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Sample records for liquid waste products

  1. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  2. Biogas production from the mechanically pretreated, liquid fraction of sorted organic municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Méndez-Contreras, J M; Martínez-Sibaja, A; Rosas-Mendoza, E S; Vallejo-Cantú, N A

    2016-09-13

    The high liquid content in fruit and vegetable wastes makes it convenient to mechanically separate these wastes into mostly liquid and solid fractions by means of pretreatment. Then, the liquid fraction can be treated using a high-rate anaerobic biofilm reactor to produce biogas, simultaneously reducing the amount of solids that must be landfilled. In this work, the specific composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a public market was determined; then, the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was treated mechanically to separate and characterize the mostly liquid and solid fractions. Then, the mesophilic anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the first fraction was evaluated. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a reduced hydraulic retention time of two days with high removal of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 88% on average, with the additional benefit of reducing the mass of the solids that had to be landfilled by about 80%.

  3. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    PubMed

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength.

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated waste paper--source of raw material for production of liquid biofuels.

    PubMed

    Brummer, Vladimir; Jurena, Tomas; Hlavacek, Viliam; Omelkova, Jirina; Bebar, Ladislav; Gabriel, Petr; Stehlik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of waste paper is becoming a perspective way to obtain raw material for production of liquid biofuels. Reducing sugars solutions that arise from the process of saccharification are a precursors for following or simultaneous fermentation to ethanol. Different types of waste paper were evaluated, in terms of composition and usability, in order to select the appropriate type of the waste paper for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Novozymes® enzymes NS50013 and NS50010 were used in a laboratory scale trials. Technological conditions, which seem to be the most suitable for hydrolysis after testing on cellulose pulp and filter paper, were applied to hydrolysis of widely available waste papers - offset paper, cardboard, recycled paper in two qualities, matte MYsol offset paper and for comparison again on model materials. The highest yields were achieved for the cardboard, which was further tested using various pretreatment combinations in purpose of increasing the hydrolysis yields.

  5. Valorization of Waste Lipids through Hydrothermal Catalytic Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels with in Situ Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongwook; Vardon, Derek R.; Murali, Dheeptha; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate hydrothermal (300 degrees C, 10 MPa) catalytic conversion of real waste lipids (e.g., waste vegetable oil, sewer trap grease) to liquid hydrocarbon fuels without net need for external chemical inputs (e.g., H2 gas, methanol). A supported bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Re/C; 5 wt % of each metal) previously shown to catalyze both aqueous phase reforming of glycerol (a triacylglyceride lipid hydrolysis coproduct) to H2 gas and conversion of oleic and stearic acid, model unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, to linear alkanes was applied to process real waste lipid feedstocks in water. For reactions conducted with an initially inert headspace gas (N2), waste vegetable oil (WVO) was fully converted into linear hydrocarbons (C15-C17) and other hydrolyzed byproducts within 4.5 h, and H2 gas production was observed. Addition of H2 to the initial reactor headspace accelerated conversion, but net H2 production was still observed, in agreement with results obtained for aqueous mixtures containing model fatty acids and glycerol. Conversion to liquid hydrocarbons with net H2 production was also observed for a range of other waste lipid feedstocks (animal fat residuals, sewer trap grease, dry distiller's grain oil, coffee oil residual). These findings demonstrate potential for valorization of waste lipids through conversion to hydrocarbons that are more compatible with current petroleum-based liquid fuels than the biodiesel and biogas products of conventional waste lipid processing technologies.

  6. Bacterial cellulose production from cotton-based waste textiles: enzymatic saccharification enhanced by ionic liquid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Guo, Xiang; Zhang, Shuo; Han, Shi-fen; Yang, Guang; Jönsson, Leif J

    2012-01-01

    Cotton-based waste textiles were explored as alternative feedstock for production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The cellulosic fabrics were treated with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl). [AMIM]Cl caused 25% inactivation of cellulase activity at a concentration as low as of 0.02 g/mL and decreased BC production during fermentation when present in concentrations higher than 0.0005 g/mL. Therefore, removal of residual IL by washing with hot water was highly beneficial to enzymatic saccharification as well as BC production. IL-treated fabrics exhibited a 5-7-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis rate and gave a seven times larger yield of fermentable sugars than untreated fabrics. BC from cotton cloth hydrolysate was obtained at an yield of 10.8 g/L which was 83% higher than that from the culture grown on glucose-based medium. The BC from G. xylinus grown on IL-treated fabric hydrolysate had a 79% higher tensile strength than BC from glucose-based culture medium which suggests that waste cotton pretreated with [AMIM]Cl has potential to serve as a high-quality carbon source for BC production.

  7. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOEpatents

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  8. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S.; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  9. DWPF Safely Dispositioning Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-05

    The only operating radioactive waste glassification plant in the nation, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the liquid radioactive waste currently stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) into a solid glass form suitable for long-term storage and disposal. Scientists have long considered this glassification process, called “vitrification,” as the preferred option for treating liquid radioactive waste.

  10. Utilization of municipal solid and liquid wastes for bioenergy and bioproducts production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Paul; Xie, Qinglong; Addy, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Cheng, Yanling; Li, Kun; Ruan, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Municipal wastes, be it solid or liquid, are rising due to the global population growth and rapid urbanization and industrialization. Conventional management practice involving recycling, combustion, and treatment/disposal is deemed unsustainable. Solutions must be sought to not only increase the capacity but also improve the sustainability of waste management. Research has demonstrated that the non-recyclable waste materials and bio-solids can be converted into useable heat, electricity, or fuel and chemical through a variety of processes, including gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas in addition to combustion, and wastewater streams have the potential to support algae growth and provide other energy recovery options. The present review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge in the municipal solid wastes and wastewater treatment and utilization technologies and recommend practical solution options and future research and development needs.

  11. DWPF Safely Dispositioning Liquid Waste

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The only operating radioactive waste glassification plant in the nation, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the liquid radioactive waste currently stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) into a solid glass form suitable for long-term storage and disposal. Scientists have long considered this glassification process, called “vitrification,” as the preferred option for treating liquid radioactive waste.

  12. Deoxygenation of waste cooking oil and non-edible oil for the production of liquid hydrocarbon biofuels.

    PubMed

    Romero, M J A; Pizzi, A; Toscano, G; Busca, G; Bosio, B; Arato, E

    2016-01-01

    Deoxygenation of waste cooking vegetable oil and Jatropha curcas oil under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in batch and semi-batch experiments using CaO and treated hydrotalcite (MG70) as catalysts at 400 °C. In batch conditions a single liquid fraction (with yields greater than 80 wt.%) was produced containing a high proportion of hydrocarbons (83%). In semi-batch conditions two liquid fractions (separated by a distillation step) were obtained: a light fraction and an intermediate fraction containing amounts of hydrocarbons between 72-80% and 85-88% respectively. In order to assess the possible use of the liquid products as alternative fuels a complete chemical characterization and measurement of their properties were carried out.

  13. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  14. Gaseous fuel production from nonrecyclable paper wastes by using supported metal catalysts in high-temperature liquid water.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Aritomo; Hiyoshi, Norihito; Sato, Osamu; Bando, Kyoko K; Shirai, Masayuki

    2010-06-21

    Paper wastes are used for the production of gaseous fuels over supported metal catalysts. The gasification of the nonrecyclable paper wastes, such as shredded documents and paper sludge, is carried out in high-temperature liquid water. The order of the catalytic activity for the gasification is found to be ruthenium>rhodium>platinum>palladium. A charcoal-supported ruthenium catalyst (Ru/C) is the most effective for the gasification of paper and cellulose. Paper wastes are gasified to a limited degree (32.6 carbon %) for 30 min in water at 523 K to produce methane and carbon dioxide, with a small amount of hydrogen. At 573 K, more complete gasification with almost 100 carbon % is achieved within 10 min in water. At 523 K, the gas yield of paper gasification over Ru/C is higher than that of cellulose powder. The gas yields are increased by ball-milling treatment of the recycled paper and cellulose powder. Printed paper wastes are also gasified at 523 K in water.

  15. Waste form product characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has operated nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to support national interests for several decades. Since 1953, it has supported the development of technologies for the storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and the resultant wastes. However, the 1992 decision to discontinue reprocessing of SNF has left nearly 768 MT of SNF in storage at the INEL with unspecified plans for future dispositioning. Past reprocessing of these fuels for uranium and other resource recovery has resulted in the production of 3800 M{sup 3} calcine and a total inventory of 7600 M{sup 3} of radioactive liquids (1900 M{sup 3} destined for immediate calcination and the remaining sodium-bearing waste requiring further treatment before calcination). These issues, along with increased environmental compliance within DOE and its contractors, mandate operation of current and future facilities in an environmentally responsible manner. This will require satisfactory resolution of spent fuel and waste disposal issues resulting from the past activities. A national policy which identifies requirements for the disposal of SNF and high level wastes (HLW) has been established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) Sec.8,(b) para(3)) [1982]. The materials have to be conditioned or treated, then packaged for disposal while meeting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The spent fuel and HLW located at the INEL will have to be put into a form and package that meets these regulatory criteria. The emphasis of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) future operations has shifted toward investigating, testing, and selecting technologies to prepare current and future spent fuels and waste for final disposal. This preparation for disposal may include mechanical, physical and/or chemical processes, and may differ for each of the various fuels and wastes.

  16. Methane production from cattle waste in laboratory reactors at 40/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/C after solid-liquid separation

    SciTech Connect

    Rorick, M.B.; Spahr, S.L.; Bryant, M.P.

    1980-11-01

    Whole dairy waste and liquid effluent separated from the same waste with a solid-liquid separator were fermented at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Chemical analyses of the two materials were similar. Methane production was superior in thermophilic reactors. With substrates adjusted to 4.1% volatile solids, average methane production at 60/sup 0/C (166 ml/g volatile solids fed to reactors at 3- and 6-day retention time) was as efficient as at 40/sup 0/C (162 ml/g at 5- and 10-day retention times). Thermophilic reactors produced 1.67 liter methane/liter reactor per day as compared to .93 liter for mesophilic reactors. Efficiency of methanogenesis was no greater for whole waste than for separated effluent. Production of methane for the two substrates averaged over retention times and temperatures was 156 ml/g volatile solids fed to reactor for whole waste and 173 ml/g for separated effluent.

  17. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  18. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Singh, Prahlad; Ketring, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  19. Use of textile waste water along with liquid NPK fertilizer for production of wheat on saline sodic soils.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Jafar, Abdul Aleem; Naveed, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment in collaboration with a private textile industry (Noor Fatima Fabrics Private (Ltd.), Faisalabad) was conducted to evaluate the effect of disposed water from bleaching unit, printing unit and end drain for improving growth and yield of wheat under saline sodic soil. Textile waste water along with canal water (control) was applied with and without liquid NPK fertilizer. The application of liquid NPK fertilizer with end drain waste water increased plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, root length, number of tillers (m(-2)), number of fertile tillers (m(-2)), 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield up to 21, 20, 20, 44, 17, 20, 14, 44, 40 and 41%, respectively compared to canal water (control). Similarly, the NPK uptake in grain was increased up to 15, 30 and 28%, respectively by liquid fertilizer treated end drain water as compare to canal water with liquid fertilizer. Moreover, concentration of different heavy metals particularly Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd was decreased in grains by application of waste water along with liquid NPK. The result may imply that waste water application along with liquid-NPK could be a novel approach for improving growth and yield of wheat in saline sodic soils.

  20. Potential Application of Biohydrogen Production Liquid Waste as Phosphate Solubilizing Agent-A Study Using Soybean Plants.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; LeBihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    With CO2 free emission and a gravimetric energy density higher than gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, and bioethanol, biohydrogen is a promising green renewable energy carrier. During fermentative hydrogen production, 60-70 % of the feedstock is converted to different by-products, dominated by organic acids. In the present investigation, a simple approach for value addition of hydrogen production liquid waste (HPLW) containing these compounds has been demonstrated. In soil, organic acids produced by phosphate solubilizing bacteria chelate the cations of insoluble inorganic phosphates (e.g., Ca3 (PO4)2) and make the phosphorus available to the plants. Organic acid-rich HPLW, therefore, has been evaluated as soil phosphate solubilizer. Application of HPLW as soil phosphate solubilizer was found to improve the phosphorus uptake of soybean plants by 2.18- to 2.74-folds. Additionally, 33-100 % increase in seed germination rate was also observed. Therefore, HPLW has the potential to be an alternative for phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers available in the market. Moreover, the strategy can be useful for phytoremediation of phosphorus-rich soil.

  1. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste.

  2. Liquid waste treatment system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-06-01

    Pretreatment of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) involved three distinct processing operations: decontamination of liquid HLW in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS); volume reduction of decontaminated liquid in the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); and encapsulation of resulting concentrates into an approved cement waste form in the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Together, these systems and operations made up the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS).

  3. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-10-01

    Under this task, electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This technology targets the (1) destruction of nitrates, nitrites and organic compounds; (2) removal of radionuclides; and (3) removal of RCRA metals. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from national laboratories, academic institutions, and private industry. Possible benefits of this technology include: (1) improved radionuclide separation as a result of the removal of organic complexants, (2) reduction in the concentrations of hazardous and radioactive species in the waste (e.g., removal of nitrate, mercury, chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low-level waste (LLW) by reducing the source of NO{sub x} emissions, (4) recovery of chemicals of value (e.g. sodium hydroxide), and (5) reduction in the volume of waste requiring disposal.

  4. Liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-03-11

    The performance of liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste partitioning is examined for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Program currently under study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Centrifugation might have application for the separation of the LiF-BeF{sub 2} salt from heavier radioactive materials fission product and actinides in the separation of fission product from actinides, in the isotope separation of fission-product cesium before transmutation of the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 135}Cs, and in the removal of spallation product from the liquid lead target. It is found that useful chemical separations should be possible using existing materials for the centrifuge construction for all four cases with the actinide fraction in fission product perhaps as low as 1 part in 10{sup 7} and the fraction of {sup 137}CS in {sup 133}Cs being as low as a few parts in 10{sup 5}. A centrifuge cascade has the advantage that it can be assembled and operated as a completely closed system without a waste stream except that associated with maintenance or replacement of centrifuge components.

  5. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

  6. Hanford Site liquid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK, K.J.

    1999-09-11

    This document provides the waste acceptance criteria for liquid waste managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). These waste acceptance criteria address the various requirements to operate a facility in compliance with applicable environmental, safety, and operational requirements. This document also addresses the sitewide miscellaneous streams program.

  7. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    1996-10-01

    Electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This activity consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of different electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale size reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of testing data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from federal, academic, and private industry. Work is being carried out in DOE, academic, and private industrial laboratories.

  8. Production of propionic acid-enriched volatile fatty acids from co-fermentation liquid of sewage sludge and food waste using Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Mu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Luo, Jingyang; Zhao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA), derived from sludge fermentation, have been used as one effective carbon source for biological nutrient removal, especially favorable with VFA containing with high levels of propionic acid. In this paper, a new fermentation method was employed to significantly produce the propionic acid-enriched VFA from the co-fermentation liquid of sewage sludge and food waste: including (1) mixing food waste with sludge in the anaerobic digester (the first stage) and (2) separating the mixture, sterilizing the first stage liquid and fermenting it after inoculation with Propionibacterium acidipropionici (the second stage). The effect of the key parameters including pH, the mixing ratio of the food waste and sludge, fermentation time and temperature of the first stage on the propionic acid-enriched VFA production (the second stage) was individually discussed. By the molecular weight distribution analysis, the comparison of the solubilisation and hydrolysis process in difference parameters was fully elaborated. The optimal combination of the parameters was then obtained. Finally, the propionic acid-enriched VFA fermentation was successfully conducted in a semi-continuous reactor using the first stage liquid from the optimal condition.

  9. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A. D.; Dixon, K. L.; Hill, K. A.; King, W. D.; Nichols, R. L.

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  10. Improved production of propionic acid driven by hydrolyzed liquid containing high concentration of l-lactic acid from co-fermentation of food waste and sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Ma, Li; Lai, Sizhou; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of improved production propionic acid-enriched volatile fatty acid (VFA) from high concentration (Cs) of food waste and waste activated sludge (WAS) via lactic acid pathway by using of Propionibacterium acidipropionici. It was observed that production of l-lactate overwhelmed to d-lactate at first stage, which improved from 3.21 to 35.45gCOD/L with increase of substrate Cs. However, kinetic model analysis indicated that P. acidipropionici growth rate μmax was decreased with increase of l-lactate concentration, which explained second stage free cell fermentation of propionic acid was inhibited when fed by first stage liquid from R-40, R-55 and R-70. Then, the fibrous bed bioreactor was employed to eliminate the feed inhibition. The maximal percentage of propionic acid (68.3%) and production (16.31gCOD/L) was obtained by feeding liquid of R-55, which was improved by 3.33 folds compared to the free cell fermentation.

  11. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Virgil James; Hu, Jian Sheng; Chambers, Andrea

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn of methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in use in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  12. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Johnson; J. S. Hu; A. G. Chambers

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn the methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in used in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  13. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2015-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2014 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management practices, hospital waste, pesticide waste, chemical wastewater, pesticide wastewater and pharmaceutical wastewater. The other topics include aerobic treatment, anaerobic treatment, sorption and ozonation.

  14. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  15. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  16. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  17. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  18. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  19. Method for solidifying liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Berreth, Julius R.

    1976-01-01

    The quantity of nitrous oxides produced during the solidification of liquid radioactive wastes containing nitrates and nitrites can be substantially reduced by the addition to the wastes of a stoichiometric amount of urea which, upon heating, destroys the nitrates and nitrites, liberating nontoxic N.sub.2, CO.sub.2 and NH.sub.3.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  1. Analysis of induced radionuclides in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron solely used for production of 18F for [18F]FDG.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, S; Ishigure, N; Ogata, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2013-04-01

    Radioactivities produced in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron used to produce (18)F for [(18)F]FDG with 10MeV protons were analyzed. Nineteen radionuclides were found in the replacement parts and liquid wastes. Among them, long-lived (56)Co in the Havar foils is critical in terms of radioactive waste management. The estimated dose level of exposure for the operating staff during the replacement of parts was around 310μSv/y, which is smaller than the recommended dose limit for workers.

  2. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  3. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables.

  4. A study of waste liquid crystal display generation in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifeng; Xu, Zeying; Huang, Haihong; Li, Bingbing

    2016-01-01

    The generation of liquid crystal display waste is becoming a serious social problem. Predicting liquid crystal display waste status is the foundation for establishing a recycling network; however, the difficulty in predicting liquid crystal display waste quantity lies in data mining. In order to determine the quantity and the distribution of liquid crystal display waste in China, the four top-selling liquid crystal display products (liquid crystal display TVs, desktop PCs, notebook PCs, and mobile phones) were selected as study objects. Then, the extended logistic model and market supply A method was used to predict the quantity of liquid crystal display waste products. Moreover, the distribution of liquid crystal display waste products in different regions was evaluated by examining the consumption levels of household equipment. The results revealed that the quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would increase rapidly in the next decade. In particular, the predicted quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would rise to approximately 4.262 × 10(9) pieces in 2020, and the total display area (i.e. the surface area of liquid crystal display panels) of waste liquid crystal displays would reach 5.539 × 10(7) m(2). The prediction on the display area of waste liquid crystal display TVs showed that it would account for 71.5% of the total display area by 2020. Meanwhile, the quantity of waste mobile phones would significantly grow, increasing 5.8 times from 2012 to 2020. In terms of distribution, Guangdong is the top waste liquid crystal display-generating province in China, followed by Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Zhejiang, and Sichuan. Considering its regional characteristics, Guangdong has been proposed to be the most important location of the recycling network.

  5. Process equipment waste and process waste liquid collection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The US DOE has prepared an environmental assessment for construction related to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) and Process Waste Liquid (PWL) Collection System Tasks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. This report describes and evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action (and alternatives). The purpose of the proposed action would be to ensure that the PEW and PWL collection systems, a series of enclosed process hazardous waste, and radioactive waste lines and associated equipment, would be brought into compliance with applicable State and Federal hazardous waste regulations. This would be accomplished primarily by rerouting the lines to stay within the buildings where the lined floors of the cells and corridors would provide secondary containment. Leak detection would be provided via instrumented collection sumps locate din the cells and corridors. Hazardous waste transfer lines that are routed outside buildings will be constructed using pipe-in-pipe techniques with leak detection instrumentation in the interstitial area. The need for the proposed action was identified when a DOE-sponsored Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance assessment of the ICPP facilities found that singly-contained waste lines ran buried in the soil under some of the original facilities. These lines carried wastes with a pH of less than 2.0, which were hazardous waste according to the RCRA standards. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Finney, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  7. Waste product profile: Glass containers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, Waste Age initiated the Waste Product Profile series -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the solid waste stream. This popular series of profiles high-lighted a product, explained how it fit into integrated waste management systems, and provided current data on recycling and markets for the product. Glass containers are made from sand, limestone, soda ash, cullet (crushed bottles), and various additives, including those used to produce green, brown, and blue glass. Other glass products include flat glass, such as windows, and fiberglass products, such as insulation and glassware. These products are manufactured using different processes and different additives than container glass. This profile covers only glass containers.

  8. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  9. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  10. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  11. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  12. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  13. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  14. 324 Bldg Liquid Waste Handling System Functional Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    HAM, J.E.

    1999-12-16

    The 324 Building in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, is preparing to design, construct, and operate the Liquid Waste Handling System (LWHS). The system will include transfer, collection, treatment, and disposal of radiological and mixed liquid waste.

  15. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  16. Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Waste Form Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Williams, B. D.; Snyder, Michelle M. V.; Wang, Guohui

    2016-05-23

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste (LSW) grout formulation and waste form qualification tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate new formulations for preparing a grout waste form with high-sulfate secondary waste simulants and the release of key constituents from these grout monoliths. Specific objectives of the LSW grout formulation and waste form qualification tests described in this report focused on five activities: 1.preparing new formulations for the LSW grout waste form with high-sulfate LSW simulants and solid characterization of the cured LSW grout waste form 2.conducting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1313 leach test (EPA 2012) on the grout prepared with the new formulations, which solidify sulfate-rich Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) off-gas condensate secondary waste simulant, using deionized water (DIW) 3.conducting the EPA Method 1315 leach tests (EPA 2013) on the grout monoliths made with the new dry blend formulations and three LSW simulants (242-A evaporator condensate, Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) leachate, and WTP off-gas condensate) using two leachants, DIW and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water (VZPW) 4.estimating the 99Tc desorption Kd (distribution coefficient) values for 99Tc transport in oxidizing conditions to support the IDF performance assessment (PA) 5.estimating the solubility of 99Tc(IV)-bearing solid phases for 99Tc transport in reducing conditions to support the IDF PA.

  17. Using liquid waste streams as the moisture source during the hydrothermal carbonization of municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Hale, McKenzie; Olsen, Petra; Berge, Nicole D

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process that can be an environmentally beneficial approach for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to value-added products. The influence of using activated sludge and landfill leachate as initial moisture sources during the carbonization of paper, food waste and yard waste over time at 250°C was evaluated. Results from batch experiments indicate that the use of activated sludge and landfill leachate are acceptable alternative supplemental liquid sources, ultimately imparting minimal impact on carbonization product characteristics and yields. Regression results indicate that the initial carbon content of the feedstock is more influential than any of the characteristics of the initial liquid source and is statistically significant when describing the relationship associated with all evaluated carbonization products. Initial liquid-phase characteristics are only statistically significant when describing the solids energy content and the mass of carbon in the gas-phase. The use of these alternative liquid sources has the potential to greatly increase the sustainability of the carbonization process. A life cycle assessment is required to quantify the benefits associated with using these alternative liquid sources.

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from waste.

    PubMed

    Rhu, D H; Lee, W H; Kim, J Y; Choi, E

    2003-01-01

    PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate) production was attempted with SBRs from food waste. Seed microbes were collected from a sewage treatment plant with a biological nutrient removal process, and acclimated with synthetic substrate prior to the application of the fermented food waste. Laboratory SBRs were used to produce PHA with limited oxygen and nutrients. The maximum content of 51% PHA was obtained with an anaerobic/aerobic cycle with P limitation, and the yield was estimated to be about 0.05 gPHA(produced)/gCOD(applied) or 25 kg PHA/dry ton of food waste, assuming more than 40% of the PHA contents were recoverable. PHB/PHA ratios were 0.74 to 0.77 due to the higher acetate concentrations. Economical analysis seemed to suggest the PHA produced from the food waste could be an alternative material to produce the biodegradable plastic to be used for the collection bags for solid waste.

  19. TREATMENT OF FISSION PRODUCT WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Huff, J.B.

    1959-07-28

    A pyrogenic method of separating nuclear reactor waste solutions containing aluminum and fission products as buring petroleum coke in an underground retort, collecting the easily volatile gases resulting as the first fraction, he uminum chloride as the second fraction, permitting the coke bed to cool and ll contain all the longest lived radioactive fission products in greatly reduced volume.

  20. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production from waste biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor Aslan, A. K. H.; Ali, M. D. Muhd; Morad, N. A.; Tamunaidu, P.

    2016-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is a group of biopolymers that are extensively researched for such purpose due to the biocompatibility with mammal tissue and similar properties with conventional plastic. However, commercialization of PHA is impended by its high total production cost, which half of it are from the cost of pure carbon source feedstock. Thus, cheap and sustainable feedstocks are preferred where waste materials from various industries are looked into. This paper will highlight recent studies done on PHA production by utilizing crop and agro waste material and review its potential as alternative feedstock.

  1. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  2. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-01

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as `problematic' waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  3. Membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with some problems concerning reduction of radioactivity of liquid low-level nuclear waste streams (LLLW). The membrane processes as ultrafiltration (UF), seeded ultrafiltration (SUF), reverse osmosis (RO) and membrane distillation (MD) were examined. Ultrafiltration enables the removal of particles with molecular weight above cut-off of UF membranes and can be only used as a pre-treatment stage. The improvement of removal is achieved by SUF, employing macromolecular ligands binding radioactive ions. The reduction of radioactivity in LLLW to very low level were achieved with RO membranes. The results of experiments led the authors to the design and construction of UF+2RO pilot plant. The development of membrane distillation improve the selectivity of membrane process in some cases. The possibility of utilisation of waste heat from cooling system of nuclear reactors as a preferable energy source can significantly reduce the cost of operation.

  4. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  5. Existing data on the 216-Z liquid waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, K.W.

    1981-05-01

    During 36 years of operation at the Hanford Site, the ground has been used for disposal of liquid and solid transuranic and/or low-level wastes. Liquid waste was disposed in surface and subsurface cribs, trenches, French drains, reverse wells, ditches and ponds. Disposal structures associated with Z Plant received liquid waste from plutonium finishing and reclamation, waste treatment and laboratory operations. The nineteen 216-Z sites have received 83% of the plutonium discharged to 325 liquid waste facilities at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to support the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement by drawing the existing data together for the 216-Z liquid waste disposal sites. This document provides an interim reference while a sitewide Waste Information Data System (WIDS) is developed and put on line. Eventually these and additional site data for all Hanford waste disposal sites will be available on WIDS. Compilation of existing data is the first step in evaluating the need and developing the technology for long-term management of these waste sites. The scope of this document is confined to data describing the status of the 216-Z waste sites as of December 31, 1979. Information and sketches are taken from existing documents and drawings.

  6. [Utilization of organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiaojia; Liu, Jinghong; Yang, Guidi; Huang, Biao

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, one hundred percent of condensed sulfate paper pulp waste liquid was used as the raw material of adhesive, and the activation of its lignin as well as the improving effects of phenol formaldehyde resin and polyfunctional aqueous polymer isocyanate (PAPI) were studied. The results showed that adding formaldehyde to the waste liquid could increase the reactivity of contained lignin, and adding 30% phenol formaldehyde resin or 20% PAPI could make the waste liquid in place of pure phenol formaldehyde resin for producing class I plywood. Furthermore, the cost could be reduced by 55.5% and 49.0%, respectively, in comparing with pure phenol formaldehyde resin. This approach fully used the organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid, reduced environment pollution at the same time, and had unexceptionable economic, social and ecological benefits. The feasibility of preparing adhesives from paper pulp waste liquid was also analyzed by infrared spectrum.

  7. Cement encapsulation of low-level waste liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of liquid high-level radioactive waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was essential to ensuring the success of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. By chemically separating the HLW from liquid waste, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in the volume of HLW to be vitrified. In addition, pretreatment made it possible to remove sulfates, which posed several processing problems, from the HLW before vitrification took place.

  8. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  9. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite.

  10. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs.

  11. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW.

  12. Concepts for detritiation of waste liquids

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M. ); Van Brunt, V.; Garber, A.R. ); King, R.B. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the SRS reactors, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, so research and development programs have been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R D efforts world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in future fusion reactors. This paper presents a review of some of the methods that have been proposed, studied, and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water, along with some new concepts for aqueous detritiation directly from liquid oxide (HTO) bearing feed streams.

  13. Concepts for detritiation of waste liquids

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M.; Van Brunt, V.; Garber, A.R.; King, R.B.

    1991-12-31

    Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the SRS reactors, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, so research and development programs have been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R&D efforts world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in future fusion reactors. This paper presents a review of some of the methods that have been proposed, studied, and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water, along with some new concepts for aqueous detritiation directly from liquid oxide (HTO) bearing feed streams.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1217 Section 63.1217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hazardous Waste Combustors Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Solid Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1217 What are the standards for liquid...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1217 Section 63.1217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Waste Combustors Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Solid Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1217 What are the standards for liquid fuel...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1217 Section 63.1217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Waste Combustors Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Solid Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1217 What are the standards for liquid fuel...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1217 Section 63.1217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Waste Combustors Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Solid Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1217 What are the standards for liquid fuel...

  18. Assessing the feasibility of involving gaseous products resulting from physicochemical oxidation of human liquid and solid wastes in the cycling of a bio-technical life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander; Kudenko, Yurii; Trifonov, Sergey; Ushakova, Sofya

    2012-01-01

    The study addresses the possible ways of involving gaseous products produced by "wet" incineration of human wastes mixed with H2O2 in an alternating electric field in the cycling of the physical model of a bio-technical life support system (BTLSS). The resulting gas mixture contains CO2 and O2, which are easily involved in the cycling in the closed ecosystem, and NH3, which is unacceptable in the atmosphere of the BTLSS. NH3 fixation has been proposed, which is followed by nitrification and involvement of the resulting products in the mass exchange of the closed system. Experiments have been performed to show that plants can be grown in the atmosphere resulting from the closing of the gas loop that includes a physicochemical installation and a growth chamber with plants representing the phototrophic compartment of the BTLSS. The results of the study suggest the conclusion that the proposed method of organic waste oxidation can be a useful tool in creating a physical model of a closed-loop integrated BTLSS.

  19. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    A method of nondestructively detecting the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solidified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  20. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    Nondestructive detection of the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste is accomplished by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solifified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  1. OBSERVATIONS ON WASTE DESTRUCTION IN LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various factors affecting the performance of a subscale liquid injection incinerator simulator are discussed. The mechanisms by which waste escapes incineration within the spray flame are investigated for variations in atomization quality, flame stoichiometry. and the initial was...

  2. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vijay; Shah, Hasmukh; Occhipinti, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Edwards, Richard E.

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  3. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  4. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in...

  5. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOEpatents

    Grady, James L.; Chen, Guang Jiong

    1998-01-01

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  6. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOEpatents

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  7. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  8. In-Situ Chemical Precipitation of Radioactive Liquid Waste - 12492

    SciTech Connect

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2012-07-01

    This paper presented in-situ chemical precipitation for radioactive liquid waste by using chemical agents. Results are reported on large-scale implementation on the removal of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 60}Co from liquid radioactive waste generating from Nuclear Research and Training Centre. Total amount of liquid radioactive waste was 35 m{sup 3} and main radionuclides were Cs-137, Cs- 134 and Co-60. Initial radioactivity concentration of the liquid waste was 2264, 17 and 9 Bq/liter for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. Potassium ferro cyanide was selected as chemical agent at high pH levels 8-10 according to laboratory tests. After the process, radioactive sludge precipitated at the bottom of the tank and decontaminated clean liquid was evaluated depending on discharge limits. By this precipitation method decontamination factors were determined as 60, 9 and 17 for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. At the bottom of the tank radioactive sludge amount was 0.98 m{sup 3}. It was transferred by sludge pumps to cementation unit for solidification. By in situ chemical processing 97% of volume reduction was achieved. Using the optimal concentration of 0.75 M potassium ferro cyanide about 98% of the {sup 137}Cs can be removed at pH 8. The Potassium ferro cyanide precipitation method could be used successfully in large scale applications with nickel and ferrum agents for removal of Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co- 60. Although DF values of laboratory test were much higher than in-situ implementation, liquid radioactive waste was decontaminated successfully by using potassium ferro cyanide. Majority of liquid waste were discharged as clean liquid. %97.2 volumetric amount of liquid waste was cleaned and discharged at the original site. Reduced amount of sludge transportation in drums is more economical and safer method than liquid transportation. Although DF values could be different for each of applications related to main specifications of original liquid waste, this

  9. Waste treatment in silicon production operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Larry M. (Inventor); Tambo, William (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A battery of special burners, each adapted for the treatment of a particular range of waste material formed during the conversion of metallurgical grade silicon to high purity silane and silicon, is accompanied by a series arrangement of filters to recover fumed silica by-product and a scrubber to recover muriatic acid as another by-product. All of the wastes are processed, during normal and plant upset waste load conditions, to produce useful by-products in an environmentally acceptable manner rather than waste materials having associated handling and disposal problems.

  10. Corrosion experience in calcination of liquid nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C A

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory became operational in 1963. Since that time, approximately 13,337,137 litres (3,523,375 gallons) of liquid nuclear wastes, generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel materials, have been reduced to dry granular solids. The volume reduction is about seven or eight gallons of liquid waste to one gallon of dry granular solids. This paper covers some of the corrosion experiences encountered in over fifteen years of operating that calcination facility. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  11. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  12. Separation of aromatic precipitates from simulated high level radioactive waste by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.R.; Shah, H.B.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRS will be the United States' first facility to process High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass matrix. The removal of aromatic precipitates by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction will be a key step in the processing of the HLW. This step, titled the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process, has been demonstrated by the Savannah River Laboratory with the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The mission of the PHEF is to demonstrate processing of simulated high level radioactive waste which contains tetraphenylborate precipitates and nitrite. Reduction of nitrite by hydroxylamine nitrate and hydrolysis of the tetraphenylborate by formic acid is discussed. Gaseous production, which is primarily benzene, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, has been quantified. Production of high-boiling organic compounds and the accumulation of these organic compounds within the process are addressed.

  13. Separation of aromatic precipitates from simulated high level radioactive waste by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.R.; Shah, H.B.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRS will be the United States` first facility to process High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass matrix. The removal of aromatic precipitates by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction will be a key step in the processing of the HLW. This step, titled the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process, has been demonstrated by the Savannah River Laboratory with the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The mission of the PHEF is to demonstrate processing of simulated high level radioactive waste which contains tetraphenylborate precipitates and nitrite. Reduction of nitrite by hydroxylamine nitrate and hydrolysis of the tetraphenylborate by formic acid is discussed. Gaseous production, which is primarily benzene, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, has been quantified. Production of high-boiling organic compounds and the accumulation of these organic compounds within the process are addressed.

  14. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sanati, Mehri

    2014-02-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield of 272.1 mL/g VS. Based the preferred ratio, effect of total solids (TS) content on co-digestion of food waste and green waste was evaluated over a TS range of 5-25%. Results showed that methane yields from high-solids anaerobic digestion (15-20% TS) were higher than the output of liquid anaerobic digestion (5-10% TS), while methanogenesis was inhibited by further increasing the TS content to 25%. The inhibition may be caused by organic overloading and excess ammonia.

  15. Consumption and production waste: another externality of tobacco use

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T.; Zhao, F.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the waste produced by and environmental implications of individual cigarette consumption (filter tips, packages, and cartons) and tobacco manufacturing.
STUDY SELECTION—All available articles and reports published since 1970 related to cigarette consumption and production waste were reviewed.
DATA SOURCES—Global cigarette consumption data were used to estimate cigarette butt and packaging waste quantities. Data from the Center for Marine Conservation's International Coastal Cleanup Project were used to describe some environmental impacts of tobacco-related trash. Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Toxics Release Inventory and reported global cigarette consumption totals were used to estimate waste production from cigarette manufacturing.
DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS—In 1995, an estimated 5.535 trillion cigarettes (27 675 million cartons and 276 753 million packages) were sold by the tobacco industry globally. Some of the wastes from these products were properly deposited, but a large amount of tobacco consumption waste ends up in the environment. Some is recovered during environmental clean-up days. For the past eight years (1990-1997), cigarette butts have been the leading item found during the International Coastal Cleanup Project; they accounted for 19.1% of all items collected in 1997. The tobacco manufacturing process produces liquid, solid, and airborne waste. Among those wastes, some materials, including nicotine, are designated by the EPA as Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) chemicals. These are possible environmental health hazards. In 1995, the global tobacco industry produced an estimated 2262 million kilograms of manufacturing waste and 209 million kilograms of chemical waste. In addition, total nicotine waste produced in the manufacture of reduced nicotine cigarettes was estimated at 300 million kilograms.
CONCLUSIONS—Laws against littering relative to cigarette butts

  16. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria for the phenolic compounds extraction from artificial textile industrial waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hermawan, Sari, Lelita Sakina

    2017-03-01

    Liquid waste in textile industry contains large amounts of dyes and chemicals which are capable of harming the environment and human health. It is due to liquid waste characteristics which have high BOD, COD, temperature, dissolved and suspended solid. One of chemical compound which might be harmful for environment when disposed in high concentration is phenol. Currently, Phenol compound in textile industrial waste has reached 10 ppm meanwhile maximum allowable phenol concentration is not more than 0.2 ppm. Otherwise, Phenol also has economic value as feedstock of plastic, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Furthermore, suitable method to separate phenol from waste water is needed. In this research, liquid - liquid extraction method was used with extraction time for 70 minutes. Waste water sample was then separated into two layers which are extract and raffinate. Thereafter, extract and raffinate were then tested by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to obtained liquid - liquid equilibrium data. Aim of this research is to study the effect of temperature, stirring speed and type of solvent to obtain distribution coefficient (Kd), phenol yield and correlation of Three-Suffix Margules model for the liquid - liquid extraction data equilibrium. The highest extraction yield at 80.43 % was found by using 70% methanol as solvent at extraction temperature 50 °C with stirring speed 300 rpm, coefficient distribution was found 216.334. From this research it can be concluded that Three-Suffix Margules Model is suitable to predict liquid - liquid equilibrium data for phenol system.

  17. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  18. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  19. Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551

    SciTech Connect

    Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A.

    2012-07-01

    the necessity to take emergency measures and to use marine water for cooling of reactor zone in contravention of the technological regulations. In these cases significant amount of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition is being generated, the purification of which by traditional methods is close to impossible. According to the practice of elimination of the accident after-effects at NPP 'Fukushima' there are still no technical means for the efficient purification of liquid radioactive wastes of complex composition like marine water from radionuclides. Therefore development of state-of-the-art highly efficient facilities capable of fast and safe purification of big amounts of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition from radionuclides turns to be utterly topical problem. Cesium radionuclides, being extremely dangerous for the environment, present over 90% of total radioactivity contained in liquid radioactive wastes left as a result of accidents at nuclear power objects. For the purpose of radiation accidents aftereffects liquidation VNIIHT proposes to create a plant for LRW reprocessing, consisting of 4 major technological modules: Module of LRW pretreatment to remove mechanical and organic impurities including oil products; Module of sorption purification of LWR by means of selective inorganic sorbents; Module of reverse osmotic purification and desalination; Module of deep evaporation of LRW concentrates. The first free modules are based on completed technological and designing concepts implemented by VNIIHT in the framework of LLRW Project in the period of 2000-2001 in Russia for comprehensive treatment of LWR of atomic fleet. These industrial plants proved to be highly efficient and secure during their long operation life. Module of deep evaporation is a new technological development. It will ensure conduction of evaporation and purification of LRW of different physicochemical composition, including those

  20. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cable; radio, television and computer casings; vehicle parts; or furniture laminates); preformed or... sealants; caulking; Galbestos; non-liquid building demolition debris; or non-liquid PCB bulk product waste... contaminated by liquid PCBs in a facility that is permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to...

  1. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cable; radio, television and computer casings; vehicle parts; or furniture laminates); preformed or... sealants; caulking; Galbestos; non-liquid building demolition debris; or non-liquid PCB bulk product waste... contaminated by liquid PCBs in a facility that is permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to...

  2. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  3. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin M. Stewart

    1999-09-29

    magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicated good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and industrial waters, including Hg{sup 2+}, elemental mercury, methyl mercury, and colloidal mercury. The process possesses very fast kinetics, which allows for higher flow rates and smaller treatment units. These sorbent technologies, used in tandem or individually depending on the treatment needs, can provide DOE sites with a cost-effective method for reducing mercury concentrations to very low levels mandated by the regulatory community. In addition, the technologies do not generate significant amounts of secondary wastes for disposal. Furthermore, the need for improved water treatment technologies is not unique to the DOE. The new, stringent requirements on mercury concentrations impact other government agencies as well as the private sector. Some of the private-sector industries needing improved methods for removing mercury from water include mining, chloralkali production, chemical processing, and medical waste treatment. The next logical step is to deploy one or more of these sorbents at a contaminated DOE site or at a commercial facility needing improved mercury treatment technologies. A full-scale deployment is planned in fiscal year 2000.

  4. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  5. LANL Waste acceptance criteria, Chapter 3, radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    McClenahan, Robert L.

    2006-08-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives and treats aqueous radioactive wastewater generated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to meet he discharge criteria specified in a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. The majority of this wastewater is received at the RLWTF through a network of buried pipelines, known as the Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System (RLWCS). Other wastewater is transported to the RLWTF by truck. The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) outlined in this Chapter are applicable to all radioactive wastewaters which are conveyed to the Technical Area 50(T A-50), RL WTF by the RLWCS or by truck.

  6. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department Annual Operating Report, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the waste management operations section of the liquid and gaseous waste operations department at ORNL for 1993. The process waste, liquid low-level waste, gaseous waste systems activities are reported, as well as the low-level waste solidification project. Upgrade activities is the various waste processing and treatment systems are summarized. A maintenance activity overview is provided, and program management, training, and other miscellaneous activities are covered.

  7. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  8. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  9. [The investigation of the composition of liquid radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Suslov, A V; Suslova, I N; Bagiian, A; Leonov, V V; Kapustin, V K

    2008-01-01

    In investigation the process of composition sediment of liquid unorganic radioactive waste, that are forming in cistern-selectors at PNPI RAS, it was discovered apart from great quantity of ions of different metals and radionuclides considerable maintenance of organic material (to 30% and more from volume of sediment) unknown origin. A supposition was made about its microbiological origin. Investigation shows, that the main microorganisms, setting this sediment, are the bacterious of Pseudomonas kind, capable of effectively bind in process of grow the radionuclide 90Sr, that confirms the potential posibility of using this microorganisms for bioremediation of liquid low radioactive wastes (LRW).

  10. Nuclear waste glass Product Consistency Test (PCT), Version 3. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1990-11-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), poured into stainless steel canisters, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS), the durability of the glass needs to be measured during production to assure its long term stability and radionuclide release properties. A durability test, designated the Product Consistency Test (PCT), was developed for DWPF glass in order to meet the WAPS requirements. The response of the PCT procedure was based on extensive testing with glasses of widely different compositions. The PCT was determined to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, and to be easily performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples.

  11. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND... description, projected quantity, and composition of solid and liquid wastes (such as spent drilling fluids, drill cuttings, trash, sanitary and domestic wastes, produced waters, and chemical product...

  12. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND... description, projected quantity, and composition of solid and liquid wastes (such as spent drilling fluids, drill cuttings, trash, sanitary and domestic wastes, produced waters, and chemical product...

  13. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND... description, projected quantity, and composition of solid and liquid wastes (such as spent drilling fluids, drill cuttings, trash, sanitary and domestic wastes, produced waters, and chemical product...

  14. Application of reutilization technology to waste from liquid crystal display (LCD) industry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei T; Li, Kung C

    2010-01-01

    This investigation studies the recycling utility of two major waste products from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry, panel glass and calcium fluoride sludge, which remain after the treatment of waste water. Waste panel glass was mixed with calcium fluoride sludge in various ratios and then subject to conditioning and melting treatment in order to yield glass-ceramics. Heavy metal leaching tests indicated that reductive conditions lowered the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate to an order of magnitude below that in the waste glass and sludge. A 5:5 (wt%) mixture of glass and sludge melted at 1200 degrees C for 60 min achieves a specific gravity, water absorption, unit mass, porosity ratio, and soundness that meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for fine aggregates. Therefore, waste panel glass can indeed be efficiently recycled into a useful construction material.

  15. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1986-01-01

    A method of immobilizing boric acid liquid wastes containing radionuclides by neutralizing the solution and evaporating the resulting precipitate to near dryness. The dry residue is then fused into a reduced volume, insoluble, inert, solid form containing substantially all the radionuclides.

  16. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  17. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A.

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  18. Removal of iodide ion from simulated radioactive liquid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, H.

    1999-01-01

    The previous study reported that BiPbO2(NO3) is one of the most promising candidate materials for removing and immobilizing radioactive iodide. In that case, the solution contained only dissolved NaI and did not contain competing anions. This paper reports the reactivity of BiPbO2(NO3) with iodide ions in simulated radioactive liquid waste. This liquid contains many components, especially highly concentrated NaNO2, Na2CO3 and NaNO3. The obtained results show that BiPbO2(NO3) is useful for removing iodide ion from the simulated radioactive liquid waste but that there is a problem which should be resolved in the future. The problem is that a competing anion, HCO3 -, interferes with the exchange reaction, and only the surfaces of the BiPbO2(NO3) crystals are used for the reaction.

  19. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    DOEpatents

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  20. Nuclear waste glass product consistency test (PCT), Version 5. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.; Waters, B.J.

    1992-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), poured into stainless steel canisters, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS), the durability of the glass needs to be measured during production to assure its long term stability and radionuclide release properties. A durability test, designated the Produce Consistency Test (PCT), was developed for DWPF glass in order to meet the WAPS requirements. The response of the PCT procedure was based on extensive testing with glasses of widely different compositions. The PCT was determined to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, and to be easily performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. Version 5.0 of the PCT procedure is attached.

  1. High level radioactive waste glass production and product description

    SciTech Connect

    Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

  2. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-13

    produce hydrogen using high temp fuel cells‐such as DFC or SOFC —Paint fume from Ford Motors plant in Canada‐ FCE’s fuel cell � Total market is above...This can be captured and transported for use or used to help power the plants themselves (GM and Dow Chemical had a Demo Program) Reduction... power �Agricultural and food processing plants can turn waste into power Gills Onions saves $1 2M/year

  3. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production.

  4. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1993-09-01

    In 1943 the Hanford Site was chosen as a location for the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. The 100-N Area at Hanford was used from 1963 to 1987 for a dual-purpose, plutonium production and steam generation reactor and related operational support facilities (Diediker and Hall 1987). In November 1989, the reactor was put into dry layup status. During operations, chemical and radioactive wastes were released into the area soil, air, and groundwater. The 1325-N LWDF was constructed in 1983 to replace the 1301-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility (1301-N LWDF). The two facilities operated simultaneously from 1983 to 1985. The 1301-N LWDF was retired from use in 1985 and the 1325-N LWDF continued operation until April 1991, when active discharges to the facility ceased. Effluent discharge to the piping system has been controlled by administrative means. This report discusses ground water contamination resulting from the 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal facility.

  5. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  6. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Kundari, Noor Anis Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  7. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides from Mo-99 Acidic Liquid Waste - 13027

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Pen, Ben-Li

    2013-07-01

    About 200 liters highly radioactive acidic liquid waste originating from Mo-99 production was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research). A study regarding the treatment of the radioactive acidic liquid waste was conducted to solve storage-related issues and allow discharge of the waste while avoiding environmental pollution. Before discharging the liquid waste, the acidity, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and Hg ions in high concentrations, and radionuclides must comply with environmental regulations. Therefore, the treatment plan was to neutralize the acidic liquid waste, remove key radionuclides to reduce the dose rate, and then remove the nitrate and mercury ions. Bench tests revealed that NaOH is the preferred solution to neutralize the high acidic waste solution and the pH of solution must be adjusted to 9∼11 prior to the removal of nuclides. Significant precipitation was produced when the pH of solution reached 9. NaNO{sub 3} was the major content in the precipitate and part of NaNO{sub 3} was too fine to be completely collected by filter paper with a pore size of approximately 3 μm. The residual fine particles remaining in solution therefore blocked the adsorption column during operation. Two kinds of adsorbents were employed for Cs-137 and a third for Sr-90 removal to minimize cost. For personnel radiation protection, significant lead shielding was required at a number of points in the process. The final process design and treatment facilities successfully treated the waste solutions and allowed for environmentally compliant discharge. (authors)

  8. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-07-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  9. Treatment of mixed radioactive liquid wastes at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.

    1994-03-01

    Aqueous mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is traditionally generated in small volumes with a wide variety of compositions. A cooperative effort at ANL between Waste Management (WM) and the Chemical Technology Division (CMT) was established, to develop, install, and implement a robust treatment operation to handle the majority of such wastes. For this treatment, toxic metals in mixed-waste solutions are precipitated in a semiautomated system using Ca(OH){sub 2} and, for some metals, Na{sub 2}S additions. This step is followed by filtration to remove the precipitated solids. A filtration skid was built that contains several filter types which can be used, as appropriate, for a variety of suspended solids. When supernatant liquid is separated from the toxic-metal solids by decantation and filtration, it will be a low-level waste (LLW) rather than a mixed waste. After passing a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test, the solids may also be treated as LLW.

  10. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  11. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  12. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  13. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective...

  14. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective...

  15. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective...

  16. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective...

  17. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective...

  18. Production of hydrogen from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes gasification and the process for producing a gasificable slurry from raw MSW by using high pressures of steam. A potential energy source, MSW is a composite of organic materials such as: paper, wood, food waste, etc. There are different paper grades producing different results with low-quality paper forming better slurries than high-quality papers; making MSW a difficult feedstock for gasification. The objective of the bench-scale laboratory work has been to establish operating conditions for a hydrothermal pre-processing scheme for municipal solid waste (MSW) that produces a good slurry product that can be pumped and atomized to the gasifier for the production of hydrogen. Batch reactors are used to determine product yields as a function of hydrothermal treatment conditions. Various ratios of water-to-paper were used to find out solid product, gas product, and soluble product yields of MSW. Experimental conditions covered were temperature, time, and water to feed ratio. Temperature had the strongest effect on product yields.

  19. Microbial consortium role in processing liquid waste of vegetables in Keputran Market Surabaya as organic liquid fertilizer ferti-plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizqi, Fauziah; Supriyanto, Agus; Lestari, Intan; Lita Indri D., L.; Elmi Irmayanti, A.; Rahmaniyah, Fadilatur

    2016-03-01

    Many activities in this market is directly proportional to increase production of vegetables waste, especially surabaya. Therefore, in this study aims to utilize liquid waste of vegetables into liquid organic fertilizer by mixing microbial consorsium. The microbial consorsium consist of Azotobacter chrococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Ttreatment of microbial concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%) and the length of the incubation period (7 days, 14 days, 21 days) used in this research. The parameters used are: C/N ratio, levels of CNP, and BOD value. This study uses a standard organic fertilizer value according SNI19-7030-2004, The results show the value of C/N ratio comply with the ISO standards. C levels showed an increase during the incubation period but not compare with standards. N levels that compare with standards are microbial treatment in all group concentration except control group with an incubation period of 21 days is > 7. P levels compare with the existing standards in the group of microbe concentration of 10% and 15% during the incubation period. The value of the initial BOD liquid waste of vegetable is 790.25 mg / L, this value indicates that the waste should not go into the water body. Accordingly, the results of this study can not be used as a liquid organic fertilizer, but potentially if it is used as a natural career or build natural soil. The Building natural soil is defined as the natural ingredients that can be used to improve soil properties.

  20. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology.

  1. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents details about the operation of the liquid and gaseous waste department of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the calendar year 1994. Topics discussed include; process waste system, upgrade activities, low-level liquid radioactive waste solidification project, maintenance activities, and other activities such as training, audits, and tours.

  2. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  3. Waste product profile: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-02-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks are the primary product packaged in PET. Salad dressing, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products also use PET bottles. PET is also used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, ovenable trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early `70s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, it is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The primary market for recycled PET is the fiber industry, which uses PET for carpet fiber, sweaters and other clothing, and for other uses. Recycled PET can also be used for food and beverage containers. Export markets, particularly Asian countries, are becoming increasingly important.

  4. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  5. The Sonophysics and Sonochemistry of Liquid Waste Quantification and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Matula, Thomas J.

    1998-06-01

    This research is being conducted to (a) perform an in-depth and comprehensive study of the fundamentals of acoustic cavitation and nonlinear bubble dynamics, (b) elucidate the fundamental physics of sonochemical reactions, (c) examine the potential of sonoluminescence to quantify and monitor the presence of alkali metals and other elements in waste liquids, (d) design and evaluate more effective sonochemical reactors for waste remediation, and (e) determine the optimal acoustical parameters in the use of sonochemistry for liquid-waste-contaminant remediation. So far cells have been designed for multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectroscopy experiments. Positive results have been obtained in both systems using a Raman system which covers the wavelength range from 790 to 1,070 nm. Further progress from year-1 involved the use of the newly discovered technique of changing the pressure head above the cavitation field to increase the light emission from MBSL. A second method for changing the pressure head involves pressure-jumping, whereby the pressure in the head space above the solution is quickly increased to a new steady value.

  6. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.

  7. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in

  8. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses work at the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department of ORNL. An operating summary, upgrade activities and maintenance activities are presented for the Process Waste Treatment Plant, Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, and Runoff Treatment Facility.

  9. Product acceptance of a certified Class C low-level waste form at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Maestas, E.; Yeazel, J.A.; McIntosh, T.W.

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Energy, is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste (HLW) remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, which were conducted at West Valley, New York between 1966 and 1972. One important aspect of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s fully integrated waste program is the treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes which result from processing liquid high-level waste. The treatment takes place in the project`s Integrated Radwaste Treatment System which removes Cesium-137 from the liquid or supernatant phase of the HLW by utilizing an ion exchange technique. The resulting decontaminated and conditioned liquid waste stream is solidified into a Class C low-level cement waste form that meets the waste form criteria specified in NRC 10 CFR 61. The waste matrix is placed in 71-gallon square drums, remotely handled and stored on site until determination of final disposition. This paper discusses the programs in place at West Valley to ensure production of an acceptable cement-based product. Topics include the short and long term test programs to predict product storage and disposal performance, description of the Process Control Plan utilized to control and maintain cement waste form product specifications and finally discuss the operational performance characteristics of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System. Operational data and product statistics are provided.

  10. [Hygienic assessment of waste of soda production].

    PubMed

    Samutin, N M; Vaisman, Y I; Rudakova, L V; Kalinina, E V; Glushankova, I S; Batrakova, G M

    2013-01-01

    The object of investigations was soda industry waste. Slimes are formed at slimes storage which occupy considerable areas and are considered to be the source of permanent impact on the hydrosphere objects. Slimes storage placement within settlement boundaries and water protection zone of large watercourses leads to the deterioration of sanitary, hygienic and environmental situation and to the rising of risks to health of communities. Waste processing with getting new materials on the base of soda industry waste with wide application is seems to be one of the way for problem solving. It is essential to take into account sanitary and hygienic characteristics of slimes within justifying possible directions of its use. Thus, researches concerning assessment of physical, chemical and toxicological waste characteristics are considered to be actual. The aim of researches is to examine physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of soda production slimes for justifying directions of its use including delivery of new materials respondent to the all regulatory sanitary and hygienic requirements. Experimental investigations of assessment physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of slimes were carried out according to standard methods. Within assessment of toxicological slimes characteristics the following test-objects were used: Ceriodaphnia affinis, Paramecium caudatum. As a result of investigations watered slime samples were determined to be referred to the 4th hazard level (low-hazard) waste; samples with preliminary mechanical dehydration are referred to the 5th hazard level (practically nonhazardous) waste for environment. These are correspond to the 3rd and 4th hazard level according to sanitary regulations, respectively.

  11. Efficiency of inductively torch plasma operating at atmospheric pressure on destruction of chlorinated liquid wastes- A path to the treatment of radioactive organic halogen liquid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamgang-Youbi, G.; Poizot, K.; Lemont, F.

    2012-12-01

    The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ~4 kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl3 feed rates up to 400 g·h-1 with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g·kWh-1. The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO2, HCl and H2O) and redox titration (Cl2). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (< 1 g·h-1) even with high waste feed rates. The experimental results were very close to the equilibrium composition predicted by thermodynamic calculations. At the bottom of the reactor, the chlorinated acids were successfully trapped in a scrubber and transformed into mineral salts, hence, only CO2 and H2O have been found in the final off-gases composition.

  12. Processing liquid organic wastes at the NNL Preston laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersthwaite, Duncan; Greenwood, Howard; Docrat, Tahera; Allinson, Sarah; Sultan, Ruqayyah; May, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    Organic compounds of various kinds have been used in the nuclear industry for numerous duties in uranium chemical, metal and ceramic processing plants. In the course of the various operations undertaken, these organic compounds have become contaminated with uranic material, either accidentally or as an inevitable part of the process. Typically, the chemical/physical form and/or concentration of the uranic content of the organics has prevented disposal. In order to address the issue of contaminated liquid organic wastes, the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a suite of treatments designed to recover uranium and to render the waste suitable for disposal. The developed processes are operated at industrial scale via the NNL Preston Laboratory Residue Processing Plant. The Oil Waste Leaching (OWL) Process is a fully industrialised process used for the treatment of contaminated oils with approximately 200 tonnes of uranium contaminated oil being treated to date. The process was originally developed for the treatment of contaminated tributyl phosphate and odourless kerosene which had been adsorbed onto sawdust. However, over the years, the OWL process has been refined for a range of oils including 'water emulsifiable' cutting oils, lubricating oils, hydraulic oils/fluids and 'Fomblin' (fully fluorinated) oils. Chemically, the OWL process has proved capable of treating solvents as well as oils but the highly volatile/flammable nature of many solvents has required additional precautions compared with those required for oil treatment. These additional precautions led to the development of the Solvent Treatment Advanced Rig (STAR), an installation operated under an inert atmosphere. STAR is a small 'module' (100 dm{sup 3} volume) which allows the treatment of both water miscible and immiscible solvents. This paper discusses the challenges associated with the treatment of liquid organic wastes and the process developments which have allowed a wide range of

  13. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).

    PubMed

    Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

    2010-10-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production.

  14. Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes disposal of liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases, through: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques. However, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

  15. Production of organic acids from kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Loh, C W; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Hassan, M A; Karim, M I

    1999-01-01

    This study involves the production of short-chain organic acids from kitchen wastes as intermediates for the production of biodegradable plastics. Flasks, without mixing were used for the anaerobic conversion of the organic fraction of kitchen wastes into short-chain organic acids. The influence of pH, temperature and addition of sludge cake on the rate of organic acids production and yield were evaluated. Fermentations were carried out in an incubator at different temperatures controlled at 30 degrees C. 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C and uncontrolled at room temperature. The pH was also varied at pH 5, 6, 7, and uncontrolled pH. 1.0 M phosphate buffer was used for pH control, and 1.0 M HCl and 1.0 M NaOH were added when necessary. Sludge cake addition enhanced the rate of maximum acids production from 4 days to 1 day. The organic acids produced were maximum at pH 7 and 50 degrees C i.e., 39.84 g/l on the fourth day of fermentation with a yield of 0.87 g/g soluble COD consumed, and 0.84 g/g TVS. The main organic acid produced was lactic acid (65-85%), with small amounts of acetic (10-30%), propionic (5-10%), and butyric (5-20%) acids. The results of this study showed that kitchen wastes could be fermented to high concentration of organic acids, which could be used as substrates for the production of biodegradable plastics.

  16. Heavy metals removal from contaminated sewage sludge by naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Dacera, Dominica Del Mundo; Babel, Sandhya

    2007-01-01

    The large amount of unutilised pineapple wastes produced every year in tropical countries, particularly in Thailand, adds to the existing environmental pollution problems of the country. This study investigated the utilisation of pineapple wastes to treat another form of waste (sludge) from wastewater treatment facilities in Thailand. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to determine the potential of using naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid in the extraction of Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the leaching study revealed its effectiveness in extracting Zn (at 92%) at pH 3.67 and a short leaching time of only 2 h, and Ni at almost 60% removal at the same leaching time. Chromium removal was also high at almost 75% at a longer leaching time of 11 days. Variation in metal removal efficiencies may also be attributed to the forms of metals in sludge, with metals predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidisable phases showing ease of leachability (such as Zn). Compared to citric acid, at pH approaching 4.0, naturally fermented raw liquid seemed to be more effective in the removal of Zn and Cu at the same leaching time of 2 h, and Cr at a longer leaching time of 11 days. The pineapple pulp, which is a by-product of the process, can still be used as animal feed because of its high protein content.

  17. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  18. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys.

  19. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel low-temperature solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology for immobilizing waste streams containing fission products such as cesium, strontium, and technetium in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic. This technology can immobilize partitioned tank wastes and decontaminate waste streams containing volatile fission products.

  20. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  1. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  2. Incineration of radioactive organic liquid wastes by underwater thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, M.; Lemont, F.; Baronnet, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with incineration of radioactive organic liquid wastes using an oxygen thermal plasma jet, submerged under water. The results presented here are focused on incineration of three different wastes: a mixture of tributylphosphate (TBP) and dodecane, a perfluoropolyether oil (PFPE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). To evaluate the plutonium behavior in used TBP/dodecane incineration, zirconium is used as a surrogate of plutonium; the method to enrich TBP/dodecane mixture in zirconium is detailed. Experimental set-up is described. During a trial run, CO2 and CO contents in the exhaust gas are continuously measured; samples, periodically taken from the solution, are analyzed by appropriate chemical methods: contents in total organic carbon (COT), phosphorus, fluoride and nitrates are measured. Condensed residues are characterized by RX diffraction and SEM with EDS. Process efficiency, during tests with a few L/h of separated or mixed wastes, is given by mineralization rate which is better than 99.9 % for feed rate up to 4 L/h. Trapping rate is also better than 99 % for phosphorous as for fluorine and chlorine. Those trials, with long duration, have shown that there is no corrosion problems, also the hydrogen chloride and fluoride have been neutralized by an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate.

  3. Radiation methods for decontamination of liquid wastes and ecological problems

    SciTech Connect

    Shubin, V.N.; Brusentseva, S.A.; Vysotskaya, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss several possible approaches to the use of radiation for the purposes of rational use of water resources and protecting them from pollution and depletion. The authors note that radiation decontamination makes it possible to solve a number of important problems in protecting fundamental elements of the biosphere by: reducing the uptake of fresh water from natural sources for industrial and household needs and sharply cutting the release of unpurified waste water by creating circulating water systems based on rapid methods of thorough purification; employing a combination of different physical and chemical methods with a final stage that uses radiation-prolonged adsorption to give the water a high degree of purity; preventing bacterial contamination of soils when liquid and semiliquid wastes from cities and livestock farms are used as fertilizers; utilizing the excess active sludges that accumulate in biological treatment factilities as feed additives and fertilizer; and eliminating the release to the atmosphere of effluents from the incineration of highly polluted waste water which often contains carcinogenic and poisonous substances.

  4. Evaluation of various agro-wastes for traditional black soap production.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, O E; Osinowo, F A

    2001-08-01

    The agricultural wastes, cocoa-pod husks, palm-bunch waste, sorghum chaff and groundnut shells, which are normally thrown away have been used in the production of black soap. Unlike other soaps which are made from oils and chemicals, black soap is made from oils and agro-wastes ashes. Chemical analysis indicated that the liquid extract from the ashes of the different agro-wastes used contained various amounts of potassium and sodium compounds. The most common ingredient in the agro-wastes was potassium carbonate. The amount of potassium carbonate was 56.73 +/- 0.16% in cocoa-pod ash, 43.15 +/- 0.13% in palm-bunch ash, 16.65 +/- 0.05% in groundnut shell ash and 12.40 +/- 0.08% in sorghum chaff ash. Soaps made from the agro-wastes ashes had excellent solubility, consistency, cleansing and lathering abilities.

  5. Microbial products from sweet potato wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, N.P.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial production of methane from alkaline sweet potato wastes was studied. Assessment of methane production potential was based on total COD of the wastes. A single-stage and a two-stage system were studied. In both systems, to ensure stable operation and high performance, methane fermenters had to be initially seeded with large quantities of methane formers. A 50% inoculum (based on total fermenter volume) was found to be most effective. Methane formers tended to aggregate to form spherical particles which had extremely high settling rates, this eliminated the requirement of cell recycle. In both single-stage and two-stage systems the rates of gas production was sufficiently fast to induce thorough mixing of the fermenter contents. At low residence times of two and four days the two-stage system achieved significantly higher conversions. Gas production started almost immediately after feeding the methane fermenter of the two-stage system. The conversions in the methane fermenter of a two-stage system could be predicted by a model based on Contois' kinetics. The composition of the gas produced in this fermenter could also be predicted from the distribution of the organic acids in the effluent from the acid fermenter. The acid formation stage was studied in a chemostat operated at a fixed residence time of 5.5 hours. The highest yield of 0.09 g protein/g glucose consumed was obtained at pH 5.5 and 37/sup 0/C.

  6. Biotechnological production of methanol from waste biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, R.; Morris, D.

    1995-12-01

    The production of methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) from waste biomass is possible through the use of genetically modified bacteria. The biomass to methanol conversion process makes use of a naturally occurring, direct aerobic enzymatic system referred to as oxidative demethylation. Methoxy groups are stripped off of lignin and lignin like plant substances (approximately fifty percent of all plant biomass) and hydrolyzed to form methanol. Since the biotech process is stoichiometric, potentially every methoxy group in the lignin feedstock can be converted to methanol fuel. Approximately 30-35% of lignin is a methoxy compound that can be converted. Biotechnological conversion could produce up to 100 gallons/ton or 20 billion gallons a year of methanol from waste biomass. Current work has focused on the genetic modification of the enzymatic conversion process to reach commercial production. The goals of this research are; increase product yields, implement an operon {open_quotes}switch{close_quotes} mechanism to exploit multiple feedstocks, and produce environmentally safe by-products. Progress on these topics will be reported.

  7. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  8. Methods for genetic optimization of biocatalysts for biofuel production from dairy waste through synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Pasotti, Lorenzo; Zucca, Susanna; Casanova, Michela; Politi, Nicolo; Massaiu, Ilaria; Mazzini, Giuliano; Micoli, Giuseppina; Calvio, Cinzia; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Magni, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Whey is an abundant by-product of cheese production process and it is considered a special waste due to its high nutritional load and hypertrophic potential. Technologies for whey valorization are available. They can convert such waste into high-value products, like whey proteins. However, the remaining liquid (called permeate) is still considered as a polluting waste due to its high lactose concentration. The alcoholic fermentation of lactose into ethanol will simultaneously achieve two important goals: safe disposal of a pollutant waste and green energy production. This methodology paper illustrates the workflow carried out to design and realize an optimized microorganism that can efficiently perform the lactose-to-ethanol conversion, engineered via synthetic biology experimental and computational approaches.

  9. Conversion of waste polypropylene to liquid fuel using acid-activated kaolin.

    PubMed

    Panda, Achyut K; Singh, R K

    2014-10-01

    Waste polypropylene was subjected to thermal degradation in the presence of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin, with different catalyst-to-plastics ratios, in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 400-550°C to obtain optimized process conditions for the production of liquid fuels. The effects of process temperature, catalyst and feed composition on yield and quality of the oil were determined. For a thermal decomposition reaction at up to 450°C, the major product is volatile oil; and the major products at a higher temperature (475-550°C) are either viscous liquid or wax. The highest yield of condensed fraction in the thermal reaction is 82.85% by weight at 500°C. Use of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin as a catalyst decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. The major product of catalysed degradation at all temperatures is highly volatile liquid oil. The maximum oil yield using kaolin and acid-treated kaolin is 87.5% and 92%, respectively, at 500°C. The oil obtained was characterized using GC-MS for its composition and different fuel properties by IS methods.

  10. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of yard waste and food waste for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dan; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Food and yard wastes are available year round at low cost and have the potential to complement each other for SS-AD. The goal of this study was to determine optimal feedstock/effluent (F/E) and food waste/yard waste mixing ratios for optimal biogas production. Co-digestion of yard and food waste was carried out at F/E ratios of 1, 2, and 3. For each F/E ratio, food waste percentages of 0%, 10%, and 20%, based on dry volatile solids, were evaluated. Results showed increased methane yields and volumetric productivities as the percentage of food waste was increased to 10% and 20% of the substrate at F/E ratios of 2 and 1, respectively. This study showed that co-digestion of food waste with yard waste at specific ratios can improve digester operating characteristics and end performance metrics over SS-AD of yard waste alone.

  11. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    SciTech Connect

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. {yields} Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. {yields} Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. {yields} Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  12. Biogas and energy production from cattle waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthi, J.

    1997-12-31

    Biomass is one of the longest used energy sources employed in human activity. The bioconversion of organic matter to biogas is a complex anaerobic fermentation process involving the action of microorganisms such as methane producing bacteria. In this paper, biogas and energy production from cattle waste is investigated. There are two significant reasons that motivate this study. First, treating animal waste with the technology of anaerobic digestion can reduce environmental pollution and generate a relatively cheap and easily available source of energy in dairy farms. The gas produced can be used for space and water heating of farm houses, cooking, lighting, grain drying and as a fuel for heating greenhouses during cold weather. It also has the potential to run other small industries. Second, it is an effective way of managing cattle waste as well as producing a quick acting, non-toxic fertilizer for agricultural use. A working model of biogas plant is studied in this paper and its economic value as an alternative energy source is examined. An alternative to direct generation of electricity, is to convert the methane from the biomass to methanol. Methanol is an excellent fuel for internal combustion engines and can easily compete with gasoline in many nations where gasoline costs over $4 per US gallon.

  13. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    PubMed

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design.

  14. Development of Concentration and Calcination Technology For High Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, D.P.

    2006-07-01

    The concentrated medium and high-level liquid radio chemicals effluents contain nitric acid, water along with the dissolved chemicals including the nitrates of the radio nuclides. High level liquid waste contain mainly nitrates of cesium, strontium, cerium, zirconium, chromium, barium, calcium, cobalt, copper, pickle, iron etc. and other fission products. This concentrated solution requires further evaporation, dehydration, drying and decomposition in temperature range of 150 to 700 deg. C. The addition of the calcined solids in vitrification pot, instead of liquid feed, helps to avoid low temperature zone because the vaporization of the liquid and decomposition of nitrates do not take place inside the melter. In our work Differential and thermo gravimetric studies has been carried out in the various stages of thermal treatment including drying, dehydration and conversion to oxide forms. Experimental studies were done to characterize the chemicals present in high-level radioactive waste. A Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner was used for development of the process because this is amenable for continuous operation and moderately good heat transfer can be achieved inside the kiln. This also has minimum secondary waste and off gases generation. The Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner Demonstration facility system was designed and installed for the demonstration of calcination process. The Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner is a slowly rotating slightly inclined horizontal tube that is externally heated by means of electric resistance heating. The liquid feed is sprayed onto the moving bed of metal balls in a slowly rotating calciner by a peristaltic type-metering pump. The vaporization of the liquid occurs in the pre-calcination zone due to counter current flow of hot gases. The dehydration and denitration of the solids occurs in the calcination zone, which is externally heated by electrical furnace. The calcined powder is cooled in the post calcination portion. It has been demonstrated that the

  15. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  16. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bratasida, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  17. A&M. Hot liquid waste holding tanks. Camera faces southeast. Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste holding tanks. Camera faces southeast. Located in vicinity of TAN-616, hot liquid waste treatment plant. Date: November 13, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9159 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Baseline Glass Development for Combined Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Billings, Amanda Y.; Lang, Jesse B.; Marra, James C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-06-29

    Borosilicate glass was selected as the baseline technology for immobilization of the Cs/Sr/Ba/Rb (Cs), lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) waste steams as part of a cost benefit analysis study.[1] Vitrification of the combined waste streams have several advantages, minimization of the number of waste forms, a proven technology, and similarity to waste forms currently accepted for repository disposal. A joint study was undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop acceptable glasses for the combined Cs + Ln + TM waste streams (Option 1) and Cs + Ln combined waste streams (Option 2) generated by the AFCI UREX+ set of processes. This study is aimed to develop baseline glasses for both combined waste stream options and identify key waste components and their impact on waste loading. The elemental compositions of the four-corners study were used along with the available separations data to determine the effect of burnup, decay, and separations variability on estimated waste stream compositions.[2-5] Two different components/scenarios were identified that could limit waste loading of the combined Cs + LN + TM waste streams, where as the combined Cs + LN waste stream has no single component that is perceived to limit waste loading. Combined Cs + LN waste stream in a glass waste form will most likely be limited by heat due to the high activity of Cs and Sr isotopes.

  19. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-10-01

    To avoid the inhibition from both of waste oil and high concentrations of cationic elements, anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid (ADSL) system was examined in this present paper. Results from batch test indicated that a higher methane yield could be obtained in the ADSL system. The methane yield of food solid waste (FSW), food liquid waste (FLW) and raw food waste (RFW) were 643, 659 and 581 mL/g-VS, respectively. In semi-continuous anaerobic digestion, the optimum organic loading rates (OLR) for FSW, FLW and RFW were 9, 4 and 7 g-VS/L/d, respectively. The total methane production of RFW and ADSL systems, based on 1 kg-VS(RFW), were 405 and 460 L, respectively, indicating that the methane production increased by 13.6% in the ADSL system. The optimum C/N ratio, redistribution of metal element and lower content of waste oil in FSW explain the higher methane production.

  20. MECHANISMS GOVERNING TRANSIENTS FROM THE BATCH INCINERATION OF LIQUID WASTES IN ROTARY KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When "containerized" liquid wastes, bound on sorbents. are introduced into a rotary kiln in a batch mode, transient phenomena in-volving heat transfer into, and waste mass transfer out of, the sorbent can oromote the raoid release of waste vaoor into the kiln environment. This ra...

  1. Microbiology of formation waters from the deep repository of liquid radioactive wastes Severnyi.

    PubMed

    Nazina, Tamara N; Kosareva, Inessa M; Petrunyaka, Vladimir V; Savushkina, Margarita K; Kudriavtsev, Evgeniy G; Lebedev, Valeriy A; Ahunov, Viktor D; Revenko, Yuriy A; Khafizov, Robert R; Osipov, George A; Belyaev, Sergey S; Ivanov, Mikhail V

    2004-07-01

    The presence, diversity, and geochemical activity of microorganisms in the Severnyi repository of liquid radioactive wastes were studied. Cultivable anaerobic denitrifiers, fermenters, sulfate-reducers, and methanogens were found in water samples from a depth of 162-405 m below sea level. Subsurface microorganisms produced methane from [2-(14)C]acetate and [(14)C]CO(2), formed hydrogen sulfide from Na(2) (35)SO(4), and reduced nitrate to dinitrogen in medium with acetate. The cell numbers of all studied groups of microorganisms and rates of anaerobic processes were higher in the zone of dispersion of radioactive wastes. Microbial communities present in the repository were able to utilise a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds and components of waste (acetate, nitrate, and sulfate) both aerobically and anaerobically. Bacterial production of gases may result in a local increase of the pressure in the repository and consequent discharge of wastes onto the surface. Microorganisms can indirectly decrease the mobility of radionuclides due to consumption of oxygen and production of sulfide, which favours deposition of metals. These results show the necessity of long-term microbiological and radiochemical monitoring of the repository.

  2. The Mochovce final treatment center for liquid radioactive waste introduced to active trial operation

    SciTech Connect

    Krajc, T.; Stubna, M.; Kravarik, K.; Zatkulak, M.; Slezak, M.; Remias, V.

    2007-07-01

    The Final Treatment Centre (FTC) for Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) have been designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced by named NPP equipped with Russian VVER-440 type of reactors. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. During the realisation of project the future operator of Centre required the contractor to solve the treatment of wastes produced in the process of NPP A-1 decommissioning. On the basis of this requirement the project was modified in order to enable manipulations with waste products from A-1 NPP transported to Centre in steel drums. The initial project was prepared in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC civil works started in August 2004. Initial nonradioactive testing of the system parts were carried out from April to September 2006, then the tests of systems started with model concentrates and non-radioactive resins. After the processes evaluation the radioactive test performed from February 2007. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion during 2007 and 2008. The company JAVYS, Inc. is responsible for radioactive waste and spent fuel treatment in the Slovak republic and will operate the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. This Company has also significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 820 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization on Thin Film Evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen in blade

  3. Chemical characterization of commercial liquid smoke products

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Naim; Oliveira, Alexandra CM; Himelbloom, Brian H; Leigh, Mary Beth; Crapo, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine important chemical characteristics of a full-strength liquid smoke, Code 10-Poly, and three refined liquid smoke products (AM-3, AM-10 and 1291) commercially available (Kerry Ingredients and Flavors, Monterey, TN). The pH of the products were significantly different (P < 0.05) and ranged from 2.3 (Code 10-Poly) to 5.7 (1291). The pH was inversely correlated with titratable acidity (R2 = 0.87), which was significantly different (P < 0.05) among products ranging from 10.3% acetic acid (Code 10-Poly) to 0.7% acetic acid (1291). Total phenol content was quantified using the Gibbs reaction; the only liquid smoke containing appreciable level of phenolic compounds was Code 10-Poly at 3.22 mg mL−1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of liquid smoke dichloromethane extracts revealed that carbonyl-containing compounds were major constituents of all products, in which 1-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2(5H)-furanone, propanal and cyclopentenone predominated. Organic acids were detected by GC-MS in all extracts and correlated positively (R2 = 0.98) with titratable acidity. The GC-MS data showed that phenolic compounds constituted a major portion of Code 10-Poly, and were detected only in trace quantities in 1291. The refined liquid smokes had lighter color, lower acidity, and reduced level of carbonyl-containing compounds and organic acids. Our study revealed major differences in pH, titratable acidity, total phenol content, color and chemical make-up of the full-strength and refined liquid smokes. The three refined liquid smoke products studied have less flavor and color active compounds, when compared with the full-strength product. Furthermore, the three refined products studied have unique chemical characteristics and will impart specific sensorial properties to food systems. Understanding the chemical composition of liquid smokes, be these refined or full-strength products, is an important step to

  4. Direct utilization of human liquid wastes by plants in a closed ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovsky, G. M.; Gitelson, J. I.; Shilenko, M. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Trubachev, I. N.

    1997-01-01

    Model experiments in phytotrons have shown that urea is able to cover 70% of the demand in nitrogen of the conveyer cultivated wheat. At the same time wheat plants can directly utilize human liquid wastes. In this article by human liquid wastes the authors mean human urine only. In a long-term experiment on ``man-higher plants'' system with two crewmen, plants covered 63 m^2, with wheat planted to - 39.6 m^2. For 103 days, complete human urine (total amount - 210.7 l) was supplied into the nutrient solution for wheat. In a month and a half NaCl supply into the nutrient solution stabilized at 0.9-1.65 g/l. This salination had no marked effect on wheat production. The experiment revealed the realistic feasibility to directly involve liquid wastes into the biological turnover of the life support system. The closure of the system, in terms of water, increased by 15.7% and the supply of nutrients for wheat plants into the system was decreased. Closedness of biological turnover of matter in a man-made ``man - higher plants'' ecological system might involve, among other processes, direct utilization of human liquid wastes by plants. The amount of urine comprises 15-20% of the total amount of water cycling within the system including water as part of food, household, hygiene and potable water necessary for man. What is more, it they contains most nitrogen-bearing compounds emitted by man, almost all of the NaCl and some other substances involved in the biological turnover. Human liquid wastes can be utilized either by preliminary physical-chemical treatment (evaporating or freezing out the water, finally oxidizing the organic matter, isolating the mineral components required for plants, etc.) and further involvement of the obtained products or by direct application into the nutrient solution for plants. The challenge of direct utilization is that plants have no need of Na^+ and Cl^-, and also the organic forms of nitrogen emitted by man cannot fully meet the demand of

  5. An environmental friendly recovery production line of waste toner cartridges.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jujun; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-01-30

    Quantity of waste toner cartridges has been generated following the increasing demand for printer and duplicator. Waste toner cartridge contains abundant valuable metals, plastics as well as toxic residual toner. Therefore, the recovery of waste toner cartridges is a meaningful subject, not only from waste treatment but also from environment protection. This study proposed a mechanical production line for recovering waste toner cartridges. The recovery process involved shearing process, magnetic separation, and eddy current separation. The recovery rates of steel (magnet), toner, aluminum, and plastic were 98.4%, 95%, 97.5%, and 98.8%, respectively. The results of the comparison between the production line and full manual dismantling indicated that the production line succeed in recovering waste toner cartridges. In addition, the proposed production line is an efficient and environmental friendly way for recovering waste toner cartridges.

  6. Boron removal in radioactive liquid waste by forward osmosis membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Doo Seong Hwang; Hei Min Choi; Kune Woo Lee; Jei Kwon Moon

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the treatment of boric acid contained in liquid radioactive waste using a forward osmosis membrane. The boron permeation through the membrane depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7 and increases with an increase of the osmotic driving force. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but is not heavily influenced by a low salt concentration. The boron flux increases linearly with the concentration of boron. No element except for boron was permeated through the FO membrane in the multi-component system. The maximum boron flux is obtained in an active layer facing a draw solution orientation of the CTA-ES membrane under conditions of less than pH 7 and high osmotic pressure. (authors)

  7. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder.

  8. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

    1998-12-08

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

  9. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  10. Using caprolactam waste products in the production of glass articles

    SciTech Connect

    Min'ko, N.I.; Sabitov, S.S.; Belousov, Yu.L.; Chabot'ko, M.B.; Onishchuk, V.I.

    1986-09-01

    This paper describes the recovery of sodium carbonates from the waste incurred in the production of caprolactam. The process involves the pyrolysis of sodium salts of dicarboxylic acids--primarily adipic acid--and the subsequent purification of the resulting sodium carbonates and their incorporation into the manufacture of glass. The contribution of the carbonates to the glass falls chiefly in the domain of improving the working properties during manufacture and in the production of glassware whose light transmission properties are not a priority.

  11. The factors that have correlation with student behavior to dispose liquid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmawaningtyas, Rieneke; Darmajanti, Linda; Soesilo, Tri Edhi Budhi

    2017-03-01

    Students majoring in chemistry could produce toxic liquid waste in their laboratory practices. They are not allowed to dispose of hazardous laboratory liquid into the environment. The formulation of problem in this study is that not all students have good behavior to dispose liquid waste properly according to their type and chemical properties while it is expected that all students have good behavior to dispose liquid waste with the type and chemical properties in container vessel, even though all students are expected to have behavior to dispose waste in the container vessel with the support of the predisposing factors, enabling factors, and driving factors. The aim of this study is to analyze the type and chemical properties of liquid waste and the relationship between three factors forming behavior with student behavior. The relationship between three factors forming behavior with student behavior was analyzed by correlative analysis. Type and chemical properties known through observation and qualitative analysis. The results of this research is found that enabling factors and driving behavior have a weak relation with student behavior. Nevertheless, predisposing factors has no relation with student behavior. The result of analysis of waste laboratory are known that laboratory liquid waste contains Cu, Fe, and methylene blue which potentially pollute the environment. The findings show that although generally the laboratory use chemicals in small quantities, but the total quantity of laboratory liquid waste produced from all laboratories in some regions must be considered. Moreover, the impact of the big quantity of liquid waste to environment must be taken into account. Thus, it is recommended that students should raise awareness of the risks associated with laboratory liquid waste and, we should provide proper management for a laboratory and policy makers.

  12. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Yan, Yingting; Shi, Yiwen; Gu, Jingjing; Tang, Junhong; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-12-02

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245.7 mL hydrogen/g glucose (1.97 mol hydrogen/mol glucose) in the batch system. In the continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate was investigated. The optimal HRT obtained from this study was 6 h with the highest hydrogen production rate of 8.02 mmol/(h·L). Ethanol and acetate were the major soluble microbial products with low propionate production at all HRTs. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste could effectively accelerate hydrolysis speed, improve substrate utilization rate and increase hydrogen yield.

  13. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Yan, Yingting; Shi, Yiwen; Gu, Jingjing; Tang, Junhong; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245.7 mL hydrogen/g glucose (1.97 mol hydrogen/mol glucose) in the batch system. In the continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate was investigated. The optimal HRT obtained from this study was 6 h with the highest hydrogen production rate of 8.02 mmol/(h·L). Ethanol and acetate were the major soluble microbial products with low propionate production at all HRTs. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste could effectively accelerate hydrolysis speed, improve substrate utilization rate and increase hydrogen yield. PMID:27910937

  14. Using oxidized liquid and solid human waste as nutrients for Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kalacheva, Galina; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Iliada

    At stationary terrestrial and space stations with closed and partially closed substance exchange not only plants, but also algae can regenerate atmosphere. Their biomass can be used for feeding Daphnia and Moina species, which, in their turn, serve as food for fish. In addition, it is possible to use algae for production of biological fuel. We suggested two methods of human waste mineralization: dry (evaporation with subsequent incineration in a muffle furnace) and wet (oxidation in a reactor using hydrogen peroxide). The research task was to prepare nutrient media for green alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa using liquid human waste mineralized by dry method, and to prepare media for chlorella on the basis of 1) liquid and 2) liquid and solid human waste mineralized by wet method. The algae were grown in batch culture in a climate chamber with the following parameters: illumination 7 klx, temperature 27-30 (°) C, culture density 1-2 g/l of dry weight. The control for chlorella was Tamiya medium, pH-5, and for oscillstoria — Zarrouk medium, pH-10. Maximum permissible concentrations of NaCl, Cl, urea (NH _{2}) _{2}CO, and native urine were established for algae. Missing ingredients (such as salts and acids) for experimental nutrient media were determined: their addition made it possible to obtain the biomass production not less than that in the control. The estimation was given of the mineral and biochemical composition of algae grown on experimental media. Microbiological test revealed absence of foreign microbial flora in experimental cultures.

  15. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Gao, Song; Duan, Huabo; Liu, Lili

    2009-07-01

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 degrees C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO(3):H(2)O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 degrees C.

  16. Composition and production rate of medical waste from a small producer in Greece.

    PubMed

    Graikos, Anastasios; Voudrias, Evangelos; Papazachariou, Athanasios; Iosifidis, Nikolaos; Kalpakidou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rate of medical waste from the health care facility of social insurance institute, a small waste producer in Xanthi, Greece. Specifically, produced medical waste from the clinical pathology (medical microbiology) laboratory, the X-ray laboratory and the surgery and injection therapy departments of the health facility was monitored for six working weeks. A total of 240 kg medical solid waste was manually separated and weighed and 330 L of liquid medical waste was measured and classified. The hazardous waste fraction (%w/w) of the medical solid waste was 91.6% for the clinical pathology laboratory, 12.9% for the X-ray laboratory, 24.2% for the surgery departments and 17.6% for the injection therapy department. The infectious waste fraction (%w/w) of the hazardous medical solid waste was 75.6% for the clinical pathology laboratory, 0% for the X-ray laboratory, 100% for the surgery departments and 75.6% for the injection therapy department. The total hazardous medical solid waste production rate was 64+/-15 g/patient/d for the clinical pathology laboratory, 7.2+/-1.6 g/patient/d for the X-ray laboratory, 8.3+/-5.1 g/patient/d for the surgery departments and 24+/-9 g/patient/d for the injection therapy department. Liquid waste was produced by the clinical pathology laboratory (infectious-and-toxic) and the X-ray laboratory (toxic). The production rate for the clinical pathology laboratory was 0.03+/-0.003 L/patient/d and for the X-ray laboratory was 0.06+/-0.006 L/patient/d. Due to the small amount produced, it was suggested that the most suitable management scheme would be to transport the hazardous medical waste, after source-separation, to the Prefectural Hospital of Xanthi to be treated with the hospital waste. Assuming this data is representative of other small medical facilities, medical waste production can be estimated for such facilities distributed around Greece.

  17. 81929 - Fission-Product Separation Based on Room - Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Robin D. Rogers

    2004-12-09

    This project has demonstrated that Sr2+ and Cs+ can be selectively extracted from aqueous solutions into ionic liquids using crown ethers and that unprecedented large distribution coefficients can be achieved for these fission products. The volume of secondary wastes can be significantly minimized with this new separation technology. Through the current EMSP funding, the solvent extraction technology based on ionic liquids has been shown to be viable and can potentially provide the most efficient separation of problematic fission products from high level wastes. The key results from the current funding period are the development of highly selective extraction process for cesium ions based on crown ethers and calixarenes, optimization of selectivities of extractants via systematic change of ionic liquids, and investigation of task-specific ionic liquids incorporating both complexant and solvent characteristics.

  18. Waste valorization by biotechnological conversion into added value products.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rossana; Amore, Antonella; Faraco, Vincenza

    2013-07-01

    Fossil fuel reserves depletion, global warming, unrelenting population growth, and costly and problematic waste recycling call for renewable resources of energy and consumer products. As an alternative to the 100 % oil economy, production processes based on biomass can be developed. Huge amounts of lignocellulosic wastes are yearly produced all around the world. They include agricultural residues, food farming wastes, "green-grocer's wastes," tree pruning residues, and organic and paper fraction of urban solid wastes. The common ways currently adopted for disposal of these wastes present environmental and economic disadvantages. As an alternative, processes for adding value to wastes producing high added products should be developed, that is the upgrading concept: adding value to wastes by production of a product with desired reproducible properties, having economic and ecological advantages. A wide range of high added value products, such as enzymes, biofuels, organic acids, biopolymers, bioelectricity, and molecules for food and pharmaceutical industries, can be obtained by upgrading solid wastes. The most recent advancements of their production by biotechnological processes are overviewed in this manuscript.

  19. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  20. Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

    PubMed Central

    Hancsók, Jenő; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380°C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0 h−1 and H2/lard ratio: 600 Nm3/m3). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370°C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0 h−1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400 Nm3/m3) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

  1. Bio gas oil production from waste lard.

    PubMed

    Hancsók, Jeno; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280-380°C, P = 20-80 bar, LHSV = 0.75-3.0  h(-1) and H(2)/lard ratio: 600  Nm(3)/m(3)). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360-370°C, P = 40-50 bar, LHSV = 1.0  h(-1) and H(2)/hydrocarbon ratio: 400  Nm(3)/m(3)) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms.

  2. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  3. Experimental analysis to utilize the solid wastes in brick production.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Rajagopalan; Govindan, Venkatesan

    2013-07-01

    Utilization of industrial, municipal, agricultural and other waste products in the industry has been the focus of research for economical, environmental, and technical reasons. Two solid wastes, i.e. Sugar-cane bagasse--is a fibrous waste-product of the sugar refining industry and granite processing industry generates a large amount of wastes mainly in the form of powder during sawing and polishing processes, which pollute and damage the environment, have been taken to experimental study. The objective of this study is to utilize the bagasse ash and granite waste for the manufacturing of bricks. Mixtures were prepared with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% wastes of total weight of clay. The produced bricks are tested for mechanical properties, such as water absorption and compressive strength, according to Indian Standard Code. The result showed that 20% of bagasse ash and granite waste is optimum percentage to be used in the manufacturing of conventional bricks.

  4. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation final report and recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Using a formalized Systems Engineering approach, the Latched Idaho Technologies Company developed and evaluated numerous alternatives for treating, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive liquid and calcine wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Based on technical analysis data as of March, 1995, it is recommended that the Department of Energy consider a phased processing approach -- utilizing Radionuclide Partitioning for radioactive liquid and calcine waste treatment, FUETAP Grout for low-activity waste immobilization, and Glass (Vitrification) for high-activity waste immobilization -- as the preferred treatment and immobilization alternative.

  5. Conditioning of Boron-Containing Low and Intermediate Level Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12041

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunova, Olga A.; Kamaeva, Tatiana S.

    2012-07-01

    Improved cementation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW and LLW) aided by vortex electromagnetic treatment as well as silica addition was investigated. Positive effects including accelerated curing of boron-containing cement waste forms, improve end product quality, decreased product volume and reduced secondary LRW volume from equipment decontamination were established. These results established the possibility of boron-containing LRW cementation without the use of neutralizing alkaline additives that greatly increase the volume of the final product intended for long-term storage (burial). Physical (electromagnetic) treatment in a vortex mixer can change the state of LRW versus chemical treatment. By treating the liquid phase of cement solution only, instead of the whole solution, and using fine powder and nano-particles of ferric oxides instead of separable ferromagnetic cores for the activating agents the positive effect are obtained. VET for 1 to 3 minutes yields boron-containing LRW cemented products of satisfactory quality. Silica addition at 10 % by weight will accelerate curing and solidification and to decrease radionuclide leaching rates from boron-containing cement products. (authors)

  6. Optimization of biogas production from coffee production waste.

    PubMed

    Battista, Federico; Fino, Debora; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical pretreatments on biogas production from coffee waste. After the preparation of a mixture of coffee waste with a TS concentration of 10%w/w, basic and acid pretreatments were conducted in batch mode and their performances were compared with the biogas produced from a mixture without any pretreatment stage. The basic pretreatment demonstrated a very good action on the hydrolysis of the lignin and cellulose, and permitted a biogas production of about 18NL/L with a methane content of almost 80%v/v. Thus, the basic pretreatment has been used to scale-up the process. The coffee refuse was has been carried out in a 45L anaerobic reactor working in continuous mode and in a mesophilic condition (35°C) with a Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of about 40days. A high biogas production of 1.14NL/Ld, with a methane percentage of 65%v/v was obtained, thus permitting a process yield of about 83% to be obtained.

  7. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  8. Food and agricultural waste: Sources of carbon for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, wastes derived from agriculture products have met with limited success in the production of biofuels. Our objective in this report is to showcase a new and meaningful concept (called “avoidance”), to measure the environmental importance of converting these waste streams into energy. Agr...

  9. Mapping liquid distribution in absorbent incontinence products.

    PubMed

    Landeryou, M A; Yerworth, R J; Cottenden, A M

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews methods available for mapping the distribution of fluid in incontinence pad materials to assist with evaluating existing products and developing new ones, and to provide data for building and validating predictive models. Specifically, the following technologies are considered and their strengths and limitations described: discrete sensors based on conductance, temperature or optical measurements, optical imaging, gravimetric methods, X-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. It is suggested that the ideal method would enable fluid distribution to be mapped in three dimensions with good spatial and time resolution in single materials and composite structures of simple and complex geometries under static and dynamic mechanical loading. It would also allow liquid to be mapped in products when worn by users. It is concluded that, although each existing method meets some of these requirements, and each requirement is met, at least reasonably well, by at least one method, improved techniques are needed. The particular need for methods that can provide some measurement of liquid saturation within absorbent products, both in the laboratory and in real use, is highlighted. In many cases, simple methods used appropriately are sufficient to elicit the important aspects of liquid transport and storage within absorbent products.

  10. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  11. Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Kravarik, K.; Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Krajc, T.; Zatkulak, M.; Holicka, Z.; Slezak, M.

    2006-07-01

    The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a

  12. Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H.; Kato, T.

    2006-07-01

    Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

  13. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals".

  14. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  15. Thermal treatment of historical radioactive solid and liquid waste into the CILVA incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Deckers, Jan; Mols, Ludo

    2007-07-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Belgian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incineration process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGOPROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is specialized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency. According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land; operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste. (authors)

  16. Extended Producer Responsibility and Product Stewardship for Tobacco Product Waste

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Clifton; Collins, Susan; Cunningham, Shea; Stigler, Paula; Novotny, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several environmental principles, including Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), Product Stewardship (PS), the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), and the Precautionary Principle, as they may apply to tobacco product waste (TPW). The review addresses specific criteria that apply in deciding whether a particular toxic product should adhere to these principles; presents three case studies of similar approaches to other toxic and/or environmentally harmful products; and describes 10 possible interventions or policy actions that may help prevent, reduce, and mitigate the effects of TPW. EPR promotes total lifecycle environmental improvements, placing economic, physical, and informational responsibilities onto the tobacco industry, while PS complements EPR, but with responsibility shared by all parties involved in the tobacco product lifecycle. Both principles focus on toxic source reduction, post-consumer take-back, and final disposal of consumer products. These principles when applied to TPW have the potential to substantially decrease the environmental and public health harms of cigarette butts and other TPW throughout the world. TPW is the most commonly littered item picked up during environmental, urban, and coastal cleanups globally. PMID:26457262

  17. Medical waste production at hospitals and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y W; Sung, F C; Yang, Y; Lo, Y H; Chung, Y T; Li, K-C

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quantities of medical waste generated and the factors associated with the generation rate at medical establishments in Taiwan. Data on medical waste generation at 150 health care establishments were collected for analysis in 2003. General medical waste and infectious waste production at these establishments were examined statistically with the potential associated factors. These factors included the types of hospital and clinic, reimbursement payment by National Health Insurance, total number of beds, bed occupancy, number of infectious disease beds and outpatients per day. The average waste generation rates ranged from 2.41 to 3.26kg/bed/day for general medical wastes, and 0.19-0.88kg/bed/day for infectious wastes. The total average quantity of infectious wastes generated was the highest from medical centers, or 3.8 times higher than that from regional hospitals (267.8 vs. 70.3Tons/yr). The multivariate regression analysis was able to explain 92% of infectious wastes and 64% of general medical wastes, with the amount of insurance reimbursement and number of beds as significant prediction factors. This study suggests that large hospitals are the major source of medical waste in Taiwan. The fractions of medical waste treated as infectious at all levels of healthcare establishments are much greater than that recommended by the USCDC guidelines.

  18. Declassification of radioactive liquid wastes generated in radio immune assay [corrected] (RIA) laboratories.

    PubMed

    Sancho, M; Arnal, J M; Villaescusa, J I; Campayo, J M; Verdú, G

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes of low-medium activity level are generated in radio immune assay (RIA) laboratories, which are also potentially infectious because of the pathogens from patient blood. The most common way of managing these wastes consists of a temporal storage, for partial radioactivity decay, followed by management by an authorised company. The object of this work is to study the viability of treating radioactive liquid wastes coming from RIA using membrane techniques in order to reduce their volume, which would mean an improvement from the radiological point of view and a decrease in management costs. This paper describes the results of some experiments carried out with RIA real wastes, by means of processes such as ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. It has been proved that waste volume can be significantly reduced, obtaining a treated liquid that is free of pathogens and organic matter and with an activity level around the environmental background.

  19. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  20. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  1. In situ radiological characterization to support a test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Keele, B.D.; Bauer, R.G.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L.

    1994-05-01

    An in situ radiological detection system was developed to support a small test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Instrumentation, calibration and comparisons to samples are discussed.

  2. A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN616). Interior of evaporator control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN-616). Interior of evaporator control room. Date: 1962. INEEL negative no. 62-6824 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Disposal of Liquid Wastes from Parlors and Milkhouses. Special Circular 154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides information to assist in assessing the pollution potential of liquid wastes from parlors and milkhouses. Approaches to resolving problems through stabilization lagoons, irrigation, and tank collection as mandated in statutory authority are discussed. (CS)

  4. Hazardous Waste Management - Liquids in Landfills - Federal Register Notice, November 18, 1992

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA), EPA is promulgating this final rule regarding the landfill disposal of containerized liquids mixed with sorbents.

  5. A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN616) under construction. Camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN-616) under construction. Camera facing northeast. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9232 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Filtration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory simulated liquid low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1989-08-01

    A method for disposal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) is being developed in which the material will be solidified in cement and stored in an aboveground engineered storage facility. The acceptability of the final waste form rests in part on the presence or absence of transuranic isotopes. Filtration methods to remove transuranic isotopes from the bulk liquid stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) were investigated in this study. Initial batch studies using waste from MVST indicate that {gt}99.9{percent} of the transuranic isotopes can be removed from the bulk liquid by simple filtration. Bench-scale studies with a nonradioactive surrogate waste indicate that {gt}99.5{percent} of the suspended solids can be removed from the bulk liquid via inertial crossflow filtration. 4 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  8. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-02-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}4} curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095).

  9. Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste Processing Facilities - Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, R.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  10. Evaluation of mercury in liquid waste processing facilities - Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Edwards, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  11. Statistical description of liquid low-level waste system supernatant liquids at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J.R.; Bayne, C.K.; Walker, A.B.

    1997-10-01

    The Department of Energy has presented plans for processing transuranic low level liquid wastes located at ORNL. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated the beginning of processing of these wastes by the year 2002, looking towards permanent disposal at a site located off the reservation. In order to meet this schedule, the DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies to construct a processing facility to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. In support of the Request for Proposal (RFP) process to accomplish the private sector involvement, this report is being written to give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. This addendum report consolidates all data that presently exist on the properties and composition of the waste supernatant liquids, and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible.

  12. Impact of liquid waste disposal on potable groundwater resources near Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1996-09-01

    Drilling of 15 boreholes at a disused liquid waste disposal site near Perth, Western Australia, has indicated that a contamination plume extends about 1000 m in a southerly direction from the site in the direction of groundwater flow. The plume is up to 600 m wide and 5-40 m thick. Chemical and microbiological analyses have indicated that contaminated groundwater contains high concentrations of ammonia, iron, and bacteria at levels that commonly exceed national drinking water guidelines. It is likely that a proposed water supply production well in the path of the contamination plume will have to be abandoned, and additional wells may have to be abandoned if the plume continues to extend in the direction of groundwater flow. There is currently insufficient information to indicate whether the plume is continuing to expand, but studies on similar plumes in the Perth metropolitan area have indicated that contaminated groundwater can move at rates up to 100 m yr-1. Several other liquid waste disposal sites are now located in residential areas of Perth where wells are used for garden irrigation. Further work is required to ensure that there is no potential impact of groundwater contamination on public health in these areas.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUID EMULSION MEMBRANE FOR CLEAN UP OF AQUEOUS WASTE EFFLUENTS FROM HAZARDOUS ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    El-Reefy, Sohair A.; Selim, Y.T.; Hassan, M.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2003-02-27

    Four liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) systems are given to remove different hazardous elements such as uranium, thorium, cobalt, copper, lead, and cadmium from different aqueous waste effluents. The optimum conditions for use of these systems are deduced. The potentiality of LEM for removal of hazardous pollutants from aqueous waste solutions is given.

  14. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing southwest. Oblique view of east and north walls. Note three corrugated pipes at lower left indicating location of underground hot waste storage tanks. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA

    SciTech Connect

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new eco-efficient recycling route for post-consumer waste glass was implemented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrated waste management and industrial production are crucial to green products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most of the waste glass rejects are sent back to the glass industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovered co-products give more environmental gains than does avoided landfill. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy intensive recycling must be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled. - Abstract: As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled.

  16. Renewable High-Performance Fibers from the Chemical Recycling of Cotton Waste Utilizing an Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Asaadi, Shirin; Hummel, Michael; Hellsten, Sanna; Härkäsalmi, Tiina; Ma, Yibo; Michud, Anne; Sixta, Herbert

    2016-11-23

    A new chemical recycling method for waste cotton is presented that allows the production of virgin textile fibers of substantially higher quality than that from the mechanical recycling methods that are used currently. Cotton postconsumer textile wastes were solubilized fully in the cellulose-dissolving ionic liquid 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium acetate ([DBNH]OAc) to be processed into continuous filaments. As a result of the heterogeneous raw material that had a different molar mass distribution and degree of polymerization, pretreatment to adjust the cellulose degree of polymerization by acid hydrolysis, enzyme hydrolysis, or blending the waste cotton with birch prehydrolyzed kraft pulp was necessary to ensure spinnability. The physical properties of the spun fibers and the effect of the processing parameters on the ultrastructural changes of the fibers were measured. Fibers with a tenacity (tensile strength) of up to 58 cN tex(-1) (870 MPa) were prepared, which exceeds that of native cotton and commercial man-made cellulosic fibers.

  17. Sustainable production of valuable compound 3-succinoyl-pyridine by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida using the tobacco waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping; Tang, Hongzhi

    2015-11-17

    Treatment of solid and liquid tobacco wastes with high nicotine content remains a longstanding challenge. Here, we explored an environmentally friendly approach to replace tobacco waste disposal with resource recovery by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida. The biosynthesis of 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP), a precursor in the production of hypotensive agents, from the tobacco waste was developed using whole cells of the engineered Pseudomonas strain, S16dspm. Under optimal conditions in fed-batch biotransformation, the final concentrations of product SP reached 9.8 g/L and 8.9 g/L from aqueous nicotine solution and crude suspension of the tobacco waste, respectively. In addition, the crystal compound SP produced from aqueous nicotine of the tobacco waste in batch biotransformation was of high purity and its isolation yield on nicotine was 54.2%. This study shows a promising route for processing environmental wastes as raw materials in order to produce valuable compounds.

  18. Sustainable production of valuable compound 3-succinoyl-pyridine by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida using the tobacco waste

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping; Tang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of solid and liquid tobacco wastes with high nicotine content remains a longstanding challenge. Here, we explored an environmentally friendly approach to replace tobacco waste disposal with resource recovery by genetically engineering Pseudomonas putida. The biosynthesis of 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP), a precursor in the production of hypotensive agents, from the tobacco waste was developed using whole cells of the engineered Pseudomonas strain, S16dspm. Under optimal conditions in fed-batch biotransformation, the final concentrations of product SP reached 9.8 g/L and 8.9 g/L from aqueous nicotine solution and crude suspension of the tobacco waste, respectively. In addition, the crystal compound SP produced from aqueous nicotine of the tobacco waste in batch biotransformation was of high purity and its isolation yield on nicotine was 54.2%. This study shows a promising route for processing environmental wastes as raw materials in order to produce valuable compounds. PMID:26574178

  19. Liquid Culture Production of Fungal Microsclerotia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark A; Payne, Angela R

    2016-01-01

    Fungal microsclerotia ("small" sclerotia) are compact hyphal aggregates, typically 50-600 μm in diameter, that are formed under unfavorable nutritional and/or environmental conditions. These structures are often melanized and desiccated to some degree containing endogenous nutritional reserves for use when favorable conditions return. Many fungi, mostly plant pathogens, produce microsclerotia as a survival structure. Liquid culture methods have been developed for producing microsclerotia of the Ascomycota Metarhizium spp, Colletotrichum truncatum, Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, and Trichoderma spp. While these fungi have varying culture conditions that optimize microsclerotia production, all share common nutritional and environmental requirements for microsclerotia formation. Described are the general liquid culture techniques, media components, and harvesting and drying methods necessary to produce stable microsclerotial granules of these fungi.

  20. Scaled-up bioconversion of fish waste to liquid fertilizer using a 5 L ribbon-type reactor.

    PubMed

    Dao, Van Thingoc; Kim, Joong Kyun

    2011-10-01

    A scaled-up conversion process of fish waste to liquid fertilizer was performed in a 5 L ribbon-type reactor. Biodegradation was performed by inoculation of autoclaved fish waste with 5.84 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1) of mixed microorganisms for 96 h. As a result, the pH changed from 6.92 to 5.72, the cell number reached 7.28 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1), and approximately 430 g (28.3%) of fish waste was degraded. Analyses indicated that the 96 h culture of inoculated fish waste possessed comparable fertilizing ability to commercial fertilizers in hydroponic culture with amino acid contents of 6.91 g 100 g(-1). Therefore, the scaled-up production achieved a more satisfactory fish waste degradation rate (3.61 g h(-1)) than the flask-scale production (0.24 g h(-1)). The biodegraded broth of fish waste at room temperature did not undergo putrefaction for 6 months due to the addition of 1% lactate.

  1. Collective dose estimates by the marine food pathway from liquid radioactive wastes dumped in the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Togawa, O; Povinec, P P; Pettersson, H B

    1999-09-30

    IAEA-MEL has been engaged in an assessment programme related to radioactive waste dumping by the former USSR and other countries in the western North Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. This paper focuses on the Sea of Japan and on estimation of collective doses from liquid radioactive wastes. The results from the Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions are summarized, and collective doses for the Japanese population by the marine food pathway are estimated from liquid radioactive wastes dumped in the Sea of Japan and compared with those from global fallout and natural radionuclides. The collective effective dose equivalents by the annual intake of marine products caught in each year show a maximum a few years after the disposals. The total dose from all radionuclides reaches a maximum of 0.8 man Sv in 1990. Approximately 90% of the dose derives from 137Cs, most of which is due to consumption of fish. The total dose from liquid radioactive wastes is approximately 5% of that from global fallout, the contribution of which is below 0.1% of that of natural 210Po.

  2. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  3. Layerless fabrication with continuous liquid interface production

    PubMed Central

    Janusziewicz, Rima; Tumbleston, John R.; Quintanilla, Adam L.; Mecham, Sue J.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), the technique has not developed beyond the realm of rapid prototyping. This confinement of the field can be attributed to the inherent flaws of layer-by-layer printing and, in particular, anisotropic mechanical properties that depend on print direction, visible by the staircasing surface finish effect. Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) is an alternative approach to AM that capitalizes on the fundamental principle of oxygen-inhibited photopolymerization to generate a continual liquid interface of uncured resin between the growing part and the exposure window. This interface eliminates the necessity of an iterative layer-by-layer process, allowing for continuous production. Herein we report the advantages of continuous production, specifically the fabrication of layerless parts. These advantages enable the fabrication of large overhangs without the use of supports, reduction of the staircasing effect without compromising fabrication time, and isotropic mechanical properties. Combined, these advantages result in multiple indicators of layerless and monolithic fabrication using CLIP technology. PMID:27671641

  4. Layerless fabrication with continuous liquid interface production.

    PubMed

    Janusziewicz, Rima; Tumbleston, John R; Quintanilla, Adam L; Mecham, Sue J; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2016-10-18

    Despite the increasing popularity of 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), the technique has not developed beyond the realm of rapid prototyping. This confinement of the field can be attributed to the inherent flaws of layer-by-layer printing and, in particular, anisotropic mechanical properties that depend on print direction, visible by the staircasing surface finish effect. Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) is an alternative approach to AM that capitalizes on the fundamental principle of oxygen-inhibited photopolymerization to generate a continual liquid interface of uncured resin between the growing part and the exposure window. This interface eliminates the necessity of an iterative layer-by-layer process, allowing for continuous production. Herein we report the advantages of continuous production, specifically the fabrication of layerless parts. These advantages enable the fabrication of large overhangs without the use of supports, reduction of the staircasing effect without compromising fabrication time, and isotropic mechanical properties. Combined, these advantages result in multiple indicators of layerless and monolithic fabrication using CLIP technology.

  5. Physical and Liquid Chemical Simulant Formulations for Transuranic Waste in Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Rassat, Scot D.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Russell, Renee L.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.

    2003-07-30

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is in the process of identifying and developing supplemental process technologies to accelerate the tank waste cleanup mission. A range of technologies is being evaluated to allow disposal of Hanford waste types, including transuranic (TRU) process wastes. Ten Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) have been identified whose contents may meet the criteria for designation as TRU waste: the B-200 series (241-B-201, -B-202, -B 203, and B 204), the T-200 series (241-T-201, T 202, -T-203, and -T-204), and Tanks 241-T-110 and -T-111. CH2M HILL has requested vendor proposals to develop a system to transfer and package the contact-handled TRU (CH-TRU) waste retrieved from the SSTs for subsequent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Current plans call for a modified ''dry'' retrieval process in which a liquid stream is used to help mobilize the waste for retrieval and transfer through lines and vessels. This retrieval approach requires that a significant portion of the liquid be removed from the mobilized waste sludge in a ''dewatering'' process such as centrifugation prior to transferring to waste packages in a form suitable for acceptance at WIPP. In support of CH2M HILL's effort to procure a TRU waste handling and packaging process, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed waste simulant formulations to be used in evaluating the vendor's system. For the SST CH-TRU wastes, the suite of simulants includes (1) nonradioactive chemical simulants of the liquid fraction of the waste, (2) physical simulants that reproduce the important dewatering properties of the waste, and (3) physical simulants that can be used to mimic important rheological properties of the waste at different points in the TRU waste handling and packaging process. To validate the simulant formulations, their measured properties were compared with the limited data for actual TRU waste samples. PNNL developed the final simulant formulations

  6. Pyrolysis mechanism for recycle renewable resource from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-15

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly consist of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrates. In this study, a novel pyrolysis model and a pyrolysis mechanism to recover the reusable resource from polarizing film of waste LCD panels was proposed. Polarizing film and its major components, such as cellulose triacetate (TAC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were pyrolyzed, respectively, to model the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis process mainly generated a large ratio of oil, a few gases and a little residue. Acetic acid was the main oil product and could be easily recycled. The pyrolysis mechanism could be summarized as follows: (i) TAC, the main component of polarizing film, was heated and generated active TAC with a low polymerization, and then decomposed into triacetyl-d-glucose. (ii) Some triacetyl-d-glucose generated triacetyl-d-mannosan and its isomers through an intramolecular dehydration, while most triacetyl-d-glucose generated the main oil product, namely acetic acid, through a six-member cyclic transition state. (iii) Meanwhile, other products formed through a series of bond cleavage, dehydration, dehydrogenation, interesterification and Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This study could contribute significantly to understanding the polarizing film pyrolysis performance and serve as guidance for the future technological parameters control of the pyrolysis process.

  7. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  8. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Handayani, Prima Astuti; Abdullah; Hadiyanto, Dan

    2015-12-29

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form.

  9. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, Prima Astuti; Abdullah, dan Hadiyanto

    2015-12-01

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form.

  10. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  11. A hybrid liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) process in conjunction with membrane distillation (MD) for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Bader, M S H

    2005-05-20

    A novel hybrid system combining liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) and membrane distillation (MD) is integrated for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste. The integrated system provides a "full separation" approach that consists of three main processing stages. The first stage is focused on the separation and recovery of nitric acid from the bulk of the waste stream using vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). In the second stage, polyvalent cations (mainly TRU elements and their fission products except cesium along with aluminum and other toxic metals) are separated from the bulk of monovalent anions and cations (dominantly sodium nitrate) by a front-end LPP. In the third stage, MD is used first to concentrate sodium nitrate to near saturation followed by a rear-end LPP to precipitate and separate sodium nitrate along with the remaining minor species from the bulk of the aqueous phase. The LPP-MD hybrid system uses a small amount of an additive and energy to carry out the treatment, addresses multiple critical species, extracts an economic value from some of waste species, generates minimal waste with suitable disposal paths, and offers rapid deployment. As such, the LPP-MD could be a valuable tool for multiple needs across the DOE complex where no effective or economic alternatives are available.

  12. Forecasting production in Liquid Rich Shale plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikfarman, Hanieh

    Production from Liquid Rich Shale (LRS) reservoirs is taking center stage in the exploration and production of unconventional reservoirs. Production from the low and ultra-low permeability LRS plays is possible only through multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHW's). There is no existing workflow that is applicable to forecasting multi-phase production from MFHW's in LRS plays. This project presents a practical and rigorous workflow for forecasting multiphase production from MFHW's in LRS reservoirs. There has been much effort in developing workflows and methodology for forecasting in tight/shale plays in recent years. The existing workflows, however, are applicable only to single phase flow, and are primarily used in shale gas plays. These methodologies do not apply to the multi-phase flow that is inevitable in LRS plays. To account for complexities of multiphase flow in MFHW's the only available technique is dynamic modeling in compositional numerical simulators. These are time consuming and not practical when it comes to forecasting production and estimating reserves for a large number of producers. A workflow was developed, and validated by compositional numerical simulation. The workflow honors physics of flow, and is sufficiently accurate while practical so that an analyst can readily apply it to forecast production and estimate reserves in a large number of producers in a short period of time. To simplify the complex multiphase flow in MFHW, the workflow divides production periods into an initial period where large production and pressure declines are expected, and the subsequent period where production decline may converge into a common trend for a number of producers across an area of interest in the field. Initial period assumes the production is dominated by single-phase flow of oil and uses the tri-linear flow model of Erdal Ozkan to estimate the production history. Commercial software readily available can simulate flow and forecast production in this

  13. Introduction to Energy Conservation and Production at Waste Cleanup Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper, prepared by EPA's Engineering Forum under the Technical Support Project, provides an overview on the considerations for energy conservation and production during the design and (O&M) phases of waste cleanup projects.

  14. Data on subsurface storage of liquid waste near Pensacola, Florida, 1963-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hull, R.W.; Martin, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1963, when industrial waste was first injected into the subsurface in northwest Florida, considerable data have been collected relating to the geochemistry of subsurface waste storage. This report presents hydrogeologic data on two subsurface waste storage. This report presents hydrogeologic data on two subsurface storage systems near Pensacola, Fla., which inject liquid industrial waste through deep wells into a saline aquifer. Injection sites are described giving a history of well construction, injection, and testing; geologic data from cores and grab samples; hydrographs of injection rates, volume, pressure, and water levels; and chemical and physical data from water-quality samples collected from injection and monitor wells. (USGS)

  15. Waste management through life cycle assessment of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Yu V.; Aliferova, T. E.; Ncube, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid growth of a population in a country can contribute to high production of waste. Municipal waste and industrial waste can bring unhealthy and unpleasant environment or even diseases to human beings if the wastes are not managed properly.With increasing concerns over waste and the need for ‘greener’ products, it is necessary to carry out Life Cycle Assessments of products and this will help manufacturers take the first steps towards greener designs by assessing their product's carbon output. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment. The aim of the study was to use a life cycle assessment approach to determine which waste disposal options that will substantially reduce the environmental burdens posed by the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle. Several important observations can be made. 1) Recycling of the PET bottle waste can significantly reduce the energy required across the life cycle because the high energy inputs needed to process the requisite virgin materials greatly exceeds the energy needs of the recycling process steps. 2) Greenhouse gases can be reduced by opting for recycling instead of landfilling and incineration. 3) Quantity of waste emissions released from different disposal options was identified. 4) Recycling is the environmentally preferable disposal method for the PET bottle. Industry can use the tools and data in this study to evaluate the health, environmental, and energy implications of the PET bottle. LCA intends to aid decision-makers in this respect, provided that the scientific underpinning is available. Strategic incentives for product development and life cycle management can then be developed.

  16. Powder Production From Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Water Bottles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Powder Production From Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Water Bottles by Anit Giri, Frank Kellogg, Kyu Cho, and Marc Pepi ARL-MR...871 June 2014 Powder Production From Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Water Bottles Anit Giri and Frank Kellogg Bowhead Science and...Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Water Bottles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Anit Giri, * Frank

  17. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  18. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  19. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOEpatents

    Meneely, T.K.; Sherbine, C.A.

    1994-04-26

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid there through. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank. 2 figures.

  20. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOEpatents

    Meneely, Timothy K.; Sherbine, Catherine A.

    1994-01-01

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid therethrough. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank.

  1. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-09-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by "microwave dielectric heating" effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass pretreatment to bio-oil collection. The existing efforts are summarized in a table, providing a handy overview of the activities (e.g., feedstock and pretreatment, reactor/pyrolysis conditions) and findings (e.g., pyrolysis products) of various investigations.

  2. Energy and materials flows in the production of liquid and gaseous oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    Liquid and gaseous oxygen is produced in an energy-intensive air separation processo that also generates nitrogen. More than 65% of the cost of oxygen is attributable to energy costs. Energy use and materials flows are analyzed for various air separation methods. Effective approaches to energy and material conservation in air separation plants include efficient removal of contaminants (carbon dioxide and water), centralization of air products user-industries so that large air separation plants are cost-effective and the energy use in transportation is minimized, and increased production of nitrogen. Air separation plants can produce more than three times more nitrogen than oxygen, but present markets demand, at most, only 1.5 times more. Full utlization of liquid and gaseous nitrogen should be encouraged, so that the wasted separation energy is minimized. There are potential markets for nitrogen in, for example, cryogenic separation of metallic and plastic wastes, cryogenic particle size reduction, and production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  3. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  5. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS - PART III

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    The liquid waste chemistry control program is designed to reduce the pitting corrosion occurrence on tank walls. The chemistry control program has been implemented, in part, by applying engineering judgment safety factors to experimental data. However, the simple application of a general safety factor can result in use of excessive corrosion inhibiting agents. The required use of excess corrosion inhibitors can be costly for tank maintenance, waste processing, and in future tank closure. It is proposed that a probability-based approach can be used to quantify the risk associated with the chemistry control program. This approach can lead to the application of tank-specific chemistry control programs reducing overall costs associated with overly conservative use of inhibitor. Furthermore, when using nitrite as an inhibitor, the current chemistry control program is based on a linear model of increased aggressive species requiring increased protective species. This linear model was primarily supported by experimental data obtained from dilute solutions with nitrate concentrations less than 0.6 M, but is used to produce the current chemistry control program up to 1.0 M nitrate. Therefore, in the nitrate space between 0.6 and 1.0 M, the current control limit is based on assumptions that the linear model developed from data in the <0.6 M region is applicable in the 0.6-1.0 M region. Due to this assumption, further investigation of the nitrate region of 0.6 M to 1.0 M has potential for significant inhibitor reduction, while maintaining the same level of corrosion risk associated with the current chemistry control program. Ongoing studies have been conducted in FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to evaluate the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm and to assess the minimum nitrite concentrations to inhibit pitting in ASTM A537 carbon steel below 1.0 molar nitrate. The experimentation from FY08 suggested a non-linear model known as the mixture/amount model could be used to predict

  6. The production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of municipal solid wastes and slaughterhouse waste: A two-phase process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, X.; Morán, A.; Cuetos, M. J.; Sánchez, M. E.

    A two-phase fermentation process for the treatment of waste, intended for the recovery of hydrogen for energy use, was investigated in its initial fermentation phase. Hydrogen production was obtained from a mixed culture based on an active mesophilic inoculum without any selective treatment being applied. The liquid stream generated by the hydrogen fermentation process was stabilized in the following, methanogenic, phase for the recovery of methane and further breaking down of the waste stream. The whole process was carried out at a temperature in the mesophilic range (34 °C). The substrate used was an unsterilized mixture of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and slaughterhouse waste from a poultry-processing plant. The hydrogen-producing phase was capable of stable performance under the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) evaluated (3 and 5 days). No methane was detected in the first phase at any point during the whole period of the experiment and the hydrogen yield showed no symptoms of declining as time elapsed. The amount of hydrogen obtained from the fermentation process was in the range of 52.5-71.3 N L kg -1 VS rem.

  7. An overview of agriforestry waste production and use in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Kleit, S.; Hoop, C.F. de; Chang, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Agriculture and forestry are the second largest employers in the state of Louisiana. Natural by-products of these industries are biomass waste in the form of bark, wood chips, sawdust, cotton gin trash, rice hulls and sugar bagasse. Disposing of these wastes poses problems for the air and water. One popular waste management solution is to use them for fuel. To measure the potential for using biomass waste for fuel and other uses, a study was conducted of sugar cane processors, cotton ginners, rice processors and the primary and secondary wood processors in Louisiana. The study revealed that while some firms use waste for their own boilers, or sell it to others for fuel, there is still unused waste. There are many reasons for this including the cost of competing energy sources, lack of marketing innovation and the economies of scale. The study`s mission includes identifying new areas for utilizing waste. To facilitate these innovations, and bridge buyers with sellers of biomass waste, a geographic information system (GIS) was developed to map all sites claiming to produce and/or consume wood waste, as well as processors of cotton gin trash, rice hulls and sugar bagasse. These data are layered with timber supply data from the U.S. Forest Service.

  8. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  9. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p < 0.05) than fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the impact of organic respirable compounds is smaller for fossil fuels (p < 0.05) than for biofuels. Analysis of inorganic compounds like PM₁₀,₂.₅, SO₂ or NO(x) shows some advantages of sugar beet bioethanol and soybean biodiesel production (p < 0.05), although production of sugarcane bioethanol shows larger impacts of respirable inorganic compounds than for fossil fuels (p < 0.001). Although liquid biofuels are made of renewable energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards.

  10. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    SciTech Connect

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  11. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Project Annual Operating Report CY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    2000-03-01

    A total of 5.77 x 10 7 gallons (gal) of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Complex (PWTC) - Building 3544 ion exchange system during calendar year (CY) 1999. This averaged to 110 gpm throughout the year. An additional 3.94 x 10 6 gal of liquid waste (average of 8 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated using the zeolite treatment system due to periods of high Cesium levels in the influent wastewater. A total of 6.17 x 10 7 gal of liquid waste (average of 118 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated at Building 3544 during the year. During the year, the regeneration of the ion exchange resins resulted in the generation of 8.00 x 10 3 gal of Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) concentrate and 9.00 x 10 2 gal of LLLW supernate. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at Building 3544. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the Process Waste Collection and Transfer System and Figure 2 shows a diagram of the Building 3544 treatment process. Figures 3, 4 5, and 6 s how a comparison of operations at Building 3544 in 1997 with previous years. Figure 7 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1995.

  12. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  13. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons a...

  14. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  15. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.

  16. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA.

    PubMed

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-01

    As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled.

  17. Separation and Purification and Beta Liquid Scintillation Analysis of Sm-151 in Savannah River Site and Hanford Site DOE High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-02-13

    This paper describes development work to obtain a product phase of Sm-151 pure of any other radioactive species so that it can be determined in US Department of Energy high level liquid waste and low level solid waste by liquid scintillation {beta}-spectroscopy. The technique provides separation from {mu}Ci/ml levels of Cs-137, Pu alpha and Pu-241 {beta}-decay activity, and Sr-90/Y-90 activity. The separation technique is also demonstrated to be useful for the determination of Pm-147.

  18. Economic evaluation of technology for a new generation biofuel production using wastes.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Athanasios; Kanellaki, Maria; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Dima, Agapi; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Tsafrakidou, Panagiota; Stergiou, Panagiota-Yiolanda; Foukis, Athanasios; Gkini, Olga A; Papamichael, Emmanuel M

    2016-01-01

    An economic evaluation of an integrated technology for industrial scale new generation biofuel production using whey, vinasse, and lignocellulosic biomass as raw materials is reported. Anaerobic packed-bed bioreactors were used for organic acids production using initially synthetic media and then wastes. Butyric, lactic and acetic acid were predominately produced from vinasse, whey, and cellulose, respectively. Mass balance was calculated for a 16,000L daily production capacity. Liquid-liquid extraction was applied for recovery of the organic acids using butanol-1 as an effective extraction solvent which serves also as the alcohol for the subsequent enzyme-catalyzed esterification. The investment needed for the installation of the factory was estimated to about 1.7million€ with depreciation excepted at about 3months. For cellulosics, the installation investment was estimated to be about 7-fold higher with depreciation at about 1.5years. The proposed technology is an alternative trend in biofuel production.

  19. Continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Huang, Jingang; Zhao, Hongting; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge was performed. The waste bread was first hydrolyzed by the crude enzymes which were generated by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae via solid-state fermentation. It was observed that 49.78g/L glucose and 284.12mg/L free amino nitrogen could be produced with waste bread mass ratio of 15% (w/v). The waste bread hydrolysate was then used for biohydrogen production by anaerobic sludge in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The optimal hydrogen production rate of 7.4L/(Ld) was achieved at chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6000mg/L. According to the results obtained from this study, 1g waste bread could generate 0.332g glucose which could be further utilized to produce 109.5mL hydrogen. This is the first study which reports continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

  20. Recovery of Metallic Values from Brass Waste Using Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer; Saridede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2015-11-01

    The waste formed during industrial brass manufacturing is rich in copper and zinc metals. Therefore, treatment of this waste is a necessity from economic and environmental aspects. This study presents a process for recovery of zinc and copper through Brønsted ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate; [Bmim]HSO4), as leachate. It was found that all zinc content could be dissolved from the waste under two optimum conditions: (1) in ionic liquid (IL) concentration of 70% (v/v) at 60°C in 30 min or (2) in IL concentration of 50% (v/v) at 100°C in 60 min. On the other hand, ionic liquid leaching gave poor copper solubility under the conditions of the study. Zinc dissolution in the range 5-75 min by [Bmim]HSO4 can be explained with the shrinking core model controlled by diffusion through a product layer, and the apparent activation energy was calculated as 4.36 kJ/mol. The leach liquor was treated to obtain metallic zinc by the electrowinning method without a purification step. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) investigations showed that the layer of metallic zinc was plated successfully on the cathode.

  1. Assessing the environmental impact of energy production from hydrochar generated via hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Berge, Nicole D; Li, Liang; Flora, Joseph R V; Ro, Kyoung S

    2015-09-01

    Although there are numerous studies suggesting hydrothermal carbonization is an environmentally advantageous process for transformation of wastes to value-added products, a systems level evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion has not been conducted. The specific objectives of this work are to use a life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the HTC of food wastes and the subsequent combustion of the generated solid product (hydrochar) for energy production, and to understand how parameters and/or components associated with food waste carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion influence system environmental impact. Results from this analysis indicate that HTC process water emissions and hydrochar combustion most significantly influence system environmental impact, with a net negative GWP impact resulting for all evaluated substituted energy-sources except biomass. These results illustrate the importance of electricity production from hydrochar particularly when it is used to offset coal-based energy sources. HTC process water emissions result in a net impact to the environment, indicating a need for developing appropriate management strategies. Results from this analysis also highlight a need for additional exploration of liquid and gas-phase composition, a better understanding of how changes in carbonization conditions (e.g., reaction time and temperature) influence metal and nutrient fate, and the exploration of liquid-phase treatment.

  2. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  3. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  4. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment.

  5. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams during 1994 and 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.J.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Riley, R.G.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Facility Effluent Management Program characterized and monitored liquid waste streams from 300 Area buildings that are owned by the US Department of Energy and are operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine whether the waste streams would meet administrative controls that were put in place by the operators of the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. This report summarizes the data obtained between March 1994 and September 1995 on the following waters: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 325, 326, 327, 331, and 3,720; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe).

  6. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Penzin, R.; Duffey, R.B.; Sorlie, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper.

  7. Calculation of chemical quantities for the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.; McClenahan, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives, stores, and treats both low-level and transuranic radioactive liquid wastes (RLW). Treatment of RLW requires the use of different chemicals. Examples include the use of calcium oxide to precipitate metals and radioactive elements from the radioactive liquid waste, and the use of hydrochloric acid to clean membrane filters that are used in the treatment process. The RL WTF is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility, as set forth in the LANL Final Safety Analysis Report of October 1995, and a DOE letter of March 11, 1999. A revised safety basis is being prepared for the RLWTF, and will be submitted to the NNSA in early 2007. This set of calculations establishes maximum chemical quantities that will be used in the 2007 safety basis.

  8. Nuclear waste glass product consistency test (PCT), Version 5.0. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.; Waters, B.J.

    1992-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), poured into stainless steel canisters, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS), the durability of the glass needs to be measured during production to assure its long term stability and radionuclide release properties. A durability test, designated the Produce Consistency Test (PCT), was developed for DWPF glass in order to meet the WAPS requirements. The response of the PCT procedure was based on extensive testing with glasses of widely different compositions. The PCT was determined to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, and to be easily performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. Version 5.0 of the PCT procedure is attached.

  9. Prototype demonstration studies of production of methane from municipal solid waste at Pompano Beach, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Faroog, S.; Daly, E.; Dasgupta, A.; Gerrish, M.P.; Sengupta, S.; Wong, K.F.

    1980-12-01

    A prototype demonstration plant for the production of methane from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in amounts up to 100 tons per day is built at Pompano Beach, Florida. The plant is capable of producing 6000 ft/sup 3/ of gas per ton of municipal waste. Approximately half of the gas is methane, the other half CO/sub 2/ along with some trace gases. In this plant the raw municipal solid waste is shredded, ferrous metals removed magnetically and air classified to obtain an organic-rich light weight fraction, which is periodically mixed with sewage sludge and fed into the anaerobic digester. The processed effluent is filtered in a vacuum filter and the emerging filter cake is disposed on the nearby existing sanitary landfill. The filtrate is recirculated into the digester. Various gas, solid and liquid streams coming out of the digester are analyzed for physical, chemical and biological pollution parameters.

  10. Investigation of the possibility of using hydrogranulation in reprocessing radioactive wastes of radiochemical production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Revyakin, V.; Borisov, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    Radio-chemical production facilities are constantly accumulating liquid radioactive wastes (still residues as the result of evaporation of extraction and adsorption solutions etc.) which are a complex multicomponent mixtures. The wastes are frequently stored for extended periods of time while awaiting disposition and in some cases, and this is much worse, they are released into the environment. In this report, I would like to draw your attention to some results we have obtained from investigations aimed at simplifying handing of such wastes by the precipitation of hard to dissolve metal hydroxides, the flocculation of the above into granules with the help of surface-active agents (in this case a polyacrylamide - PAA), quickly precipitated and easily filtered. The precipitate may be quickly dried and calcinated, if necessary, and transformed into a dense oxide sinter. In other words it may be transformed into a material convenient for storage or burial.

  11. Wood processing wastes recovery and composted product field test

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.T.; Lin, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    Lumber mill waste, more than 3,000 tons per month, is one of the main waste sources in I-Lan area. Most of the lumber mill waste is sawdust which takes a large parts of organic-containing wastes in I-Lan county. Wastes from seafood plants around the Sueou Harbor causes a treatment problem because of their high nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations. Furthermore, the distiller-by products in I-Lan Winery are easy to become spoiled and result in odor. In this study, the compost method is suggested to deal with these waste problems and make energy recovery. Microorganisms incubating in the laboratory provide the stable seed needed for composting. Flowers and vegetable raising are scheduled to be used in field to verify the efficiency of the products. The optimal combination ration of wastes and operation criteria then will be concluded in this study after economic analyzing. The results show that the Zinnia elegans leaves growth is relative with organic fertilizer. It can also be illustrated from the statistical value that the F value is 19.4 and above the critical value 9.4.

  12. Solidification Technologies for Radioactive and Chemical Liquid Waste Treatment - Final CRADA Report

    SciTech Connect

    Castiglioni, Andrew J.; Gelis, Artem V.

    2016-01-01

    This project, organized under DOE/NNSA's Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program, joined Russian and DOE scientists in developing more effective solidification and storage technologies for liquid radioactive waste. Several patent applications were filed by the Russian scientists (Russia only) and in 2012, the technology developed was approved by Russia's Federal State Unitary Enterprise RADON for application throughout Russia in cleaning up and disposing of radioactive waste.

  13. Handling of liquid radioactive wastes produced during the decommissioning of nuclear-powered submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Martynov, B.V.

    1995-10-01

    Liquid radioactive wastes are produced during the standard decontamination of the reactor loop and liquidation of the consequences of accidents. In performing the disassembly work on decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines, the equipment must first be decontaminated. All this leads to the formation of a large quantity of liquid wastes with a total salt content of more then 3l-5 g/liter and total {beta}-activity of up to 1 {center_dot}10{sup {minus}4} Ci/liter. One of the most effective methods for reprocessing these wastes - evaporation - has limitations: The operating expenses are high and the apparatus requires expensive alloyed steel. The methods of selective sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents are used for reprocessing liquid wastes form the nuclear-powered fleet. A significant limitation of the method is the large decrease in sorption efficiency with increasing total salt-content of the wastes. In some works, in which electrodialysis is used for purification of the salt wastes, the total salt content can be decreased by a factor of 10-100 and the same quantity of radionuclides can be removed. We have developed an electrodialysis-sorption scheme for purifying salt wastes that makes it possible to remove radionuclides to the radiation safety standard and chemically harmful substances to the health standards. The scheme includes electrodialysis desalinization (by 90% per pass on the EDMS apparatus), followed by additional purification of the diluent on synthetic zeolites and electro-osmotic concentration (to 200-250 g/liter on the EDK apparatus). The secondard wastes---salt concentrates and spent sorbents---are solidified. (This is the entire text of the article.)

  14. Integrated bioethanol and biomanure production from potato waste.

    PubMed

    Chintagunta, Anjani Devi; Jacob, Samuel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-03-01

    Disposal of potato processing waste and the problem of pollution associated with it is a vital issue that is being faced by the potato processing plants. The conventional peeling methods presently followed in the processing plants for removing the potato peel, also result in the loss of some portion of the mash which is rich in starch. Indiscriminate discharge of the waste causes detrimental effects in the environment, so this problem can be resolved by successful utilization of the waste for the generation of value added products. Hence, the present work focuses on integrated production of bioethanol and biomanure to utilize the waste completely leading to zero waste generation. The first part of the work describes a comparative study of ethanol production from potato peel and mash wastes by employing co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at various incubation time (24-120 h) instead of application of enzymes. The solid state fermentation of potato peel and mash inoculated with co-culture, resulted in bioethanol production of 6.18% (v/v) and 9.30% (v/v) respectively. In the second part of the work, the residue obtained after ethanol production was inoculated with seven different microorganisms (Nostoc muscorum, Fischerella muscicola, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilissima, Cylindrospermum muscicola, Azospirillium lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum) and mixture of all the organisms in equal ratio for nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) enrichment. Among them, A. variabilis was found to enrich N, P and K content of the residue by nearly 7.66, 21.66 and 15 fold than that of the initial content, ultimately leading to improved N:P:K ratio of approximately 2:1:1. The application of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for the conversion of potato waste to ethanol and enrichment of residue obtained after ethanol production with microorganisms to be used as manure envisages environmental sustainability.

  15. Production and degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates in waste environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Choi, J.

    1999-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are energy/carbon storage materials accumulated under unfavorable growth condition in the presence of excess carbon source. PHAs are attracting much attention as substitute for non-degradable petrochemically derived plastics because of their similar material properties to conventional plastics and complete biodegradability under natural environment upon disposal. In this paper, PHA production and degradation in waste environment as well as its role in biological phosphorus removal are reviewed. In biological phosphorus removal process, bacteria accumulating polyphosphate (poly P) uptake carbon substrates and accumulate these as PHA by utilizing energy from breaking down poly P under anaerobic conditions. In the following aerobic condition, accumulated PHA is utilized for energy generation and for the regeneration of poly P. PHA production from waste has been investigated in order to utilize abundant organic compounds in waste water. Since PHA content and PHA productivity that can be obtained are rather low, PHA production from waste product should be considered as a coupled process for reducing the amount of organic waste. PHAs can be rapidly degraded to completion in municipal anaerobic sludge by various microorganisms.

  16. Method for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes using a solvent

    DOEpatents

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  17. Solvent for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  18. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  19. Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous recovery of Radioactive Nuclides from Liquid Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Lgor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    1999-10-07

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  20. Truck ramp construction from clean coal technology waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.E.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    The construction and performance of a truck ramp made from clean coal technology waste products are described. The specific waste product used in this project was generated at the power plant located on the campus of The Ohio State University in Columbus. The ramp is used by University vehicles depositing hard trash at a central disposal facility on the OSU campus. Laboratory tests which had been conducted on samples made from the power plant waste product clearly showed that, when the material is property compacted, strengths could be obtained that were much higher than those of the natural soils the clean coal waste would replace. In addition, the permeability and swelling characteristics of the waste product should make it an attractive alternative to importing select borrow materials. Based on the results of the laboratory tests, a decision was made to use the power plant waste in the truck ramp rather than the soil that was called for in the original design. Prior to the start of construction, the area on which the ramp was to be located was covered with an impermeable geomembrane. Drain lines were installed on top of the geomembrane so that water that might leach through the ramp could be collected. The waste product from the power plant was placed on the geomembrane in 20 to 30 centimeter lifts by University maintenance personnel without special equipment. A drain line was installed across the toe of the ramp to intercept surface runoff, and a wearing surface of 7 to 15 centimeters of crushed limestone was placed over the compacted ash. The finished ramp structure recycled approximately 180 metric tons of the power plant byproduct. After over a year in service there is no indication of erosion or rutting in the ramp surface. Tests performed on the leachate and runoff water have shown the high pH characteristic of these materials, but concentrations of metals fall below the established limits.

  1. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonal, Digby D.; Marx, Brian M.; Ahn, Sejin; Ruiz, Julio de; Soundararajan, Balaji; Smith, Morgan; Coulson, Wendy

    2005-06-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO3, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair.

  2. Subsurface injection of liquid waste in Florida, United States of America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchioli, John

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, liquid waste was injected into the subsurface of Florida by 10 injection systems at an aggregate average rate of 165,000 m3/d. All the systems inject into carbonate rocks that contain salty water. Extensive precautions are taken in the construction of the injection wells and in the monitoring of their operation to provide assurance that overlying and laterally contiguous freshwater resources do not become contaminated with either the injected waste or the saltwater displaced by the waste. Several concerns relating to the effectiveness of the confining bed above the injection zone for containing the injected wastes have arisen over the years. These concerns accentuate the value of a well-planned and implemented monitoring program from which one can evaluate the potential impact of waste injection on the subsurface environment.

  3. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR... quantity, and composition of solid and liquid wastes (such as spent drilling fluids, drill cuttings, trash... location(s). (b) Projected ocean discharges. If any of your solid and liquid wastes will be...

  4. Minimization of combustion by-products: Characteristics of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.

    1990-11-01

    It has been well recognized that, although there are many potential solid waste treatment technologies, none are as universally applicable as incineration for the treatment of the many types of waste which are governed by the many different Federal laws and State regulations. However, incinerators may release trace amounts of unwanted combustion by-products, particularly if the incinerators are not well designed or properly operated. Control of emissions of combustion by-products (CBPs) is one of the major technical and sociological issues surrounding the implementation of incineration as a waste treatment alternative. Much of this is due to the lack of detailed knowledge about CBPs. The Clean Air Act Amendment is emphasizing the control of toxic air pollutants from all combustion sources; some of these pollutants are CBPs. CBPs include: (1) unburned principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs); (2) products of incomplete combustion (PICs); (3) metals emissions; and (4) residuals/ashes. The Paper is a part of a series of writings on the subject of the CBP issue from EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio. It specifically addresses the aspect of hazardous waste characteristics. The main objective of the series is to compare combustion by-products from all combustion sources including fossil fuel combustion and waste incineration, which hopefully will serve as an initial step in the eventual minimization of the release of CBPs to the environment.

  5. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste.

  6. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    PubMed

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  7. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  8. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

    1991-07-01

    This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

  10. Development of a New Thermal HF Plasma Reactor for the Destruction of Radioactive Organic Halogen Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bournonville, B.; Meillot, E.; Girold, C.

    2006-07-01

    A newly patented process employing thermal plasma for destruction of radioactive organic halogen liquid wastes is proposed. This studied safe system can destroy a great variety of wastes, even mixed together, using plasma torch as high temperature source. At the exit of the process, only non-toxic products are formed as atmospheric gases, liquid water and halogen sodium salt. The process has been built with the help of thermodynamic and kinetic simulations. A good atomic stoichiometry is necessary for avoiding the formation of solid carbon (soot) or toxic COCl{sub 2}. That why liquid water is added to the waste in the plasma flow. Then, an introduction of air cools and dilutes the formed gases and adds oxidant agent achieving oxidation of explosive H{sub 2} and toxic CO. Due to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid, an efficient wet treatment using soda traps it. Subsequently, the exhaust gases are only composed of Ar, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In the first experimental step, pure organic molecules, mixed or not, without halogen have been destroyed. The experimental results show that all the compounds have been completely destroyed and only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O have been formed without formation of any toxic compound or soot. After these encouraging results, chlorinated compounds as dichloromethane or chloroform have been destroyed by the process. In this case, the results are close to the previous one with an important formation of hydrochloric acid, as expected, which was well trapped by the soda to respect the French norm of rejection. A specific parameter study has been done with dichloromethane for optimising the operating condition to experimentally observe the influence of different parameters of the process as the stoichiometry ratio between waste and water, the air addition flow, the waste flow. The final aim of this study is to develop a clean process for treatment of radioactive organic halogen compounds. A small scale reactor

  11. A modern solid waste management strategy--the generation of new by-products.

    PubMed

    Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Kulbat, Eliza; Luczkiewicz, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    To benefit the environment and society, EU legislation has introduced a 'zero waste' strategy, in which waste material should be converted to resources. Such legislation is supported by the solid waste hierarchy concept, which is a set of priorities in waste management. Under this concept, municipal solid waste plants (MSWPs) should be equipped with sorting and recycling facilities, composting/incineration units and landfill prisms for residual bulk disposal. However, each of the aforementioned facilities generates by-products that must be treated. This project focuses on the leachates from landfill prisms, including modern prism (MP) that meet EU requirements and previous prism (PP) that provide for the storage of permitted biodegradable waste as well as technological wastewaters from sorting unit (SU) and composting unit (CU), which are usually overlooked. The physico-chemical parameters of the liquid by-products collected over 38 months were supported by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) amplifications of functional genes transcripts and a metagenomic approach that describes the archaeal and bacterial community in the MP. The obtained data show that SU and especially CU generate wastewater that is rich in nutrients, organic matter and heavy metals. Through their on-site pre-treatment and recirculation via landfill prisms, the landfill waste decomposition process may be accelerated because of the introduction of organic matter and greenhouse gas emissions may be increased. These results have been confirmed by the progressive abundance of both archaeal community and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene. The resulting multivariate data set, supported by a principal component analysis, provides useful information for the design, operation and risk assessment of modern MSWPs.

  12. Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2013-07-01

    Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (∼10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (∼70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations.

  13. Nuclear waste glass product consistency test (PCT): Version 7.0. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), poured into stainless steel canisters, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), the durability of the glass needs to be measured during production to assure its long term stability and radionuclide release properties. A durability test, designated the Product Consistency Test (PCT), was developed for DWPF glass in order to meet the WAPS requirements. The response of the PCT procedure was based on extensive testing with glasses of widely different compositions. The PCT was determined to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, and to be easily performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. Version 7.0 of the PCT procedure is attached. This draft version has been submitted to ASTM for full committee (C26, Nuclear Fuel Cycle) ballot after being balloted successfully through subcommittee C26.13 on Repository Waste Package Materials Testing.

  14. Production of xylanase and protease by Penicillium janthinellum CRC 87M-115 from different agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana A; Porto, Ana L F; Tambourgi, Elias B

    2006-04-01

    Five agricultural wastes were evaluated in submerged fermentation for xylanolytic enzymes production by Penicillium janthinellum. The wastes were hydrolyzed in acid medium and the liquid fraction was used for cultivation. Corn cob (55.3 U/mL) and oat husk (54.8 U/mL) were the best inducers of xylanase. Sugar cane bagasse (23.0 U/mL) and corn husk (23.8 U/mL) were moderately good, while cassava peel was negligible. Protease production was very low in all agro-industrial residues. The maximum biomass yields were 1.30 and 1.17 g/L for cassava peel and corn husk after 180 h, respectively. Xylanolytic activity showed a cell growth associated profile.

  15. TENORM: Fertilizer and Fertilizer Production Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phosphate rock is used in the production of phosphate fertilizers. Due to its chemical properties, phosphate rock may contain significant quantities of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM).

  16. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  17. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-07-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  18. The utilization of thin film transistor liquid crystal display waste glass as a pozzolanic material.

    PubMed

    Lin, K L; Huang, Wu-Jang; Shie, J L; Lee, T C; Wang, K S; Lee, C H

    2009-04-30

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolanic behavior of waste glass blended cement (WGBC) paste used in thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrate that the TFT-LCD waste glass was entirely non-crystalline. The leaching concentrations of the clay and TFT-LCD waste glass all met the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. The pozzolanic strength activity indices of TFT-LCD waste glass at 28 days and 56 days were 89% and 92%, respectively. Accordingly, this material can be regarded as a good pozzolanic material. The amount of TFT-LCD waste glass that is mixed into WGBC pastes affects the strength of the pastes. The strength of the paste clearly declined as the amount of TFT-LCD waste glass increased. XRD patterns indicated that the major difference was the presence of hydrates of calcium silicate (CSH, 2 theta=32.1 degrees), aluminate and aluminosilicate, which was present in WGBC pastes. Portland cement may have increased the alkalinity of the solution and induced the decomposition of the glass phase network. WGBC pastes that contained 40% TFT-LCD waste glass have markedly lower gel/space ratios and exhibit less degree of hydration than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The most satisfactory characteristics of the strength were observed when the mixing ratio of the TFT-LCD waste glass was 10%.

  19. Degradation of hazardous chemicals in liquid radioactive wastes from biomedical research using a mixed microbial population

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Radtke, M.; Wey, J.E.; Rogers, R.D.; Rau, E.H.

    1997-10-01

    As the costs associated with treatment of mixed wastes by conventional methods increase, new technologies will be investigated as alternatives. This study examines the potential of using a selected mixed population of microorganisms to treat hazardous chemical compounds in liquid low level radioactive wastes from biomedical research procedures. Microorganisms were isolated from various waste samples and enriched against compounds known to occur in the wastes. Individual isolates were tested for their ability to degrade methanol, ethanol, phenol, toluene, phthalates, acetonitrile, chloroform, and trichloroacetic acid. Following these tests, the organisms were combined in a media with a mixture of the different compounds. Three compounds: methanol, acetonitrile, and pseudocumene, were combined at 500 microliter/liter each. Degradation of each compound was shown to occur (75% or greater) under batch conditions with the mixed population. Actual wastes were tested by adding an aliquot to the media, determining the biomass increase, and monitoring the disappearance of the compounds. The compounds in actual waste were degraded, but at different rates than the batch cultures that did not have waste added. The potential of using bioprocessing methods for treating mixed wastes from biomedical research is discussed.

  20. A&M. Liquid waste treatment plant, TAN616. Plan, elevations, sections, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Liquid waste treatment plant, TAN-616. Plan, elevations, sections, and details. Evaporator pit. Pump room. Room names and numbers. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-616-A 297. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index no. 034-0616-00-693-106889 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing northeast. South wall with oblique views of west sides of structure. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing east. Showing west facades of structure. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing north. Detail of personnel entrance door, stoop, and stairway. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-2-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616), south side. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616), south side. Camera facing north. Personnel door at left side of wall. Partial view of outdoor stairway to upper level platform. Note concrete construction. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Innovative technologies of waste recycling with production of high performance products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanshin, R.; Ferenets, A. V.; Azimov, Yu I.; Galeeva, A. I.; Gilmanshina, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    The innovative ways of recycling wastes as a tool for sustainable development are presented in the article. The technology of the production of a composite material based on the rubber fiber composite waste tire industry is presented. The results of experimental use of the products in the real conditions. The comparative characteristics of the composite material rubber fiber composite are given. The production technology of construction and repairing materials on the basis of foamed glass is presented.

  6. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    SciTech Connect

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal

    2013-07-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  7. Some methods for human liquid and solid waste utilization in bioregenerative life-support systems.

    PubMed

    Ushakova, S A; Zolotukhin, I G; Tikhomirov, A A; Tikhomirova, N A; Kudenko, Yu A; Gribovskaya, I V; Balnokin, Yu; Gros, J B

    2008-12-01

    Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) are studied for developing the technology for a future biological life-support system for long-term manned space missions. Ways to utilize human liquid and solid wastes to increase the closure degree of BLSS were investigated. First, urine and faeces underwent oxidation by Kudenko's physicochemical method. The products were then used for root nutrition of wheat grown by the soil-like substrate culture method. Two means of eliminating sodium chloride, introduced into the irrigation solution together with the products of urine oxidation, were investigated. The first was based on routine electrodialysis of irrigation water at the end of wheat vegetation. Dialysis eliminated about 50% of Na from the solution. This desalinization was performed for nine vegetations. The second method was new: after wheat cultivation, the irrigation solution and the solution obtained by washing the substrate containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used to grow salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea L. plants (saltwort). The above-ground biomass of this plant can be used as a food, and roots can be added to the soil-like substrate. Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia vegetations were cultivated. As a result of this wheat and Salicornia cultivation process, the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl were considerably decreased.

  8. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The anticipated depletion of our resources of natural gas and petroleum in a few decades has caused a search for renewable sources of fuel. Among the possibilities is the chemical conversion of waste and grown organic matter into gaseous or liquid fuels. The overall feasibility of such a system is considered from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. Although there are a number of difficult problems to overcome, this preliminary study indicates that this option could provide between 4 and 10 percent of the U.S. energy needs. Estimated costs of fuels derived from grown organic material are appreciably higher than today's market price for fossil fuel. The cost of fuel derived from waste organics is competitive with fossil fuel prices. Economic and social reasons will prohibit the allocation of good food producing land to fuel crop production.

  9. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge using Aspergillus niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya

    2008-04-01

    The environmental benefits derived from using citric acid in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge have made it promising as an extracting agent in the chemical extraction process. At present, citric acid is produced commercially by fermentation of sucrose using mutant strains of Aspergillus niger (A. niger), and chemical synthesis. In recent years, various carbohydrates and wastes (such as pineapple wastes) have been considered experimentally, to produce citric acid by A. niger. This study investigated the potential of using A. niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid, in extracting chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the study revealed that metal removal efficiencies varied with pH, forms of metals in sludge and contact time. At pH approaching 4, and contact time of 11 days, A. niger fermented liquid seemed to remove all Cr and Zn while removing 94% of Ni. Moreover, chemical speciation studies revealed that metals which are predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidizable phases seemed to exhibit ease of leachability (e.g., Zn). The by-products of the process such as pineapple pulp and mycelium which are rich in protein, can still be used as animal feed. It can be said therefore that this novel process provides a sustainable way of managing contaminated sewage sludge.

  10. Forest products decomposition in municipal solid waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Barlaz, Morton A. . E-mail: barlaz@eos.ncsu.edu

    2006-07-01

    Cellulose and hemicellulose are present in paper and wood products and are the dominant biodegradable polymers in municipal waste. While their conversion to methane in landfills is well documented, there is little information on the rate and extent of decomposition of individual waste components, particularly under field conditions. Such information is important for the landfill carbon balance as methane is a greenhouse gas that may be recovered and converted to a CO{sub 2}-neutral source of energy, while non-degraded cellulose and hemicellulose are sequestered. This paper presents a critical review of research on the decomposition of cellulosic wastes in landfills and identifies additional work that is needed to quantify the ultimate extent of decomposition of individual waste components. Cellulose to lignin ratios as low as 0.01-0.02 have been measured for well decomposed refuse, with corresponding lignin concentrations of over 80% due to the depletion of cellulose and resulting enrichment of lignin. Only a few studies have even tried to address the decomposition of specific waste components at field-scale. Long-term controlled field experiments with supporting laboratory work will be required to measure the ultimate extent of decomposition of individual waste components.

  11. Getters for Tc and I Removal from Liquid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qafoku, N. P.; Asmussen, M.; Lawter, A.; Neeway, J.; Smith, G.

    2015-12-01

    A cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, is being evaluated as a possible supplemental waste form for the low activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford Site, which contains significant amounts of radioactive 99Tc and 129I, as part of the tank waste cleanup mission. To improve the retention of Tc and/or I in Cast Stone, materials with a high affinity for Tc and/or I, termed "getters," can be added to decrease the rate of contaminant release and diffusivity, and improve Cast Stone performance. A series of kinetic batch sorption experiments was performed to determine the effectiveness of the getter materials. Several Tc getters [blast furnace slag, Sn (II) apatite, SnCl2, nanoporous Sn phosphate, KMS-2 (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and Sn(II) hydroxyapatite] and I getters [layered Bi hydroxide, natural argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, Ag-impregnated carbon, and Ag-exchanged zeolite] were tested in different solution media, 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a caustic LAW waste simulant containing 6.5 M Na or 7.8 M Na. The experiments were conducted at room temperature in the presence or absence of air. Results indicated that most Tc getters (with the exception of KMS-2) performed better in the DI H2O solution than in the 6.5 and 7.8 M Na LAW simulant. In addition, Tc sequestration may be affected by the presence of other redox sensitive elements that were present in the LAW simulant, such as Cr. The Tc getter materials have been examined through various solid-state characterization techniques such as XRD, SEM/EDS, XANES and EXAFS which provided evidence for plausible mechanisms of aqueous Tc removal. The results indicated that the Tc precipitates differ depending on the getter material and that Tc(VII) is reduced to Tc(IV) in most of the getters but to a differing extents. For the I getters, Ag-exchanged zeolite and synthetic argentite were the most effective ones. The other I getters showed limited effectiveness for sorbing I under the high ionic strength and caustic

  12. Audit of the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) generates radioactive and liquid wastes that must be treated before being discharged to the environment. Presently, the liquid wastes are treated in the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (Treatment Facility), which is over 30 years old and in need of repair or replacement. However, there are various ways to satisfy the treatment need. The objective of the audit was to determine whether Los Alamos cost effectively managed its Treatment Facility operations. The audit determined that Los Alamos` treatment costs were significantly higher when compared to similar costs incurred by the private sector. This situation occurred because Los Alamos did not perform a complete analysis of privatization or prepare a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan for its treatment operations, although a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan requirement was incorporated into the contract in 1996. As a result, Los Alamos may be spending $2.15 million more than necessary each year and could needlessly spend $10.75 million over the next five years to treat its radioactive liquid waste. In addition, Los Alamos has proposed to spend $13 million for a new treatment facility that may not be needed if privatization proves to be a cost effective alternative. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque), (1) require Los Alamos to prepare a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan for its radioactive liquid waste treatment operations, (2) review the plan for approval, and (3) direct Los Alamos to select the most cost effective method of operations while also considering other factors such as mission support, reliability, and long-term program needs. Albuquerque concurred with the recommendations.

  13. Amphiphilic antioxidants from "cashew nut shell liquid" (CNSL) waste.

    PubMed

    Amorati, Riccardo; Attanasi, Orazio A; Favi, Gianfranco; Menichetti, Stefano; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Viglianisi, Caterina

    2011-03-07

    Hydrogenated cardanol and cardols, contained in industrial grade cardanol oil and obtained by distillation of the raw "cashew nut shell liquid" (CNSL), are easily transformed into efficient 4-thiaflavane antioxidants bearing a long alkyl chain on A ring and a catechol group on B ring.

  14. Catalytic dry reforming of waste plastics from different waste treatment plants for production of synthesis gases.

    PubMed

    Saad, Juniza Md; Williams, Paul T

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic dry reforming of mixed waste plastics, from a range of different municipal, commercial and industrial sources, were processed in a two-stage fixed bed reactor. Pyrolysis of the plastics took place in the first stage and dry (CO2) reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases took place in the second stage in the presence of Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Co/Al2O3 catalysts in order to improve the production of syngas from the dry reforming process. The results showed that the highest amount of syngas yield was obtained from the dry reforming of plastic waste from the agricultural industry with the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, producing 153.67mmolsyngasg(-1)waste. The addition of cobalt metal as a promoter to the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst did not have a major influence on syngas yield. Overall, the catalytic-dry reforming of waste plastics from various waste treatment plants showed great potential towards the production of synthesis gases.

  15. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  16. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., Attention Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-RCRA-2011-0847. Mail: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA Docket...

  17. Household Hazardous Waste and Automotive Products: A Pennsylvania Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorten, Charles V.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A significant fraction of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated by home mechanics who use such products as motor oil, cleaners and solvents, and batteries. This survey assessed the following aspects: (1) perceptions of their health-related effects; (2) perceptions of their pollution potential; and (3) their use and disposal. (LZ)

  18. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    PubMed

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  19. New Fission-Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra Navrotsky

    2010-07-30

    Research performed on the program “New Fission Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization,” in the last three years has fulfilled the objectives of the proposal which were to 1) establish ceramic waste forms for disposing of Cs, Sr and minor actinides, 2) fully characterize the phase relationships, structures and thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of promising waste forms, 3) establish a sound technical basis for understanding key waste form properties, such as melting temperatures and aqueous durability, based on an in-depth understanding of waste form structures and thermochemistry, and 4) establish synthesis, testing, scaleup and commercialization routes for wasteform implementation through out in-kind collaborations. In addition, since Cs and Sr form new elements by radioactive decay, the behavior and thermodynamics of waste forms containing different proportions of Cs, Sr and their decay products were discovered using non-radioactive analogues. Collaborations among researchers from three institutions, UC Davis, Sandia National Laboratories, and Shott Inc., were formed to perform the primary work on the program. The unique expertise of each of the members in the areas of waste form development, structure/property relationships, hydrothermal and high temperature synthesis, crystal/glass production, and thermochemistry was critical to program success. In addition, collaborations with the Brigham Young Univeristy, Ben Gurion University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, were established for standard entropies of ceramic waste forms, sol-gel synthesis, and high temperature synthesis. This work has had a significant impact in a number of areas. First, the studies of the thermodynamic stability of the mineral analogues provided an important technical foundation for assessment the viability of multicomponent oxide phases for Cs and Sr removal. Moreover, the thermodynamic data discovered in this program established information on the reaction

  20. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D

    2012-07-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 °C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO(2)-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

  1. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen.

  2. USBI Booster Production Company's Hazardous Waste Management Program at the Kennedy Space Center, FL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venuto, Charles

    1987-01-01

    In response to the hazardous-waste generating processes associated with the launch of the Space Shuttle, a hazardous waste management plan has been developed. It includes waste recycling, product substitution, waste treatment, and waste minimization at the source. Waste material resulting from the preparation of the nonmotor segments of the solid rocket boosters include waste paints (primer, topcoats), waste solvents (methylene chloride, freon, acetone, toluene), waste inorganic compounds (aluminum anodizing compound, fixer), and others. Ways in which these materials are contended with at the Kennedy Space Center are discussed.

  3. Methane production from food waste leachate in laboratory-scale simulated landfill.

    PubMed

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Park, Jun Mo; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Park, Hung-Suck

    2010-01-01

    Due to the prohibition of food waste landfilling in Korea from 2005 and the subsequent ban on the marine disposal of organic sludge, including leachate generated from food waste recycling facilities from 2012, it is urgent to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy that is eco-friendly, yet economically beneficial. In this study, methane production from food waste leachate (FWL) in landfill sites with landfill gas recovery facilities was evaluated in simulated landfill reactors (lysimeters) for a period of 90 d with four different inoculum-substrate ratios (ISRs) on volatile solid (VS) basis. Simultaneous biochemical methane potential batch experiments were also conducted at the same ISRs for 30 d to compare CH(4) yield obtained from lysimeter studies. Under the experimental conditions, a maximum CH(4) yield of 0.272 and 0.294 L/g VS was obtained in the batch and lysimeter studies, respectively, at ISR of 1:1. The biodegradability of FWL in batch and lysimeter experiments at ISR of 1:1 was 64% and 69%, respectively. The calculated data using the modified Gompertz equation for the cumulative CH(4) production showed good agreement with the experimental result obtained from lysimeter study. Based on the results obtained from this study, field-scale pilot test is required to re-evaluate the existing sanitary landfills with efficient leachate collection and gas recovery facilities as engineered bioreactors to treat non-hazardous liquid organic wastes for energy recovery with optimum utilization of facilities.

  4. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of waste paper for ethanol production using separate saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Guerfali, Mohamed; Saidi, Adel; Gargouri, Ali; Belghith, Hafedh

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable alternative to diminishing petroleum-based liquid fuels. In this study, the feasibility of ethanol production from waste paper using the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) was investigated. Two types of waste paper materials, newspaper and office paper, were evaluated for their potential to be used as a renewable feedstock for the production of fermentable sugars via enzymatic hydrolysis of their cellulose fractions. Hydrolysis step was conducted with a mixture of cellulolytic enzymes produced locally by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 (cellulase-overproducing mutant) and Aspergillus niger F38 cultures. Surfactant pretreatment effect on waste paper enzymatic digestibility was studied and Triton X-100 at 0.5 % (w w(-1)) has improved the digestibility of newspaper about 45 %. The effects of three factors (dry matter quantity, phosphoric acid pretreatment and hydrolysis time) on the extent of saccharification were also assessed and quantified by using a methodical approach based on response surface methodology. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, maximum degrees of saccharification of newspaper and office paper were 67 and 92 %, respectively. Sugars released from waste paper were subsequently converted into ethanol (0.38 g ethanol g(-1) sugar) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CTM-30101.

  5. Utilization of cellulosic waste for energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, V.; Mishra, C.; Rao, M.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M. C.; Jagannathan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Bioconversion of cellulose for the production of food or alcohol is of importance for the utilization of a renewable and abundant resource. The hydrolysis of different cellulosic materials by the cellulolytic enzymes produced by Penicillium funiculosum was studied. Fifty to 70% saccharification was obtained from pretreated bagasse, cotton and wood. The effect of different pretreatments to make the cellulose more susceptible to enzyme breakdown was also studied. Alkali pretreatment was found to be effective for most of the substrates. The production of alcohol from the hydrolysates by yeast fermentation without isolation of glucose was studied.

  6. THE ROLE OF LIQUID WASTE PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN SOLVING THE DOE CLEAN-UP MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B; Sheryl Bush, S

    2008-10-31

    transition metal hydroxides that precipitate when the spent acidic process solutions are rendered alkaline with sodium hydroxide. The sludges contain Sr-90 and transuranic elements. The wastes stored at each site have been generated and stored for over fifty years. Although the majority of the wastes were generated to support nuclear weapons production and reprocessing, the wastes differ substantially between the sites. Table 5 shows the volumes and total radioactivity (including decay daughters) of the waste phases stored in tanks at each site. At Hanford, there are 177 tanks that contain 56.5 Mgal of waste. SRS has 51 larger tanks, of which 2 are closed, that contain 36.5 Mgal. Mainly due to recovery operations, the waste stored at Hanford has less total curies than that stored at Savannah River. The total radioactivity of the Hanford wastes contains approximately 190 MCi, and the total radioactivity of the Savannah River wastes contains 400 MCi.

  7. Ultrafiltration treatment for liquid laundry wastes from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Kichik, V.A.; Maslova, M.N.; Svittsov, A.A.; Kuleshov, N.F.

    1988-03-01

    The authors conduct a comprehensive analysis of the waste constituents--radioactive and organic--of the laundry water resulting from the on-site laundering and decontamination of clothing worn in nuclear power plants. The primary isotope contaminants consist of niobium and zirconium 95, manganese 54, cobalt 60, iron 59, and cesium 134 and 137. A variety of filter and adsorbent materials used in an ultrafiltration process are comparatively tested for their effectiveness in removing not only these isotopes but also the organic contaminants in the process of recycling the water. Those materials consist of copper hexacyanoferrate, polyacrylophosphonic acid, and several metal-polymer complexes.

  8. Inductively coupled plasma torch efficiency at atmospheric pressure for organo-chlorine liquid waste removal: chloroform destruction in oxidative conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamgang-Youbi, Georges; Poizot, Karine; Lemont, Florent

    2013-01-15

    The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ~4kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl(3) feed rates up to 400 g h(-1) with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g kWh(-1). The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO(2), HCl and H(2)O) and redox titration (Cl(2)). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (<1 g h(-1)) even with high waste feed rates. The experimental results were very close to the equilibrium composition predicted by thermodynamic calculations. At the bottom of the reactor, the chlorinated acids were successfully trapped in a scrubber and transformed into mineral salts, hence, only CO(2) and H(2)O have been found in the final off-gases composition.

  9. Prospects for using membrane distallation for reprocessing liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dytnerskii, Y.I.; Karlin, Y.V.; Kropotov, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    Membrane distillation is a promising method for deep desalinization and for removal of impurities of different nature from water. The crux of the method is as follows. The initial (hot) solution, heated up to 30-70{degrees}C, is fed into one side of a hydrophobic microporous membrane. A less heated (cold) distillate moves along the other. Since the membrane is hydrophobic and the pores are small ({approximately}1 {mu}m and less), the liquid phase does not penetrate into the pores in accordance with Kelvin`s law. The vapor evaporating from the surface of the hot solution (the evaporation surface in this case are solution meniscuses forming at the entrance into a pore) penetrates into the pores of the membrane, diffuses through the air layer in the pore, and condenses on the surface of the menisci of cold liquid. In the process rarefaction is produced in the pores, and this accelerates evaporation and therefore increases its efficiency.

  10. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  11. Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E.

    2012-07-01

    SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

  12. Optimization of the liquid biofertilizer production in batch fermentation with by-product from MSG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namfon, Panjanapongchai; Ratchanok, Sahaworarak; Chalida, Daengbussade

    2017-03-01

    The long term use of chemical fertilizers destroyed the friability of soil which obviously decreased quantity and quality of crops and especially affect microorganisms living in soils. The bio-fertilizer with microbial consortium is an environmental friendly alternative to solve this bottleneck due to harboring soil microorganisms such as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Deinococcus sp. produced with natural by-product or waste from industries that is alternative and sustainable such as nutrient-rich (by-product) from Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) for producing liquid biofertilizer by batch fermentation. In this work, the concentration of reducing sugar from substrate as main carbon source was evaluated in shake flask with mixed cultures. The optimal conditions were studied comparing with two levels of reducing sugar concentration (10, 20 g/L) and inoculums concentration (10, 20 %v/v) with using (2×2) full factorial design. The results indicated that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for fermentation and inoculums concentration is mainly influenced the batch fermentation process. Moreover, the combined 20 g/L and 10%v/v were considerably concluded as an optimal condition, of which the concentration of vegetative cells and spores attained at 8.29×109 CFU/mL and 1.97×105 CFU/mL, respectively. Their spores cell yields from reducing sugar (Yx/s) were obtained at 1.22×106 and 3.34×105 CFU/g were markedly different. In conclusion, the liquid Biofertilizer was produced satisfactorily at 20 g/L reducing sugar and 10% v/v inoculums in shake flask culture. Moreover, these results suggested that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for low-cost substrate in economical scale and environmental-friendly.

  13. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar heat.

    PubMed

    Corro, Grisel; Sánchez, Nallely; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino

    2016-01-01

    A two-step catalytic process for the production of biodiesel from waste frying oil (WFO) at low cost, utilizing waste animal-bone as catalyst and solar radiation as heat source is reported in this work. In the first step, the free fatty acids (FFA) in WFO were esterified with methanol by a catalytic process using calcined waste animal-bone as catalyst, which remains active even after 10 esterification runs. The trans-esterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the presence of hydroxyapatite at the surface of calcined animal bones.

  14. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  15. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    PubMed

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines.

  16. Processing of wastes from lead/acid battery production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivianny, I. R.; Rusin, A. I.; Lata, V. A.; Khegay, L. D.; Nourjigitov, S. T.

    Experience in the recovery of scrap and wastes from lead/acid battery production suggests that an electrothermal method has good prospects. This process is characterized by a high degree of lead and antimony (approx 98%) extraction, by effective gas cleaning and dust collection, and by full dust returning to the furnace. The electrothermal method is also distinguished by the high reliability of electric furnaces, the useability of any type of secondary lead battery scrap and wastes, and the possibility of process mechanization and control. In this paper, a description is given of the main technical and economical factors of soda-reduction smelting in an electric furnace, a technological scheme for wastes recovery, and the charge composition and features of the process.

  17. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500°C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900°C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700°C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500°C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900°C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500°C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900°C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered.

  18. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  19. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  20. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from

  1. Enhanced NH3 emission from swine liquid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Robarge, W. P.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Swine animal feeding operations are sources of emissions for various gases [ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic carbons (VOCs)], and fine particulate matter. Gaseous emissions from simple aqueous systems are typically controlled by temperature, pH, wind speed, total dissolved concentration of the chemical species of interest (e.g. NH3+NH4+ = TAN), and the Henry’s law constant. Ammonia emissions from three different sources [ammonium sulfate (AS), swine anaerobic lagoon liquid (SLL), and pit liquid (SPL) from swine housing units] were evaluated using a small flow-through teflon-lined chamber (SFTC; 0.3m × 0.2m × 0.15m) under controlled laboratory conditions. The SFTC was designed for 100% collection efficiency of NH3 gas emitted from the liquids. The internal volume of the chamber, 9 L, was exchanged 1.1 times per minute. All three liquid formulations exhibit the expected response in emissions with changes in temperature and pH. However, NH3 emissions from the SPL and SLL are ~5 times those from pure solutions of AS. Furthermore, the enhancement in NH3 emissions was a function of TAN concentration, decreasing in intensity at higher TAN and approaching rates comparable to the pure solutions of AS. The difference in emissions with solutions of equivalent TAN suggests a synergistic mechanism that is enhancing NH3 emissions in SPL and SLL. Concurrent measurements as part of the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study at the swine operations originally sampled for SPL and SLL document the emissions of CO2, H2S and VOCs (primarily acetic, propionic and butyric acids) at levels that are comparable to observed NH3 emissions. To date, only additions of NaHCO3 to the SPL and SLL have been found to enhance NH3 emissions and exhibit the same response to increasing TAN as exhibited by the original SPL and SLL solutions. Possible reactions that could enhance emissions will be discussed.

  2. Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1995-10-02

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

  3. Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

    1996-03-01

    In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

  4. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  5. Studies on production and characterization of enriched urban waste composts and their influence on crops productivity.

    PubMed

    Salakinkop, S R; Hunshal, C S; Gorogi, P T; Basavaraj, B

    2008-01-01

    Enriched compost produced with use of municipal solid wastes (MSW) recorded narrow C:N ratio at the end of decomposition period than municipal solid wastes decomposed without enrichers. To enhance the decomposition rate, quality of municipal solid wastes and enrichers/amendments are found very significant for production of compost. Nutrient content particularly nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium could be enhanced with addition of organic amendment/enrichers. Response of different crops for composts produced with addition of different enrichers like night soil, 25% distillery sludge and bio-fertilizers (Azospirillum sp and Bacillus sp) was conspicuous compared to the compost derived from municipal solid wastes alone with respect to increased growth and yield of crops. Among the enriched composts, night soil enriched compost significantly increased the response of potato and groundnut crops. According to farmer's opinion obtained with matrix scoring, chemical fertilizers and sheep penning are cheaper compared to pit compost or urban solid waste compost. While chemical fertilizers are considered to have adverse effects on soil more than pit compost, tank silt, sheep penning and urban solid waste. Weed infestation is associated more with urban waste than other sources. For dry land, agriculture urban waste could be useful due to good moisture holding capacity. Crop yields could be improved under low rainfall condition whenever pit compost or urban solid waste is used.

  6. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  7. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus in liquid egg products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty eight percent of the 200 million cases of shelled eggs produced per year in the U.S. are processed as liquid egg product. The U.S. also exports internationally a large amount of egg products. Although the U.S. is normally free of avian influenza, concern about contamination of egg product wit...

  8. Method for processing wastes resulting from production of phosphorus namely, slime and off-gases, with utilization of the resultant products

    SciTech Connect

    Alzhanov, T.M.; Bykov, V.I.; Chernogorenko, V.B.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Ishkhanov, E.S.; Kipchakbaev, A.D.; Koverya, V.M.; Lynchak, K.A.; Markovsky, E.A.; Muchnik, S.V.; Pobortsev, M.E.; Sapian, V.G.; Sergienko, V.Y.; Vopilov, A.N.

    1981-11-24

    The method comprises processing slime and off-gases resulting from the production of phosphorus with an aqueous solution of copper sulphate having a concentration of from 15 to 50% at a temperature within the range of from 20/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ C. As a result, two products are obtained, i.e. A liquid product and a solid one. The solid product containing mainly copper phosphide as well as fluorides and chlorides of alkali metals and silicon, and silicates of calcium and aluminium, is used as a modifying and refining agent for hypereutectic silumines and for the manufacture of a copper-phosphorus alloy. The liquid product containing phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid and copper sulphate is used as starting product for the preparation of a copper-containing fertilizer. The method according to the present invention makes it possible to modify the production of phosphorus so as to eliminate the formation of secondary wastes and improve the environmental control.

  9. Fermentative Hydrogen Production From Food Waste Without Inocula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, S.; Fujisawa, A.; Mizuno, O.; Kameda, T.; Yoshioka, T.

    2008-02-01

    The kind of seed microorganisms and its growth conditions are important factors for the hydrogen fermentation. However, there are many kinds of bacteria in food waste, and it is necessary to know their behavior if it is used as a substrate. Therefore, hydrogen fermentation of food waste was investigated in the absence of inocula with an initial pH varying from 5 to 9 and in a temperature range between 22 to 50 °C. Hydrogen production occurred when the initial pH of the solution containing the food waste was adjusted to 7-9 and the temperature was adjusted to 22 or 35 °C (maximum production was 40 ml-H2/g-TS at an initial pH of 9 and a temperature of 35 °C). However, the hydrogen production stopped when the pH decreased due to the accumulation of organic acids. In the next step, the pH was controlled by the addition of a NaOH solution between 5.0 and 9.0. When the pH was controlled between 5.0-6.0, the hydrogen production increased to a maximum of 90 ml-H2/g-TS at a pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 35 °C; more than 4 times more than for the sample without pH adjustment, due to the acceleration of butyrate fermentation.

  10. Waste prevention in liquid detergent distribution: a comparison based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2014-11-15

    The distribution of liquid detergents through self-dispensing systems has been adopted in some Italian retail stores over the last few years. By enabling the consumer to refill several times the same container, it is proposed as a less waste-generating and more environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional distribution with single-use plastic containers. For this reason, its implementation is encouraged by the national waste prevention programme recently adopted in Italy. In order to assess such claims, a life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate whether detergent distribution through self-dispensing systems actually allows to achieve the expected reduction in waste generation and environmental impacts. The focus was on the distribution within the large-scale retail trade and on the categories of laundry detergents, fabric softeners and hand dishwashing detergents. For each of them, a set of baseline single-use scenarios were compared with two alternative waste prevention scenarios, where the detergent is distributed through self-dispensing systems. Beyond waste generation, also the Cumulative Energy Demand and thirteen midpoint-level potential impact indicators were calculated for the comparison. Results showed that a reduction in waste generation up to 98% can be achieved, depending on the category of detergent, on the baseline scenario of comparison and on the number of times the refillable container is used. A progressive reduction in the energy demand and in most of the potential impacts was also observed, starting from a minimum number of uses of the refillable container.

  11. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process.

  12. Membrane treatment of liquid wastes from radiological decontamination operations.

    PubMed

    Svittsov, A A; Khubetsov, S B; Volchek, K

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the evaluation of membrane filtration for the treatment of liquid radioactive streams generated in area decontamination operations. In this work, semi-permeable membranes were demonstrated to be effective reducing the volume of wastewater containing cesium and cobalt by two orders of a magnitude. The efficiency of membrane separation was enhanced by employing additives that enlarged the size of target radionuclide species and improved their rejection by the membranes. This was achieved by chelation with synthetic water-soluble polymers and by adsorption on micro particles of adsorbent coupled with micelle formation. The effect of wastewater composition and that of the radionuclide-binding additives on the volume reduction was investigated. Membrane treatment is expected to help simplify further processing and decrease disposal costs.

  13. Drop Dynamics and Speciation in Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes by Reactive Scavenging

    SciTech Connect

    Arne J. Pearlstein; Alexander Scheeline

    2002-08-30

    Computational and experimental studies of the motion and dynamics of liquid drops in gas flows were conducted with relevance to reactive scavenging of metals from atomized liquid waste. Navier-Stoke's computations of deformable drops revealed a range of conditions from which prolate drops are expected, and showed how frajectiones of deformable drops undergoing deceleration can be computed. Experimental work focused on development of emission fluorescence, and scattering diagnostics. The instrument developed was used to image drop shapes, soot, and nonaxisymmetric departures from steady flow in a 22kw combustor

  14. Mercury removal from liquid and solid mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.; Cameron, P.A.; Perona, J.J.; Chao, K.K.

    1995-04-01

    Based on bench-scale laboratory experiments, the following conclusions were reached: Sulfur-impregnated, activated, carbon pellets (Mersorb) can be used to remove mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) to below EPA`s toxic characteristic level (0.2 mg/L). Mersorb works under acid conditions (pH 2) but its capacity is reduced by approximately 50% compared with neutral conditions. Competing ions present in the target waste stream reduced the Mersorb capacity by 50%. Mersorb appears to be economical compared with leading ion exchange resin. KI/I{sub 2} leaching solution can be used to remove up to 99% of Hg in contaminated soil and glass. KI/I{sub 2} leaching solution worked well with several mercury species, including Hg{sup 0}, HgO, HgS, and HgCl{sub 2}. KI/I{sub 2} leaching solution worked well with a wide variety of initial mercury concentrations. Radionuclide surrogate studies suggested that uranium will not partition into KI/I{sub 2} leaching solutions. Cesium may partition into the KI/I{sub 2} leaching solution because of the high solubility of cesium salts.

  15. SOLIEX: A Novel Solid-Liquid Method of Radionuclides Extraction from Radioactive Waste Solutions - 13486

    SciTech Connect

    Shilova, E.; Viel, P.; Huc, V.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes recent developments in new solid-liquid extraction method, called SOLIEX, to remove cesium from alkaline solutions. SOLIEX relies on the use of a reversible complexing system comprising a carbon felt bearing molecular traps (calixarenes). This complexing system exhibits a high selectivity for Cs, and is thus expected to be helpful for the treatment of highly diluted cesium wastes even with a high concentration of competing alkali metal cations. As additional advantage, this complexing system can be adapted by molecular engineering to capture other radionuclides, such as Sr, Eu, Am. Finally, this complexing system can be easily and efficiently regenerated by using a cost effective stripping procedure, which limits further generation of waste to meet 'zero liquid' discharge requirements for nuclear facilities. (authors)

  16. The Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Bioconversion of Tomato Processing Waste to Fermentable Sugars and Biogas.

    PubMed

    Allison, Brittany J; Cádiz, Juan Canales; Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-08-01

    Tomato pomace is an abundant lignocellulosic waste stream from industrial tomato processing and therefore a potential feedstock for production of renewable biofuels. However, little research has been conducted to determine if pretreatment can enhance release of fermentable sugars from tomato pomace. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic biomass to increase enzymatic digestibility and biofuel yield while utilizing recyclable chemicals with low toxicity. In this study, pretreatment of tomato pomace with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) was investigated. Changes in pomace enzymatic digestibility were affected by pretreatment time and temperature. Certain pretreatment conditions significantly improved reducing sugar yield and hydrolysis time compared to untreated pomace. Compositional analyses suggested that pretreatment primarily removed water-soluble compounds and enriched for lignocellulose in pomace, with only subtle changes to the composition of the lignocellulose. While tomato pomace was effectively pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] to improve enzymatic digestibility, as of yet, unknown factors in the pomace caused ionic liquid pretreatment to negatively affect anaerobic digestion of pretreated material. This result, which is unique compared to similar studies on IL pretreatment of grasses and woody biomass, highlights the need for additional research to determine how the unique chemical composition of tomato pomace and other lignocellulosic fruit residues may interact with ionic liquids to generate inhibitors for downstream fermentation to biofuels.

  17. Recovery of salt wastes in the production of propylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zyablitseva, M.P.; Tyurin, B.K.; Kudinov, V.I.; Bukbulatov, I.K.; Mazanko, A.F.

    1983-02-01

    In the production of propylene oxide as much as 40 t dilute calcium chloride solution forms per ton of product in the step of saponification of propylene chlorhydrine with milk of lime. To create a zero-waste technology for production of propylene oxide, there is practical interest in saponification of propylene chlorhydrine with electrolysis brines with recovery of the resultant solution of sodium chloride after purification to remove organic impurities. The possibility of using an electrochemical method to purify wastewater from production of propylene oxide in using the purified solution as starting material for production of electrolysis brines was investigated. Experimental testing of processes of purification and recovery of wastewaters in a regime of industrial electrolysis confirmed the possibility of using purified wastewater from production of propylene oxide as brine for electrolysis. Incorporation of the developed method into industry will permit zero-waste production of propylene oxide with a closed salt cycle. The cost of purification of 1 m/sup 3/ wastewater is 1-1.5 rubles.

  18. The use KPI's to determine the waste in production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsos, G.; Iacob, C. C.; Calefariu, G.

    2016-11-01

    In theory and practice of management is well-known Lean approach about forms of waste from production processes (Muda) and the method VSM (Value Stream Map), one of the most effective methods for determining the activities generating value within industrial companies. It is also obvious concern of the specialists for performance measurement regardless of purview of the organizations. The literature review has shown that the link between performance indicators and the objectives of the companies is researched in detail. However, the correlation between indicators and the forms of waste that generate deviations from the setpoints is rather nature practical and it depends on the talent and managerial skills of those directing production processes. The paper presents the results of a applied study, performed by the authors, through which it was has sought to will create a system of performance indicators specific to manufacturing activity that to be a useful tool to quantify the losses and to determining ways to improve default losses.

  19. Production of ultrahigh purity copper using waste copper nitrate solution.

    PubMed

    Choi, J Y; Kim, D S

    2003-04-25

    The production of ultrahigh purity copper (99.9999%) by electrolysis in the presence of a cementation barrier has been attempted employing a waste nitric copper etching solution as the electrolyte. The amount of copper deposited on the cathode increased almost linearly with electrolysis time and the purity of copper was observed to increase as the electrolyte concentration was increased. At some point, however, as the electrolyte concentration increased, the purity of copper decreased slightly. As the total surface area of cementation barrier increased, the purity of product increased. The electrolyte temperature should be maintained below 35 degrees C in the range of investigated electrolysis conditions to obtain the ultrahigh purity copper. Considering that several industrial waste solutions contain valuable metallic components the result of present study may support a claim that electrowinning is a very desirable process for their treatment and recovery.

  20. Production of bioethanol and biodiesel using instant noodle waste.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yoo, Hah Young; Shin, Hyun Yong; Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-08-01

    Instant noodle manufacturing waste was used as feedstock to convert it into two products, bioethanol and biodiesel. The raw material was pretreated to separate it into two potential feedstocks, starch residues and palm oil, for conversion to bioethanol and biodiesel, respectively. For the production of bioethanol, starch residues were converted into glucose by α-amylase and glucoamylase. To investigate the saccharification process of the pretreated starch residues, the optimal pretreatment conditions were determined. The bioethanol conversion reached 98.5 % of the theoretical maximum by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 fermentation after saccharification under optimized pretreatment conditions. Moreover, palm oil, isolated from the instant noodle waste, was converted into valuable biodiesel by use of immobilized lipase (Novozym 435). The effects of four categories of alcohol, oil-to-methanol ratio, reaction time, lipase concentration and water content on the conversion process were investigated. The maximum biodiesel conversion was 95.4 %.

  1. CH₄ and N₂O emissions from different varieties of forage rice (Oryza sativa L.) treating liquid cattle waste.

    PubMed

    Riya, Shohei; Zhou, Sheng; Watanabe, Yoichi; Sagehashi, Masaki; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate global warming potential (GWP) on livestock waste treatment and biomass production in rice field, methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) fluxes from forage rice fields planted with 4 different cultivars (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hamasari, Leafstar, Kusahonami and Takanari) were measured. Each of the cultivars were subjected either to basal fertilization alone (control plots) (84 kg N ha(-1)), or to basal fertilization plus topdressing with liquid cattle waste or LCW (treatment plots) (567 kg N ha(-1)). Liquid cattle waste application to the rice field resulted in peak CH(4) fluxes ranging from 22.0 to 32.1 mg m(-1)h(-1) during flooded conditions and large N(2)O fluxes ranging from 526 to 8591 μg m(-1)h(-1) after midsummer drainage and final drainage. The GWP of the control plots was between 1358 and 3872 kg CO(2)eq ha(-1), while the treatment plots ranged between 4503 and 8426 kg CO(2)eq ha(-1) and more than 60% of the GWP was from the N(2)O emission in treatment plots. In both the control and treatment plots, the lowest GWPs per ton of above-ground biomass were found to be from the Leafstar cultivar, which had a higher aboveground biomass than other cultivars; 117 kg CO(2)eq t(-1) from the control and 257 kg CO(2)eq t(-1) from the treatment plots. Thus, both forage production and suitable disposal of the LCW may be able to be achieved concomitantly with lower levels of GWP by cultivation of Leafstar in our field.

  2. ENGINEERING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research focusing on the production of alternative fuels has intensified due to increasing global demand for a limited oil supply. Fuel ethanol production in the U.S. amounted to 5 billion gallons for 2006 and is projected to increase. Most of the ethanol produced is currently from fermentation of...

  3. Characterization of low-level liquid wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.; Clark, B.R.; Scott, C.B.; Berry, J.B.

    1986-12-01

    This report compiles and evaluates existing data on samples taken from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Low-Level Liquid Waste (LLW) system. Although the primary focus is on the contents of the eight 50,000-gal Melton Valley Storage Tanks, data on raw LLW from the source facilities, Evaporator Service Tanks, and past operations involving the Gunite Storage Tanks are also included. A brief overview of the ORNL LLW system is provided. Methods of sample collection and analytical procedures are described. Data from each set of samples are reported and evaluated against criteria for classification of wastes. The quality and self-consistency of the data set are also discussed. Issues ranging from classifying as transuranic or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste to providing input for dose-rate calculations and evaluations of chemical compatibility with potential processing options are discussed. Remaining data voids are identified, and activities for filling those voids are recommended. 13 figs., 41 tabs.

  4. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, O; Liu, X Y; Wang, J Y

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24h at -20 degrees C and then thawed for 12h at 25 degrees C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 degrees C for 1h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 degrees C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 degrees C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  5. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect

    Stabnikova, O. Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-07-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  6. Disposal of liquid wastes by injection underground--Neither myth nor millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, Arthur M.

    1969-01-01

    Injecting liquid wastes deep underground is an attractive but not necessarily practical means for disposing of them. For decades, impressive volumes of unwanted oil-field brine have been injected, currently about 10,000 acre-feet yearly. Recently, liquid industrial wastes are being injected in ever-increasing quantity. Dimensions of industrial injection wells range widely but the approximate medians are: depth, 2,660 feet; thickness of injection zone, 185 feet; injection rate, 135 gallons per minute; wellhead injection pressure, 185 pounds per square inch. Effects of deep injection are complex and not all are understood clearly. In a responsible society, injection cannot be allowed to put wastes out of mind. Injection is no more than storage--for all time in the case of the most intractable wastes--in underground space of which little is attainable in some areas and which is exhaustible in most areas. Liquid wastes range widely in character and concentration-some are incompatible one with another or with materials of the prospective injection zone; some which are reactive or chemically unstable would require pretreatment or could not be injected. Standards by which to categorize the wastes are urgently desirable. To the end that injection may be planned effectively and administered in orderly fashion, there is proposed an immediate and comprehensive canvass of all the United States to outline injection provinces and zones according to their capacities to accept waste. Much of the information needed to this end is at hand. Such a canvass would consider (1) natural zone, of groundwater circulation, from rapid to stagnant, (2) regional hydrodynamics, (3) safe injection pressures, and (4) geochemical aspects. In regard to safe pressure, definitive criteria would be sought by which to avoid recurrence of earthquake swarms such as seem to have been triggered by injection at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well near Denver, Colo. Three of the 50 States--Missouri, .Ohio, and

  7. Resistance of class C fly ash belite cement to simulated sodium sulphate radioactive liquid waste attack.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-01-30

    The resistance of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) to concentrated sodium sulphate salts associated with low level wastes (LLW) and medium level wastes (MLW) is discussed. This study was carried out according to the Koch and Steinegger methodology by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulphate (48,000 ppm) and demineralised water (used as a reference), at 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanisms of sulphate ion with the mortar was carried out through a microstructure study, which included the use of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated sulphate radioactive liquid waste (SSRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive ettringite inside the pores and an alkaline activation of the hydraulic activity of cement promoted by the ingress of sulphate. Accordingly, the microstructure was strongly refined.

  8. The emergency avoidance solidification campaign of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.; Helms, R.E.; Scanlan, T.F.; Schultz, R.M.; Scott, C.B.; Williams, L.C.; Homan, F.J.; Keigan, M.V.; Monk, T.H.; Morrow, R.W.; Van Hoesen, S.D. ); du Mont, S.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Since the beginning of nuclear research and development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1943, the generation, collection, treatment, storage, and disposal of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stream has been an integral part of ORNL's waste management operations. This waste stream, consisting principally of a high nitrate (4.5 molar), high pH (pH 13--14) mixture of reactor, hot cell, and research laboratory liquid radioactive wastes (<5 Ci/gal), has been treated and disposed of in a variety of ways over the years. Most recently, the hydrofracture technology had been used for deep-well disposal of a grout mix of LLLW, cement, fly ash, and other additives. In 1984, this disposal technique was discontinued due to regulatory permitting issues and the need for extensive facility modifications for future operations. With loss of this disposal capability and the continued generation of LLLW by ORNL research activities, the limited tank storage capacity was rapidly being depleted.

  9. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m. The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 liters of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is about $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. Recent regulatory constraints may cause permanent cessation of the operation. Federal and state statutes, written for other types of injection facilities, impact the ORNL facility. This disposal process, which may have great applicability for disposal of many wastes, including hazardous wastes, may not be developed for future use.

  10. Thermal reactor. [liquid silicon production from silane gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Ford, L. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A thermal reactor apparatus and method of pyrolyticaly decomposing silane gas into liquid silicon product and hydrogen by-product gas is disclosed. The thermal reactor has a reaction chamber which is heated well above the decomposition temperature of silane. An injector probe introduces the silane gas tangentially into the reaction chamber to form a first, outer, forwardly moving vortex containing the liquid silicon product and a second, inner, rewardly moving vortex containing the by-product hydrogen gas. The liquid silicon in the first outer vortex deposits onto the interior walls of the reaction chamber to form an equilibrium skull layer which flows to the forward or bottom end of the reaction chamber where it is removed. The by-product hydrogen gas in the second inner vortex is removed from the top or rear of the reaction chamber by a vortex finder. The injector probe which introduces the silane gas into the reaction chamber is continually cooled by a cooling jacket.

  11. Study on methane fermentation and production of vitamin B12 from alcohol waste slurry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenya; Quan, Taisheng; Li, Pomin; Zhang, Yansheng; Sugiura, Norio; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    We studied biogas fermentation from alcohol waste fluid to evaluate the anaerobic digestion process and the production of vitamin B12 as a byproduct. Anaerobic digestion using acclimated methanogens was performed using the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed-bed reactor packed with rock wool as carrier material at 55 degrees C. We also studied the effects of metal ions added to the culture broth on methane and vitamin B12 formation. Vitamin B12 production was 2.92 mg/L in the broth of the fixed-bed reactor, twice that of the CSTR. The optimum concentrations of trace metal ions added to the culture liquid for methane and vitamin B12 production were 1.0 and 8 mL/L for the CSTR and fixed-bed reactor, respectively. Furthermore, an effective method for extracting and purifying vitamin B12 from digested fluid was developed.

  12. Co-digestion of press liquids of source-sorted municipal organic waste in anaerobic sludge treatment of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Effenberger, Johannes; Jahn, Lydia; Kuehn, Volker

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a semi-continuous laboratory-scale investigation of a potential co-substrate for mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A feed liquid produced from source-sorted municipal organic waste by pretreatment with a screw press was subjected to the investigation. Quantities produced in press trials as well as the composition of the feed liquid are presented. Mass balances for N, P and chemical oxygen demand are given in order to verify the methane production of the feed liquid in co-digestion with sewage sludge at mesophilic conditions. Hydraulic retention time of the reactors were 14.7 to 16 d and organic loading rates were 1.5 to 2.7 kg volatile solids (VS) per cubic metre per day. The pretreatment by screw press is compared to the production of feed liquids with pulper-based pretreatment processes. While the addition of the feed liquid increased methane production by about 345 ml CH(4)/g VS(in), total solids of the feed liquid were reduced to about 63%. With respect to co-digestion at municipal wastewater treatment plants, several risks associated with the investigated feed liquid are outlined.

  13. 30 CFR 550.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR..., projected quantity, and composition of solid and liquid wastes (such as spent drilling fluids, drill... (2) Your plans for treating, storing, and downhole disposal of these wastes at your drilling...

  14. 30 CFR 550.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR..., projected quantity, and composition of solid and liquid wastes (such as spent drilling fluids, drill... (2) Your plans for treating, storing, and downhole disposal of these wastes at your drilling...

  15. 30 CFR 550.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR..., projected quantity, and composition of solid and liquid wastes (such as spent drilling fluids, drill... (2) Your plans for treating, storing, and downhole disposal of these wastes at your drilling...

  16. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR..., projected quantity, and composition of solid and liquid wastes (such as spent drilling fluids, drill... (2) Your plans for treating, storing, and downhole disposal of these wastes at your drilling...

  17. Feasibility study of the applicability of the activated sludge process to treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Akio; Nishimaki, Kenzo

    1997-12-31

    The authors used an activated sludge process to treat radioactive organic liquid waste. Organic liquid waste is difficult to treat by conventional radioactive liquid treatment processes, but in order to reduce long-term irradiation of the public the removal of radionuclides from such waste is preferable to dilution. Activated sludge processes are widely used for the biological treatment of sewage and are considered appropriate means for treating radioactive organic liquid waste. In this process, the fate of radionuclides eluted by treated water or immobilized by activated sludge, is extremely important for public safety and for the treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste. The authors performed uptake and desorption behavior experiments on the three short half-life radionuclides {sup 134}Cs, {sup 57}Co and {sup 85}Sr, and used three nutritive types of artificial sewage as the feed solution. On the basis of the results, they discuss the uptake-desorption behavior of these radionuclides in an activated sludge process. The authors conclude that treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste by an activated sludge process is possible, but improvements must be made in the process if it is to be more effective.

  18. High power linear accelerators for tritium production and transmutation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    Proton linacs driving high-flux spallation neutron sources are being considered for transmutation of nuclear waste and production of tritium. Advances in high-current linac technology have provided a basis for the development of credible designs for the required accelerator, which has a nominal 1.6-GeV energy, and a 250-mA cw current. A beam with these parameters incident on a liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) target can generate a thermal neutron flux of up to 5 {times} 10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2}-s in a cylindrical blanket surrounding the spallation source. This high flux can produce tritium through the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha})T or {sup 3}He(n,{gamma})T reactions, or can burn long-lived actinides and fission products from nuclear waste through capture and fission processes. In some system scenarios, waste actinides and/or other fissile materials in the blanket can produce sufficient fission energy to power the accelerator.

  19. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  20. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  1. Regulation for Optimal Liquid Products during Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Hu, L. J.; Zheng, Y. W.; Huang, Y. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, C.; Kang, J.; Zheng, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid product obtained from biomass pyrolysis is very valuable that it could be used for extraction of chemicals as well as for liquid fuel. The desire goal is to obtain the most bio-oil with desired higher heating value (HHV), high physicochemical stability. The yields and chemical composition of products from biomass pyrolysis are closely related to the feedstock, pyrolysis parameters and catalysts. Current researches mainly concentrated on the co-pyrolysis of different biomass and introduce of novel catalysts as well as the combined effect of catalysts and pyrolysis parameters. This review starts with the chemical composition of biomass and the fundamental parameters and focuses on the influence of catalysts on bio-oil. What is more, the pyrolysis facilities at commercial scales were also involved. The classic researches and the current literature about the yield and composition of products (mainly liquid products) are summarized.

  2. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Hamdy, A.; Abu Amr, Salem S.

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  3. Performance Assessment Program for the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Facilities - 13610

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, Kent H.

    2013-07-01

    The Liquid Waste facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) are operated by Liquid Waste Operations contractor Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR). A separate Performance Assessment (PA) is prepared to support disposal operations at the Saltstone Disposal Facility and closure evaluations for the two liquid waste tank farm facilities at SRS, F-Tank Farm and H-Tank Farm. A PA provides the technical basis and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements identified in operations and closure regulatory guidance. The Saltstone Disposal Facility is subject to a State of South Carolina industrial solid waste landfill permit and the tank farms are subject to a state industrial waste water permit. The three Liquid Waste facilities are also subject to a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Due to the regulatory structure, a PA is a key technical document reviewed by the DOE, the State of South Carolina and the EPA. As the waste material disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility and the residual material in the closed tank farms is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is also a reviewing agency for the PAs. Pursuant to the Act, the NRC also has a continuing role to monitor disposal actions to assess compliance with stated performance objectives. The Liquid Waste PA program at SRS represents a continual process over the life of the disposal and closure operations. When the need for a PA or PA revision is identified, the first step is to develop a conceptual model to best represent the facility conditions. The conceptual model will include physical dimensions of the closed system, both the engineered and natural system, and modeling

  4. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to simulate leachate generation. (2) Any person may dispose of PCB bulk product waste other than... presumed to leach waste regulated... waste is known or presumed to leach ≥10 µg/L PCBs. (5) Any person disposing of PCB bulk product...

  5. Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

    This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are…

  6. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... bulk product waste regulated under paragraph (b)(1) of this section at a waste management facility not... under paragraph (b)(2) of this section at a waste management facility not having a commercial PCB... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product...

  7. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... bulk product waste regulated under paragraph (b)(1) of this section at a waste management facility not... under paragraph (b)(2) of this section at a waste management facility not having a commercial PCB... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product...

  8. LOW LEVEL LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT AT MURMANSK, RUSSIA: FACILITY UPGRADE AND EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERMAN,B.; CZAJKOWSKI,C.; DYER,R.S.; SORLIE,A.

    2000-03-01

    Today there exist many almost overfilled storage tanks with liquid radioactive waste in the Russian Federation. This waste was generated over several years by the civil and military utilization of nuclear power. The current waste treatment capacity is either not available or inadequate. Following the London Convention, dumping of the waste in the Arctic seas is no longer an alternative. Waste is being generated from today's operations, and large volumes are expected to be generated from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines. The US and Norway have an ongoing co-operation project with the Russian Federation to upgrade and expand the capacity of a treatment facility for low level liquid waste at the RTP Atomflot site in Murmansk. The capacity will be increased from 1,200 m{sup 3}/year to 5,000 m{sup 3} /year. The facility will also be able to treat high saline waste. The construction phase will be completed the first half of 1998. This will be followed by a start-up and a one year post-construction phase, with US and Norwegian involvement for the entire project. The new facility will consist of 9 units containing various electrochemical, filtration, and sorbent-based treatment systems. The units will be housed in two existing buildings, and must meet more stringent radiation protection requirements that were not enacted when the facility was originally designed. The US and Norwegian technical teams have evaluated the Russian design and associated documentation. The Russian partners send monthly progress reports to US and Norway. Not only technical issues must be overcome but also cultural differences resulting from different methods of management techniques. Six to eight hour time differentials between the partners make real time decisions difficult and relying on electronic age tools becomes extremely important. Language difficulties is another challenge that must be solved. Finding a common vocabulary, and working through interpreters make the

  9. Chromium liquid waste inertization in an inorganic alkali activated matrix: leaching and NMR multinuclear approach.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, Chiara; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Spinella, Alberto; Saladino, Maria Luisa; Martino, Delia Chillura; Caponetti, Eugenio; Armetta, Francesco; Leonelli, Cristina

    2015-04-09

    A class of inorganic binders, also known as geopolymers, can be obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicate powders at room temperature. The process is affected by many parameters (curing time, curing temperature, relative humidity etc.) and leads to a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous waste. In this study an industrial liquid waste containing a high amount of chromium (≈ 2.3 wt%) in the form of metalorganic salts is inertized into a metakaolin based geopolymer matrix. One of the innovative aspects is the exploitation of the water contained in the waste for the geopolymerization process. This avoided any drying treatment, a common step in the management of liquid hazardous waste. The evolution of the process--from the precursor dissolution to the final geopolymer matrix hardening--of different geopolymers containing a waste amount ranging from 3 to 20%wt and their capability to inertize chromium cations were studied by: i) the leaching tests, according to the EN 12,457 regulation, at different curing times (15, 28, 90 and 540 days) monitoring releases of chromium ions (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)) and the cations constituting the aluminosilicate matrix (Na, Si, Al); ii) the humidity variation for different curing times (15 and 540 days); iii) SEM characterization at different curing times (28 and 540 days); iv) the trend of the solution conductivity and pH during the leaching test; v) the characterization of the short-range ordering in terms of TOT bonds (where T is Al or Si) by (29)Si and (27)Al solid state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (ss MAS NMR) for geopolymers containing high amounts of waste (10-20%wt). The results show the formation of a stable matrix after only 15 days independently on the waste amount introduced; the longer curing times increase the matrices stabilities and their ability to immobilize chromium cations. The maximum amount of waste that can be inertized is around 10 wt% after a curing time of 28 days.

  10. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

  11. Predicted growth of world urban food waste and methane production.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, José

    2006-10-01

    Landfill gas emissions are one of the largest anthropogenic sources of methane especially because of food waste (FW). To prevent these emissions growing with world population, future FW best management practices need to be evaluated. The objective of this paper was therefore to predict FW production for 2025 if present management practices are maintained, and then, to compare the impact of scenario 1: encouraging people to stay in rural areas and composting 75% of their FW, and; of scenario 2, where in addition to scenario 1, composting or anaerobically digesting 75% of urban FW (UFW). A relationship was established between per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and the population percentage living in urban areas (%UP), as well as production of municipal solid waste (MSW) and UFW. With estimated GDP and population growth per country, %UP and production of MSW and UFW could be predicted for 2025. A relatively accurate (R(2) > 0.85) correlation was found between GDP and %UP, and between GDP and mass of MSW and FW produced. On a global scale, MSW and UFW productions were predicted to increase by 51 and 44%, respectively, from 2005 to 2025. During the same period, and because of its expected economic development, Asia was predicted to experience the largest increase in UFW production, of 278 to 416 Gkg. If present MSW management trends are maintained, landfilled UFW was predicted to increase world CH4 emissions from 34 to 48 Gkg and the landfill share of global anthropogenic emissions from 8 to 10%. In comparison with maintaining present FW management practices, scenario 1 can lower UFW production by 30% and maintain the landfill share of the global anthropogenic emissions at 8%. With scenario 2, the landfill share of global anthropogenic emissions could be further reduced from 8 to 6% and leachate production could be reduced by 40%.

  12. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard.

  13. Nitrogen Sources Screening for Ethanol Production Using Carob Industrial Wastes.

    PubMed

    Raposo, S; Constantino, A; Rodrigues, F; Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity. In STR batch fermentation, urea has proved to be a very promising nitrogen source in large-scale production of bioethanol, reaching an ethanol yield of 44 % (w/w), close to theoretical maximum yield value and an ethanol production of 115 g/l. Urea at 3 g/l as nitrogen source could be an economical alternative with a great advantage in the sustainability of ethanol production from carbohydrates extracted from carob. Simulation studies, with experimental data using SuperPro Design software, have shown that the bioethanol production biorefinery from carob wastes could be a very promising way to the valorization of an endogenous resource, with a competitive cost.

  14. Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

    2013-08-01

    Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated.

  15. Decontamination and treatment of high level liquid mixed waste to meet regulatory compliance issues outlined in Federal Facilities Agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan, T.P.; Taylor, G.A.

    1994-03-01

    High-Level Radioactive Liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) located south of Aiken, SC. Treatment and disposal of this liquid Hazardous and Radioactive (Mixed) Waste required the negotiation and approval of a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the DOE, EPA and the South Carolina state regulatory agency. This agreement which also addresses many other waste sites at SRS was approved in January 1993. Included in this FFA were schedule information, operating parameters and secondary containment requirements that the DOE committed to as part of an ongoing Environmental Restoration mission at the site. Obtaining compliance with this FFA and other environmental regulations at such a unique facility provided a challenging obstacle for treatment of this liquid waste.

  16. Calculating the pre-consumer waste footprint: A screening study of 10 selected products.

    PubMed

    Laurenti, Rafael; Moberg, Åsa; Stenmarck, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the total waste generated by the production of consumer goods can help raise awareness among policy-makers, producers and consumers of the benefits of closing loops in a future circular economy, avoiding unnecessary production and production steps and associated generation of large amounts of waste. In strict life cycle assessment practice, information on waste outputs from intermediate industrial processes of material and energy transformation is translated into and declared as potential environmental impacts, which are often not reported in the final results. In this study, a procedure to extract available intermediate data and perform a systematic pre-consumer waste footprint analysis was developed. The pre-consumer waste footprint concept was tested to analyse 10 generic products, which provided some novel and interesting results for the different product categories and identified a number of challenges that need to be resolved in development of the waste footprint concept. These challenges include standardised data declaration on waste in life cycle assessment, with a separation into waste categories illustrating the implicit environmental and scale of significance of waste types and quantities (e.g. hazardous waste, inert waste, waste for recycling/incineration) and establishment of a common definition of waste throughout sectors and nations.

  17. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10[sup 7] gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10[sup 6] gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system's discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system's discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10[sup 3] gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10[sup 4] gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10[sup 2] ft[sup 3] of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10[sup 8] gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10[sup 7] gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  18. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10{sup 7} gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10{sup 6} gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10{sup 3} gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10{sup 4} gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10{sup 2} ft{sup 3} of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10{sup 8} gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10{sup 7} gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  19. Pollution balance. A new methodology for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hilaly, A.K.; Sikdar, S.K.

    1994-11-01

    A new methodology based on a generic pollution balance equation has been developed for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes. A `pollution index,` defined as the mass of waste produced per unit mass of a product, has been introduced to provide a quantitative measure of waste generation in a process. A waste reduction algorithm also has been developed from the pollution balance equation. This paper explains this methodology and demonstrates the applicability of the method by a case study. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Evaporation studies on Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, V.L.; Perona, J.J.

    1993-03-01

    Evaporation studies were performed with Melton Valley storage tank liquid low-level radioactive waste concentrate and with surrogates (nonradioactive) to determine the feasibility of a proposed out-of-tank-evaporation project. Bench-scale tests indicated that volume reductions ranging from 30 to 55% could be attained. Vendor-site tests were conducted (with surrogate waste forms) using a bench-scale single-stage, low-pressure (subatmospheric), low-temperature (120 to 173{degree}F) evaporator similar to units in operation at several nuclear facilities. Vendor tests were successful; a 30% volume reduction was attained with no crystallization of solids and no foaming, as would be expected from a high pH solution. No fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces occurred during these tests. It is projected that 52,000 to 120,000 gal of water could be evaporated from the supernate stored in the Melton and Bethel Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks with this type of evaporator.

  1. Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sørheim, Roald

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and Fullgjødsel® 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and Fullgjødsel® gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28 mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160 kg N ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as Fullgjødsel® NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended.

  2. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-01

    In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO4), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1-0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70°C and 2h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO4 can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  3. Accelerator Production of Tritium Waste Characterization and Certification Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; England, J.L.; Nowacki, P.L.; Hane, R.; Tempel, K.L.; Pitcher, E.; Cohen, H.S.

    1998-06-01

    This paper summaries the processes and methods APT used for the identification and classification of the waste streams, the characterization and certification of the waste streams, and waste minimization.

  4. Evaluation of target efficiencies for solid-liquid separation steps in biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Vadim; Miller, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Development of liquid biofuels has entered a new phase of large scale pilot demonstration. A number of plants that are in operation or under construction face the task of addressing the engineering challenges of creating a viable plant design, scaling up and optimizing various unit operations. It is well-known that separation technologies account for 50-70% of both capital and operating cost. Additionally, reduction of environmental impact creates technological challenges that increase project cost without adding to the bottom line. Different technologies vary in terms of selection of unit operations; however, solid-liquid separations are likely to be a major contributor to the overall project cost. Despite the differences in pretreatment approaches, similar challenges arise for solid-liquid separation unit operations. A typical process for ethanol production from biomass includes several solid-liquid separation steps, depending on which particular stream is targeted for downstream processing. The nature of biomass-derived materials makes it either difficult or uneconomical to accomplish complete separation in a single step. Therefore, setting realistic efficiency targets for solid-liquid separations is an important task that influences overall process recovery and economics. Experimental data will be presented showing typical characteristics for pretreated cane bagasse at various stages of processing into cellulosic ethanol. Results of generic material balance calculations will be presented to illustrate the influence of separation target efficiencies on overall process recoveries and characteristics of waste streams.

  5. Co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes: management aspects and the horticultural value of the resulting composts.

    PubMed

    Aviani, I; Laor, Y; Medina, Sh; Krassnovsky, A; Raviv, M

    2010-09-01

    Successful co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes (OMW) and obtaining a product of horticultural value may increase the viability of this recycling approach. Two composting cycles were performed, in which olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) were used to form five mixtures, wetted either with fresh water or with olive mill wastewater (OMWW). Up to approximately 0.3m(3) of OMWW could be applied to each m(3) of the raw materials without negatively affecting the chemical, physical and horticultural properties of the resulted composts. A growing media composed of perlite amended with 25-33% OMW-composts showed higher suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis as compared to equivalent perlite:peat moss mixtures. The yields of tomato plants grown in peat moss amended with 20% (v:v) of OMW-composts were not significantly different than plants grown in unamended peat. The viability of co-composting as a treatment approach for OMWW is discussed in the context of management aspects and the horticultural value of the final product.

  6. Thermal processing of unused waste products, the Sasol perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Slaghuis, J.H.; Oooms, A.M.

    1995-12-01

    As a large petrochemical company, Sasol invariably produces substantial amounts of unused products. In line with its environmental policy, dumping of such materials is no longer acceptable. Consequently, Sasol has pledged, not only to stop the dumping of waste materials but also to clean up existing waste in an environmentally friendly manner. Thermal processes have been identified as possibly the most promising and proven technology available for recovering the hydrocarbons. Not only are these processes environmentally friendly but, in the Sasol context, economical as well. Furthermore, some of these processes have the added advantage that contaminated soils may be remediated as well. Following in-house research and development up to process development unit scale, a number of commercial processes were identified as being suitable. Furthermore, the 97 Lurgi gasifiers operated by the Sasol group offer an additional opportunity for {open_quotes}pyrolysing{close_quotes} part of such waste materials. The economy is further enhanced by the existence of tar/hydrocarbon upgrading facilities as well as an existing and expanding heating fuels market.

  7. Methane production and recovery using potato waste solubles and solids

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    The production and recovery of methane gas utilizing various potato conversion wastes in either soluble or solid form is discussed in this chapter. Such wastes may occur at temperatures ranging from 25 C to as high as 55 C. The form and concentration of the waste and the temperature may dictate the choice of one of several possible treatment processes which are variously designated as conventional (holding tanks), contact (recycle of cell solids), and filter (packed bed) reactors. To this may be added a recent concept of an expanded bed reactor. A first design approach was employed to approximate capital and operating costs with an evaluation of the internal rates of return on investment and payout times. The fraction of the energy required by a processing plant which could be provided by the gas produced was of interest as a potential supplemental source of energy in the event that natural gas supplies are reduced or that prices of this fuel continue to escalate rapidly.

  8. Fuel oil and other products from wood wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Under a project recently funded by the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP), Environmental Resource Services, Inc., (ERS), of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will build a plant to manufacture a high-grade fuel (bio-fuel) and other products from wood and other wastes. The plant will be part of a waste recycling center that ERS plans to construct at Anniston, Alabama. ERS will use a proprietary technology developed by Ensyn{trademark} Technologies of Ottawa, Canada to manufacture the bio-fuel. Ensyn`s{trademark} Rapid Thermal Process{trademark} (RPT{trademark}) is commercially available with plants in Canada, the US, Italy, and a plant in Finland under construction. The RTP{trademark} technology produces a light-weight fuel similar to Number 2 fuel oil in consistency. The bio-fuel can be more easily transported, handled, and fired than solid wood wastes. The process also does not have significant emissions and does not require a high volume of material be processed to be economical. Plants are available in the form of factory-built modules that can cost-effectively process 100 tons per day of feedstock.

  9. Mars Propellant Production with Ionic Liquids Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Muscatello, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a single vessel for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and electrolysis for in situ Mars propellant production by eliminating several steps of CO2 processing, two cryocoolers, a high temperature reactor, a recycle pump, and a water condenser; thus greatly reducing mass, volume, and power.

  10. Hydrogen production: two stage processes for waste degradation.

    PubMed

    Gómez, X; Fernández, C; Fierro, J; Sánchez, M E; Escapa, A; Morán, A

    2011-09-01

    The dark fermentation process generates hydrogen by biological means. It presents two main advantages: fulfilling requirements for mild operational conditions and gaining benefit from the residual biomass. The process itself may be seen as a pre-treatment step in a complete stabilisation chain, with the aim of attaining the valorisation of residual biomass. However, increasing the yield of H2 production is an imperative task. In this manuscript, a review of recent work in the field of fermentative hydrogen production is presented. As dark fermentation has a maximum yield of 33% (on sugars), a description is also presented of possible second stage processes for the degradation of dark fermentation effluents. Alternatives considered were photofermentation and bioelectrochemical systems (BES) as processes capable of converting fermentation sub-products into H2. Anaerobic digestion as a final stabilisation stage was also considered owing to the wide application of this technology in the treatment of bio-wastes.

  11. Production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from waste potato starch.

    PubMed

    Haas, Richard; Jin, Bo; Zepf, Florian Tobias

    2008-01-01

    There has been a considerable interest in using low cost carbon substrates for the production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). We have shown that saccharified waste potato starch can be used as a viable alternative carbon source in high cell density PHB production. Using Ralstonia eutropha NCIMB 11599 with phosphate limitation, 179 g/l biomass, 94 g/l PHB, Y(biomass/starch) = 0.46 g/g, Y(PHB/starch) = 0.22 g/g, and PHB productivity = 1.47 g/(l*h) were achieved. Residual maltose accumulated in the fed-batch reactor but caused no noticeable inhibition. Performance with saccharified starch was virtually identical to that with glucose.

  12. Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Boluda-Aguilar, María; García-Vidal, Lidia; González-Castañeda, Fayiny Del Pilar; López-Gómez, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed by means thermogravimetric analysis. The d-limonene contents and their influence on ethanol production have been also studied, while concentration of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol have been analysed to measure the saccharification and fermentation (HF and SSF) processes efficiency obtained by MCPW steam explosion pretreatment. Ethanol contents of 50-60L/1000kg raw MCPW can be obtained and CPP yields can be regulated by means the control of enzymes dose and the steam explosion pretreatment which can significantly reduce the enzymes requirements.

  13. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  14. Production of sodalite waste forms by addition of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, C.

    1995-05-01

    Spent nuclear fuel can be treated in a molten salt electrorefiner for conversion into metal and mineral waste forms for geologic disposal. Sodalite is one of the mineral waste forms under study. Fission products in the molten salt are ion-exchanged into zeolite A, which is converted to sodalite and consolidated. Sodalite can be formed directly from mixtures of salt and zeolite A at temperatures above 975 K; however, nepheline is usually produced as a secondary phase. Addition of small amounts of glass frit to the mixture reduced nepheline formation significantly. Loss of fission products was not observed for reaction below 1000 K. Hot-pressing of the sodalite powders yielded dense pellets ({approximately}2.3 g/cm{sup 3}) without any loss of fission product species. Normalized release rates were below 1 g/m{sup 2}{center_dot}day for pre-washed samples in 28-day leach tests based on standard MCC-1 tests but increased with the presence of free salt on the sodalite.

  15. [Radioactive waste due to electric power and mineral fertiliser production].

    PubMed

    Marović, Gordana; Sencar, Jasminka; Bronzović, Maja; Franić, Zdenko; Kovac, Jadranka

    2006-09-01

    Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb has been conducting systematic investigations of radioactive contamination of the Croatian environment by anthropogenic fission products as well as by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) since 1963. Several critical sites in Croatia were identified for NORM, that is, for slag and ash repositories from coal-fired power plants and phosphogypsum repository from a mineral fertilizer production plant. As the coals and phosphate ores contain naturally occurring radionuclides, especially the members of the uranium and thorium radioactive chains, utilising these materials in various industries only enhances their natural radioactivity in residual waste. Consequently, the resulting activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in waste material could be several times higher than in the adjacent soil. These deposited materials pose permanent risk of radiation exposure due to the long physical half-life of natural radionuclides (e.g., T 1/2 = 1600 years for 226Ra). Results of scientific investigations related to natural radioactivity are used in the recovery of slag and ash repositories and landfills, as well as in establishing regulatory criteria targeting import of coal and phosphate ores. In consequence, recently measured activity concentrations of natural radioactivity in imported materials used nowadays in coal-fired power plants are significantly lower than in previously used raw materials. Therefore, slag and ash can be used as additive materials in cement production.

  16. Environmental assessment for liquid waste treatment at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) examines the potential impacts to the environment from treatment of low-level radioactive liquid and low-level mixed liquid and semi-solid wastes generated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The potential impacts of the proposed action and alternative actions are discussed herein in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended in Title 42 U.S.C. (4321), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) policies and procedures set forth in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1021 and DOE Order 451.1, ``NEPA Compliance Program.`` The potential environmental impacts of the proposed action, construction and operation of a centralized liquid waste treatment facility, were addressed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada. However, DOE is reevaluating the need for a centralized facility and is considering other alternative treatment options. This EA retains a centralized treatment facility as the proposed action but also considers other feasible alternatives.

  17. Assessment of technology for production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, A.P.; Spurlock, J.M.; Birchfield, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Technologies for liquid fuel production from biomass vary widely in states of development and extent of need for government action. Ethanol produced from grain (principally corn), for use in gasohol blends, is the most widely used and accepted biomass-based energy source in the U.S. at present. Several practical factors strongly point to needed government emphasis on research and development to advance ethanol-production technology. Liquid fuels produced from soybeans, sunflowers, Euphorbia and similar crops, or from aquatic plants, remain as longer-term potential requiring further assessment. 6 refs.

  18. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  19. Incinerator for the high speed combustion of waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.F.

    1986-12-30

    A high speed combustion incinerator is described comprising: a burner which includes a fuel tank, a mixer, and a controller for controlling the amount of the fuel and the air flow; a burner furnace; an incinerator means which includes mainly an outer pipe, an intermediate pipe, and an inner pipe which are all of transverse cylindrical shape. A neck portion on the right side of the inner pipe is of a truncated conical shape and is connected to the burning furnace; a preheating chamber located on the outer pipe of the incinerator means; and a conveyor located in the preheating chamber for conveying waste product to be burned into the incinerator means.

  20. Optimization of Nonlinear Transport-Production Task of Medical Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlowicz, Edward

    2012-09-01

    The paper reflects on optimization of transportation - production tasks for the processing of medical waste. For the existing network of collection points and processing plants, according to its algorithm, the optimal allocation of tasks to the cost of transport to the respective plants has to be determined. It was assumed that the functions determining the processing costs are polynomials of the second degree. To solve the problem, a program written in MatLab environment equalization algorithm based on a marginal cost JCC was used.

  1. Waste Characterization Data Manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Section IX.G.1. Section IX.G.1 of the FFA requires waste characterizations be conducted and provided to EPA and TDEC for all LLLW tanks that are removed from service. These waste characterizations shall include the results of sampling and analysis of the tank contents, including wastes, liquids, and sludges. This manual was first issued as ORNL/ER-80 in June 1992. The waste characterization data were extracted from ORNL reports that described tank sampling and analysis conducted in 1988 for 32 out-of-service tanks. This revision of the manual contains waste characterization data for 54 tanks, including the 32 tanks from the 1988 sampling campaign (Sects. 2.1 through 2.32) and the 22 additional tanks from a subsequent sampling campaign in 1992 and 1993 (Sects. 2.33 through 2.54). Data are presented from analyses of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds. As additional data resulting from analyses of out-of-service tank samples become available, they will be added to this manual.

  2. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  3. Development of a hybrid fermentation-enzymatic bioprocess for the production of ethyl lactate from dairy waste.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Michalis; Menelaou, Maria; Nicolaou, Evrydiki N

    2014-08-01

    This work explores the potential for the development of a hybrid fermentation-enzymatic process for the production of ethyl lactate from dairy waste. Cheese whey was used in Kluyveromyces marxianus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus batch cultures to produce ethanol and lactic acid respectively. Subsequently, the fermentation products were transferred into an organic phase through liquid-liquid extraction and ethyl lactate was formed in an esterification reaction catalyzed by lipases. The production of ethanol and lactic acid achieved under different conditions was 23gL(-1) and 29gL(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the efficiency of various organic solvents for the esterification reaction was evaluated and toluene was chosen for application in the process. The effect of water content was determined aiming to maximize the product yield and 40mgml(-1) was the optimal enzyme concentration. The bioprocess achieved maximum conversion of 33% constituting a valuable alternative to the application of energy demanding chemically derived methods.

  4. In situ inactivation of animal viruses and a coliphage in nonaerated liquid and semiliquid animal wastes.

    PubMed

    Pesaro, F; Sorg, I; Metzler, A

    1995-01-01

    The persistence of five animal viruses, representing picorna-, rota-, parvo-, adeno-, and herpesviruses, and the coliphage f2 was determined in the field by exposing the viruses to different animal wastes and by adopting an established filter sandwich technique. This technique allows us to copy the natural state of viruses in the environment, where adsorption onto or incorporation into suspended solids may prolong virus survival. Using filter sandwiches either equipped with porous (15 nm in diameter) or poreless polycarbonate (PC) membranes, it was possible to differentiate between overall virus inactivation and the effect of virucidal agents that act through poreless PC membranes. Depending on ambient temperature, pH, and type of animal waste, values for time, in days, required for a 90% reduction of virus titer varied widely, ranging from less than 1 week for herpesvirus to more than 6 months for rotavirus. Virus inactivation progressed substantially faster in liquid cattle manure, a mixture of urine and water (pH > 8.0), than in semiliquid wastes that consisted of mixtures of feces, urine, water, and bedding materials (pH < 8.0). Hitherto unidentified virucidal agents that permeate poreless PC membranes contributed substantially to the overall inactivation. On the other hand, substances that protect rotavirus and possibly other viruses from inactivation may be present in animal wastes. Together, the study showed that viruses contained in manure may persist for prolonged periods of time if stored under nonaerated conditions. At times of land application, this may lead to environmental contamination with pathogens.

  5. Ionic liquid supported acid/base-catalyzed production of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Alexandre A M; de Oliveira, Luciane F; Neto, Brenno A D; Dupont, Jairton

    2008-01-01

    The transesterification (alcoholysis) reaction was successfully applied to synthesize biodiesel from vegetable oils using imidazolium-based ionic liquids under multiphase acidic and basic conditions. Under basic conditions, the combination of the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMINTf2), alcohols, and K2CO3 (40 mol %) results in the production of biodiesel from soybean oil in high yields (>98%) and purity. H2SO4 immobilized in BMINTf2 efficiently promotes the transesterification reaction of soybean oil and various primary and secondary alcohols. In this multiphase process the acid is almost completely retained in the ionic liquid phase, while the biodiesel forms a separate phase. The recovered ionic liquid containing the acid could be reused at least six times without any significant loss in the biodiesel yield or selectivity. In both catalytic processes (acid and base), the reactions proceed as typical multiphasic systems in which the formed biodiesel accumulates as the upper phase and the glycerol by-product is selectively captured by the alcohol-ionic liquid-acid/base phase. Classical ionic liquids such as 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate are not stable under these acidic or basic conditions and decompose.

  6. Recycling indium from waste liquid crystal display panel by vacuum carbon-reduction.

    PubMed

    He, Yunxia; Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-03-15

    This study investigated the recovery of indium from waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panel using vacuum carbon-reduction. First of all, high purity In2O3 was investigated. The results indicated that indium can be reclaimed from In2O3 using vacuum carbon-reduction in thermodynamics and dynamics. The conditions of 1223K, 50wt% carbon addition, 30min, and 1Pa were confirmed as the optimal conditions for pure In2O3 and high purity indium could be selectively recovered on condensing zone. Based on this, the experiment of the recovery of indium from waste LCD power was performed. The best parameters were confirmed as 1223K and 1Pa with 30wt% carbon addition for 30min. The recovery rate of indium from LCD powder could reach to 90wt%. No hazardous materials produced in this process. Therefore, this technique provides the possibility of reutilization of LCD in an environmentally friendly way.

  7. Drug Product Immobilization in Recycled Polyethylene/Polypropylene Reclaimed from Municipal Solid Waste: Experimental and Numerical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Saad, Walid; Slika, Wael; Mawla, Zara; Saad, George

    2017-01-27

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in identifying suitable routes for the disposal of pharmaceutical wastes. This study investigates the potential of matrix materials composed of recycled polyethylene/polypropylene reclaimed from municipal solid wastes at immobilizing pharmaceutical solid wastes. Diclofenac (DF) drug product was embedded in boards of recycled plastic material, and leaching in water was assessed at various temperatures. DF concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and revealed a maximum leachable fraction of 4% under accelerated conditions of 70°C, and less than 0.3% following 39 days of exposure at 20°C. The Ensemble Kalman Filter was employed to characterize the leaching behavior of DF. The filter verified the occurrence of leaching through diffusion, and was successful in predicting the leaching behavior of DF at 50°C and 70°C.

  8. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m (1000 ft). The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m (660 ft) in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 l (180,000 gal) of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is approximately $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. The site is in the structurally complex Valley and Ridge Province. The stratigraphy consists of lower Paleozoic rocks. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. 26 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual`s lifetime radiation dose.

  10. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dawei; Liu, Dapeng; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini

    2006-06-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H(2)/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH(4)/g VS added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. pH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was in the range from 5 to 5.5. The short hydraulic retention time (2 days) applied in the first stage was enough to separate acidogenesis from methanogenesis. No additional control for preventing methanogenesis in the first stage was necessary. Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase.

  11. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Contextual view, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Contextual view, facing south. Wall of hot shop (TAN-607) with high bay at left of view. Lower-roofed building at left edge of view is TAN- 633, hot cell annex. Complex at center of view is TAN-616. Tall metal building with gable roof is TAN-615. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation. [Leaching; waste loading; mechanical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T A; Allender, J S; Stone, J A; Gordon, D E; Gould, Jr, T H; Westberry, III, C F

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150/sup 0/C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables.

  13. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

  14. Possibility of Salicornia europaea use for the human liquid wastes inclusion into BLSS intrasystem mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia A.; Ushakova, Sofya A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kalacheva, Galina S.; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One of the ways of solving the problem of the human liquid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) can be the use of halophytic vegetable plant Salicornia europaea capable of accumulating sodium chloride in rather high concentrations. Since the most specific higher plant function in BLSS, which at present cannot be substituted by physicochemical processes, appears to be the biosynthesis of a wide spectrum of nutritive substances necessary for a human, the object of the given work was the investigation of the S. europaea productivity, biochemical and mineral composition when grown under close to optimal BLSS vegetative component conditions. As the use of human urine after its preliminary physicochemical processing is supposed to be the mineral solution basis for the S. europaea cultivation, it is necessary to clear up the effect of reduced nitrogen on plants growth. Ground research was carried out. Biochemical composition of the S. europaea edible part showed that crude protein was contained in the highest degree. At that the content of crude protein (24% per dry weight) and cellulose (4.7% per dry weight) was higher in the plants grown on solutions containing amide nitrogen in comparison with the plants grown on solutions with nitrate nitrogen (15.4%—3.1% correspondingly). The water-soluble sugar contents were not high in the S. europaea edible part and depending on the nitrogen nutrition form they amounted to 1.1% (amide nitrogen) and 1.5% (nitrate nitrogen). The polysaccharide number (except cellulose) was rather higher and varied from 7.7% to 8.2%. Although the lipid content in the S. europaea plants was relatively low (7% per dry weight), it was shown that the plant lipids are characterized by a high nonsaturation degree mainly due to alpha linolenic and linoleic acids. Nitrogen nutrition form did not significantly affect the S. europaea productivity, and dry edible biomass of one plant was 8.6 g. Sodium and its concentrations

  15. Detection of free liquid in drums of radioactive waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1979-10-16

    A nondestructive thermal imaging method for detecting the presence of a liquid such as water within a sealed container is described. The process includes application of a low amplitude heat pulse to an exterior surface area of the container, terminating the heat input and quickly mapping the resulting surface temperatures. The various mapped temperature values can be compared with those known to be normal for the container material and substances in contact. The mapped temperature values show up in different shades of light or darkness that denote different physical substances. The different substances can be determined by direct observation or by comparison with known standards. The method is particularly applicable to the detection of liquids above solidified radioactive wastes stored in sealed containers.

  16. Liquid products derived from brown coal in BCL process

    SciTech Connect

    Okuma, O.; Yanai, S.; Komatsu, N.

    1999-07-01

    The BCL (Brown Coal Liquefaction) process developed for Victorian brown coal is a two-stage liquefaction process which consists of 4 unit sections: dewatering, primary hydrogenation (PH), solvent de-ashing (DA) and secondary hydrogenation (SH). The liquid products produced in the PH and SH sections are distillates with b.p. < 420 C and with b.p. < 240 C, respectively, and their properties are different due to differences in the hydrogenation conditions and activities of catalysts used. The former contains much aromatic and hetero-atom-containing compounds than the latter. This paper reveals the yields and properties of the liquid products derived from the brown coal in the BCL process, and the compounds in these products that were analyzed by GC/MC and capillary GC. This paper discusses the change in the compounds in the solvent fraction during recycling and the effects of PH conditions on the naphtha. In addition, the results of hydrogenation of the vaporized fraction in gas-liquid separator of the PH section are also discussed to simplify the BCL process. These results are useful as basic data for production of chemicals from the coal-derived liquids.

  17. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Wani, K A; Mamta; Rao, R J

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste.

  18. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida

    PubMed Central

    Wani, K.A.; Mamta; Rao, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste. PMID:23961230

  19. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  20. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  1. Hydrogen production from liquid hydrocarbons demonstration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, J. B.; Chow, T. K.; Ling, J. K.

    1986-09-01

    The Air Force now uses diesel engine generators as sources of heat and electricity at selected remote sites. Simultaneously, it has investigated alternative cogeneration candidates that offer improved reliability, maintain ability, and economics. One system that shows high potential is a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant consisting of a fuel conditioner to convert logistic fuels such as DEF-2, DF-a and JP-4 to a hydrogen-rich gas, and a power conditioner to convert the direct current power to alternating current. The objective was to define, and demonstrate, a fuel conditioner to meet performance criteria estabilished for the Air Force Remote Site Fuel Cell Power Plant program. Key criteria included high fuel-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, rapid startup and load following capability, and minimum water consumption during operations. A process configuration which has the potential to produce a minimum of 0.365 pound of hydrogen per pound of feed diesel consumed is described. The hydrogen-containing product is suitable for phosphoric acid fuel 1 cell power plant. A 2 mole per hour (hydrogen) demonstration plant was designed, constructed and started up.

  2. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost.

  3. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-08-14

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303.

  4. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Voudrias, Evangelos; Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied pharmaceutical and chemical waste production in a Greek hospital. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit production rate for total pharmaceutical waste was 12.4 {+-} 3.90 g/patient/d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit production rate for total chemical waste was 5.8 {+-} 2.2 g/patient/d. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and 'other'. Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste

  5. Production of bacterial cellulose and enzyme from waste fiber sludge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly crystalline and mechanically stable nanopolymer, which has excellent potential as a material in many novel applications, especially if it can be produced in large amounts from an inexpensive feedstock. Waste fiber sludge, a residue with little or no value, originates from pulp mills and lignocellulosic biorefineries. A high cellulose and low lignin content contributes to making the fiber sludge suitable for bioconversion, even without a thermochemical pretreatment step. In this study, the possibility to combine production of BC and hydrolytic enzymes from fiber sludge was investigated. The BC was characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, and its mechanical properties were investigated. Results Bacterial cellulose and enzymes were produced through sequential fermentations with the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus and the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Fiber sludges from sulfate (SAFS) and sulfite (SIFS) processes were hydrolyzed enzymatically without prior thermochemical pretreatment and the resulting hydrolysates were used for BC production. The highest volumetric yields of BC from SAFS and SIFS were 11 and 10 g/L (DW), respectively. The BC yield on initial sugar in hydrolysate-based medium reached 0.3 g/g after seven days of cultivation. The tensile strength of wet BC from hydrolysate medium was about 0.04 MPa compared to about 0.03 MPa for BC from a glucose-based reference medium, while the crystallinity was slightly lower for BC from hydrolysate cultures. The spent hydrolysates were used for production of cellulase with T. reesei. The cellulase activity (CMCase activity) in spent SAFS and SIFS hydrolysates reached 5.2 U/mL (87 nkat/mL), which was similar to the activity level obtained in a reference medium containing equal amounts of reducing sugar. Conclusions It was shown that waste fiber sludge is a suitable raw material for production of

  6. Co-digestion of municipal sludge and external organic wastes for enhanced biogas production under realistic plant constraints.

    PubMed

    Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-12-15

    A bench-scale investigation was conducted to select external organic wastes and mixing ratios for co-digestion with municipal sludge at the F. Wayne Hill Water Resources Center (FWHWRC), Gwinnett County, GA, USA to support a combined heat and power (CHP) project. External wastes were chosen and used subject to two constraints: a) digester retention time no lower than 15 d; and b) total biogas (methane) production not to exceed a specific target level based on air permit constraints on CO2 emissions. Primary sludge (PS), thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and digested sludge collected at the FWHWRC, industrial liquid waste obtained from a chewing gum manufacturing plant (GW) and dewatered fat-oil-grease (FOG) were used. All sludge and waste samples were characterized and their ultimate digestibility was assessed at 35 °C. The ultimate COD to methane conversion of PS, TWAS, municipal sludge (PS + TWAS; 40:60 w/w TS basis), GW and FOG was 49.2, 35.2, 40.3, 72.7, and 81.1%, respectively. Co-digestion of municipal sludge with GW, FOG or both, was evaluated using four bench-scale, mesophilic (35 °C) digesters. Biogas production increased significantly and additional degradation of the municipal sludge between 1.1 and 30.7% was observed. Biogas and methane production was very close to the target levels necessary to close the energy deficit at the FWHWRC. Co-digestion resulted in an effluent quality similar to that of the control digester fed only with the municipal sludge, indicating that co-digestion had no adverse effects. Study results prove that high methane production is achievable with the addition of concentrated external organic wastes to municipal digesters, at acceptable higher digester organic loadings and lower retention times, allowing the effective implementation of CHP programs at municipal wastewater treatment plants, with significant cost savings.

  7. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or

  8. Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union

    SciTech Connect

    Monte, M.C.

    2009-01-15

    Eleven million tonnes of waste are produced yearly by the European pulp and paper industry, of which 70% originates from the production of deinked recycled paper. Wastes are very diverse in composition and consist of rejects, different types of sludges and ashes in mills having on-site incineration treatment. The production of pulp and paper from virgin pulp generates less waste but the waste has similar properties to waste from the production of deinked pulp, although with less inorganics. Due to legislation and increased taxes, landfills are quickly being eliminated as a final destination for wastes in Europe, and incineration with energy recovery is becoming the main waste recovery method. Other options such as pyrolysis, gasification, land spreading, composting and reuse as building material are being applied, although research is still needed for optimization of the processes. Due to the large volumes of waste generated, the high moisture content of the waste and the changing waste composition as a result of process conditions, recovery methods are usually expensive and their environmental impact is still uncertain. For this reason, it is necessary to continue research on different applications of wastes, while taking into account the environmental and economic factors of these waste treatments.

  9. Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

  10. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Sarah C; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian A; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2017-04-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions.

  11. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  12. Waste polypropylene plastic conversion into liquid hydrocarbon fuel for producing electricity and energies.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Molla, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Thermal degradation of polypropylene (PP) waste plastic is batched process studied for the purpose of converting waste PP into liquid hydrocarbon fuel and useful chemicals. The stainless steel reactor is used for conversion to fuel; this reactor chamber has a diameter of 6 inches, height of 18 inches and a temperature input capacity of 500 degrees C. The temperature of 150-370 degrees C was used for PP conversion into fuel. We have also used 1 kg PP waste plastic for conversion into fuel and HZSM-5 catalyst of 5% by preference was used by total weight of sample. Yield percentages obtained from PP to fuel are 92%, 2% light gas and 6% residue. Experimental finish time was 5.25 hours. By gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry instrumental analysis, the PP to fuel carbon range is found to be C3-C25,and the low sulfur level is detected by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test method to be <1.0 ppm.

  13. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Ikenberry, A.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors.

  14. A NEW, SMALL DRYING FACILITY FOR WET RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Oldiges, Olaf; Blenski, Hans-Juergen

    2003-02-27

    Due to the reason, that in Germany every Waste, that is foreseen to be stored in a final disposal facility or in a long time interim storage facility, it is necessary to treat a lot of waste using different drying technologies. In Germany two different drying facilities are in operation. The GNS Company prefers a vacuum-drying-technology and has built and designed PETRA-Drying-Facilities. In a lot of smaller locations, it is not possible to install such a facility because inside the working areas of that location, the available space to install the PETRA-Drying-Facility is too small. For that reason, GNS decided to design a new, small Drying-Facility using industrial standard components, applying the vacuum-drying-technology. The new, small Drying-Facility for wet radioactive waste and liquids is presented in this paper. The results of some tests with a prototype facility are shown in chapter 4. The main components of that new facility are described in chapter 3.

  15. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hafner, Sarah C.; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions.

  16. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    PubMed

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  17. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    PubMed Central

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  18. Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Nunes, Mateus Dias; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Torres, Denise Pereira; de Cássia Soares da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse). The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases). Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6). These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes. PMID:24031982

  19. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    PubMed

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted bioethanol production from waste newspaper.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The present work deals with intensification of bioethanol production from waste newspaper using Saccharomyces cerevisiae using ultrasonic irradiations. The effect of different process parameters such as application of ultrasonic irradiation at different growth phases, irradiation time, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the bioethanol production has been investigated. The favorable conditions for the maximum yield were established as application of ultrasonic irradiation (duration of 10 min) to fermentation broth at 12 h of growth phase with 25 kHz frequency, 160 W power and 20% duty cycle. The bioethanol productivity was increased by 1.8 times from 7.8 to 14.1 g/L compared with the non-sonicated control fermentation. Decrease in glucose concentration from 0.63% to 0.2% w/v in ultrasound-assisted fermentation confirmed the improved substrate uptake of the microbial cell due to the application of ultrasound. ESEM analysis also confirmed the changes in the cell morphology leading to improved cell permeability. Results were fitted to an unstructured kinetic model comprising of the kinetic and physiological parameters. Overall, the work has demonstrated an intensified approach for the bioethanol production based on the use of ultrasound.

  1. Biorefining of wood: combined production of ethanol and xylanase from waste fiber sludge.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Adnan; Alriksson, Björn; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Jönsson, Leif J

    2011-08-01

    The possibility to utilize fiber sludge, waste fibers from pulp mills and lignocellulose-based biorefineries, for combined production of liquid biofuel and biocatalysts was investigated. Without pretreatment, fiber sludge was hydrolyzed enzymatically to monosaccharides, mainly glucose and xylose. In the first of two sequential fermentation steps, the fiber sludge hydrolysate was fermented to cellulosic ethanol with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the final ethanol yields were similar, the ethanol productivity after 9.5 h was 3.3 g/l/h for the fiber sludge hydrolysate compared with only 2.2 g/l/h for a reference fermentation with similar sugar content. In the second fermentation step, the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (the stillage obtained after distillation) was used as growth medium for recombinant Aspergillus niger expressing the xylanase-encoding Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) xyn2 gene. The xylanase activity obtained with the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (8,500 nkat/ml) was higher than that obtained in a standard medium with similar monosaccharide content (1,400 nkat/ml). Analyses based on deglycosylation with N-glycosidase F suggest that the main part of the recombinant xylanase was unglycosylated and had molecular mass of 20.7 kDa, while a minor part had N-linked glycosylation and molecular mass of 23.6 kDa. Chemical analyses of the growth medium showed that important carbon sources in the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate included xylose, small aliphatic acids, and oligosaccharides. The results show the potential of converting waste fiber sludge to liquid biofuel and enzymes as coproducts in lignocellulose-based biorefineries.

  2. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  3. Design and Testing of a Solid-Liquid Interface Monitor for High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, D.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R.

    2008-07-01

    A high-level waste (HLW) monitor has been designed, fabricated and tested at full-scale for deployment inside a Hanford tank. The Solid-Liquid Interface Monitor (SLIM) integrates a commercial sonar system with a mechanical deployment system for deploying into an underground waste tank. The system has undergone several design modifications based upon changing requirements at Hanford. We will present the various designs of the monitor from first to last and will present performance data from the various prototype systems. We will also present modeling of stresses in the enclosure under 85 mph wind loading. The system must be able to function at winds up to 15 mph and must withstand a maximum loading of 85 mph. There will be several examples presented of engineering tradeoffs made as FIU analyzed new requirements and modified the design to accommodate. We will present our current plans for installing into the Cold Test Facility at Hanford and into a double-shelled tank at Hanford. Finally, we will present our vision for how this technology can be used at Hanford and Savannah River Site to improve the filling and emptying of high-level waste tanks. In conclusion: 1. The manually operated first-generation SLIM is a viable option on tanks where personnel are allowed to work on top of the tank. 2. The remote controlled second-generation SLIM can be utilized on tanks where personnel access is limited. 3. The totally enclosed fourth-generation SLIM, when the design is finalized, can be used when the possibility exists for wind dispersion of any HLW that maybe on the system. 4. The profiling sonar can be used effectively for real-time monitoring of the solid-liquid interface over a large area. (authors)

  4. Data requirements for simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection, Harrison and Jackson Counties, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rebich, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Available literature and data were reviewed to quantify data requirements for computer simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection in southeastern Mississippi. Emphasis of each review was placed on quantifying physical properties of current Class I injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. Class I injection zones are zones that are used for injection of hazardous or non-hazardous liquid waste below a formation containing the lowermost underground source of drinking water located within one-quarter of a mile of the injection well. Several mathematical models have been developed to simulate injection effects. The Basic Plume Method was selected because it is commonly used in permit applications, and the Intercomp model was selected because it is generally accepted and used in injection-related research. The input data requirements of the two models were combined into a single data requirement list inclusive of physical properties of injection zones only; injected waste and well properties are not included because such information is site-specific by industry, which is beyond the scope of this report. Results of the reviews of available literature and data indicated that Class I permit applications and standard-reference chemistry and physics texts were the primary sources of information to quantify physical properties of injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. With the exception of a few reports and supplementary data for one injection zone in Jackson County, very little additional information pertaining to physical properties of the injection zones was available in sources other than permit applications and standard-reference texts.

  5. Improving production of volatile fatty acids from food waste fermentation by hydrothermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Wang, Kun; Yang, Yuqiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Mo, Han

    2014-11-01

    Food waste (FW) was pretreated by a hydrothermal method and then fermented for volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production. The soluble substance in FW increased after hydrothermal pretreatment (⩽200 °C). Higher hydrothermal temperature would lead to mineralization of the organic compounds. The optimal temperature for organic dissolution was 180 °C, at which FW dissolved 42.5% more soluble chemical oxygen demand than the control. VFA production from pretreated FW fermentation was significantly enhanced compared with the control. The optimal hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C with a VFA yield of 0.908 g/g VSremoval. Butyrate and acetate were the prevalent VFAs followed by propionate and valerate. FW fermentation was inhibited after 200 °C pretreatment. The VFAs were extracted from the fermentation broth by liquid-liquid extraction. The VFA recovery was 50-70%. Thus, 0.294-0.411 g VFAs could be obtained per gram of hydrothermally pretreated FW (in dry weight) by this method.

  6. Glucose metabolic flux distribution of Lactobacillus amylophilus during lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Qunhui; Zou, Hui; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Juan; Gan, Kemin; Xiang, Juan

    2013-11-01

    The (13) C isotope tracer method was used to investigate the glucose metabolic flux distribution and regulation in Lactobacillus amylophilus to improve lactic acid production using kitchen waste saccharified solution (KWSS). The results demonstrate that L. amylophilus is a homofermentative bacterium. In synthetic medium, 60.6% of the glucose entered the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) to produce lactic acid, whereas 36.4% of the glucose entered the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway (HMP). After solid-liquid separation of the KWSS, the addition of Fe(3+) during fermentation enhanced the NADPH production efficiency and increased the NADH content. The flux to the EMP was also effectively increased. Compared with the control (60.6% flux to EMP without Fe(3+) addition), the flux to the EMP with the addition of Fe(3+) (74.3%) increased by 23.8%. In the subsequent pyruvate metabolism, Fe(3+) also increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and inhibited alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, thereby increasing the lactic acid production to 9.03 g l(-1) , an increase of 8% compared with the control. All other organic acid by-products were lower than in the control. However, the addition of Zn(2+) showed an opposite effect, decreasing the lactic acid production. In conclusion it is feasible and effective means using GC-MS, isotope experiment and MATLAB software to integrate research the metabolic flux distribution of lactic acid bacteria, and the results provide the theoretical foundation for similar metabolic flux distribution.

  7. Further Characterization of CELSS Wastes: A Review of Solid Wastes Present to Support Potential Secondary Biomass Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Matthew S.

    1996-01-01

    Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) may one day play an essential role in extraterrestrial colonies. Key to the success of any CELSS will be the system's ability to approach a self-supporting status through recovery and reuse of basic resources. Primary CELSS solid wastes with potential to support secondary biomass production will be inedible plant biomass and metabolic human wastes. Solid waste production is summarized and reported as 765 g N per day per person, including 300 g C and 37 g N per day per person. One Resource Recovery configuration using the bioprocessing of solid wastes into a Tilapia feed stream is examined. Based on estimated conversion efficiencies, 12 g of protein per day per person is produced as a nutrition supplement. The unique tissue composition of crops produced at the Kennedy Space Center CELSS Program highlights the need to evaluate Resource Recovery components with data generated in the CELSS environment.

  8. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA`s initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE`s needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities.

  9. Immobilization and Waste Form Product Acceptance for Low Level and TRU Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.; Harbour, J.R.

    1998-05-01

    The Tanks Focus Area is supporting technology development in immobilization of both High Level (HLW) and Low Level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The HLW process development at Hanford and Idaho is patterned closely after that of the Savannah River (Defense Waste Processing Facility) and West Valley Sites (West Valley Demonstration Project). However, the development and options open to addressing Low Level Waste are diverse and often site specific. To start, it is important to understand the breadth of Low Level Wastes categories.

  10. Waste shells of mollusk and egg as biodiesel production catalysts.

    PubMed

    Viriya-Empikul, N; Krasae, P; Puttasawat, B; Yoosuk, B; Chollacoop, N; Faungnawakij, K

    2010-05-01

    The solid oxide catalysts derived from waste shells of egg, golden apple snail, and meretrix venus were employed to produce biodiesel from transesterification of palm olein oil. The shell materials were calcined in air at 800 degrees C with optimum time of 2-4h to transform calcium species in the shells into active CaO catalysts. All catalysts showed the high biodiesel production activity over 90% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in 2h, whilst the eggshell-derived catalyst showed comparable activity to the one derived from commercial CaCO(3). The catalytic activity was in accordance with the surface area of and the Ca content in the catalysts.

  11. Ecotoxicological evaluation of waste water from nitrocellulose production.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Elaine N; Da Silva, Flávio T; De Paiva, Teresa Cristina B

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the toxic potential and physicochemical characteristics of waste water generated in nitrocellulose production, including effluents from delignification, bleaching, nitration and mixture (composed of these three effluents), from a plant in the Paraiba Valley, São Paulo, Brazil. The test organisms used for toxicity assays were Daphnia similis, Danio rerio, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudokircheneriella subcaptata. The results showed that the effluents analyzed present acute and chronic toxicity for the organisms tested. Nitration effluent was the least toxic, while delignification and bleaching effluents were the most toxic. The naturally occurring pollutants in wood fiber and cotton, like lignin, probably contributed to effluents toxicity, in addition to higher concentrations of total dissolved solids, which are in non-compliance with Brazilian legislation, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand and color. The discharge of nitrocellulose effluent into an aquatic environment should only occur after appropriate treatment, due to their toxic characteristics.

  12. Scintillation gamma spectrometer for analysis of hydraulic fracturing waste products.

    PubMed

    Ying, Leong; O'Connor, Frank; Stolz, John F

    2015-01-01

    Flowback and produced wastewaters from unconventional hydraulic fracturing during oil and gas explorations typically brings to the surface Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), predominantly radioisotopes from the U238 and Th232 decay chains. Traditionally, radiological sampling are performed by sending collected small samples for laboratory tests either by radiochemical analysis or measurements by a high-resolution High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. One of the main isotopes of concern is Ra226 which requires an extended 21-days quantification period to allow for full secular equilibrium to be established for the alpha counting of its progeny daughter Rn222. Field trials of a sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector offers a more economic solution for rapid screenings of radiological samples. To achieve the quantification accuracy, this gamma spectrometer must be efficiency calibrated with known standard sources prior to field deployments to analyze the radioactivity concentrations in hydraulic fracturing waste products.

  13. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually.

  14. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Development of the SREX process for the treatment of ICPP liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.J.; Law, J.D.; Garn, T.G.; Tillotson, R.D.; Tullock, P.A.; Todd, T.A.

    1997-12-01

    The removal of {sup 90}Sr from actual and simulated wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been demonstrated with the SREX process. This solvent extraction process employs the extractant 4{prime},4{prime}(5{prime}) di-(t-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 in 1-octanol or a mixture of tributyl phosphate and a hydrocarbon diluent called Isopar L{reg_sign}. Process flowsheets have been designed for testing in countercurrent experiments with centrifugal contractors. The flowsheets have been designed using batch contract solvent extraction methods. The extraction of Sr as well as other interfering ions has been studied. The effect of various parameters including nitric acid dependence, extractant concentration dependence, hydronium ion concentration, and interferent concentrations upon the extraction efficiency of the process has been evaluated. The radiolysis of the SREX solvent has also been investigated as a function of absorbed gamma radiation. The extraction efficiency of the solvent has been shown to be only slightly dependent upon absorbed dose in the range 0--1,000 kGy. The decontamination of actual sodium-bearing waste and dissolved calcine solutions has been accomplished in batch contact flowsheets. Decontamination factors as high as 10E3 have been obtained with sequential batch contacts. Flowsheets have been developed to accomplish decontamination of the liquid wastes with respect to {sup 90}Sr as well as the removal of Pb and Hg. Pb may be partitioned from the Sr fraction in a separate stripping procedure using ammonium citrate. This work has led to the formulation of countercurrent flowsheets which have been tested in centrifugal contractors with actual waste and reported in the document INEEL/EXT-97-00832.

  16. Development of the SREX Process for the Treatment of ICPP Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Wood; Garn, T. G.; J. D. Law; P. A. Tullock; R. D. Tillotson; T. A. Todd

    1997-10-01

    The removal of Sr-90 from actual and simulated wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been demonstrated with the SREX process. This solvent extraction process employs the extractant 4',4' (5') de-(t-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 in 1-octanol or a mixture of tributyl phosphate and a hydrocarbon diluent called Isopar L. This development work is based upon earlier work performed by Horwitz, et al. at Argonne National Laboratory. Process flowsheets have been designed for testing in countercurrent experiments with centrifugal contactors. The flowsheets have been designed using batch contact solvent extraction methods. The extraction of Sr as well as other interfering ions has been studied. The effect of various parameters including nitric acid dependence, extractant concentration dependence, Hydronium ion concentration, and interferent concentrations upon the extraction efficiency of the process has been evaluated. The radiolysis of the SREX solvent has also been investigated as a function of absorbed gamma radiation. The extraction efficiency of the solvent has been shown to be only slightly dependent upon absorbed dose in the range 0-1000 kGy. The decontamination of actual sodium-bearing waste and dissolved calcine solutions has been accomplished in batch contact flowsheets. Decontamination factors as high as 10E3 have been obtained with sequential batch contacts. Flowsheets have been developed to accomplish decontamination of the liquid wastes with respect to Sr-90, as well as the removal of Pb and Hg. Pb may be partitioned from the Sr fraction in a separate stripping procedure using ammonium citrate. This work has led to the formulation of countercurrent flowsheets which have been tested in centrifugal contactors with actual waste and reported in the document INEEL/EXT-97-00832.

  17. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    PubMed

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  18. Ethanol production from cotton-based waste textiles.

    PubMed

    Jeihanipour, Azam; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol production from cotton linter and waste of blue jeans textiles was investigated. In the best case, alkali pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in almost complete conversion of the cotton and jeans to glucose, which was then fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol. If no pretreatment applied, hydrolyses of the textiles by cellulase and beta-glucosidase for 24 h followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) in 4 days, resulted in 0.140-0.145 g ethanol/g textiles, which was 25-26% of the corresponding theoretical yield. A pretreatment with concentrated phosphoric acid prior to the hydrolysis improved ethanol production from the textiles up to 66% of the theoretical yield. However, the best results obtained from alkali pretreatment of the materials by NaOH. The alkaline pretreatment of cotton fibers were carried out with 0-20% NaOH at 0 degrees C, 23 degrees C and 100 degrees C, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis up to 4 days. In general, higher concentration of NaOH resulted in a better yield of the hydrolysis, whereas temperature had a reverse effect and better results were obtained at lower temperature. The best conditions for the alkali pretreatment of the cotton were obtained in this study at 12% NaOH and 0 degrees C and 3 h. In this condition, the materials with 3% solid content were enzymatically hydrolyzed at 85.1% of the theoretical yield in 24 h and 99.1% in 4 days. The alkali pretreatment of the waste textiles at these conditions and subsequent SSF resulted in 0.48 g ethanol/g pretreated textiles used.

  19. (Preparation of a document on the subsurface disposal of liquid hazardous waste): Foreign trip report, April 22--29, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.

    1989-05-09

    This report describes progress made by the International Commission on the Hydrology of Hazardous Waste in preparing a report on the subsurface disposal of liquid hazardous waste and on the development of new initiatives for the commission. Also contained in the trip report are summaries of discussions held with RIVM staff regarding environmental issues in The Netherlands, which is experiencing a series of environmental pressures due to its high population, large numbers of animals, and low elevation. Details of discussions related to waste management (hazardous and radioactive), groundwater pollution and monitoring, air quality, and global change are included.

  20. Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practice, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability would be greatly improved if peel could be used to produce higher value produ...