation of nucleosides in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiong; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xusheng; Guo, Yong; Qiu, Hongdeng; Zhang, Shusheng

    2015-10-01

    A glucaminium-based ionic liquid stationary phase was prepared via facile epoxy-amine reaction and subsequent quaternization. Successful immobilization of glucaminium-based ionic liquid onto silica surface was validated by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The new stationary phase was evaluated for the separation of nucleosides in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Effects of various factors, such as acetonitrile concentration, salt concentration, pH value, as well as column temperature, on the chromatographic behavior toward nucleosides were studied in detail. The results indicated that this new stationary phase can be used for separation of water-soluble polar substances in HILIC mode. The retention of solutes on the stationary phase was influenced by a mixed-mode retention mechanism with a combination of adsorptive and partitioning interactions.

  15. Liquid crystal alignment with a molecular template of imprinted polymer layer during phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Rin; Jung, Jong-Wook; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2006-03-01

    We developed a liquid crystal (LC) alignment method using a molecular template of an imprinted polymer layer during polymerization-induced phase separation. Our results showed that the nematic ordering of LC is transferred to the polymer chain ordering during an anisotropic phase separation, which produces an anisotropic azimuthal surface anchoring. Using in-plane field treatment during phase separation, a twisted nematic cell is demonstrated.

  16. Molecular Evolution of Poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) Aqueous Solution during the Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation and Phase Transition Process.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianjiao; Tang, Hui; Wu, Peiyi

    2015-06-23

    A detailed phase transition process of poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOZ) in aqueous solution was investigated by means of DSC, temperature-variable (1)H NMR, Raman, optical micrographs, and FT-IR spectroscopy measurements. Gradual phase separation accompanied by large dehydration degree and big conformational changes above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and facile reversibility were identified. Based on the two-dimensional correlation (2Dcos) and perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) analyses, the sequence order of chemical group motions in phase transition process was elucidated. Additionally, a newly assigned CH3···O═C intermolecular hydrogen bond at 3008 cm(-1) in the PIPOZ system provides extra information on the interactions between C-H and C═O groups. The formation of cross-linking "bridging" hydrogen bonds C═O···D-O-D···O═C (1631 cm(-1)) is proposed as the key process to induce the liquid-liquid phase separation and polymer-rich phase formation of PIPOZ solution. With slow heating, more and more "bridging" hydrogen bonds were formed and D2O were expelled with an ordered and mostly all-trans conformation adopted in the PIPOZ chains. On the basis of these observations, a physical picture on the molecular evolution of PIPOZ solution during the phase transition process has been derived.

  17. Liquid-Phase Deposition of CIS Thin Layers: Final Report, February 2003--July 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, F.; Pirouz, P.

    2006-02-01

    The goal of this project was to fabricate single-phase CIS (a-Cu-In-Se, stoichiometric composition: CuInSe2) thin films for photovoltaic applications from a liquid phase - a Cu-In-Se melt of appropriate composition. This approach of liquid-phase deposition (LPD) is based on the new phase diagram we have established for Cu-In-Se, the first complete equilibrium phase diagram of this system. The liquidus projection exhibits four composition fields in which the primary solid phase, i.e., the first solid material that forms on cooling down from an entirely liquid state, is a-CuInSe2. Remarkably, none of the four composition fields is anywhere near the stoichiometric composition (CuInSe2) of a-CuInSe2. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is indeed capable of producing films with a particularly large grain size and a correspondingly low density of grain boundaries. To obtain films sufficiently thin for solar cell applications and with a sufficiently smooth surface, it is advantageous to employ a sliding boat mechanism. Future work on liquid-phase deposition of CIS should focus on the interaction between the melt and the substrate surface, the resulting CIS interfaces, the surface morphology of the LPD-grown films, and, of course, the electronic properties of the material.

  18. Revisiting the formation of cyclic clusters in liquid ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanay, Mannix P.; Kim, Dong Hee; Fan, Haiyan

    2016-04-01

    The liquid phase of ethanol in pure and in non-polar solvents was studied at room temperature using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies together with theoretical approach. The FT-IR spectra for pure ethanol and solution in cyclohexane at different dilution stages are consistent with 1H NMR results. The results from both methods were best explained by the results of the density functional theory based on a multimeric model. It is suggested that cyclic trimers and tetramers are dominated in the solution of cyclohexane/hexane with the concentration greater than 0.5M at room temperature. In liquid ethanol, while the primary components at room temperature are cyclic trimers and tetramers, there is a certain amount (˜14%) of open hydroxide group representing the existence of chain like structures in the equilibria. The cyclic cluster model in the liquid and concentrated solution phase (>0.5M) can be used to explain the anomalously lower freezing point of ethanol (159 K) than that of water (273 K) at ambient conditions. In addition, 1H NMR at various dilution stages reveals the dynamics for the formation of cyclic clusters.

  19. Liquid Crystals of Dendron-Like Pt Complexes Processable Into Nanofilms Dendrimers. Phase 2. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Glass Platinum Acetylides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    with cholesterol has been synthesized. The materials synthesized have the formula trans-Pt(PR3)( cholesterol (3 or 4)-ethynyl benzoate)(1-ethynyl-4-X...describe the liquid crystal behavior of a series of cholesterol - containing platinum acetylides having the general formula shown in Table 1. We found a...phase are R = Et, A = COO- Cholesterol , B = H, X = polar group and Y = H. EXPERIMENT Table 1 lists the compounds we synthesized. The structure

  20. Pseudohomogeneous kinetic study on a two-liquid-phase fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Cao, Z; Yuan, N

    1994-01-01

    The fermentation process for producing undecane dicarboxylic acid from tridecane, which includes gas-oil-water-cell four phases (two-liquid-phase), was studied. The metabolic characters of the cell growth phase and the production phase of the process were analyzed. It was proposed that cell growth can be identified by the carbon dioxide production rate (CPR) before the production phase. The kinetic models of both the cell growth phase and the production phase were established, respectively. The parameters of the models have been estimated by regression. The calculated curves fit the experimental data very well. The average deviation between those over the cell growth phase and the production phase are 2.4% and 3.6%, respectively.

  1. Polymer-supported ionic-liquid-like phases (SILLPs): transferring ionic liquid properties to polymeric matrices.

    PubMed

    Sans, Victor; Karbass, Naima; Burguete, M Isabel; Compañ, Vicente; García-Verdugo, Eduardo; Luis, Santiago V; Pawlak, Milena

    2011-02-07

    The physico-chemical properties of polymers with ionic-liquid-like moieties covalently bound to their surfaces (SILLPs) have been studied by thermal and spectroscopic techniques, as well as by direct impedance and dielectric measurements, and compared to those of the corresponding bulk ionic liquids. The effective transfer of properties from ionic liquids in solution to the supported species has thereby been demonstrated. The effects of the chemical nature of these tunable "solid solvents" on their macroscopic swelling and microwave heating, as well as the stabilities and activities of different catalytic moieties immobilized on the SILLPs, have been studied. Finally, the experimental effect observed in microwave heating can be directly correlated with the values of tan δ derived from dielectric measurements.

  2. Study on the Phase Modulation Characteristics of Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wu, L. Y.; Zhang, J.

    2006-10-01

    A special Twyman-Green interferometer is designed to measure the phase modulation characteristics of liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), namely, the relationship between phase shift and gray value (applied voltage). By measuring a reflective LC-SLM produced by BNS (Boulder Nonlinear Systems), it is indicated that the LC-SLM has linear phase response within a gray value range between 60 and 200, and the RMS deviation between the average phase and the spatially resolved phase measurements increases with the gray value but is always less than λ/10.

  3. Ionic Switch Induced by a Rectangular-Hexagonal Phase Transition in Benzenammonium Columnar Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Soberats, Bartolome; Yoshio, Masafumi; Ichikawa, Takahiro; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Ungar, Goran; Kato, Takashi

    2015-10-21

    We demonstrate switching of ionic conductivities in wedge-shaped liquid-crystalline (LC) ammonium salts. A thermoreversible phase transition between the rectangular columnar (Colr) and hexagonal columnar (Colh) phases is used for the switch. The ionic conductivities in the Colh phase are about four orders of magnitude higher than those in the Colr phase. The switching behavior of conductivity can be ascribed to the structural change of assembled ionic channels. X-ray experiments reveal a highly ordered packing of the ions in the Colr phase, which prevents the ion transport.

  4. Stationary phase optimized selectivity liquid chromatography: Basic possibilities of serially connected columns using the "PRISMA" principle.

    PubMed

    Nyiredy, Sz; Szucs, Zoltán; Szepesy, L

    2007-07-20

    A new procedure (stationary phase optimized selectivity liquid chromatography: SOS-LC) is described for the optimization of the HPLC stationary phase, using serially connected columns and the principle of the "PRISMA" model. The retention factors (k) of the analytes were determined on three different stationary phases. By use of these data the k values were predicted applying theoretically combined stationary phases. These predictions resulted in numerous intermediate theoretical separations from among which only the optimal one was assembled and tested. The overall selectivity of this separation was better than that of any individual base stationary phase. SOS-LC is independent of the mechanism and the scale of separation.

  5. Mini-pilot plant research and demonstration on liquid phase methanol and dimethyl ether synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraghavan, P.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory scale mini-pilot plant was designed, built, and operated to study the liquid phase methanol synthesis (LPMeOH{trademark}) process and the liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) process in a mechanically agitated slurry reactor system, where syngas reacts in the presence of the catalyst-oil slurry which is being agitated by an impeller. A liquid phase process for the synthesis of methanol from syngas over a catalyst (Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), has been developed. Process feasibility, kinetics, mass transfer, and thermodynamics of the LPMeOH process were investigated. The liquid phase methanol synthesis is a chemical equilibrium limited process. The productivity of methanol can be increased by successfully alleviating this chemical equilibrium limitation. A dual catalytic liquid phase process was developed, which coproduces dimethyl ether with methanol from syngas, over a hybrid catalytic system comprising of the methanol synthesis catalyst and the methanol dehydration catalyst ({gamma}-alumina). The process feasibility analysis that proves the alleviation of the equilibrium limitation will be presented. Comparisons between the hydrogenation extent, reactor productivity and syngas conversions, which are all higher in the LPDME process than in the LPMeOH process, will be presented.

  6. In Situ Environmental TEM in Imaging Gas and Liquid Phase Chemical Reactions for Materials Research.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianbo; Shan, Hao; Chen, Wenlong; Gu, Xin; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Gas and liquid phase chemical reactions cover a broad range of research areas in materials science and engineering, including the synthesis of nanomaterials and application of nanomaterials, for example, in the areas of sensing, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and bio-related applications. Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) provides a unique opportunity for monitoring gas and liquid phase reactions because it enables the observation of those reactions at the ultra-high spatial resolution, which is not achievable through other techniques. Here, the fundamental science and technology developments of gas and liquid phase TEM that facilitate the mechanistic study of the gas and liquid phase chemical reactions are discussed. Combined with other characterization tools integrated in TEM, unprecedented material behaviors and reaction mechanisms are observed through the use of the in situ gas and liquid phase TEM. These observations and also the recent applications in this emerging area are described. The current challenges in the imaging process are also discussed, including the imaging speed, imaging resolution, and data management.

  7. Ecotoxicology of heavy metals: Liquid-phase extraction by nanosorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakov, A.; Romantsova, I.; Babkin, A.; Neskoromnaya, E.; Kucherova, A.; Kashevich, Z.

    2015-11-01

    The paper considers the problem of extreme toxicity heavy metal compounds dissolved in wastewater and liquid emissions of industrial enterprises to living organisms and environment as a whole. The possibility of increasing extraction efficiency of heavy metal ions by sorption materials was demonstrated. The porous space of the latter was modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during process of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon on metal oxide catalysts. The increasing of the sorption capacity (10-30%) and the sorption rate of nanomodified activated carbons in comparison with standard materials in the example of absorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solutions was proven.

  8. Onset of Convection in Two Liquid Layers with Phase Change

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, G B; Coriell, S R; Gurski, K F; Cotrell, D L

    2006-09-14

    We perform linear stability calculations for horizontal fluid bilayers that can undergo a phase transformation, taking into account both buoyancy effects and thermocapillary effects in the presence of a vertical temperature gradient. We compare the familiar case of the stability of two immiscible fluids in a bilayer geometry with the less-studied case that the two fluids represent different phases of a single-component material, e.g., the water-steam system. The two cases differ in their interfacial boundary conditions: the condition that the interface is a material surface is replaced by the continuity of mass flux across the interface, together with an assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium that in the linearized equations represents the Clausius-Clapeyron relation relating the interfacial temperature and pressures. For the two-phase case, we find that the entropy difference between the phases plays a crucial role in determining the stability of the system. For small values of the entropy difference between the phases, the two-phase system can be linearly unstable to either heating from above or below. The instability is due to the Marangoni effect in combination with the effects of buoyancy (for heating from below). For larger values of the entropy difference the two-phase system is unstable only for heating from below, and the Marangoni effect is masked by effects of the entropy difference. To help understand the mechanisms driving the instability on heating from below we have performed both long-wavelength and short-wavelength analyses of the two-phase system. The short-wavelength analysis shows that the instability is driven by a coupling between the flow normal to the interface and the latent heat generation at the interface. The mechanism for the large wavelength instability is more complicated, and the detailed form of the expansion is found to depend on the Crispation and Bond numbers as well as the entropy difference. The two-phase system allows a

  9. Magnetic microemulsions based on magnetic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Klee, Andreas; Prevost, Sylvain; Kunz, Werner; Schweins, Ralf; Kiefer, Klaus; Gradzielski, Michael

    2012-11-28

    Microemulsions with magnetic properties were formed by employing a magnetic room temperature ionic liquid (MRTIL) as polar phase, cyclohexane as oil, and an appropriate mixture of ionic surfactant and decanol as a cosurfactant. By means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and electric conductivity the microemulsion structure could be confirmed, where the classical structural sequence of oil-continuous-bicontinuous-polar phase continuous is observed with increasing ratio [polar phase]/[oil]. Accordingly a maximum of the structural size is observed at about equal volumes of oil and MRTIL contained. Therefore this system is structurally the same as normal microemulsions but with the magnetic properties added to it by the incorporation into the systems formulation.

  10. Pressureless Reaction Sintering of AlON using Aluminum Orthophosphate as a Transient Liquid Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Bakas; Henry Chu

    2009-01-01

    Use of aluminum oxynitride (AlON) in transparent armor systems has been difficult due to the expense and limitations of the processing methods currently necessary to achieve transparency. Development of a pressureless processing method based on direct reaction sintering of alumina and aluminum nitride powders would reduce costs and provide a more flexible and practical manufacturing method. It may be possible to develop such a processing method using liquid phase sintering; as long as the liquid phase does not remain in the final sample. AlPO4 forms a liquid phase with Al2O3 and AlN at the temperatures required to sinter AlON, and slowly decomposes into P2O5 and alumina. Therefore, it was investigated as a possible transient liquid phase for reaction-sintered AlON. Small compacts of alumina and aluminum nitride with up to of 15wt% AlPO4 additive were pressed and sintered. It was found that AlPO4 formed the requisite transient liquid phase, and it was possible to adjust the process to produce AlON samples with good transmission and densities of 3.66-3.67 g/cc. XRD confirmed the samples formed were AlON, with no trace of any remaining phosphate phases or excess alumina or aluminum nitride. Based on the results, it was concluded that AlPO4 could be utilized as a transient liquid phase to improve the density and transmission of AlON produced by pressureless reaction sintering.

  11. IMPROVING LIQUID CRYSTAL-BASED BIOSENSING IN AQUEOUS PHASES

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Wilder; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Mann, Elizabeth K.; Jákli, Antal

    2012-01-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based biological sensors permit the study of aqueous biological samples without the need for the labeling of biological species with fluorescent dyes (which can be laborious and change the properties of the biological sample under study). To date, studies of LC-based biosensors have explored only a narrow range of the liquid crystal/alignment layer combinations essential to their operation. Here we report a study of the role of LC elastic constants and the surface anchoring energy in determining the sensitivity of LC-based biosensors. By investigating a mixture of rod-shape and bent-shape mesogens, and three different alignment layers, we were able to widen the useful detection range of a LC-based sensor by providing an almost linear mapping of effective birefringence with concentration between 0.05 and 1mM of an anionic surfactant (model target analyte). These studies pave the way for optimization of LC-based biosensors and reveal the importance of the choice of both the LC material and the alignment layer in determining sensor properties. PMID:23157269

  12. Hydrodynamics and energy consumption studies in a three-phase liquid circulating three-phase fluid bed contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rusumdar, Ahmad J; Abuthalib, A.; Mohan, Vaka Murali; Srinivasa Kumar, C.; Sujatha, V.; Rajendra Prasad, P.

    2009-07-15

    The hydrodynamics and energy consumption have been studied in a cold flow, bubbling and turbulent, pressurized gas-liquid-solid three-phase fluidized bed (0.15 m ID x 1 m height) with concurrent gas-liquid up flow is proposed with the intention of increasing the gas hold up. The hydrodynamic behaviour is described and characterised by some specific gas and liquid velocities. Particles are easily fluidized and can be uniformly distributed over the whole height of the column. The effect of parameters like liquid flow rate, gas flow rate, particle loading, particle size, and solid density on gas hold up and effect of gas flow rate, solid density and particle size on solid hold up, energy consumption and minimum fluidization velocity has been studied. At the elevated pressures a superior method for better prediction of minimum fluidization velocity and terminal settling velocities has been adopted. The results have been interpreted with Bernoulli's theorem and Richardson-Zaki equation. Based on the assumption of the gas and liquid as a pretend fluid, a simplification has been made to predict the particle terminal settling velocities. The Richardson-Zaki parameter n' was compared with Renzo's results. A correlation has been proposed with the experimental results for the three-phase fluidization. (author)

  13. Direct measurement of the propagation of the phase-transition region of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takahiro; Katayama, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Many types of active matter, such as biological cells, have liquid-crystalline membranes, which are soft and flexible in their interactions with their surroundings and sometimes allow molecular-structural or -orientational changes to extend for long distances, owing to long-range molecular interactions. Despite the technological and fundamental importance of these long-range changes, there is no good physical property with which to express them for the liquid crystal. Here, we show direct measurements of the propagation of structural or orientational changes due to long-range molecular interactions in liquid crystals. We induced a patterned phase transition in a liquid crystal via illumination with a fringe pattern and observed the propagation of the phase-transition region. We determined that the propagation occurred in a ballistic manner with a velocity of 80–110 m/s and that two types of propagation—side-by-side and head-to-tail molecular interactions—were found.

  14. Characterizing the correlations between local phase fractions of gas-liquid two-phase flow with wire-mesh sensor.

    PubMed

    Tan, C; Liu, W L; Dong, F

    2016-06-28

    Understanding of flow patterns and their transitions is significant to uncover the flow mechanics of two-phase flow. The local phase distribution and its fluctuations contain rich information regarding the flow structures. A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) was used to study the local phase fluctuations of horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow, which was verified through comparing the reconstructed three-dimensional flow structure with photographs taken during the experiments. Each crossing point of the WMS is treated as a node, so the measurement on each node is the phase fraction in this local area. An undirected and unweighted flow pattern network was established based on connections that are formed by cross-correlating the time series of each node under different flow patterns. The structure of the flow pattern network reveals the relationship of the phase fluctuations at each node during flow pattern transition, which is then quantified by introducing the topological index of the complex network. The proposed analysis method using the WMS not only provides three-dimensional visualizations of the gas-liquid two-phase flow, but is also a thorough analysis for the structure of flow patterns and the characteristics of flow pattern transition. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  15. Automated hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction followed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of benzodiazepine drugs in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Nazaripour, Ali; Yamini, Yadollah; Ebrahimpour, Behnam; Fasihi, Javad

    2016-07-01

    In this study, two-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction and three-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents were compared for extraction of oxazepam and Lorazepam. Separations were performed on a liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry instrument. Under optimal conditions, three-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents has a better extraction efficiency. In a urine sample, for three-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents, the calibration curves were found to be linear in the range of 0.6-200 and 0.9-200 μg L(-1) and the limits of detection were 0.2 and 0.3 μg L(-1) for oxazepam and lorazepam, respectively. For two-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction, the calibration curves were found to be linear in the range of 1-200 and 1.5-200 μg L(-1) and the limits of detection were 0.3 and 0.5 μg L(-1) for oxazepam and lorazepam, respectively. In a urine sample, for three-phase hollow-fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents, relative standard deviations in the range of 4.2-4.5% and preconcentration factors in the range of 70-180 were obtained for oxazepam and lorazepam, respectively. Also for the two-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, preconcentration factors in the range of 101-257 were obtained for oxazepam and lorazepam, respectively.

  16. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of toad venom.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Fu; Fang, Hua; Yan, Xia; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Yun-Long; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2016-07-22

    An on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC×RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed vacuum evaporation assisted adsorption (VEAA) interface, allowing fast removal of NPLC solvent in the vacuum condition and successfully solving the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved on-line solvent exchange within the two dimensions and its performance was illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude extract from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Within separation time of ∼20h, 19 compounds were obtained with high purity in a single run. With the VEAA interface, the 2D system exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and automation compared with conventional methods, indicating its promising application in the routine separation process for complicated natural products.

  17. Chromonic liquid crystalline nematic phase exhibited in binary mixture of two liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Govindaiah, T. N. Sreepad, H. R.; Sridhar, K. N.; Sridhara, G. R.; Nagaraja, N.

    2015-06-24

    A binary mixture of abietic acid and orthophosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) exhibits co-existence of biphasic region of Nematic+Isotropic (N+I), lyotropic Nematic (ND) and Smectic-G (SmG) phases. The mixture exhibits N+I, N and SmG phases at different concentrations and at different temperatures. Mixtures with all concentrations of abietic acid exhibit I→N+I→N→SmG phases sequentially when the specimen is cooled from its isotropic melt. These phases have been characterized by using differential scanning calorimetric, X-ray diffraction, and optical texture studies.

  18. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Diagram of Phenol and t-Butanol: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaogang; Wu, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the solid-liquid phase diagram of a binary system is always used as an experiment in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory courses. However, most phase diagrams investigated in the lab are simple eutectic ones, despite the fact that complex binary solid-liquid phase diagrams are more common. In this article, the…

  19. Health Hazard Evaluation of Liquid Monopropellants. Phase 4. Subchronic Inhalation of Hydroxylammonium Nitrate, January 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    MD 21010-5422 PHASE 4 HEALTH HAZARD EVALUATION OF LIQUID MONOPROPELLANTS STUDY NO. 75-51-0132-85 SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF HYDROXYLAMMONIUM NITRATE ...airborne exposures to animals of hydroxylanmonlum nitrate (HAN), a major component of liquid gun propellants. This evaluation will assist in advising on...SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF HYDROXYLAMMONIUM NITRATE JANUARY 1985 1. AUTHORITY. Letter, US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory, DRDAR-BLP, 21 August 1978

  20. Direct molecular dynamics simulation of liquid-solid phase equilibria for two-component plasmas.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A S; Hughto, J; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2012-06-01

    We determine the liquid-solid phase diagram for carbon-oxygen and oxygen-selenium plasma mixtures using two-phase molecular dynamics simulations. We identify liquid, solid, and interface regions using a bond angle metric. To study finite-size effects, we perform 27,648- and 55,296-ion simulations. To help monitor nonequilibrium effects, we calculate diffusion constants D(i). For the carbon-oxygen system we find that D(O) for oxygen ions in the solid is much smaller than D(C) for carbon ions and that both diffusion constants are 80 or more times smaller than diffusion constants in the liquid phase. There is excellent agreement between our carbon-oxygen phase diagram and that predicted by Medin and Cumming. This suggests that errors from finite-size and nonequilibrium effects are small and that the carbon-oxygen phase diagram is now accurately known. The oxygen-selenium system is a simple two-component model for more complex rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis ash compositions for an accreting neutron star. Diffusion of oxygen, in a predominantly selenium crystal, is remarkably fast, comparable to diffusion in the liquid phase. We find a somewhat lower melting temperature for the oxygen-selenium system than that predicted by Medin and Cumming. This is probably because of electron screening effects.

  1. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, Diana

    1997-06-24

    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  2. Buoyant thermocapillary flow with nonuniform supra-heating. I - Liquid-phase behavior. II - Two-phase behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, David N.; Sirignano, William A.

    1992-01-01

    The present computational study of transient heat transfer and fluid flow in a circular pool of n-decane which is undergoing central radiative heating from above gives attention to the volumetric absorption of the radiation incident on the pool surface. The first part of this study notes that buoyancy influences the number and recirculation rates of the subsurface vortices by stabilizing hot subsurface fluid above the colder core fluid; this affects the liquid surface temperature profile and in turn governs the velocity profile that is due to thermocapillarity. In the second part, the effects of gas-liquid phase coupling, variable density and thermophysical properties, and vaporization are considered.

  3. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of Peucedanum praeruptorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Li, Jia-Fu; Jian, Ya-Mei; Wu, Zhen; Fang, Mei-Juan; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2015-03-27

    A new on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC × RPLC) system was developed for the separation of complicated natural products. It was based on the use of a silica gel packed medium-pressure column as the first dimension and an ODS preparative HPLC column as the second dimension. The two dimensions were connected with normal-phase (NP) and reversed-phase (RP) enrichment units, involving a newly developed airflow assisted adsorption (AAA) technique. The instrument operation and the performance of this NPLC × RPLC separation method were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of ethanol extract from the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum. In total, 19 compounds with high purity were obtained via automated multi-step preparative separation in a short period of time using this system, and their structures were comprehensively characterized by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. Including two new compounds, five isomers in two groups with identical HPLC and TLC retention values were also obtained and identified by 1D NMR and 2D NMR. This is the first report of an NPLC × RPLC system successfully applied in an on-line preparative process. This system not only solved the interfacing problem of mobile-phase immiscibility caused by NP and RP separation, it also exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods.

  4. A 2D-ELDOR study of the liquid ordered phase in multilamellar vesicle membranes.

    PubMed

    Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Freed, Jack H

    2003-04-01

    2D-ELDOR spectroscopy has been employed to study the dynamic structure of the liquid-ordered (Lo) phase versus that of the liquid-crystalline (Lc) phase in multibilayer phospholipid vesicles without (Lc) and with (Lo) cholesterol, using end-chain and headgroup labels and spin-labeled cholestane. The spectra are in most cases found to be dramatically different for these two phases. Thus, visual inspection of the 2D-ELDOR spectra provides a convenient way to distinguish the two phases in membranes. Detailed analysis shows these observations are due to increased ordering in the Lo phase and modified reorientation rates. In the Lo phase, acyl chains undergo a faster rotational diffusion and higher ordering than in the Lc phase, whereas spin-labeled cholestane exhibits slower rotational diffusion and higher ordering. On the other hand, the choline headgroup in the Lo phase exhibits faster motion and reduced but realigned ordering versus the Lc phase. The microscopic translational diffusion rates in the Lo phase are significantly reduced in the presence of cholesterol. These results are compared with previous studies, and a consistent model is provided for interpreting them in terms of the differences in the dynamic structure of the Lo and Lc phases.

  5. A 2D-ELDOR Study of the Liquid Ordered Phase in Multilamellar Vesicle Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Filho, Antonio J.; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Freed, Jack H.

    2003-01-01

    2D-ELDOR spectroscopy has been employed to study the dynamic structure of the liquid-ordered (Lo) phase versus that of the liquid-crystalline (Lc) phase in multibilayer phospholipid vesicles without (Lc) and with (Lo) cholesterol, using end-chain and headgroup labels and spin-labeled cholestane. The spectra are in most cases found to be dramatically different for these two phases. Thus, visual inspection of the 2D-ELDOR spectra provides a convenient way to distinguish the two phases in membranes. Detailed analysis shows these observations are due to increased ordering in the Lo phase and modified reorientation rates. In the Lo phase, acyl chains undergo a faster rotational diffusion and higher ordering than in the Lc phase, whereas spin-labeled cholestane exhibits slower rotational diffusion and higher ordering. On the other hand, the choline headgroup in the Lo phase exhibits faster motion and reduced but realigned ordering versus the Lc phase. The microscopic translational diffusion rates in the Lo phase are significantly reduced in the presence of cholesterol. These results are compared with previous studies, and a consistent model is provided for interpreting them in terms of the differences in the dynamic structure of the Lo and Lc phases. PMID:12668470

  6. Computation of solid/liquid phase change including free convection - Comparison with data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    A computational model is presented for solid/liquid phase-change energy transport including free convection fluid flow in the liquid phase. The computational model considers the velocity components of all nonliquid control volumes to be zero but fully solves the coupled mass-momentum problem within the liquid. The thermal energy model includes the entire domain and employs an enthalpy-like model and a recently developed method for handling the phase-change interface nonlinearity. Convergence studies are performed and comparisons made with experimental data for two different problems. Grid independence is achieved, and the comparison with experimental data indicates excellent quantitative prediction of the melt fraction evolution. Qualitative data are also provided as velocity vector and isotherm plots. The computational costs incurred are quite low by comparison with other models.

  7. Lyotropic liquid crystalline L3 phase silicated nanoporous monolithic composites and their production

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, Kathryn M.; Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2003-10-28

    A mesoporous ceramic material is provided having a pore size diameter in the range of about 10-100 nanometers produced by templating with a ceramic precursor a lyotropic liquid crystalline L.sub.3 phase consisting of a three-dimensional, random, nonperiodic network packing of a multiple connected continuous membrane. A preferred process for producing the inesoporous ceramic material includes producing a template of a lyotropic liquid crystalline L.sub.3 phase by mixing a surfactant, a co-surfactant and hydrochloric acid, coating the template with an inorganic ceramic precursor by adding to the L.sub.3 phase tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) or tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and then converting the coated template to a ceramic by removing any remaining liquids.

  8. Gas-liquid phase separation in oppositely charged colloids: stability and interfacial tension.

    PubMed

    Fortini, Andrea; Hynninen, Antti-Pekka; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2006-09-07

    We study the phase behavior and the interfacial tension of the screened Coulomb (Yukawa) restricted primitive model (YRPM) of oppositely charged hard spheres with diameter sigma using Monte Carlo simulations. We determine the gas-liquid and gas-solid phase transitions using free energy calculations and grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations for varying inverse Debye screening length kappa. We find that the gas-liquid phase separation is stable for kappasigmaliquid interfacial tension using grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The interfacial tension decreases upon increasing the range of the interaction. In particular, we find that simple scaling can be used to relate the interfacial tension of the YRPM to that of the restricted primitive model, where particles interact with bare Coulomb interactions.

  9. Three-body interactions and solid-liquid phase equilibria: application of a molecular dynamics algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Sadus, Richard J

    2006-09-01

    The effect of three-body interactions on the solid-liquid phase boundaries of argon, krypton, and xenon is investigated via a novel technique that combines both nonequilibrium and equilibrium molecular dynamics. The simulations involve the evaluation of two- and three-body forces using accurate two-body and three-body intermolecular potentials. The effect of three-body interactions is to substantially increase the coexistence pressure and to lower the densities of liquid and solid phases. Comparison with experiment indicates that three-body interactions are required to accurately determine the total pressure. In contrast to vapor-liquid phase equilibria, the relative contribution of three-body interactions to the freezing pressure exceeds the contribution of two-body interactions at all temperatures.

  10. Comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for analysis of toad skin.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Fu; Yan, Xia; Wu, Yun-Long; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2017-04-15

    An analytical two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC × RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed thermal evaporation assisted adsorption (TEAA) interface. This novel TEAA interface with heating temperature above solvent boiling point allowed fast removal of organic NPLC solvent and successfully solved the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved rapid on-line solvent exchange between the two dimensions within a short modulation time of 190 s and was applied in the analysis of an extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans. This is the first time to realize the on-line comprehensive analysis of a moderate polar natural product by coupling NPLC with reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). To be highlighted, with the TEAA interface, the 2D NPLC × RPLC system provided excellent resolution and orthogonality (75.2%), when compared with that of 2D RPLC × RPLC.

  11. Discovery of a Novel Smectic-C Liquid Crystal Phase with Six Layer Periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Pindak, R.; Pan, L.D.; Liu, Z.Q; Nguyen, H.T.; Huang, C.C.

    2010-01-13

    We report the discovery of a new smectic-C* liquid-crystal phase with six-layer periodicity by resonant x-ray diffraction. Upon cooling, the new phase appears between the SmC{sub {alpha}}* phase having a helical structure and the SmC{sub d4}* phase with four-layer periodicity. This SmC{sub d6}* phase was identified in two mixtures which have an unusual reversed SmC{sub d4}*-SmC* phase sequence. The SmC{sub d6}* phase shows a distorted clock structure. Three theoretical models have predicted the existence of a six-layer phase. However, our experimental findings are not consistent with the theories.

  12. Entropic description of gas hydrate ice/liquid equilibrium via enhanced sampling of coexisting phases

    DOE PAGES

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Kim, Jaegil; Keyes, Tom

    2015-04-28

    Metastable β ice holds small guest molecules in stable gas hydrates, so its solid/liquid equilibrium is of interest. However, aqueous crystal/liquid transitions are very difficult to simulate. A new MD algorithm generates trajectories in a generalized NPT ensemble and equilibrates states of coexisting phases with a selectable enthalpy. Furthermore, with replicas spanning the range between β ice and liquid water we find the statistical temperature from the enthalpy histograms and characterize the transition by the entropy, introducing a general computational procedure for first-order transitions.

  13. UV-laser-assisted liquid phase fluorination of PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wochnowski, C.; Di Ferdinando, M.; Giolli, C.; Vollertsen, F.; Bardi, U.

    2007-10-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate was covered with liquid 1,2,3,5-tetrafluorobenzene by spin coating. Then the sample was irradiated by a KrF-excimer laser ( λ = 248 nm). Thus, fluorine is released from the fluorine-containing precursor diffusing into the polymeric substrate material where it is expected to substitute the hydrogen atoms of the polymeric molecule and form a water-repellent (hydrophobic) fluorinated polymer. After drying out the polymeric substrate, the sample surface was investigated by SEM, EDX, XPS and contact angle measurement method in order to determine the fluorine content and the wettability of the treated polymeric surface as well as the substitution sites inside the polymeric molecule. The measurements indicate some chemically bonded fluorine at the top of the sample layer. A UV-photochemical fluorination mechanism is proposed based on the XPS spectra evaluation.

  14. Combining innovative technology demonstrations with dense nonaqueous phase liquids cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Hagood, M.C.; Koegler, K.J.; Rohay, V.J.; Trent, S.J.; Stein, S.L.; Brouns, T.M.; McCabe, G.H.; Tomich, S.

    1993-05-01

    Radioactively contaminated acidic aqueous wastes and organic liquids were discharged to the soil column at three disposal sites within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. As a result, a portion of the underlying groundwater is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride several orders of magnitude above the maximum contaminant level accepted for a drinking water supply. Treatability testing and cleanup actions have been initiated to remove the contamination from both the unsaturated soils to minimize further groundwater contamination and the groundwater itself. To expedite cleanup, innovative technologies for (1) drilling, (2) site characterization, (3) monitoring, (4) well field development, and (5) contaminant treatment are being demonstrated and subsequently used where possible to improve the rates and cost savings associated with the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the soils and groundwater.

  15. Effects of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride concentration on PEG/protein liquid-liquid phase separation.

    PubMed

    Dumetz, André C; Lewus, Rachael A; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Kaler, Eric W

    2008-09-16

    When added to protein solutions, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) creates an effective attraction between protein molecules due to depletion forces. This effect has been widely used to crystallize proteins, and PEG is among the most successful crystallization agents in current use. However, PEG is almost always used in combination with a salt at either low or relatively high concentrations. Here the effects of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate concentration on PEG 8000/ovalbumin liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation are investigated. At low salt the L-L phase separation occurs at decreasing protein concentration with increasing salt concentration, presumably due to repulsive electrostatic interactions between proteins. At high salt concentration, the behavior depends on the nature of the salt. Sodium chloride has little effect on the L-L phase separation, but ammonium sulfate decreases the protein concentration at which the L-L phase separation occurs. This trend is attributed to the effects of critical fluctuations on depletion forces. The implications of these results for designing solution conditions optimal for protein crystallization are discussed.

  16. Microenvironments created by liquid-liquid phase transition control the dynamic distribution of bacterial division FtsZ protein

    PubMed Central

    Monterroso, Begoña; Zorrilla, Silvia; Sobrinos-Sanguino, Marta; Keating, Christine D.; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    The influence of membrane-free microcompartments resulting from crowding-induced liquid/liquid phase separation (LLPS) on the dynamic spatial organization of FtsZ, the main component of the bacterial division machinery, has been studied using several LLPS systems. The GTP-dependent assembly cycle of FtsZ is thought to be crucial for the formation of the septal ring, which is highly regulated in time and space. We found that FtsZ accumulates in one of the phases and/or at the interface, depending on the system composition and on the oligomerization state of the protein. These results were observed both in bulk LLPS and in lipid-stabilized, phase-separated aqueous microdroplets. The visualization of the droplets revealed that both the location and structural arrangement of FtsZ filaments is determined by the nature of the LLPS. Relocation upon depolymerization of the dynamic filaments suggests the protein may shift among microenvironments in response to changes in its association state. The existence of these dynamic compartments driven by phase transitions can alter the local composition and reactivity of FtsZ during its life cycle acting as a nonspecific modulating factor of cell function. PMID:27725777

  17. Cold flame on Biofilm - Transport of Plasma Chemistry from Gas to Liquid Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Michael

    2014-10-01

    One of the most active and fastest growing fields in low-temperature plasma science today is biological effects of gas plasmas and their translation in many challenges of societal importance such as healthcare, environment, agriculture, and nanoscale fabrication and synthesis. Using medicine as an example, there are already three FDA-approved plasma-based surgical procedures for tissue ablation and blood coagulation and at least five phase-II clinical trials on plasma-assisted wound healing therapies. A key driver for realizing the immense application potential of near room-temperature ambient pressure gas plasmas, commonly known as cold atmospheric plasmas or CAP, is to build a sizeable interdisciplinary knowledge base with which to unravel, optimize, and indeed design how reactive plasma species interact with cells and their key components such as protein and DNA. Whilst a logical objective, it is a formidable challenge not least since existing knowledge of gas discharges is largely in the gas-phase and therefore not directly applicable to cell-containing matters that are covered by or embedded in liquid (e.g. biofluid). Here, we study plasma inactivation of biofilms, a jelly-like structure that bacteria use to protect themselves and a major source of antimicrobial resistance. As 60--90% of biofilm is made of water, we develop a holistic model incorporating physics and chemistry in the upstream CAP-generating region, a plasma-exit region as a buffer for as-phase transport, and a downstream liquid region bordering the gas buffer region. A special model is developed to account for rapid chemical reactions accompanied the transport of gas-phase plasma species through the gas-liquid interface and for liquid-phase chemical reactions. Numerical simulation is used to illustrate how key reactive oxygen species (ROS) are transported into the liquid, and this is supported with experimental data of both biofilm inactivation using plasmas and electron spin spectroscopy (ESR

  18. The Connection Between Local Icosahedral Order in Metallic Liquids and the Nucleation of Ordered Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor); Kelton, K. F.; Gangopadhyay, A.; Lee, G. W.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, R. J.; Rogers, J.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.; Holland-Moritz, D.

    2003-01-01

    Over fifty years ago, David Turnbull showed that the temperature of many metallic liquids could be decreased far below their equilibrium melting temperature before crystallization occurred. To explain those surprising results, Charles Frank hypothesized that the local structures of undercooled metallic liquids are different from those of crystal phases, containing a significant degree of icosahedral order that is incompatible with extended periodicity. Such structural differences must create a barrier to the formation crystal phases, explaining the observed undercooling behavior. If true, the nucleation from the liquid of phases with extended icosahedral order should be easier. Icosahedral order is often favored in small clusters, as observed recently in liquid-like clusters of pure Pb on the (111) surface of Si, for example. However, it has never been shown that an increasing preference for icosahedral phase formation can be directly linked with the development of icosahedral order in the undercooled liquid. Owing to the combination of very recent advances in levitation techniques and the availability of synchrotron x-ray and high flux neutron facilities, this is shown here.

  19. The Connection Between Local Icosahedral Order in Metallic Liquids and the Nucleation of Ordered Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Lee, G. W.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.; Robinson, M. B.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over fifty years ago, David Turnbull showed that the temperature of many metallic liquids could be decreased far below their equilibrium melting temperature before crystallization occurred. To explain those surprising results, Charles Frank hypothesized that the local structures of undercooled metallic liquids are different from those of crystal phases, containing a significant degree of icosahedral order that is incompatible with extended periodicity. Such structural differences must create a barrier to the formation crystal phases, explaining the observed undercooling behavior. If true, the nucleation from the liquid of phases with extended icosahedral order should be easier. Icosahedral order is often favored in small clusters, as observed recently in liquid-like clusters of pure Pb on the (111) surface of Si(3), for example. However, it has never been shown that an increasing preference for icosahedral phase formation can be directly linked with the development of icosahedral order in the undercooled liquid. Owing to the combination of very recent advances in levitation techniques and the availability of synchrotron X-ray and high flux neutron facilities.

  20. The Connection Between Local Icosahedral Order in Metallic Liquids and the Nucleation Behavior of Ordered Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Lee, G. W.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.; Robinson, M. B.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.

    2003-01-01

    Over fifty years ago, David Turnbull showed that the temperature of many metallic liquids could be decreased far below their equilibrium melting temperature before crystallization occurred. To explain those surprising results, Charles Frank hypothesized that the local structures of undercooled metallic liquids are different from those of crystal phases, containing a significant degree of icosahedral order that is incompatible with extended periodicity. Such structural differences must create a barrier to the formation crystal phases, explaining the observed undercooling behavior. If true, the nucleation from the liquid of phases with extended icosahedral order should be easier. Icosahedral order is often favored in small clusters, as observed recently in liquid-like clusters of pure Pb on the (111) surface of Si[3], for example. However, it has never been shown that an increasing preference for icosahedral phase formation can be directly linked with the development of icosahedral order in the undercooled liquid. Owing to the combination of very recent advances in levitation techniques and the availability of synchrotron x-ray and high flux neutron facilities, this is shown here.

  1. A liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar phase in highly-dilute suspensions of imogolite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paineau, Erwan; Krapf, Marie-Eve M.; Amara, Mohamed-Salah; Matskova, Natalia V.; Dozov, Ivan; Rouzière, Stéphan; Thill, Antoine; Launois, Pascale; Davidson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystals have found wide applications in many fields ranging from detergents to information displays and they are also increasingly being used in the `bottom-up' self-assembly approach of material nano-structuration. Moreover, liquid-crystalline organizations are frequently observed by biologists. Here we show that one of the four major lyotropic liquid-crystal phases, the columnar one, is much more stable on dilution than reported so far in literature. Indeed, aqueous suspensions of imogolite nanotubes, at low ionic strength, display the columnar liquid-crystal phase at volume fractions as low as ~0.2%. Consequently, due to its low visco-elasticity, this columnar phase is easily aligned in an alternating current electric field, in contrast with usual columnar liquid-crystal phases. These findings should have important implications for the statistical physics of the suspensions of charged rods and could also be exploited in materials science to prepare ordered nanocomposites and in biophysics to better understand solutions of rod-like biopolymers.

  2. A liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar phase in highly-dilute suspensions of imogolite nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Paineau, Erwan; Krapf, Marie-Eve M.; Amara, Mohamed-Salah; Matskova, Natalia V.; Dozov, Ivan; Rouzière, Stéphan; Thill, Antoine; Launois, Pascale; Davidson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystals have found wide applications in many fields ranging from detergents to information displays and they are also increasingly being used in the ‘bottom-up' self-assembly approach of material nano-structuration. Moreover, liquid-crystalline organizations are frequently observed by biologists. Here we show that one of the four major lyotropic liquid-crystal phases, the columnar one, is much more stable on dilution than reported so far in literature. Indeed, aqueous suspensions of imogolite nanotubes, at low ionic strength, display the columnar liquid-crystal phase at volume fractions as low as ∼0.2%. Consequently, due to its low visco-elasticity, this columnar phase is easily aligned in an alternating current electric field, in contrast with usual columnar liquid-crystal phases. These findings should have important implications for the statistical physics of the suspensions of charged rods and could also be exploited in materials science to prepare ordered nanocomposites and in biophysics to better understand solutions of rod-like biopolymers. PMID:26728415

  3. A numerical study of aerosol influence on mixed-phase stratiform clouds through modulation of the liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Hashino, T.; Tripoli, G. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out in a high-resolution two dimensional framework to increase our understanding of aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase stratiform clouds. Aerosol characteristics explored include insoluble particle type, soluble mass fraction, the influence of aerosol-induced freezing point depression and the influence of aerosol number concentration. These experiments were completed with an emphasis on the liquid phase, with droplet freezing the mechanism for ice production. Of the aerosol properties investigated, aerosol insoluble mass type and its associated freezing efficiency was found to be most relevant to cloud lifetime. Secondary effects from aerosol soluble mass fraction and number concentration also alter cloud characteristics and lifetime. These alterations occur via various mechanisms, including changes to the amount of nucleated ice, influence on liquid phase precipitation and ice riming rates, and changes to liquid droplet growth rates. Simulation of the same environment leads to large variability of cloud thickness and lifetime, ranging from rapid and complete glaciation of the cloud to the production of a long-lived, thick stratiform mixed-phase cloud. In the end, these processes are summarized into a diagram that includes internal feedback loops that act within the cloud system.

  4. Impact of Liquid-Vapor to Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Phase Transitions on Asphaltene-Rich Nanoaggregate Behavior in Athabasca Vacuum Residue + Pentane Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Bingwen; Chodakowski, Martin; Shaw, John M.

    2013-06-05

    The bulk phase behavior of heavy oil + alkane mixtures and the behavior of the asphaltenes that they contain are topics of importance for the design and optimization of processes for petroleum production, transport, and refining and for performing routine saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA) analyses. In prior studies, partial phase diagrams and phase behavior models for Athabasca vacuum residue (AVR) comprising 32 wt % pentane asphaltenes + n-alkanes were reported. For mixtures with pentane, observed phase behaviors included single-phase liquid as well as liquid–liquid, liquid–liquid–vapor, and liquid–liquid–liquid–vapor regions. Dispersed solids were detected under some conditions as well but not quantified. In this work, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is used to study nanostructured materials in liquid phases present in AVR + n-pentane mixtures from 50 to 170 °C at mixture bubble pressure. The investigation focuses on the impact of the transition from a single AVR-rich liquid to co-existing pentane-rich and AVR-rich liquids on the nanostructure and the nanostructures most resistant to aggregation as the pentane composition axis is approached. Background scattering subtraction was performed using global mixture composition. The robustness of this assumption with respect to values obtained for coefficients appearing in a two level Beaucage unified equation fit is demonstrated. The nanostructured material is shown to arise at two length scales from 1 to 100 wt % AVR. Smaller nanostructures possess mean radii less than 50 Å, while the larger nanostructures possess mean radii greater than 250 Å. The addition of pentane to the AVR causes an increasingly large fraction of the large and small nanostructures to grow in size. Only nanostructures resistant to aggregation remain in the pentane-rich phase as the 0 wt % AVR axis is approached. Step changes in aggregation identified from changes in average radius of gyration, scattering

  5. Purification of inkjet ink from water using liquid phase, electric discharge polymerization and cellulosic membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Alexander T; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Lee, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    A method to separate inkjet ink from water was developed using a liquid phase, electric discharge process. The liquid phase, electric discharge process with filtration or sedimentation was shown to remove 97% of inkjet ink from solutions containing between 0.1-0.8 g/L and was consistent over a range of treatment conditions. Additionally, particle size analysis of treated allyl alcohol and treated propanol confirmed the electric discharge treatment has a polymerization mechanism, and small molecule analysis of treated methanol using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy confirmed the mechanism was free radical initiated polymerization.

  6. Field-induced phase transitions in chiral smectic liquid crystals studied by the constant current method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, Dhaouadi; R, Zgueb; O, Riahi; F, Trabelsi; T, Othman

    2016-05-01

    In ferroelectric liquid crystals, phase transitions can be induced by an electric field. The current constant method allows these transition to be quickly localized and thus the (E,T) phase diagram of the studied product can be obtained. In this work, we make a slight modification to the measurement principles based on this method. This modification allows the characteristic parameters of ferroelectric liquid crystal to be quantitatively measured. The use of a current square signal highlights a phenomenon of ferroelectric hysteresis with remnant polarization at null field, which points out an effect of memory in this compound.

  7. Tuning the phase diagrams: the miscibility studies of multilactate liquid crystalline compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnov, Alexej; Tykarska, Marzena; Hamplová, Věra; Kurp, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    Design of binary and multicomponent liquid crystalline mixtures is a very powerful tool to reach the desired self-assembling properties. Beyond many advantages, this method has a distinct negativity - it is very material-consuming. While working with unique chiral materials in the research laboratory, this problem can be solved by applying miscibility study by the contact preparation method. In this work, the miscibility studies of lactic acid derivatives and non-chiral/chiral liquid crystalline molecules of different structure have been done in order to establish the phase diagrams. Special attention is focused on the ferro(antiferro)electric smectic phases.

  8. Chemical studies of elements with Z ≥ 104 in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagame, Yuichiro; Kratz, Jens Volker; Schädel, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies of the chemical separation and characterization experiments of the first three transactinide elements, rutherfordium (Rf), dubnium (Db), and seaborgium (Sg), conducted atom-at-a-time in liquid phases, are reviewed. A short description on experimental techniques based on partition methods, specifically automated rapid chemical separation systems, is also given. A newly developed experimental approach to investigate single atoms of the heaviest elements with an electrochemical method is introduced. Perspectives for liquid-phase chemistry experiments on heavier elements are briefly discussed.

  9. Liquid sodium testing of in-house phased array EMAT transducer for L-wave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bourdais, F.; Le Polles, T.; Baque, F.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the development of an in-house phased array EMAT transducer for longitudinal wave inspection in liquid sodium. The work presented herein is part of an undergoing project aimed at improving in-service inspection techniques for the ASTRID reactor project. The design process of the phased array EMAT probe is briefly explained and followed by a review of experimental test results. We first present test results obtained in the laboratory while the last part of the paper describes the liquid sodium testing and the produced ultrasound images. (authors)

  10. The Biological Sensor for Detection of Bacterial Cells in Liquid Phase Based on Plate Acoustic Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodina, Irina; Zaitsev, Boris; Shikhabudinov, Alexander; Guliy, Olga; Ignatov, Oleg; Teplykh, Andrey

    The interactions "bacterial cells - bacteriophages", "bacterial cells - antibodies" and "bacterial cells - mini- antibodies" directly in liquid phase were experimentally investigated with a help of acoustic sensor. The acoustic sensor under study represents two-channel delay line based on the plate of Y-X lithium niobate. One channel of delay line was electrically shorted, the second channel was electrically open. The liquid container was glued on plate surface between transducers of delay line. The dependencies of the change in phase and insertion loss on concentration of bacteriophages, antibodies, and mini- antibodies were obtained for both channels of delay line.

  11. Phase behavior of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with a chemically and geometrically structured substrate.

    PubMed

    Harnau, L; Kondrat, S; Poniewierski, A

    2005-07-01

    A nematic liquid crystal in contact with a grating surface possessing an alternating stripe pattern of locally homeotropic and planar anchoring is studied within the Frank-Oseen model. The combination of both chemical and geometrical surface pattern leads to rich phase diagrams, involving a homeotropic, a planar, and a tilted nematic texture. The effect of the groove depth and the anchoring strengths on the location and the order of phase transitions between different nematic textures is studied. A zenithally bistable nematic device is investigated by confining a nematic liquid crystal between the patterned grating surface and a flat substrate with strong homeotropic anchoring.

  12. Optical Measurement for Solid- and Liquid-Phase Sb2Te3 around Its Melting Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Masashi; Endo, Rie; Tsutsumi, Kouichi; Morikasa, Fukuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Fukaya, Toshio; Suzuki, Michio; Susa, Masahiro; Endo, Tomoyoshi; Tadokoro, Toshiyasu

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a system for measuring the complex refractive index of liquid- and solid-phase chalcogenide around their melting points. The system consists of a spectroscopic ellipsometer, an infrared heating system, and prism optics. As a container for the chalcogenide, we use a customized quartz cell, evacuated to several pascal level to avoid sample degradation. We adopted a measurement configuration that uses access from the bottom side, because a mirror-like surface which is necessary for optical measurement was naturally and easily created at the container bottom by gravity. We succeeded in observing the remarkable difference on the indices between liquid- and solid-phase Sb2Te3.

  13. Photoluminescence at room temperature of liquid-phase crystallized silicon on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Michael; Schwuchow, Anka; Andrä, Gudrun

    2016-12-01

    The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum due band-to-band recombination in an only 8 μm thick liquid-phase crystallized silicon on glass solar cell absorber is measured over 3 orders of magnitude with a thin 400 μm thick optical fiber directly coupled to the spectrometer. High PL signal is achieved by the possibility to capture the PL spectrum very near to the silicon surface. The spectra measured within microcrystals of the absorber present the same features as spectra of crystalline silicon wafers without showing defect luminescence indicating the high electronic material quality of the liquid-phase multi-crystalline layer after hydrogen plasma treatment.

  14. Characterization of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf2N])/TX-100/cyclohexane ternary microemulsion: Investigation of photoinduced electron transfer in this RTIL containing microemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Souravi; Pramanik, Rajib; Ghatak, Chiranjib; Rao, Vishal Govind; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2011-02-01

    In this study we have characterized a ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl- sulfonyl)imide containing ternary nonaqueous microemulsion ([Emim][Tf2N]//TX-100/cyclo- hexane). The phase behavior and dynamic light scattering study show that the [Emim][Tf2N]/TX-100/cyclohexane three component system can form microemulsion with [Emim][Tf2N] as polar core at suitable condition. We have investigated photoinduced electron transfer (PET) using dimethyl aniline as electron donor and several Coumarin dyes as electron acceptor molecules at two different R values (R = [ionic liquid]/[surfactant]) to observe how the dynamics of the PET rate is affected in this type of confined microenvironment compared to that of the PET dynamics in neat ionic liquid and other pure solvent media. The plot of observed kq values with the free energy change (ΔG0) for electron transfer reaction shows an apparent inversion in the observed rate as predicted by the Marcus theory.

  15. Cooperative motion in liquids: On librational dynamics of chloroform throughout its normal liquid-phase range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, Walter G.; Cavagnat, Raymond M.

    1994-03-01

    We have extended the Raman spectral accumulations of the ν3 mode (A1, 367 cm-1) of liquid CHCl3-Cl-35 and its simulation in terms of an orientational equilibrium renewal process [W. G. Rothschild, R. M. Cavagnat, and P. Maraval, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 8922 (1993)] to a temperature of 338 K, about the normal boiling point of the system (335 K). The values of the best-fit parameters predict that the orientational motion of liquid chloroform, even at such a relatively high kinetic energy, is described predominantly by libratory states; their lifetime (˜1 ps) is four times longer than that of the free-rotational steps. The character of the orientational motion of the system, when traversing the range of 213 to 338 K from just above its melting to near its boiling point at about atmospheric pressure, reflects the softening of the liquid-cage structure in terms of an increasing dispersion and/or a decreasing value of the mean libration frequency, a lowering of the depth of its potential well, but near-invariance of its lifetime. Simultaneously, there is an approximately twofold increase in the lifetime of the much shorter stages of free-rotational motion. In essence, the system dynamics remain that of an assembly of librators.

  16. A Monolithic Hybrid Cellulose-2.5-Acetate/Polymer Bioreactor for Biocatalysis under Continuous Liquid-Liquid Conditions Using a Supported Ionic Liquid Phase.

    PubMed

    Sandig, Bernhard; Michalek, Lukas; Vlahovic, Sandra; Antonovici, Mihaela; Hauer, Bernhard; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-10-26

    Mesoporous monolithic hybrid cellulose-2.5-acetate (CA)/polymer supports were prepared under solvent-induced phase separation conditions using cellulose-2.5-acetate microbeads 8-14 μm in diameter, 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)propane and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) as monomers as well as THF and n-heptane as porogenic solvents. 4-(Dimethylamino)pyridine and dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL), respectively, were used as catalysts. Monolithic hybrid supports were used in transesterification reactions of vinyl butyrate with 1-butanol under continuous, supported ionic liquid-liquid conditions with Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) and octylmethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([OMIM(+) ][BF4 (-) ]) immobilized within the CA beads inside the polymeric monolithic framework and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as the continuous phase. The new hybrid bioreactors were successfully used in dimensions up to 2×30 cm (V=94 mL). Under continuous biphasic liquid-liquid conditions a constant conversion up to 96 % was achieved over a period of 18 days, resulting in a productivity of 58 μmol mg(-1) (CALB) min(-1) . This translates into an unprecedented turnover number (TON) of 3.9×10(7) within two weeks, which is much higher than the one obtained under standard biphasic conditions using [OMIM(+) ][BF4 (-) ]/MTBE (TON=2.7×10(6) ). The continuous liquid-liquid setup based on a hybrid reactor presented here is strongly believed to be applicable to many other enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

  17. Synthesis of polymer nanoparticles via vapor phase deposition onto liquid substrates.

    PubMed

    Haller, Patrick D; Gupta, Malancha

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the growth of polymer nanoparticles formed at the liquid-vapor interface via vapor phase polymerization is studied. The particles grow by polymer aggregation, which is driven by the surface tension interaction between the liquid and polymer. It is demonstrated that the mechanism of particle growth is determined by whether polymer particles remain at the liquid-vapor interface or submerge into the liquid. The position of the particles depends on the interaction between the polymer and the liquid. For example, the deposition of poly(n-butyl acrylate) onto poly(dimethyl siloxane) and Krytox liquids leads to the formation of nanoparticles that remain at the liquid-vapor interface. The size of these particles increases as a function of deposition time. The deposition of poly(4-vinylpyridine) onto poly(dimethyl siloxane) and Krytox leads to the formation of nanoparticles that submerge into the liquid. The size of these particles does not significantly change with deposition time. Our study offers a new rapid, one-step synthetic approach for fabricating functional polymer nanoparticles for applications in catalysis, photonics, and drug delivery.

  18. Evaluation of phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator for phase modulation performance using a Twyman Green interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Liying

    2007-06-01

    In order to evaluate the phase modulation performance of a 256 × 256 pixel reflecting liquid crystal spatial light modulator purchased from the US Boulder Nonlinear Systems, we identify the linear range of phase shift and evaluate the spatial nonuniformity of the modulator by measuring both phase and intensity with a Twyman-Green interferometer. Experimental results show that the 50-210 grey scales linear ranges of the phase shift established by phase and intensity measurements are in good agreement with each other, which proves that more accurate phase modulation can be achieved. The inherent backplane curvature of the modulator is less than λ/3 and the root-mean-square value of the phase nonuniformity across the modulator aperture is less than λ/10, so the backplane curvature of the modulator is the main contributor to phase distortion due to the modulator. Analysing the deviation of the root-mean-square value of the phase nonuniformity indicates that the stability of the modulator decreases with increasing grey scales. It is therefore concluded that the modulator calibrated using a single interferometer can be used for beam steering, wave-front correction and transformation.

  19. Biodegradation kinetics of trans-4-methyl-1-cyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Paslawski, Janice C; Headley, John V; Hill, Gordon A; Nemati, Mehdi

    2009-02-01

    Naphthenic acids are a complex mixture of organic compounds which naturally occur in crude oil. Low molecular weight components of the naphthenic acids are known to be toxic in aquatic environments and there is a need to better understand the factors controlling the kinetics of their biodegradation. In this study, a relatively low molecular weight naphthenic acid compound (trans-isomer of 4-methyl-1-cyclohexane carboxylic acid) and a microbial culture developed in our laboratory were used to study the biodegradation of this naphthenic acid and to evaluate the kinetics of the process in batch cultures. The initial concentration of trans-4-methyl-1-cyclohexane carboxylic acid (50-750 mg l(-1)) did not affect the maximum specific growth rate of the bacteria at 23 degrees C (0.52 day(-1)) to the maximum biodegradable concentration (750 mg l(-1)). The maximum yield observed at this temperature and at a neutral pH was 0.21 mg of biomass per milligram of substrate. Batch experiments indicated that biodegradation can be achieved at low temperatures; however, the biodegradation rate at room temperature (23 degrees C) and neutral pH was 5 times faster than that observed at 4 degrees C. Biodegradation at various pH conditions indicated a maximum specific growth rate of 1.69 day(-1) and yield (0.41 mg mg(-1)) at a pH of 10.

  20. Vicinal deuterium perturbations on hydrogen NMR chemical shifts in cyclohexanes.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Daniel J; Allis, Damian G; Hudson, Bruce S; James, Shelly; Morgera, Katherine B; Baldwin, John E

    2008-10-15

    The substitution of a deuterium for a hydrogen is known to perturb the NMR chemical shift of a neighboring hydrogen atom. The magnitude of such a perturbation may depend on the specifics of bonding and stereochemical relationships within a molecule. For deuterium-labeled cyclohexanes held in a chair conformation at -80 degrees C or lower, all four possible perturbations of H by D as H-C-C-H is changed to D-C-C-H have been determined experimentally, and the variations seen, ranging from 6.9 to 10.4 ppb, have been calculated from theory and computational methods. The predominant physical origins of the NMR chemical shift perturbations in deuterium-labeled cyclohexanes have been identified and quantified. The trends defined by the Delta delta perturbation values obtained through spectroscopic experiments and by theory agree satisfactorily. They do not match the variations typically observed in vicinal J(H-H) coupling constants as a function of dihedral angles.