Science.gov

Sample records for liquid polydisperse systems

  1. Solid-liquid transition in polydisperse Lennard-Jones systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sarmistha; Biswas, Rajib; Santra, Mantu; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-08-01

    We study melting of a face-centered crystalline solid consisting of polydisperse Lennard-Jones spheres with Gaussian polydispersity in size. The phase diagram reproduces the existence of a nearly temperature invariant terminal polydispersity (δt ≃ 0.11), with no signature of reentrant melting. The absence of reentrant melting can be attributed to the influence of the attractive part of the potential upon melting. We find that at terminal polydispersity the fractional density change approaches zero, which seems to arise from vanishingly small compressibility of the disordered phase. At constant temperature and volume fraction the system undergoes a sharp transition from crystalline solid to the disordered amorphous or fluid state with increasing polydispersity. This has been quantified by second- and third-order rotational invariant bond orientational order, as well as by the average inherent structure energy. The translational order parameter also indicates a similar sharp structural change at δ ≃ 0.09 in case of T* = 1.0, ϕ = 0.58. The free energy calculation further supports the sharp nature of the transition. The third-order rotationally invariant bond order shows that with increasing polydispersity, the local cluster favors a more icosahedral arrangement and the system loses its local crystalline symmetry. Interestingly, the value of structure factor S(k) of the amorphous phase at δ ≃ 0.10 (just beyond the solid-liquid transition density at T* = 1) becomes 2.75, which is below the value of 2.85 required for freezing given by the empirical Hansen-Verlet rule of crystallization, well known in the theory of freezing.

  2. Solid-liquid transition in polydisperse Lennard-Jones systems.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sarmistha; Biswas, Rajib; Santra, Mantu; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-08-01

    We study melting of a face-centered crystalline solid consisting of polydisperse Lennard-Jones spheres with Gaussian polydispersity in size. The phase diagram reproduces the existence of a nearly temperature invariant terminal polydispersity (δ(t) =/~ 0.11), with no signature of reentrant melting. The absence of reentrant melting can be attributed to the influence of the attractive part of the potential upon melting. We find that at terminal polydispersity the fractional density change approaches zero, which seems to arise from vanishingly small compressibility of the disordered phase. At constant temperature and volume fraction the system undergoes a sharp transition from crystalline solid to the disordered amorphous or fluid state with increasing polydispersity. This has been quantified by second- and third-order rotational invariant bond orientational order, as well as by the average inherent structure energy. The translational order parameter also indicates a similar sharp structural change at δ =/~ 0.09 in case of T(*) = 1.0, φ = 0.58. The free energy calculation further supports the sharp nature of the transition. The third-order rotationally invariant bond order shows that with increasing polydispersity, the local cluster favors a more icosahedral arrangement and the system loses its local crystalline symmetry. Interestingly, the value of structure factor S(k) of the amorphous phase at δ =/~ 0.10 (just beyond the solid-liquid transition density at T(*) = 1) becomes 2.75, which is below the value of 2.85 required for freezing given by the empirical Hansen-Verlet rule of crystallization, well known in the theory of freezing.

  3. Vibrational dynamics and boson peak in a supercooled polydisperse liquid.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sneha Elizabeth; Bagchi, Biman

    2010-03-01

    Vibrational density of states (VDOS) in a supercooled polydisperse liquid is computed by diagonalizing the Hessian matrix evaluated at the potential energy minima for systems with different values of polydispersity. An increase in polydispersity leads to an increase in the relative population of localized high-frequency modes. At low frequencies, the density of states shows an excess compared to the Debye squared-frequency law, which has been identified with the boson peak. The height of the boson peak increases with polydispersity and shows a rather narrow sensitivity to changes in temperature. While the modes comprising the boson peak appear to be largely delocalized, there is a sharp drop in the participation ratio of the modes that exist just below the boson peak indicative of the quasilocalized nature of the low-frequency vibrations. Study of the difference spectrum at two different polydispersity reveals that the increase in the height of boson peak is due to a population shift from modes with frequencies above the maximum in the VDOS to that below the maximum, indicating an increase in the fraction of the unstable modes in the system. The latter is further supported by the facilitation of the observed dynamics by polydispersity. Since the strength of the liquid increases with polydispersity, the present result provides an evidence that the intensity of boson peak correlates positively with the strength of the liquid, as observed earlier in many experimental systems.

  4. Liquid-vapor interface of a polydisperse fluid.

    PubMed

    Buzzacchi, Matteo; Wilding, Nigel B

    2005-06-01

    We report a grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation study of the liquid-vapor interface of a model fluid exhibiting polydispersity in terms of the particle size sigma. The bulk density distribution, rho0(sigma), of the system is controlled by the imposed chemical potential distribution mu(sigma), the form of which is specified such that rho0(sigma) assumes a Schulz form with associated degree of polydispersity approximately = 14%. By introducing a smooth attractive wall, a planar liquid-vapor interface is formed for bulk state points within the region of liquid-vapor coexistence. Owing to fractionation, the pure liquid phase is enriched in large particles, with respect to the coexisting vapor. We investigate how the spatial variation of the density near the liquid-vapor interface affects the evolution of the local distribution of particle sizes between the limiting pure phase forms. We find [as previously predicted by density-functional theory, Bellier-Castella, Phys. Rev. E 65, 021503 (2002)] a segregation of smaller particles to the interface. The magnitude of this effect as a function of sigma is quantified via measurements of the relative adsorption. Additionally, we consider the utility of various estimators for the interfacial width and highlight the difficulty of isolating the intrinsic contribution of polydispersity to this width.

  5. Effect of Size Polydispersity on the Nature of Lennard-Jones Liquids.

    PubMed

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-08-27

    Polydisperse fluids are encountered everywhere in biological and industrial processes. These fluids naturally show a rich phenomenology exhibiting fractionation and shifts in critical point and freezing temperatures. We study here the effect of size polydispersity on the basic nature of Lennard-Jones (LJ) liquids, which represent most molecular liquids without hydrogen bonds, via two- and three-dimensional molecular dynamics computer simulations. A single-component liquid constituting spherical particles and interacting via the LJ potential is known to exhibit strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. This correlation significantly simplifies the physical description of the liquid, and these liquids are now known as Roskilde-simple (RS) liquids. We show that this simple nature of the single-component LJ liquid is preserved even for very high polydispersities (above 40% polydispersity for the studied uniform distribution). We also investigate isomorphs of moderately polydisperse LJ liquids. Isomorphs are curves in the phase diagram of RS liquids along which structure, dynamics, and some thermodynamic quantities are invariant in dimensionless units. We find that isomorphs are a good approximation even for polydisperse LJ liquids. The theory of isomorphs thus extends readily to size polydisperse fluids and can be used to improve even further the understanding of these intriguing systems.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of a polydisperse system.

    PubMed

    Tutschka, C; Kahl, G

    2001-09-01

    We use the virial theorem to derive a closed analytic form of the Helmholtz free energy for a polydisperse system of sticky hard spheres (SHS) within the mean spherical model (MSM). To this end we calculate the free energy of the MSM for an N-component mixture of SHS via the virial route and apply to it-after imposing a Lorentz-Berthelot type rule on the interactions-the stochastic (i.e., polydisperse) limit. The resulting excess free energy of this polydisperse system is of the truncatable moment free energy format. We also discuss the compressibility and the energy routes.

  7. Calculation of the flow of a polydispersed system of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Azhibekov, A.K.

    1988-06-01

    We discuss a model which can be used to compute the velocities and temperatures of solid and liquid particles in the presence of collisions and coagulation. We consider the steady one-dimensional flow of a polydispersed system of solid and liquid particles in a gas. As an example, we consider the motion of a three-phase system consisting of a gas, solid dust particles, and water droplets, where the latter two phases are suspended in the gas. The system flows in a channel of variable cross section (a venturi serving as a dust trap).

  8. Nematic-nematic demixing in polydisperse thermotropic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollich, Peter

    2005-06-01

    We consider the effects of polydispersity on isotropic-nematic phase equilibria in thermotropic liquid crystals, using a Maier-Saupe theory [Z. Naturforsch. A 13A, 564 (1958)] with factorized interactions. A sufficient spread (≈50%) in the interaction strengths of the particles leads to phase separation into two or more nematic phases, which can in addition coexist with an isotropic phase. The isotropic-nematic coexistence region widens dramatically as polydispersity is increased, leading to reentrant isotropic-nematic phase separation in some regions of the phase diagram. We show that similar phenomena will occur also for nonfactorized interactions as long as the interaction strength between any two particle species is lower than the mean of the intraspecies interactions.

  9. Effect of Size Polydispersity on Melting of Charged Colloidal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong

    2003-09-01

    We introduce simple prescriptions of the Yukawa potential to describe the effect of size polydispersity and macroion shielding effect in charged colloidal systems. The solid-liquid phase boundaries were presented with the Lindemann criterion based on molecular dynamics simulations. Compared with the Robbins-Kremer-Grest simulation results, a deviation of melting line is observed at small lambda, which means large macroion screening length. This deviation of phase boundary is qualitatively consistent with the simulation result of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation with full many-body interactions. It is found that this deviation of the solid-liquid phase behaviour is sensitive to the screening parameter.

  10. Phase equilibria in polydisperse nonadditive hard-sphere systems.

    PubMed

    Paricaud, Patrice

    2008-08-01

    Colloidal particles naturally exhibit a size polydispersity that can greatly influence their phase behavior in solution. Nonadditive hard-sphere (NAHS) mixtures are simple and well-suited model systems to represent phase transitions in colloid systems. Here, we propose an analytical equation of state (EOS) for NAHS fluid mixtures, which can be straightforwardly applied to polydisperse systems. For positive values of the nonadditivity parameter Delta the model gives accurate predictions of the simulated fluid-fluid coexistence curves and compressibility factors. NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the mixing properties of the NAHS symmetric binary mixture with Delta>0 are reported. It is shown that the enthalpy of mixing is largely positive and overcomes the positive entropy of mixing when the pressure is increased, leading to a fluid-fluid phase transition with a lower critical solution pressure. Phase equilibria in polydisperse systems are predicted with the model by using the density moment formalism [P. Sollich, Adv. Chem. Phys. 116, 265 (2001)]. We present predictions of the cloud and shadow curves for polydisperse NAHS systems composed of monodisperse spheres and polydisperse colloid particles. A fixed nonadditivity parameter Delta > 0 is assumed between the monodisperse and polydisperse spheres, and a Schulz distribution is used to represent the size polydispersity. Polydispersity is found to increase the extent of the immiscibility region. The predicted cloud and shadow curves depend dramatically on the upper cutoff diameter sigmac of the Schulz distribution, and three-phase equilibria can occur for large values of sigmac.

  11. Effect of Energy Polydispersity on the Nature of Lennard-Jones Liquids.

    PubMed

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-08-11

    In the companion paper [ Ingebrigtsen , T. S. ; Tanaka , H. J. Phys. Chem. B 2015 , 119 , 11052 ] the effect of size polydispersity on the nature of Lennard-Jones (LJ) liquids, which represent most molecular liquids without hydrogen bonds, was studied. More specifically, it was shown that even highly size polydisperse LJ liquids are Roskilde-simple (RS) liquids. RS liquids are liquids with strong correlation between constant volume equilibrium fluctuations of virial and potential energy and are simpler than other types of liquids. Moreover, it was shown that size polydisperse LJ liquids have isomorphs to a good approximation. Isomorphs are curves in the phase diagram of RS liquids along which structure, dynamics, and some thermodynamic quantities are invariant in dimensionless (reduced) units. In this paper, we study the effect of energy polydispersity on the nature of LJ liquids. We show that energy polydisperse LJ liquids are RS liquids. However, a tendency of particle segregation, which increases with the degree of polydispersity, leads to a loss of strong virial-potential energy correlation but is mitigated by increasing temperature and/or density. Isomorphs are a good approximation also for energy polydisperse LJ liquids, although particle-resolved quantities display a somewhat poorer scaling compared to the mean quantities along the isomorph.

  12. Structural and dynamical analysis of monodisperse and polydisperse colloidal systems.

    PubMed

    Yiannourakou, Marianna; Economou, Ioannis G; Bitsanis, Ioannis A

    2010-12-14

    We present a semigrand ensemble Monte Carlo and Brownian dynamics simulation study of structural and dynamical properties of polydisperse soft spheres interacting via purely repulsive power-law potentials with a varying degree of "softness." Comparisons focus on crystal and amorphous phases at their coexistence points. It is shown through detailed structural analysis that as potential interactions soften, the "quality of crystallinity" of both monodisperse and polydisperse systems deteriorates. In general, polydisperse crystalline phases are characterized by a more ordered structure than the corresponding monodisperse ones (i.e., for the same potential softness). This counter-intuitive feature originates partly from the fact that particles of different sizes may be accommodated more flexibly in a crystal structure and from the reality that coexistence (osmotic) pressure is substantially higher for polydisperse systems. These trends diminish for softer potentials. Potential softness eventually produces substitutionally disordered crystals. However, substitutional order is apparent for the hard-spherelike interactions. Diffusionwise, crystals appear quite robust with a slight difference in the vibrational amplitudes of small and large particles. This difference, again, diminishes with potential softness. Overcrowding in amorphous polydisperse suspensions causes "delayed" diffusion at intermediate times.

  13. Covalent functionalization of polydisperse chemically-converted graphene sheets with amine-terminated ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huafeng; Shan, Changsheng; Li, Fenghua; Han, Dongxue; Zhang, Qixian; Niu, Li

    2009-07-14

    A facile method to obtain polydisperse chemically-converted graphene sheets that are covalently functionalized with ionic liquid was reported -- the resulting graphene sheets, without any assistance from polymeric or surfactant stabilizers, can be stably dispersed in water, DMF, and DMSO.

  14. Acoustics of a Polydisperse Vapor-Gas Bubbles-Laden Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubaidullin, D. A.; Fedorov, Yu. V.

    2017-03-01

    A mathematical model is presented that determines the propagation of acoustic waves in a liquid containing polydisperse vapor-gas bubbles with account for mass transfer processes. A system of integrodifferential equations of a disturbed motion of a two-phase mixture is written, and a dispersion relation is obtained. A general expression for the equilibrium velocity of sound has been found for a vapor-gas liquid mixture, and the influence of vapor concentration and of the volume content of bubbles on the value of the equilibrium velocity of sound has been analyzed. In particular cases, expressions of the equilibrium velocity of sound are presented for gas-liquid and vapor-liquid mixtures, and satisfactory agreement of the obtained values with the familiar experimental data has been obtained. The results of comparison of the dispersion curves of phase velocity and of the attenuation coefficient for a mixture of water with vapor-air bubbles at different values of the initial concentration of vapor in bubbles are given.

  15. Sound waves in a liquid with polydisperse vapor-gas bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubaidullin, D. A.; Fedorov, Yu. V.

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the propagation of plane, spherical, and cylindrical sound waves in a liquid containing polydisperse vapor-gas bubbles with allowance for phase transitions. A system of integro-differential equations is constructed to describe perturbed motion of a two-phase mixture, and a dispersion relation is derived. An expression for equilibrium sound velocity is obtained for a gas-liquid or vapor-liquid mixture. The theoretical results agree well with the known experimental data. The dispersion curves obtained for the phase velocity and the attenuation coefficient in a mixture of water with vapor-gas bubbles are compared for various values of vapor concentration in the bubbles and various bubble distributions in size. The evolution of pressure pulses of plane and cylindrical waves is demonstrated for different values of the initial vapor concentration in bubbles. The calculated frequency dependence of the phase sound velocity in a mixture of water with vapor bubbles is compared with experimental data.

  16. Dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions as a model system for bacterial cytoplasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jiye; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2016-08-01

    There are various kinds of macromolecules in bacterial cell cytoplasm. The size polydispersity of the macromolecules is so significant that the crystallization and the phase separation could be suppressed, thus stabilizing the liquid state of bacterial cytoplasm. On the other hand, recent experiments suggested that the macromolecules in bacterial cytoplasm should exhibit glassy dynamics, which should be also affected significantly by the size polydispersity of the macromolecules. In this work, we investigate the anomalous and slow dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions, of which size distribution is chosen to mimic Escherichia coli cytoplasm. We find from our Langevin dynamics simulations that the diffusion coefficient (Dtot) and the displacement distribution functions (P (r ,t ) ) averaged over all colloids of different sizes do not show anomalous and glassy dynamic behaviors until the system volume fraction ϕ is increased up to 0.82. This indicates that the intrinsic polydispersity of bacterial cytoplasm should suppress the glass transition and help maintain the liquid state of the cytoplasm. On the other hand, colloids of each kind show totally different dynamic behaviors depending on their size. The dynamics of colloids of different size becomes non-Gaussian at a different range of ϕ , which suggests that a multistep glass transition should occur. The largest colloids undergo the glass transition at ϕ =0.65 , while the glass transition does not occur for smaller colloids in our simulations even at the highest value of ϕ . We also investigate the distribution (P (θ ,t ) ) of the relative angles of displacement for macromolecules and find that macromolecules undergo directionally correlated motions in a sufficiently dense system.

  17. Ageing in a system of polydisperse goethite boardlike particles showing rich phase behaviour.

    PubMed

    Leferink op Reinink, A B G M; van den Pol, E; Byelov, D V; Petukhov, A V; Vroege, G J

    2012-11-21

    Using microradian x-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy the rich liquid crystalline phase behaviour of a polydisperse system of chromium-modified goethite particles has been studied for five years. We observe that the particles stay highly mobile over years and the rich phase behaviour keeps developing in novel and even surprising ways. While in many other colloidal systems particle size polydispersity suppresses the formation of ordered phases, goethite particles form multiple coexisting ordered phases. The particle polydispersity problem is then solved by particle exchange between coexisting phases. One usually expects that a less ordered phase (e.g., nematic) is formed first while crystallization of the smectic and columnar crystals might take a longer time. For goethite particles we find the opposite, i.e. the nematic phase grows over years at the expense of a better ordered smectic phase. Moreover, SAXS patterns revealed peak splitting for both the smectic and the columnar phase, meaning that the system displays fractionated crystallization. We further discovered that the centred rectangular columnar phase spontaneously forms out of the simple rectangular columnar phase. The reverse transition is observed as well. We explain the ease of these martensitic transitions by showing how slight rotation and translation of the particles triggers the transition.

  18. Phase diagram of a polydisperse soft-spheres model for liquids and colloids.

    PubMed

    Fernández, L A; Martín-Mayor, V; Verrocchio, P

    2007-02-23

    The phase diagram of soft spheres with size dispersion is studied by means of an optimized Monte Carlo algorithm which allows us to equilibrate below the kinetic glass transition for all size distributions. The system ubiquitously undergoes a first-order freezing transition. While for a small size dispersion the frozen phase has a crystalline structure, large density inhomogeneities appear in the highly disperse systems. Studying the interplay between the equilibrium phase diagram and the kinetic glass transition, we argue that the experimentally found terminal polydispersity of colloids is a purely kinetic phenomenon.

  19. Capturing of the internal mechanics of liquid-granular flows comprised of polydisperse spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a series of flume experiments designed to examine the motion and arrest of concentrated granular-fluid flows, with a view to understanding the role of polydispersity in debris flows. A non-intrusive technique is used to investigate the internal behaviour of small scale experimental flows. Three different particle size distributions comprised of polydisperse spherical particles and one with the finer component made of angular particles were analysed. The choice of using spherical shaped particles was made to improve the visualization of the internal mechanics without reducing overmuch the complexity involved in the study of these flows. We examined and compared the internal velocities of the flows and their depositional spreads. While the optical performance of the non-intrusive technique was improved, some of the characteristics commonly seen in these types of granular flows were not observed. Velocity profiles obtained in the body of the flows were similar in shape but with differences in velocity magnitude depending on the amount of fines and the angularity of the particle in one case. Depositional runouts between flows were similar at low inclinations when little internal energy was supplemented to the system or when the viscous effects dominated the mechanics at steeper angles.

  20. Final Report for Fractionation and Separation of Polydisperse Nanoparticles into Distinct Monodisperse Fractions Using CO2 Expanded Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Chistopher Roberts

    2007-08-31

    The overall objective of this project was to facilitate efficient fractionation and separation of polydisperse metal nanoparticle populations into distinct monodisperse fractions using the tunable solvent properties of gas expanded liquids. Specifically, the dispersibility of ligand-stabilized nanoparticles in an organic solution was controlled by altering the ligand-solvent interaction (solvation) by the addition of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas as an antisolvent (thereby tailoring the bulk solvent strength) in a custom high pressure apparatus developed in our lab. This was accomplished by adjusting the CO{sub 2} pressure over the liquid dispersion, resulting in a simple means of tuning the nanoparticle precipitation by size. Overall, this work utilized the highly tunable solvent properties of organic/CO{sub 2} solvent mixtures to selectively size-separate dispersions of polydisperse nanoparticles (ranging from 1 to 20 nm in size) into monodisperse fractions ({+-}1nm). Specifically, three primary tasks were performed to meet the overall objective. Task 1 involved the investigation of the effects of various operating parameters (such as temperature, pressure, ligand length and ligand type) on the efficiency of separation and fractionation of Ag nanoparticles. In addition, a thermodynamic interaction energy model was developed to predict the dispersibility of different sized nanoparticles in the gas expanded liquids at various conditions. Task 2 involved the extension of the experimental procedures identified in task 1 to the separation of other metal particles used in catalysis such as Au as well as other materials such as semiconductor particles (e.g. CdSe). Task 3 involved using the optimal conditions identified in tasks 1 and 2 to scale up the process to handle sample sizes of greater than 1 g. An experimental system was designed to allow nanoparticles of increasingly smaller sizes to be precipitated sequentially in a vertical series of high pressure vessels by

  1. Predicting the behaviour of polydisperse polymers in liquid chromatography under isocratic and gradient conditions.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Peter; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; Grothey, Ricarda

    2002-08-02

    In this paper we describe how the existing theories to describe retention and peak width in isocratic and gradient-elution liquid chromatography can be expanded to describe the retention behaviour of natural and synthetic repetitive polymers, which feature distributions of molecules with different masses (and often different structures) rather than unambiguous molecular formulas. For polydisperse samples, it is vital that the model accommodates (isocratic) elution of sample components before the onset of a gradient, elution during the gradient, and elution after the completion of the gradient. The expanded models can readily be implemented in standard spreadsheet software, such as Excel. We have created such spreadsheets based on the conventional model for retention in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and on two different models for retention in normal-phase liquid chromatography. The implementation allows an easy visualization of the theoretical concept. Up to three different polymeric series can be entered, with a total of up to 100 peaks being computed and displayed in isocratic or gradient-elution chromatograms. Also visualized are "retention models" (diagrams of isocratic retention vs. composition) and "calibration curves" (retention or elution composition vs. molecular mass or degree of polymerization). The coefficients in the isocratic retention model may be correlated, as has often been observed in RPLC. It is shown that under certain conditions such a correlation corresponds to the existence of so-called critical (isocratic) conditions, at which all the members of a given polymeric series (same composition and end groups, different number of repeat units) show co-elution.

  2. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.

    2009-06-01

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.

  3. Interactive graphical system for small-angle scattering analysis of polydisperse systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konarev, P. V.; Volkov, V. V.; Svergun, D. I.

    2016-09-01

    A program suite for one-dimensional small-angle scattering analysis of polydisperse systems and multiple data sets is presented. The main program, POLYSAS, has a menu-driven graphical user interface calling computational modules from ATSAS package to perform data treatment and analysis. The graphical menu interface allows one to process multiple (time, concentration or temperature-dependent) data sets and interactively change the parameters for the data modelling using sliders. The graphical representation of the data is done via the Winteracter-based program SASPLOT. The package is designed for the analysis of polydisperse systems and mixtures, and permits one to obtain size distributions and evaluate the volume fractions of the components using linear and non-linear fitting algorithms as well as model-independent singular value decomposition. The use of the POLYSAS package is illustrated by the recent examples of its application to study concentration-dependent oligomeric states of proteins and time kinetics of polymer micelles for anticancer drug delivery.

  4. A review of modern approaches to the hydrodynamic characterisation of polydisperse macromolecular systems in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Richard B; Rowe, Arthur J; Adams, Gary G; Harding, Stephen E

    2014-10-01

    This short review considers the range of modern techniques for the hydrodynamic characterisation of macromolecules - particularly large glycosylated systems used in the food, biopharma and healthcare industries. The range or polydispersity of molecular weights and conformations presents special challenges compared to proteins. The review is aimed, without going into any great theoretical or methodological depth, to help the Industrial Biotechnologist choose the appropriate methodology or combination of methodologies for providing the detail he/she needs for particular applications.

  5. Extending the excluded volume for percolation threshold estimates in polydisperse systems: The binary disk system

    DOE PAGES

    Meeks, Kelsey; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Green, Micah; ...

    2017-06-01

    For dispersions containing a single type of particle, it has been observed that the onset of percolation coincides with a critical value of volume fraction. When the volume fraction is calculated based on excluded volume, this critical percolation threshold is nearly invariant to particle shape. The critical threshold has been calculated to high precision for simple geometries using Monte Carlo simulations, but this method is slow at best, and infeasible for complex geometries. This article explores an analytical approach to the prediction of percolation threshold in polydisperse mixtures. Specifically, this paper suggests an extension of the concept of excluded volume,more » and applies that extension to the 2D binary disk system. The simple analytical expression obtained is compared to Monte Carlo results from the literature. In conclusion, the result may be computed extremely rapidly and matches key parameters closely enough to be useful for composite material design.« less

  6. Polydisperse hard spheres: crystallization kinetics in small systems and role of local structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Matteo; Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study numerically the crystallization of a hard-sphere mixture with 8% polydispersity. Although often used as a model glass former, for small system sizes we observe crystallization in molecular dynamics simulations. This opens the possibility to study the competition between crystallization and structural relaxation of the melt, which typically is out of reach due to the disparate timescales. We quantify the dependence of relaxation and crystallization times on density and system size. For one density and system size we perform a detailed committor analysis to investigate the suitability of local structures as order parameters to describe the crystallization process. We find that local structures are strongly correlated with generic bond order and add little information to the reaction coordinate.

  7. Direct Numerical Simulation of Poly-dispersed Solid-Fluid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essmann, Erich; Shui, Pei; Govindarajan, Rama; Popinet, Stephane; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-11-01

    The fluid dynamics of poly-dispersed solid - fluid systems are of great importance, particularly is the behaviour of methane clathrates slurries. In this work, a framework is being developed for the direct numerical simulation of these systems. We have extended the Gerris software package of (Popinet et al., 2003). In our solid solver, Gerris Immersed Solid Solver (GISS), to account for collisions we have implemented a novel contact model (Ness & Sun, 2016) for solid-solid interactions. A composite contact model is being used, in which each solid in the domain is divided into two regions. The outer region uses a Hookean repulsive and a lubrication force model to simulate contact. The inner region uses a constraint based contact model to ensure that the numerical overlap of the solids is not excessive. We have validated our methodology against published experimental data. Particularly, we compared the chaotic motion of an ellipsoidal solid in an ideal fluid (Aref, 1993) to that predicted by GISS and the settling behaviour of two colliding spheres of different densities (Zhao, 2003). The validated extensions will allow us to compare previous results from GISS to regimes in which solid-solid contact is important.

  8. Topological Defects by Size Polydispersity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhenwei; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-03-01

    The engineering of defects in crystalline matter introduces entirely new physical properties of materials. The fascinating possible applications of defects, known as topological defects, provide great motivations to perform fundamental investigations to uncover their role on the physical properties of various systems. Here we investigate topological defects in size polydispersity on flat surfaces. Our simulations show that in polydispersed systems topological defects play the role of order-restoring. The perfect hexagonal lattice beyond a small defective region around the impurity particle is well protected. Moreover, size polydispersity is shown numerically here to be an essential ingredient to understand short-range attractions between like-charge disclinations. Our study suggests the promising potential of size polydispersity to engineer defects in real systems. We thank the support of the Office of the Secretary of Defense under the NSSEFF program award number FA9550-10-1-0167.

  9. Binodal Colloidal Aggregation Test - 4: Polydispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaikin, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Binodal Colloidal Aggregation Test - 4: Polydispersion (BCAT-4-Poly) will use model hard-spheres to explore seeded colloidal crystal nucleation and the effects of polydispersity, providing insight into how nature brings order out of disorder. Crewmembers photograph samples of polymer and colloidal particles (tiny nanoscale spheres suspended in liquid) that model liquid/gas phase changes. Results will help scientists develop fundamental physics concepts previously cloaked by the effects of gravity.

  10. Experimental Study of Gravitation Effects on Liquid Crystal Phase Transitions in Polydisperse Aqueous Suspensions of Mg 2Al Layered Double Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Zhang, Li; Sun, Dejun; Sun, Zhiwei; Xu, Shenghua

    2016-05-01

    Effects of gravity on liquid crystal phase transitions (LCPT) in polydisperse aqueous suspensions of Mg 2Al layered double hydroxide (LDHs) were studied under normal gravity condition. Samples with different suspension concentration (SC) were tested for 15 days and the relevant changes in samples were observed through crossed polarizers. Our results showed: (a) the samples were still isotropic (I) when SC < 23 wt%; (b) when 23 wt% < SC < 30 wt%, a shear-induced birefringence appeared after preparation, and finally coexistence of four phases was reached, including an opaque isotropic top phase, a birefringent middle phase, a faint birefringence phase and a sediment layer of larger platelets resulting from the high polydispersity; (c) when SC > 30 wt%, the suspensions were in a gel state, and the gel network slowed down the LCPT. The above different behavior of phase transitions is apparently due to the concentration gradient and fractionation caused by gravity. This study provides guidance on how to select samples of LDHs suspensions for LCPT used in the upcoming experiment in the space program SJ-10 satellite.

  11. Numerical scheme for non-linear model of supercritical fluid extraction from polydisperse ground plant material: single transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamatin, A.

    2016-11-01

    Numerical algorithm is developed for modelling non-linear mass transfer process in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The ground raw material is considered as polydisperse, characterized by discrete number of effective particle fractions. Two continuous interacting counterparts separated by permeable membrane are distinguished in plant material build-up. The apoplast plays role of transport channels during extraction, and symplast contains extractable oil. The complete SFE model is non-linear as a result of non-linearity of oil dissolution kinetics. The computational scheme is based on the finite-volume approximation method and Thomas elimination procedure. The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved iteratively. Special attention is paid to polydisperse substrates, when particle scale characteristics of all fractions interact with each other through pore phase concentration on the vessel scale. Stability of the developed algorithm is demonstrated in numerical tests. Special iterative procedure guarantees a monotonic decrease of oil content in individual particles of substrate. It is also shown that in the limit of the so-called shrinking core approach the number of mesh nodes on a particle scale should be increased.

  12. Polydispersity and EXAFS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammelli, S.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Degueldre, C.; Bertsch, J.; Frahm, R.

    2009-11-01

    EXAFS is an important experimental technique for determining the local atomic structure of nanoclusters embedded in a bulk material. In practical cases, nanocluster samples do not contain homogeneous clusters of just one size, and the average cluster size is strongly influenced by the specific distribution of cluster sizes. Combinations of different cluster sizes might provide very similar results; this issue is called polydispersity. The goal of this study is to understand if there are any principal limitations for EXAFS studies related to polydispersity. Here a new approach based on EXAFS simulations followed by linear combination (LC) on EXAFS spectra is presented. The simulations were performed on pure Cu and binary Cu-Fe clusters. The main result of this study concerns the proof that polydispersity does not affect XAFS studies on nano-clusters within a size of up to 140 atoms.

  13. Sintering of polydisperse viscous droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie; Llewellin, Edward W.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-03-01

    Sintering—or coalescence—of compacts of viscous droplets is driven by the interfacial tension between the droplets and the interstitial gas phase. The process, which occurs in a range of industrial and natural settings, such as the manufacture of ceramics and the welding of volcanic ash, causes the compact to densify, to become stronger, and to become less permeable. We investigate the role of droplet polydispersivity in sintering dynamics by conducting experiments in which populations of glass spheres with different size distributions are heated to temperatures above the glass transition interval. We quantify the progress of sintering by tracking changes in porosity with time. The sintering dynamics is modeled by treating the system as a random distribution of interstitial gas bubbles shrinking under the action of interfacial tension only. We identify the scaling between the polydispersivity of the initial droplets and the dynamics of bulk densification. The framework that we develop allows the sintering dynamics of arbitrary polydisperse populations of droplets to be predicted if the initial droplet (or particle) size distribution is known.

  14. DENSE MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION: CONTINUUM MODEL FOR POLY-DISPERSED SYSTEMS USING KINETIC THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Moses Bogere

    2011-08-31

    The overall objective of the project was to verify the applicability of the FCMOM approach to the kinetic equations describing the particle flow dynamics. For monodispersed systems the fundamental equation governing the particle flow dynamics is the Boltzmann equation. During the project, the FCMOM was successfully applied to several homogeneous and in-homogeneous problems in different flow regimes, demonstrating that the FCMOM has the potential to be used to solve efficiently the Boltzmann equation. However, some relevant issues still need to be resolved, i.e. the homogeneous cooling problem (inelastic particles cases) and the transition between different regimes. In this report, the results obtained in homogeneous conditions are discussed first. Then a discussion of the validation results for in-homogeneous conditions is provided. And finally, a discussion will be provided about the transition between different regimes. Alongside the work on development of FCMOM approach studies were undertaken in order to provide insights into anisotropy or particles kinetics in riser hydrodynamics. This report includes results of studies of multiphase flow with unequal granular temperatures and analysis of momentum re-distribution in risers due to particle-particle and fluid-particle interactions. The study of multiphase flow with unequal granular temperatures entailed both simulation and experimental studies of two particles sizes in a riser and, a brief discussion of what was accomplished will be provided. And finally, a discussion of the analysis done on momentum re-distribution of gas-particles flow in risers will be provided. In particular a discussion of the remaining work needed in order to improve accuracy and predictability of riser hydrodynamics based on two-fluid models and how they can be used to model segregation in risers.

  15. Static Structure of Polydisperse Micellar Solutions.

    PubMed

    Mileva

    2000-12-15

    A model study of polydisperse micellar solutions formed by ionic amphiphiles in the presence of added salt is proposed. The structural peculiarities of the system are determined by effective potentials including the screened electrostatic and the hardcore interactions. A perturbation procedure is applied to expand the characteristic parameters of the system around a reference system. The basic result is a model size distribution curve that accounts not only for the inherent polydispersity of the system but also includes the interaggregate interactions and the space correlation of the aggregates. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Liquid Level Control System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A system for controlling liquid flow from an inlet into a tank comprising a normally closed poppet valve controlled by dual pressure chambers each...containing a diaphragm movable by the pressure of the liquid in the inlet to cause the valve to close. Pressure against the diaphragms is relieved by

  17. Structure of polydisperse inverse ferrofluids: theory and computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Jian, Y C; Gao, Y; Huang, J P; Tao, R

    2008-01-24

    By using theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the structure of colloidal crystals formed by nonmagnetic microparticles (or magnetic holes) suspended in ferrofluids (called inverse ferrofluids), by taking into account the effect of polydispersity in size of the nonmagnetic microparticles. Such polydispersity often exists in real situations. We obtain an analytical expression for the interaction energy of monodisperse, bidisperse, and polydisperse inverse ferrofluids. Body-centered tetragonal (bct) lattices are shown to possess the lowest energy when compared with other sorts of lattices and thus serve as the ground state of the systems. Also, the effect of microparticle size distributions (namely, polydispersity in size) plays an important role in the formation of various kinds of structural configurations. Thus, it seems possible to fabricate colloidal crystals by choosing appropriate polydispersity in size.

  18. Measuring local volume fraction, long-wavelength correlations, and fractionation in a phase-separating polydisperse fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J. J.; Evans, R. M. L.

    2014-10-28

    We dynamically simulate fractionation (partitioning of particle species) during spinodal gas-liquid separation of a size-polydisperse colloid, using polydispersity up to ∼40% and a skewed parent size distribution. We introduce a novel coarse-grained Voronoi method to minimise size bias in measuring local volume fraction, along with a variety of spatial correlation functions which detect fractionation without requiring a clear distinction between the phases. These can be applied whether or not a system is phase separated, to determine structural correlations in particle size, and generalise easily to other kinds of polydispersity (charge, shape, etc.). We measure fractionation in both mean size and polydispersity between the phases, its direction differing between model interaction potentials which are identical in the monodisperse case. These qualitative features are predicted by a perturbative theory requiring only a monodisperse reference as input. The results show that intricate fractionation takes place almost from the start of phase separation, so can play a role even in nonequilibrium arrested states. The methods for characterisation of inhomogeneous polydisperse systems could in principle be applied to experiment as well as modelling.

  19. Phase behavior of weakly polydisperse sticky hard spheres: perturbation theory for the Percus-Yevick solution.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Riccardo; Gazzillo, Domenico; Giacometti, Achille; Sollich, Peter

    2006-10-28

    We study the effects of size polydispersity on the gas-liquid phase behavior of mixtures of sticky hard spheres. To achieve this, the system of coupled quadratic equations for the contact values of the partial cavity functions of the Percus-Yevick solution [R. J. Baxter, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 2770 (1968)] is solved within a perturbation expansion in the polydispersity, i.e., the normalized width of the size distribution. This allows us to make predictions for various thermodynamic quantities which can be tested against numerical simulations and experiments. In particular, we determine the leading order effects of size polydispersity on the cloud curve delimiting the region of two-phase coexistence and on the associated shadow curve; we also study the extent of size fractionation between the coexisting phases. Different choices for the size dependence of the adhesion strengths are examined carefully; the Asakura-Oosawa model [J. Chem. Phys. 22, 1255 (1954)] of a mixture of polydisperse colloids and small polymers is studied as a specific example.

  20. Liquid Level Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  1. Bicontinuous Polymeric Microemulsions from Polydisperse Diblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Christopher J.; Meuler, Adam J.; Qin, Jian; Evans, Christopher M.; Wolf, Lynn M.; Bates, Frank S.

    2009-06-12

    Polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions are thermodynamically stable structures typically formed by ternary blends of immiscible A and B homopolymers and a macromolecular surfactant such as an AB diblock copolymer. Investigations of these bicontinuous morphologies have largely focused on model systems in which all components have narrow molecular weight distributions. Here we probe the effects of AB diblock polydispersity in ternary blends of polystyrene (PS), polyisoprene (PI), and poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (PS-PI). Three series of blends were prepared using the same PS and PI homopolymers; two of them contain nearly monodisperse components while the third includes a polydisperse PS-PI diblock. The PS and PI homopolymers and two of the PS-PI diblocks were prepared by anionic polymerization using sec-butyllithium and have narrow molecular weight distributions. The polydisperse PS-PI diblock was prepared by anionic polymerization using the functional organolithium 3-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-1-propyllithium; this diblock has a polydisperse PS block (M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.57) and a nearly monodisperse PI block (Mw/Mn < 1.1). The phase behavior of the three series of blends was probed using a combination of dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and cloud point measurements, and a bicontinuous microemulsion channel was identified in each system. These results prove that monodisperse components are not required to form bicontinuous microemulsions and highlight the utility of polydispersity as a tool to tune polymer blend phase behavior. The random-phase approximation, originally advanced by de Gennes, and self-consistent field theory are used to provide a theoretical supplement to the experimental work. These theories are able to predict the directions of the polydispersity-driven shifts in domain spacing, order-disorder transition temperatures, and the location of the microemulsion channel. Self-consistent field theory is also used in conjunction

  2. Bicontinuous polymeric microemulsions from polydisperse diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Christopher J; Meuler, Adam J; Qin, Jian; Evans, Christopher M; Wolf, Lynn M; Bates, Frank S

    2009-03-26

    Polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions are thermodynamically stable structures typically formed by ternary blends of immiscible A and B homopolymers and a macromolecular surfactant such as an AB diblock copolymer. Investigations of these bicontinuous morphologies have largely focused on model systems in which all components have narrow molecular weight distributions. Here we probe the effects of AB diblock polydispersity in ternary blends of polystyrene (PS), polyisoprene (PI), and poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (PS-PI). Three series of blends were prepared using the same PS and PI homopolymers; two of them contain nearly monodisperse components while the third includes a polydisperse PS-PI diblock. The PS and PI homopolymers and two of the PS-PI diblocks were prepared by anionic polymerization using sec-butyllithium and have narrow molecular weight distributions. The polydisperse PS-PI diblock was prepared by anionic polymerization using the functional organolithium 3-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-1-propyllithium; this diblock has a polydisperse PS block (Mw/Mn = 1.57) and a nearly monodisperse PI block (Mw/Mn < 1.1). The phase behavior of the three series of blends was probed using a combination of dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and cloud point measurements, and a bicontinuous microemulsion channel was identified in each system. These results prove that monodisperse components are not required to form bicontinuous microemulsions and highlight the utility of polydispersity as a tool to tune polymer blend phase behavior. The random-phase approximation, originally advanced by de Gennes, and self-consistent field theory are used to provide a theoretical supplement to the experimental work. These theories are able to predict the directions of the polydispersity-driven shifts in domain spacing, order-disorder transition temperatures, and the location of the microemulsion channel. Self-consistent field theory is also used in conjunction with the

  3. Condensation transition in polydisperse hard rods.

    PubMed

    Evans, M R; Majumdar, S N; Pagonabarraga, I; Trizac, E

    2010-01-07

    We study a mass transport model, where spherical particles diffusing on a ring can stochastically exchange volume v, with the constraint of a fixed total volume V= sum(i=1) (N)v(i), N being the total number of particles. The particles, referred to as p-spheres, have a linear size that behaves as v(i) (1/p) and our model thus represents a gas of polydisperse hard rods with variable diameters v(i) (1/p). We show that our model admits a factorized steady state distribution which provides the size distribution that minimizes the free energy of a polydisperse hard-rod system, under the constraints of fixed N and V. Complementary approaches (explicit construction of the steady state distribution on the one hand; density functional theory on the other hand) completely and consistently specify the behavior of the system. A real space condensation transition is shown to take place for p>1; beyond a critical density a macroscopic aggregate is formed and coexists with a critical fluid phase. Our work establishes the bridge between stochastic mass transport approaches and the optimal polydispersity of hard sphere fluids studied in previous articles.

  4. Magnetization of polydisperse colloidal ferrofluids: effect of magnetostriction.

    PubMed

    Huang, J P; Holm, C

    2004-12-01

    We exploit magnetostriction in polydisperse ferrofluids in order to generate nonlinear responses and apply a thermodynamical method to derive the desired nonlinear magnetic susceptibility. For an ideal gas, this method has been demonstrated to be in excellent agreement with a statistical method. In the presence of a sinusoidal ac magnetic field, the magnetization of the polydisperse ferrofluid contains higher-order harmonics, which can be extracted analytically by using a perturbation approach. We find that the harmonics are sensitive to the particle distribution and the degree of field-induced anisotropy of the system. In addition, we find that the magnetization is higher in the polydisperse system than in the monodisperse one, as also found by a recent Monte Carlo simulation. Thus, it seems possible to detect the size distribution in a polydisperse ferrofluid by measuring the harmonics of the magnetization under the influence of magnetostriction.

  5. Liquid air mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Robert B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A device for mixing liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen to form liquid air. The mixing device consists of a tube for transferring liquid oxygen positioned within a tube for transferring liquid nitrogen. Supply vessels for liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen are equally pressurized and connected to the appropriate tubes. Liquid oxygen and nitrogen flow from the supply vessels through the respective tubes and are mixed to form liquid air upon exiting the outlets of the tube. The resulting liquid air is transferred to a holding vessel.

  6. Importance of many-body correlations in glass transition: An example from polydisperse hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leocmach, Mathieu; Russo, John; Tanaka, Hajime

    2013-03-01

    Most of the liquid-state theories, including glass-transition theories, are constructed on the basis of two-body density correlations. However, we have recently shown that many-body correlations, in particular, bond orientational correlations, play a key role in both the glass transition and the crystallization transition. Here we show, with numerical simulations of supercooled polydisperse hard spheres systems, that the length-scale associated with any two-point spatial correlation function does not increase toward the glass transition. A growing length-scale is instead revealed by considering many-body correlation functions, such as correlators of orientational order, which follows the length-scale of the dynamic heterogeneities. Despite the growing of crystal-like bond orientational order, we reveal that the stability against crystallization with increasing polydispersity is due to an increasing population of icosahedral arrangements of particles. Our results suggest that, for this type of systems, many-body correlations are a manifestation of the link between the vitrification and the crystallization phenomena. Whether a system is vitrified or crystallized can be controlled by the degree of frustration against crystallization, polydispersity in this case.

  7. Does the configurational entropy of polydisperse particles exist?

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Misaki; Berthier, Ludovic

    2017-01-07

    Classical particle systems characterized by continuous size polydispersity, such as colloidal materials, are not straightforwardly described using statistical mechanics, since fundamental issues may arise from particle distinguishability. Because the mixing entropy in such systems is divergent in the thermodynamic limit, we show that the configurational entropy estimated from standard computational approaches to characterize glassy states also diverges. This reasoning would suggest that polydisperse materials cannot undergo a glass transition, in contradiction to experiments. We explain that this argument stems from the confusion between configurations in phase space and states defined by free energy minima, and propose a simple method to compute a finite and physically meaningful configurational entropy in continuously polydisperse systems. Physically, the proposed approach relies on an effective description of the system as an M(*)-component system with a finite M(*), for which finite mixing and configurational entropies are obtained. We show how to directly determine M(*) from computer simulations in a range of glass-forming models with different size polydispersities, characterized by hard and soft interparticle interactions, and by additive and non-additive interactions. Our approach provides consistent results in all cases and demonstrates that the configurational entropy of polydisperse system exists, is finite, and can be quantitatively estimated.

  8. Random close packing of polydisperse jammed emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brujic, Jasna

    2010-03-01

    Packing problems are everywhere, ranging from oil extraction through porous rocks to grain storage in silos and the compaction of pharmaceutical powders into tablets. At a given density, particulate systems pack into a mechanically stable and amorphous jammed state. Theoretical frameworks have proposed a connection between this jammed state and the glass transition, a thermodynamics of jamming, as well as geometric modeling of random packings. Nevertheless, a simple underlying mechanism for the random assembly of athermal particles, analogous to crystalline ordering, remains unknown. Here we use 3D measurements of polydisperse packings of emulsion droplets to build a simple statistical model in which the complexity of the global packing is distilled into a local stochastic process. From the perspective of a single particle the packing problem is reduced to the random formation of nearest neighbors, followed by a choice of contacts among them. The two key parameters in the model, the available space around a particle and the ratio of contacts to neighbors, are directly obtained from experiments. Remarkably, we demonstrate that this ``granocentric'' view captures the properties of the polydisperse emulsion packing, ranging from the microscopic distributions of nearest neighbors and contacts to local density fluctuations and all the way to the global packing density. Further applications to monodisperse and bidisperse systems quantitatively agree with previously measured trends in global density. This model therefore reveals a general principle of organization for random packing and lays the foundations for a theory of jammed matter.

  9. Modeling Size Polydisperse Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Isner, Austin B.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.

    2014-11-01

    Modeling size segregation of granular materials has important applications in many industrial processes and geophysical phenomena. We have developed a continuum model for granular multi- and polydisperse size segregation based on flow kinematics, which we obtain from discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The segregation depends on dimensionless control parameters that are functions of flow rate, particle sizes, collisional diffusion coefficient, shear rate, and flowing layer depth. To test the theoretical approach, we model segregation in tri-disperse quasi-2D heap flow and log-normally distributed polydisperse quasi-2D chute flow. In both cases, the segregated particle size distributions match results from full-scale DEM simulations and experiments. While the theory was applied to size segregation in steady quasi-2D flows here, the approach can be readily generalized to include additional drivers of segregation such as density and shape as well as other geometries where the flow field can be characterized including rotating tumbler flow and three-dimensional bounded heap flow. Funded by The Dow Chemical Company and NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.

  10. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOEpatents

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  11. Portable Liquid-Injecting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuck, T.; Chin, F.; Hansen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Portable injecting-gun system dispenses predetermined amount of liquid at moderately high pressure. Tool belt holds components of liquid-injecting system. Pump and four-way valve combined in nylon housing. Connected to injecting nozzle and other components by polyvinyl tubing.

  12. Respiratory tract deposition of polydisperse aerosols in humans.

    PubMed

    Diu, C K; Yu, C P

    1983-01-01

    Total and regional deposition of polydisperse aerosols in the human respiratory tract are studied theoretically. The size distribution of the aerosol is assumed to be lognormal. For a given mass median particle diameter, mass deposition fraction is found to vary with the geometric standard deviation of the aerosol. The departure of the deposition pattern in various regions of the respiratory system from that of a monodisperse aerosol is interpreted in terms of the average mobility effect and deposition limitation effect of the polydisperse aerosol together with the sequential filtering effect of the respiratory tract.

  13. Liquid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Loren L.

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  14. Liquid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  15. Lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour in amphiphile-protic ionic liquid systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengfei; Greaves, Tamar L; Fong, Celesta; Caruso, Rachel A; Drummond, Calum J

    2012-03-21

    Approximate partial phase diagrams for nine amphiphile-protic ionic liquid (PIL) systems have been determined by synchrotron source small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and cross polarised optical microscopy. The binary phase diagrams of some common cationic (hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, CTAC, and hexadecylpyridinium bromide, HDPB) and nonionic (polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether, Brij 97, and Pluronic block copolymer, P123) amphiphiles with the PILs, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), ethanolammonium nitrate (EOAN) and diethanolammonium formate (DEOAF), have been studied. The phase diagrams were constructed for concentrations from 10 wt% to 80 wt% amphiphile, in the temperature range 25 °C to >100 °C. Lyotropic liquid crystalline phases (hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) were formed at high surfactant concentrations (typically >50 wt%), whereas at <40 wt%, only micelles or polydisperse crystals were present. With the exception of Brij 97, the thermal stability of the phases formed by these surfactants persisted to temperatures above 100 °C. The phase behaviour of amphiphile-PIL systems was interpreted by considering the PIL cohesive energy, liquid nanoscale order, polarity and ionicity. For comparison the phase behaviour of the four amphiphiles was also studied in water.

  16. Phase separation dynamics of polydisperse colloids: a mean-field lattice-gas theory.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Pablo; Sollich, Peter

    2017-08-23

    New insights into phase separation in colloidal suspensions are provided via a dynamical theory based on the polydisperse lattice-gas model. The model gives a simplified description of polydisperse colloids, incorporating a hard-core repulsion combined with polydispersity in the strength of the attraction between neighbouring particles. Our mean-field equations describe the local concentration evolution for each of an arbitrary number of species, and for an arbitrary overall composition of the system. We focus on the predictions for the dynamics of colloidal gas-liquid phase separation after a quench into the coexistence region. The critical point and the relevant spinodal curves are determined analytically, with the latter depending only on three moments of the overall composition. The results for the early-time spinodal dynamics show qualitative changes as one crosses a 'quenched' spinodal that excludes fractionation and so allows only density fluctuations at fixed composition. This effect occurs for dense systems, in agreement with a conjecture by Warren that, at high density, fractionation should be generically slow because it requires inter-diffusion of particles. We verify this conclusion by showing that the observed qualitative changes disappear when direct particle-particle swaps are allowed in the dynamics. Finally, the rich behaviour beyond the spinodal regime is examined, where we find that the evaporation of gas bubbles with strongly fractionated interfaces causes long-lived composition heterogeneities in the liquid phase; we introduce a two-dimensional density histogram method that allows such effects to be easily visualized for an arbitrary number of particle species.

  17. Effects of polydispersity on confined homopolymer melts: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rorrer, Nicholas A.; Dorgan, John R.

    2014-12-01

    New insight into the molecular scale details of polymer melts under confined conditions is obtained from the first dynamic Monte Carlo study incorporating polydispersity. While confinement effects on polymers have been widely explored, little work exists on the effects of polydispersity. This is surprising given the near universal presence of polydispersity in physical systems. To address this shortcoming, a new variation of on-lattice dynamic Monte Carlo simulation is used to provide an understanding of how polydispersity alters confinement effects on polymer melts. Polymer melts of varying polydispersity are simulated between two hard walls (surface interaction parameter, χs = 0) of variable spacing. As plate spacing decreases, polymer chains adopt conformations in which the end-to-end vector is parallel to the hard walls. However, polydisperse melts with the same length average molecular weight, Nw (which is analogous to the weight average molecular weight, Mw) show reduced orientation effects. Polydispersity provides greater degrees of freedom; that is, there are more configurations for the system to adopt to accommodate confinement without ordering. At plate spacings of four radii of gyration and only modest polydispersity index values (polydispersity index, PDI = 1.42), the order parameters are reduced by 15% compared to the monodisperse case. The same PDI value corresponds to a 10% reduction in the perturbations of the end-to-end vector and Rouse time. Interestingly, length-based migration effects are observed. Longer chains reside away from the walls and the shorter chains are found nearer the walls; at equilibrium there is a molecular weight based fractionation across the gap. Confinement also leads to a "speeding up" of the polymer dynamics. Altered dynamic phenomena include a reduction of the Rouse time for the same average molecular weight and an altered scaling behavior with plate spacing. Reptation times are also reduced and polydispersity smoothes

  18. Topological lifetimes of polydisperse colloidal hard spheres at a wall.

    PubMed

    Dullens, Roel P A; Kegel, Willem K

    2005-01-01

    Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to study the behavior of dense suspensions of model colloidal hard spheres at a single wall. Due to the slight polydispersity, our system shows a reentrant melting transition at high densities involving a hexatic structure [Phys. Rev. Lett 92, 195702 (2004)

  19. Polydispersity-driven topological defects as order-restoring excitations.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhenwei; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2014-04-08

    The engineering of defects in crystalline matter has been extensively exploited to modify the mechanical and electrical properties of many materials. Recent experiments on manipulating extended defects in graphene, for example, show that defects direct the flow of electric charges. The fascinating possibilities offered by defects in two dimensions, known as topological defects, to control material properties provide great motivation to perform fundamental investigations to uncover their role in various systems. Previous studies mostly focus on topological defects in 2D crystals on curved surfaces. On flat geometries, topological defects can be introduced via density inhomogeneities. We investigate here topological defects due to size polydispersity on flat surfaces. Size polydispersity is usually an inevitable feature of a large variety of systems. In this work, simulations show well-organized induced topological defects around an impurity particle of a wrong size. These patterns are not found in systems of identical particles. Our work demonstrates that in polydispersed systems topological defects play the role of restoring order. The simulations show a perfect hexagonal lattice beyond a small defective region around the impurity particle. Elasticity theory has demonstrated an analogy between the elementary topological defects named disclinations to electric charges by associating a charge to a disclination, whose sign depends on the number of its nearest neighbors. Size polydispersity is shown numerically here to be an essential ingredient to understand short-range attractions between like-charge disclinations. Our study suggests that size polydispersity has a promising potential to engineer defects in various systems including nanoparticles and colloidal crystals.

  20. Liquid Fuels Systems Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    DEFENSE INFO SCHOOL 1 1 DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER 2 DET 1, HQ AFMWRA/MWHBR 1 HSD/DPI 1 1 HQ AFCESA/DMG 1 1 HQ ACC/DPATD 3 3 HQ AFSPACECOM...ENGINEERING 0 WATTS MUESCO 11 FUEL METERS MAINTAINED IST ENL A.O. SMITH 81 BENNET 6 BOWSER 13 BRODIE 50 GRANCO 19 LIQUID CONTROL 38 NEPTUNE 19 CAL

  1. Polydispersity and gelation in concentrated colloids with competing interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian Hui; Kuipers, Bonny W M; Tian, Wen-de; Groenewold, Jan; Kegel, Willem K

    2015-01-14

    In colloids with competing short-range attractions and long-range repulsions, microcrystalline gels are experimentally formed under conditions where computer simulations point to a lamellar phase as the ground state. Here, upon applying a low-frequency alternating electric field, we bring the system from an initial gel state to a columnar-like state. While molecular dynamics simulations on monodisperse colloids reveal that a columnar structure spontaneously evolves towards a lamellar phase, the columnar-like state in experiments relaxes back to the initial disordered gel state once the electric field is switched off. Similarly, a columnar phase in molecular dynamics simulations decomposes into finite-size crystalline clusters as the relative polydispersity of the colloids is around 1.0%. We conclude that the experimentally observed melting of the columnar structure is driven by polydispersity. Moreover, further simulations reveal that the critical polydispersity required to destabilize a long-range ordered structure increases with the attraction range, pointing to the possibility of observing periodic structures in experiments if the attraction range is sufficiently long compared to the polydispersity of the colloids.

  2. Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Rocket fuel needs to stay cool - super cool, in fact. The ability to store gas propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 F) is crucial for space missions in order to reduce their volumes and allow their storage in smaller (and therefore, less costly) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support systems since 1962 with the Centaur upper stage rocket, which was powered with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During proposed long-duration missions, super-cooled fluids will also be used in space power systems, spaceports, and lunar habitation systems. In the next generation of launch vehicles, gaseous propellants will be cooled to and stored for extended periods at even colder temperatures than currently employed via a process called densification. Densification sub-cools liquids to temperatures even closer to absolute zero (-459 F), increasing the fluid s density and shrinking its volume beyond common cryogenics. Sub-cooling cryogenic liquid hydrogen, for instance, from 20 K (-423 F) to 15 K (-432.4 F) reduces its mass by 10 percent. These densified liquid gases can provide more cost savings from reduced payload volume. In order to benefit from this cost savings, the Agency is working with private industry to prevent evaporation, leakage, and other inadvertent loss of liquids and gases in payloads - requiring new cryogenic systems to prevent 98 percent (or more) of boil-off loss. Boil-off occurs when cryogenic or densified liquids evaporate, and is a concern during launch pad holds. Accurate sensing of propellants aboard space vehicles is also critical for proper engine shutdown and re-ignition after launch, and zero boil-off fuel systems are also in development for the Altair lunar lander.

  3. Equilibrium Phase Behavior of Polydisperse Hard Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasolo, Moreno; Sollich, Peter

    2003-08-01

    We calculate the phase behavior of hard spheres with size polydispersity, using accurate free energies for the fluid and solid phases. Cloud and shadow curves are found exactly by the moment free energy method, but we also compute the complete phase diagram, taking full account of fractionation. In contrast to earlier, simplified treatments we find no point of equal concentration between fluid and solid or reentrant melting at higher densities. Rather, the fluid cloud curve continues to the largest polydispersity that we study (14%); from the equilibrium phase behavior a terminal polydispersity can thus be defined only for the solid, where we find it to be around 7%. At sufficiently large polydispersity, fractionation into several solid phases can occur, consistent with previous approximate calculations; we find, in addition, that coexistence of several solids with a fluid phase is also possible.

  4. Supported liquid membrane system

    SciTech Connect

    Takigawa, D.Y.; Bush, H. Jr.

    1990-12-31

    A cell apparatus for a supported liquid membrane including opposing faceplates, each having a spirally configured groove, an inlet groove at a first end of the spirally configured groove, and an outlet groove at the other end of the spirally configured groove, within the opposing faces of the faceplates, a microporous membrane situated between the grooved faces of the faceplates, said microporous membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for a predetermined chemical species within the pores of said membrane, means for aligning the grooves of the faceplates in an directly opposing configuration with the porous membrane being situated therebetween, such that the aligned grooves form a pair of directly opposing channels, separate feed solution and stripping solution compartments connected to respective channels between the faceplates and the membrane, separate pumping means for passing feed solution and stripping solution through the channels is provided.

  5. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Richard L.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  6. Comparison between theory and simulations for the magnetization and the susceptibility of polydisperse ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Szalai, I; Nagy, S; Dietrich, S

    2013-11-20

    The influence of polydispersity on the magnetization of ferrofluids is studied based on a previously published magnetization equation of state (Szalai and Dietrich, 2011 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 326004) and computer simulations. The polydispersity of the particle diameter is described by the gamma distribution function. Canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations have been performed in order to test these theoretical results for the initial susceptibility and the magnetization. The results for the magnetic properties of the polydisperse systems turn out to be in quantitative agreement with our present simulation data. In addition, we find good agreement between our theory and experimental data for magnetite-based ferrofluids.

  7. Chain formation and aging process in biocompatible polydisperse ferrofluids: experimental investigation and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Bakuzis, Andris Figueiroa; Branquinho, Luis César; e Castro, Leonardo Luiz; e Eloi, Marcos Tiago de Amaral; Miotto, Ronei

    2013-05-01

    We review the use of Monte Carlo simulations in the description of magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid carrier. Our main focus is the use of theory and simulation as tools for the description of the properties of ferrofluids. In particular, we report on the influence of polydispersity and short-range interaction on the self-organization of nanoparticles. Such contributions are shown to be extremely important for systems characterized by particles with diameters smaller than 10nm. A new 3D polydisperse Monte Carlo implementation for biocompatible magnetic colloids is proposed. As an example, theoretical and simulation results for an ionic-surfacted ferrofluid dispersed in a NaCl solution are directly compared to experimental data (transmission electron microscopy - TEM, magneto-transmissivity, and electron magnetic resonance - EMR). Our combined theoretical and experimental results suggest that during the aging process two possible mechanisms are likely to be observed: the nanoparticle's grafting decreases due to aggregate formation and the Hamaker constant increases due to oxidation. In addition, we also briefly discuss theoretical agglomerate formation models and compare them to experimental data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of Schultz distribution to model polydispersity of microemulsion droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlarchyk, M.; Stephens, R.B.; Huang, J.S.

    1988-03-24

    The authors have employed a histogram analysis method to study the spectra obtained by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in order to investigate the size distribution of a model water-in-oil three-component microemulsion. It is found that the often used Schultz distribution function is indeed one of the reasonable choices to represent the moderately polydispersed droplet system. Analysis based on mean spherical approximations of the SANS data and inverse Laplace transformation of quasi-elastic light scattering data, assuming a Schultz distribution, yield consistent results compared with the histogram method. The polydispersity index, ..delta..R/anti R, found in the model microemulsion is roughly constant at larger R, but increases at small R, consistent with a theory proposed by Safran.

  9. Anomalous χ for Polydisperse Polystyrene-b-Poly(octyl acrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jumi; Ahn, Hyungju; Ryu, Du Yeol; Shin, Kwanwoo; Cho, Junhan

    2012-02-01

    We have performed small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on a disordered block copolymer from deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and self-adhesive poly(octyl acrylate) (POA) in order to elicit the effective Flory-Huggins χ, which carries the essence of the copolymer phase behavior. The sample for the measurement was prepared by blending two polydisperse dPS-b-POAs of different molecular weights for the purpose of adjusting the average size to a proper value. The SANS profiles for the copolymer were fitted to Leibler's scattering function for a polydisperse copolymer system described by Schulz-Zimm distribution. It was shown that the resultant χ as a function of inverse temperature has a strong entropic contribution and a weak enthalpic contribution. By adopting a simple analysis for specific interactions, it was found that the entropically dominated χ for dPS-b-POA arises from the steric hindrance of long alkyl side groups of POA.

  10. Fire spread and percolation in polydisperse compartment structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekri, N.; Zekri, L.; Lallemand, C.; Pizzo, Y.; Kaiss, A.; Clerc, J.-P.; Porterie, B.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we employ a cellular automata and percolation analysis to model fire spread in polydisperse amorphous massively multi-compartmented structures (e.g. naval vessels, high-rise buildings, warehouses, or nuclear plants). Various shapes and sizes of compartments are considered. Each compartment is composed of nc equal-size cells. It is found that increasing nc increases fingering and lacunarities of fire patterns, and subsequently front roughness. However, this also increases the probability of fire propagation throughout the system as the percolation threshold presents a power-law decrease with nc -1 for small values of nc. For large polydisperse compartments, the propagation/non propagation transition seems to be size-independent. A special emphasis is put on the dynamics of fire propagation. Further study is needed to evaluate network properties that should help in developing better strategies to reduce fire consequences.

  11. Slush hydrogen liquid level system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J. F.; Adams, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    A discrete capacitance liquid level system developed is specifically for slush hydrogen, but applicable to LOX, LN2, LH2, and RP1 without modification is described. The signal processing portion of the system is compatible with conventional liquid level sensors. Compatibility with slush hydrogen was achieved by designing the sensor with adequate spacing, while retaining the electrical characteristics of conventional sensors. Tests indicate excellent stability of the system over a temperature range of -20 C to 70 C for the circuit and to cryogenic temperatures of the sensor. The sensor was tested up to 40 g's rms random vibration with no damage to the sensor. Operation with 305 m of cable between the sensor and signal processor was demonstrated. It is concluded that this design is more than adequate for most flight and ground applications.

  12. Simulation estimates of cloud points of polydisperse fluids.

    PubMed

    Buzzacchi, Matteo; Sollich, Peter; Wilding, Nigel B; Müller, Marcus

    2006-04-01

    We describe two distinct approaches to obtaining the cloud-point densities and coexistence properties of polydisperse fluid mixtures by Monte Carlo simulation within the grand-canonical ensemble. The first method determines the chemical potential distribution mu(sigma) (with the polydisperse attribute) under the constraint that the ensemble average of the particle density distribution rho(sigma) match a prescribed parent form. Within the region of phase coexistence (delineated by the cloud curve) this leads to a distribution of the fluctuating overall particle density n, p(n), that necessarily has unequal peak weights in order to satisfy a generalized lever rule. A theoretical analysis shows that as a consequence, finite-size corrections to estimates of coexistence properties are power laws in the system size. The second method assigns mu(sigma) such that an equal-peak-weight criterion is satisfied for p(n) for all points within the coexistence region. However, since equal volumes of the coexisting phases cannot satisfy the lever rule for the prescribed parent, their relative contributions must be weighted appropriately when determining mu(sigma). We show how to ascertain the requisite weight factor operationally. A theoretical analysis of the second method suggests that it leads to finite-size corrections to estimates of coexistence properties which are exponentially small in the system size. The scaling predictions for both methods are tested via Monte Carlo simulations of a polydisperse lattice-gas model near its cloud curve, the results showing excellent quantitative agreement with the theory.

  13. Liquid waste treatment system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-06-01

    Pretreatment of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) involved three distinct processing operations: decontamination of liquid HLW in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS); volume reduction of decontaminated liquid in the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); and encapsulation of resulting concentrates into an approved cement waste form in the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Together, these systems and operations made up the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS).

  14. Polydisperse spherical colloidal silica particles: Preparation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Hui; Huo, Junchao; Liang, Chenliang; Li, Shasha; Liu, Weili; Song, Zhitang

    2016-11-01

    A new industrial method has been developed to produce polydisperse spherical colloidal silica particles with a very broad particle size, ranging from 20-95 nm. The process uses a reactor in which the original seed solution is heated to 100°C, and then active silicic acid and the seed solution are titrated to the reactor continuously with a constant rate. The original seeds and the titrated seeds in the reactor will go through different particle growth cycles to form different particle sizes. Both the particles’ size distribution and morphology have been characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the focus ion beam (FIB) system. In addition, the as-prepared polydisperse colloidal silica particle in the application of sapphire wafer’s chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process has been tested. The material removal rate (MRR) of this kind of abrasive has been tested and verified to be much faster than traditional monodisperse silica particles. Finally, the mechanism of sapphire CMP process by this kind of polydisperse silica particles has been investigated to explore the reasons for the high polishing rate. Project supported by the National Major Scientific and Technological Special Project during the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period of China (Grant No. 2009ZX02030-1), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51205387), the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 11nm0500300), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 14XD1425300).

  15. Pressurization systems for liquid rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines for the successful design of pressurization systems for main propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, and attitude control systems for boosters, upper stages, and spacecraft were presented, drawing on the wealth of design experience that has accumulated in the development of pressurization systems for liquid rockets operational in the last 15 years. The design begins with a preliminary phase in which the system requirements are received and evaluated. Next comes a detail-design and integration phase in which the controls and the hardware components that make up the system are determined. The final phase, design evaluation, provides analysis of problems that may arise at any point in the design when components are combined and considered for operation as a system. Throughout the monograph, the design tasks are considered in the order and manner in which the designer must handle them.

  16. The effect of polydispersity on the magnetostatic properties of concentrated ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyova, Anna Yu.; Vtulkina, Ekaterina D.; Goldina, Olga A.

    2017-06-01

    A statistical model of highly concentrated polydisperse ferrocolloids is proposed. The study approach is based on the second-order modified mean-field theory (MMF2) [A.O. Ivanov, O.B. Kuznetsova, Magnetic properties of dense ferrofluids: an influence of interparticle correlations, Phys. Rev. E 64 (2001) 041405-1-12]. To increase the accuracy of the analytical expression of the magnetization we calculate the contribution of the dipole-dipole interaction energy up to the 2nd order in the pair distribution function for ferroparticles system. The obtained expression of magnetization corresponds to the theoretical expression of initial magnetic susceptibility proposed by the new polydisperse theory [A.O. Ivanov, E.A. Elfimova, Low-temperature magnetic susceptibility of concentrated ferrofluids: the influence of polydispersity, J. Magn. Magn. Matter. 374 (2015) 327-332] exactly. In conjunction it can be applied for magnetogranulometric analysis of polydisperse concentrated ferrofluids.

  17. Effects of polydispersity on confined homopolymer melts: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Rorrer, Nicholas A; Dorgan, John R

    2014-12-07

    New insight into the molecular scale details of polymer melts under confined conditions is obtained from the first dynamic Monte Carlo study incorporating polydispersity. While confinement effects on polymers have been widely explored, little work exists on the effects of polydispersity. This is surprising given the near universal presence of polydispersity in physical systems. To address this shortcoming, a new variation of on-lattice dynamic Monte Carlo simulation is used to provide an understanding of how polydispersity alters confinement effects on polymer melts. Polymer melts of varying polydispersity are simulated between two hard walls (surface interaction parameter, χ(s) = 0) of variable spacing. As plate spacing decreases, polymer chains adopt conformations in which the end-to-end vector is parallel to the hard walls. However, polydisperse melts with the same length average molecular weight, N(w) (which is analogous to the weight average molecular weight, M(w)) show reduced orientation effects. Polydispersity provides greater degrees of freedom; that is, there are more configurations for the system to adopt to accommodate confinement without ordering. At plate spacings of four radii of gyration and only modest polydispersity index values (polydispersity index, PDI = 1.42), the order parameters are reduced by 15% compared to the monodisperse case. The same PDI value corresponds to a 10% reduction in the perturbations of the end-to-end vector and Rouse time. Interestingly, length-based migration effects are observed. Longer chains reside away from the walls and the shorter chains are found nearer the walls; at equilibrium there is a molecular weight based fractionation across the gap. Confinement also leads to a "speeding up" of the polymer dynamics. Altered dynamic phenomena include a reduction of the Rouse time for the same average molecular weight and an altered scaling behavior with plate spacing. Reptation times are also reduced and polydispersity

  18. Hiding in Plain View: Colloidal Self-Assembly from Polydisperse Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabane, Bernard; Li, Joaquim; Artzner, Franck; Botet, Robert; Labbez, Christophe; Bareigts, Guillaume; Sztucki, Michael; Goehring, Lucas

    2016-05-01

    We report small-angle x-ray scattering experiments on aqueous dispersions of colloidal silica with a broad monomodal size distribution (polydispersity, 14%; size, 8 nm). Over a range of volume fractions, the silica particles segregate to build first one, then two distinct sets of colloidal crystals. These dispersions thus demonstrate fractional crystallization and multiple-phase (bcc, Laves A B2, liquid) coexistence. Their remarkable ability to build complex crystal structures from a polydisperse population originates from the intermediate-range nature of interparticle forces, and it suggests routes for designing self-assembling colloidal crystals from the bottom up.

  19. Hiding in Plain View: Colloidal Self-Assembly from Polydisperse Populations.

    PubMed

    Cabane, Bernard; Li, Joaquim; Artzner, Franck; Botet, Robert; Labbez, Christophe; Bareigts, Guillaume; Sztucki, Michael; Goehring, Lucas

    2016-05-20

    We report small-angle x-ray scattering experiments on aqueous dispersions of colloidal silica with a broad monomodal size distribution (polydispersity, 14%; size, 8 nm). Over a range of volume fractions, the silica particles segregate to build first one, then two distinct sets of colloidal crystals. These dispersions thus demonstrate fractional crystallization and multiple-phase (bcc, Laves AB_{2}, liquid) coexistence. Their remarkable ability to build complex crystal structures from a polydisperse population originates from the intermediate-range nature of interparticle forces, and it suggests routes for designing self-assembling colloidal crystals from the bottom up.

  20. Liquid-Liquid phase transition in a single component system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzese, Giancarlo; Skibinsky, Anna; Buldyrev, Sergey; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2001-06-01

    Recent experimental results indicate that phosphorus, a single-component system, can have a high-density liquid (HDL) and a low-density liquid (LDL) phase. A first-order LDL-HDL transition line ending in a critical point is consistent with experimental data and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for a variety of single-component systems such as water, silica and carbon, but a coherent and general interpretation of the LDL-HDL transition is lacking. By means of MD, we show that the LDL-HDL transition can be directly related to an interaction potential with an attractive part and with not one but `two' preferred short-range repulsive distances. This kind of interaction is common to other single-component materials in the liquid state, in particular liquid metals. For the fisrt time, we show that the LDL-HDL transition can occur in systems with no density anomaly, opening an experimental challenge to uncover a liquid-liquid transition in systems like liquid metals, regardless of the presence of the density anomaly.

  1. Compressive elasticity of polydisperse biopolymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Safran, Samuel A.

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically predict the nonlinear elastic responses of polydisperse biopolymer gels to uniaxial compression. We analyze the competition between compressive stiffening due to polymer densification by out-going solvent flow and compressive softening due to continuous polymer buckling. We point out that the polydispersity in polymer lengths can result in an intrinsic, equilibrium mode of nonaffine compression: nonuniform strain but with uniform force distribution, which is found to be more energetically preferable than affine deformation. In this case, the gel softens significantly after the onset of polymer buckling at small compression, but as compression increases, densification-induced stiffening becomes important and a modulus plateau should be observed for a large range of strain. We also relate our results to recent compression experiments on collagen gels and fibrin gels.

  2. Dynamics of Polydisperse Coarsening Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirenda, Nic; Hicock, Harry; Feitosa, Klebert; Crocker, John

    2014-03-01

    Soft glassy materials display complex fluid behavior characterized by a yield stress and distinctive elastic and viscous moduli. The complexity emerges from the disordered structure and interactions between the athermal particles. Here we study the dynamics of an optically clear and neutrally buoyantly emulsion whose droplets coarsen driven by Laplace pressure induced diffusion. The emulsion displays an anomalous loss modulus typical of coarsening foam systems. We use confocal microscopy to image the droplets, measure their size and centroid location, and track their evolution in time. The relaxation process of the coarsening emulsion is found to be marked by a continuous, slow structural evolution interspersed by sudden droplet swaps. We characterize the time scales of each process and the statistics of droplet rearrangements. We acknowledge support from Research Corporation and NSF-DMR-1229383.

  3. Polydisperse suspensions: Erosion, deposition, and flow capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrell, R. M.; Hogg, A. J.; Pritchard, D.

    2013-09-01

    Deposition from particle-laden flows is often described in terms of the capacity and competence of the flow, but robust definitions of these terms have proved elusive. In this paper we provide a mathematical modeling framework within which erosion and deposition of polydisperse sediment, and thus flow capacity and competence, can be rigorously defined. This framework explicitly captures the coupling between the suspension and an active layer of sediment at the top of the bed, and is capable of describing both depositional and erosional flows over both erodible and nonerodible beds. Crucially, the capacity of a flow is shown to depend on the erosional and depositional history because these processes determine the composition of the active layer. This dependence is explored within models of bidisperse and polydisperse suspensions. It is further demonstrated that monodisperse representations of suspended sediment transport may severely underpredict actual flow capacity. The polydisperse model is validated against recent experimental studies of the evolution of suspended material in waning turbulent flows, and is used to demonstrate that loss of capacity is the principal driver of sediment deposition.

  4. Wear reduction systems liquid piston ring

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R.J.; Chen, T.N.; DiNanno, L.

    1990-09-01

    The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving an acceptable wear rate for the cylinder liner, piston, and piston rings in a coal/water-slurry-fueled engine that utilized the concept of a liquid piston ring above the conventional piston rings and to identify technical barriers and required research and development. The study included analytical modeling of the system, a bench study of the fluid motion in the liquid piston ring, and a single-cylinder test rig for wear comparison. A system analysis made on the different variations of the liquid supply system showed the desirability of the once-through version from the standpoint of system simplicity. The dynamics of the liquid ring were modeled to determine the important design parameters that influence the pressure fluctuation in the liquid ring during a complete engine cycle and the integrity of the liquid ring. This analysis indicated the importance of controlling heat transfer to the liquid ring through piston and liner to avoid boiling the liquid. A conceptual piston design for minimizing heat transfer is presented in this report. Results showed that the liquid piston ring effectively reduced the solid particles on the wall by scrubbing, especially in the case where a surfactant was added to the water. The wear rates were reduced by a factor of 2 with the liquid ring. However, leakage of the contaminated liquid ring material past the top ring limited the effectiveness of the liquid ring concept. 8 refs., 33 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Thermal energy storage with liquid-liquid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Santana, E.A.; Stiel, L.I.

    1989-03-01

    The use of liquid-liquid mixtures for heat and cool storage applications has been investigated. Suitable mixtures exhibit large changes in the heat of mixing above and below the critical solution temperature of the system. Analytical procedures have been utilized to determine potential energy storage capabilities of systems with upper or lower critical solution temperatures. It has been found that aqueous systems with lower critical solution temperatures in a suitable range can result in large increases in the effective heat capacity in the critical region. For cool storage with a system of this type, the cooling process results in a transformation from two liquid phases to a single phase. Heats of mixing have been measured with a flow calorimeter system for a number of potential mixtures, and the results are summarized.

  6. Liquid metals for solar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesch, J.; Niedermeier, K.; Fritsch, A.; Musaeva, D.; Marocco, L.; Uhlig, R.; Baake, E.; Buck, R.; Wetzel, T.

    2017-07-01

    The use of liquid metals in solar power systems is not new. The receiver tests with liquid sodium in the 1980s at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) already proved the feasibility of liquid metals as heat transfer fluid. Despite the high efficiency achieved with that receiver, further investigation of liquid metals in solar power systems was stopped due to a sodium spray fire. Recently, the topic has become interesting again and the gained experience during the last 30 years of liquid metals handling is applied to the concentrated solar power community. In this paper, recent activities of the Helmholtz Alliance LIMTECH concerning liquid metals for solar power systems are presented. In addition to the components and system simulations also the experimental setup and results are included.

  7. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  8. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Don D.

    1985-01-01

    A chromatographic system that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a non-transparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extremely low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  9. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOEpatents

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  10. Effect of polydispersity on the phase behavior of soft microgel suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Andea; Gasser, Urs; Herman, Emily; Singh, Akiti; Lyon, L. Andrew; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; LaboratoryNeutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut Team; Soft Condensed Matter Laboratory, Georgia Institute of Technology Team; School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology Team

    2014-03-01

    Microgel suspensions with a majority of small particles and a small fraction of big particles with about double diameter can form crystals without defects caused by the large particles (A. St. John Iyer and L.A. Lyon, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 4562-4566, 2009). However, no hard sphere crystals form at size-polydispersities higher than 12%. We study the role of size-polydispersity in suspensions of fully swollen poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) microgel particles with controlled polydispersity ranging from 10% up to 25%. Crystals appear in samples with polydispersity as high as 17%. Using small-angle neutron scattering and contrast matching with samples composed of small deuterated particles and large protonated particles, we directly measure the form factor and shrinkage of the large particles in concentrated samples. The large particles are found to shrink to about the size of the small particles when the effective volume fraction of the suspension approaches 1. These results suggest a different role of size-polydispersity in soft sphere systems.

  11. Crystallization in Ordered Polydisperse Polyolefin Diblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sheng; Register, Richard A.; Landes, Brian G.; Hustad, Phillip D.; Weinhold, Jeffrey D.

    2010-12-07

    The morphologies of polydisperse ethylene-octene diblock copolymers, synthesized via a novel coordinative chain transfer polymerization process, are examined using two-dimensional synchrotron small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering on flow-aligned specimens. The diblock copolymers comprise one amorphous block with high 1-octene content and one semicrystalline block with relatively low 1-octene content, and each block ideally exhibits the most-probable distribution. Near-symmetric diblocks with a sufficiently large octene differential between the amorphous and semicrystalline blocks show well-ordered lamellar domain structures with long periods exceeding 100 nm. Orientation of these domain structures persists through multiple melting/recrystallization cycles, reflecting a robust structure which self-assembles in the melt. The domain spacings are nearly 3-fold larger than those in near-monodisperse polyethylene block copolymers of similar molecular weights. Although the well-ordered lamellar domain structure established in the melt is preserved in the solid state, the crystallites are isotropic in orientation. These materials display crystallization kinetics consistent with a spreading growth habit, indicating that the lamellae do not confine or template the growing crystals. The exceptionally large domain spacings and isotropic crystal growth are attributed to interblock mixing resulting from the large polydispersity; short hard blocks dissolved in the soft-block-rich domains swell the domain spacing in the melt and allow hard block crystallization to proceed across the lamellar domain interfaces.

  12. Crystallization in Ordered Polydisperse Polyolefin Diblock

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sheng; Register, Richard A.; Landes, Brian G.; Hustad, Phillp D.; Weinhold, Jeffrey D.

    2010-08-27

    The morphologies of polydisperse ethylene-octene diblock copolymers, synthesized via a novel coordinative chain transfer polymerization process, are examined using two-dimensional synchrotron small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering on flow-aligned specimens. The diblock copolymers comprise one amorphous block with high 1-octene content and one semicrystalline block with relatively low 1-octene content, and each block ideally exhibits the most-probable distribution. Near-symmetric diblocks with a sufficiently large octene differential between the amorphous and semicrystalline blocks show well-ordered lamellar domain structures with long periods exceeding 100 nm. Orientation of these domain structures persists through multiple melting/recrystallization cycles, reflecting a robust structure which self-assembles in the melt. The domain spacings are nearly 3-fold larger than those in near-monodisperse polyethylene block copolymers of similar molecular weights. Although the well-ordered lamellar domain structure established in the melt is preserved in the solid state, the crystallites are isotropic in orientation. These materials display crystallization kinetics consistent with a spreading growth habit, indicating that the lamellae do not confine or template the growing crystals. The exceptionally large domain spacings and isotropic crystal growth are attributed to interblock mixing resulting from the large polydispersity; short hard blocks dissolved in the soft-block-rich domains swell the domain spacing in the melt and allow hard block crystallization to proceed across the lamellar domain interfaces.

  13. Interaction of a polydisperse spray with vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, C.; Durox, D.; Ducruix, S.; Massot, M.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present work is to provide, through the association of optical diagnostics on a well-chosen experimental configuration, new insights into the coupling of a vortical gaseous flow with a polydisperse evaporating spray representative of practical injections. A cloud of droplets is injected in an inert laminar round jet, axisymmetric and pulsated, enabling the study of the interaction of strong-vorticity structures with a polydisperse spray. The experiment is a laboratory-scale representation of realistic injection configurations such as in engine combustion chambers or industrial burners. The chosen set-up leads to a well-controlled configuration and allows the coupling of two optical diagnostics, particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and interferometric particle imaging (IPI), which leads to the study of both the flow dynamic and the droplet size distribution. The behaviour of droplets is analysed regarding their relaxing and evaporating properties. Size-conditioned preferential concentration of both weakly evaporating and strongly evaporating sprays is investigated. Droplet trajectories are also analysed by means of high-rate tomographic visualizations. The time history between their ejection from the nozzle and their interaction with the vortex is strongly related to the droplet preferential concentration and the observed heterogeneous repartition in the gas flow.

  14. Numerical modeling of gravity-driven bubble flows with account of polydispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, A. S.; Schmidt, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The present study is focused on the investigation of motion of bubble-liquid medium inside the bubble columns or vertical pipes with account of polydisperse phenomena by the means of numerical simulation. The underlying mathematical model is based on the Euler- Euler approach with interphase interaction described by the momentum and mass transfer between phases, along with the k-w-SST turbulence model which includes turbulence generation by the bubble motion and bubble path dispersion. Polydispersion is taken into account by the multi-class model with piecewise-constant distribution of bubble sizes per cell. Simulation of downward flow inside the straight vertical pipe resulted in maximum of the bubble void fraction close to the pipe center which is in good correlation with the experimental data. Simulation of multiphase flow inside rectangular bubble column with off-center sparger resulted in vertical bubble-liquid jet which is biased towards nearby wall with the correct prediction of attachment point location.

  15. Phase separation in transparent liquid-liquid miscibility gap systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S. H.; Bhat, B. N.; Laub, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A program to be carried out on transparent liquid-phase miscibility gap materials was developed for the purpose of acquiring additional insight into the separation process occurring in these systems. The transparency feature allows the reaction to be viewed directly through light scattering and holographic methods.

  16. Phase coexistence in a polydisperse charged hard-sphere fluid: polymer mean spherical approximation.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V; Kahl, Gerhard; Cummings, Peter T

    2005-09-22

    We have reconsidered the phase behavior of a polydisperse mixture of charged hard spheres (CHSs) introducing the concept of minimal size neutral clusters. We thus take into account ionic association effects observed in charged systems close to the phase boundary where the properties of the system are dominated by the presence of neutral clusters while the amount of free ions or charged clusters is negligible. With this concept we clearly pass beyond the simple level of the mean spherical approximation (MSA) that we have presented in our recent study of a polydisperse mixture of CHS [Yu. V. Kalyuzhnyi, G. Kahl, and P. T. Cummings, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10133 (2004)]. Restricting ourselves to a 1:1 and possibly size-asymmetric model we treat the resulting polydisperse mixture of neutral, polar dimers within the framework of the polymer MSA, i.e., a concept that--similar as the MSA--readily can be generalized from the case of a mixture with a finite number of components to the polydisperse case: again, the model belongs to the class of truncatable free-energy models so that we can map the formally infinitely many coexistence equations onto a finite set of coupled, nonlinear equations in the generalized moments of the distribution function that characterizes the system. This allows us to determine the full phase diagram (in terms of binodals as well as cloud and shadow curves), we can study fractionation effects on the level of the distribution functions of the coexisting daughter phases, and we propose estimates on how the location of the critical point might vary in a polydisperse mixture with an increasing size asymmetry and polydispersity.

  17. Effect of polydispersity on the phase diagrams of linear ABC triblock copolymers in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiaoyan; Liang, Haojun; Shi, An-Chang

    2005-11-10

    By using a two-dimensional (2D) real-space self-consistent field theory, we present the phase diagrams of monodisperse ABC triblock copolymers in a three-component triangle style with the interaction energies given between the distinct blocks; this system displays richer phase behavior when compared with the corresponding diblock copolymers. Polydispersity of the end or middle blocks in the ABC linear block copolymer chains results in a completely different phase diagram. The presence of a polydisperse end block may cause strong segregation to occur among the three distinct components and larger domain sizes of the dispersed phases; a polydisperse middle block may allow a connection to form between the two phases of the two end blocks.

  18. Elasticity of two-dimensional crystals of polydisperse hard disks near close packing: surprising behavior of the Poisson's ratio.

    PubMed

    Tretiakov, Konstantin V; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2012-05-28

    The equation of state, elastic constants, and Poisson's ratio of a crystalline two-dimensional polydisperse hard disk system were determined in the close packing limit. Monte Carlo simulations in the NpT ensemble with variable shape of the periodic box reveal that the pressure and elastic constants grow with increasing polydispersity. The equation of state and the bulk modulus are well described by the free volume approximation. The latter approximation fails, however, for the shear modulus. The simulations also show that the introduction of any amount of size polydispersity in the hard disk systems causes a discontinuous "jump" of the Poisson's ratio in the close packing limit from the value ν(δ=0) = 0.1308(22), obtained for equidiameter hard disks, to ν(δ>0) ≈ 1, estimated for the polydisperse disks.

  19. Analysis of polydisperse fuel spray flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Ophir; Lehavi, Yaron; Ajadi, Suraju; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we analyzed the model of polydisperse fuel spray flame by using the sectional approach to describe the droplet-droplet interaction within the spray. The radii of the droplets are described by a probability density function. Our numerical simulations include a comparative analysis between three empirical droplet size distributions: the Rosin-Rammler distribution, the log-normal distribution and the Nakiyama-Tanasawa distribution. The log-normal distribution was found to produce a reasonable approximation to both the number and volume size distribution function. In addition our comparative analysis includes the application of the homotopy analysis method which yields convergent solutions for all values of the relevant parameters. We compared the above results to experimental fuel spray data such as {it{Tetralin}}, n-{it{Decane}}, and n-{it{Heptane}}.

  20. Crystallization kinetics of polydisperse colloidal hard spheres. II. Binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Bryant, G; van Megen, W

    2005-02-01

    In this paper we present measurements of the crystallization kinetics of binary mixtures of two different sized hard sphere particles. The growth of the Bragg reflections over time were analyzed to yield the crystallite scattering vector, the total amount of crystal, and the average linear crystal size. It was observed that a particle size distribution skewed to higher sized particles has a less detrimental effect on the crystal structure than a skew to smaller sized particles. In the latter case we observe that initial crystallite growth occurs at only a small number of sites, with further crystallization sites developing at later times. Based on these measurements we elaborate further on the previously proposed growth mechanism whereby crystallization occurs in conjunction with a local fractionation process in the fluid, which significantly affects the kinetic growth of crystallites in polydisperse systems.

  1. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

  2. Diagram of Liquid Rocket Systems General Arrangement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-05-21

    S64-05966 (1964) --- Diagram shows the general arrangement of the liquid rocket systems on the Gemini spacecraft are shown. The locations of the 25-pound, 85-pound and 100-pound thrusters of the orbital attitude and maneuver system and the 25-pound thrusters of the re-entry control system are shown.

  3. Hiding in plain view: Colloidal self-assembly from polydisperse populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, Lucas; Cabane, Bernard; Li, Joaquim; Artzner, Franck; Botet, Robert; Labbez, Christophe; Bareigts, Guillaume; Sztucki, Michael

    We report small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments on aqueous dispersions of colloidal silica with a broad monomodal size distribution (polydispersity 14%, size a = 8 nm). This distribution of sizes was expected to destroy any long-range order of the particles. However, we found ordered states when the particles repelled each other with soft ionic potentials of range ~ a . Over a range of volume fractions the particles segregated to build first one, then two distinct sets of colloidal crystals. These dispersions thus demonstrate fractional crystallization and multiple-phase (bcc, Laves AB2, liquid) coexistence. Their remarkable ability to build complex crystal structures from a polydisperse population originates from the intermediate-range nature of interparticle forces, and suggests routes for designing self-assembling colloidal crystals from the bottom-up.

  4. Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.

  5. Modeling polydispersive ensembles of diamond nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Amanda S.

    2013-03-01

    While significant progress has been made toward production of monodispersed samples of a variety of nanoparticles, in cases such as diamond nanoparticles (nanodiamonds) a significant degree of polydispersivity persists, so scaling-up of laboratory applications to industrial levels has its challenges. In many cases, however, monodispersivity is not essential for reliable application, provided that the inevitable uncertainties are just as predictable as the functional properties. As computational methods of materials design are becoming more widespread, there is a growing need for robust methods for modeling ensembles of nanoparticles, that capture the structural complexity characteristic of real specimens. In this paper we present a simple statistical approach to modeling of ensembles of nanoparticles, and apply it to nanodiamond, based on sets of individual simulations that have been carefully selected to describe specific structural sources that are responsible for scattering of fundamental properties, and that are typically difficult to eliminate experimentally. For the purposes of demonstration we show how scattering in the Fermi energy and the electronic band gap are related to different structural variations (sources), and how these results can be combined strategically to yield statistically significant predictions of the properties of an entire ensemble of nanodiamonds, rather than merely one individual ‘model’ particle or a non-representative sub-set.

  6. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material.

    PubMed

    Kouraytem, N; Thoroddsen, S T; Marston, J O

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between δ=0.5D_{0} and δ=7D_{0}, which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H=h+δ, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d_{s}∼O(30) μm] were added to the larger particles [d_{l}∼O(200-500) μm], with a size ratio, ε=d_{l}/d_{s}, larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  7. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouraytem, N.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Marston, J. O.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between δ =0.5 D0 and δ =7 D0 , which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H =h +δ , as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [ds˜O (30 ) μ m ] were added to the larger particles [dl˜O (200 -500 ) μ m ] , with a size ratio, ɛ =dl/ds , larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  8. Topology of slightly polydisperse real foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnereau, C.; Prunet-Foch, B.; Vignes-Adler, M.

    2001-06-01

    The topology of slightly polydisperse, (meta-)stable, real foams was investigated by means of optical tomography associated with a numerical reconstruction procedure. The values of the mean numbers of faces per bubble and edges per face were very close to Matzke's data (1946). The real foams were essentially disordered and possessed a noncentered symmetry, and ideal structures also could not be observed. The disorder was quantified by the second moment of the edge per face and face per bubble distributions, and also by a statistical correlation coefficient between the numbers of edges of adjacent faces. It was found that the edge distributions of the internal bubbles, and not of the external ones, were significantly anticorrelated even during foam aging, which provided a measure of the disorder in the foam. No obvious relationship could be deduced between the isoperimetric quotient and the face combination in an individual bubble. Eventually, it was shown that the physical boundaries of the foam sample had no influence on the foam topology beyond a single bubble layer.

  9. Two- and three-phase equilibria of polydisperse Yukawa hard-sphere fluids confined in random porous media: high temperature approximation and scaled particle theory.

    PubMed

    Hvozd, Taras V; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V

    2017-02-15

    We have studied the phase behavior of polydisperse Yukawa hard-sphere fluid confined in random porous media using extension and combination of high temperature approximation and scaled particle theory. The porous media are represented by the matrix of randomly placed hard-sphere obstacles. Due to the confinement, polydispersity effects are substantially enhanced. At an intermediate degree of fluid polydispersity and low density of the matrix, we observe two-phase coexistence with two critical points, and cloud and shadow curves forming closed loops of ellipsoidal shape. With the increase of the matrix density and the constant degree of polydispersity, these two critical points merge and disappear, and at lower temperatures the system fractionates into three coexisting phases. A similar phase behavior was observed in the absence of the porous media caused, however, by the increase of the polydispersity.

  10. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  11. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  12. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  13. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  14. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  15. THE LIQUID AND GASEOUS FUEL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the national liquid and gaseous fuel distribution system. he study leading to the report was performed as part of an effort to better understand emissions of volatile organic compounds from the fuel distribution system. he primary, secondary, and tertiary seg...

  16. THE LIQUID AND GASEOUS FUEL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the national liquid and gaseous fuel distribution system. he study leading to the report was performed as part of an effort to better understand emissions of volatile organic compounds from the fuel distribution system. he primary, secondary, and tertiary seg...

  17. Confinement effect on the adsorption from a binary liquid system near liquid/liquid phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Gernot; Woywod, Dirk; Schoen, Martin; Findenegg, Gerhard H.

    2004-06-01

    The preferential adsorption of one component of a binary system at the inner surfaces of mesoporous silica glasses was studied in a wide composition range at temperatures close to liquid/liquid phase separation. Confinement effects on the adsorption were investigated by using three controlled-pore glass (CPG-10) materials of different mean pore size (10 to 50 nm). For the experimental system (2-butoxyethanol+water), which exhibits an upper miscibility gap, strong preferential adsorption of water occurs, as the coexistence curve is approached at bulk compositions, at which water is the minority component. In this strong adsorption regime the area-related surface excess amount of adsorbed water decreases with decreasing pore width, while the shift in the volume-related mean composition of the pore liquid shows an opposite trend, i.e., greatest deviation from bulk composition occurring in the most narrow pores. A simple mean-field lattice model of a liquid mixture confined by parallel walls is adopted to rationalize these experimental findings. This model reproduces the main findings of the confinement effect on the adsorption near liquid/liquid phase separation.

  18. Supersonic gas-liquid cleaning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1994-02-01

    A system to perform cleaning and cleanliness verification is being developed to replace solvent flush methods using CFC 113 for fluid system components. The system is designed for two purposes: internal and external cleaning and verification. External cleaning is performed with the nozzle mounted at the end of a wand similar to a conventional pressure washer. Internal cleaning is performed with a variety of fixtures designed for specific applications. Internal cleaning includes tubes, pipes, flex hoses, and active fluid components such as valves and regulators. The system uses gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the object to be cleaned. Compressed air or any inert gas may be used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid. The converging-diverging nozzles accelerate the gas-liquid mixture to supersonic velocities. The liquid being accelerated may be any solvent including water. This system may be used commercially to replace CFC and other solvent cleaning methods widely used to remove dust, dirt, flux, and lubricants. In addition, cleanliness verification can be performed without the solvents which are typically involved. This paper will present the technical details of the system, the results achieved during testing at KSC, and future applications for this system.

  19. Supersonic gas-liquid cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    A system to perform cleaning and cleanliness verification is being developed to replace solvent flush methods using CFC 113 for fluid system components. The system is designed for two purposes: internal and external cleaning and verification. External cleaning is performed with the nozzle mounted at the end of a wand similar to a conventional pressure washer. Internal cleaning is performed with a variety of fixtures designed for specific applications. Internal cleaning includes tubes, pipes, flex hoses, and active fluid components such as valves and regulators. The system uses gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the object to be cleaned. Compressed air or any inert gas may be used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid. The converging-diverging nozzles accelerate the gas-liquid mixture to supersonic velocities. The liquid being accelerated may be any solvent including water. This system may be used commercially to replace CFC and other solvent cleaning methods widely used to remove dust, dirt, flux, and lubricants. In addition, cleanliness verification can be performed without the solvents which are typically involved. This paper will present the technical details of the system, the results achieved during testing at KSC, and future applications for this system.

  20. Statistical characterization of microstructure of packings of polydisperse hard cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmir, Hessam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza

    2017-05-01

    Polydisperse packings of cubic particles arise in several important problems. Examples include zeolite microcubes that represent catalytic materials, fluidization of such microcubes in catalytic reactors, fabrication of new classes of porous materials with precise control of their morphology, and several others. We present the results of detailed and extensive simulation and microstructural characterization of packings of nonoverlapping polydisperse cubic particles. The packings are generated via a modified random sequential-addition algorithm. Two probability density functions (PDFs) for the particle-size distribution, the Schulz and log-normal PDFs, are used. The packings are analyzed, and their random close-packing density is computed as a function of the parameters of the two PDFs. The maximum packing fraction for the highest degree of polydispersivity is estimated to be about 0.81, much higher than 0.57 for the monodisperse packings. In addition, a variety of microstructural descriptors have been calculated and analyzed. In particular, we show that (i) an approximate analytical expression for the structure factor of Percus-Yevick fluids of polydisperse hard spheres with the Schulz PDF also predicts all the qualitative features of the structure factor of the packings that we study; (ii) as the packings become more polydisperse, their behavior resembles increasingly that of an ideal system—"ideal gas"—with little or no correlations; and (iii) the mean survival time and mean relaxation time of a diffusing species in the packings increase with increasing degrees of polydispersivity.

  1. The effects of polydispersity on the initial susceptibilities of ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Camp, Philip J; Elfimova, Ekaterina A; Ivanov, Alexey O

    2014-11-12

    The effects of particle-size polydispersity on the initial susceptibilities of concentrated ferrofluids are analyzed using a combination of theory and computer simulation. The study is focused on a model ferrofluid with a prescribed magnetic-core diameter distribution, a fixed non-magnetic surface layer (corresponding to a demagnetized layer and adsorbed surfactant) and a combination of dipolar and hard-core interactions. The non-trivial effects of polydispersity are identified by comparing the initial susceptibilities of monodisperse and polydisperse ferrofluids with the same Langevin susceptibility. The theory is based on a correction to the second-order modified mean-field theory arising from a formal Mayer-type cluster expansion; this correction is dependent on a parameter similar to the normal dipolar coupling constant, except that it contains a complicated double average over the particle-size distribution, which means that the initial susceptibility should depend significantly on polydispersity. Specifically, the theory predicts that the initial susceptibility is enhanced significantly by polydispersity. This prediction is tested rigorously against results from Monte Carlo simulations and is found to be robust. The qualitative agreement between theory and simulation is already satisfactory, but the quantitative agreement could be improved by a systematic extension of the cluster expansion. The overall conclusion is that polydispersity should be accounted for carefully in magnetogranulometric analyses of real ferrofluids.

  2. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Photoelectric system continuously monitors liquid level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Immersion probe presents a depth-sensitive optical transmission path between a light source and a photoelectric cell to continuously monitor the level of a transparent liquid in a tank. This system operates automatically, without moving parts, and provides output signals to a remote recorder.

  4. Rotor-Liquid-Fundament System's Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydyrbekuly, A.

    The work is devoted to research of oscillation and sustainability of stationary twirl of vertical flexible static dynamically out-of-balance rotor with cavity partly filled with liquid and set on relative frame fundament. The accounting of such factors like oscillation of fundament, liquid oscillation, influence of asymmetry of installation of a rotor on a shaft, anisotropism of shaft support and fundament, static and dynamic out-of-balance of a rotor, an external friction, an internal friction of a shaft, allows to settle an invoice more precisely kinematic and dynamic characteristics of system.

  5. Liquid-liquid and liquid-solid equilibria of systems containing water and selected chlorophenols

    SciTech Connect

    Jaoui, M.; Luszczyk, M.; Rogalski, M.

    1999-12-01

    Chlorinated phenols are present in effluents of oil refinery, coal mining, plastic, leather, paint, and pharmaceutical industrial plants. The solubilities of phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in water were determined in the temperature range between 270 K and 423 K. Dynamic thermal analysis and a visual static method were used to establish the phase diagrams. Results obtained over a wide temperature and concentration range were used to model the liquid-liquid coexistence curve of the systems studied.

  6. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-10-11

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

  7. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  8. The Liquid Annular Reactor System (LARS) propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, James; Ludewig, Hans; Horn, Frederick; Lenard, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A concept for very high specific impulse (greater than 2000 seconds) direct nuclear propulsion is described. The concept, termed the liquid annular reactor system (LARS), uses liquid nuclear fuel elements to heat hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures (approximately 6000 K). Operating pressure is moderate (approximately 10 atm), with the result that the outlet hydrogen is virtually 100 percent dissociated to monatomic H. The molten fuel is contained in a solid container of its own material, which is rotated to stabilize the liquid layer by centripetal force. LARS reactor designs are described, together with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. Power levels are on the order of 200 megawatts. Typically, LARS designs use seven rotating fuel elements, are beryllium moderated, and have critical radii of approximately 100 cm (core L/D approximately equal to 1.5).

  9. Testing a simple method for computing directly the bulk modulus by NPT simulation: The case of polydisperse hard sphere solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da; Xu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    The bulk modulus of hard sphere solids has been computed directly by constant pressure Monte-Carlo simulations, using the histogram of the volume fluctuations. In considering first the one-component system, we show that the method is accurate in a large range of pressures, including high-pressure regime. The method is then applied to a polydisperse solid with relatively low polydispersity index. For illustrative purpose, we took a three-component mixture with symmetric size-distribution, and we studied the solid phase (fcc crystal) of this system. Our results show that the equation of state is very sensitive to the polydispersity. Furthermore, in the high-pressure region, where no (accurate) analytical fit for the equation of state exists, our simulations are able to predict the bulk modulus of such systems.

  10. Materials for Liquid Propulsion Systems. Chapter 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halchak, John A.; Cannon, James L.; Brown, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Earth to orbit launch vehicles are propelled by rocket engines and motors, both liquid and solid. This chapter will discuss liquid engines. The heart of a launch vehicle is its engine. The remainder of the vehicle (with the notable exceptions of the payload and guidance system) is an aero structure to support the propellant tanks which provide the fuel and oxidizer to feed the engine or engines. The basic principle behind a rocket engine is straightforward. The engine is a means to convert potential thermochemical energy of one or more propellants into exhaust jet kinetic energy. Fuel and oxidizer are burned in a combustion chamber where they create hot gases under high pressure. These hot gases are allowed to expand through a nozzle. The molecules of hot gas are first constricted by the throat of the nozzle (de-Laval nozzle) which forces them to accelerate; then as the nozzle flares outwards, they expand and further accelerate. It is the mass of the combustion gases times their velocity, reacting against the walls of the combustion chamber and nozzle, which produce thrust according to Newton's third law: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Solid rocket motors are cheaper to manufacture and offer good values for their cost. Liquid propellant engines offer higher performance, that is, they deliver greater thrust per unit weight of propellant burned. They also have a considerably higher thrust to weigh ratio. Since liquid rocket engines can be tested several times before flight, they have the capability to be more reliable, and their ability to shut down once started provides an extra margin of safety. Liquid propellant engines also can be designed with restart capability to provide orbital maneuvering capability. In some instances, liquid engines also can be designed to be reusable. On the solid side, hybrid solid motors also have been developed with the capability to stop and restart. Solid motors are covered in detail in chapter 11. Liquid

  11. Data Liquidity in Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 the IOM report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" and the NCVHS report "Information for Health" were released and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data is provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "Data Liquidity". This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for Health IT, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This paper looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable. PMID:21799328

  12. Data liquidity in health information systems.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm and the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics report Information for Health were released, and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data are provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "data liquidity." This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for health information technology, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This article looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable.

  13. Topological lifetimes of polydisperse colloidal hard spheres at a wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullens, Roel P. A.; Kegel, Willem K.

    2005-01-01

    Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to study the behavior of dense suspensions of model colloidal hard spheres at a single wall. Due to the slight polydispersity, our system shows a reentrant melting transition at high densities involving a hexatic structure [R. P. A. Dullens and W. K. Kegel, Phys. Rev. Lett 92, 195702 (2004)]. The reentrant melting transition is accompanied by an increase in the mean-squared displacement. The correlation between structure and dynamics was quantitatively analyzed on a single-particle level. In particular, the topological lifetime, being the average time that a particle spends having the same coordination number, is determined for all coordination numbers and as a function of volume fraction. The defective (non-sixfold-coordinated) particles exhibit shorter lifetimes than sixfold-coordinated particles, indicating that the mobility of the system is larger at or close to defective particles. The lifetime itself is a strong function of volume fraction. In particular, the global behavior of the mean-squared displacement is proportional to the hopping frequency (the inverse of the lifetime), showing that particles changing their coordination number contribute most to the local mobility.

  14. Phase behavior of polydisperse spheres: simulation strategies and an application to the freezing transition.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Nigel B; Sollich, Peter

    2010-12-14

    The statistical mechanics of phase transitions in dense systems of polydisperse particles presents distinctive challenges to computer simulation and analytical theory alike. The core difficulty, namely, dealing correctly with particle size fractionation between coexisting phases, is set out in the context of a critique of previous simulation work on such systems. Specialized Monte Carlo simulation techniques and moment free energy method calculations, capable of treating fractionation exactly, are then described and deployed to study the fluid-solid transition of an assembly of repulsive spherical particles described by a top-hat "parent" distribution of particle sizes. The cloud curve delineating the solid-fluid coexistence region is mapped as a function of the degree of polydispersity δ, and the properties of the incipient "shadow" phases are presented. The coexistence region is found to shift to higher densities as δ increases, but does not exhibit the sharp narrowing predicted by many theories and some simulations.

  15. Performance of laser Doppler velocimeter with polydisperse seed particles in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samimy, M.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Abu-Hijleh, B. A./K.

    1988-01-01

    The flowfield behind an oblique shock wave, where the LDV measured velocities are seed particle size dependent, was used to investigate the effects of LDV system parameters on the range of detectable polydisperse seed particles. The parameters included frequency shifting, laser power, scattered signal amplification level, and number of required fringe crossings. The results showed that with polydisperse seed particles ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 microns available in the flow, the average diameter of the detected particles could change from 0.2 to 3.0 microns by changing different LDV system parameters. The effects of this shift in the range of detectable particles on the frequency response of LDV was discussed.

  16. Performance of laser Doppler velocimeter with polydisperse seed particles in high-speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samimy, M.; Abu-Hijleh, B. A. K.

    1989-01-01

    The flowfield behind an oblique shock wave, where the LDV measured velocities are seed-particle-size dependent, was used to investigate the effects of LDV system parameters on the range of detectable polydisperse seed particles. The parameters included frequency shifting, laser power, scattered signal amplification level, and number of required fringe crossings. The results showed that with polydisperse seed particles ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 microns available in the flow, the average diameter of the detected particles could change from 0.2 to 3.0 microns by changing different LDV system parameters. The effects of this shift in the range of detectable particles on the frequency response of LDV are discussed.

  17. Transient design of landfill liquid addition systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2014-09-01

    This study presents the development of design charts that can be used to estimate lateral and vertical spacing of liquids addition devices (e.g., vertical well, horizontal trenches) and the operating duration needed for transient operating conditions (conditions until steady-state operating conditions are achieved). These design charts should be used in conjunction with steady-state design charts published earlier by Jain et al. (2010a, 2010b). The data suggest that the liquids addition system operating time can be significantly reduced by utilizing moderately closer spacing between liquids addition devices than the spacing needed for steady-state conditions. These design charts can be used by designers to readily estimate achievable flow rate and lateral and vertical extents of the zone of impact from liquid addition devices, and analyze the sensitivity of various input variables (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, well radius, screen length) to the design. The applicability of the design charts, which are developed based on simulations of a continuously operated system, was also evaluated for the design of a system that would be operated intermittently (e.g., systems only operated during facility operating hours). The design charts somewhat underestimates the flow rate achieved and overestimates the lateral extent of the zone of impact over an operating duration for an intermittently operated system. The associated estimation errors would be smaller than the margin of errors associated with measurement of other key design inputs such as waste properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) and wider variation of these properties at a given site due to heterogeneous nature of waste.

  18. Order and Disorder in Polydisperse Block Copolymer Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynd, Nathaniel; Hillmyer, Marc

    2007-03-01

    Utilizing creative strategies for the synthesis of model controlled-polydispersity poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-b-poly(d,l-lactide)(PEP-PLA) and polystyrene-b-polyisoprene(PS-PI) block copolymers, the effects of increased breadth in the molecular weight distribution on block copolymer self-assembly were investigated. Small-angle x-ray scattering and rheological measurements were carried out to characterize the morphological details of these self-assembled materials as a function of their polydispersity, interaction strengths, and compositions. A number of surprising consequences of increased breadth in the molecular weight distribution emerged; the domain spacing of the ordered structures increased, changes in morphology occurred, and the degree of segregation at the order-disorder transitions changed as well, particularly for asymmetric block copolymers. The change in the degree of segregation at the order-disorder transition as the polydispersity was increased was found to be dependent on the block copolymer composition, e.g., for PEP-PLA and PS-PI at asymmetric compositions, when the polydispersity was increased in the minority component, the degree of segregation at the order-disorder transition decreased, whereas when the polydispersity was increased in the majority component, the degree of segregation at the order-disorder transition increased.

  19. 324 Bldg Liquid Waste Handling System Functional Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    HAM, J.E.

    1999-12-16

    The 324 Building in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, is preparing to design, construct, and operate the Liquid Waste Handling System (LWHS). The system will include transfer, collection, treatment, and disposal of radiological and mixed liquid waste.

  20. Systems and methods for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G; Lewis, Monte A.; Clark, Roger F

    2013-06-11

    Systems and methods are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface during a casting process. The systems and methods enable determination of the location of a solid-liquid interface during the casting process.

  1. Liquid crystal assemblies in biologically inspired systems

    PubMed Central

    Safinya, Cyrus R.; Deek, Joanna; Beck, Roy; Jones, Jayna B.; Leal, Cecilia; Ewert, Kai K.; Li, Youli

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, which is part of a collection in honor of Noel Clark's remarkable career on liquid crystal and soft matter research, we present examples of biologically inspired systems, which form liquid crystal (LC) phases with their LC nature impacting biological function in cells or being important in biomedical applications. One area focuses on understanding network and bundle formation of cytoskeletal polyampholytes (filamentous-actin, microtubules, and neurofilaments). Here, we describe studies on neurofilaments (NFs), the intermediate filaments of neurons, which form open network nematic liquid crystal hydrogels in axons. Synchrotron small-angle-x-ray scattering studies of NF-protein dilution experiments and NF hydrogels subjected to osmotic stress show that neurofilament networks are stabilized by competing long-range repulsion and attractions mediated by the neurofilament's polyampholytic sidearms. The attractions are present both at very large interfilament spacings, in the weak sidearm-interpenetrating regime, and at smaller interfilament spacings, in the strong sidearm-interpenetrating regime. A second series of experiments will describe the structure and properties of cationic liposomes (CLs) complexed with nucleic acids (NAs). CL-NA complexes form liquid crystalline phases, which interact in a structure-dependent manner with cellular membranes enabling the design of complexes for efficient delivery of nucleic acid (DNA, RNA) in therapeutic applications. PMID:24558293

  2. Liquid metal switches for electromagnetic railgun systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mitcham, A.J.; Prothero, D.H.; Brooks, J.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The need for a reliable and effective commutating switch is essential to the operation of an HPG-driven railgun system. This switch must offer the lowest possible resistance during the current build up time and then must commutate the current quickly and efficiently into the railgun barrel. This paper considers the essential requirements for such a switch and, after briefly reviewing the available switch technologies, describes a new type of switch based on a liquid metal switching medium.

  3. System and method for liquid silicon containment

    SciTech Connect

    Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

    2014-06-03

    This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding ember adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

  4. System and method for liquid silicon containment

    DOEpatents

    Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

    2013-05-28

    This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding member adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

  5. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  6. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  7. Polydispersed MHD flow in a cylindrical vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Gorislavets, Yu.M.

    1986-07-01

    A large number of works on MHD separation of nonelectrically conducting particles assume that particle growth does not occur. The authors adopt the well-known model of coagulation according to which the collision of particles is determined only by their mutual displacement in the carrying liquid. Figures show relative density of coagulating particles, and particle-size distribution. It was shown that the process of coagulation in the situation under study develops in an avalanchelike fashion.

  8. 46 CFR 154.1300 - Liquid level gauging system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: General. 154.1300 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1300 Liquid level gauging system: General. (a) If Table 4 lists a closed gauge for a cargo, the liquid level gauging system under § 154.1305 must be closed gauges that do...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1300 - Liquid level gauging system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: General. 154.1300 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1300 Liquid level gauging system: General. (a) If Table 4 lists a closed gauge for a cargo, the liquid level gauging system under § 154.1305 must be closed gauges that do...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1305 Liquid level gauging system: Standards. (a) Each cargo tank must have at least one liquid level gauging system that is operable: (1) At pressures up to, and including,...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1300 - Liquid level gauging system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: General. 154.1300 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1300 Liquid level gauging system: General. (a) If Table 4 lists a closed gauge for a cargo, the liquid level gauging system under § 154.1305 must be closed gauges that do...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1300 - Liquid level gauging system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: General. 154.1300 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1300 Liquid level gauging system: General. (a) If Table 4 lists a closed gauge for a cargo, the liquid level gauging system under § 154.1305 must be closed gauges that do...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1305 Liquid level gauging system: Standards. (a) Each cargo tank must have at least one liquid level gauging system that is operable: (1) At pressures up to, and including,...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1305 Liquid level gauging system: Standards. (a) Each cargo tank must have at least one liquid level gauging system that is operable: (1) At pressures up to, and including,...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1305 Liquid level gauging system: Standards. (a) Each cargo tank must have at least one liquid level gauging system that is operable: (1) At pressures up to, and including,...

  16. Static and dynamic electrowetting of an ionic liquid in a solid/liquid/liquid system.

    PubMed

    Paneru, Mani; Priest, Craig; Sedev, Rossen; Ralston, John

    2010-06-23

    A droplet of an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, bmim.BF(4)) is immersed in an immiscible liquid (n-hexadecane) and electrowetted on a flat Teflon AF1600-coated ITO electrode. The static contact angle decreases significantly when voltage is applied between the droplet and the electrode: from 145 degrees down to 50 degrees (with DC voltage) and 15 degrees (with AC voltage). The electrowetting curves (contact angle versus voltage) are similar to the ones obtained in other solid/liquid/vapor and solid/liquid/liquid systems: symmetric with respect to zero voltage and correctly described by Young-Lippmann equation below saturation. The reversibility is excellent and contact angle hysteresis is minimal (approximately 2 degrees). The step size used in applying the DC voltage and the polarity of the voltage are unimportant. The saturation contact angle cannot be predicted with the simple zero-interfacial tension theory. Spreading (after applying a DC voltage) and retraction (after switching off the voltage) of the droplet is monitored. The base area of the droplet varies exponentially during wetting (exponential saturation) and dewetting (exponential decay). The characteristic time is 20 ms for spreading and 35 ms for retraction (such asymmetry is not observed with water-glycerol mixtures of a similar viscosity). The spreading kinetics (dynamic contact angle versus contact line speed) can be described by the hydrodynamic model (Voinov's equation) for small contact angles and by the molecular-kinetic model (Blake's equation) for large contact angles. The role of viscous and molecular dissipation follows the scheme outlined by Brochard-Wyart and de Gennes.

  17. Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkov, A. G.; Gugeshashvili, M. I.; Deamer, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

  18. Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkov, A. G.; Gugeshashvili, M. I.; Deamer, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

  19. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  20. Simple effective rule to estimate the jamming packing fraction of polydisperse hard spheres.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andrés; Yuste, Santos B; López de Haro, Mariano; Odriozola, Gerardo; Ogarko, Vitaliy

    2014-04-01

    A recent proposal in which the equation of state of a polydisperse hard-sphere mixture is mapped onto that of the one-component fluid is extrapolated beyond the freezing point to estimate the jamming packing fraction ϕJ of the polydisperse system as a simple function of M1M3/M22, where Mk is the kth moment of the size distribution. An analysis of experimental and simulation data of ϕJ for a large number of different mixtures shows a remarkable general agreement with the theoretical estimate. To give extra support to the procedure, simulation data for seventeen mixtures in the high-density region are used to infer the equation of state of the pure hard-sphere system in the metastable region. An excellent collapse of the inferred curves up to the glass transition and a significant narrowing of the different out-of-equilibrium glass branches all the way to jamming are observed. Thus, the present approach provides an extremely simple criterion to unify in a common framework and to give coherence to data coming from very different polydisperse hard-sphere mixtures.

  1. Effects of polydisperse crowders on aggregation reactions: A molecular thermodynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dhawal; Tan, Aik Lee; Ramakrishnan, Vigneshwar; Jiang, Jianwen; Rajagopalan, Raj

    2011-02-01

    Intracellular crowding in biological systems is usually mimicked in in vitro experiments by adding single crowders at high volume fractions, without taking into consideration the polydispersity of the crowders in the cellular environment. Here, we develop a molecular thermodynamic formalism to examine the effects of size-polydispersity of crowders on aggregation reaction equilibria. Although the predominantly common practice so far has been to appeal to the entropic (excluded-volume) effects in describing crowding effects, we show that the internal energy (hence, the enthalpy) of the system could dramatically alter the effects, even qualitatively, particularly in the case of a mixture of crowders, depending on the changes in the covolume of the products relative to that of the reactants and on the preferential binding or exclusion of the crowders by the reactants and products. We also show that in the case of polydisperse crowders the crowders with the largest size difference dominate the overall changes in the yield of the reaction, depending on the individual concentrations of the crowders.

  2. External potential dynamic studies on the formation of interface in polydisperse polymer blends.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shuanhu; Zhang, Xinghua; Yan, Dadong

    2010-02-14

    The formation of interface from an initial sharp interface in polydisperse A/B blends is studied using the external potential dynamic method. The present model is a nonlocal coupling model as we take into account the correlation between segments in a single chain. The correlation is approximately expressed by Debye function and the diffusion dynamics are based on the Rouse chain model. The chain length distribution is described by the continuous Schulz distribution. Our numerical calculation indicates that for a wide range of the Flory-Huggins parameter the broadening of interface with respect to time obeys a power law at early time, and the power indices are the same for both monodisperse and polydisperse blends. The power index is larger than that in the local coupling model. However, there is no unified scaling form of the broadening of the interface width if only the interfacial width at equilibrium is taken into account as the characteristic length of the system, because the correlation makes an extra characteristic length in the system, and the polydispersity is related to this length.

  3. Effect of size polydispersity on the structural and vibrational characteristics of two-dimensional granular assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Hua; Sun, Qi-Cheng; Shi, Zhi-Ping; Feng, Xu; Gu, Qiang; Jin, Feng

    2014-07-01

    Two-dimensional disordered granular assemblies composed of 2048 polydispersed frictionless disks are simulated using the discrete element method. The height of the first peak of the pair correlation function, g1, the local and global bond orientational parameters ψ6l and ψ6g, and the fluctuations of these parameters decrease with increasing polydispersity s, implying the transition from a polycrystalline state to an amorphous state in the system. As s increases, the peak position of the boson peak ωBP shifts towards a lower frequency and the intensity of the boson peak D(ωBP)/ωBP increases, indicating that the position and the strength of the boson peak are controlled by the polydispersity of the system. Moreover, the inverse of the boson peak intensity ωBP/D(ωBP), the shear modulus G, and the basin curvature SIS all have a similar dependence on s, implying that the s dependence of the vibrational density of states at low frequencies likely originates from the s dependence of the basin curvature.

  4. A soft microchannel decreases polydispersity of droplet generation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yan; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Liu, Zhaomiao; Stone, Howard A

    2014-10-21

    We study the effect of softness of the microchannel on the process of droplet generation in two-phase flows in a T-junction microchannel. One side of the microchannel has a flexible thin PDMS layer, which vibrates naturally while droplets are generated; the deformation frequency coincides with the frequency of droplet formation. Furthermore, we compare the polydispersity of water-in-oil droplets formed with a microchannel with one soft wall with those formed in a conventional rigid microchannel. We show that deformation of the soft wall reduces the polydispersity in the droplet size.

  5. Spillage detector for liquid chromatography systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, M. J.; Fulton, D. S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A spillage detector device for use in conjunction with fractionation of liquid chromatography systems which includes a spillage recieving enclosure beneath the fractionation area is described. A sensing device having a plurality of electrodes of alternating polarity is mounted within the spillage recieving enclosure. Detection circuitry, responsive to conductivity between electrodes, is operatively connected to the sensing device. The detection circuitry feeds into the output circuitry. The output circuit has relaying and switching circuitry directed to a solenoid, an alarm system and a pump. The solenoid is connected to the pliable conduit of the chromatography system. The alarm system comprises an audio alarm and a visual signal. A 115-volt power system interconnected with the pump, the solenoid, the sensing device, and the detection and output circuitry.

  6. Shear-Sensitive Monomer/Polymer Liquid Crystal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Parmar, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes preliminary investigation of new monomer/polymer liquid crystal system, thin film of shear-sensitive cholesteric monomer liquid crystal (TI 511) on Xydar (STR800) (or equivalent) liquid crystal polymer substrate. Monomer/polymer liquid crystal films applied to surfaces provide quantitative indications of shear stresses caused by winds blowing along surfaces. Effects of shear stresses reversible in new coating system. System provides quantitative data on flows in wind tunnels.

  7. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-01-01

    We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses. PMID:21614201

  8. Liquid Bismuth Feed System for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Stanojev, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions. For example, the VHITAL project aims td accurately, experimentally assess the performance characteristics of 10 kW-class bismuth-fed Hall thrusters - in order to validate earlier results and resuscitate a promising technology that has been relatively dormant for about two decades. A critical element of these tests will be the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre/post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work was to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides real-time propellant mass flow rate measurement and control, enabling accurate thruster performance measurements. Additionally, our approach emphasizes the development of new liquid metal flow control components and, hence, will establish a basis for the future development of components for application in spaceflight. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described - reservoir, electromagnetic pump, hotspot flow sensor, and automated control system. Particular emphasis is given to material selection and high-temperature sealing techniques. Open loop calibration test results are reported, which validate the systems capability to deliver bismuth at mass flow rates ranging from 10 to 100 mg/sec with an uncertainty of less than +/- 5%. Results of integrated vaporizer/liquid PMS tests demonstrate all of the necessary elements of a complete bismuth feed system for electric propulsion.

  9. Liquid Bismuth Feed System for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Stanojev, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions. For example, the VHITAL project aims td accurately, experimentally assess the performance characteristics of 10 kW-class bismuth-fed Hall thrusters - in order to validate earlier results and resuscitate a promising technology that has been relatively dormant for about two decades. A critical element of these tests will be the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre/post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work was to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides real-time propellant mass flow rate measurement and control, enabling accurate thruster performance measurements. Additionally, our approach emphasizes the development of new liquid metal flow control components and, hence, will establish a basis for the future development of components for application in spaceflight. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described - reservoir, electromagnetic pump, hotspot flow sensor, and automated control system. Particular emphasis is given to material selection and high-temperature sealing techniques. Open loop calibration test results are reported, which validate the systems capability to deliver bismuth at mass flow rates ranging from 10 to 100 mg/sec with an uncertainty of less than +/- 5%. Results of integrated vaporizer/liquid PMS tests demonstrate all of the necessary elements of a complete bismuth feed system for electric propulsion.

  10. Unexpected Consequences of Block Polydispersity on the Self-Assembly of ABA Triblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Widin, Joan M.; Schmitt, Adam K.; Schmitt, Andrew L.; Im, Kyuhyun; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K.

    2012-05-09

    Controlled/'living' polymerizations and tandem polymerization methodologies offer enticing opportunities to enchain a wide variety of monomers into new, functional block copolymer materials with unusual physical properties. However, the use of these synthetic methods often introduces nontrivial molecular weight polydispersities, a type of chain length heterogeneity, into one or more of the copolymer blocks. While the self-assembly behavior of monodisperse AB diblock and ABA triblock copolymers is both experimentally and theoretically well understood, the effects of broadening the copolymer molecular weight distribution on block copolymer phase behavior are less well-explored. We report the melt-phase self-assembly behavior of SBS triblock copolymers (S = poly(styrene) and B = poly(1,4-butadiene)) comprised of a broad polydispersity B block (M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.73-2.00) flanked by relatively narrow dispersity S blocks (M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.09-1.36), in order to identify the effects of chain length heterogeneity on block copolymer self-assembly. Based on synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy analyses of seventeen SBS triblock copolymers with poly(1,4-butadiene) volume fractions 0.27 {le} f{sub B} {le} 0.82, we demonstrate that polydisperse SBS triblock copolymers self-assemble into periodic structures with unexpectedly enhanced stabilities that greatly exceed those of equivalent monodisperse copolymers. The unprecedented stabilities of these polydisperse microphase separated melts are discussed in the context of a complete morphology diagram for this system, which demonstrates that narrow dispersity copolymers are not required for periodic nanoscale assembly.

  11. Propagation of acoustic waves in multifractional polydisperse gas suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubaidullin, D. A.; Teregulova, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of acoustic waves in multifractional polydisperse gas suspension is studied. A mathematical model is presented, the dispersion equation is obtained, dispersion curves are calculated. The influence of the particle size and the parameters of the dispersed phase for multifractional gas mixture with ice particles, aluminum and sand on dissipation and dispersion of sound waves is analyzed.

  12. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua

    2013-10-15

    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.

  13. Simulation of turbulent non-isothermal polydisperse bubbly flow behind a sudden tube expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, M. A.; Terekhov, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    The results of numerical simulation of the structure of non-isothermal polydisperse bubbly turbulent flow and heat transfer behind a sudden tube expansion are presented. The study was carried out at a change in the initial diameter of the air bubbles within d m1 = 1-5 mm and their volumetric void fraction β = 0-10 %. Small bubbles are available in almost the entire cross section of the tube, while the large bubbles pass mainly through the flow core. An increase in the size of dispersed phase causes the growth of turbulence in the liquid phase due to flow turbulization, when there is a separated flow of liquid past the large bubbles. Adding the air bubbles causes a significant reduction in the length of the separation zone and heat transfer enhancement, and these effects increase with increasing bubble size and their gas volumetric flow rate ratio.

  14. Thermomorphic phase separation in ionic liquid-organic liquid systems--conductivity and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Berg, Rolf W; van Hal, Roy; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2005-08-21

    Electrical conductivity, FT-Raman and NMR measurements are demonstrated as useful tools to probe and determine phase behavior of thermomorphic ionic liquid-organic liquid systems. To illustrate the methods, consecutive conductivity measurements of a thermomorphic methoxyethoxyethyl-imidazolium ionic liquid/1-hexanol system are performed in the temperature interval 25-80 degrees C using a specially constructed double-electrode cell. In addition, FT-Raman and 1H-NMR spectroscopic studies performed on the phase-separable system in the same temperature interval confirm the mutual solubility of the components in the system, the liquid-liquid equilibrium phase diagram of the binary mixture, and signify the importance of hydrogen bonding between the ionic liquid and the hydroxyl group of the alcohol.

  15. Solidification along the interface between demixed liquids in monotectic systems.

    PubMed

    Hüter, C; Boussinot, G; Brener, E A; Temkin, D E

    2011-05-01

    The steady-state solidification along the liquid-liquid interface in the monotectic system is discussed. A boundary-integral formulation describing the diffusion in the two liquid phases is given and the corresponding equations for the three interfaces (two solid-liquid interfaces and one liquid-liquid interface) are solved. Scaling relations are extracted from the results and supported by analytic arguments in the limit of small deviation from the monotectic temperature. We present also a complementary phase-field simulation, which proves the stability of the process.

  16. The role of size polydispersity in magnetic fluid hyperthermia: average vs. local infra/over-heating effects.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Menendez, Cristina; Conde-Leboran, Ivan; Baldomir, Daniel; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Serantes, David

    2015-11-07

    An efficient and safe hyperthermia cancer treatment requires the accurate control of the heating performance of magnetic nanoparticles, which is directly related to their size. However, in any particle system the existence of some size polydispersity is experimentally unavoidable, which results in a different local heating output and consequently a different hyperthermia performance depending on the size of each particle. With the aim to shed some light on this significant issue, we have used a Monte Carlo technique to study the role of size polydispersity in heat dissipation at both the local (single particle) and global (macroscopic average) levels. We have systematically varied size polydispersity, temperature and interparticle dipolar interaction conditions, and evaluated local heating as a function of these parameters. Our results provide a simple guide on how to choose, for a given polydispersity degree, the more adequate average particle size so that the local variation in the released heat is kept within some limits that correspond to safety boundaries for the average-system hyperthermia performance. All together we believe that our results may help in the design of more effective magnetic hyperthermia applications.

  17. Heat-transfer characteristics in viscous gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Fan, L.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    Local heat-transfer measurements are performed using a special heat-transfer probe in gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems with viscous Newtonian liquids as the continuous phase. Effects of viscosity on bubble-liquid and bubble-liquid-solid interactions affecting local heat transfer are studied through heat-transfer experiments with simultaneous flow visualization in a simplified system involving single bubbles or a chain of gas bubbles moving in viscous liquids and liquid-solid systems. Effects of viscosity on bubble wake and local heat transfer are examined with reference to heat transfer in freely-bubbling beds (bubble columns and three-phase fluidized beds). The kinematic viscosity of the fluid greatly influences the nature of flow in the wake which affects local heat transfer in the bed. The local heat transfer decreases with the viscosity due to the rapid decay in the circulation strength of the bubble wake caused by increased viscous dissipation of vorticity. Local heat transfer due to cyclic/periodic injection of bubbles is significantly enhanced due to increased bubble-wake interactions which rapidly accelerate bubbles and increase average bubble rise velocity. Heat transfer in simplified liquid and liquid-solid systems with single- and chain-bubble injections characterizes the local heat-transfer performance of freely-bubbling beds (bubble columns and three-phase fluidized beds). A mechanistic model developed accounts for the heat-transfer behavior in bubble columns and three-phase fluidized beds with viscous liquids.

  18. Influence of shell compressibility on the ultrasonic properties of polydispersed suspensions of nanometric encapsulated droplets.

    PubMed

    Guédra, Matthieu; Valier-Brasier, Tony; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Coulouvrat, François; Astafyeva, Ksenia; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2014-03-01

    Liquid droplets of nanometric size encapsulated by a polymer shell are envisioned for targeted drug delivery in therapeutic applications. Unlike standard micrometric gas-filled contrast agents used for medical imaging, these particles present a thick shell and a weakly compressible core. Hence, their dynamical behavior may be out of the range of validity of the models available for the description of encapsulated bubbles. In the present paper, a model for the ultrasound dispersion and absorption in a suspension of nanodroplets is proposed, accounting for both dilatational and translational motions of the particle. The radial motion is modeled by a generalized Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation which takes into account the compressibility of the viscoelastic shell, as well as the one of the core. The effect of the polydispersity of particles in size and shell thickness is introduced in the coupled balance equations which govern the motion of the particles in the surrounding fluid. Both effects of shell compressibility and polydispersity are quantified through the dispersion and absorption curves obtained on a wide ultrasonic frequency range. Finally, some results for larger gas-filled particles are also provided, revealing the limit of the role of the shell compressibility.

  19. Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    1999-12-01

    Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

  20. Intelligent liquid surface measuring system based on laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; He, Ping'an; Han, Jianzhong; Yu, Feng

    2003-09-01

    Using laser range finder DISTO as a sensor, we developed an intelligent liquid surface measuring system that can be used to measure the depth of liquid. Many problems such as liquid surface reflected in fixed direction, measuring errors caused by reflex reflections and liquid surface fluctuation are solved. Now it is proved by our experiments on the spot that the system would be used in measuring depth of all kind of liquid, especially in combustible or explosive oil and liquefaction gas with the accuracy of +/-3mm.

  1. Mueller Polarimetric Imaging System with Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laude-Boulesteix, Blandine; de Martino, Antonello; Drévillon, Bernard; Schwartz, Laurent

    2004-05-01

    We present a new polarimetric imaging system based on liquid-crystal modulators, a spectrally filtered white-light source, and a CCD camera. The whole Mueller matrix image of the sample is measured in approximately 5 s in the transmission mode. The instrument design, together with an original and easy-to-operate calibration procedure, provides high accuracy over a wide spectral range (500-700 nm). This accuracy has been assessed by measurement of a linear polarizer at different orientations and a thick wedged quartz plate as an example of a partially depolarized retarder. Polarimetric images of a stained hepatic biopsy with significant fibrosis have been taken at several wavelengths. The optical properties of Picrosirius Red stained collagen (diattenuation, retardance, and polarizance) have been measured independently from each other between 500 and 700 nm.

  2. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  3. Effect of the Polydispersity of RBCs on the Recovery Rate of RBCs during the Removal of CPAs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuncong; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    In the process of removing cryoprotectants from cryopreserved blood, the theoretically optimal operating condition, which is based on the assumption that the distribution of red blood cells is uniform, is often used to reduce or even avoid the hypotonic damage to cells. However, due to the polydispersity of cells, the optimal condition is actually not reliable. In this study, based on the discrete concept developed in our previous work, the effect of the polydispersity on the recovery rate of cells in the dilution-filtration system was statistically investigated by assigning three random parameters, isotonic cell volume, cell surface area, and osmotically inactive cell volume, to cells in small units of blood. The results show that, due to the polydispersity, the real recovery rate deviates from the ideal value that is based on uniform distribution. The deviation significantly increases with the standard errors of cell parameters, and it can be also magnified by high cryoprotectant concentrations. Under the effect of polydispersity, the uniform distribution-based optimized blood or diluent flow rate is not perfect. In practice, one should adopt a more conservative blood or diluent flow rate so that the hypotonic damage to cells can be further reduced. PMID:25580156

  4. Effect of the polydispersity of RBCs on the recovery rate of RBCs during the removal of CPAs.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Heyuan; Ding, Weiping; Ma, Yuncong; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    In the process of removing cryoprotectants from cryopreserved blood, the theoretically optimal operating condition, which is based on the assumption that the distribution of red blood cells is uniform, is often used to reduce or even avoid the hypotonic damage to cells. However, due to the polydispersity of cells, the optimal condition is actually not reliable. In this study, based on the discrete concept developed in our previous work, the effect of the polydispersity on the recovery rate of cells in the dilution-filtration system was statistically investigated by assigning three random parameters, isotonic cell volume, cell surface area, and osmotically inactive cell volume, to cells in small units of blood. The results show that, due to the polydispersity, the real recovery rate deviates from the ideal value that is based on uniform distribution. The deviation significantly increases with the standard errors of cell parameters, and it can be also magnified by high cryoprotectant concentrations. Under the effect of polydispersity, the uniform distribution-based optimized blood or diluent flow rate is not perfect. In practice, one should adopt a more conservative blood or diluent flow rate so that the hypotonic damage to cells can be further reduced.

  5. Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype bismuth propellant feed and control system was constructed and tested. An electromagnetic pump was used in this system to provide fine control of the hydrostatic pressure, and a new type of in-line flow sensor was developed to provide an accurate, real-time measurement of the mass flow rate. High-temperature material compatibility was a driving design requirement for the pump and flow sensor, leading to the selection of macor for the main body of both components. Post-test inspections of both components revealed no cracks or leaking in either. In separate proof-of-concept experiments, the pump produced a linear pressure rise as a function of current that compared favorably with theoretical pump pressure predictions, with a pressure of 10 kPa at 30 A. Flow sensing was successfully demonstrated in a bench-top test using gallium as a substitute liquid metal. A real-time controller was successfully used to control the entire system, simultaneously monitoring all power supplies and performing data acquisition duties.

  6. A Miniature Aerosol Sensor for Detecting Polydisperse Airborne Ultrafine Particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Dingqu; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Wenming; Jiang, Peng

    2017-04-22

    Counting and sizing of polydisperse airborne nanoparticles have attracted most attentions owing to increasing widespread presence of airborne engineered nanoparticles or ultrafine particles. Here we report a miniature aerosol sensor to detect particle size distribution of polydisperse ultrafine particles based on ion diffusion charging and electrical detection. The aerosol sensor comprises a couple of planar electrodes printed on two circuit boards assembled in parallel, where charging, precipitation and measurement sections are integrated into one chip, which can detect aerosol particle size in of 30-500 nm, number concentration in range of 5 × 10²-10⁷ /cm³. The average relative errors of the measured aerosol number concentration and the particle size are estimated to be 12.2% and 13.5% respectively. A novel measurement scheme is proposed to actualize a real-time detection of polydisperse particles by successively modulating the measurement voltage and deducing the particle size distribution through a smart data fusion algorithm. The effectiveness of the aerosol sensor is experimentally demonstrated via measurements of polystyrene latex (PSL) aerosol and nucleic acid aerosol, as well as sodium chloride aerosol particles.

  7. Thermal properties of ionic systems near the liquid-liquid critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Castro, Pablo; Troncoso, Jacobo; Pérez-Sánchez, Germán; Peleteiro, José; Romaní, Luis

    2011-12-01

    Isobaric heat capacity per unit volume, Cp, and excess molar enthalpy, hE, were determined in the vicinity of the critical point for a set of binary systems formed by an ionic liquid and a molecular solvent. Moreover, and, since critical composition had to be accurately determined, liquid-liquid equilibrium curves were also obtained using a calorimetric method. The systems were selected with a view on representing, near room temperature, examples from clearly solvophobic to clearly coulombic behavior, which traditionally was related with the electric permittivity of the solvent. The chosen molecular compounds are: ethanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1,3-dichloropropane, and diethylcarbonate, whereas ionic liquids are formed by imidazolium-based cations and tetrafluoroborate or bis-(trifluromethylsulfonyl)amide anions. The results reveal that solvophobic critical behavior—systems with molecular solvents of high dielectric permittivity—is very similar to that found for molecular binary systems. However, coulombic systems—those with low permittivity molecular solvents—show strong deviations from the results usually found for these magnitudes near the liquid-liquid phase transition. They present an extremely small critical anomaly in Cp—several orders of magnitude lower than those typically obtained for binary mixtures—and extremely low hE—for one system even negative, fact not observed, up to date, for any liquid-liquid transition in the nearness of an upper critical solution temperature.

  8. Liquid and Solid Propulsion Systems Attributes - Unique, Common and Complementary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, James L.; Lampton, Pat; Williams, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, attributes are described for solid and liquid propulsion systems based on historical data. This study is not intended to compare liquid and solid propulsion system attributes, rather to present options for their use in various mission scenarios. US launch vehicle data from 1970 to 2008 was analyzed to assess solid and liquid propulsion development cost and schedule characteristics, performance features, and safety and mission success attributes. The study assessed historical trends for liquid and solid systems, and investigated implications of those trends. It was found that the two propulsion technologies have unique, common and complementary attributes that can be leveraged to meet mission requirements.

  9. Methods and systems for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G.; Clark, Roger F.; Kary, Tim

    2010-07-20

    Methods and systems are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface, including providing a vessel configured to contain an at least partially melted material; detecting radiation reflected from a surface of a liquid portion of the at least partially melted material that is parallel with the liquid surface; measuring a disturbance on the surface; calculating at least one frequency associated with the disturbance; and determining a thickness of the liquid portion based on the at least one frequency, wherein the thickness is calculated based on.times. ##EQU00001## where g is the gravitational constant, w is the horizontal width of the liquid, and f is the at least one frequency.

  10. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    designed to be used on Class 8 trucks with CWI ISX G HPDI engines. Extensive test cart and engineering truck tests of the pump demonstrated good durability and the high-pressure performance needed for HPDI application. The LNG tanks manufactured by Taylor-Wharton passed SAE J2343 Recommended Practice drop tests and accelerated road-load vibration tests. NER and hold-time tests produced highly consistent results. Additional tests confirmed the design adequacy of the liquid level sensor, vaporizer, ullage volume, and other fuel system components. While the testing work performed under this program focused on a high-pressure pumped LNG fuel system design, the results also validate the feasibility of a low-pressure pumped fuel system. A low-pressure pumped fuel system could incorporate various design refinements including a simpler and lighter-weight pump, which would decrease costs somewhat relative to a high-pressure system.

  11. Ultrafiltration Characteristics of Glucose Polymers with Low Polydispersity

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, John K.; Hoff, Catherine M.; Piscopo, Dean; Carr, Seraya N.; Svatek, Jessica M.; Holmes, Clifford J.

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Background: Icodextrin, a glucose polymer with a polydispersity [ratio of weight-average molecular weight (Mw) to number-average molecular weight] of approximately 2.6, has been shown, compared with glucose, to provide superior ultrafiltration (UF) efficiency [ratio of UF to carbohydrate (CHO) absorbed] when used as an osmotic agent during a long-dwell peritoneal dialysis exchange. In an experimental rabbit model, we evaluated the effect of Mw on the UF and UF efficiency of glucose polymers with low polydispersity. ♦ Methods: A crossover trial in female New Zealand White rabbits (2.20 - 2.65 kg) with surgically implanted peritoneal catheters evaluated two glucose polymers at nominal concentrations of 7.5 g/dL: a 6K polymer (Mw: 6.4 kDa; polydispersity: 2.3) and a 19K polymer (Mw: 18.8 kDa; polydispersity: 2.0). Rabbits were randomized to receive either the 6K (n = 11) or the 19K (n = 12) solution during the first exchange (40 mL/kg body weight). The alternative solution was evaluated in a second exchange 3 days later. During each 4-hour dwell, the UF and total glucose polymer CHO absorbed were determined. ♦ Results: The UF was higher for the 6K (p < 0.0001) than for the 19K polymer (mean ± standard deviation: 73.6 ± 30.8 mL vs. 43.0 ± 20.2 mL), as was the amount of CHO absorbed (42.5% ± 9.8% vs. 35.7% ± 11.0%, p = 0.021). In spite of higher CHO absorption, an approximately 50% higher (p = 0.029) UF efficiency was achieved with the 6K polymer (28.3 ± 18.8 mL/g) than with the 19K polymer (19.0 ± 11.3 mL/g). The results were independent of the order of the experimental exchanges. ♦ Conclusions: Glucose polymers with low polydispersity are effective osmotic agents in a rabbit model. The low-Mw polymer was more effective at generating UF and had a higher UF efficiency, but those results came at the expense of the polymer being more readily absorbed from the peritoneal cavity. PMID:23123667

  12. Flow Induced Electrification of Liquid Insulated Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washabaugh, Andrew Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The transport or motion of semi-insulating liquids has led to flow induced static electrification and catastrophic failures in several industries. While techniques for reducing the hazard have been developed, the roles of seemingly important parameters are poorly understood. The objective of this thesis was to measure and understand the fundamental parameters of the flow electrification process that, together with the laws of electroquasistatics and physicochemical hydrodynamics, can be used to predict the performance of complex flow systems, with particular attention to transformer applications. A rotating cylindrical electrode apparatus, which provided cylindrical Couette flow, was used to simulate flow electrification in an electric power transformer. The apparatus had Shell Diala A transformer oil filling the annulus between coaxial cylindrical stainless steel electrodes that were either bare metal, or covered by a thin copper sheet and/or EHV-Weidmann HiVal pressboard insulation. Extensive experiments characterized the time transient and steady state behavior of the electrification through measurements of the volume charge density, the terminal voltage, and the terminal current as the system was driven out of equilibrium by changes in the flow rate (inner cylinder rotation rates of 100-1400 rpm, Reynolds numbers of 5 times 10^3-5 times 10^5), temperature (15-70 ^circ), insulation moisture content (0.5-20 ppm in the oil), applied voltage (0-2 kV DC), and concentration of the non-ionizable anti-static additive 1,2,3 benzotriazole (BTA, 0-60 ppm). Generally, the electrification increased with flow rate and temperature but the BTA appeared to cause competing effects: it decreased the volume charge density on the liquid side of the interface (by a factor of 4), which reduces the electrification, but also decreased the oil conductivity (by a factor of 10), which enhances the electrification. A critical oil BTA concentration of 5 -8 ppm minimized the electrification

  13. Network morphologies in monodisperse and polydisperse multiblock terpolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuler, Adam James

    Multiply continuous network morphologies were previously identified in "monodisperse" (polydispersity index (PDI) < ˜1.1 in all blocks) poly(isoprene-bstyrene-b-ethylene oxide) (ISO) triblock terpolymers. This work extends the investigation of multiply continuous network structures to two other classes of multiblock terpolymers: (i) "monodisperse" OSISO pentablocks and (ii) polydisperse ISO triblocks. The OSISO pentablocks are synthesized using a protected initiation strategy that required the development of the functional organolithium 3-triisopropylsilyloxy-1-propyllithium (TIPSOPrLi). TIPSOPrLi may be used to prepare alpha-hydroxypolystyrene with narrower molecular weight distributions (PDI ˜ 1.1) than are attainable using the commercially available 3-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-1-propyllithium. A telechelic triblock terpolymer (HO-SIS-OH) with narrow molecular weight distributions in all blocks is prepared using TIPSOPrLi. A series of OSISO pentablocks is synthesized from this parent triblock, and a stable region of O70 (the orthorhombic Fddd network) is identified between two-domain lamellae (LAM2) and three-domain lamellae (LAM3) in OSISO materials. This sequence of morphologies was previously reported in ISO triblocks with comparable compositions. Mechanical tensile testing reveals that an OSISO sample with a lamellar mesostructure fractures in a brittle fashion at a strain of 0.06. An OSISO containing the O70 network, in contrast, has a strain at failure of 1.3, even though the crystallinity of the terminal blocks is above the brittle threshold established in other multiblock materials. This improved toughness is attributed to the combined effects of a triply continuous morphology and an intrinsically tough SIS core. The ISO triblock studies probe the stability of network morphologies with respect to polydispersity in the polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide) chains. Three series of ISO triblocks with polydisperse (PS PDI = 1.16, 1.31, 1.44) polystyrene

  14. Oiling out or molten hydrate-liquid-liquid phase separation in the system vanillin-water.

    PubMed

    Svärd, Michael; Gracin, Sandra; Rasmuson, Ake C

    2007-09-01

    Vanillin crystals in a saturated aqueous solution disappear and a second liquid phase emerges when the temperature is raised above 51 degrees C. The phenomenon has been investigated with crystallization and equilibration experiments, using DSC, TGA, XRD and hot-stage microscopy for analysis. The new liquid solidifies on cooling, appears to melt at 51 degrees C, and has a composition corresponding to a dihydrate. However, no solid hydrate can be detected by XRD, and it is shown that the true explanation is that a liquid-liquid phase separation occurs above 51 degrees C where the vanillin-rich phase has a composition close to a dihydrate. To our knowledge, liquid-liquid phase separation has not previously been reported for the system vanillin-water, even though thousands of tonnes of vanillin are produced globally every year. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1995-01-26

    Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

  16. Modes of self-organization of diluted bubbly liquids in acoustic fields: One-dimensional theory.

    PubMed

    Gumerov, Nail A; Akhatov, Iskander S

    2017-02-01

    The paper is dedicated to mathematical modeling of self-organization of bubbly liquids in acoustic fields. A continuum model describing the two-way interaction of diluted polydisperse bubbly liquids and acoustic fields in weakly-nonlinear approximation is studied analytically and numerically in the one-dimensional case. It is shown that the regimes of self-organization of monodisperse bubbly liquids can be controlled by only a few dimensionless parameters. Two basic modes, clustering and propagating shock waves of void fraction (acoustically induced transparency), are identified and criteria for their realization in the space of parameters are proposed. A numerical method for solving of one-dimensional self-organization problems is developed. Computational results for mono- and polydisperse systems are discussed.

  17. Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…

  18. Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…

  19. Localization and dynamical arrest of colloidal fluids in a disordered matrix of polydisperse obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Aguilera, Luis Fernando; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno

    2015-06-01

    The mobility of a colloidal particle in a crowded and confined environment may be severely reduced by its interactions with other mobile colloidal particles and the fixed obstacles through which it diffuses. The latter may be modelled as an array of obstacles with random fixed positions. In this contribution, we report on the effects of the size-polydispersity of such fixed obstacles on the immobilization and dynamical arrest of the diffusing colloidal particles. This complex system is modelled as a monodisperse Brownian hard-sphere fluid diffusing through a polydisperse matrix of fixed hard spheres with a given size distribution. In the Lorentz gas limit (absence of interactions between the mobile particles), we first develop a simple excluded-volume theory to describe the localization transition of the tracer mobile particles. To take into account the interactions among the mobile particles, we adapt the multi-component self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics, which also allows us to calculate the dynamical arrest transition line, and in general, all the dynamical properties of the mobile particles (mean-squared displacement, self-diffusion coefficient, etc.). The scenarios described by both approaches in the Lorentz gas limit are qualitatively consistent, but the SCGLE formalism describes the dependence of the dynamics of the adsorbed fluid on the polydispersity of the porous matrix at arbitrary concentrations of the mobile spheres and arbitrary volume fractions of the obstacles. Two mechanisms for dynamical arrest (glass transition and localization) are analyzed and we also discuss the crossover between them using the SCGLEs.

  20. Localization and dynamical arrest of colloidal fluids in a disordered matrix of polydisperse obstacles.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Aguilera, Luis Fernando; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno

    2015-06-14

    The mobility of a colloidal particle in a crowded and confined environment may be severely reduced by its interactions with other mobile colloidal particles and the fixed obstacles through which it diffuses. The latter may be modelled as an array of obstacles with random fixed positions. In this contribution, we report on the effects of the size-polydispersity of such fixed obstacles on the immobilization and dynamical arrest of the diffusing colloidal particles. This complex system is modelled as a monodisperse Brownian hard-sphere fluid diffusing through a polydisperse matrix of fixed hard spheres with a given size distribution. In the Lorentz gas limit (absence of interactions between the mobile particles), we first develop a simple excluded-volume theory to describe the localization transition of the tracer mobile particles. To take into account the interactions among the mobile particles, we adapt the multi-component self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics, which also allows us to calculate the dynamical arrest transition line, and in general, all the dynamical properties of the mobile particles (mean-squared displacement, self-diffusion coefficient, etc.). The scenarios described by both approaches in the Lorentz gas limit are qualitatively consistent, but the SCGLE formalism describes the dependence of the dynamics of the adsorbed fluid on the polydispersity of the porous matrix at arbitrary concentrations of the mobile spheres and arbitrary volume fractions of the obstacles. Two mechanisms for dynamical arrest (glass transition and localization) are analyzed and we also discuss the crossover between them using the SCGLEs.

  1. Manipulation of liquid-liquid interfaces for tunable optics on a chip in microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kam Yan Sindy

    This thesis describes the design and development of optofluidics: a new class of optical components based on dynamic liquid-liquid interfaces between liquids possessing different optical properties in microfluidic systems. Devices with optical interfaces formed by liquids possess characteristics that are quite different from solid-gas and solid-liquid systems commonly used in conventional optics. Advantages of optofluidic systems include the simplicity to reconfigure optical properties and functions in real time. Examples of devices include liquid waveguides, lenses, and multi-color droplet dye laser. Potential applications include biochemical characterization and optical spectroscopy in micro-total analytical systems. Chapter 1 describers the motivation, general configuration and characteristics of devices with optical interfaces formed by liquids in microchannels. Chapter 2 describes the soft lithographic techniques used to make optofluidic devices. Chapter 3 describes the use of co-fabrication to design and fabricate multiple functional components in microfluidic systems in a single step. Chapters 4 to 6 describe the design and operation of three optofluidic devices: waveguides, lenses, and dye lasers.

  2. [Development of a novel liquid injection system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Lv, Yong-Gui

    2009-11-01

    A liquid jet injector employs compressed gas or spring to produce a high-velocity stream to deliver liquid drug into human body through skin. There are many clinical jet injection products available, none of which is domestic. A new liquid jet injector is designed based on a comprehensive analysis of the current products. The injector consists of an ejector, trigger and a re-positioning mechanism. The jets characteristics of sample injector are tested, and the results show that the maximum exit pressure is above 15 MPa, a threshold value for penetrating into the skin.

  3. Electrostatic Liquid-Drop-Levitation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won Kyu; Chung, San Kun; Hyson, Michael T.; Elleman, Daniel D.

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic levitator has levitated drops of liquid up to 4 mm in diameter while maintaining spherical drop shapes. Stable levitation of spherical drops valuable in experiments involving super-cooling, solidification, and crystal growth.

  4. Predicting the wetting dynamics of a two-liquid system.

    PubMed

    Seveno, D; Blake, T D; Goossens, S; De Coninck, J

    2011-12-20

    We propose a new theoretical model of dynamic wetting for systems comprising two immiscible liquids, in which one liquid displaces another from the surface of a solid. Such systems are important in many industrial processes and the natural world. The new model is an extension of the molecular-kinetic theory of wetting and offers a way to predict the dynamics of a two-liquid system from the individual wetting dynamics of its parent liquids. We also present the results of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations for one- and two-liquid systems and show them to be in good agreement with the new model. Finally, we show that the new model is consistent with the limited data currently available from experiment. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process. PMID:26843320

  6. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems.

    PubMed

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-02-04

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  7. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  8. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen auxiliary power system thruster investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberle, E. E.; Kusak, L.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a 111 newton (25 lb) thrust, integrated auxiliary propulsion system (IAPS) thruster for use with LH2/LO2 propellants is described. Hydrogen was supplied at a temperature range of 22 to 33 K (40 to 60 R), and oxygen from 89 to 122 K (160 to 220 R). The thruster was designed to operate in both pulse mode and steady-state modes for vehicle attitude control, space maneuvering, and as an abort backup in the event of failure of the main propulsion system. A dual-sleeve, tri-axial injection system was designed that utilizes a primary injector/combustor where 100 percent of the oxygen and 8 percent of the hydrogen is introduced; a secondary injector/combustor where 45 percent of the hydrogen is introduced to mix with the primary combustor gases; and a boundary layer injector that uses the remaining 45 percent of the hydrogen to cool the thrust throat/nozzle design. Hot-fire evaluation of this thruster with a BLC injection distance of 2.79 cm (1.10 in.) indicated that a specific impulse value of 390 sec can be attained using a coated molybdenum thrust chamber. Pulse mode tests indicated that a chamber pressure buildup to 90 percent thrust can be achieved in a time on the order of 48 msec. Some problems were encountered in achieving ignition of each pulse during pulse trains. This was interpreted to indicate that a higher delivered spark energy level ( 100 mJ) would be required to maintain ignition reliability of the plasma torch ignition system under the extra 'cold' conditions resulting during pulsing.

  9. Scalable fractionation of iron oxide nanoparticles using a CO2 gas-expanded liquid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengsarkar, Pranav S.; Xu, Rui; Roberts, Christopher B.

    2015-10-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit highly size-dependent physicochemical properties that are important in applications such as catalysis and environmental remediation. In order for these size-dependent properties to be effectively harnessed for industrial applications scalable and cost-effective techniques for size-controlled synthesis or size separation must be developed. The synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles can be a prohibitively expensive process on a large scale. An alternative involves the use of inexpensive synthesis procedures followed by a size-selective processing technique. While there are many techniques available to fractionate nanoparticles, many of the techniques are unable to efficiently fractionate iron oxide nanoparticles in a scalable and inexpensive manner. A scalable apparatus capable of fractionating large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles into distinct fractions of different sizes and size distributions has been developed. Polydisperse iron oxide nanoparticles (2-20 nm) coated with oleic acid used in this study were synthesized using a simple and inexpensive version of the popular coprecipitation technique. This apparatus uses hexane as a CO2 gas-expanded liquid to controllably precipitate nanoparticles inside a 1L high-pressure reactor. This paper demonstrates the operation of this new apparatus and for the first time shows the successful fractionation results on a system of metal oxide nanoparticles, with initial nanoparticle concentrations in the gram-scale. The analysis of the obtained fractions was performed using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The use of this simple apparatus provides a pathway to separate large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles based upon their size for use in various industrial applications.

  10. Size-Dependent Localization in Polydisperse Colloidal Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckendorf, D.; Mutch, K. J.; Egelhaaf, S. U.; Laurati, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated concentrated suspensions of polydisperse hard spheres and have determined the dynamics and sizes of individual particles using confocal microscopy. With increasing concentration, the dynamics of the small and large particles start to differ. The large particles exhibit slower dynamics and stronger localization. Moreover, as the particle size increases, the local volume fraction ϕloc also increases. In the glass state, the localization length significantly decreases beyond ϕloc≈0.67 . This suggests a link between local crowding and dynamical heterogeneities. However dynamical arrest of subpopulations seems not directly linked to a large value of ϕloc, indicating the importance of collective effects.

  11. A mixture model for water uptake, degradation, erosion and drug release from polydisperse polymeric networks.

    PubMed

    Soares, João S; Zunino, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a general class of mixture models suitable to describe water-dependent degradation and erosion of biodegradable polymers in conjunction with drug release. The ability to predict and quantify degradation and erosion has direct impact in a variety of biomedical applications and is a useful design tool for biodegradable implants and tissue engineering scaffolds. The model is based on a finite number of constituents describing the polydisperse polymeric system, each representing chains of an average size, and two additional constituents, water and drug. Hydrolytic degradation of individual chains occurs at the molecular level and mixture constituents diffuse individually accordingly to Fick's 1st law at the bulk level - such analysis confers a multi-scale aspect to the resulting reaction-diffusion system. A shift between two different types of behavior, each identified to surface or bulk erosion, is observed with the variation of a single non-dimensional parameter measuring the relative importance of the mechanisms of reaction and diffusion. Mass loss follows a sigmoid decrease in bulk eroding polymers, whereas decreases linearly in surface eroding polymers. Polydispersity influences degradation and erosion of bulk eroding polymers and drug release from unstable surface eroding matrices is dramatically enhanced in an erosion-controlled release.

  12. Assessing the role of static length scales behind glassy dynamics in polydisperse hard disks

    PubMed Central

    Russo, John; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    The possible role of growing static order in the dynamical slowing down toward the glass transition has recently attracted considerable attention. On the basis of random first-order transition theory, a new method to measure the static correlation length of amorphous order, called “point-to-set” (PTS) length, has been proposed and used to show that the dynamic length grows much faster than the static length. Here, we study the nature of the PTS length, using a polydisperse hard-disk system, which is a model that is known to exhibit a growing hexatic order upon densification. We show that the PTS correlation length is decoupled from the steeper increase of the correlation length of hexatic order and dynamic heterogeneity, while closely mirroring the decay length of two-body density correlations. Our results thus provide a clear example that other forms of order can play an important role in the slowing down of the dynamics, casting a serious doubt on the order-agnostic nature of the PTS length and its relevance to slow dynamics, provided that a polydisperse hard-disk system is a typical glass former. PMID:26038545

  13. Assessing the role of static length scales behind glassy dynamics in polydisperse hard disks.

    PubMed

    Russo, John; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-06-02

    The possible role of growing static order in the dynamical slowing down toward the glass transition has recently attracted considerable attention. On the basis of random first-order transition theory, a new method to measure the static correlation length of amorphous order, called "point-to-set" (PTS) length, has been proposed and used to show that the dynamic length grows much faster than the static length. Here, we study the nature of the PTS length, using a polydisperse hard-disk system, which is a model that is known to exhibit a growing hexatic order upon densification. We show that the PTS correlation length is decoupled from the steeper increase of the correlation length of hexatic order and dynamic heterogeneity, while closely mirroring the decay length of two-body density correlations. Our results thus provide a clear example that other forms of order can play an important role in the slowing down of the dynamics, casting a serious doubt on the order-agnostic nature of the PTS length and its relevance to slow dynamics, provided that a polydisperse hard-disk system is a typical glass former.

  14. A nanosecond pulsed laser heating system for studying liquid and supercooled liquid films in ultrahigh vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuntao; Dibble, Collin J.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Smith, R. Scott; Joly, Alan G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kay, Bruce D.; Kimmel, Greg A.

    2016-04-26

    A pulsed laser heating system has been developed that enables investigations of the dynamics and kinetics of nanoscale liquid films and liquid/solid interfaces on the nanosecond timescale in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Details of the design, implementation and characterization of a nanosecond pulsed laser system for transiently heating nanoscale films are described. Nanosecond pulses from a Nd:YAG laser are used to rapidly heat thin films of adsorbed water or other volatile materials on a clean, well-characterized Pt(111) crystal in UHV. Heating rates of ~1010 K/s for temperature increases of ~100 – 200 K are obtained. Subsequent rapid cooling (~5 × 109 K/s) quenches the film, permitting in-situ, post-mortem analysis using a variety of surface science techniques. Lateral variations in the laser pulse energy are ~ ± 3% leading to a temperature uncertainty of ~ ± 5 K for a temperature jump of 200 K. Initial experiments with the apparatus demonstrate that crystalline ice films initially held at 90 K can be rapidly transformed into liquid water films with T > 273 K. No discernable recrystallization occurs during the rapid cooling back to cryogenic temperatures. In contrast, amorphous solid water films heated below the melting point rapidly crystallize. The nanosecond pulsed laser heating system can prepare nanoscale liquid and supercooled liquid films that persist for nanoseconds per heat pulse in an UHV environment, enabling experimental studies of a wide range of phenomena in liquids and at liquid/solid interfaces.

  15. A simple liquid detector for radiopharmaceutical processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alexoff, D.L.; Hallaba, K.; Schlyer, D.; Ferrieri, R.

    1995-03-01

    Sensing the presence of liquids in tubing and vessels in radiochemical processing equipment provides information important to the remote or automatic control of the production of clinical doses of radiopharmaceuticals. Although modern commercial automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis machines do not usually include liquid presence as a measured process variable, earlier more complex automated synthesis devices did; and the inclusion of such feedback can increase system reliability and simplify trouble-shooting tasks carried out by computer software or human operators. Commercial liquid level detectors are often designed for large-scale industrial processes and are therefore too large or expensive to be useful in many radiochemical hardware systems. An inexpensive miniature optical liquid detector originally by Kramer and Fuchs has been duplicated here for use in monitoring the presence of liquids in teflon tubing (1/16 in. O.D.) in an enriched oxygen-18 water recovery system.

  16. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  17. Glass Transition and Re-entrant Melting in a Polydisperse Hard-Sphere Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuyama, Michio; Terada, Yayoi

    2006-05-01

    Extensive molecular dynamics simulations are performed for a hard-sphere fluid at 6% polydispersity. The simulation results are then analyzed based on the mean-field theory proposed recently by Tokuyama (Physica A 364, 23-62 (2006)). The phase diagram and the dynamic behavior are investigated fully in each phase. It is then found that as the volume fraction φ is increased, a supercooled liquid phase appears at the supercooled point φβ (≃ 0.5524) and a transition from supercooled liquid to crystal then occurs at the melting volume fraction φm(1) (≃ 0.5625). As φ is further increased, a transition from crystal to supercooled liquid (re-entrant melting) is also observed at the second melting volume fraction φm(2) (≃ 0.5770) within a waiting time tw = 7 × 104t0, where t0 is a time for a particle to move over a distance of a particle radius with an average velocity. The glass transition is thus predicted to occur at the glass transition volume fraction φg (≃ 0.6005). The various aspects obtained in our study is quite similar to those in the experiment for the suspension of hard spheres, including the logarithmic growth of the mean-square displacement in fast-β stage, the non-singular behavior of the long-time self-diffusion coefficient, and the non divergence of any characteristic times, such as the α- and β-relaxation times.

  18. A polydisperse two-fluid model for surf zone bubble simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.

    2011-05-01

    Wave breaking in the surf zone entrains large volumes of air bubbles into the water column, forming a two-phase bubbly flow field. Numerical study of bubbly flow is largely restricted by the lack of robust and comprehensive bubble entrainment models. In this paper, we propose a new model that connects bubble entrainment with turbulent dissipation rate at the air-water interface. The entrainment model as well as a polydisperse two-fluid model are incorporated into a 3-D volume of fluid code TRUCHAS. The bubbly flow model is first tested against laboratory experimental data for an oscillatory bubble plume. The calculated time-averaged liquid velocities and their fluctuations agree well with measurements, indicating that the model correctly reproduces dynamic interactions between the liquid phase and the continuum representation of the gas phase. Then, it is employed to study the bubbly flow under a laboratory surf zone breaking wave. Through the comparisons with experimental data, it is demonstrated that the model describes bubble entrainment and void fraction evolution reasonably well. The exponential decay of void fraction observed in the laboratory experiments is captured by the model. The kinematics of bubble plume as well as the vertical evolution of bubble size spectrum at any depth are investigated. Studies of bubble effects on liquid phase turbulence show that the presence of bubbles could suppress a large amount of turbulence under breaking waves.

  19. Liquid-propellant management system with capillary pumping vanes

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, R.K.

    1988-03-29

    This patent describes a liquid-propellant management system for a space vehicle comprising: (a) a hollow tank defining a volume for storage of liquid propellant; (b) a hollow trap of generally lenticular configuration positioned with the tank; (c) a liner positioned within the trap.

  20. Maintenance evaluation for space station liquid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flugel, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Many of the thermal and environmental control life support subsystems as well as other subsystems of the space station utilize various liquids and contain components which are either expendables or are life-limited in some way. Since the space station has a 20-year minimum orbital lifetime requirement, there will also be random failures occurring within the various liquid-containing subsystems. These factors as well as the planned space station build-up sequence require that maintenance concepts be developed prior to the design phase. This applies to the equipment which needs maintenance as well as the equipment which may be required at a maintenance work station within the space station. This paper presents several maintenance concepts for liquid-containing items and a flight experiment program which would allow for evaluation and improvement of these concepts so they can be incorporated in the space station designs at the outset of its design phase.

  1. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen boost/vane pump for the advanced orbit transfer vehicles auxiliary propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluzek, F.; Mokadam, R. G.; To, I. H.; Stanitz, J. D.; Wollschlager, J.

    1979-01-01

    A rotating, positive displacement vane pump with an integral boost stage was designed to pump saturated liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen for auxiliary propulsion system of orbit transfer vehicle. This unit is designed to ingest 10% vapor by volume, contamination free liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The final pump configuration and the predicted performance are included.

  2. Microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming polydisperse di-block copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Rajeev; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Sides, Scott W.; ...

    2015-02-03

    Despite the ubiquity of polydispersity in chain lengths of di-block copolymers, its effects on microphase separation in thin films have eluded a clear understanding. In this paper, we have studied effects of polydispersity on the microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming di-block copolymers using self-consistent field theory (SCFT) and neutron reflectivity experiments. Di-block copolymers containing a polydisperse block of poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (PGMA) connected to a near-monodisperse block poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-d6 azlactone) (PVDMA-d6) are considered in this work. Effects of chain length polydispersity, film thickness, substrate–monomer and monomer–monomer interactions on the microphase segregation are studied using SCFT. The theoretical study reveals thatmore » in comparison to a film created with monodisperse di-block copolymers, an increase in polydispersity tends to decrease the number of lamellar strata that can be packed in a film of given thickness. This is a direct consequence of an increase in lamellar domain spacing with an increase in polydispersity index. Furthermore, it is shown that polydispersity induces conformational asymmetry and an increase in the polydispersity index leads to an increase in the effective Kuhn segment length of the polydisperse blocks. It is shown that the conformational asymmetry effects, which are entropic in origin and of increasing importance as film thickness decreases, drive the polydisperse blocks to the middle of the films despite favorable substrate interactions. These predictions are verified by results from neutron reflectivity experiments on thin films made from moderately polydisperse PGMA-PVDMA-d6 di-block copolymer deposited on silicon substrates. In conclusion, results from SCFT are used to predict neutron reflectivity profiles, providing a facile and robust route to obtain useful physical insights into the structure of polydisperse diblock copolymers at interfaces.« less

  3. Microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming polydisperse di-block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Sides, Scott W.; Chen, Jihua; Heller, William T.; Ankner, John F.; Browning, James F.; Kilbey, II, S. Michael; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2015-02-03

    Despite the ubiquity of polydispersity in chain lengths of di-block copolymers, its effects on microphase separation in thin films have eluded a clear understanding. In this paper, we have studied effects of polydispersity on the microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming di-block copolymers using self-consistent field theory (SCFT) and neutron reflectivity experiments. Di-block copolymers containing a polydisperse block of poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (PGMA) connected to a near-monodisperse block poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-d6 azlactone) (PVDMA-d6) are considered in this work. Effects of chain length polydispersity, film thickness, substrate–monomer and monomer–monomer interactions on the microphase segregation are studied using SCFT. The theoretical study reveals that in comparison to a film created with monodisperse di-block copolymers, an increase in polydispersity tends to decrease the number of lamellar strata that can be packed in a film of given thickness. This is a direct consequence of an increase in lamellar domain spacing with an increase in polydispersity index. Furthermore, it is shown that polydispersity induces conformational asymmetry and an increase in the polydispersity index leads to an increase in the effective Kuhn segment length of the polydisperse blocks. It is shown that the conformational asymmetry effects, which are entropic in origin and of increasing importance as film thickness decreases, drive the polydisperse blocks to the middle of the films despite favorable substrate interactions. These predictions are verified by results from neutron reflectivity experiments on thin films made from moderately polydisperse PGMA-PVDMA-d6 di-block copolymer deposited on silicon substrates. In conclusion, results from SCFT are used to predict neutron reflectivity profiles, providing a facile and robust route to obtain useful physical insights into the structure of polydisperse diblock copolymers at

  4. Microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming polydisperse di-block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Sides, Scott W.; Chen, Jihua; Heller, William T.; Ankner, John F.; Browning, James F.; Kilbey II, S. Michael; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of polydispersity in chain lengths of di-block copolymers, its effects on microphase separation in thin films have eluded a clear understanding. In this work, we have studied effects of polydispersity on the microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming di-block copolymers using self-consistent field theory (SCFT) and neutron reflectivity experiments. Di-block copolymers containing a polydisperse block of poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (PGMA) connected to a near-monodisperse block poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-d6 azlactone) (PVDMA-d6) are considered in this work. Effects of chain length polydispersity, film thickness, substrate-monomer and monomer-monomer interactions on the microphase segregation are studied using SCFT. The theoretical study reveals that in comparison to a film created with monodisperse di-block copolymers, an increase in polydispersity tends to decrease the number of lamellar strata that can be packed in a film of given thickness. This is a direct consequence of an increase in lamellar domain spacing with an increase in polydispersity index. Furthermore, it is shown that polydispersity induces conformational asymmetry and an increase in the polydispersity index leads to an increase in the effective Kuhn segment length of the polydisperse blocks. It is shown that the conformational asymmetry effects, which are entropic in origin and of increasing importance as film thickness decreases, drive the polydisperse blocks to the middle of the films despite favorable substrate interactions. These predictions are verified by results from neutron reflectivity experiments on thin films made from moderately polydisperse PGMA-PVDMA-d6 di-block copolymer deposited on silicon substrates. Finally, results from SCFT are used to predict neutron reflectivity profiles, providing a facile and robust route to obtain useful physical insights into the structure of polydisperse diblock copolymers at interfaces.

  5. Percolation in suspensions of polydisperse hard rods: Quasi universality and finite-size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hugues; van der Schoot, Paul; Schilling, Tanja

    2015-07-01

    We present a study of connectivity percolation in suspensions of hard spherocylinders by means of Monte Carlo simulation and connectedness percolation theory. We focus attention on polydispersity in the length, the diameter, and the connectedness criterion, and we invoke bimodal, Gaussian, and Weibull distributions for these. The main finding from our simulations is that the percolation threshold shows quasi universal behaviour, i.e., to a good approximation, it depends only on certain cumulants of the full size and connectivity distribution. Our connectedness percolation theory hinges on a Lee-Parsons type of closure recently put forward that improves upon the often-used second virial approximation [T. Schilling, M. Miller, and P. van der Schoot, e-print arXiv:1505.07660 (2015)]. The theory predicts exact universality. Theory and simulation agree quantitatively for aspect ratios in excess of 20, if we include the connectivity range in our definition of the aspect ratio of the particles. We further discuss the mechanism of cluster growth that, remarkably, differs between systems that are polydisperse in length and in width, and exhibits non-universal aspects.

  6. Formation of Frank-Kasper σ-phase from polydisperse diblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meijiao; Li, Weihua; Shi, An-Chang

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies have revealed a number of complex spherical phases including the complex Frank-Kasper σ-phase, which consists of 30 spheres in a unit cell. It is desirable to understand the mechanisms for the formation of the complex spherical phases such as the A15-phase and the Frank-Kasper σ-phase in block copolymers. Based on the observation that the A15-phase and the Frank-Kasper σ-phase are composed of spherical domains with different sizes, we hypothesize that polydispersity of the block copolymers could be used to obtain these complex phases. We tested this hypothesis by carrying out self-consistent field theory for polydisperse AB diblock copolymers. Specially we studied the relative stability of various spherical phases, including the fcc, bcc, A15 and Frank_Kasper σ-phase, in binary blends composed of AB block copolymers different lengths of the A-blocks. Our results revealed that the Frank-Kasper σ-phase could be stabilized by tailoring the length ratio as well as the compositions of the two diblock copolymers. The distribution of the diblocks in the system indicates that copolymer segregation is the origin of the formation of spherical domains with different sizes.

  7. Bed of polydisperse viscous spherical drops under thermocapillary effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharanya, V.; Raja Sekhar, G. P.; Rohde, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Viscous flow past an ensemble of polydisperse spherical drops is investigated under thermocapillary effects. We assume that the collection of spherical drops behaves as a porous media and estimates the hydrodynamic interactions analytically via the so- called cell model that is defined around a specific representative particle. In this method, the hydrodynamic interactions are assumed to be accounted by suitable boundary conditions on a fictitious fluid envelope surrounding the representative particle. The force calculated on this representative particle will then be extended to a bed of spherical drops visualized as a Darcy porous bed. Thus, the "effective bed permeability" of such a porous bed will be computed as a function of various parameters and then will be compared with Carman-Kozeny relation. We use cell model approach to a packed bed of spherical drops of uniform size (monodisperse spherical drops) and then extend the work for a packed bed of polydisperse spherical drops, for a specific parameters. Our results show a good agreement with the Carman-Kozeny relation for the case of monodisperse spherical drops. The prediction of overall bed permeability using our present model agrees well with the Carman-Kozeny relation when the packing size distribution is narrow, whereas a small deviation can be noted when the size distribution becomes broader.

  8. A comparative flow visualization study of thermocapillary flow in drops in liquid-liquid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Rashidnia, N.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments are performed to visualize thermocapillary flow in drops in an immiscible host liquid. The host liquid used is silicone oil. Drops of three different liquids are used, viz, vegetable oil, water-methanol mixture anad pure methanol. Clear evidence of thermocapillary flow is seen in vegetable oil drops. For a mixture of water and methanol (approximately 50-50 by weight), natural convection is seen to dominate the flow outside the drop. Pure methanol drops exhibit thermocapillary flow, but dissolve in silicone oil. A small amount of water added to pure methanol significantly reduces the dissolution. Flow oscillations occur in this system for both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

  9. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of rare earths with the betaine-betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid system.

    PubMed

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2013-10-28

    Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature.

  10. Liquid-liquid distribution of B group vitamins in polyethylene glycol-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Zykov, A. V.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2011-05-01

    General regularities of the liquid-liquid distribution of B1, B2, B6, and B12 vitamins in aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG-2000, PEG-5000) solution-aqueous salt solution systems are studied. The influence of the salting-out agent, the concentration of the polymer, and its molecular weight on the distribution coefficients and recovery factors of the vitamins are considered. Equations relating the distribution coefficients (log D) to the polymer concentration are derived.

  11. Complementary system vaporizes subcooled liquid, improves transformer efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketaily, E. C.

    1966-01-01

    Complementary system converts subcooled liquid hydrogen or nitrogen to gas. The inherent induction heat losses of an electrical transformer are used in the vaporizing process. Transformer efficiency is improved in the process.

  12. A smartphone controlled handheld microfluidic liquid handling system.

    PubMed

    Li, Baichen; Li, Lin; Guan, Allan; Dong, Quan; Ruan, Kangcheng; Hu, Ronggui; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-10-21

    Microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technologies have made it possible to manipulate small volume liquids with unprecedented resolution, automation and integration. However, most current microfluidic systems still rely on bulky off-chip infrastructures such as compressed pressure sources, syringe pumps and computers to achieve complex liquid manipulation functions. Here, we present a handheld automated microfluidic liquid handling system controlled by a smartphone, which is enabled by combining elastomeric on-chip valves and a compact pneumatic system. As a demonstration, we show that the system can automatically perform all the liquid handling steps of a bead-based HIV1 p24 sandwich immunoassay on a multi-layer PDMS chip without any human intervention. The footprint of the system is 6 × 10.5 × 16.5 cm, and the total weight is 829 g including battery. Powered by a 12.8 V 1500 mAh Li battery, the system consumed 2.2 W on average during the immunoassay and lasted for 8.7 h. This handheld microfluidic liquid handling platform is generally applicable to many biochemical and cell-based assays requiring complex liquid manipulation and sample preparation steps such as FISH, PCR, flow cytometry and nucleic acid sequencing. In particular, the integration of this technology with read-out biosensors may help enable the realization of the long-sought Tricorder-like handheld in vitro diagnostic (IVD) systems.

  13. Influence of polydispersity on the critical parameters of an effective-potential model for asymmetric hard-sphere mixtures.

    PubMed

    Largo, Julio; Wilding, Nigel B

    2006-03-01

    We report a Monte Carlo simulation study of the properties of highly asymmetric binary hard-sphere mixtures. This system is treated within an effective fluid approximation in which the large particles interact through a depletion potential [R. Roth, Phys. Rev. E 62 5360 (2000)] designed to capture the effects of a virtual sea of small particles. We generalize this depletion potential to include the effects of explicit size dispersity in the large particles and consider the case in which the particle diameters are distributed according to a Schulz form having a degree of polydispersity 14%. The resulting alteration (with respect to the monodisperse limit) of the metastable fluid-fluid critical point parameters is determined for two values of the ratio of the diameters of the small and large particles: q(triple bond)sigma(s)/(-)sigma(b)=0.1 and q=0.05. We find that the inclusion of polydispersity moves the critical point to lower reservoir volume fractions of the small particles and high volume fractions of the large ones. The estimated critical point parameters are found to be in good agreement with those predicted by a generalized corresponding states argument which provides a link to the known critical adhesion parameter of the adhesive hard-sphere model. Finite-size scaling estimates of the cluster percolation line in the one phase fluid region indicate that inclusion of polydispersity moves the critical point deeper into the percolating regime. This suggests that phase separation is more likely to be preempted by dynamical arrest in polydisperse systems.

  14. Liquid propellant thermal conditioning system test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullard, B. R.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented from more than 1500 hours of testing on a liquid hydrogen thermal conditioning unit. Test parameters included: mixer and vent flow rates; tank size; ullage volume; pressurant gas; pressurant temperature; pressure level; and heat rate. Gaseous hydrogen and helium were used as pressurants. Analytical models were developed to correlate the test data and relate the performance to that anticipated in zero gravity. Experimental and theoretical results are presented which relate the variables controlling vapor condensation at a moving interface.

  15. Systems engineering implementation plan for the liquid effluents services program

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A graded approach is being taken by the Liquid Effluents Services Program in implementing systems engineering because of the advanced state of the program. The approach is cost-effective and takes credit for related work already completed, yet retains the benefits of systems engineering. This plan describes how the Liquid Effluents Services Program will implement systems engineering so there is a common understanding. Systems engineering work to be performed and the products of that work are identified. The relation to the current planning process and integration with the sitewide systems engineering effort is described.

  16. A semi-Lagrangian transport method for kinetic problems with application to dense-to-dilute polydisperse reacting spray flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doisneau, François; Arienti, Marco; Oefelein, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    For sprays, as described by a kinetic disperse phase model strongly coupled to the Navier-Stokes equations, the resolution strategy is constrained by accuracy objectives, robustness needs, and the computing architecture. In order to leverage the good properties of the Eulerian formalism, we introduce a deterministic particle-based numerical method to solve transport in physical space, which is simple to adapt to the many types of closures and moment systems. The method is inspired by the semi-Lagrangian schemes, developed for Gas Dynamics. We show how semi-Lagrangian formulations are relevant for a disperse phase far from equilibrium and where the particle-particle coupling barely influences the transport; i.e., when particle pressure is negligible. The particle behavior is indeed close to free streaming. The new method uses the assumption of parcel transport and avoids to compute fluxes and their limiters, which makes it robust. It is a deterministic resolution method so that it does not require efforts on statistical convergence, noise control, or post-processing. All couplings are done among data under the form of Eulerian fields, which allows one to use efficient algorithms and to anticipate the computational load. This makes the method both accurate and efficient in the context of parallel computing. After a complete verification of the new transport method on various academic test cases, we demonstrate the overall strategy's ability to solve a strongly-coupled liquid jet with fine spatial resolution and we apply it to the case of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation of a dense spray flow. A fuel spray is simulated after atomization at Diesel engine combustion chamber conditions. The large, parallel, strongly coupled computation proves the efficiency of the method for dense, polydisperse, reacting spray flows.

  17. A novel micro zoom system design with liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Tian, Weijian

    2008-12-01

    Today zoom optical system is more used in many fields. It can be satisfied with many special imaging instances with its superiority on ability of supplying different visual field and resolution. But the conventional zoom system must have more than two moving elements to realize focus turning and imaging shift compensation at the same time. This makes the system have large volume and weight, and complicated structure. Liquid lens is a kind of novel optical device based on biological vision system. By utilizing this device, zoom camera can be designed in a new simple way. In this paper, a liquid lens operated by a stepper motor had been demonstrated. A new way of designing a micro zoom system without any moving lens had also been introduced. And a kind of hybrid diffractive-refractive liquid lens had been presented to improve the imaging quality. A micro bifocal zoom endoscope system including two pieces of liquid lens was contrived. Finally, it is thought that although many technologies, especially the package method should be solved better, the liquid lens micro zoom system has very wide potential application in the fields that the system's volume and weight are strictly limited, such as endoscope, mobile, PDA and so on.

  18. Liquid Chromatography Applied to Space System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinot, Pauline; Chazalnoel, Pascale; Geffroy, Claude; Sternberg, Robert; Carbonnier, Benjamin

    Searching for signs of past or present life in our Solar System is a real challenge that stirs up the curiosity of scientists. Until now, in situ instrumentation was designed to detect and determine concentrations of a wide number of organic biomarkers. The relevant method which was and still is employed in missions dedicated to the quest of life (from Viking to ExoMars) corresponds to the pyrolysis-GC-MS. Along the missions, this approach has been significantly improved in terms of extraction efficiency and detection with the use of chemical derivative agents (e.g. MTBSTFA, DMF-DMA, TMAH…), and in terms of analysis sensitivity and resolution with the development of in situ high-resolution mass spectrometer (e.g. TOF-MS). Thanks to such an approach, organic compounds such as amino acids, sugars, tholins or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were expected to be found. However, while there’s a consensus that the GC-MS of Viking, Huygens, MSL and MOMA space missions worked the way they had been designed to, pyrolysis is much more in debate (Glavin et al. 2001; Navarro-González et al. 2006). Indeed, (1) it is thought to remove low levels of organics, (2) water and CO2 could interfere with the detection of likely organic pyrolysis products, and (3) only low to mid-molecular weight organic molecules can be detected by this technique. As a result, researchers are now focusing on other in situ techniques which are no longer based on the volatility of the organic matter, but on the liquid phase extraction and analysis. In this line, micro-fluidic systems involving sandwich and/or competitive immunoassays (e.g. LMC, SOLID; Parro et al. 2005; Sims et al. 2012), micro-chip capillary electrophoreses (e.g. MOA; Bada et al. 2008), or nanopore-based analysis (e.g. BOLD; Schulze-Makuch et al. 2012) have been conceived for in situ analysis. Thanks to such approaches, molecular biological polymers (polysaccharides, polypeptides, polynucleotides, phospholipids, glycolipids

  19. Use of the electrically driven emulsion-phase contactor for a biphasic liquid-liquid enzyme system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.C.; Cosgrove, J.M.; DePaoli, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    An alternative approach to the operation of bioprocessing systems within non-aqueous environments would require the development of reaction systems that would provide effective interfacial contact between the biocatalyst, contained within an aqueous phase, and the organic phase containing the substrate. A biphasic liquid-liquid (BLL) reactor that provides for intimate liquid-liquid contact would be the most probable approach for this application. For the BLL reactions considered in this work, the overall effectiveness of the system will depend on both compatibility of the biocatalyst with the chemical species present and intrinsic reaction and interfacial transport phenomena typically involved with liquid-liquid operations. The focus of this article is to investigate the removal and oxidation of p-cresol dissolved in toluene by aqueous-phase horseradish peroxidase. Contacting of the liquid-liquid biphasic enzyme system is carried out in an advanced solvent extraction contacting device, the electrically driven emulsion-phase contactor (EPC).

  20. Adhesion between a polydisperse polymer brush and an elastomer

    SciTech Connect

    Aubouy, M.; Leger, L.; Marciano, Y.; Raphaeel, E.; Brown, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    The interface between a flat solid surface and a cross-linked elastomer can be considerably strengthened by the addition of chains (chemically identical to the elastomer) that are tethered by one end to the solid surface. At high grafting densities these coupling chains may, however, segregate from the elastomer and the adhesion may drop considerably. This important problem has been recently considered by de Gennes {ital et} {ital al}. in the case of a monodisperse {open_quote}brush{close_quote}. In this article we analyse the adhesion between a polydisperse brush and an elastomer, having in mind some very recent experiments by Marciano {ital et} {ital al}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Influence of polydispersity on micromechanics of granular materials.

    PubMed

    Shaebani, M Reza; Madadi, Mahyar; Luding, Stefan; Wolf, Dietrich E

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of polydispersity on the macroscopic physical properties of granular packings in two and three dimensions. A mean-field approach is developed to approximate the macroscale quantities as functions of the microscopic ones. We show that the trace of the fabric and stress tensors are proportional to the mean packing properties (e.g., packing fraction, average coordination number, and average normal force) and dimensionless correction factors, which depend only on the moments of the particle-size distribution. Similar results are obtained for the elements of the stiffness tensor of isotropic packings in the linear affine response regime. Our theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the simulation results. © 2012 American Physical Society

  2. Capillary electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analysis of a polydisperse fluorosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarah, Suhair Yousif; Sjödahl, Johan; Woldegiorgis, Andreas; Emmer, Asa

    2005-02-01

    A fluorosurfactant has been studied using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The fluorosurfactant, FC134, can be used as a buffer additive in capillary electrophoresis in order to decrease wall adsorption of proteins and in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. However, it has been discovered that this fluorosurfactant is polydisperse, thus containing substances with different lengths and structures. In this work, the fluorosurfactant sample components were separated by capillary electrophoresis. An uncoated as well as a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary were used with running electrolytes containing methanol and acetic acid. Following the capillary electrophoretic separation, fractions were collected for further analysis by MALDI-MS. Non-fractionated samples were also analyzed both by MALDI-MS and by ESI-MS.

  3. Development of magnetic chromatography to sort polydisperse nanoparticles in ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Forge, Delphine; Gossuin, Yves; Roch, Alain; Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Muller, Robert N

    2010-01-01

    Whatever the strategy of synthesis, nanoparticles in magnetic fluids commonly feature a broad size distribution. However, the presence of several size populations in ferrofluids is often problematic because of the close relationship between the efficiency of the nanoparticles and their physicochemical properties. In this work, a magnetic size sorting procedure is developed in order to reduce this polydispersity, using the magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles. This magnetic sorting with an adjustable magnetic field allows isolation of the small superparamagnetic particles as well as the larger particles. Magnetometry, nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion profiles and transmission electron microscopy were successfully used to check the efficiency of the magnetic sorting procedure, which was shown to work as a 'magnetic' chromatography.

  4. Emulsification and size control of insulating and/or viscous liquids in liquid-liquid systems by electrostatic dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, M.; Saito, M.; Hatori, T. )

    1993-03-15

    Electrostatic atomization has been utilized in applications such as electrostatic printing, paint spraying, thin-film coating, production of ultrafine powders, and control of fuel spraying. Electrostatic emulsification of insulating and/or viscous liquids which have been impossible to disperse by ordinary methods was studied using a liquid/distilled-water system. A dc potential was applied to a capillary nozzle to produce droplets. The size of the droplets decreased with increasing potential. The mean droplet diameter (corresponding to the applied potential) could be varied over a wide range (from several mm to [mu]m). A very fine cloudy emulsion (mean diameter of c.a. 5 [mu]m) having a narrow size distribution was obtained by applying approximately -3500 V to the nozzle. In the case of liquids with low viscosity, i.e., kerosene and carbon tetrachloride, droplets were produced regularly from the cusp of the meniscus formed at the nozzle tip. On the other hand, for castor oil, a highly viscous liquid, a liquid thread was drawn out from the meniscus and then disintegrated into small droplets. The mean diameter of the caster oil droplets was larger (one order of magnitude) than that of the low viscosity kerosene at the same applied potential.

  5. Unexpected Swelling of Stiff DNA in a Polydisperse Crowded Environment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongsuk; Toan, Ngo Minh; Hyeon, Changbong; Thirumalai, D

    2015-09-02

    We investigate the conformations of DNA-like stiff chains, characterized by contour length (L) and persistence length (lp), in a variety of crowded environments containing monodisperse soft spherical (SS) and spherocylindrical (SC) particles, a mixture of SS and SC, and a milieu mimicking the composition of proteins in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm. The stiff chain, whose size modestly increases in SS crowders up to ϕ ≈ 0.1, is considerably more compact at low volume fractions (ϕ ≤ 0.2) in monodisperse SC particles than in a medium containing SS particles. A 1:1 mixture of SS and SC crowders induces greater chain compaction than the pure SS or SC crowders at the same ϕ, with the effect being highly nonadditive. We also discover a counterintuitive result that the polydisperse crowding environment, mimicking the composition of a cell lysate, swells the DNA-like polymer, which is in stark contrast to the size reduction of flexible polymers in the same milieu. Trapping of the stiff chain in a fluctuating tube-like environment created by large-sized crowders explains the dramatic increase in size and persistence length of the stiff chain. In the polydisperse medium, mimicking the cellular environment, the size of the DNA (or related RNA) is determined by L/lp. At low L/lp, the size of the polymer is unaffected, whereas there is a dramatic swelling at an intermediate value of L/lp. We use these results to provide insights into recent experiments on crowding effects on RNA and also make testable predictions.

  6. Scattering of light by polydisperse, randomly oriented, finite circular cylinders.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, M I; Travis, L D; Macke, A

    1996-08-20

    We use the T-matrix method, as described by Mishchenko [Appl. Opt. 32, 4652 (1993)], to compute rigorously light scattering by finite circular cylinders in random orientation. First we discuss numerical aspects of T -matrix computations specific for finite cylinders and present results of benchmark computations for a simple cylinder model. Then we report results of extensive computations for polydisperse, randomly oriented cylinders with a refractive index of 1.53 + 0.008i, diameter-to-length ratios of 1/2, 1/1.4, 1, 1.4, and 2, and effective size parameters ranging from 0 to 25. These computations parallel our recent study of light scattering by polydisperse, randomly oriented spheroids and are used to compare scattering properties of the two classes of simple convex particles. Despite the significant difference in shape between the two particle types (entirely smooth surface for spheroids and sharp rectangular edges for cylinders), the comparison shows rather small differences in the integral photometric characteristics (total optical cross sections, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter of the phase function) and the phase function. The general patterns of the other elements of the scattering matrix for cylinders and aspect-ratio-equivalent spheroids are also qualitatively similar, although noticeable quantitative differences can be found in some particular cases. In general, cylinders demonstrate much less shape dependence of the elements of the scattering matrix than do spheroids. Our computations show that, like spheroids and bispheres, cylinders with surface-equivalent radii smaller than a wavelength can strongly depolarize backscattered light, thus suggesting that backscattering depolarization for nonspherical particles cannot be universally explained by using only geometric-optics considerations.

  7. A nanosecond pulsed laser heating system for studying liquid and supercooled liquid films in ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuntao; Dibble, Collin J.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Smith, R. Scott; Joly, Alan G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kay, Bruce D.; Kimmel, Greg A.

    2016-04-01

    A pulsed laser heating system has been developed that enables investigations of the dynamics and kinetics of nanoscale liquid films and liquid/solid interfaces on the nanosecond time scale in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Details of the design, implementation, and characterization of a nanosecond pulsed laser system for transiently heating nanoscale films are described. Nanosecond pulses from a Nd:YAG laser are used to rapidly heat thin films of adsorbed water or other volatile materials on a clean, well-characterized Pt(111) crystal in UHV. Heating rates of ˜1010 K/s for temperature increases of ˜100-200 K are obtained. Subsequent rapid cooling (˜5 × 109 K/s) quenches the film, permitting in-situ, post-heating analysis using a variety of surface science techniques. Lateral variations in the laser pulse energy are ˜±2.7% leading to a temperature uncertainty of ˜±4.4 K for a temperature jump of 200 K. Initial experiments with the apparatus demonstrate that crystalline ice films initially held at 90 K can be rapidly transformed into liquid water films with T > 273 K. No discernable recrystallization occurs during the rapid cooling back to cryogenic temperatures. In contrast, amorphous solid water films heated below the melting point rapidly crystallize. The nanosecond pulsed laser heating system can prepare nanoscale liquid and supercooled liquid films that persist for nanoseconds per heat pulse in an UHV environment, enabling experimental studies of a wide range of phenomena in liquids and at liquid/solid interfaces.

  8. Cavitating Jet Method and System for Oxygenation of Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Georges L.

    2012-01-01

    Reclamation and re-use of water is critical for space-based life support systems. A number of functions must be performed by any such system including removal of various contaminants and oxygenation. For long-duration space missions, this must be done with a compact, reliable system that requires little or no use of expendables and minimal power. DynaJets cavitating jets can oxidize selected organic compounds with much greater energy efficiency than ultrasonic devices typically used in sonochemistry. The focus of this work was to develop cavitating jets to simultaneously accomplish the functions of oxygenation and removal of contaminants of importance to space-structured water reclamation systems. The innovation is a method to increase the concentration of dissolved oxygen or other gasses in a liquid. It utilizes a particular form of novel cavitating jet operating at low to moderate pressures to achieve a high-efficiency means of transporting and mixing the gas into the liquid. When such a jet is utilized to simultaneously oxygenate the liquid and to oxidize organic compounds within the liquid, such as those in waste water, the rates of contaminant removal are increased. The invention is directed toward an increase in the dissolved gas content of a liquid, in general, and the dissolved oxygen content of a liquid in particular.

  9. Molecular absorption cryogenic cooler for liquid hydrogen propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, G. A.; Jones, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A light weight, long life molecular absorption cryogenic cooler (MACC) system is described which can use low temperature waste heat to provide cooling for liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for interplanetary spacecraft. Detailed tradeoff studies were made to evaluate the refrigeration system component interactions in order to minimize the mass of the spacecraft cooler system. Based on this analysis a refrigerator system mass of 31 kg is required to provide the .48 watts of cooling required by a 2.3 meter diameter liquid hydrogen tank.

  10. Liquid-drop-like model for cylindrical helium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybisz, Leszek

    2000-08-01

    Free liquid 4He at T=0 K with cylindrical symmetry is studied. The ground-state energy and chemical potential are computed by using a density functional approach. A liquid-drop-like model is formulated for analyzing the behavior of these observables as a function of the size of the systems. It is shown that such a model allows to get precise information about the asymptotic values of the energy per particle and surface tension.

  11. Electret processes in disordered systems based on liquid dispersion media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbachenko, L. A.; Maksimova, N. T.; Komarov, E. S.; Ruzhnikov, L. I.; Karnakov, V. A.; Baryshnikov, E. S.; Krasnov, D. A.; Troshev, A. A.; Baryshnikov, D. S.; Ezhova, L. I.

    2012-10-01

    Electret-thermal analysis (ETA) of disordered systems based on dispersed media is carried out. It is shown that the method of thermally stimulated currents makes it possible to estimate the structural changes occurring in a liquid dispersion medium. It is found that liquid water in a free state exhibits the electret properties. The observed multiple peaks on the thermally stimulated current curve are the evidence of the multicomponent nature of the "free water" system. The mechanisms of processes leading to the formation of the electret state in such systems are considered.

  12. Fluid thrust control system. [for liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, W. L.; Jansen, H. B.; Lehmann, E. N. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A pure fluid thrust control system is described for a pump-fed, regeneratively cooled liquid propellant rocket engine. A proportional fluid amplifier and a bistable fluid amplifier control overshoot in the starting of the engine and take it to a predetermined thrust. An ejector type pump is provided in the line between the liquid hydrogen rocket nozzle heat exchanger and the turbine driving the fuel pump to aid in bringing the fluid at this point back into the regular system when it is not bypassed. The thrust control system is intended to function in environments too severe for mechanical controls.

  13. Effect of extrusion pressure and lipid properties on the size and polydispersity of lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D G; Frisken, B J

    1998-06-01

    The production of vesicles, spherical shells formed from lipid bilayers, is an important aspect of their recent application to drug delivery technologies. One popular production method involves pushing a lipid suspension through cylindrical pores in polycarbonate membranes. However, the actual mechanism by which the polydisperse, multilamellar lipid suspension breaks up into a relatively monodisperse population of vesicles is not well understood. To learn about factors influencing this process, we have characterized vesicles produced under different extrusion parameters and from different lipids. We find that extruded vesicles are only produced above a certain threshold extrusion pressure and have sizes that depend on the extrusion pressure. The minimum pressure appears to be associated with the lysis tension of the lipid bilayer rather than any bending modulus of the system. The flow rate of equal concentration lipid solutions through the pores, after being corrected for the viscosity of water, is independent of lipid properties.

  14. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-09-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system.

  15. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  16. Integrated photoelectrochemical cell and system having a liquid electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming; Xu, Liwei

    2010-07-06

    An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC system and a method of making such PEC cell and PEC system are also disclosed.

  17. Turbopump systems for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The turbopump system, from preliminary design through rocket engine testing is examined. Selection of proper system type for each application and integration of the components into a working system are dealt with. Details are also given on the design of various components including inducers, pumps, turbines, gears, and bearings.

  18. Study of liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen auxiliary propulsion systems for the space tug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Design concepts are considered that permit use of a liquid-liquid (as opposed to gas-gas) oxygen/hydrogen thrust chamber for attitude control and auxiliary propulsion thrusters on the space tug. The best of the auxiliary propulsion system concepts are defined and their principal characteristics, including cost as well as operational capabilities, are established. Design requirements for each of the major components of the systems, including thrusters, are developed at the conceptual level. The competitive concepts considered use both dedicated (separate tanks) and integrated (propellant from main propulsion tanks) propellant supply. The integrated concept is selected as best for the space tug after comparative evaluation against both cryogenic and storable propellant dedicated systems. A preliminary design of the selected system is established and recommendations for supporting research and technology to further the concept are presented.

  19. Influence of cation structure on binary liquid-liquid equilibria for systems containing ionic liquids based on trifluoromethanesulfonate anion with hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Karczemna, Ewa

    2010-04-29

    Binary liquid-liquid equilibria for 15 systems containing an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate) with a hydrocarbon (n-hexane, n-heptane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene) were measured by the dynamic method. The influence of cation structure of trifluoromethanesulfonate anion based ionic liquids on solubility of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  20. A moving mesh interface tracking method for simulation of liquid-liquid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charin, A. H. L. M.; Tuković, Ž.; Jasak, H.; Silva, L. F. L. R.; Lage, P. L. C.

    2017-04-01

    This manuscript presents a moving mesh interface tracking procedure, with a novel treatment for phase coupling. The new coupling strategy allows accurate predictions for the interface behaviour in a wide range of macroscopic properties with great potential to explore liquid-liquid systems. In this approach, governing equations are applied to each phase individually while the interface is represented by a zero-thickness surface that contemplates inter-phase jumps. These equations are described in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite volume framework. Computations consider the pressure-corrector PISO method. The new treatment for phase coupling incorporates the interfacial jump updates within the pressure/velocity calculations. Additionally, cell-centred values from both phases are considered when calculating convective and diffusive terms at the interface. The employment of GGI (Generalized Grid-Interface) interpolation provides conservative data mapping between surfaces for non-conformal meshes. The prediction capability of the new formulation is evaluated under different dominant effects governing interface motion. Simulated cases include gravity and capillary waves in a sloshing tank, three-dimensional drop oscillation for liquid-liquid systems and drop deformation due to shear flow. The numerical results show good agreement with analytical transient profiles of interface position. The procedure is able to successfully represent systems with similar macroscopic properties, i.e. density and viscosity ratios approaching unity, and a broad range of interfacial tensions.

  1. Extraction of proteins with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system based on guanidine ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Li, Na; Huang, Xiu; Ding, Xueqin; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Songyun; Liu, Xiaojie

    2013-11-15

    Eight kinds of green ionic liquids were synthesized, and an ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandine acrylate (TMGA) guanidine ionic liquid was first time studied for the extraction of proteins. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was influenced by the mass of IL, K2HPO4 and BSA, also related to the separation time and temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through orthogonal experiment by the five factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.6243%. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were 0.8156% (n=5), 1.6173% (n=5) and 1.6292% (n=5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and ionic liquid in the extraction process, and the conformation of the protein was not changed after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and the salt out effect played important roles in the transferring process, and the aggregation and embrace phenomenon was the main driving force for the separation. All these results proved that guanidine ionic liquid-based ATPSs have the potential to offer new possibility in the extraction of proteins.

  2. Numerical modeling of confined liquid crystal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkaddem, Sami

    There has been much research interest in fine structures and defects of equilibrium configurations of nematic liquid crystal droplets subject to strong homeotropic anchoring and modeled by Landau-de Gennes free-energy functionals. In particular, two configurations are the center of attention. The first one is the radial hedgehog, which has an isotropic core and a spherically symmetric structure. The second one is the ring disclination, which has a ring disclination of strength 1/2 and a cylindrically symmetric structure. In this dissertation, we undertake a detailed numerical study of the two described equilibrium configurations using the imposed symmetries to simplify the problem and utilizing a high order finite element discretization to solve it. In addition to the radial hedgehog and the ring disclination, we found a new, metastable configuration, which also is axially symmetric and consists of two isotropic points along its symmetry axis narrowly separated by a line disclination. We generate phase and bifurcation diagrams of the equilibrium configurations. We also investigate the qualitative behavior and the stability of the radial hedgehog. Using a perturbation against the radial hedgehog, we show that such configurations must become unstable at sufficiently low temperatures or in sufficiently large droplets.

  3. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass with Ionic Liquids and Ionic Liquid-Based Solvent Systems.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qidong; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian

    2017-03-20

    Pretreatment is very important for the efficient production of value-added products from lignocellulosic biomass. However, traditional pretreatment methods have several disadvantages, including low efficiency and high pollution. This article gives an overview on the applications of ionic liquids (ILs) and IL-based solvent systems in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. It is divided into three parts: the first deals with the dissolution of biomass in ILs and IL-based solvent systems; the second focuses on the fractionation of biomass using ILs and IL-based solvent systems as solvents; the third emphasizes the enzymatic saccharification of biomass after pretreatment with ILs and IL-based solvent systems.

  4. A fabrication method of opened structures for uniform liquid dosing in liquid lenticular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheoljoong; Shin, Dooseub; Lee, Junsik; Koo, Gyo Hyun; Sim, Jee Hoon; Won, Yong Hyub

    2017-02-01

    This study introduces a 3D lenticular system and its fabrication method operating with liquids. The lenses of the lenticular system consists of two immiscible liquids requiring a good uniformity of their amount. The amount is controlled by an opened structures fabricated by silicon KOH etching process. For the fabrication, a low pressure silicon nitride (LSN) is deposited on a bare <1 0 0> silicon wafer followed by a photolithography and a reactive ion etching (RIE) remaining a 200nm LSN layer. A KOH etching process is done for 2 hours with a KOH solution of 40wt% in deionized water. To fabricate the opened structure, a time controlling is required not to be fully etched. The finalized silicon wafer is sputtered by a copper layer as a seed layer for an electroplating. By the electroplating with nickel, a master mold is made. To get the high transparency, poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is chosen for the substrate and a hot embossing process is done by fabricated nickel mold with PMMA. The PMMA is coated by gold as an electrode and parylene C and Teflon multi-layer as dielectric layers. For two immiscible liquids, deionized water and a mixture of dodecane and 1-Chloronaphthalene are used. The dosing process is done in underwater environment and the mixed oil is dosed uniformly as the oil has tendency to spread onto the substrate. After sealing the active liquid lenticular devices is fabricated and good uniformity is achieved.

  5. Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulant) Thermodynamic Vent System Test Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.

    2006-04-01

    In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low-gravity (space) environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leaks. During low-gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. A series of TVS tests was conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using liquid nitrogen (LN2) as a liquid oxygen (LO2) simulant. The tests were performed at tank fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%, and with a specified tank pressure control band. A transient one-dimensional TVS performance program is used to analyze and correlate the test data for all three fill levels. Predictions and comparisons of ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature with test data are presented.

  6. Diffusion of oxygen in liquid-metal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    A research program is described on the topic of kinetic and thermodynamic measurements in liquid metal-oxygen systems. This study has utilized electrochemical cells with solid oxide electrolytes in several different configurations. The principal properties that were studied include: activities of the components in binary metal-metal alloy systems; oxygen solubility and oxygen diffusivity in pure liquid metals and liquid metal alloys; and the free energy of formation of pure metal oxides. The techniques of solid state electrochemistry were developed and the limitations of the techniques were studied. There were sufficient problems with the zirconia electrolytes to motivate a separate study on the degradation of zirconia electrolytes during their use. The electrolytic properties, as measured by complex impedance spectroscopy, was correlated with the microstructure, as evaluated by x-ray, optical microscopy, scanning electron miscoscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanisms for electrolyte degradation were proposed.

  7. Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulant) Thermodynamic Vent System Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low-gravity (space) environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leaks. During low-gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. A series of TVS tests was conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using liquid nitrogen (LN2) as a liquid oxygen (LO2) simulant. The tests were performed at tank til1 levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%, and with a specified tank pressure control band. A transient one-dimensional TVS performance program is used to analyze and correlate the test data for all three fill levels. Predictions and comparisons of ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature with test data are presented.

  8. Safety Analysis for Naval Liquid Oxygen Life Support System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    6 2 Inter-tank piping arrangement for the liquid oxygen storage system ......... ................ 9 3 Oxygen flow control...that all explosions in LOX systems actually take place in the gaseous phase because: (a) The rapid " boil -off" rate of LOX forms an oxygen-rich...could be opened admitting GOX to the distribution system . When vaporization of LOX due to thermal in-leak is insufficient to provide the required flow

  9. Thaw flow control for liquid heat transport systems

    DOEpatents

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1989-01-01

    In a liquid metal heat transport system including a source of thaw heat for use in a space reactor power system, the thaw flow throttle or control comprises a fluid passage having forward and reverse flow sections and a partition having a plurality of bleed holes therein to enable fluid flow between the forward and reverse sections. The flow throttle is positioned in the system relatively far from the source of thaw heat.

  10. Molecular weight, polydispersity, and spectroscopic properties of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.; O'Loughlin, E.

    1994-01-01

    The number- and weight-averaged molecular weights of a number of aquatic fulvic acids, a commercial humic acid, and unfractionated organic matter from four natural water samples were measured by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Molecular weights determined in this manner compared favorably with those values reported in the literature. Both recent literature values and our data indicate that these substances are smaller and less polydisperse than previously believed. Moreover, the molecular weights of the organic matter from three of the four natural water samples compared favorably to the fulvic acid samples extracted from similar environments. Bulk spectroscopic properties of the fulvic substances such as molar absorptivity at 280 nm and the E4/E6 ratio were also measured. A strong correlation was observed between molar absorptivity, total aromaticity, and the weight average molecular weights of all the humic substances. This observation suggests that bulk spectroscopic properties can be used to quickly estimate the size of humic substances and their aromatic contents. Both parameters are important with respect to understanding humic substance mobility and their propensity to react with both organic and inorganic pollutants. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  11. An Electrically Tunable Zoom System Using Liquid Lenses.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2015-12-31

    A four-group stabilized zoom system using two liquid lenses and two fixed lens groups is proposed. We describe the design principle, realization, and the testing of a 5.06:1 zoom system. The realized effective focal length (EFL) range is 6.93 mm to 35.06 mm, and the field of view (FOV) range is 8° to 40°. The system can zoom fast when liquid lens 1's (L₁'s) optical power take the value from 0.0087 mm(-1) to 0.0192 mm(-1) and liquid lens 2's (L₂'s) optical power take the value from 0.0185 mm(-1) to -0.01 mm(-1). Response time of the realized zoom system was less than 2.5 ms, and the settling time was less than 15 ms.The analysis of elements' parameters and the measurement of lens performance not only verify the design principle further, but also show the zooming process by the use of two liquid lenses. The system is useful for motion carriers e.g., robot, ground vehicle, and unmanned aerial vehicles considering that it is fast, reliable, and miniature.

  12. Liquid cooling system for the vibro-tactile threshold device.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Erin M; Redd, Christian; Gandhi, Minu S; Tuckett, Robert P; Bamberg, Stacy J Morris

    2011-01-01

    Vibrotactile threshold testing has been used to investigate activation of human somatosensory pathways. A portable vibrotactile threshold testing device called the Vibrotactile Threshold Evaluator for the Workplace (VTEW) was designed for screening of carpal tunnel syndrome in the workplace, and initially contained a small fan for cooling. During subject testing, the device is operated intermittently, which causes the linear actuator to warm the tactile probe. The probe causes discomfort for some subjects. During testing, the probe heated to 42 °C within 90 seconds of continuous operation. A liquid cooling system was implemented to dissipate heat from the probe. The liquid cooling system maintains a steady state temperature of 36 °C for continuous actuation of the probe. The liquid cooling system is capable of maintaining a safe operating temperature, without adding erroneous vibrations to the device. However, the cooling system deters the portability of the device. Further research will investigate how to make the liquid cooling system portable and implements vibrotactile threshold testing in the workplace to quickly evaluate whether or not a person has early symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  13. An Electrically Tunable Zoom System Using Liquid Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2015-01-01

    A four-group stabilized zoom system using two liquid lenses and two fixed lens groups is proposed. We describe the design principle, realization, and the testing of a 5.06:1 zoom system. The realized effective focal length (EFL) range is 6.93 mm to 35.06 mm, and the field of view (FOV) range is 8° to 40°. The system can zoom fast when liquid lens 1’s (L1’s) optical power take the value from 0.0087 mm−1 to 0.0192 mm−1 and liquid lens 2’s (L2’s) optical power take the value from 0.0185 mm−1 to −0.01 mm−1. Response time of the realized zoom system was less than 2.5 ms, and the settling time was less than 15 ms.The analysis of elements’ parameters and the measurement of lens performance not only verify the design principle further, but also show the zooming process by the use of two liquid lenses. The system is useful for motion carriers e.g., robot, ground vehicle, and unmanned aerial vehicles considering that it is fast, reliable, and miniature. PMID:26729124

  14. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    1992-05-01

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework.

  15. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework.

  16. Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulent) Thermodynamic Venting System Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low gravity space environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on excessive tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leakage. During low gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Venting System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. The TVS consists of a recirculation pump, Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion valve, and a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger combined with a longitudinal spray bar. Using a small amount of liquid extracted by the pump and passing it though the J-T valve, then through the heat exchanger, the bulk liquid and ullage are cooled, resulting in lower tank pressure. A series of TVS tests were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center using liquid nitrogen as a liquid oxygen simulant. The tests were performed at fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25% with gaseous nitrogen and helium pressurants, and with a tank pressure control band of 7 kPa. A transient one-dimensional model of the TVS is used to analyze the data. The code is comprised of four models for the heat exchanger, the spray manifold and injector tubes, the recirculation pump, and the tank. The TVS model predicted ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature are compared with data. Details of predictions and comparisons with test data regarding pressure rise and collapse rates will be presented in the final paper.

  17. Unimolecular Solvolyses in Ionic Liquid: Alcohol Dual Solvent Systems.

    PubMed

    Kochly, Elizabeth D; Lemon, Nicole Jean; Deh-Lee, Anne Marie

    2016-01-06

    A study was undertaken of the solvolysis of pivaloyl triflate in a variety of ionic liquid:alcohol solvent mixtures. The solvolysis is a kΔ process (i.e., a process in which ionization occurs with rearrangement), and the resulting rearranged carbocation intermediate reacts with the alcohol cosolvent via two competing pathways: nucleophilic attack or elimination of a proton. Five different ionic liquids and three different alcohol cosolvents were investigated to give a total of fifteen dual solvent systems. ¹H-NMR analysis was used to determine relative amounts of elimination and substitution products. It was found, not surprisingly, that increasing the bulkiness of alcohol cosolvent led to increased elimination product. The change in the amount of elimination product with increasing ionic liquid concentration, however, varied greatly between ionic liquids. These differences correlate strongly, though not completely, to the Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters of the hydrogen bond donating and accepting ability of the solvent systems. An additional factor playing into these differences is the bulkiness of the ionic liquid anion.

  18. Novel Liquid Sorbent C02 Removal System for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Tanya; Westover, Shayne; Graf, John

    2017-01-01

    Removing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from a spacecraft environment for deep space exploration requires a robust system that is low in weight, power, and volume. Current state-of-the-art microgravity compatible CO2 removal systems, such as the carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA), utilize solid sorbents that demand high power usage due to high desorption temperatures and a large volume to accommodate for their comparatively low capacity for CO2. Additionally, solid sorbent systems contain several mechanical components that significantly reduce reliability and contribute to a large overall mass. A liquid sorbent based system has been evaluated as an alternative is proposed to consume 65% less power, weight, and volume than solid based CO2 scrubbers. This paper presents the design of a liquid sorbent CO2 removal system for microgravity applications.

  19. Downhole liquid trap for a geothermal pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Aplenc, A.M.

    1984-05-15

    In a geothermal energy conversion system having a boiler and a turbine driven pumping unit, a separator is disposed between the boiler and the turbine driven pump for separating entrained liquid droplets from the vaporized working fluid exhausted from the boiler.

  20. A novel treatment system to remove phosphorus from liquid manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lowering the total phosphorus (P) content of animal manure is one approach of addressing concerns over surplus P accumulation in soils resulting from land application of animal manure. We sought to develop a treatment system for liquid manures that conserves manure nitrogen (N) while removing most o...

  1. Low heat-gain cryogenic-liquid transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hows, G. E.; Wright, B. J.

    1970-01-01

    Cryogenic-liquid transfer system, containing a ring structure with tensioned small diameter, high strength wires, provides adequate physical support for the piping, minimizes the conductive heat paths between the piping and jacket, and allows for thermal expansion and contraction of the piping.

  2. 43. Upper level, left to rightground missile guidance system liquid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Upper level, left to right--ground missile guidance system liquid cooling equipment, guidance and control coupler rack, programmer group - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  3. 44. Upper level, left to rightground missile guidance system liquid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Upper level, left to right--ground missile guidance system liquid cooling equipment, guidance and control coupler - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  5. 46 CFR 154.1305 - Liquid level gauging system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: Standards. 154.1305 Section 154.1305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1300 - Liquid level gauging system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: General. 154.1300 Section 154.1300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  7. Controlling the locus of bubble nucleation by dissolved gases in heterogeneous liquid-liquid systems.

    PubMed

    Priyananda, Pramith; Hawkett, Brian S; Warr, Gregory G

    2010-01-19

    We have examined the nucleation of chemically generated nitrogen gas bubbles in microheterogeneous systems, using optical microscopy on a model system consisting of a single liquid-liquid interface. Results clearly show that bubble nucleation occurs in both the aqueous and oil phases, despite the nitrogen production reaction being a purely aqueous phase process. A theoretical model is developed which describes the time evolution of the nitrogen concentration profile, and this reveals that bubbles in the oil are a result of homogeneous nucleation of dissolved N(2) transported across the interface into a (supersaturated) diffusion layer. We further show that bubble nucleation in the oil can be inhibited or eliminated by adding water-soluble surfactants, which facilitates aqueous phase bubble nucleation and then acts as highly effective nitrogen sinks, severely reducing the flux of dissolved gas across the water-oil interface.

  8. Statistical thermodynamics of liquid-liquid phase separation in ternary systems during complex coacervation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Nisha; Bohidar, H. B.

    2010-09-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation leading to complex coacervation in a ternary system (oppositely charged polyion and macroion in a solvent) is discussed within the framework of a statistical thermodynamics model. The polyion and the macroion in the ternary system interact to form soluble aggregates (complexes) in the solvent, which undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation. Four necessary conditions are shown to drive the phase separation: (i) (σ23)3r/Φ23c≥((64)/(9α2))(χ23Φ3)2 , (ii) r≥[(64(χ23Φ3)2)/(9α2σ233)]1/2 , (iii) χ23≥((2χ231-1))/(Φ23cΦ3) , and (iv) (σ23)2/I≥(8)/(3α)(2χ231-1) (where σ23 is the surface charge on the complex formed due to binding of the polyelectrolyte and macroion, Φ23c is the critical volume fraction of the complex, χ23 is the Flory interaction parameter between polyelectrolyte and macroion, χ231 is the same between solvent and the complex, Φ3 is the volume fraction of the macroions, I is the ionic strength of the solution, α is electrostatic interaction parameter and r is typically of the order of molecular weight of the polyions). It has been shown that coacervation always requires a hydrated medium. In the case of a colloidal macroion and polyelectrolyte coacervation, molecular weight of polyelectrolyte must satisfy the condition r≥103Da to exhibit liquid-liquid phase separation. This model has been successfully applied to study the coacervation phenomenon observed in aqueous Laponite (macroion)-gelatin (polyion) system where it was found that the coacervate volume fraction, δΦ23˜χ2312 (where δΦ23 is the volume fraction of coacervates formed during phase separation). The free energy and entropy of this process have been evaluated, and a free-energy landscape has been drawn for this system that maps the pathway leading to phase separation.

  9. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-30

    and advantageous of non- equilibrium chemically reacting plasmas. The main ideas are related to possibilities of cost-effective non-thermal plasma...properties of non- equilibrium plasma in heterogeneous gas-liquid systems; characteristics of plasma reforming of ethanol-water mixtures in plasma...thermodynamically equilibrium , has characteristics of high ionization by higher energetic density. This has merits of good rate of fuel decomposition but demerits

  10. Controlled environment vitrification system for preparation of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Bellare, J.R.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E. II; Talmon, Y.

    1988-06-28

    A system is described for preparing specimens in a controlled environment to insure that a liquid or partially liquid specimen is maintained in its original state while it is being prepared, and once prepared the specimen is vitrified or solidified with minimal alteration of its microstructure. The controlled environment is provided within a chamber where humidity and temperature can be controlled precisely while the specimen is prepared. The specimen is mounted on a plunger and a shutter controlled opening is opened substantially simultaneously with release of the plunger so the specimen is propelled through the shutter into an adjacent cryogenic bath. 7 figs.

  11. Controlled environment vitrification system for preparation of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Bellare, Jayesh R.; Davis, Howard T.; Scriven, II, L. Edward; Talmon, Yeshayahu

    1988-01-01

    A system for preparing specimens in a controlled environment to insure that a liquid or partially liquid specimen is maintained in its original state while it is being prepared, and once prepared the specimen is vitrified or solidified with minimal alteration of its microstructure. The controlled environment is provided within a chamber where humidity and temperature can be controlled precisely while the specimen is prepared. The specimen is mounted on a plunger and a shutter controlled opening is opened substantially simultaneously with release of the plunger so the specimen is propelled through the shutter into an adjacent cryogenic bath.

  12. An automated system for liquid-liquid extraction in monosegmented flow analysis

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, Ileana; Pasquini, Celio

    1997-01-01

    An automated system to perform liquid-liquid extraction in monosegmented flow analysis is described. The system is controlled by a microcomputer that can track the localization of the aqueous monosegmented sample in the manifold. Optical switches are employed to sense the gas-liquid interface of the air bubbles that define the monosegment. The logical level changes, generated by the switches, are flagged by the computer through a home-made interface that also contains the analogue-to-digital converter for signal acquisition. The sequence of operations, necessary for a single extraction or for concentration of the analyte in the organic phase, is triggered by these logical transitions. The system was evaluated for extraction of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) and concentration of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions at pH 9.9 (NH3/NH4Cl buffer) into chloroform containing PAN (1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol) . The results show a mean repeatability of 3% (rsd) for a 2.0 mg l-1 Cd(II) solution and a linear increase of the concentration factor for a 0.5mg l-1 Cd(II) solution observed for up to nine extraction cycles. PMID:18924792

  13. ETV REPORT AND VERIFICATION STATEMENT; EVALUATION OF LOBO LIQUIDS RINSE WATER RECOVERY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lobo Liquids Rinse Water Recovery System (Lobo Liquids system) was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metal finishing wastewater, at Gull Industries in Houston, Texas. The verification test evaluated the ability of the ion exchange (IX) treatment system t...

  14. ETV REPORT AND VERIFICATION STATEMENT; EVALUATION OF LOBO LIQUIDS RINSE WATER RECOVERY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lobo Liquids Rinse Water Recovery System (Lobo Liquids system) was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metal finishing wastewater, at Gull Industries in Houston, Texas. The verification test evaluated the ability of the ion exchange (IX) treatment system t...

  15. Smart Fluid Systems: The Advent of Autonomous Liquid Robotics.

    PubMed

    Chiolerio, A; Quadrelli, Marco B

    2017-07-01

    Organic, inorganic or hybrid devices in the liquid state, kept in a fixed volume by surface tension or by a confining membrane that protects them from a harsh environment, could be used as biologically inspired autonomous robotic systems with unique capabilities. They could change shape according to a specific exogenous command or by means of a fully integrated adaptive system, and provide an innovative solution for many future applications, such as space exploration in extreme or otherwise challenging environments, post-disaster search and rescue in ground applications, compliant wearable devices, and even in the medical field for in vivo applications. This perspective provides an initial assessment of existing capabilities that could be leveraged to pursue the topic of "Smart Fluid Systems" or "Liquid Engineered Systems".

  16. Injector design guidelines for gas/liquid propellant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falk, A. Y.; Burick, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Injector design guidelines are provided for gas/liquid propellant systems. Information was obtained from a 30-month applied research program encompassing an analytical, design, and experimental effort to relate injector design parameters to simultaneous attainment of high performance and component (injector/thrust chamber) compatibility for gas/liquid space storable propellants. The gas/liquid propellant combination studied was FLOX (82.6% F2)/ ambient temperature gaseous methane. Design criteria that provide for simultaneous attainment of high performance and chamber compatibility are presented for both injector types. Parametric data are presented that are applicable for the design of circular coaxial and like-doublet injectors that operate with design parameters similar to those employed. However, caution should be exercised when applying these data to propellant combinations whose elements operate in ranges considerably different from those employed in this study.

  17. Methods and systems for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G [Gettysburg, PA; Clark, Roger F [Frederick, MD

    2011-10-04

    Methods and systems are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface, including providing a vessel configured to contain an at least partially melted material; detecting radiation reflected from a surface of a liquid portion of the at least partially melted material; providing sound energy to the surface; measuring a disturbance on the surface; calculating at least one frequency associated with the disturbance; and determining a thickness of the liquid portion based on the at least one frequency, wherein the thickness is calculated based on L=(2m-1)v.sub.s/4f, where f is the frequency where the disturbance has an amplitude maximum, v.sub.s is the speed of sound in the material, and m is a positive integer (1, 2, 3, . . . ).

  18. The liquid annular reactor system (LARS) for deep space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Powell, James R.; Ludewig, Hans; Todosow, Michael

    1999-05-01

    A new propulsion concept for high Δ V space missions, termed LARS (Liquid Annular Reactor System), uses liquid nuclear fuel elements to heat hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures (-6000 K). The molten fuel is contained in a lower-temperature solid container which rotates to stabilize and hold in the liquid layer by centripetal force. Containment of ultra high temperature molten refractories, using this method, has been experimentally demonstrated by A.V. Grosse. The specific impulse of a rocket exhausting hydrogen at 6000 K is 2000 seconds, approximately double that of solid-core nuclear rockets. A LARS-powered space probe could accomplish extra-solar missions to 550 A.U. in approximately 35 years.

  19. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid... pressure. The device may include accessories such as columns, gases, column supports, and liquid...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid... pressure. The device may include accessories such as columns, gases, column supports, and liquid...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid... pressure. The device may include accessories such as columns, gases, column supports, and liquid...

  2. Liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase separation in protein-polyelectrolyte systems.

    PubMed

    Comert, Fatih; Dubin, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    The coacervation of systems containing colloids (e.g. proteins or micelles) and polyelectrolytes (notably ionic polysaccharides) is often accompanied by precipitation. This can introduce inhomogeneity, irreversibility and irreproducible kinetics in applications in food science and bioengineering, with negative impact on texture and stability of food products, and unpredictable delivery of active "payloads." The relationship between coacervation and precipitation is obscure in that coacervates might be intermediates in the formation of precipitates, or else the two phenomena might proceed by different but possibly simultaneous mechanisms. This review will summarize the recent literature on coacervation/precipitation in protein-polyelectrolyte systems for which reports are most abundant, particularly in the context of food science. We present current findings and opinions about the relationship between the two types of phase separation. Results vary considerably depending not only on the protein-polyelectrolyte pairs chosen, but also on conditions including macromolecular concentrations and ionic strength. Nevertheless, we offer some general approaches that could explain a variety of observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sitosterol bioconversion with resting cells in liquid polymer based systems.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Filipe; Marques, Marco P C; de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Fernandes, Pedro

    2009-09-01

    The use of a biocompatible water-immiscible organic phase as a substrate and product pool has been acknowledged as an effective tool to overcome the low volumetric productivity of aqueous bioconversion systems involving hydrophobic compounds. The growing environmental and public health awareness is nevertheless leading to restrictions in the use of organic solvents in industrial processes, in order to render these more environmentally friendly. Different approaches are hence being assessed for the design of alternative bioconversion media, involving the use of supercritical fluids, ionic liquids and natural oils and liquid polymers, among others. In this work, the use of liquid polymers as key components in the bioconversion media for a multi-step microbial bioconversion was assessed. The model system used was the selective cleavage of the side-chain of beta-sitosterol by free resting cells of Mycobacterium sp. NRRL B-3805, a well established industrial multi-enzymatic process involving the use of nine catabolic enzymes in a fourteen-step metabolic pathway. High product yields were obtained when silicone B oil was used as substrate carrier/product pool, both in single oil and in oil:buffer two liquid phase system.

  4. Performance of solar thermal systems with liquid metal MHD conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, E. S.; Jackson, W. D.; Berry, G.; Petrick, M.; Dennis, C.

    1984-06-01

    Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic conversion (LMMHD) is found to be compatible with concentrating solar receivers employing a liquid metal as a heat transfer medium and offers significant increases in the system thermal efficiency over the 33% considered attainable with conventional turbo-machinery. There are two candidate liquid metals - sodium and lithium. With sodium at a temperature of 1150 F (922 K), the maximum calculated efficiency is 39.5% while with lithium at 1400 F (1033 K) a peak efficiency for 46.5% is predicted. Up to two percentage points may be added by temperature increase and/or parameter limit relaxation in the sodium case. The sodium steam heat exchanger is eliminated in liquid metal systems. Where LMMHD systems employ the same working fluid as the solar receiver, no recirculating pump is required as pumping power is provided directly by the cycle. For sodium, coupling with either a gas turbine or a steam turbine is beneficial and provides similar performance. With lithium, the gas turbine cycle is clearly superior.

  5. Fiber optic liquid level sensor system for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Yang, Chenging; Chen, Shiping

    2014-09-01

    Detection of the liquid level in fuel tank becomes a critical element for the safety and efficiency in aerospace operations. Two liquid level sensing techniques are presented in this paper. The first technique is based on optical fiber Long Period Gratings (LPG). In this system, the full length of a specially fabricated fiber is the body of the probe because the length of the sensing fiber that is submerged in the liquid can be detected by the interrogation system. The second system based on Total Internal Reflection (TIR) uses optical fibers to guide light to and from an array of point probes. These probes are specially fabricated, miniature optical components which reflects a substantial amount of light back into the lead fiber when the probe is gas but almost no light when it is in liquid. A detailed theoretical study by computer simulation was carried out on these two techniques in order to determine which technique was more suitable for experimental investigation. The study revealed that although the first technique may provide more potential benefits in terms of weight and easy installation; a number of technical challenges make it not suitable for a short term solution. The second, probe array based technique, on the other hand, is more mature technically. The rest of the research program was therefore focused on the experimental investigation of the probe array detection technique and the test results are presented in this paper.

  6. Cold-stage microscopy system for fast-frozen liquids.

    PubMed

    Talmon, Y; Davis, H T; Scriven, L E; Thomas, E L

    1979-06-01

    The least artifact-laden fixation technique for examining colloidal suspensions, microemulsions, and other microstructured liquids in the electron microscope appears to be thermal fixation, i.e., ultrafast freezing of the liquid specimen. For rapid-enough cooling and for observation in TEM/STEM a thin sample is needed. The need is met by trapping a thin layer ( approximately 100 nm) of liquid between two polyimide films ( approximately 40 nm thickness) mounted on copper grids and immersing the resulting sandwich in liquid nitrogen at its melting point. For liquids containing water, polyimides films are used since this polymer is far less susceptible to the electron beam damage observed for the commonly used polymer films such as Formvar and collodion in contact with ice. Transfer of the frozen sample into the microscope column without deleterious frost deposition and warming is accomplished with a new transfer module for the cooling stage of the JEOL JEM-100CX microscope, which makes a true cold stage out of a device originally intended for cooling specimens inside the column. Sample results obtained with the new fast-freeze, cold-stage microscopy system are given.

  7. Wettability and interfacial interactions in bioceramic-body-liquid systems.

    PubMed

    Agathopoulos, S; Nikolopoulos, P

    1995-04-01

    Wetting experiments, by the sessile drop technique, were carried out at 37 degrees C in air to determine the surface and interfacial interactions that take place in various solid bioceramics based on Al2O3, ZrO2(YPZ), SiO2, and TiO2 in contact with water, Ringer solution, artificial synovial fluid, calf serum, human plasma, and whole blood (+ EDTA). The surface energy of the liquids was measured by the ring method. The calculated values of the energy of interaction (work of adhesion) reveal that intermolecular forces act across the solid-liquid interfaces. The contribution of the dispersion and polar interactions to the surface energy of the polar liquids and the pure or mixed oxides was determined assuming that in the system of Mn-steel-liquids only dispersion forces act at the interface. It was found that the contribution of the polar interactions to the energy of interaction at the solid-liquid interface increases with the glassy phase content of the oxide that causes reduction of the measured contact angle.

  8. Proportional liquid-nitrogen valve and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christman, S. B.

    1990-09-01

    A proportional magnetic valve has been developed that permits continuous flow of cryogenic fluids and gases. The proportional valve (PV) may be electrically controlled in the manual mode (open loop current drive) or in the automatic mode (closed loop current drive). A complete control system for liquid-nitrogen (LN) flow control applications is described. The system includes alarm and automatic supply tank switching features.

  9. Analytical concepts for health management systems of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard; Tulpule, Sharayu; Hawman, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Substantial improvement in health management systems performance can be realized by implementing advanced analytical methods of processing existing liquid rocket engine sensor data. In this paper, such techniques ranging from time series analysis to multisensor pattern recognition to expert systems to fault isolation models are examined and contrasted. The performance of several of these methods is evaluated using data from test firings of the Space Shuttle main engines.

  10. Modification to the cumulant analysis of polydispersity in quasielastic light scattering data.

    PubMed

    Hassan, P A; Kulshreshtha, S K

    2006-08-15

    The electric field correlation function of light scattered from a polydispersed population of spherical particles having log-normal distribution with varying polydispersity is simulated. The correlation function with different polydispersity is compared with the method of cumulants over a wide range of correlation time. The large positive deviation of the method of cumulants at long correlation time is identified. This necessitates the truncation of the data at long correlation time or use of an appropriate weighting function to eliminate errors in the analysis. A modified cumulant analysis is used to overcome the limitation of truncating the correlation function. QELS data from polydisperse samples of micelles, liposomes and polyaniline nanoparticles are compared using the two methods. This method can be extended to the analysis of other multi-exponential decays such as stress relaxation, positron annihilation and NMR relaxation.

  11. COMPARISON OF MONODISPERSE AND POLYDISPERSE AEROSOL DEPOSITION IN A PACKED BED

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF MONODISPERSE AND POLYDISPERSE AEROSOL DEPOSITION IN A PACKED BED. Jacky A. Rosati, Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; Chong S. Kim, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory...

  12. COMPARISON OF MONODISPERSE AND POLYDISPERSE AEROSOL DEPOSITION IN A PACKED BED

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF MONODISPERSE AND POLYDISPERSE AEROSOL DEPOSITION IN A PACKED BED. Jacky A. Rosati, Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; Chong S. Kim, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory...

  13. Liquid Oxygen Thermodynamic Vent System Testing with Helium Pressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of several thermodynamic vent system (TVS) tests with liquid oxygen plus a test with liquid nitrogen. In all tests, the liquid was heated above its normal boiling point to 111 K for oxygen and 100 K for nitrogen. The elevated temperature was representative of tank conditions for a candidate lunar lander ascent stage. An initial test series was conducted with saturated oxygen liquid and vapor at 0.6 MPa. The initial series was followed by tests where the test tank was pressurized with gaseous helium to 1.4 to 1.6 MPa. For these tests, the helium mole fraction in the ullage was quite high, about 0.57 to 0.62. TVS behavior is different when helium is present than when helium is absent. The tank pressure becomes the sum of the vapor pressure and the partial pressure of helium. Therefore, tank pressure depends not only on temperature, as is the case for a pure liquid-vapor system, but also on helium density (i.e., the mass of helium divided by the ullage volume). Thus, properly controlling TVS operation is more challenging with helium pressurization than without helium pressurization. When helium was present, the liquid temperature would rise with each successive TVS cycle if tank pressure was kept within a constant control band. Alternatively, if the liquid temperature was maintained within a constant TVS control band, the tank pressure would drop with each TVS cycle. The final test series, which was conducted with liquid nitrogen pressurized with helium, demonstrated simultaneous pressure and temperature control during TVS operation. The simultaneous control was achieved by systematic injection of additional helium during each TVS cycle. Adding helium maintained the helium partial pressure as the liquid volume decreased because of TVS operation. The TVS demonstrations with liquid oxygen pressurized with helium were conducted with three different fluid-mixer configurations-a submerged axial jet mixer, a pair of spray hoops in the tank

  14. Glass and liquid phase diagram of a polyamorphic monatomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, Shaina; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a monatomic system with Fermi-Jagla (FJ) pair potential interactions. This model system exhibits polyamorphism both in the liquid and glass state. The two liquids, low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL), are accessible in equilibrium MD simulations and can form two glasses, low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) solid, upon isobaric cooling. The FJ model exhibits many of the anomalous properties observed in water and other polyamorphic liquids and thus, it is an excellent model system to explore qualitatively the thermodynamic properties of such substances. The liquid phase behavior of the FJ model system has been previously characterized. In this work, we focus on the glass behavior of the FJ system. Specifically, we perform systematic isothermal compression and decompression simulations of LDA and HDA at different temperatures and determine "phase diagrams" for the glass state; these phase diagrams varying with the compression/decompression rate used. We obtain the LDA-to-HDA and HDA-to-LDA transition pressure loci, PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T), respectively. In addition, the compression-induced amorphization line, at which the low-pressure crystal (LPC) transforms to HDA, PLPC-HDA(T), is determined. As originally proposed by Poole et al. [Phys. Rev. E 48, 4605 (1993)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.4605 simulations suggest that the PLDA-HDA(T) and PHDA-LDA(T) loci are extensions of the LDL-to-HDL and HDL-to-LDL spinodal lines into the glass domain. Interestingly, our simulations indicate that the PLPC-HDA(T) locus is an extension, into the glass domain, of the LPC metastability limit relative to the liquid. We discuss the effects of compression/decompression rates on the behavior of the PLDA-HDA(T), PHDA-LDA(T), PLPC-HDA(T) loci. The competition between glass polyamorphism and crystallization is also addressed. At our "fast rate," crystallization can be partially suppressed and the

  15. Glass and liquid phase diagram of a polyamorphic monatomic system.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Shaina; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2013-02-14

    We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a monatomic system with Fermi-Jagla (FJ) pair potential interactions. This model system exhibits polyamorphism both in the liquid and glass state. The two liquids, low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL), are accessible in equilibrium MD simulations and can form two glasses, low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) solid, upon isobaric cooling. The FJ model exhibits many of the anomalous properties observed in water and other polyamorphic liquids and thus, it is an excellent model system to explore qualitatively the thermodynamic properties of such substances. The liquid phase behavior of the FJ model system has been previously characterized. In this work, we focus on the glass behavior of the FJ system. Specifically, we perform systematic isothermal compression and decompression simulations of LDA and HDA at different temperatures and determine "phase diagrams" for the glass state; these phase diagrams varying with the compression/decompression rate used. We obtain the LDA-to-HDA and HDA-to-LDA transition pressure loci, P(LDA-HDA)(T) and P(HDA-LDA)(T), respectively. In addition, the compression-induced amorphization line, at which the low-pressure crystal (LPC) transforms to HDA, P(LPC-HDA)(T), is determined. As originally proposed by Poole et al. [Phys. Rev. E 48, 4605 (1993)] simulations suggest that the P(LDA-HDA)(T) and P(HDA-LDA)(T) loci are extensions of the LDL-to-HDL and HDL-to-LDL spinodal lines into the glass domain. Interestingly, our simulations indicate that the P(LPC-HDA)(T) locus is an extension, into the glass domain, of the LPC metastability limit relative to the liquid. We discuss the effects of compression/decompression rates on the behavior of the P(LDA-HDA)(T), P(HDA-LDA)(T), P(LPC-HDA)(T) loci. The competition between glass polyamorphism and crystallization is also addressed. At our "fast rate," crystallization can be partially suppressed and the glass

  16. Extravehicular mobility unit subcritical liquid oxygen storage and supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John; Martin, Timothy; Hodgson, ED

    1992-01-01

    The storage of life support oxygen in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit in the liquid state offers some advantages over the current method of storing the oxygen as a high pressure gas. Storage volume is reduced because of the increased density associated with liquid. The lower storage and operating pressures also reduce the potential for leakage or bursting of the storage tank. The potential for combustion resulting from adiabatic combustion of the gas within lines and components is substantially reduced. Design constraints on components are also relaxed due to the lower system pressures. A design study was performed to determine the requirements for a liquid storage system and prepare a conceptual design. The study involved four tasks. The first was to identify system operating requirements that influence or direct the design of the system. The second was to define candidate storage system concepts that could possibly satisfy the requirements. An evaluation and comparison of the candidate concepts was conducted in the third task. The fourth task was devoted to preparing a conceptual design of the recommended storage system and to evaluate concerns with integration of the concept into the EMU. The results are presented.

  17. Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Kenneth L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

  18. Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Kenneth L [Rochester, NY

    2009-02-17

    Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

  19. Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

  20. Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

    1982-07-01

    An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

  1. Liquid Metal Propellant Feed System for Plasma Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    High-power plasma thrusters that utilize molten metallic propellants (e.g., the Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator) are currently being investigated as a primary propulsion option for in-space nuclear-electric systems. A critical component of the thruster is the propellant feed system, which must reliably and accurately pump liquid metal into the thruster discharge chamber. We present design details and calibration results for a compact liquid metal propellant feed system that contains no moving parts, for use in laboratory testing of plasma thrusters. Feed line pressure is maintained using an MHD flow coupler, and the flow rate is monitored using a simple voltage divider, which is submerged in the propellant reservoir. Results for lithium and gallium propellants show capability to meter propellant at flow rates up to 10 +/- 0.1 mg/s.

  2. Cubic and Hexagonal Liquid Crystals as Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulin; Ma, Ping; Gui, Shuangying

    2014-01-01

    Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed. PMID:24995330

  3. Cubic and hexagonal liquid crystals as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulin; Ma, Ping; Gui, Shuangying

    2014-01-01

    Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed.

  4. Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Propellant Conditioning Feed System (PCFS) Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaff, A.; Grasl, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hockenberry S.; Schubert, J.; Arrington, L.; Vasek, T.

    2008-01-01

    As part of their Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) program, NASA has embarked upon an effort to develop chemical rocket engines which utilize non-toxic, cryogenic propellants such as liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). This effort includes the development and testing of a 100 lbf Reaction Control Engine (RCE) that will be used to evaluate the performance of a LO2/LCH4 rocket engine over a broad range of propellant temperatures and pressures. This testing will take place at NASA-Glenn Research Center's (GRC) Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) test facility in Cleveland, OH, and is currently scheduled to begin in late 2008. While the initial tests will be performed at sea level, follow-on testing will be performed at NASA-GRC's Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) for altitude testing. In support of these tests, Sierra Lobo, Inc. (SLI) has designed, developed, and fabricated two separate portable propellant feed systems under the Propellant Conditioning and Feed System (PCFS) task: one system for LCH4, and one for LO2. These systems will be capable of supplying propellants over a large range of conditions from highly densified to several hundred pounds per square inch (psi) saturated. This paper presents the details of the PCFS design and explores the full capability of these propellant feed systems.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Interfacial Properties of Complex Liquid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jian

    1995-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the interfacial properties of linear and branched chain alkane molecule condensed systems. The only notable effect of branching in our studies is the reduction of system ordering and layering since the degree of branching in the systems is very small. It is found that thin alkane films, adsorbed on a solid substrate at a temperature well above its bulk melting temperature, have about up to four well defined layers near the substrate. Within these layers, molecules are parallel to the substrate and exhibit domains of short range ordering. At the liquid-vapor interface, the molecular segment density tail is well fit by an error function indicating that the molecular height distribution obeys the Gaussian law predicted from the capillary wave model. At a temperature around the liquid bulk solidification temperature, a first order phase transition occurs at the liquid-vapor interfacial region of the alkane thin films. Molecules in this region pack hexagonally and align themselves parallel to the interface normal with a small cant angle. Below this crystalline monolayer, there are four sharp layers where molecules lie parallel to the substrate surface with enhanced domains of transverse ordering. It is observed that the contact angle of an alkane nanodroplet on top of a solid surface increases when the solid-liquid interaction strength decreases, or the molecule length increases. Due to the fact that almost all the molecules are in the liquid-vapor interfacial region, a nanodroplet with molecules of a length comparable to the droplet dimension has clear layers from the solid-liquid interface to the top of the droplet. This layering reduces when the size of the droplet increases or the molecule length decreases. Substrates do not create, but enhance the layering. It is also noticed that in the confined thin fluid films, liquid molecules exhibit partially solid-like characteristics behavior with the ability to

  6. Simulation study of electric-guided delivery of 0.4µm monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols to the ostiomeatal complex.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Si, Xiuhua April

    2016-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of rhinosinusitis, current inhalation therapy shows limited efficacy due to extremely low drug delivery efficiency to the paranasal sinuses. Novel intranasal delivery systems are needed to enhance targeted delivery to the sinus with therapeutic dosages. An optimization framework for intranasal drug delivery was developed to target polydisperse charged aerosols to the ostiomeatal complex (OMC) with electric guidance. The delivery efficiency of a group of charged aerosols recently reported in the literature was numerically assessed and optimized in an anatomically accurate nose-sinus model. Key design variables included particle charge number, particle size and distribution, electrode strength, and inhalation velocity. Both monodisperse and polydisperse aerosol profiles were considered. Results showed that the OMC delivery efficiency was highly sensitive to the applied electric field and electrostatic charges carried by the particles. Through the synthesis of electric-guidance and point drug release, focused deposition with significantly enhanced dosage in the OMC can be achieved. For 0.4 µm charged aerosols, an OMC delivery efficiency of 51.6% was predicted for monodisperse aerosols and 34.4% for polydisperse aerosols. This difference suggested that the aerosol profile exerted a notable effect on intranasal deliveries. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the OMC deposition fraction was highly sensitive to the charge and size of particles and was less sensitive to the inhalation velocity considered in this study. Experimental studies are needed to validate the numerically optimized designs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the targeted OMC delivery with both electric and acoustics controls, the latter of which has the potential to further deliver the drug particles into the sinus cavity.

  7. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.; Hui, Marvin M.; Berglund, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  8. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  9. Smart Fluid Systems: The Advent of Autonomous Liquid Robotics

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Organic, inorganic or hybrid devices in the liquid state, kept in a fixed volume by surface tension or by a confining membrane that protects them from a harsh environment, could be used as biologically inspired autonomous robotic systems with unique capabilities. They could change shape according to a specific exogenous command or by means of a fully integrated adaptive system, and provide an innovative solution for many future applications, such as space exploration in extreme or otherwise challenging environments, post‐disaster search and rescue in ground applications, compliant wearable devices, and even in the medical field for in vivo applications. This perspective provides an initial assessment of existing capabilities that could be leveraged to pursue the topic of “Smart Fluid Systems” or “Liquid Engineered Systems”. PMID:28725530

  10. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Low-level liquid waste treatment system start-up

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Gessner, R.F.

    1989-07-01

    Following removal of Cs-137 by ion exchange in the Supernatant Treatment System immediately upstream, the radioactive liquid waste is volume-reduced by evaporation. Trace amounts of Cs-137 in the resulting distillate are removed by ion exchange, then the distillate is discharged to the existing plant water treatment system. The concentrated product, 37 to 41 percent solids (by weight), is encapsulated in cement, producing a stable low-level waste form. This report provides a summary of work performed to test the Liquid Waste Treatment System following construction turnover and prior to radioactive operation. All mechanical and electrical components, piping, valves, pumps, tanks, controls, and instrumentation required to operate the system were tested; first with water, then with simulated waste. Subsystems (individual tanks, pumps, and control loops) were tested individually, then as a complete system. Finally, the system began a controlled start-up phase, which included the first four months of radioactive operation. Components were tested for operability then for performance data to verify the system`s ability to produce an acceptable waste form at design feed rates.

  12. Spatial Density Distributions and Correlations in a Quasi-one-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Duan-Ming

    2009-02-01

    By Monte Carlo simulations, the effect of the dispersion of particle size distribution on the spatial density distributions and correlations of a quasi one-dimensional polydisperse granular gas with fractal size distribution is investigated in the same inelasticity. The dispersive degree of the particle size distribution can be measured by a fractal dimension df, and the smooth particles are constrained to move along a circle of length L, colliding inelastically with each other and thermalized by a viscosity heat bath. When the typical relaxation time τ of the driving Brownian process is longer than the mean collision time τc, the system can reach a nonequilibrium steady state. The average energy of the system decays exponentially with time towards a stable asymptotic value, and the energy relaxation time τB to the steady state becomes shorter with increasing values of df. In the steady state, the spatial density distribution becomes more clusterized as df increases, which can be quantitatively characterized by statistical entropy of the system. Furthermore, the spatial correlation functions of density and velocities are found to be a power-law form for small separation distance of particles, and both of the correlations become stronger with the increase of df. Also, the density clusterization is explained from the correlations.

  13. Cryogenic Liquid Sample Acquisition System for Remote Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Trainer, Melissa; Wegel, Don; Hawk, Douglas; Melek, Tony; Johnson, Christopher; Amato, Michael; Galloway, John

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to acquire autonomously cryogenic hydrocarbon liquid sample from remote planetary locations such as the lakes of Titan for instruments such as mass spectrometers. There are several problems that had to be solved relative to collecting the right amount of cryogenic liquid sample into a warmer spacecraft, such as not allowing the sample to boil off or fractionate too early; controlling the intermediate and final pressures within carefully designed volumes; designing for various particulates and viscosities; designing to thermal, mass, and power-limited spacecraft interfaces; and reducing risk. Prior art inlets for similar instruments in spaceflight were designed primarily for atmospheric gas sampling and are not useful for this front-end application. These cryogenic liquid sample acquisition system designs for remote space applications allow for remote, autonomous, controlled sample collections of a range of challenging cryogenic sample types. The design can control the size of the sample, prevent fractionation, control pressures at various stages, and allow for various liquid sample levels. It is capable of collecting repeated samples autonomously in difficult lowtemperature conditions often found in planetary missions. It is capable of collecting samples for use by instruments from difficult sample types such as cryogenic hydrocarbon (methane, ethane, and propane) mixtures with solid particulates such as found on Titan. The design with a warm actuated valve is compatible with various spacecraft thermal and structural interfaces. The design uses controlled volumes, heaters, inlet and vent tubes, a cryogenic valve seat, inlet screens, temperature and cryogenic liquid sensors, seals, and vents to accomplish its task.

  14. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds from a...

  15. 21 CFR 862.2260 - High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High pressure liquid chromatography system for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2260 High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A high pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate...

  16. 21 CFR 862.2260 - High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High pressure liquid chromatography system for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2260 High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A high pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate...

  17. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate one or more drugs or compounds from a...

  18. 21 CFR 862.2260 - High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High pressure liquid chromatography system for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2260 High pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A high pressure liquid chromatography system for clinical use is a device intended to separate...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1330 - Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1330 Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C. Independent tanks type C need not have the high liquid level alarm system under § 154.1325 if: (a) The...

  4. Vapor-liquid equilibria of coal-derived liquids; 3: Binary systems with tetralin at 200 mmHg

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, B.; Beltran, S.; Cabezas, J.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Coca, J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data are reported for binary systems of tetralin with p-xylene, [gamma]-picoline, piperidine, and pyridine; all systems were measured at 26.66 kPa (200 mmHg) with a recirculation still. Liquid-phase activity coefficients were correlated using the Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations. Vapor-phase nonidealities were found negligible under the experimental conditions of this work, and deviations of the liquid phase from the ideal behavior, as described by Raoult's law, were found to be slightly positive for all the systems.

  5. Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of

  6. Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of

  7. Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium of Multicomponent Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Calado, Jorge C. G.; Zollweg, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid-vapor and solid-vapor equilibria at low to moderate pressures and low temperatures are important in many solar system environments, including the surface and clouds of Titan, the clouds of Uranus and Neptune, and the surfaces of Mars and Triton. The familiar cases of ideal behavior are limiting cases of a general thermodynamic representation for the vapor pressure of each component in a homogeneous multicomponent system. The fundamental connections of laboratory measurements to thermodynamic models are through the Gibbs-Duhem relation and the Gibbs-Helmholtz relation. Using laboratory measurements of the total pressure, temperature, and compositions of the liquid and vapor phases at equilibrium, the values of these parameters can be determined. The resulting model for vapor-liquid equilibrium can then conveniently and accurately be used to calculate pressures, compositions, condensation altitudes, and their dependencies on changing climatic conditions. A specific system being investigated is CH4-C2H6-N2, at conditions relevant to Titan's surface and atmosphere. Discussed are: the modeling of existing data on CH4-N2, with applications to the composition of Titan's condensate clouds; some new measurements on the CH4-C2H6 binary, using a high-precision static/volumetric system, and on the C2H6-N2 binary, using the volumetric system and a sensitive cryogenic flow calorimeter; and describe a new cryogenic phase-equilibrium vessel with which we are beginning a detailed, systematic study of the three constituent binaries and the ternary CH4-C2H6-N2 system at temperatures ranging from 80 to 105 K and pressures from 0.1 to 7 bar.

  8. Development of Liquid Propulsion Systems Testbed at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Reginald; Nelson, Graham

    2016-01-01

    As NASA, the Department of Defense and the aerospace industry in general strive to develop capabilities to explore near-Earth, Cis-lunar and deep space, the need to create more cost effective techniques of propulsion system design, manufacturing and test is imperative in the current budget constrained environment. The physics of space exploration have not changed, but the manner in which systems are developed and certified needs to change if there is going to be any hope of designing and building the high performance liquid propulsion systems necessary to deliver crew and cargo to the further reaches of space. To further the objective of developing these systems, the Marshall Space Flight Center is currently in the process of formulating a Liquid Propulsion Systems testbed, which will enable rapid integration of components to be tested and assessed for performance in integrated systems. The manifestation of this testbed is a breadboard engine configuration (BBE) with facility support for consumables and/or other components as needed. The goal of the facility is to test NASA developed elements, but can be used to test articles developed by other government agencies, industry or academia. Joint government/private partnership is likely the approach that will be required to enable efficient propulsion system development. MSFC has recently tested its own additively manufactured liquid hydrogen pump, injector, and valves in a BBE hot firing. It is rapidly building toward testing the pump and a new CH4 injector in the BBE configuration to demonstrate a 22,000 lbf, pump-fed LO2/LCH4 engine for the Mars lander or in-space transportation. The value of having this BBE testbed is that as components are developed they may be easily integrated in the testbed and tested. MSFC is striving to enhance its liquid propulsion system development capability. Rapid design, analysis, build and test will be critical to fielding the next high thrust rocket engine. With the maturity of the

  9. TWRS privatization phase I liquid effluent transfer systems engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1996-09-30

    The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford tank waste. This `privatization` initiative includes design, permitting, construction, operations, deactivation and decommissioning of tank waste treatment facilities. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project is part of the first phase of the initiative. It consists of several sub-projects which will provide key physical interfaces and services needed to support the phase I mission. One sub-project is to provide transfer systems integrated with 200 Area liquid effluent facilities to service the private contractors. This study deals with transfer systems requirements, alternatives and identifies a preferred alternative.

  10. Vapour-liquid equilibrium in the krypton-xenon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, Jorge C. G.; Chang, Elaine; Streett, William B.

    1983-01-01

    Isothermal vapour-liquid data were measured for the krypton-xenon system at ten temperatures between 165 and 270 K and pressures to 6.7 MPa, using a vapour recirculating technique. The mixture critical line has been located in ( P, T, x) space. Barker's method of data reduction has been used to test the thermodynamic consistency of isotherms below the critical temperature of krypton (209.4 K) and the excess Gibbs energy was evaluated, at the same temperatures, as a function of composition. The results of the experiments have been compared with predictions of the Peng-Robinson equation of state. With interaction parameter calculated by fitting the isotherm of 200.64 K, this equation predicts the liquid and vapour phase compositions to within about a few mole per cent over most of the experimental range.

  11. Hydrophobic polymer monoliths as novel phase separators: application in continuous liquid-liquid extraction systems.

    PubMed

    Peroni, Daniela; Vanhoutte, Dominique; Vilaplana, Francisco; Schoenmakers, Peter; de Koning, Sjaak; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2012-03-30

    Hydrophobic macroporous polymer monoliths are shown to be interesting materials for the construction of "selective solvent gates". With the appropriate surface chemistry and porous properties the monoliths can be made permeable only for apolar organic solvents and not for water. Different poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (BMA-EDMA) and poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) monoliths prepared with tailored chemistries and porosities were evaluated for this purpose. After extensive characterization, the PS-DVB monoliths were selected due to their higher hydrophobicity and their more suitable flow characteristics. BMA-EDMA monoliths are preferred for mid-polarity solvents such as ethyl acetate, for which they provide efficient separation from water. Breakthrough experiments confirmed that the pressures necessary to generate flow of organic solvents through PS-DVB monoliths were substantially lower than for water. A phase separator was constructed using the monoliths as the flow selector. This device was successfully coupled on-line with a chip-based continuous liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE) system with segmented flow. Efficient separation of different solvents was obtained across a wide range of flow rates (0.5-4.0 mL min(-1)) and aqueous-to-organic flow ratios (β=1-10). Good robustness and long life-time were also confirmed. The suitability of the device to perform simple, cheap, and reliable phase separation in a continuous LLE system prior to gas-chromatographic analysis was proven for some selected real-life applications.

  12. Temperature control system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1986-10-01

    A temperature-feedback system has been developed for controlling electrical power to liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCM). Software, written for a microcomputer-based data acquisition and process monitoring system, compares glass temperatures with a temperature setpoint and adjusts the electrical power accordingly. Included in the control algorithm are steps to reject failed thermocouples, spatially average the glass temperatures, smooth the averaged temperatures over time using a digital filter, and detect foaming in the glass. The temperature control system has proved effective during all phases of melter operation including startup, steady operation, loss of feed, and shutdown. This system replaces current, power, and resistance feedback control systems used previously in controlling the LFCM process.

  13. Digital photofinishing system based on liquid crystal on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Minmin; Yan, Huimin; Zhang, Xiuda; Du, Yanli

    2006-01-01

    As the digital camera user base grows, so does the demand for digital imaging services. A new digital photo finishing system based on Liquid Crystal On Silicon (LCOS) is presented. The LCOS panel motherboard is made up of CMOS chip. Three individual streams of light (red, green, blue) are directed to corresponding Polarization Beam Spliter (PBS) to make the S polarization beam arrive at LCOS panel. When the Liquid appears light, the S polarization beam is changed to P polarization beam and reflected to pass through Polarization Beam Spliter. Compared with Thin Film Transistor-Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD), LCOS has many merits including high resolution, high contrast, wide viewing angle, low cost and so on. In this work, we focus on the way in which the images will be displayed on LCOS. A liquid crystal on silicon microdisplay driver circuit for digital photo finishing system has been designed and fabricated using BRILLIAN microdisplay driver lite(MDD-LITE) ASIC and LCOS SXGA (1280×1024 pixel) with a 0.78"(20mm) diagonal active matrix reflective mode LCD. The driver includes a control circuit, which presents serial data, serial clock , write protect signals and control signals for LED, and a mixed circuit which implements RGB signal to input the LCOS. According to a minimum error sum of squares algorithm, we find a minimum offset and then shift RGB optical intensity vs voltage curves right and left to make these three curves almost coincide with each other. The design had great application in the digital photo finishing.

  14. A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

  15. Dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fumin; Yao, Yannan; Qu, Xinghua; Zhang, Tong; Pei, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A dual-beam laser autofocusing system is designed in this paper. The autofocusing system is based on a liquid lens with less moving parts and fast response time, which makes the system simple, reliable, compact and fast. A novel scheme "Time-sharing focus, fast conversion" is innovatively proposed. The scheme effectively solves the problem that the guiding laser and the working laser cannot focus at the same target point because of the existence of chromatic aberration. This scheme not only makes both guiding laser and working laser achieve optimal focusing in guiding stage and working stage respectively, but also greatly reduces the system complexity and simplifies the focusing process as well as makes autofocusing time of the working laser reduce to about 10 ms. In the distance range of 1 m to 30 m, the autofocusing spot size is kept under 4.3 mm at 30 m and just 0.18 mm at 1 m. The spot size is much less influenced by the target distance compared with the collimated laser with a micro divergence angle for its self-adaptivity. The dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens is fully automatic, compact and efficient. It is fully meet the need of dynamicity and adaptivity and it will play an important role in a number of long-range control applications.

  16. Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. F.; Figueroa, F.; Politopoulos, T.; Oonk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to correctly detect and identify any possible failure in the systems, subsystems, or sensors within a reusable liquid rocket engine is a major goal at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). A health management (HM) system is required to provide an on-ground operation crew with an integrated awareness of the condition of every element of interest by determining anomalies, examining their causes, and making predictive statements. However, the complexity associated with relevant systems, and the large amount of data typically necessary for proper interpretation and analysis, presents difficulties in implementing complete failure detection, identification, and prognostics (FDI&P). As such, this paper presents a Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines as a solution to these problems through the use of highly intelligent algorithms for real-time FDI&P, and efficient and embedded processing at multiple levels. The end result is the ability to successfully incorporate a comprehensive HM platform despite the complexity of the systems under consideration.

  17. Fractionation effects in phase equilibria of polydisperse hard-sphere colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasolo, Moreno; Sollich, Peter

    2004-10-01

    The equilibrium phase behavior of hard spheres with size polydispersity is studied theoretically. We solve numerically the exact phase equilibrium equations that result from accurate free energy expressions for the fluid and solid phases, while accounting fully for size fractionation between coexisting phases. Fluids up to the largest polydispersities that we can study (around 14%) can phase separate by splitting off a solid with a much narrower size distribution. This shows that experimentally observed terminal polydispersities above which phase separation no longer occurs must be due to nonequilibrium effects. We find no evidence of reentrant melting; instead, sufficiently compressed solids phase separate into two or more solid phases. Under appropriate conditions, coexistence of multiple solids with a fluid phase is also predicted. The solids have smaller polydispersities than the parent phase as expected, while the reverse is true for the fluid phase, which contains predominantly smaller particles but also residual amounts of the larger ones. The properties of the coexisting phases are studied in detail; mean diameter, polydispersity, and volume fraction of the phases all reveal marked fractionation. We also propose a method for constructing quantities that optimally distinguish between the coexisting phases, using principal component analysis in the space of density distributions. We conclude by comparing our predictions to Monte Carlo simulations at imposed chemical potential distribution, and find excellent agreement.

  18. Polydispersity-Driven Block Copolymer Amphiphile Self-Assembly into Prolate-Spheroid Micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Andrew L.; Repollet-Pedrosa, Milton H.; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K.

    2013-09-26

    The aqueous self-assembly behavior of polydisperse poly(ethylene oxide-b-1,4-butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (OBO) macromolecular triblock amphiphiles is examined to discern the implications of continuous polydispersity in the hydrophobic block on the resulting aqueous micellar morphologies of otherwise monodisperse polymer surfactants. The chain length polydispersity and implicit composition polydispersity of these samples furnishes a distribution of preferred interfacial curvatures, resulting in dilute aqueous block copolymer dispersions exhibiting coexisting spherical and rod-like micelles with vesicles in a single sample with a O weight fraction, w{sub O}, of 0.18. At higher w{sub O} = 0.51-0.68, the peak in the interfacial curvature distribution shifts and we observe the formation of only American football-shaped micelles. We rationalize the formation of these anisotropically shaped aggregates based on the intrinsic distribution of preferred curvatures adopted by the polydisperse copolymer amphiphiles and on the relief of core block chain stretching by chain-length-dependent intramicellar segregation.

  19. Sedimentation equilibria in polydisperse ferrofluids: critical comparisons between experiment, theory, and computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Elfimova, Ekaterina A; Ivanov, Alexey O; Lakhtina, Ekaterina V; Pshenichnikov, Alexander F; Camp, Philip J

    2016-05-14

    The sedimentation equilibrium of dipolar particles in a ferrofluid is studied using experiment, theory, and computer simulation. A theory of the particle-concentration profile in a dipolar hard-sphere fluid is developed, based on the local-density approximation and accurate expressions from a recently introduced logarithmic free energy approach. The theory is tested critically against Monte Carlo simulation results for monodisperse and bidisperse dipolar hard-sphere fluids in homogeneous gravitational fields. In the monodisperse case, the theory is very accurate over broad ranges of gravitational field strength, volume fraction, and dipolar coupling constant. In the bidisperse case, with realistic dipolar coupling constants and compositions, the theory is excellent at low volume fraction, but is slightly inaccurate at high volume fraction in that it does not capture a maximum in the small-particle concentration profile seen in simulations. Possible reasons for this are put forward. Experimental measurements of the magnetic-susceptibility profile in a real ferrofluid are then analysed using the theory. The concentration profile is linked to the susceptibility profile using the second-order modified mean-field theory. It is shown that the experimental results are not consistent with the sample being monodisperse. By introducing polydispersity in the simplest possible way, namely by assuming the system is a binary mixture, almost perfect agreement between theory and experiment is achieved.

  20. The polydispersity effect of distributed oxyethylene chains on the cloud points of nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui Chan; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2010-12-15

    The cloud points of aqueous solutions containing polyoxyethylene surfactant molecules with a distribution of chain lengths were studied for several nonionic surfactants. Experimentally, the cloud points increased as the oxyethylene chain lengths increased with a linear or logarithmic relation of the number of oxyethylates, as proposed by Schott. An experimental scale, the p-Po scale, was previously developed to correspond to the cloud points, where p is the average number of oxyethylene units per molecule and Po is the shortest chain length reference. However, no previous prediction methods of cloud point addressed systems containing a range of chain lengths. In this work, we propose a rescaling of the representative chain length as s-Po, where s is the cloud point-weighted mean ethylene oxide chain below p, and approximated as (p-Po)/PDI where PDI is the polydispersity index. Using the rescaled length, the experimental data for C(12)Es (lauryl alcohol ethoxylate, LAE), NPE-10 (nonyl phenol ethoxylate) and TDE-10 (tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate) were successfully predicted with no additional parameters, such as {(p-Po)/(PDI)}/CP=a+b{(p-Po)/(PDI)}, where PDI indicates the Broadness of the chain length distribution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cavity averages for hard spheres in the presence of polydispersity and incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Michael; Maggs, A C

    2015-09-01

    We develop a cavity-based method which allows to extract thermodynamic properties from position information in hard-sphere/disk systems. So far, there are available-volume and free-volume methods. We add a third one, which we call available volume after take-out, and which is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the others. In applications, where data sets are finite, all three methods show limitations, and they do this in different parameter ranges. We illustrate the principal equivalence and the limitations on data from molecular dynamics: In particular, we test robustness against missing data. We have in mind experimental limitations where there is a small polydispersity, say 4% in the particle radii, but individual radii cannot be determined. We observe that, depending on the used method, the errors in such a situation are easily 100% for the pressure and 10kT for the chemical potentials. Our work is meant as guideline to the experimentalists for choosing the right one of the three methods, in order to keep the outcome of experimental data analysis meaningful.

  2. Monitoring system for a liquid-cooled nuclear fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    DeVolpi, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A monitoring system for detecting changes in the liquid levels in various regions of a water-cooled nuclear power reactor, viz., in the downcomer, in the core, in the inlet and outlet plenums, at the head, and elsewhere; and also for detecting changes in the density of the liquid in these regions. A plurality of gamma radiation detectors are used, arranged vertically along the outside of the reactor vessel, and collimator means for each detector limits the gamma-radiation it receives as emitting from only isolated regions of the vessel. Excess neutrons produced by the fission reaction will be captured by the water coolant, by the steel reactor walls, or by the fuel or control structures in the vessel. Neutron capture by steel generates gamma radiation having an energy level of the order of 5-12 MeV, whereas neutron capture by water provides an energy level of approximately 2.2 MeV, and neutron capture by the fission fuel or its cladding provides an energy level of 1 MeV or less. The intensity of neutron capture thus changes significantly at any water-metal interface. Comparative analysis of adjacent gamma detectors senses changes from the normal condition with liquid coolant present to advise of changes in the presence and/or density of the coolant at these specific regions. The gamma detectors can also sense fission-product gas accumulation at the reactor head to advise of a failure of fuel-pin cladding.

  3. The Effects of Polydispersity and Energetic Disorder on Carrier Injection and Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konezny, S. J.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Kas, O. Y.; Galvin, M. E.; Smith, D. L.; Rothberg, L. J.

    2004-03-01

    Large reductions in the quantum efficiency of conjugated polymer based LEDs are observed when there is large polydispersity in molecular weight of the polymer. (A. Menon et al., Chem. Mater. 14 (2002) 3668) We report studies designed to elucidate the degree to which these polydispersity effects are intrinsic and derive from effects of energetic disorder. The studies follow those of Crone et al. on MEH-PPV (B. K. Crone et al., J. Appl. Phys. 86 (1999) 5767) but in the present work we deliberately introduce a distribution of energy levels by using blends of phenylenevinylene oligomers to construct both LEDs and single carrier devices. We have adapted the theory of reference 2 to simulate polydispersity and to understand the effects of energetic disorder on carrier injection and transport.

  4. Phase behavior of binary and polydisperse suspensions of compressible microgels controlled by selective particle deswelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, A.; Gasser, U.; Herman, E. S.; Han, Jun; Menzel, A.; Lyon, L. A.; Fernandez-Nieves, A.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the phase behavior of suspensions of poly(N -isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) microgels with either bimodal or polydisperse size distribution. We observe a shift of the fluid-crystal transition to higher concentrations depending on the polydispersity or the fraction of large particles in suspension. Crystallization is observed up to polydispersities as high as 18.5%, and up to a number fraction of large particles of 29% in bidisperse suspensions. The crystal structure is random hexagonal close-packed as in monodisperse pNIPAM microgel suspensions. We explain our experimental results by considering the effect of bound counterions. Above a critical particle concentration, these cause deswelling of the largest microgels, which are the softest, changing the size distribution of the suspension and enabling crystal formation in conditions where incompressible particles would not crystallize.

  5. Role of the particle size polydispersity in the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube-epoxy composites.

    PubMed

    Majidian, Maryam; Grimaldi, Claudio; Forró, László; Magrez, Arnaud

    2017-10-02

    Carbon nanotubes (CTNs) with large aspect-ratios are extensively used to establish electrical connectedness in polymer melts at very low CNT loadings. However, the CNT size polydispersity and the quality of the dispersion are still not fully understood factors that can substantially alter the desired characteristics of CNT nanocomposites. Here we demonstrate that the electrical conductivity of polydisperse CNT-epoxy composites with purposely-tailored distributions of the nanotube length L is a quasiuniversal function of the first moment of L. This finding challenges the current understanding that the conductivity depends upon higher moments of the CNT length. We explain the observed quasiuniversality by a combined effect between the particle size polydispersity and clustering. This mechanism can be exploited to achieve controlled tuning of the electrical transport in general CNT nanocomposites.

  6. Facile synthesis and properties of CdSe quantum dots in a novel two-phase liquid/liquid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jidong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Hengshan; Gao, Zehua; He, Shengquan; Ke, Dandan; Zheng, Yue; Han, Shumin

    2017-10-01

    High-quantity CdSe QDs were synthesized in a novel two-phase liquid/liquid system. This system, ODE/water was stable and as-used solvents were almost nontoxic. The methodology leading to the successful synthesis of CdSe QDs was a typical, one-pot approach and the obtained CdSe QDs with zinc-blende phase structure exhibited excellent optical properties, narrow size distribution, higher particle uniformity and crystallinity. The mechanism of nucleation and growth of CdSe QDs were discussed by the possible thermodynamic equilibrium existing in ODE/water interface. This two-phase liquid/liquid system would broaden the synthesis of other semiconductor QDs.

  7. Particle Collection Efficiency of a Lens-Liquid Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ross Y. M.; Ng, Moses L. F.; Chao, Christopher Y. H.; Li, Z. G.

    2011-09-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that indoor air quality has substantial impact on the health of building occupants [1]. Possible sources of indoor air contamination include hazardous gases as well as particulate matters (PMs) [2]. Experimental studies show that the size distribution of PMs in indoor air ranges from tens of nanometers to a few hundreds of micrometers [3]. Vacuum cleaners can be used as a major tool to collect PMs from floor/carpets, which are the main sources of indoor PMs. However, the particle collection efficiency of typical cyclonic filters in the vacuums drops significantly for particles of diameter below 10 μm. In this work, we propose a lens-liquid filtration system (see Figure 1), where the flow channel is formed by a liquid free surface and a planar plate with fin/lens structures. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed by using FLUENT to optimize the structure of the proposed system toward high particle collection efficiency and satisfactory pressure drop. Numerical simulations show that the system can collect 250 nm diameter particles with collection efficiency of 50%.

  8. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportion System (STS) systems study. Appendix D: Trade study summary for the liquid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Trade studies plans for a number of elements in the Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) component of the Space Transportation System (STS) are given in viewgraph form. Some of the elements covered include: avionics/flight control; avionics architecture; thrust vector control studies; engine control electronics; liquid rocket propellants; propellant pressurization systems; recoverable spacecraft; cryogenic tanks; and spacecraft construction materials.

  9. Reliability and Maintainability Data for Liquid Metal Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    2015-05-01

    One of the coolants of interest for future fusion breeding blankets is lead-lithium. As a liquid metal it offers the advantages of high temperature operation for good station efficiency, low pressure, and moderate flow rate. This coolant is also under examination for use in test blanket modules to be used in the ITER international project. To perform reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) assessment as well as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of lead-lithium cooling systems, component failure rate data are needed to quantify the system models. RAMI assessment also requires repair time data and inspection time data. This paper presents a new survey of the data sets that are available at present to support RAMI and PSA quantification. Recommendations are given for the best data values to use when quantifying system models.

  10. Coherent Backscattering by Polydisperse Discrete Random Media: Exact T-Matrix Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    The numerically exact superposition T-matrix method is used to compute, for the first time to our knowledge, electromagnetic scattering by finite spherical volumes composed of polydisperse mixtures of spherical particles with different size parameters or different refractive indices. The backscattering patterns calculated in the far-field zone of the polydisperse multiparticle volumes reveal unequivocally the classical manifestations of the effect of weak localization of electromagnetic waves in discrete random media, thereby corroborating the universal interference nature of coherent backscattering. The polarization opposition effect is shown to be the least robust manifestation of weak localization fading away with increasing particle size parameter.

  11. Coherent Backscattering by Polydisperse Discrete Random Media: Exact T-Matrix Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    The numerically exact superposition T-matrix method is used to compute, for the first time to our knowledge, electromagnetic scattering by finite spherical volumes composed of polydisperse mixtures of spherical particles with different size parameters or different refractive indices. The backscattering patterns calculated in the far-field zone of the polydisperse multiparticle volumes reveal unequivocally the classical manifestations of the effect of weak localization of electromagnetic waves in discrete random media, thereby corroborating the universal interference nature of coherent backscattering. The polarization opposition effect is shown to be the least robust manifestation of weak localization fading away with increasing particle size parameter.

  12. Communication: Density-functional theory for inhomogeneous hyperbranched polymeric fluids: polydisperse effect of degree of branching.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Cao, Dapeng

    2010-09-28

    We developed a new density-functional theory (DFT) for inhomogeneous hyperbranched polymers that is able to describe the polydisperse degree of branching quantitatively. The topological contributions of the polymer chains to the Helmholtz free energy take into account the effect of triple connections that are absent in previous DFT investigations. One key advantage of the new theory is that the computational cost shows only a linear relationship with the molecular weight (rather than an exponential relationship). The practical utility of the new DFT is illustrated by investigating colloidal stability in the presence of monodisperse and polydisperse hyperbranched polymers.

  13. Droplet polydispersity and shape fluctuations in AOT [bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt] microemulsions studied by contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arleth, Lise; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2001-06-01

    Microemulsions consisting of AOT water, and decane or iso-octane are studied in the region of the phase diagram where surfactant covered water droplets are formed. The polydispersity and shape fluctuations of the microemulsion droplets are determined and compared in the two different alkane types. Conductivity measurements show that there is a pronounced dependence of the temperature behavior of the microemulsion on the type of alkane used. In both cases the microemulsion droplets start to form larger aggregates when the temperature increases. But in the system with decane this aggregation temperature occurs at a temperature about 10 °C lower than in a similar system with iso-octane. Aggregation phenomena are avoided and the two systems are at approximately the same reduced temperature with respect to the aggregation temperature when the temperature of the AOT/D2O/decane microemulsion is 10 °C and the temperature of the AOT/D2O/iso-octane microemulsion is 20 °C. Contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering measurements are performed at these temperatures on systems with volume fractions of 5% D2O+AOT by varying the scattering length density of the alkane. The small-angle scattering for 11 different contrasts evenly distributed around the match points are studied for each sample. The scattering data for the different contrasts are analyzed using a molecular constrained model for ellipsoidal droplets of water covered by AOT, interacting as polydisperse hard spheres. All contrasts are fitted simultaneously by taking the different contrast factors into account. The analysis show that at the same reduced temperature with respect to the aggregation temperature the droplet size, polydispersity index, the size of the shape fluctuations are similar in the two systems. A polydispersity index (σ/R of the Gaussian size distribution) of 16% and an average axis ratio of the droplets of 1.56 is found in the AOT/D2O/decane microemulsion. In the AOT/D2O/iso-octane system

  14. Large liquid rocket engine transient performance simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. R.; Southwick, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation system, ROCETS, was designed and developed to allow cost-effective computer predictions of liquid rocket engine transient performance. The system allows a user to generate a simulation of any rocket engine configuration using component modules stored in a library through high-level input commands. The system library currently contains 24 component modules, 57 sub-modules and maps, and 33 system routines and utilities. FORTRAN models from other sources can be operated in the system upon inclusion of interface information on comment cards. Operation of the simulation is simplified for the user by run, execution, and output processors. The simulation system makes available steady-state trim balance, transient operation, and linear partial generation. The system utilizes a modern equation solver for efficient operation of the simulations. Transient integration methods include integral and differential forms for the trapezoidal, first order Gear, and second order Gear corrector equations. A detailed technology test bed engine (TTBE) model was generated to be used as the acceptance test of the simulation system. The general level of model detail was that reflected in the Space Shuttle Main Engine DTM. The model successfully obtained steady-state balance in main stage operation and simulated throttle transients, including engine starts and shutdown. A NASA FORTRAN control model was obtained, ROCETS interface installed in comment cards, and operated with the TTBE model in closed-loop transient mode.

  15. Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles as an Ophthalmic Delivery System for Tetrandrine: Development, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Shuangshuang; Fang, Shiming; Wang, Jialu; Chen, Jingjing; Huang, Xingguo; He, Xin; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) that display improved pre-ocular residence time and ocular bioavailability and that can be used as an ophthalmic delivery system for tetrandrine (TET). The delivery system consisted of three primary components, including glyceryl monoolein, poloxamer 407, and water, and two secondary components, including Gelucire 44/14 and amphipathic octadecyl-quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The amount of TET, the amount of glyceryl monoolein, and the ratio of poloxamer 407 to glyceryl monoolein were selected as the factors that were used to optimize the dependent variables, which included encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. A three-factor, five-level central composite design was constructed to optimize the formulation. TET-loaded LCNPs (TET-LCNPs) were characterized to determine their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, particle morphology, inner crystalline structure, and in vitro drug release profile. Corneal permeation in excised rabbit corneas was evaluated. Pre-ocular retention was determined using a noninvasive fluorescence imaging system. Finally, pharmacokinetic study in the aqueous humor was performed by microdialysis technique. The optimal formulation had a mean particle size of 170.0 ± 13.34 nm, a homogeneous distribution with polydispersity index of 0.166 ± 0.02, a positive surface charge with a zeta potential of 29.3 ± 1.25 mV, a high entrapment efficiency of 95.46 ± 4.13 %, and a drug loading rate of 1.63 ± 0.07 %. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical particles that had smooth surfaces. Small-angle X-ray scattering profiles revealed an inverted hexagonal phase. The in vitro release assays showed a sustained drug release profile. A corneal permeation study showed that the apparent permeability coefficient of the optimal formulation was 2.03-fold higher than that of the TET solution. Pre-ocular retention

  16. Sticking polydisperse hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles to lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Michael; Degen, Patrick; Brenner, Thorsten; Tiemeyer, Sebastian; Struth, Bernd; Tolan, Metin; Rehage, Heinz

    2010-10-19

    The formation of a layer of hydrophobic magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles stabilized by lauric acid is analyzed by in situ X-ray reflectivity measurements. The data analysis shows that the nanoparticles partially disperse their hydrophobic coating. Consequently, a Langmuir layer was formed by lauric acid molecules that can be compressed into an untilted condensed phase. A majority of the nanoparticles are attached to the Langmuir film integrating lauric acid residue on their surface into the Langmuir film. Hence, the particles at the liquid-gas interface can be identified as so-called Janus beads, which are amphiphilic solids having two sides with different functionality.

  17. Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-16

    RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

  18. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  19. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  20. Cold Helium Pressurization for Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propulsion Systems: Fully-Integrated Hot-Fire Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morehead, R. L.; Atwell, M. J.; Melcher, J. C.; Hurlbert, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hot-fire test demonstrations were successfully conducted using a cold helium pressurization system fully integrated into a liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion system (Figure 1). Cold helium pressurant storage at near liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures (-275 F and colder) and used as a heated tank pressurant provides a substantial density advantage compared to ambient temperature storage. The increased storage density reduces helium pressurant tank size and mass, creating payload increases of 35% for small lunar-lander sized applications. This degree of mass reduction also enables pressure-fed propulsion systems for human-rated Mars ascent vehicle designs. Hot-fire test results from the highly-instrumented test bed will be used to demonstrate system performance and validate integrated models of the helium and propulsion systems. A pressurization performance metric will also be developed as a means to compare different active pressurization schemes.

  1. Structural signature of slow dynamics and dynamic heterogeneity in two-dimensional colloidal liquids: glassy structural order.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tanaka, Hajime

    2011-05-18

    Glassy states are formed if crystallization is avoided upon cooling or increasing density. However, the physical factors controlling the ease of vitrification and the nature of glass transition remain elusive. Among various glass-forming systems, colloidal liquids are one of the most ideal glass-forming systems because of the simplicity and controllability of the interactions. We use numerical simulations of two-dimensional polydisperse and binary hard discs to tackle both of these longstanding questions. For polydisperse systems, we systematically control the polydispersity, which can be regarded as the strength of frustration effects on crystallization. We reveal that crystal-like hexatic order grows in size and lifetime with an increase in the colloid volume fraction or with a decrease in polydispersity (or frustration). We stress that hexatic ordering in hard disc systems is a direct consequence of dense packing and a manifestation of low configurational entropy. Our study suggests an intriguing scenario that the strength of frustration controls both the ease of vitrification and the nature of the glass transition. Vitrification may be a process of hidden crystal-like ordering under frustration for this system. This may provide not only a physical basis for glass formation, but also an answer to another longstanding question on the structure of amorphous materials: 'order in disorder' may be an intrinsic feature of a glassy state of many materials. For binary mixtures, on the other hand, the relevant structural feature linked to slow dynamics is not hexatic order, but an amorphous structure of low structural entropy. These results suggest that slow dynamics is associated with bond orientational order linked to the crystal for a weakly frustrated system, whereas to amorphous structures of low configurational entropy for a strongly frustrated system. This suggests an intrinsic link between structure and dynamics in glass-forming materials: slow dynamics is linked

  2. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  3. Thermal Elasticity Stresses Study in Composite System 'Porous Silicon - Liquid'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaiev, M.; Voitenko, K.; Doroshchuk, V.; Andrusenko, D.; Kuzmich, A.; Skryshevskii, A.; Lysenko, V.; Burbelo, R.

    In this report the study of the elasticity stresses arising in the composite system "porous silicon -etching solution" will be discussed. For this purpose, the modified etching cell with piezoelectric transducer was adopted It was shown that the thermally induced pressures of the liquid confined inside of pores influenced dramatically on the time-domain shape of voltage signal detected on electrodes of the piezoelectric transducer. Therefore, the significant role of these pressures on the formation of general elastic stresses in the system was stated. The dependence of their magnitude and time delay on the thickness of porous silicon layer was found. Thus, the obtained experimental results could be a background for the new technique for the porous silicon in-situ study.

  4. Materials Problems in Chemical Liquid-Propellant Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, L. L.

    1959-01-01

    With the advent of the space age, new adjustments in technical thinking and engineering experience are necessary. There is an increasing and extensive interest in the utilization of materials for components to be used at temperatures ranging from -423 to over 3500 deg F. This paper presents a description of the materials problems associated with the various components of chemical liquid rocket systems. These components include cooled and uncooled thrust chambers, injectors, turbine drive systems, propellant tanks, and cryogenic propellant containers. In addition to materials limitations associated with these components, suggested research approaches for improving materials properties are made. Materials such as high-temperature alloys, cermets, carbides, nonferrous alloys, plastics, refractory metals, and porous materials are considered.

  5. Low-reflection-coefficient liquid interfaces for system characterization.

    PubMed

    Hall, T J; Madsen, E L; Dong, F; Medina, I R; Frank, G R

    2001-07-01

    The use of liquid brominated hydrocarbons to form a planar reflecting interface with water is described. Gravity-based planar reflecting surfaces with known reflection coefficients can be used in system characterization for quantitative ultrasonics, and a set of surfaces with a range of reflection coefficients allows calibration of the output power and receiver gain of ultrasonic imaging systems. The substances reported here are immiscible in water and form interfaces with water, resulting in a broad range of acoustic reflection coefficients. Reflection coefficients were measured at temperatures from 18-24 degrees C for "pure" substances and for mixtures of two brominated hydrocarbons. Results show that reflection coefficients are weakly dependent on temperature and that, at a specific temperature, a significant range of arbitrarily small reflection coefficients is available, in the case of the mixtures, by the appropriate choice of weight-percents of the two brominated hydrocarbons.

  6. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) in the system with a membrane contactor.

    PubMed

    Biełuszka, Paweł; Zakrzewska, Grażyna; Chajduk, Ewelina; Dudek, Jakub

    Raising role of the nuclear power industry, including governmental plans for the construction of first nuclear power plant in Poland, creates increasing demand for the uranium-based nuclear fuels. The project implemented by Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology concerns the development of effective methods for uranium extraction from low-grade ores and phosphorites for production of yellow cake-U3O8. The Liqui-Cel(®) Extra-Flow 2.5 × 8 Membrane Contactor produced by CELGARD LLC (Charlotte, NC) company is the main component of the installation for liquid-liquid extraction applied for processing of post leaching liquors. In the process of membrane extraction the uranyl ions from aqueous phase are transported through the membrane into organic phase. The flow of two phases in the system was arranged in co-current mode. The very important element of the work was a selection of extracting agents appropriate for the membrane process. After preliminary experiments comprising tests of membrane resistivity and determination of extraction efficiency, di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was found to be most favourable. An important aspect of the work was the adjustment of hydrodynamic conditions in the capillary module. To avoid the membrane wettability by organic solvent and mixing two phases equal pressure drops along the membrane module to minimize the transmembrane pressure, were assumed. Determination of pressure drop along the module was conducted using Bernoulli equation. The integrated process of extraction/re-extraction conducted in continuous mode with application of two contactors was designed.

  7. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOEpatents

    Meneely, T.K.; Sherbine, C.A.

    1994-04-26

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid there through. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank. 2 figures.

  8. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOEpatents

    Meneely, Timothy K.; Sherbine, Catherine A.

    1994-01-01

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid therethrough. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank.

  9. Evaporation of polydispersed droplets in a highly turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochet, M.; Bazile, Rudy; Ferret, B.; Cazin, S.

    2009-09-01

    A model experiment for the study of evaporating turbulent two-phase flows is presented here. The study focuses on a situation where pre-atomized and dispersed droplets vaporize and mix in a heated turbulent flow. The test bench consists in a channel flow with characteristics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence where fluctuations levels reach very high values (25% in the established zone). An ultrasonic atomizer allows the injection of a mist of small droplets of acetone in the carrier flow. The large range diameters ensure that every kind of droplet behavior with regards to turbulence is possible. Instantaneous concentration fields of the vaporized phase are extracted from fluorescent images (PLIF) of the two phase flow. The evolution of the mixing of the acetone vapor is analyzed for two different liquid mass loadings. Despite the high turbulence levels, concentration fluctuations remain significant, indicating that air and acetone vapor are not fully mixed far from the injector.

  10. Protein intrinsic disorder-based liquid-liquid phase transitions in biological systems: Complex coacervates and membrane-less organelles.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-01-01

    It is clear now that eukaryotic cells contain numerous membrane-less organelles, many of which are formed in response to changes in the cellular environment. Being typically liquid in nature, many of these organelles can be described as products of the reversible and highly controlled liquid-liquid phase transitions in biological systems. Many of these membrane-less organelles are complex coacervates containing (almost invariantly) intrinsically disordered proteins and often nucleic acids. It seems that the lack of stable structure in major proteinaceous constituents of these organelles is crucial for the formation of phase-separated droplets. This review considers several biologically relevant liquid-liquid phase transitions, introduces some general features attributed to intrinsically disordered proteins, represents several illustrative examples of intrinsic disorder-based phase separation, and provides some reasons for the abundance of intrinsically disordered proteins in organelles formed as a result of biological liquid-liquid phase transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2003-07-01

    A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

  12. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years, and

  13. Influence of the initial pressure of polydisperse bubble media on characteristics of detonation waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, A. I.

    2017-04-01

    The influence of the initial pressure of polydisperse bubble media on the initiation conditions, structure, propagation velocity, and the pressure of detonation waves has been experimentally studied. It has been established that variations in the initial pressure of the bubble medium is an effective method of controlling the parameters of bubble detonation waves.

  14. Novel Colloidal and Dynamic Interfacial Phenomena in Liquid Crystalline Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-13

    investigation supported by this grant moved beyond past studies of interfacial and colloidal phenomena involving isotropic liquids to explore and understand a...2010 20-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Novel Colloidal and Dynamic Interfacial Phenomena in Liquid...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 liquid crystals, interfacial phenomena, colloids , amphiphiles

  15. Testing of Liquid Metal Components for Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) was established by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to provide a capability for performing hardware-directed activities to support multiple in-space nuclear reactor concepts by using a non-nuclear test methodology. This includes fabrication and testing at both the module/component level and near prototypic reactor configurations. The EFF-TF is currently supporting an effort to develop an affordable fission surface power (AFSP) system that could be deployed on the Lunar surface. The AFSP system is presently based on a pumped liquid metal-cooled (Sodium-Potassium eutectic, NaK-78) reactor design. This design was derived from the only fission system that the United States has deployed for space operation, the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) 10A reactor, which was launched in 1965. Two prototypical components recently tested at MSFC were a pair of Stirling power conversion units that would be used in a reactor system to convert heat to electricity, and an annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that uses travelling electromagnetic fields to pump the liquid metal coolant through the reactor loop. First ever tests were conducted at MSFC to determine baseline performance of a pair of 1 kW Stirling convertors using NaK as the hot side working fluid. A special test rig was designed and constructed and testing was conducted inside a vacuum chamber at MSFC. This test rig delivered pumped NaK for the hot end temperature to the Stirlings and water as the working fluid on the cold end temperature. These test were conducted through a hot end temperature range between 400 to 550C in increments of 50 C and a cold end temperature range from 30 to 70 C in 20 C increments. Piston amplitudes were varied from 6 to 1 1mm in .5 mm increments. A maximum of 2240 Watts electric was produced at the design point of 550 hot end, 40 C cold end with a piston amplitude of 10.5mm. This power level was reached at a gross thermal

  16. Evaluation of a Liquid Amine System for Spacecraft Carbon Dioxide Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaux, D. K.; Friedel, P.; Hwang, K. C.; Probert, G.; Ruder, J. M.; Sawamura, L.

    1974-01-01

    The analytical and experimental studies are described which were directed toward the acquisition of basic information on utilizing a liquid amine sorbent for in use in a CO2 removal system for manned spacecraft. Liquid amine systems are successfully used on submarines for control of CO2 generated by the crew, but liquid amines were not previously considered for spacecraft applications due to lack of development of satisfactory rotary phase separators. Developments in this area now make consideration of liquid amines practical for spacecraft system CO2 removal. The following major tasks were performed to evaluate liquid amine systems for spacecraft: (1) characterization, through testing, of the basic physical and thermodynamic properties of the amine solution; (2) determination of the dynamic characteristics of a cocurrent flow absorber; and (3) evaluation, synthesis, and selection of a liquid amine system concept oriented toward low power requirements. A low weight, low power system concept was developed. Numerical and graphical data are accompanied by pertinent observations.

  17. Rational approach to solvent system selection for liquid-liquid extraction-assisted sample pretreatment in counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajia; Gu, Dongyu; Wang, Miao; Guo, Xinfeng; Li, Haoquan; Dong, Yue; Guo, Hong; Wang, Yi; Fan, Mengqi; Yang, Yi

    2017-05-15

    A rational liquid-liquid extraction approach was established to pre-treat samples for high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:5:4:5, v/v) and (1:5:1:5, v/v) were selected as solvent systems for liquid-liquid extraction by systematically screening K of target compounds to remove low- and high-polarity impurities in the sample, respectively. After liquid-liquid extraction was performed, 1.4g of crude sample II was obtained from 18.5g of crude sample I which was extracted from the flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L., and then separated with HSCCC by using a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:2, v/v). As a result, 31mg of robinin and 37mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from 200mg of crude sample II in a single run of HSCCC. A scale-up separation was also performed, and 160mg of robinin with 95% purity and 188mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside with 97% purity were produced from 1.2g of crude sample II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  19. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOEpatents

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  20. New liquid aerosol generation devices: systems that force pressurized liquids through nozzles.

    PubMed

    Geller, David E

    2002-12-01

    Over the past few decades, aerosol delivery devices have been relatively inefficient, wasteful, and difficult for patients to use. These drawbacks have been tolerated because the drugs available for inhalation have wide therapeutic margins and steep dose-response curves at low doses. Recently several forces have converged to drive innovation in the aerosol device industry: the ban on chlorofluorocarbon propellants in metered-dose inhalers, the need for more user-friendly devices, and the invention of expensive inhalable therapies for topical and systemic lung delivery. Numerous devices are in development to improve the efficiency, ease of use, and reproducibility of aerosol delivery to the lung, including systems that force liquid through a nozzle to form the aerosol cloud. The Respimat is a novel, compact, propellant-free, multi-dose inhaler that employs a spring to push drug solution through a nozzle, which generates a slow-moving aerosol. Deposition studies show that the Respimat can deliver 39-44% of a dose to the lungs. Clinical asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease trials with bronchodilators show that the Respimat is 2-8 times as effective as a metered-dose inhaler. Respimat has been tested with bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. The AERx device uses sophisticated electronics to deliver aerosol from a single-dose blister, using an integral, disposable nozzle array. The electronics control dose expression and titration, timing of aerosol generation with the breath, and provide feedback for proper inhalation technique. Lung deposition ranges from 50 to 80% of the loaded dose, with remarkable reproducibility. AERx has been tested with a variety of drugs, for both topical and systemic delivery, including rhDNase (dornase alfa), insulin, and opioids. These novel devices face competition from other technologies as well as financial and regulatory hurdles, but they both offer a marked improvement in the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery.

  1. Enhanced droplet collision rates and impact velocities in turbulent flows: The effect of poly-dispersity and transient phases.

    PubMed

    James, Martin; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar

    2017-09-25

    We compare the collision rates and the typical collisional velocities amongst droplets of different sizes in a poly-disperse suspension advected by two- and three-dimensional turbulent flows. We show that the collision rate is enhanced in the transient phase for droplets for which the size-ratios between the colliding pairs is large as well as obtain precise theoretical estimates of the dependence of the impact velocity of particles-pairs on their relative sizes. These analytical results are validated against data from our direct numerical simulations. Our results suggest that an explanation of the rapid growth of droplets, e.g., in warm clouds, may well lie in the dynamics of particles in transient phases where increased collision rates between large and small particles could result in runaway process. Our results are also important to model coalescence or fragmentation (depending on the impact velocities) and will be crucial, for example, in obtaining precise coalescence kernels in such systems.

  2. Viscosity mixing rules for binary systems containing one ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Mohammed; Altamash, Tausif; Salavera, Daniel; Coronas, Alberto; Rebelo, Luis P N; Canongia Lopes, Jose N

    2013-06-24

    In this work the applicability of four of the most commonly used viscosity mixing rules to [ionic liquid (IL)+molecular solvent (MS)] systems is assessed. More than one hundred (IL+MS) binary mixtures were selected from the literature to test the viscosity mixing rules proposed by 1) Hind (Hi), 2) Grunberg and Nissan (G-N), 3) Herric (He) and 4) Katti and Chaudhri (K-C). The analyses were performed by estimating the average (absolute or relative) deviations, AADs and ARDs, between the available experimental data and the predicted ideal mixture viscosity values obtained by means of each rule. The interaction terms corresponding to the adjustable parameters inherent to each rule were also calculated and their trends discussed.

  3. Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic system evaluation. [coal-fired designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    The present study emphasizes a direct coal-fired design using a bubbly two-component flow of sodium and argon in the MHD generator and a Rankine steam-bottoming plant. Two basic cycles were studied, corresponding to argon temperatures of 922 and 1089 K at the duct inlet. The MHD duct system consisted of multiple ducts arranged in clusters and separated by iron magnet pole pieces. The ducts, each with an output of about 100 MW, were parallel to the flow, but were connected in series electrically to provide a higher MHD voltage. With channel efficiencies of 80%, a pump efficiency of 90%, and a 45% efficient steam-bottoming plant, the overall efficiency of the 1089 K liquid-metal MHD power plant was 43%.

  4. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    DOEpatents

    Waite, Darrell; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P.; Ceckler, William H.

    2015-06-30

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hydrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  5. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    DOEpatents

    Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

    2013-12-17

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  6. The NA62 liquid Krypton calorimeter's new readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Lamanna, G.; Rouet, J.; Ryjov, V.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the experiment photon-veto system; to cope with the new requirements, the back-end electronics of the LKr had to be completely renewed. Due to the huge number of the calorimeter readout channels ( ~ 14 K) and the maintenance requirement over 10 years of the experiment lifetime, the decision to sub-contract the development and production to industry was taken in 2011. This paper presents the primary test results of the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3] prototype delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013. All essential features, analog performance, data processing and readout, are covered.

  7. Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic system evaluation. [coal-fired designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    The present study emphasizes a direct coal-fired design using a bubbly two-component flow of sodium and argon in the MHD generator and a Rankine steam-bottoming plant. Two basic cycles were studied, corresponding to argon temperatures of 922 and 1089 K at the duct inlet. The MHD duct system consisted of multiple ducts arranged in clusters and separated by iron magnet pole pieces. The ducts, each with an output of about 100 MW, were parallel to the flow, but were connected in series electrically to provide a higher MHD voltage. With channel efficiencies of 80%, a pump efficiency of 90%, and a 45% efficient steam-bottoming plant, the overall efficiency of the 1089 K liquid-metal MHD power plant was 43%.

  8. Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

  9. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study. Volume 2: Addendum 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The potential of a common Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) design was evaluated for use with both the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Advanced Launch System (ALS). A goal is to have a common Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen (LO2/LH2) engine developed for both the ALS booster and the core stage. The LO2/LH2 option for the STS was evaluated to identify potential LRB program cost reductions. The objective was to identify the structural impacts to the external tank (ET), and to determine if any significant ET re-development costs are required as a result of the larger LO2/LH2 LRB. The potential ET impacts evaluated are presented.

  10. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  11. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  12. Testing of Liquid Metal Components for Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Godfroy, T. J.; Schoenfeld, M.; Webster, K.; Briggs, M. H.; Geng, S. M.; Adkins, H. E.; Werner, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to perform testing at both the module/component level and in near prototypic reactor configurations using a non-nuclear test methodology allowed for evaluation of two components critical to the development of a potential nuclear fission power system for the lunar surface. A pair of 1 kW Stirling power convertors, similar to the type that would be used in a reactor system to convert heat to electricity, were integrated into a reactor simulator system to determine their performance using pumped NaK as the hot side working fluid. The performance in the pumped-NaK system met or exceed the baseline performance measurements where the converters were electrically heated. At the maximum hot-side temperature of 550 C the maximum output power was 2375 watts. A specially-designed test apparatus was fabricated and used to quantify the performance of an annular linear induction pump that is similar to the type that could be used to circulate liquid metal through the core of a space reactor system. The errors on the measurements were generally much smaller than the magnitude of the measurements, permitting accurate performance evaluation over a wide range of operating conditions. The pump produced flow rates spanning roughly 0.16 to 5.7 l/s (2.5 to 90 GPM), and delta p levels from less than 1 kPa to 90 kPa (greater than 0.145 psi to roughly 13 psi). At the nominal FSP system operating temperature of 525 C the maximum efficiency was just over 4%.

  13. Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths with the Betaine—Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid System

    PubMed Central

    Hoogerstraete, Tom Vander; Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature. PMID:24169434

  14. Melter viewing system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    Melter viewing systems are an integral component of the monitoring and control systems for liquid-fed ceramic melters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has designed cameras for use with glass melters at PNL, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This report is a compilation of these designs. Operating experiences with one camera designed for the PNL melter are discussed. A camera has been fabricated and tested on the High-Bay Ceramic Melter (HBCM) and the Pilot-Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) at PNL. The camera proved to be an effective tool for monitoring the cold cap formed as the feed pool developed on the molten glass surface and for observing the physical condition of the melter. Originally, the camera was built to operate using the visible light spectrum in the melter. It was later modified to operate using the infrared (ir) spectrum. In either configuration, the picture quality decreases as the size of the cold cap increases. Large cold caps cover the molten glass, reducing the amount of visible light and reducing the plenum temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. This temperature corresponds to the lowest level of blackbody radiation to which the video tube is sensitive. The camera has been tested in melter environments for about 1900 h. The camera has withstood mechanical shocks and vibrations. The cooling system in the camera has proved effective in maintaining the optical and electronic components within acceptable temperature ranges. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Cold Helium Pressurization for Liquid Oxygen / Liquid Methane Propulsion Systems: Fully-Integrated Initial Hot-Fire Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morehead, R. L.; Atwell, M. J.; Melcher, J. C.; Hurlbert, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype cold helium active pressurization system was incorporated into an existing liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane (LCH4) prototype planetary lander and hot-fire tested to collect vehicle-level performance data. Results from this hot-fire test series were used to validate integrated models of the vehicle helium and propulsion systems and demonstrate system effectiveness for a throttling lander. Pressurization systems vary greatly in complexity and efficiency between vehicles, so a pressurization performance metric was also developed as a means to compare different active pressurization schemes. This implementation of an active repress system is an initial sizing draft. Refined implementations will be tested in the future, improving the general knowledge base for a cryogenic lander-based cold helium system.

  16. Liquid polyimide as a substrate for aeronautical sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerter, Martin; Hecht, Lars; Koch, Eugen Viktor; Leester-Schädel, Monika; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Dietzel, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Using more and more controlled systems in future aircraft the need of flexible sensors to be applied on curved aircraft structures increases. An appropriate substrate material for such flexible sensors is polyimide, which is available both as ready-made foil and as liquid polyimide to be spun-on. Latest results in producing and processing of polyimide layers with a thickness of down to 1 μm including designs for thin foil sensors are presented respectively. The successful processing of liquid polyimide is outlined first including the spin-on procedure, soft bake and curing for polymerization. Parameters for spin-on volume and rotation speed on glass substrates along with a comparison with ordinary polyimide foil are presented. High-precision structuring of the polyimide layer is performed either by etching (wet-etching as well as dry etching in a barrel etcher) or ablative removal using a femtosecond laser. In combination with a layer of silicon nitride as an inorganic diffusion barrier a reliable protection for water tunnel experiments can be realized. The fabrication of a protection layer and test results in water with protected sensors are presented. The design of a hot-film anemometric sensor array made on spin-on polyimide is demonstrated. With a thickness of down to 7 μm the sensors can be applied on the surface of wind tunnel models and water tunnel models without impacting the flow substantially. Additionally both the concept and recent results of a silicon sensor integrated in a polyimide foil substrate that can measure pressure as a complementary measurand for aeronautics are illustrated.

  17. Ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrid systems: Emerging applications.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiqi; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2017-06-01

    Having novel electronic and optical properties that emanate from their nano-scale dimensions, nanoparticles are central to numerous applications. Ionic liquids can confer to nanoparticle chemical protection and physicochemical property enhancement through intermolecular interactions and can consequently improve the stability and reusability of nanoparticle for various operations. With an aim to combine the novel properties of nanoparticles and ionic liquids, different structures have been generated, based on a balance of several intermolecular interactions. Such ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrids are showing great potential in diverse applications. In this review, we first introduce various types of ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrids, including nanoparticle colloidal dispersions in ionic liquids, ionic liquid-grafted nanoparticles, and nanoparticle-stabilized ionic liquid-based emulsions. Such hybrid materials exhibit interesting synergisms. We then highlight representative applications of ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrids in the catalysis, electrochemistry and separations fields. Such hybrids can attain better stability and higher efficiency under a broad range of conditions. Novel and enhanced performance can be achieved in these applications by combining desired properties of ionic liquids and of nanoparticles within an appropriate hybrid nanostructure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: an efficient tool for measuring size, size-distribution and polydispersity of microemulsion droplets in solution.

    PubMed

    Pal, Nibedita; Dev Verma, Sachin; Singh, Moirangthem Kiran; Sen, Sobhan

    2011-10-15

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is an ideal tool for measuring molecular diffusion and size under extremely dilute conditions. However, the power of FCS has not been utilized to its best to measure diffusion and size parameters of complex chemical systems. Here, we apply FCS to measure the size, and, most importantly, the size distribution and polydispersity of a supramolecular nanostructure (i.e., microemulsion droplets, MEDs) in dilute solution. It is shown how the refractive index mismatch of a solution can be corrected in FCS to obtain accurate size parameters of particles, bypassing the optical matching problem of light scattering techniques that are used often for particle-size measurements. We studied the MEDs of 13 different W(0) values from 2 to 50 prepared in a ternary mixture of water, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT), and isooctane, with sulforhodamine-B as a fluorescent marker. We find that, near the optical matching point of MEDs, the dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements underestimate the droplet sizes while FCS estimates the accurate ones. A Gaussian distribution model (GDM) and a maximum-entropy-based FCS data fitting model (MEMFCS) are used to analyze the fluorescence correlation curves that unfold Gaussian-type size distributions of MEDs in solution. We find the droplet size varies linearly with W(0) up to ~20, but beyond this W(0) value, the size variation deviates from this linearity. To explain nonlinear variation of droplet size for W(0) values beyond ~20, we invoke a model (the coated-droplet model) that incorporates the size polydispersity of the droplets.

  19. Multiple Size Group Modeling of Polydispersed Bubbly Flow in the Mold: An Analysis of Turbulence and Interfacial Force Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Qi, Fengsheng; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa

    2015-04-01

    An inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) model based on the Eulerian-Eulerian approach has been developed to describe the polydispersed bubbly flow inside the continuous-casting mold. A laboratory scale mold has been simulated using four different turbulence closure models (modified k - ɛ, RNG k - ɛ, k - ω, and SST) with the purpose of critically comparing their predictions of bubble Sauter mean diameter distribution with previous experimental data. Furthermore, the influences of all the interfacial momentum transfer terms including drag force, lift force, virtual mass force, wall lubrication force, and turbulent dispersion force are investigated. The breakup and coalescence effects of the bubbles are modeled according to the bubble breakup by the impact of turbulent eddies while for bubble coalescence by the random collisions driven by turbulence and wake entrainment. It has been found that the modified k - ɛ model shows better agreement than other models in predicting the bubble Sauter mean diameter profiles. Further, simulations have also been performed to understand the sensitivity of different interfacial forces. The appropriate drag force coefficient, lift force coefficient, virtual mass force coefficient, and turbulent dispersion force coefficient are chosen in accordance with measurements of water model experiments. However, the wall lubrication force does not have much effect on the current polydispersed bubbly flow system. Finally, the MUSIG model is then used to estimate the argon bubble diameter in the molten steel of the mold. The argon bubble Sauter mean diameter generated in molten steel is predicted to be larger than air bubbles in water for the similar conditions.

  20. Process equipment waste and process waste liquid collection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The US DOE has prepared an environmental assessment for construction related to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) and Process Waste Liquid (PWL) Collection System Tasks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. This report describes and evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action (and alternatives). The purpose of the proposed action would be to ensure that the PEW and PWL collection systems, a series of enclosed process hazardous waste, and radioactive waste lines and associated equipment, would be brought into compliance with applicable State and Federal hazardous waste regulations. This would be accomplished primarily by rerouting the lines to stay within the buildings where the lined floors of the cells and corridors would provide secondary containment. Leak detection would be provided via instrumented collection sumps locate din the cells and corridors. Hazardous waste transfer lines that are routed outside buildings will be constructed using pipe-in-pipe techniques with leak detection instrumentation in the interstitial area. The need for the proposed action was identified when a DOE-sponsored Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance assessment of the ICPP facilities found that singly-contained waste lines ran buried in the soil under some of the original facilities. These lines carried wastes with a pH of less than 2.0, which were hazardous waste according to the RCRA standards. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Photon Detection System for LBNE Liquid Argon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2014-03-01

    The LBNE (Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment) is the next generation accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment planned in US. The experiment will use a new muon-neutrino beam sent from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and will detect electron-neutrino appearance and muon-neutrino disappearance using a Liquid Argon TPC located at a distance of 1300 km at Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. The primary physics goal of the LBNE is a definitive determination the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination the octant of the neutrino mixing angle theta-23, and precise measurement of CP violation in neutrino oscillation. Neutrino interaction in LAr result in charged particles producing ionization and scintillation light signals. Dedicated photon detection system is under design for use in the LBNE LArTPC far detectors. The baseline design couples wavelength-shifter coated ultraviolet transmitting acrylic to 3 mm2 silicon photomultipliers. By detecting scintillation light we aim to improve event reconstruction capabilities and efficiently separate neutrino events from background. Current status of the system will be described.

  2. Effects of Size Polydispersity on Pharmaceutical Particle Packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Hancock, Bruno; Bentham, Craig; Elliott, James

    2005-03-01

    Pharmaceutical powder blends are multicomponent mixtures of excipients and the drug powder particles which have irregular shapes with equivalent diameters typically ranging from 40 microns to 300 microns. We consider idealizations of such systems with emphasis on the size dispersity in a pure excipient powder comprised of spherical particles. We study the characteristics of the particle packings generated through gravitational compaction followed by uniaxial compaction via Discrete Element Method simulations (Dutt et al., 2004 to be published). We present results for two common excipients: microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and sucrose. For each excipient, we vary the degree of dispersity in the diameters of the particles. For insight into the geometrical characteristics of the particle packings, we calculate the coordination number, packing fraction, radial distribution functions and contact angle distributions for the various mixtures. The evolution of the force and stress distributions along with the stress-strain relations are calculated for each system. We discuss comparisons of these quantities for systems with different size dispersity and material properties. For MCC and sucrose mixtures with narrow size distributions (195-225 microns, 170-260 microns), the average packing fraction and coordination number prior to and after uniaxial compaction decreases with interparticle friction, in agreement with results for monodisperse spheres (Silbert et al., Phys. Rev. E (2002)).

  3. Pressure-Based Liquid Feed System for Suspension Plasma Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotler, Elliot M.; Chen, Dianying; Molz, Ronald J.

    2011-06-01

    Thermal spraying with liquid-based feedstocks demonstrated a potential to produce coatings with new and enhanced characteristics. A liquid delivery system prototype was developed and tested in this study. The feeder is based on the 5MPE platform and uses a pressure setup to optimally inject and atomize liquid feedstock into a plasma plume. A novel self-cleaning apparatus is incorporated into the system to greatly reduce problems associated with clogging and agglomeration of liquid suspensions. This approach also allows the liquid feedstock line to the gun to remain charged for quick on-off operation. Experiments on aqueous and ethanol-based suspensions of titania, alumina, and YSZ were performed through this liquid delivery system using a 9MB plasma gun. Coatings with ultrafine splat microstructures were obtained by plasma spraying of those suspensions. Phase composition and microstructure of the as-sprayed coatings were investigated.

  4. Liquid Crystals in Binary Systems of Lead Decanoate with Zinc or Cadmium Decanoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T. A., Mirnaya; Sudovtsova, L. S.; Yaremchuk, G. G.

    2000-12-01

    The phase transition temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis and hot stage polarization microscopy between room temperature and the isotropic liquid region for the binary systems of lead (II) decanoate with zinc (II) or cadmium (II) decanoate. The boundaries of the liquid crystal formation in these systems were found.

  5. Representation of the vaporization behavior of turbulent polydisperse sprays by equivalent monodisperse sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Shuen, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of using an equivalent monodisperse spray to represent the vaporization behavior of polydisperse sprays has been examined by numerically solving two turbulent vaporizing sprays. One involves the injection of Freon-11 in a still environment, whereas the other is a methanol spray in a still but hot environment. The use of three different mean sizes, namely, Sauter mean diameter, volume median diameter, and surface-area mean diameter, has been investigated. Results indicate a good degree of correlation between the polydisperse spray and its equivalent monodisperse sprays represented by the volume median diameter and the Sauter mean diameter, the former giving slightly better results. The surface-area mean diameter does not provide as good a correlation as the other two mean diameters.

  6. Representation of the vaporization behavior of turbulent polydisperse sprays by 'equivalent' monodisperse sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Shuen, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of using an equivalent monodisperse spray to represent the vaporization behavior of polydisperse sprays has been examined by numerically solving two turbulent vaporizing sprays. One involves the injection of Freon-11 in a still environment, whereas the other is a methanol spray in a still but hot environment. The use of three different mean sizes, namely, Sauter mean diameter, volume median diameter, and surface-area mean diameter, has been investigated. Results indicate a good degree of correlation between the polydisperse spray and its equivalent monodisperse sprays represented by the volume median diameter and the Sauter mean diameter, the former giving slightly better results. The surface-area mean diameter does not provide as good a correlation as the other two mean diameters.

  7. Modeling the viscosity of polydisperse suspensions: Improvements in prediction of limiting behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwasame, Paul M.; Wagner, Norman J.; Beris, Antony N.

    2016-06-01

    The present study develops a fully consistent extension of the approach pioneered by Farris ["Prediction of the viscosity of multimodal suspensions from unimodal viscosity data," Trans. Soc. Rheol. 12, 281-301 (1968)] to describe the viscosity of polydisperse suspensions significantly improving upon our previous model [P. M. Mwasame, N. J. Wagner, and A. N. Beris, "Modeling the effects of polydispersity on the viscosity of noncolloidal hard sphere suspensions," J. Rheol. 60, 225-240 (2016)]. The new model captures the Farris limit of large size differences between consecutive particle size classes in a suspension. Moreover, the new model includes a further generalization that enables its application to real, complex suspensions that deviate from ideal non-colloidal suspension behavior. The capability of the new model to predict the viscosity of complex suspensions is illustrated by comparison against experimental data.

  8. Momentum transfer and particle stress in polydisperse, particle-laden flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, David; Garcia, Omar; Astephen, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations are performed in combination with two-way coupled Lagrangian point particles to study the effects of polydispersity on particle-induced modifications to momentum transfer in turbulent wall-bounded flow. Turbulent Couette flow is chosen as an idealized testbed for this purpose since total momentum flux is uniform in the wall-normal direction. Monodisperse simulations are first used to characterize momentum flux modification and particle stress as a function of particle Stokes number, and from this understanding bidisperse and continuously polydisperse mixtures of particle Stokes number are simulated. A simple model is then constructed to predict the total particle stress of these particle mixtures. While in the dilute limit particle stresses are nearly linearly additive, the entire mixture cannot simply be modeled by a single monodisperse particle with an effective Stokes number.

  9. Modeling the burnout of solid polydisperse fuel under the conditions of external heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorik, I. A.; Goldobin, Yu. M.; Tolmachev, E. M.; Gal'perin, L. G.

    2013-11-01

    A self-similar burnout mode of solid polydisperse fuel is considered taking into consideration heat transfer between fuel particles, gases, and combustion chamber walls. A polydisperse composition of fuel is taken into account by introducing particle distribution functions by radiuses obtained for the kinetic and diffusion combustion modes. Equations for calculating the temperatures of particles and gases are presented, which are written for particles average with respect to their distribution functions by radiuses taking into account the fuel burnout ratio. The proposed equations take into consideration the influence of fuel composition, air excess factor, and gas recirculation ratio. Calculated graphs depicting the variation of particle and gas temperatures, and the fuel burnout ratio are presented for an anthracite-fired boiler.

  10. Hydroponic system for the treatment of anaerobic liquid.

    PubMed

    Krishnasamy, K; Nair, J; Bäuml, B

    2012-01-01

    The effluent from anaerobic digestion process has high concentrations of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, essential for plant growth but is not suitable for direct disposal or application due to high chemical oxygen demand (COD), low dissolved oxygen (DO), odour issues and is potentially phytotoxic. This research explored the optimum conditions of anaerobic effluent for application and dilutions of the effluent required to obtain better plant growth. A small-scale hydroponic system was constructed in a glasshouse to test different concentrations of anaerobic effluent against a commercial hydroponic medium as the control for the growth of silverbeet. It was found that the survival of silverbeet was negatively affected at 50% concentration due to low DO and NH(4) toxicity. The concentration of 20% anaerobic liquid was found to be the most efficient with highest foliage yield and plant growth. The hydroponic system with 20% concentrated effluent had better utilisation of nutrients for plant growth and a COD reduction of 95% was achieved during the 50-day growth period. This preliminary evaluation revealed that the growth and development of silverbeet was significantly lower in anaerobic effluent compared with a commercial hydroponic plant growth solution. The nutrient quality of anaerobic effluent could be highly variable with the process and the waste material used and dilution may depend on the nutrient content of the effluent. It is recommended that, a pre-treatment of the effluent to increase DO and reduce ammonium content is required before plant application, and simple dilution by itself is not suitable for optimum plant growth in a hydroponic system.

  11. Continuum percolation of polydisperse hyperspheres in infinite dimensions.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the critical connectivity of systems of penetrable d-dimensional spheres having size distributions in terms of weighed random geometrical graphs, in which vertex coordinates correspond to random positions of the sphere centers, and edges are formed between any two overlapping spheres. Edge weights naturally arise from the different radii of two overlapping spheres. For the case in which the spheres have bounded size distributions, we show that clusters of connected spheres are treelike for d→∞ and they contain no closed loops. In this case, we find that the mean cluster size diverges at the percolation threshold density η(c)→2(-d), independently of the particular size distribution. We also show that the mean number of overlaps for a particle at criticality z(c) is smaller than unity, while z(c)→1 only for spheres with fixed radii. We explain these features by showing that in the large dimensionality limit, the critical connectivity is dominated by the spheres with the largest size. Assuming that closed loops can be neglected also for unbounded radii distributions, we find that the asymptotic critical threshold for systems of spheres with radii following a log-normal distribution is no longer universal, and that it can be smaller than 2(-d) for d→∞.

  12. Liquid-interfaced oscillating glow discharge detector for a flowing liquid system.

    PubMed

    Herring, C J; Piepmeier, E H

    1995-03-01

    A new liquid-interfaced oscillating glow discharge detector having a frequency and current response to femtomole and picomole quantities respectively of potassium nitrate and sucrose injected into an aqueous flowing eluent is presented. The glow discharge is formed in an argon atmosphere at ambient pressure between a platinum anode and a cathode consisting of an aqueous conducting solution. A detailed description of the appearance of the liquid-interfaced glow discharge at various electrode distances and the occurrence of high-frequency oscillations is given.

  13. Electromagnetic Forcing of Capillary Surfaces and Application to Liquid Lens Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malouin, Bernard A., Jr.

    The curious properties of ferrofluids and their spectacular instabilities in the presence of magnetic fields have garnered much interest of late. In the present research, these highly controllable ferrofluids are utilized to explore the capillary instabilities of coupled droplet systems. These systems exhibit behavior as liquid resonators and switches that can be individually toggled or driven with voltages as little as 1 volt. Measurements were made to characterize the dynamic behavior of these systems, with appropriate comparison to existing models. Hydrophobic ferrofluid coupled droplets can also be surrounded by water to produce an immiscible, all-liquid system. In these cases the ferrofluid droplets become liquid pistons, capable of displacing the surrounding liquid back-and-forth between two chambers (akin to a valve-less axial piston pump) with highly controllable amplitudes and resonant frequencies. Measurements of the performance of such liquid pistons systems agree with a linearized model developed for the system. Moreover, such liquid pistons can be used to displace another set of coupled droplets which, if transparent, form the basis of a liquid lens. The oscillatory displacement of such a transparent liquid brings to fruition a fast-acting, adaptive liquid lens that is immune to evaporation, largely invariant to orientation, and can be driven with only a few volts. Such a system is demonstrated and characterized herein. The performance of the liquid pistons systems is observed to drift over time, whereby the resonant frequency actually increases. Such a drift is attributed to interfacial phenomena. The interfacial stability of ferrofluid/water systems is studied using various microscopy techniques in an attempt to elucidate some of the possible mechanisms for the observed evolution in time of these systems. Supported hypotheses are presented that may explain some of the observed behavior. Despite the temporal dependence of such systems, they present

  14. Role of length polydispersity in the phase behavior of freely rotating hard-rectangle fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-De Armas, Ariel; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri

    2017-05-01

    We use the density-functional formalism, in particular the scaled-particle theory, applied to a length-polydisperse hard-rectangle fluid to study its phase behavior as a function of the mean particle aspect ratio κ0 and polydispersity Δ0. The numerical solutions of the coexistence equations are calculated by transforming the original problem with infinite degrees of freedoms to a finite set of equations for the amplitudes of the Fourier expansion of the moments of the density profiles. We divide the study into two parts. The first one is devoted to the calculation of the phase diagrams in the packing fraction η0-κ0 plane for a fixed Δ0 and selecting parent distribution functions with exponential (the Schulz distribution) or Gaussian decays. In the second part we study the phase behavior in the η0-Δ0 plane for fixed κ0 while Δ0 is changed. We characterize in detail the orientational ordering of particles and the fractionation of different species between the coexisting phases. Also we study the character (second vs first order) of the isotropic-nematic phase transition as a function of polydispersity. We particularly focus on the stability of the tetratic phase as a function of κ0 and Δ0. The isotropic-nematic transition becomes strongly of first order when polydispersity is increased: The coexistence gap widens and the location of the tricritical point moves to higher values of κ0 while the tetratic phase is slightly destabilized with respect to the nematic one. The results obtained here can be tested in experiments on shaken monolayers of granular rods.

  15. Role of length polydispersity in the phase behavior of freely rotating hard-rectangle fluids.

    PubMed

    Díaz-De Armas, Ariel; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri

    2017-05-01

    We use the density-functional formalism, in particular the scaled-particle theory, applied to a length-polydisperse hard-rectangle fluid to study its phase behavior as a function of the mean particle aspect ratio κ_{0} and polydispersity Δ_{0}. The numerical solutions of the coexistence equations are calculated by transforming the original problem with infinite degrees of freedoms to a finite set of equations for the amplitudes of the Fourier expansion of the moments of the density profiles. We divide the study into two parts. The first one is devoted to the calculation of the phase diagrams in the packing fraction η_{0}-κ_{0} plane for a fixed Δ_{0} and selecting parent distribution functions with exponential (the Schulz distribution) or Gaussian decays. In the second part we study the phase behavior in the η_{0}-Δ_{0} plane for fixed κ_{0} while Δ_{0} is changed. We characterize in detail the orientational ordering of particles and the fractionation of different species between the coexisting phases. Also we study the character (second vs first order) of the isotropic-nematic phase transition as a function of polydispersity. We particularly focus on the stability of the tetratic phase as a function of κ_{0} and Δ_{0}. The isotropic-nematic transition becomes strongly of first order when polydispersity is increased: The coexistence gap widens and the location of the tricritical point moves to higher values of κ_{0} while the tetratic phase is slightly destabilized with respect to the nematic one. The results obtained here can be tested in experiments on shaken monolayers of granular rods.

  16. Cryogenic liquid O2/H2 reaction control systems for Space Shuttle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, P. J.; Mckee, H. B.; Patten, T. C.

    1972-01-01

    A Space Shuttle liquid oxygen/hydrogen reaction control system design analysis has been performed. The system concept considered eliminates propellant conditioning equipment and delivers the propellants to the engines in a liquid rather than a gaseous state. This paper provides system design analyses results and compares various means of implementing the concept on the basis of weight, technology requirements, and operational considerations. Additionally, weight comparisons are made between cryogenic oxygen/hydrogen system requirements. These comparisons show that the liquid oxygen/hydrogen system concept could effect marked weight reductions in the Space Shuttle orbiter total impulse range.

  17. Development of polyatomic ion beam system using liquid organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, G. H.; Nishida, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Kawashita, M.

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a new type of polyatomic ion beam system using liquid organic materials such as octane and ethanol, which consists of a capillary type of nozzle, an ionizer, a mass-separator and a substrate holder. Ion current extracted after ionization was 430 μA for octane and 200 μA for ethanol, respectively. The mass-analysis was realized using a compact E × B mass filter, and the mass-analyzed ion beams were transferred toward the substrate. The ion current density at the substrate was a few μA/cm2 for the mass-separated ion species. Interactions of polyatomic ion beams with silicon (Si) surfaces were investigated by utilizing the ellipsometry measurement. It was found that the damaged layer thickness irradiated by the polyatomic ions with a mass number of about 40 was smaller than that by Ar ion irradiation at the same incident energy and ion fluence. The result indicated that the rupture of polyatomic ions occurred upon its impact on the Si surface with an incident energy larger than a few keV. In addition, the chemical modification of Si surfaces such as wettability could be achieved by adjusting the incident energy for the ethanol ions, which included all the fragment ions.

  18. Coolant Design System for Liquid Propellant Aerospike Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Miranda; Branam, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engines burn at incredibly high temperatures making it difficult to design an effective coolant system. These particular engines prove to be extremely useful by powering the rocket with a variable thrust that is ideal for space travel. When combined with aerospike engine nozzles, which provide maximum thrust efficiency, this class of rockets offers a promising future for rocketry. In order to troubleshoot the problems that high combustion chamber temperatures pose, this research took a computational approach to heat analysis. Chambers milled into the combustion chamber walls, lined by a copper cover, were tested for their efficiency in cooling the hot copper wall. Various aspect ratios and coolants were explored for the maximum wall temperature by developing our own MATLAB code. The code uses a nodal temperature analysis with conduction and convection equations and assumes no internal heat generation. This heat transfer research will show oxygen is a better coolant than water, and higher aspect ratios are less efficient at cooling. This project funded by NSF REU Grant 1358991.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of Immersed Boundary Method simulations of fluid flow in dense polydisperse random grain packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chris; Abdol Azis, Mohd Hazmil; O'Sullivan, Catherine; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    Polydisperse granular materials are ubiquitous in nature and industry. Despite this, knowledge of the momentum coupling between the fluid and solid phases in dense saturated grain packings comes almost exclusively from empirical correlations [2-4, 8] with monosized media. The Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling technique capable of resolving pore scale fluid flow and fluid-particle interaction forces in polydisperse media at the grain scale. Validation of the IBM in the low Reynolds number, high concentration limit was performed by comparing simulations of flow through ordered arrays of spheres with the boundary integral results of Zick and Homsy [10]. Random grain packings were studied with linearly graded particle size distributions with a range of coefficient of uniformity values (Cu = 1.01, 1.50, and 2.00) at a range of concentrations (ϕ ∈ [0.396; 0.681]) in order to investigate the influence of polydispersity on drag and permeability. The sensitivity of the IBM results to the choice of radius retraction parameter [1] was investigated and a comparison was made between the predicted forces and the widely used Ergun correlation [3].

  20. Stratification and Size Segregation of Ternary and Polydisperse Colloidal Suspensions during Drying.

    PubMed

    Fortini, Andrea; Sear, Richard P

    2017-05-16

    We investigate the drying process of three-component and polydisperse colloidal suspensions using Brownian dynamics simulations. We have previously reported (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2016, 116, 118301) on the drying of binary mixtures. For binary mixtures, we found that a gradient of colloidal osmotic pressure develops during drying and that this leads to the final film being stratified with a layer of smaller particles on top of a layer of larger particles. Here, we find that stratification by size is very general and also occurs in ternary and polydisperse mixtures. We name the segregation effect colloidal diffusiophoresis. In particular, we show that by changing the composition of a ternary mixture, different stratification morphologies can be achieved and hence the film properties can be tuned. In polydisperse spheres, colloidal diffusiophoresis leads to enrichment in the large particles at the bottom part of the film, whereas the top part is enriched with smaller particles. This segregation means that in the final film, the particle size distribution depends on height. Thus, the properties of the film will then depend on height. We propose a model that predicts a power-law dependence of the phoretic velocity on particle size. Results from the model and simulation show a good agreement.

  1. Percolation network dynamicity and sheet dynamics governed viscous behavior of polydispersed graphene nanosheet suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Purbarun; Ansari, Mohammad Hasan Dad; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Siva, V. Manoj; Pradeep, T.; Pattamatta, Arvind; Das, Sarit K.

    2013-12-01

    The viscosity of polydispersed graphene nanosheet (5 nm-1.5 μm) suspensions (GNS) and its behavior with temperature and concentration have been experimentally determined. A physical mechanism for the enhanced viscosity over the base fluids has been proposed for the polydispersed GNSs. Experimental data reveal that enhancement of viscosity for GNSs lies in between those of carbon nanotube suspensions (CNTSs) and nano-alumina suspensions, indicating the hybrid mechanism of percolation (like CNTs) and Brownian motion-assisted sheet dynamics (like alumina particles). Sheet dynamics and percolation, along with a proposed percolation network dynamicity factor, have been used to determine a dimensionally consistent analytic model to accurately determine and explain the viscosity of polydispersed GNSs. The model also provides insight into the mechanisms of viscous behavior of different dilute nanoparticle suspensions. The model has been found to be in agreement with the GNS experimental data, and even for CNT (diameter 20 nm, length 10 μm) and nano-alumina (45 nm) suspensions.

  2. Structure Function for High-Concentration Biophantoms of Polydisperse Scatterer Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Aiguo; O’Brien, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic backscattering coefficient (BSC) has been used extensively to characterize tissue. In most cases, sparse scatterer concentrations are assumed. However, many types of tissues have dense scattering media. This study addresses the problem of dense media scattering by taking into account the correlation among scatterers using the structure functions. The effect of scatterer polydispersity on the structure functions is investigated. Structure function models based on polydisperse scatterers are theoretically developed and experimentally evaluated against the structure functions obtained from cell pellet biophantoms. The biophantoms were constructed by placing live cells of known concentration in coagulation media to form a clot. The BSCs of the biophantoms were estimated using single-element transducers over the frequency range from 11 to 105 MHz. Experimental structure functions were obtained by comparing the BSCs of two cell concentrations. The structure functions predicted by the models agreed with the experimental structure functions. Fitting the models yielded cell radius estimates that were consistent with direct light microscope measures. The results demonstrate the role of scatterer position correlation on dense media scattering, and the significance of scatterer polydispersity on structure functions. This work may lead to more accurate modeling of ultrasonic scattering in dense medium for improved tissue characterization. PMID:25643080

  3. Evaluation of strategies for size based separation of polydisperse vesicle suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storslett, Kari J.; Muller, Susan J.

    2016-11-01

    Microfluidic devices can be used to separate suspensions of deformable particles with different intrinsic characteristics (e.g. size) with reasonable throughputs and without external labeling. Using vesicle suspensions to test microfluidic separation schemes provides insight into cell separation. Two schemes for separating vesicle suspensions by size are discussed: filtration and inertial focusing. The filter physically prevents most large vesicles from passing through. The filtrate is collected at one outlet and the larger vesicles are collected at another. This device showed good size separation between the two collected suspensions and was able to reduce the polydispersity of the collected suspensions relative to the original suspension. The inertial separation device was based on a design studied by Di Carlo et al.. This design was modified for our suspension and showed an ability to separate the suspension by size; however, the separated suspension's polydispersity was only slightly reduced. The advantage of the inertial separation device was its greatly increased throughput. A separation strategy may be selected based on the relative importance of high throughput vs. reduced polydispersity.

  4. How to gain insight into the polydispersity of tannins: a combined MS and LC study.

    PubMed

    Mouls, Laetitia; Hugouvieux, Virginie; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Sommerer, Nicolas; Mazerolles, Gérard; Fulcrand, Hélène

    2014-12-15

    In the context of the potential health benefits of food polyphenols, the bioavailability of tannins (i.e. proanthocyanidins) is a major issue, which is strongly influenced by the polydispersity and the degree of polymerisation of tannins. The average degree of polymerisation (DP) of tannins is usually determined using depolymerisation methods, which do not provide any information about their polymer distribution. Moreover, it is still a challenge to characterise tannin fractions of high polydispersity and/or containing polymers of high molecular weights, due to the limit of detection of direct mass spectrometry (MS) analysis methods. In the present work, the polydispersity of several tannin fractions is investigated by two complementary methods: a MALDI-MS method and a semi-preparative sub-fractionation. Using a combination of these methods we are able to gain insight into the DP distributions of the fractions consisting of tannins of medium and high DP. Moreover combining analyses can be useful to assess and compare the DP distributions of most tannin fractions.

  5. New model for light propagation in highly inhomogeneous polydisperse turbid media with applications in spray diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocal, Edouard; Meglinski, Igor; Jermy, Mark

    2005-11-01

    Modern optical diagnostics for quantitative characterization of polydisperse sprays and other aerosols which contain a wide range of droplet size encounter difficulties in the dense regions due to the multiple scattering of laser radiation with the surrounding droplets. The accuracy and efficiency of optical measurements can only be improved if the radiative transfer within such polydisperse turbid media is understood. A novel Monte Carlo code has been developed for modeling of optical radiation propagation in inhomogeneous polydisperse scattering media with typical drop size ranging from 2 μm to 200 μm in diameter. We show how strong variations of both particle size distribution and particle concentration within a 3D scattering medium can be taken into account via the Monte Carlo approach. A new approximation which reduces ~20 times the computational memory space required to determine the phase function is described. The approximation is verified by considering four log-normal drop size distributions. It is found valid for particle sizes in the range of 10-200 μm with increasing errors, due to additional photons scattered at large angles, as the number of particles below than 10 μm increases. The technique is applied to the simulation of typical planar Mie imaging of a hollow cone spray. Simulated and experimental images are compared and shown to agree well. The code has application in developing and testing new optical diagnostics for complex scattering media such as dense sprays.

  6. New model for light propagation in highly inhomogeneous polydisperse turbid media with applications in spray diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, Edouard; Meglinski, Igor; Jermy, Mark

    2005-11-14

    Modern optical diagnostics for quantitative characterization of polydisperse sprays and other aerosols which contain a wide range of droplet size encounter difficulties in the dense regions due to the multiple scattering of laser radiation with the surrounding droplets. The accuracy and efficiency of optical measurements can only be improved if the radiative transfer within such polydisperse turbid media is understood. A novel Monte Carlo code has been developed for modeling of optical radiation propagation in inhomogeneous polydisperse scattering media with typical drop size ranging from 2 microm to 200 microm in diameter. We show how strong variations of both particle size distribution and particle concentration within a 3D scattering medium can be taken into account via the Monte Carlo approach. A new approximation which reduces ~20 times the computational memory space required to determine the phase function is described. The approximation is verified by considering four log-normal drop size distributions. It is found valid for particle sizes in the range of 10-200 microm with increasing errors, due to additional photons scattered at large angles, as the number of particles below than 10 microm increases. The technique is applied to the simulation of typical planar Mie imaging of a hollow cone spray. Simulated and experimental images are compared and shown to agree well. The code has application in developing and testing new optical diagnostics for complex scattering media such as dense sprays.

  7. The permeability of poly-disperse porous media and effective particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markicevic, B. I.; Preston, C.; Osterroth, S.; Iliev, O.; Hurwitz, M.

    2015-11-01

    The interactions between the fluid and solid phases in porous media account for the openness and length of the flow path that the fluid needs to travel within. The same reasoning applies for both mono- and poly-disperse media, and is reflected in the adoption of the same permeability models. The only difference is that an effective particle size diameter has to be used for the poly-disperse samples. A filtration experiment is used to form a particle layer, filter cake, consisting of particles of different sizes. Both inflow and outflow particle size distribution are measured by particle counting method, and from their difference, the particle size distribution in the cake is determined. In a set of experiments, the filtration history is altered by changing (i) filtration medium; (ii) suspension flow rate; and (iii) particle concentration, where in all cases investigated the cake permeability remains constant. In order to predict the permeability of poly-disperse cake from the analytical models, the particle size distribution moments are calculated, and the permeability is found for each moment. Comparing the experimental to the analytical permeability values the effective particle size is found, where the permeability calculated by using the harmonic mean of the particle size distribution reproduces the permeability experimental value best. Finally, in the parametric study, reducing the cake porosity and/or lowering the particle retention shifts effective particle size used in the permeability model toward higher moments of the particle size distribution function.

  8. Crystal growth in a three-phase system: Diffusion and liquid-liquid phase separation in lysozyme crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijna, M. C. R.; van Enckevort, W. J. P.; Vlieg, E.

    2007-07-01

    In the phase diagram of the protein hen egg-white lysozyme, a region is present in which the lysozyme solution demixes and forms two liquid phases. In situ observations by optical microscopy show that the dense liquid droplets dissolve when crystals grow in this system. During this process the demixed liquid region retracts from the crystal surface. The spatial distribution of the dense phase droplets present special boundary conditions for Fick’s second law for diffusion. In combination with the cylindrical symmetry provided by the kinetically roughened crystals, this system allows for a full numerical analysis. Using experimental data for setting the boundary conditions, a quasi-steady-state solution for the time-dependent concentration profile was shown to be valid. Comparison of kinetically rough growth in a phase separated system and in a nonseparated system shows that the growth kinetics for a three-phase system differs from a two-phase system, in that crystals grow more slowly but the duration of growth is prolonged.

  9. Crystal growth in a three-phase system: diffusion and liquid-liquid phase separation in lysozyme crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Heijna, M C R; van Enckevort, W J P; Vlieg, E

    2007-07-01

    In the phase diagram of the protein hen egg-white lysozyme, a region is present in which the lysozyme solution demixes and forms two liquid phases. In situ observations by optical microscopy show that the dense liquid droplets dissolve when crystals grow in this system. During this process the demixed liquid region retracts from the crystal surface. The spatial distribution of the dense phase droplets present special boundary conditions for Fick's second law for diffusion. In combination with the cylindrical symmetry provided by the kinetically roughened crystals, this system allows for a full numerical analysis. Using experimental data for setting the boundary conditions, a quasi-steady-state solution for the time-dependent concentration profile was shown to be valid. Comparison of kinetically rough growth in a phase separated system and in a nonseparated system shows that the growth kinetics for a three-phase system differs from a two-phase system, in that crystals grow more slowly but the duration of growth is prolonged.

  10. Rapid removal of nitrobenzene in a three-phase ozone loaded system with gas-liquid-liquid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Shiyin; Zhu, Jiangpeng; Wang, Guoxiang; Ni, Lixiao; Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the removal rate of nitrobenzene (NB) using a new gas-liquid-liquid (G-L-L) three-phase ozone loaded system consisting of a gaseous ozone, an aqueous solvent phase, and a fluorinated solvent phase (perfluorodecalin, or FDC). The removal rate of NB was quantified in relation to six factors including 1) initial pH, 2) initial NB dosage, 3) gaseous ozone dosage, 4) free radical scavenger, 5) FDC pre-aerated gaseous ozone, and 6) reuse of FDC. The NB removal rate is positively affected by the first three factors. Compared with the conventional gas-liquid (water) (G-L) two-phase ozonation system, the free radical scavenger (tertiary butyl alcohol) has much less influence on the removal rate of NB in the G-L-L system. The FDC loaded ozone acts as an ozone reservoir and serves as the main reactive phase in the G-L-L three-phase system. The reuse of FDC has little influence on the removal rate of NB. These experimental results suggest that the oxidation efficiency of ozonation in the G-L-L three-phase system is better than that in the conventional G-L two-phase system.

  11. Performance of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre superconducting cyclotron liquid nitrogen distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Gautam; Nandi, Chinmay; Bhattacharyya, Tamal Kumar; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-01-01

    The liquid nitrogen distribution at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India K500 superconducting cyclotron uses parallel branches to cool the thermal shield of helium vessel housing the superconducting coil and the cryopanels. Liquid nitrogen is supplied to the thermal shields from a pressurised liquid nitrogen dewar. Direct measurement of flow is quite difficult and seldom used in an operational cryogenic system. The total flow and heat load of the liquid nitrogen system was estimated indirectly by continuous measurement of level in the liquid nitrogen tanks. A mathematical model was developed to evaluate liquid nitrogen flow in the parallel branches. The model was used to generate flow distribution for different settings and the total flow was compared with measured data.

  12. Microfluidic liquid chromatography system for proteomic applications and biomarker screening.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Iulia M; Trisiripisal, Phichet; Sarvaiya, Hetal A

    2006-08-01

    A microfluidic liquid chromatography (LC) system for proteomic investigations that integrates all the necessary components for stand-alone operation, i.e., pump, valve, separation column, and electrospray interface, is described in this paper. The overall size of the LC device is small enough to enable the integration of two fully functional separation systems on a 3 in. x 1 in. glass microchip. A multichannel architecture that uses electroosmotic pumping principles provides the necessary functionality for eluent propulsion and sample valving. The flow rates generated within these chips are fully consistent with the requirements of nano-LC platforms that are routinely used in proteomic applications. The microfluidic device was evaluated for the analysis of a protein digest obtained from the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. The cytosolic protein extract was processed according to a shotgun protocol, and after tryptic digestion and prefractionation using strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX), selected sample subfractions were analyzed with conventional and microfluidic LC platforms. Using similar experimental conditions, the performance of the microchip LC was comparable to that obtained with benchtop instrumentation, providing an overlap of 75% in proteins that were identified by more than two unique peptides. The microfluidic LC analysis of a protein-rich SCX fraction enabled the confident identification of 77 proteins by using conventional data filtering parameters, of 39 proteins with p < 0.001, and of 5 proteins that are known to be cancer-specific biomarkers, demonstrating thus the potential applicability of these chips for future high-throughput biomarker screening applications.

  13. Statistical descriptions of polydisperse turbulent two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, Jean-Pierre

    2016-12-01

    for dynamical systems influenced by colored or white noises are established which point to the necessity of developing statistical models for particles in random media from a new standpoint that breaks away from descriptions based only on particle kinetic variables. This is needed to obtain well-posed formulations of particle dispersion by non fully-resolved turbulent flows and suggests also to revisit classical ideas of particle-particle interactions in the presence of a turbulent flow which correlates the dynamics of colliding discrete elements.

  14. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  15. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  16. Numerical modeling of the aerodynamics, heat exchange, and combustion of a polydisperse ensemble of coke-ash particles in ascending axisymmetric two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    B.B. Rokhman

    2009-07-15

    A two-dimensional stationary model of motion, heat and mass exchange, and chemical reaction of polydisperse coke and ash particles in ascending gas-suspension flow has been constructed with allowance for the turbulent and pseudo turbulent mechanisms of transfer in the dispersed phase. The system of equations that describes motion and heat transfer in the solid phase has been closed at the level of the equations for the second moments of velocity and temperature pulsations, whereas the momentum equations of the carrying medium have been closed using the equation for turbulent gas energy, which allows for the influence of the particles and heterogeneous reactions.

  17. Investigation of a liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic power system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.; Hays, L. G.; Cerini, D. J.; Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic power conversion is being investigated for nuclear-electric propulsion. A liquid-metal MHD converter has no moving mechanical parts and requires a heat source temperature of only 1300 K. Cycle efficiencies of 5% to 8% for single-stage converters and 10% for multistage converters appear attainable. The specific weight of a 240 kWe MHD power plant has been estimated as 30 kg/kWe with shielding for unmanned science missions.

  18. Investigation of a liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic power system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.; Hays, L. G.; Cerini, D. J.; Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic power conversion is being investigated for nuclear-electric propulsion. A liquid-metal MHD converter has no moving mechanical parts and requires a heat source temperature of only 1300 K. Cycle efficiencies of 5% to 8% for single-stage converters and 10% for multistage converters appear attainable. The specific weight of a 240 kWe MHD power plant has been estimated as 30 kg/kWe with shielding for unmanned science missions.

  19. Low-Polydispersity Glucose Polymers as Osmotic Agents for Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, John K.; Hoff, Catherine M.; Akonur, Alp; Holmes, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions containing icodextrin as the osmotic agent have advantages during long dwells. The glucose polymers that constitute icodextrin are a heterogeneous mix of molecules with a polydispersity [ratio of weight-average to number-average molecular weight (Mw/Mn)] of approximately 2.6. The present study evaluates whether modifications in the polydispersity and concentration of glucose polymers can improve ultrafiltration (UF) without an associated increase in carbohydrate absorption (CA). ♦ Methods: Computer simulations using a three-pore model of peritoneal transport during a long dwell in PD patients predict that, in general, compared with 7.5% icodextrin, glucose polymers with a Mw greater than or equal to 7.5 kDa, a polydispersity less than 2.6, and concentrations greater than 7% could achieve higher UF without higher CA. Based on the simulations, we hypothesized that, compared with 7.5% icodextrin, glucose polymers with a Mw of 18 – 19 kDa and a polydispersity of 2.0 at 11% concentration could achieve higher UF without a higher CA. We tested this hypothesis in experimental studies using 8-hour dwells in New Zealand White rabbits. In those studies, UF was measured by complete fluid collection, and CA was measured by subtracting the total carbohydrate in the collected fluid from the carbohydrate initially infused. ♦ Results: The UF was higher with 11% 19 kDa glucose polymer than with 7.5% icodextrin (mean ± standard deviation: 89 ± 31 mL vs 49 ± 15 mL; p = 0.004) without higher CA (5.2 ± 0.9 g vs 5.0 ± 0.9 g, p = 0.7). Similar results were seen with the 11% 18 kDa glucose polymer, which, compared with 7.5% icodextrin, resulted in higher UF (mean ± standard deviation: 96 ± 18 mL vs 66 ± 17 mL; p < 0.001) without higher CA (4.8 ± 0.7 g vs 5.2 ± 0.6 g, p = 0.2). ♦ Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that, compared with 7.5% icodextrin solution, long-dwell PD solutions containing 11% glucose polymers with

  20. Kinetics of diffusional droplet growth in a liquid/liquid two-phase system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glickman, M. E.; Fradkov, V. E.

    1995-01-01

    A new powerful experimental technique based on holographic observations, developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, now permits observation of small liquid droplets coarsening. This technique was developed and used for mixed-dimensional coarsening studies. Experiments were conducted on an isopycnic two-phase alloy of succinonitrile and water, annealed isothermally over a four-month period. The succinonitrile-rich droplets precipitate from a water-rich liquid matrix having a density very close to that of the droplets. The matrix and droplets, however, have different optical indices. The results of these experiments, along with the results of computer simulation based on the quasi-static diffusion approximation developed at Rensselaer are reported. These results were published recently. Copies of these papers are attached to this report.

  1. Magnetite nanorod thermotropic liquid crystal colloids: synthesis, optics and theory.

    PubMed

    Podoliak, Nina; Buchnev, Oleksandr; Bavykin, Dmitry V; Kulak, Alexander N; Kaczmarek, Malgosia; Sluckin, Timothy J

    2012-11-15

    We have developed a facile method for preparing magnetic nanoparticles which couple strongly with a liquid crystal (LC) matrix, with the aim of preparing ferronematic liquid crystal colloids for use in magneto-optical devices. Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by oxidising colloidal Fe(OH)(2) with air in aqueous media, and were then subject to alkaline hydrothermal treatment with 10 mol dm(-3) NaOH at 100°C, transforming them into a polydisperse set of domain magnetite nanorods with maximal length ~500 nm and typical diameter ~20 nm. The nanorods were coated with 4-n-octyloxybiphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (OBPh) and suspended in nematic liquid crystal E7. As compared to the conventional oleic acid coating, this coating stabilizes LC-magnetic nanorod suspensions. The suspension acts as a ferronematic system, using the colloidal particles as intermediaries to amplify magnetic field-LC director interactions. The effective Frederiks magnetic threshold field of the magnetite nanorod-liquid crystal composite is reduced by 20% as compared to the undoped liquid crystal. In contrast with some previous work in this field, the magneto-optical effects are reproducible on time scales of months. Prospects for magnetically switched liquid crystal devices using these materials are good, but a method is required to synthesize single magnetic domain nanorods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid-vapor phase equilibrium in a tin-selenium system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, V. N.; Burabaeva, N. M.; Trebukhov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the pressure of the saturated vapor and components over liquid alloys in a tin-selenium system, determined using the boiling points approach (isothermal variant), its boiling point and corresponding vapor phase composition are calculated in the region of liquid solutions. The phase diagram is supple-mented with the liquid-vapor phase transition under atmospheric pressure and in vacuums of 100 and 10 Pa with the boundaries of the region in which the regions of liquid and vapor coexist being determined.

  3. An Integrated Ignition and Combustion System for Liquid Propellant Micro Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-26

    STATEMENT Unlimited Distribution 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Liquid monopropellant microthrusters utilizing electrolytic ignition were...order to evaluate the applicability of the technology to high temperature combustion systems. Microscale diffusion flames were stabilized in the burners...nitrate based liquid monopropellants by electrolytic decomposition. The volume of the thruster combustion chamber was 0.82 mm3. The microthruster was

  4. Separation of gas from liquid in a two-phase flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, L. G.; Elliott, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    Separation system causes jets which leave two-phase nozzles to impinge on each other, so that liquid from jets tends to coalesce in center of combined jet streams while gas phase is forced to outer periphery. Thus, because liquid coalescence is achieved without resort to separation with solid surfaces, cycle efficiency is improved.

  5. Free-surface molecular command systems for photoalignment of liquid crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Kei; Nagano, Shusaku; Hara, Mitsuo; Seki, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    The orientation of liquid crystal molecules is very sensitive towards contacting surfaces, and this phenomenon is critical during the fabrication of liquid crystal display panels, as well as optical and memory devices. To date, research has focused on designing and modifying solid surfaces. Here we report an approach to control the orientation of liquid crystals from the free (air) surface side: a skin layer at the free surface was prepared using a non-photoresponsive liquid crystalline polymer film by surface segregation or inkjet printing an azobenzene-containing liquid crystalline block copolymer. Both planar-planar and homoeotropic-planar mode patterns were readily generated. This strategy is applicable to various substrate systems, including inorganic substrates and flexible polymer films. These versatile processes require no modification of the substrate surface and are therefore expected to provide new opportunities for the fabrication of optical and mechanical devices based on liquid crystal alignment.

  6. Free-surface molecular command systems for photoalignment of liquid crystalline materials

    PubMed Central

    Fukuhara, Kei; Nagano, Shusaku; Hara, Mitsuo; Seki, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    The orientation of liquid crystal molecules is very sensitive towards contacting surfaces, and this phenomenon is critical during the fabrication of liquid crystal display panels, as well as optical and memory devices. To date, research has focused on designing and modifying solid surfaces. Here we report an approach to control the orientation of liquid crystals from the free (air) surface side: a skin layer at the free surface was prepared using a non-photoresponsive liquid crystalline polymer film by surface segregation or inkjet printing an azobenzene-containing liquid crystalline block copolymer. Both planar-planar and homoeotropic-planar mode patterns were readily generated. This strategy is applicable to various substrate systems, including inorganic substrates and flexible polymer films. These versatile processes require no modification of the substrate surface and are therefore expected to provide new opportunities for the fabrication of optical and mechanical devices based on liquid crystal alignment. PMID:24534881

  7. Non-conventional solvents in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems.

    PubMed

    An, Jiwoo; Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-06-02

    The development of rapid, convenient, and high throughput sample preparation approaches such as liquid phase microextraction techniques have been continuously developed over the last decade. More recently, significant attention has been given to the replacement of conventional organic solvents used in liquid phase microextraction techniques in order to reduce toxic waste and to improve selectivity and/or extraction efficiency. With these objectives, non-conventional solvents have been explored in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems. The utilized non-conventional solvents include ionic liquids, magnetic ionic liquids, and deep eutectic solvents. They have been widely used as extraction solvents or additives in various liquid phase microextraction modes including dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction, as well as in aqueous biphasic systems. This review provides an overview into the use of non-conventional solvents in these microextraction techniques in the past 5 years (2012-2016). Analytical applications of the techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of No-Vent™ liquid hydrogen storage system for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberbusch, Mark S.; Nguyen, Chinh T.; Stochl, Robert J.; Hui, Terry Y.

    2010-09-01

    A number of technological advances required to store and maintain normal-boiling-point and densified cryogenic liquids, including liquid hydrogen, under zero boil-off conditions in-space, for long periods of time, have been developed. These technologies include (1) thermally optimized compact cryogen storage systems that reduce environmental heat leak to the lowest-temperature cryogen, which minimizes cryocooler size and input power, and (2) actively-cooled shields that surround the storage systems and intercept heat leak. The processes and tools used to develop these technologies are discussed. A zero boil-off liquid hydrogen storage system technology demonstrator for validating the actively-cooled shield technology is presented.

  9. Three-dimensional analytical solution for transient guided wave propagation in liquid-filled pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liguo; Wu, Zhaojun; Liu, Shengxing; Yang, Wuyi

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the three-dimensional (3-D) analytical solution for transient guided wave propagation in liquid-filled pipe systems using the eigenfunction expansion method (EEM). The eigenfunctions corresponding to finite liquid-filled pipe systems with a traction-free lateral boundary and rigid smooth end boundaries are obtained. Additionally, the orthogonality of the eigenfunctions is proved in detail. Subsequently, the exact 3-D analytical transient response of finite liquid-filled pipe systems to external body forces is constructed using the EEM, based on which, the approximate 3-D analytical transient response of the systems to external surface forces is derived. Furthermore, the analytical solution for transient guided wave propagation in finite liquid-filled pipe systems is extended explicitly and concisely to infinite liquid-filled pipe systems. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the analysis of the spatial and frequency distributions of the radial and axial displacement amplitudes of various guided wave modes; the numerical examples also simulate the transient displacement of the pipe wall and the transient pressure of the internal liquid from the present solution. The present solution can provide some theoretical guidelines for the guided wave nondestructive evaluation of liquid-filled pipes and the guided wave technique for downhole data transfer.

  10. An AIL/IL-based liquid/liquid extraction system for the purification of His-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiyuan; Cao, Huazhen; Ren, Guangwei; Xie, Hujun; Huang, Jianying; Li, Shijun

    2014-06-01

    A sorbent based on affinity ionic liquid (AIL), triazacyclononane-ionic liquid, was synthesized, characterized, and applied to the extraction of histidine (His)-tagged proteins from aqueous buffer to ionic liquid (IL) phase. The adsorbed His-tagged proteins could be back-extracted from the IL phase to the aqueous buffer with an imidazole solution. The specific binding of His-tagged proteins with AIL/IL could be affected by a few factors including the ionic strength and coordinated metal ions. In the case of His-tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), the maximum binding capacity of Cu(2+)-AIL/IL reached 2.58 μg/μmol under the optimized adsorption conditions. The eluted His-tagged EGFP kept fluorescent and remained active through the purification process. Moreover, a tandem extraction process successively using Cu(2+)-AIL/IL and Zn(2+)-AIL/IL systems was developed, which was proven very efficient to obtain the ultimate protein with a purity of about 90 %. An effective reclamation method for the AIL/IL extraction system was further established. The sorbent could be easily regenerated by removing metal ions with EDTA and the followed reimmobilization of metal ions. Easy handling of the presented M(2+)-AIL/IL system and highly specific ability to absorb His-tagged proteins make it attractive and potentially applicable in biomolecular separation.

  11. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) Systems Definition Handbook presents the analyses and design data developed during the study. The Systems Definition Handbook (SDH) contains three major parts: the LRB vehicles definition; the Pressure-Fed Booster Test Bed (PFBTB) study results; and the ALS/LRB study results. Included in this volume are the results of all trade studies; final configurations with supporting rationale and analyses; technology assessments; long lead requirements for facilities, materials, components, and subsystems; operational requirements and scenarios; and safety, reliability, and environmental analyses.

  12. Impact of gate geometry on ionic liquid gated ionotronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, A. T.; Noh, J. H.; Pudasaini, P. R.; Wolf, B.; Balke, N.; Herklotz, A.; Sharma, Y.; Haglund, A. V.; Dai, S.; Mandrus, D.; Rack, P. D.; Ward, T. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes are gaining widespread application as a gate dielectric used to control ion transport in functional materials. This letter systematically examines the important influence that device geometry in standard "side gate" 3-terminal geometries plays in device performance of a well-known oxygen ion conductor. We show that the most influential component of device design is the ratio between the area of the gate electrode and the active channel, while the spacing between these components and their individual shapes has a negligible contribution. These findings provide much needed guidance in device design intended for ionotronic gating with ionic liquids.

  13. Impact of gate geometry on ionic liquid gated ionotronic systems

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Anthony T.; Noh, Joo Hyon; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; ...

    2017-01-23

    Ionic liquid electrolytes are gaining widespread application as a gate dielectric used to control ion transport in functional materials. This letter systematically examines the important influence that device geometry in standard “side gate” 3-terminal geometries plays in device performance of a well-known oxygen ion conductor. We show that the most influential component of device design is the ratio between the area of the gate electrode and the active channel, while the spacing between these components and their individual shapes has a negligible contribution. Finally, these findings provide much needed guidance in device design intended for ionotronic gating with ionic liquids.

  14. Bioinspired Hand-Operated Smart-Wetting Systems Using Smooth Liquid Coatings.

    PubMed

    Tenjimbayashi, Mizuki; Matsubayashi, Takeshi; Moriya, Takeo; Shiratori, Seimei

    2017-07-06

    Manually controllable "hand-operated" smart systems have been developed in many fields, including smart wetting materials, electronic devices, molecular machines, and drug delivery systems. Because complex morphological or chemical control are generally required, versatile strategies for constructing the system are technologically important. Inspired by the natural phenomenon of raindrops rarely bouncing and usually spreading on a puddle, we introduce a droplet-impact-triggering smart-wetting system using "non-smart" smooth liquid coating materials. Changing the droplet impact energy by changing the volume or casting height causes the droplet to completely bounce or spread on the liquid surface, regardless of the miscibility between the two liquids, owing to the stability of air layer. As the bouncing of a droplet on a liquid interface is not usually observed during wetting, we first analyze how the droplet bounces, then prove that the wettability is triggered by the droplet's impact energy, and finally introduce some applications using this system.

  15. Automated Liquid-Level Control of a Nutrient Reservoir for a Hydroponic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Boris; Asumadu, Johnson A.; Dogan, Numan S.

    1997-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system for control of the liquid level of a nutrient reservoir for a plant hydroponic growing system has been developed. The system uses an ultrasonic transducer to sense the liquid level or height. A National Instruments' Multifunction Analog and Digital Input/Output PC Kit includes NI-DAQ DOS/Windows driver software for an IBM 486 personal computer. A Labview Full Development system for Windows is the graphical programming system being used. The system allows liquid level control to within 0.1 cm for all levels tried between 8 and 36 cm in the hydroponic system application. The detailed algorithms have been developed and a fully automated microprocessor based nutrient replenishment system has been described for this hydroponic system.

  16. Contact values of the particle-particle and wall-particle correlation functions in a hard-sphere polydisperse fluid.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andrés; Yuste, Santos B; López de Haro, Mariano

    2005-12-15

    The contact values g(sigma,sigma') of the radial distribution functions of a fluid of (additive) hard spheres with a given size distribution f(sigma) are considered. A "universality" assumption is introduced, according to which, at a given packing fraction eta,g(sigma,sigma')=G(z(sigma,sigma')), where G is a common function independent of the number of components (either finite or infinite) and z(sigma,sigma')=[2sigmasigma'/(sigma+sigma')]mu2/mu3 is a dimensionless parameter, mu n being the nth moment of the diameter distribution. A cubic form proposal for the z dependence of G is made and known exact consistency conditions for the point particle and equal size limits, as well as between two different routes to compute the pressure of the system in the presence of a hard wall, are used to express Gz in terms of the radial distribution at contact of the one-component system. For polydisperse systems we compare the contact values of the wall-particle correlation function and the compressibility factor with those obtained from recent Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Liquid-to-hexatic phase transition in a quasi-two-dimensional colloid system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinliang; Rice, Stuart A

    2008-07-01

    We report an analysis of the thickness dependence of the liquid-to-hexatic phase transition in a quasi-two-dimensional hard-sphere colloid system as the confining wall separation changes from 1 to 1.6 hard-sphere diameters. In our theoretical evaluation, we study the bifurcation of solutions to the integral equation for the pair correlation function. Our study predicts that at small wall separation the liquid-to-hexatic phase transition is continuous and that it occurs at lower density than the liquid-to-crystal phase transition density, in agreement with the predictions for a strictly two-dimensional system obtained from the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young theory. At larger wall separation (larger than about 1.4 hard-sphere diameters), the liquid-to-hexatic phase transition density is predicted to occur at higher density than the liquid-to-crystal phase transition.

  18. The Helical Liquid and the Edge of Quantum Spin Hall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Congjun; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2006-03-01

    The edge states of the recently proposed quantum spin Hall systems constitute a new symmetry class of one-dimensional liquids dubbed the ``helical liquid,'' where the spin orientation is determined by the direction of electron motion. We prove a no-go theorem which states that a helical liquid with an odd number of components cannot be constructed in a purely 1D lattice system. In a helical liquid with an odd number of components, a uniform gap in the ground state can only appear when the time-reversal (TR) symmetry is spontaneously broken by interactions. On the other hand, a correlated two-particle backscattering term by an impurity can become relevant while keeping the TR invariance. We further study the Kondo effect in such a liquid which exhibits new features in the structure of the screening cloud.

  19. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.; Ilias, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this report we present two data sets that have been compiled to assist in the model developments for solid-liquid equilibria and viscosities of coal derived systems. The first one is on vapor pressures of solid aromatics and the second one consists of viscosities of pure model compounds and some mixtures. These databanks are ready for usage in model development and are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. Literature is being searched to compile similar data for high pressure liquid compressibilities, liquid and solid heat capacities and solid-liquid equilibria for model compound systems. Literature search is also containing to investigate available viscosity models. Once this is completed a few models will be selected for evaluation and consideration as candidates for extension to coal liquids.

  20. System and method for liquid extraction electrospray-assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-07-12

    A system for sampling a surface includes a surface sampling probe comprising a solvent liquid supply conduit and a distal end, and a sample collector for suspending a sample collection liquid adjacent to the distal end of the probe. A first electrode provides a first voltage to solvent liquid at the distal end of the probe. The first voltage produces a field sufficient to generate electrospray plume at the distal end of the probe. A second electrode provides a second voltage and is positioned to produce a plume-directing field sufficient to direct the electrospray droplets and ions to the suspended sample collection liquid. The second voltage is less than the first voltage in absolute value. A voltage supply system supplies the voltages to the first electrode and the second electrode. The first electrode can apply the first voltage directly to the solvent liquid. A method for sampling for a surface is also disclosed.

  1. High bulk modulus of ionic liquid and effects on performance of hydraulic system.

    PubMed

    Kambic, Milan; Kalb, Roland; Tasner, Tadej; Lovrec, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years ionic liquids have gained in importance, causing a growing number of scientists and engineers to investigate possible applications for these liquids because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Their outstanding advantages such as nonflammable liquid within a broad liquid range, high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stabilities, low solubility for gases, attractive tribological properties (lubrication), and very low compressibility, and so forth, make them more interesting for applications in mechanical engineering, offering great potential for new innovative processes, and also as a novel hydraulic fluid. This paper focuses on the outstanding compressibility properties of ionic liquid EMIM-EtSO4, a very important physical chemically property when IL is used as a hydraulic fluid. This very low compressibility (respectively, very high Bulk modulus), compared to the classical hydraulic mineral oils or the non-flammable HFDU type of hydraulic fluids, opens up new possibilities regarding its usage within hydraulic systems with increased dynamics, respectively, systems' dynamic responses.

  2. An electrodeless system for measurement of liquid sample dielectric properties in radio frequency band.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, V; Giovannetti, G; Vanello, N; Costantino, M; Landini, L; Benassi, A

    2006-01-01

    An electrodeless measurement system based on a resonant circuit is proposed for the measurement of dielectric properties of liquid samples at RF (radio frequency). Generally, properties as dielectric constant, loss factor and conductivity are measured by parallel plate capacitor cells: this method has several limitations in the case of particular liquid samples and in the range of radiofrequencies. Our method is based on the measurements of resonance frequency and quality factor of a LC resonant circuit in different measuring conditions, without and with the liquid sample placed inside a test tube around which the home made coil is wrapped. The measurement is performed using a network analyzer and a dual loop probe, inductively coupled with the resonant circuit. One of the advantages of this method is the contactless between the liquid sample and the measurement electrodes. In this paper the measurement system is described and test measurements of conventional liquids dielectric properties are reported.

  3. Selection of materials for tokamak plasma facing elements based on a liquid tin capillary pore system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyublinski, I. E.; Vertkov, A. V.; Zharkov, M. Yu; Sevryukov, O. N.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Shumskiy, V. A.; Ivannikov, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Capillary-Pore Systems (CPS) filled by liquid metals are considered as an alternative solution of materials choice for plasma facing component of tokamak reactor. Tin is viewed as one of the candidates for CPS because it has lower corrosiveness than gallium and lower saturated vapour pressure compared to lithium. The corrosion resistance of Mo, Nb and W in pure liquid tin was investigated. The corrosion tests were carried out in the static isothermal conditions at a temperature up to 1050°C. As a result of the corrosion study, it was found that Mo does not corrode in liquid Sn, as opposed to Nb and is compatible with liquid tin in temperatures of up to approx. 1000°C. This allows considering Mo as an alloy base material of the in-vessel tokamak elements based on liquid tin capillary pore systems.

  4. High Bulk Modulus of Ionic Liquid and Effects on Performance of Hydraulic System

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Roland; Tasner, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years ionic liquids have gained in importance, causing a growing number of scientists and engineers to investigate possible applications for these liquids because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Their outstanding advantages such as nonflammable liquid within a broad liquid range, high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stabilities, low solubility for gases, attractive tribological properties (lubrication), and very low compressibility, and so forth, make them more interesting for applications in mechanical engineering, offering great potential for new innovative processes, and also as a novel hydraulic fluid. This paper focuses on the outstanding compressibility properties of ionic liquid EMIM-EtSO4, a very important physical chemically property when IL is used as a hydraulic fluid. This very low compressibility (respectively, very high Bulk modulus), compared to the classical hydraulic mineral oils or the non-flammable HFDU type of hydraulic fluids, opens up new possibilities regarding its usage within hydraulic systems with increased dynamics, respectively, systems' dynamic responses. PMID:24526900

  5. Conjugation length polydispersity and its effect on charge transport in conjugated polymer-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Anoop

    Conjugated polymers have immense potential for optoelectronic and display applications such as light emitting diodes (LEDs). Molecular weight distribution is a parameter intrinsic to all polymers. Yet it's effect on the LED application is previously unexplored. To study this effect, we synthesized a pentamer and nonamer of dialkoxy (p-phenylenevinylene) as well as dialkoxy poly(p-phenylenevinylene (PPV). By blending these materials we were able to simulate the polydispersity in conjugation length inherent in all polymers and systematically probe it's importance to LED performance. By mixing a low molecular weight dialkoxy-PPV or a nonamer of this PPV into a matrix of the pentamer, we were able to simulate the effect that a small concentration of low bandgap, highly conjugated segments, would have on PL and EL efficiency. The PL quantum efficiency was unaffected by the low bandgap fraction. EL was, however, dramatically impacted, being reduced by 50 to 70%. Based on this knowledge, we modified the synthesis of the dialkoxy PPV to yield a narrow polydispersity sample. When fabricated into a single layer PLED with an aluminum cathode, the EL efficiency was almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of the conventional higher polydispersity PPV. A clear understanding of the photophysics involved in excited state migration in the previous experiments was deemed necessary. We observe that the photophysics of conjugated polymers used in PLEDs can be modeled as the sum of contributions from two species, isolated chain segments and aggregated chain segments in a mixed solvent system. This system also provides an important vehicle for probing the interaction between long and short conjugated segments in the blends of PPV and pentamer. The absorption and emission spectra of the solution mixtures under different concentration of good solvent (dioxane) and bad solvent (water) mimic a film like condition and subsequent quenching in luminescence efficiency and energy

  6. 21 CFR 884.2982 - Liquid crystal thermographic system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered liquid crystal... for detection of breast cancer or other uses is a nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered device... screening for detection of breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or...

  7. 21 CFR 884.2982 - Liquid crystal thermographic system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered liquid crystal... for detection of breast cancer or other uses is a nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered device... screening for detection of breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or...

  8. 21 CFR 884.2982 - Liquid crystal thermographic system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered liquid crystal... for detection of breast cancer or other uses is a nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered device... screening for detection of breast cancer or other uses— (1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or...

  9. 21 CFR 884.2982 - Liquid crystal thermographic system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered liquid crystal... for detection of breast cancer or other uses is a nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered device... screening for detection of breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or...

  10. 21 CFR 884.2982 - Liquid crystal thermographic system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered liquid crystal... for detection of breast cancer or other uses is a nonelectrically powered or an AC-powered device... screening for detection of breast cancer or other uses—(1) Identification. A nonelectrically powered or...

  11. Young's Equation for a Two-Liquid System on the Nanometer Scale.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Toledano, J-C; Blake, T D; De Coninck, J

    2017-03-21

    We use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to study the Lennard-Jones forces acting at the various interfaces of a liquid bridge (liquid 1) between two realistic solid plates on the scale of few nanometers when the two free surfaces are in contact with a second immiscible liquid (liquid 2) with an interfacial tension of γ12. Each plate comprises a regular square planar lattice of atoms arranged in three atomic layers. To maintain rigidity while allowing momentum exchange with the liquid, solid atoms are allowed to vibrate thermally around their initial positions by a strong harmonic potential. By varying the solid-liquid coupling, we investigate a range of nonzero contact angles between the liquid-liquid interface and the solid. We first compute the forces when the plates are stationary (equilibrium case), from the perspectives of both the liquid and the solid. Our results confirm that the normal and tangential components of the computed interfacial forces at each contact line are consistent with Young's equation on this small scale. In particular, we show that the tangential force exerted by the liquid-liquid interface on the plates is given by the difference in the individual works of adhesion of the two liquids and equal to γ12 cos θ1,2(0), where θ1,2(0) is the equilibrium contact angle measured through liquid 1. This result, which differs from that expected for a single liquid, is relevant to the interactions and behavior of two liquid-solid systems in nanotechnology. We then study the forces when the plates are translated at equal speeds in opposite directions over a range of steady velocities (dynamic case) and repeat the measurements of the force exerted by the liquid-liquid interface on the solid. We find that the normal and tangential components of this force are still correctly predicted by the normal and tangential components of the interfacial tension, provided only that the equilibrium contact angle is replaced by its dynamic analogue θ1

  12. Liquid-liquid equilibrium measurement of ternary system containing β-caryophyllene in the water and 2-propanol mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetrisyanda, Rizky; Kuswandi, Wibawa, Gede

    2017-01-01

    To obtain a high purity of clove oil, it is needed to separate β-caryophyllene from the oil mixtures.The separation of this component could be obtained by solvent extraction. In this work, liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data were measured for the ternary system of water β-caryophyllene (1) + 2-propanol (2) + water (3) at temperature 303.15 K, 313.15 K and 323.15K under atmospheric pressure. The experimental LLE data were correlated with the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The reliability of these models is tested by comparison with experimental results. The varied temperatures studied in this work have significant influence to the two-phase area and the solubility of 2-propanol and β-caryophyllene in the aqueous phase.

  13. Rapid carbonation for calcite from a solid-liquid-gas system with an imidazolium-based ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdul-Rauf; Vuningoma, Jean Bosco; Huang, Yan; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun

    2014-06-25

    Aqueous carbonation of Ca(OH)2 is a complex process that produces calcite with scalenohedral calcite phases and characterized by inadequate carbonate species for effective carbonation due to the poor dissolution of CO2 in water. Consequently, we report a solid-liquid-gas carbonation system with an ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, in view of enhancing the reaction of CO2 with Ca(OH)2. The use of the IL increased the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous environment and enhanced the transport of the reactive species (Ca2+ and CO32-) and products. The presence of the IL also avoided the formation of the CaCO3 protective and passivation layer and ensured high carbonation yields, as well as the production of stoichiometric rhombohedral calcite phases in a short time.

  14. Rapid Carbonation for Calcite from a Solid-Liquid-Gas System with an Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdul-Rauf; Vuningoma, Jean Bosco; Huang, Yan; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous carbonation of Ca(OH)2 is a complex process that produces calcite with scalenohedral calcite phases and characterized by inadequate carbonate species for effective carbonation due to the poor dissolution of CO2 in water. Consequently, we report a solid-liquid-gas carbonation system with an ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, in view of enhancing the reaction of CO2 with Ca(OH)2. The use of the IL increased the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous environment and enhanced the transport of the reactive species (Ca2+ and CO32−) and products. The presence of the IL also avoided the formation of the CaCO3 protective and passivation layer and ensured high carbonation yields, as well as the production of stoichiometric rhombohedral calcite phases in a short time. PMID:24968273

  15. Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of rac-1-phenylethanol in ionic liquids and ionic liquids/supercritical carbon dioxide systems.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Pedro; De Diego, Teresa; Larnicol, Mickaël; Vaultier, Michel; Iborra, José L

    2006-10-01

    Continuous dynamic kinetic resolution processes in different ionic liquid/supercritical carbon dioxide biphasic systems were carried out by simultaneously using both immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) and silica modified with benzenosulfonic acid (SCX) catalysts at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa. SCX was seen to act as an efficient heterogeneous chemical catalyst for the racemization of (S)-1-phenylethanol in different ionic liquid media ([emim][NTf(2)], [btma][NTf(2)] and [bmim][PF(6)]). Coating both chemical and enzymatic catalysts with ILs greatly improved the efficiency of the process, providing a good yield (76%) of (R)-1-phenylethyl propionate product with excellent enantioselectivity (ee = 91-98%) in continuous operation.

  16. Statistical description of liquid low-level waste system supernatant liquids at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J.R.; Bayne, C.K.; Walker, A.B.

    1997-10-01

    The Department of Energy has presented plans for processing transuranic low level liquid wastes located at ORNL. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated the beginning of processing of these wastes by the year 2002, looking towards permanent disposal at a site located off the reservation. In order to meet this schedule, the DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies to construct a processing facility to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. In support of the Request for Proposal (RFP) process to accomplish the private sector involvement, this report is being written to give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. This addendum report consolidates all data that presently exist on the properties and composition of the waste supernatant liquids, and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible.

  17. MEMS based pumped liquid cooling systems for micro/nano spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, G. C.; Shakkottai, P.; Sur, T. W

    2001-01-01

    The objective is to develop MEMS based pumped liquid cooling system for removing over 20 W/cm squared from high power density microelectronics and science payloads considered for future micro/nano sciencecraft.

  18. 46 CFR 154.1330 - Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1330 Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type...

  19. MEMS based pumped liquid cooling systems for micro/nano spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, G. C.; Shakkottai, P.; Sur, T. W

    2001-01-01

    The objective is to develop MEMS based pumped liquid cooling system for removing over 20 W/cm squared from high power density microelectronics and science payloads considered for future micro/nano sciencecraft.

  20. Development of a fast thermal response microfluidic system using liquid metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meng; Gui, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Room temperature liquid metal gallium alloy has been widely used in many micro-electromechanical systems applications, such as on-chip electrical microheaters, micro temperature sensors, micro pumps and so on. Injecting liquid metal into microchannels can provide a simple, rapid, low-cost but efficient way to integrate these elements in microfluidic chips with high accuracy. The liquid metal-filled microstructures can be designed in any shape and easily integrated into microfluidic chips. In this paper, an on-chip liquid metal-based thermal microfluidic system is proposed for quick temperature control at the microscale. The micro system utilizes just one microfluidic chip as a basic working platform, which has liquid metal-based on-chip heaters, temperature sensors and electroosmotic flow pumps. Under the comprehensive control of these elements, the micro system can quickly change the temperature of a target fluid in the microfluidic chip. These liquid metal-based on-chip elements are very helpful for the fabrication and miniaturization of the microfluidic chip. In this paper, deionized water is used to test the temperature control performance of the thermal microfluidic system. According to the experimental results, the micro system can efficiently control the temperature of water ranging from 28 °C to 90 °C. The thermal microfluidic system has great potential for use in many microfluidic applications, such as on-chip polymerase chain reaction, temperature gradient focusing, protein crystallization and chemical synthesis.