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Sample records for liquid-argon time projection

  1. Liquid argon Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, P.J.; Mahler, H.J.; Chen, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    The principal features of the liquid argon TPC are outlined and the status of development efforts, particularly at UCI, are discussed. Technical problems associated with liquid TPC's are: the liquid must be maintained at a high level of purity to enable long distance drifting of ionization electrons, and the signal size is small due to the absence of practical charge multiplication as found in gas chambers. These problems have been largely resolved in studies using small (1 to 100 l) detectors, thus allowing a realistic consideration of the physics potential of such devices.

  2. Operation of a liquid argon time projection chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, H.J.; Chen, H.H.; Doe, P.J.

    1983-02-01

    For the first time, the operation of a three-dimensional liquid argon time projection chamber has been demonstrated. This was accomplished in a 50 liter test detector using a readout plane with a woven structure etched on a PC-board.

  3. Cold Electronics for Giant Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Radeka, V.; De Geronimo, G.; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; De Geronimo, G.; Lanni, F.; Li, S.; Nambiar, N.; Rescia, S.; Thorn, C.; Yarema, R.; Yu, B.

    2011-07-25

    The choice between cold and warm electronics (inside or outside the cryostat) in very large LAr TPCs (>5-10 ktons) is not an electronics issue, but it is rather a major cryostat design issue. This is because the location of the signal processing electronics has a direct and far reaching effect on the cryostat design, an indirect effect on the TPC electrode design (sense wire spacing, wire length and drift distance), and a significant effect on the TPC performance. All these factors weigh so overwhelmingly in favor of the cold electronics that it remains an optimal solution for very large TPCs. In this paper signal and noise considerations are summarized, the concept of the readout chain is described, and the guidelines for design of CMOS circuits for operation in liquid argon (at {approx}89 K) are discussed.

  4. MicroBooNE, A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei

    2011-07-01

    Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) is a promising detector technology for future neutrino experiments. MicroBooNE is a upcoming LArTPC neutrino experiment which will be located on-axis of Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab, USA. The R&D efforts on this detection method and related neutrino interaction measurements are discussed.

  5. Proton decay and solar neutrino experiment with a liquid argon Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.H.; Doe, P.J.; Mahler, H.I.

    1983-01-01

    Recent progress in development of the liquid argon Time Projection Chamber is reviewed. Application of this technique to a search for proton decay and /sup 8/B solar neutrinos with directional sensitivity is considered. The steps necessary for a large scale application of this technique deep underground are described.

  6. A steerable UV laser system for the calibration of liquid argon time projection chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Lüthi, M.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Schenk, M.; Strauss, T.; Weber, M.; Zeller, M.

    2014-11-01

    A number of liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are being built or are proposed for neutrino experiments on long- and short baseline beams. For these detectors, a distortion in the drift field due to geometrical or physics reasons can affect the reconstruction of the events. Depending on the TPC geometry and electric drift field intensity, this distortion could be of the same magnitude as the drift field itself. Recently, we presented a method to calibrate the drift field and correct for these possible distortions. While straight cosmic ray muon tracks could be used for calibration, multiple coulomb scattering and momentum uncertainties allow only a limited resolution. A UV laser instead can create straight ionization tracks in liquid argon, and allows one to map the drift field along different paths in the TPC inner volume. Here we present a UV laser feed-through design with a steerable UV mirror immersed in liquid argon that can point the laser beam at many locations through the TPC. The straight ionization paths are sensitive to drift field distortions, a fit of these distortion to the linear optical path allows to extract the drift field, by using these laser tracks along the whole TPC volume one can obtain a 3D drift field map. The UV laser feed-through assembly is a prototype of the system that will be used for the MicroBooNE experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL).

  7. MicroBooNE: A New Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Soderberg, M.

    2009-10-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber detectors are well suited to study neutrino interactions, and are an intriguing option for future massive detectors capable of measuring the parameters that characterize neutrino oscillations. These detectors combine fine-grained tracking with calorimetry, allowing for excellent imaging and particle identification ability. In this talk the details of the MicroBooNE experiment, a 175 ton LArTPC which will be exposed to Fermilab's Booster Neutrino Beamline starting in 2011, will be presented. The ability of MicroBooNE to differentiate electrons from photons gives the experiment unique capabilities in low energy neutrino interaction measurements.

  8. Monitoring Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers With A Raspberry Pi Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patteson, Crystal

    2016-03-01

    The MicroBooNE detector is the first of three liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers (TPCs) that are central to the short-baseline neutrino program at Fermilab. These chambers consist of thousands of stainless steel or beryllium-copper sense wires that detect ionization electrons produced when neutrinos interact with liquid argon nuclei inside the detector. The wires are several hundred microns in diameter to several meters in length. The construction of such LAr TPCs often takes place in an assembly hall, which is different from the detector hall where the experiment will operate, as was the case with MicroBooNE. Since in situ access to the chamber and its wires in the beamline enclosure can be limited, we investigate the possibility of using a Raspberry Pi single-board computer connected to a low-cost camera installed inside the cryostat as a cost-efficient way to verify the integrity of the wires after transport. We also highlight other benefits of this monitoring device implemented in MicroBooNE, including detector hall surveillance and verification of the status of LED indicators on detector electronics. The author would like to thank Dr. Matthew Toups for his encouragement and guidance on this research project.

  9. Data Reduction Processes Using FPGA for MicroBooNE Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jinyuan

    2010-05-26

    MicroBooNE is a liquid Argon time projection chamber to be built at Fermilab for an accelerator-based neutrino physics experiment and as part of the R&D strategy for a large liquid argon detector at DUSEL. The waveforms of the {approx}9000 sense wires in the chamber are continuously digitized at 2 M samples/s - which results in a large volume of data coming off the TPC. We have developed a lossless data reduction scheme based on Huffman Coding and have tested the scheme on cosmic ray data taken from a small liquid Argon time projection chamber, the BO detector. For sense wire waveforms produced by cosmic ray tracks, the Huffman Coding scheme compresses the data by a factor of approximately 10. The compressed data can be fully recovered back to the original data since the compression is lossless. In addition to accelerator neutrino data, which comes with small duty cycle in sync with the accelerator beam spill, continuous digitized waveforms are to be temporarily stored in the MicroBooNE data-acquisition system for about an hour, long enough for an external alert from possible supernova events. Another scheme, Dynamic Decimation, has been developed to compress further the potential supernova data so that the storage can be implemented within a reasonable budget. In the Dynamic Decimation scheme, data are sampled at the full sampling rate in the regions-of-interest (ROI) containing waveforms of track-hits and are decimated down to lower sampling rate outside the ROI. Note that unlike in typical zerosuppression schemes, in Dynamic Decimation, the data in the pedestal region are not thrown away but kept at a lower sampling rate. An additional factor of 10 compression ratio is achieved using the Dynamic Decimation scheme on the BO detector data, making a total compression rate of approximate 100 when the Dynamic Decimation and the Huffman Coding functional blocks are cascaded. Both of the blocks are compiled in low-cost FPGA and their silicon resource usages are low.

  10. Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber research and development in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baller, B.; Bromberg, C.; Buchanan, N.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Gehman, V.; Greenlee, H.; Guardincerri, E.; Jones, B.; Junk, T.; Katori, T.; Kirby, M.; Lang, K.; Loer, B.; Marchionni, A.; Maruyama, T.; Mauger, C.; Menegolli, A.; Montanari, D.; Mufson, S.; Norris, B.; Pordes, S.; Raaf, J.; Rebel, B.; Sanders, R.; Soderberg, M.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A.; Tope, T.; Touramanis, C.; Thorn, C.; Urheim, J.; Van de Water, R.; Wang, H.; Yu, B.; Zuckerbrot, M.

    2014-05-01

    A workshop was held at Fermilab on March 20-21, 2013 to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in seven topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity, ii) Cryogenics, iii) TPC and High Voltage, iv) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, v) Scintillation Light Detection, vi) Calibration and Test Beams, and vii) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It also highlights areas in LArTPC research and development that are common between neutrino experiments and dark matter experiments.

  11. Image Processing Techniques applied to Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel, Jessica; MicroBooNE Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Large scale Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers(LArTPC), like MicroBooNE, offer new ways to study neutrino cross sections and neutrino oscillations. The data from these LArTPCs are very detailed images of charged particles passing through the detector. A plethora of hit finding, cluster finding and tracking algorithms have been implemented to process data coming from MicroBooNE, but it is still possible that particle tracks that are easily visible by eye are being missed during data processing. Because the human eye sometimes does a better job at finding particle tracks that are sometimes missed by data processing, using Image Processing algorithms which emulate the human eye in conjunction with the already implemented algorithms could be beneficial. In particular Edge Detection algorithms could be useful due to the fact that tracks will often have defined deposited energy along straight lines. This talk will cover preliminary data processed with Edge Detection algorithms, and discussion of what the potential benefits are to this approach to LArTPC data analysis. On behalf of the MicroBooNE Collaboration.

  12. ArgoNeuT: A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Test in the NuMI Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Soderberg, M.

    2009-10-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber detectors are ideally suited for studying neutrino interactions and probing the parameters that characterize neutrino oscillations. The ability to drift ionization particles over long distances in purified argon and to trigger on abundant scintillation light allows for excellent particle identification and triggering capability. In these proceedings the details of the ArgoNeuT test-beam project will be presented after a brief introduction to the detector technique. ArgoNeuT is a 175 liter detector exposed to Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beamline. The first neutrino interactions observed in ArgoNeuT will be presented, along with discussion of the various physics analyses to be performed on this data sample.

  13. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Acciarri, R.; Adamowski, M.; Artrip, D.; Baller, B.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; B. Carls; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Epprecht, L.; et al

    2015-07-28

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the currentmore » efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.« less

  14. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, R.; Adamowski, M.; Artrip, D.; Baller, B.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; B. Carls; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Epprecht, L.; Dharmapalan, R.; Foreman, W.; Hahn, A.; Johnson, M.; Jones, B. J.P.; Junk, T.; Lang, K.; Lockwitz, S.; Marchionni, A.; Mauger, C.; Montanari, C.; Mufson, S.; Nessi, M.; Back, H. Olling; Petrillo, G.; Pordes, S.; Raaf, J.; Rebel, B.; Sinins, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spooner, N.; Stancari, M.; Strauss, T.; Terao, K.; Thorn, C.; Tope, T.; Toups, M.; Urheim, J.; Water, R. Van de; Wang, H.; Wasserman, R.; Weber, M.; Whittington, D.; Yang, T.

    2015-07-28

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  15. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, R.; et al.

    2015-04-21

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  16. Summary of the second workshop on liquid argon time projection chamber research and development in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciarri, R.; Adamowski, M.; Artrip, D.; Baller, B.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Carls, B.; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Epprecht, L.; Dharmapalan, R.; Foreman, W.; Hahn, A.; Johnson, M.; Jones, B. J. P.; Junk, T.; Lang, K.; Lockwitz, S.; Marchionni, A.; Mauger, C.; Montanari, C.; Mufson, S.; Nessi, M.; Olling Back, H.; Petrillo, G.; Pordes, S.; Raaf, J.; Rebel, B.; Sinins, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Stancari, M.; Strauss, T.; Terao, K.; Thorn, C.; Tope, T.; Toups, M.; Urheim, J.; Van de Water, R.; Wang, H.; Wasserman, R.; Weber, M.; Whittington, D.; Yang, T.

    2015-07-01

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  17. Measuring Muon-Neutrino Charged-Current Differential Cross Sections with a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    More than 80 years after its proposed existence, the neutrino remains largely mysterious and elusive. Precision measurements of the neutrino's properties are just now beginning to take place. Such measurements are required in order to determine the mass of the neutrino, how many neutrinos there are, if neutrinos are different than anti-neutrinos, and more. Muon-neutrino charged-current differential cross sections on an argon target in terms of the outgoing muon momentum and angle are presented. The measurements have been taken with the ArgoNeuT Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experiment. ArgoNeuT is the first LArTPC to ever take data in a low energy neutrino beam, having collected thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. The results are relevant for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments searching for non-zero $\\theta_{13}$, CP-violation in the lepton sector, and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, among other things. Furthermore, the differential cross sections are important for understanding the nature of the neutrino-nucleus interaction in general. These measurements represent a significant step forward for LArTPC technology as they are among the first neutrino physics results with such a device.

  18. Simulations of Charged-Current Supernova νe Events in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Steven; Grant, Christopher; Pantic, Emilija; Svoboda, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Although it is still in its infancy, the study of supernova neutrinos has proven to be a fertile topic for fundamental science. A mere two dozen events recorded from supernova 1987A, the only supernova neutrino source observed so far, have led to numerous publications on a wide variety of topics. This bountiful scientific harvest has prompted the neutrino physics community to prepare to make more detailed observations of the neutrinos that will be produced in the next nearby supernova. Because of their unique νe sensitivity, liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) experiments such as DUNE (Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment) have the potential to make valuable contributions to this detection effort. To better understand the expected SN νe signal in a LArTPC, we have developed a Monte Carlo event generator called MARLEY (Model of Argon Reaction Low-Energy Yields) for charged-current νe reactions on argon. By combining MARLEY with LArSoft, a LArTPC simulation package, we have obtained the most detailed predictions currently available for the response of a LArTPC to supernova νe. We will discuss the implications of these results for the design and operation of LArTPCs sensitive to SN neutrinos.

  19. Performance of a liquid argon time projection chamber exposed to the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Arneodo, F.; Cavanna, F.; Mitri, I. De; Mortari, G. Piano; Benetti, P.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Calligarich, E.; Cesana, E.; Dolfini, R.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rubbia, C.; Terrani, M.; Vignoli, C.; Bonesini, M.; Boschetti, B.; Cavalli, D.; Curioni, A.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low-multiplicity neutrino interactions.

  20. A Study of Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber for the Direct Detection of WIMP Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Huajie

    2014-11-01

    Robust results of WIMP direct detection experiments depend on rm understandings of nuclear recoils in the detector media. This thesis documents the most comprehensive study to date on nuclear recoils in liquid argon - a strong candidate for the next generation multi-ton scale WIMP detectors. This study investigates both the energy partition from nuclear recoil energy to secondary modes (scintillation and ionization) and the pulse shape characteristics of scintillation from nuclear recoils.

  1. A large liquid argon time projection chamber for long-baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation physics with the NuMI beam

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, D.; Jensen, D.; Jostlein, H.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; Bromberg, C.; Lu, C.; McDonald, T.; Gallagher, H.; Mann, A.; Schneps, J.; Cline, D.; Sergiampietri, F.; Wang, H.; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B.T.; Menary, S.; /York U., Canada

    2005-09-01

    Results from neutrino oscillation experiments in the last ten years have revolutionized the field of neutrino physics. While the overall oscillation picture for three neutrinos is now well established and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters are underway, crucial issues remain. In particular, the hierarchy of the neutrino masses, the structure of the neutrino mixing matrix, and, above all, CP violation in the neutrino sector are the primary experimental challenges in upcoming years. A program that utilizes the newly commissioned NuMI neutrino beamline, and its planned upgrades, together with a high-performance, large-mass detector will be in an excellent position to provide decisive answers to these key neutrino physics questions. A Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) [2], which combines fine-grained tracking, total absorption calorimetry, and scalability, is well matched for this physics program. The few-millimeter-scale spatial granularity of a LArTPC combined with dE/dx measurements make it a powerful detector for neutrino oscillation physics. Scans of simulated event samples, both directed and blind, have shown that electron identification in {nu}{sub e} charged current interactions can be maintained at an efficiency of 80%. Backgrounds for {nu}{sub e} appearance searches from neutral current events with a {pi}{sup 0} are reduced well below the {approx} 0.5-1.0% {nu}{sub e} contamination of the {nu}{sub {mu}} beam [3]. While the ICARUS collaboration has pioneered this technology and shown its feasibility with successful operation of the T600 (600-ton) LArTPC [4], a detector for off-axis, long-baseline neutrino physics must be many times more massive to compensate for the low event rates. We have a baseline concept [5] based on the ICARUS wire plane structure and commercial methods of argon purification and housed in an industrial liquefied-natural-gas tank. Fifteen to fifty kton liquid argon capacity tanks have been considered. A very

  2. Performance and technical challenges of liquid argon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Brian; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    Liquid argon time projection chambers offer the possibility of incredible resolution of particle interactions. This review outlines the ongoing research and development towards the realization of a multi-kiloton scale detector. The ICARUS and ArgoNeuT experiments which make use of liquid argon time projection chamber technology are also described.

  3. SLD liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, E.; SLD Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z{sup 0} decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z{sup 0} events) is discussed.

  4. SLD liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, E.

    1992-10-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z[sup 0] decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z[sup 0] events) is discussed.

  5. Towards a new Liquid Argon Imaging Chamber for the MODULAr project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, D.; Baibussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Benetti, P.; Borio, A.; Calligarich, E.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cavanna, F.; Centro, S.; Cieslik, K.; Cocco, A. G.; Dolfini, R.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mannocchi, G.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Muraro, S.; Palamara, O.; Periale, L.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Satta, G.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.

    2009-02-01

    The MODULAr project foresees the exploitation of a new liquid Argon imaging detector, of at least 20 kt fiducial mass, to be operated in a shallow depth location under the Gran Sasso Mountain. It will be devoted to study neutrino oscillations with an optimized off-axis CNGS neutrino beam. Cosmic neutrinos as well as proton decay will also be addressed. The MODULAr detector will vastly inherit from the technology developed for ICARUS-T600. However, such an increase in the volume over the current ICARUS-T600 needs to be carefully considered. It is concluded that a single, huge volume is an inoperable and uneconomical solution for many reasons. A very large mass is best realized with a modular set of many identical, independent units, each of about 5 kt, ``cloning'' the basic technology of the ICARUS-T600. Several of such modular units will be assembled to reach at least 20 kt as initial sensitive volume. The increase of the active volume of about one order of magnitude with respect to the ICARUS-T600 detector requires some specific R&D activity, which will be implemented in a ~ 360 ton prototype unit (SLICE) of reduced length.

  6. Current and future liquid argon neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiorgi, Georgia S.

    2015-05-15

    The liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) detector technology provides an opportunity for precision neutrino oscillation measurements, neutrino cross section measurements, and searches for rare processes, such as SuperNova neutrino detection. These proceedings review current and future LArTPC neutrino experiments. Particular focus is paid to the ICARUS, MicroBooNE, LAr1, 2-LArTPC at CERN-SPS, LBNE, and 100 kton at Okinoshima experiments.

  7. On the electric breakdown in liquid argon at centimeter scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M.; Blatter, A.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Janos, S.; Kreslo, I.; Luethi, M.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Strauss, T.; Weber, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a study on the dependence of electric breakdown discharge properties on electrode geometry and the breakdown field in liquid argon near its boiling point. The measurements were performed with a spherical cathode and a planar anode at distances ranging from 0.1 mm to 10.0 mm. A detailed study of the time evolution of the breakdown volt-ampere characteristics was performed for the first time. It revealed a slow streamer development phase in the discharge. The results of a spectroscopic study of the visible light emission of the breakdowns complement the measurements. The light emission from the initial phase of the discharge is attributed to electro-luminescence of liquid argon following a current of drifting electrons. These results contribute to set benchmarks for breakdown-safe design of ionization detectors, such as Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPC).

  8. Liquid Argon Calorimetry for ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This summer, the largest collaborative physics project since the Manhattan project will go online. One of four experiments for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, ATLAS, employs over 2000 people. Canadians have helped design, construct, and calibrate the liquid argon calorimeters for ATLAS to capture the products of the high energy collisions produced by the LHC. From an undergraduate's perspective, explore how these calorimeters are made to handle their harsh requirement. From nearly a billion proton-proton collisions a second, physicists hope to discover the Higgs boson and other new fundamental particles.

  9. A study of dielectric breakdown along insulators surrounding conductors in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwitz, S.; Jostlein, H.

    2016-03-01

    High voltage breakdown in liquid argon is an important concern in the design of liquid argon time projection chambers, which are often used as neutrino and dark matter detectors. We have made systematic measurements of breakdown voltages in liquid argon along insulators surrounding negative rod electrodes where the breakdown is initiated at the anode. The measurements were performed in an open cryostat filled with commercial grade liquid argon exposed to air, and not the ultra-pure argon required for electron drift. While not addressing all high voltage concerns in liquid argon, these measurements have direct relevance to the design of high voltage feedthroughs especially for averting the common problem of flash-over breakdown. The purpose of these tests is to understand the effects of materials, of breakdown path length, and of surface topology for this geometry and setup. We have found that the only material-specific effects are those due to their permittivity. We have found that the breakdown voltage has no dependence on the length of the exposed insulator. A model for the breakdown mechanism is presented that can help inform future designs.

  10. A study of dielectric breakdown along insulators surrounding conductors in liquid argon

    DOE PAGES

    Lockwitz, Sarah; Jostlein, Hans

    2016-03-22

    High voltage breakdown in liquid argon is an important concern in the design of liquid argon time projection chambers, which are often used as neutrino and dark matter detectors. We have made systematic measurements of breakdown voltages in liquid argon along insulators surrounding negative rod electrodes where the breakdown is initiated at the anode. The measurements were performed in an open cryostat filled with commercial grade liquid argon exposed to air, and not the ultra-pure argon required for electron drift. While not addressing all high voltage concerns in liquid argon, these measurements have direct relevance to the design of highmore » voltage feedthroughs especially for averting the common problem of flash-over breakdown. The purpose of these tests is to understand the effects of materials, of breakdown path length, and of surface topology for this geometry and setup. We have found that the only material-specific effects are those due to their permittivity. We have found that the breakdown voltage has no dependence on the length of the exposed insulator. Lastly, a model for the breakdown mechanism is presented that can help inform future designs.« less

  11. Improved TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Z.; Bugel, L.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Jones, B. J. P.; Moon, J.; Toups, M.; Wongjirad, T.

    2015-08-01

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars. We discuss a model for connecting bar response in air to response in liquid argon and compare this to data taken in liquid argon. The good agreement between the prediction of the model and the measured response in liquid argon demonstrates that characterization in air is sufficient for quality control of bar production. This model can be used in simulations of light guides for future experiments.

  12. Study of nuclear recoils in liquid argon with monoenergetic neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenfus, C.; Allkofer, Y.; Amsler, C.; Creus, W.; Ferella, A.; Rochet, J.; Walter, M.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of developments for liquid argon dark matter detectors we assembled a laboratory setup to scatter neutrons on a small liquid argon target. The neutrons are produced mono-energetically (Ekin = 2.45 MeV) by nuclear fusion in a deuterium plasma and are collimated onto a 3" liquid argon cell operating in single-phase mode (zero electric field). Organic liquid scintillators are used to tag scattered neutrons and to provide a time-of-flight measurement. The setup is designed to study light pulse shapes and scintillation yields from nuclear and electronic recoils as well as from alpha particles at working points relevant for dark matter searches. Liquid argon offers the possibility to scrutinise scintillation yields in noble liquids with respect to the population strength of the two fundamental excimer states. Here we present experimental methods and first results from recent data towards such studies.

  13. Liquid Argon Dielectric Breakdown Studies with the MicroBooNE Purification System

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, R.; Carls, B.; James, C.; Johnson, B.; Jostlein, H.; Lockwitz, S.; Lundberg, B.; Raaf, J. L.; Rameika, R.; Rebel, B.; Zeller, G. P.; Zuckerbrot, M.

    2014-11-04

    The proliferation of liquid argon time projection chamber detectors makes the characterization of the dielectric properties of liquid argon a critical task. To improve understanding of these properties, a systematic study of the breakdown electric field in liquid argon was conducted using a dedicated cryostat connected to the MicroBooNE cryogenic system at Fermilab. An electrode sphere-plate geometry was implemented using spheres with diameters of 1.3 mm, 5.0 mm, and 76 mm. The MicroBooNE cryogenic system allowed measurements to be taken at a variety of electronegative contamination levels ranging from a few parts-per-million to tens of parts-per-trillion. The cathode-anode distance was varied from 0.1 mm to 2.5 cm. The results demonstrate a geometric dependence of the electric field strength at breakdown. This study is the first time that the dependence of the breakdown field on stressed cathode area has been shown for liquid argon.

  14. ARAPUCA a new device for liquid argon scintillation light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, A. A.; Segreto, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present a totally innovative device for the detection of liquid argon scintillation light, that has been named ARAPUCA (Argon R&D Advanced Program at UniCAmp). It is composed of a passive light collector and of active devices. The latters are standard SiPMs that operate at liquid argon temperature, while the passive collector is based on a new technology, never explored in this field before. It is a photon trap, that allows to collect light with extremely high efficiency. The total detection efficiency of the device can be tuned by modifying the ratio between the area of the active devices (SiPM) and the area of the optical window. For example, it will allow to reach a detection efficiency at the level of 1% on a surface of 50 × 50 cm2 with an active coverage of 2 × 2 cm2 (two/three large area SiPM). It is also a cheap device, since the major part of its cost is represented by the active devices. For these reason this appears to be the ideal device for scintillation light detection in large Time Projection Chambers. With appropriate modifications it can be used also in next generation Dark Matter detectors.

  15. TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignarra, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems.

  16. Atmospheric tau neutrinos in a multikiloton liquid argon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Janet; Gouvea, Andre de; Shalgar, Shashank; Spitz, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    An ultralarge liquid argon time projection chamber based neutrino detector will have the uncommon ability to detect atmospheric {nu}{sub {tau}}/{nu}{tau} events. This paper discusses the most promising modes for identifying charged current {nu}{sub {tau}}/{nu}{tau}, and shows that, with simple kinematic cuts, {approx}30 {nu}{sub {tau}}+{nu}{tau} interactions can be isolated in a 100 kt{center_dot}yr exposure, with greater than 4{sigma} significance. This sample is sufficient to perform flux-averaged total cross-section and cross-section shape parametrization measurements--the first steps toward using {nu}{sub {tau}}/{nu}{tau} to search for physics beyond the standard model.

  17. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  18. A system to test the effects of materials on the electron drift lifetime in liquid argon and observations on the effect of water

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.; Jaskierny, W.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S.; Tope, T.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    A materials test system (MTS) has been developed at FNAL to assess the suitability of materials for use in a large liquid argon time projection chamber. During development of the MTS, it was noted that controlling the cryostat pressure with a 'raining' condenser reduced the electron drift lifetime in the liquid argon. The effect of condensing has been investigated using a series of passive materials to filter the condensate. We report the results of these studies and of tests on different candidate materials for detector construction. The inferred reduction of electron drift lifetime by water concentrations in the parts per trillion is of particular interest.

  19. A Large Liquid Argon TPC for Off-axis NuMI Neutrino Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Menary, Scott

    2006-07-11

    The ICARUS collaboration has shown the power of the liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) technique to image events with bubble-chamber-like quality. I will describe a proposed long-baseline {nu}e appearance experiment utilizing a large ({>=} 15 kton1) LArTPC placed off-axis of Fermilab's NuMI {nu}{mu} beam. The total LArTPC program as it presently stands, which includes a number of smaller R and D projects designed to examine the key design issues, will be outlined.

  20. Electron avalanches in liquid argon mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.G.; Dardin, S.M.; Kadel, R.W.; Kadyk, J.A.; Wenzel, W.B.; Peskov, V.

    2004-03-19

    We have observed stable avalanche gain in liquid argon when mixed with small amounts of xenon in the high electric field (>7 MV/cm) near the point of a chemically etched needle in a point-plane geometry. We identify two gain mechanisms, one pressure dependent, and the other independent of the applied pressure. We conclude that the pressure dependent signals are from avalanche gain in gas bubbles at the tip of the needle, while the pressure independent pulses are from avalanche gain in liquid. We measure the decay time spectra of photons from both types of avalanches. The decay times from the pressure dependent pulses decrease (increase) with the applied pressure (high voltage), while the decay times from the pressure independent pulses are approximately independent of pressure or high voltage. For our operating conditions, the collected charge distribution from avalanches is similar for 60 keV or 122 keV photon sources. With krypton additives, instead of Xe, we measure behavior consistent with only the pressure dependent pulses. Neon and TMS were also investigated as additives, and designs for practical detectors were tested.

  1. The CAPTAIN liquid argon neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qiuguang

    2015-01-01

    The CAPTAIN liquid argon experiment is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two detectors – a primary detector with approximately 10-ton of liquid argon that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a prototype detector with 2-ton of liquid argon for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in medium energy regime (1.5–5 GeV) at Fermilab's NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in low energy regime (< 50 MeV) at stopped pion sources for supernova neutrino studies.

  2. The CAPTAIN liquid argon neutrino experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Qiuguang

    2015-01-01

    The CAPTAIN liquid argon experiment is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two detectors – a primary detector with approximately 10-ton of liquid argon that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a prototype detector with 2-ton of liquid argon for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in medium energy regime (1.5–5 GeV) at Fermilab's NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in low energymore » regime (< 50 MeV) at stopped pion sources for supernova neutrino studies.« less

  3. SLD liquid argon calorimeter prototype test results

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, R.; Eigen, G.; Au, Y.; Sleeman, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Brau, J.; Ludgate, G.A.; Oram, C.J.; Cook, V.; Johnson, J.

    1985-10-01

    The results of the SLD test beam program for the selection of a calorimeter radiator composition within a liquid argon system are described, with emphasis on the study of the use of uranium to obtain equalization of pion and electron responses.

  4. Front-End ASIC for Liquid Argon TPC

    SciTech Connect

    De Geronimo, G.; Li, S.; D'Andragora, A.; Nambiar, N.; Rescia, S.; Vernon, E.; Chen, H.; Lanni, F.; Makowiecki, D.; Radeka, V.; Thorn, C.; Yu, B.

    2011-06-15

    We present a front-end application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for a wire based time-projection-chamber (TPC) operating in liquid Argon (LAr). The LAr TPC will be used for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The ASIC must provide a low-noise readout of the signals induced on the TPC wires, digitization of those signals at 2 MSamples/s, compression, buffering and multiplexing. A resolution of better than 1000 rms electrons at 200 pF input capacitance for an input range of 300 fC is required, along with low power and operation in LAr (at 87 K). We include the characterization of a commercial technology for operation in the cryogenic environment and the first experimental results on the analog front end. The results demonstrate that complementary metal-oxide semiconductor transistors have lower noise and much improved dc characteristics at LAr temperature. Finally, we introduce the concept of '1/f equivalent' to model the low-frequency component of the noise spectral density, for use in the input metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor optimization.

  5. Work at FNAL to achieve long electron drift lifetime in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, D.; Jaskierny, W.; Kendziora, C.; Krider, J.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; Tope, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    This note records some of the work done between July 2005 and July 2006 to achieve long (many milliseconds) electron drift lifetimes in liquid argon at Fermilab. The work is part of a process to develop some experience at Fermilab with the technology required to construct a large liquid argon TPC. This technology has been largely developed by the ICARUS collaboration in Europe and this process can be seen as technology transfer. The capability to produce liquid argon in which electrons have drift lifetimes of several milliseconds is crucial to a successful device. Liquid argon calorimeters have been successfully operated at Fermilab; their electro-negative contaminants are at the level of 10{sup -7} while the TPC we are considering requires a contamination level at the level of 10{sup -11}, tens of parts per trillion (ppt). As well as demonstrating the ability to produce liquid argon at this level of purity, the work is part of a program to test the effect on the electron drift time of candidate materials for the construction of a TPC in liquid argon.

  6. Flexible Support Liquid Argon Heat Intercept

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-05-18

    A device in the flexible support system for the Central Calorimeter is the Liquid Argon Heat Intercept. The purpose of this apparatus is to intercept heat outside the inner vessel so that bubbles do not form inside. If bubbles did happen to form inside the vessel, they would cause an electric arc between the read-out board and the absorption plates, thus destroying the pre-amplifier. Since this heat intercept is located in the center of the flexible support, it must also support the load of the Central Caloimeter. Figure 1 shows how the intercept works. The subcooled liquid argon is driven through a 1/4-inch x 0.049-inch w tube by hydrostatic pressure. the ambient heat boils the subcooled argon. The gaseous argon flows through the tube and is condensed at the top of the vessel by a 100 kW cooling coil. This process is rpesent in all four flexible support systems.

  7. GLADE Global Liquid Argon Detector Experiment: a letter of intent to FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Jennifer

    2012-05-13

    The recent measurements of the {theta}{sub 13} mixing angle, which controls the observable size of any CP violation effects, open a window of opportunity to take advantage of the world's most powerful existing neutrino beam together with recent successes in development of the ultimate detector technology for the detection of electron neutrinos : a liquid argon (LAr) time projection chamber. During this proposed project a 5kt LAr detector (GLADE) will be developed by European groups to be put in a cryostat in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the US and will start taking data in 3-5 years time to address the neutrino mass ordering. The successful fruition of this project, along with nominal exposure at NO{nu}A and T2K, together with information from double beta decay experiments could ascertain that neutrinos are Dirac particles in the next decade.

  8. Designs of Large Liquid Argon TPCs - from MicroBooNE to LBNE LAr40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Makowiecki, D. S.; Mahler, G. J.; Radeka, V.; Thorn, C.; Baller, B.; Jostlein, H.; Fleming, B. T.

    Liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) is a unique technology well suited for large scale detectors of neutrinos and other rare processes. Its combination of millimeter scale 3D precision particle tracking and calorimetry with good dE/dx resolution provide excellent efficiency of particle identification and background rejection. MicroBooNE is a LArTPC about to enter its final design phase and is scheduled for construction in 2012. Its active volume contains 86 ton of LAr. It has a 2.6m drift distance, 8256 sense wires connected to cold CMOS analog front-end electronics. Most of the TPC design features improve upon existing tried and true techniques. The LAr40 is one of the two far detector options under consideration for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). Its conceptual design has 40 kton active liquid argon mass, to be installed underground at a moderate depth. Due to its large scale, and underground siting, great emphasis was placed on the detector cost and reliability. A modular TPC design is the key to achieve these goals. The LAr40 consists of two 20 kton detectors in one underground cavern. Each detector is in turn constructed from an array of TPC modules. Innovative concepts enable the modules to be tiled with minimal dead space. An overview of both detectors is presented. The designs of key elements in these two TPCs are described in detail.

  9. Operational performance of a large liquid argon photon calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C.; Biel, J.; Droege, T.; Jonckheere, A.; Koehler, P.; Berg, D.; Chandlee, C.; Cihangir, S.; Ferbel, T.; Huston, J.; Jensen, T.; LeBritton, J.; Lobkowicz, F.; McLaughlin, M.; Ohshima, T.; Slattery, P.; Thompson, P.; Bromberg, C.; Cooper, S. R. W.; Collick, B.; Heppelmann, S.; Makdisi, Y.; Marshak, M.; Peterson, E.; Povlis, J.; Ruddick, K.; Brown, B.; Garelick, D.; Glass, G.; Glaubman, M.; Han, S. R.; Pothier, E.

    1983-11-01

    We describe the performance of a large (0.9 × 1.4 m2) liquid argon photon calorimeter in high energy experiments at Fermilab. Resolutions for π0 and electron showers, obtained under data-taking conditions, are compared with electron-beam calibration results. Exceptional spatial and time resolutions have been achieved for isolated showers (σx,y <0.7 mm and σt ∼6 ns). Electron data up to energies of 80 GeV and π0 data up to 180 GeV are presented.

  10. A new, very massive modular Liquid Argon Imaging Chamber to detect low energy off-axis neutrinos from the CNGS beam (Project MODULAr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Benetti, P.; Borio, A.; Calligarich, E.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cavanna, F.; Centro, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Dolfini, R.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mannocchi, G.; Mauri, F.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Palamara, O.; Periale, L.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Satta, G.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.

    2008-04-01

    The paper is considering an opportunity for the CERN/GranSasso (CNGS) neutrino complex, concurrent time-wise with T2K and NOvA projects, with the aim of improving the sensitivity on νμ ↔ νeθ13 mixing angle by nearly an order of magnitude with respect to T2K expectations. The experiment is based on a ≈20 kt fiducial volume LAr-TPC, following very closely the technology developed for the ICARUS-T600. The present preliminary proposal, called MODULAr, is focused on the following three main activities, for which we seek an extended international collaboration: The neutrino beam from the CERN 400 GeV proton beam and an optimized horn focussing, eventually with an increased intensity in the framework of the LHC accelerator improvement programme. A new experimental area LNGS-B, of at least 50,000 m 3 at 10 km off-axis from the main laboratory, eventually upgradable to larger sizes. A location is under consideration at about 1.2 km equivalent water depth. The bubble chamber like imaging and the very fine calorimetry of the LAr-TPC detector will ensure the best background recognition not only from the off-axis neutrinos from the CNGS but also for proton decay and cosmic neutrinos. A new LAr Imaging detector, at least initially with about 20 kt fiducial mass, realised with a modular set of four identical, but independent units, each of about 5 kt, "cloning" the basic technology of the T600. Further phases may foresee extensions of MODULAr to a mass required by the future physics goals. Compared with large water Cherenkov (T2K) and fine grained scintillators (NOvA), the LAr-TPC offers a higher detection efficiency for a given mass and lower backgrounds, since virtually all channels may be unambiguously recognized. In addition to the search for θ13 oscillations and CP violation, it would be possible to collect a large number of accurately identified cosmic ray neutrino events and perform search for proton decay in the exotic channels.

  11. The Deap-Clean 3600 KG Liquid-Argon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jillings, C. J.

    2009-09-01

    DEAP-CLEAN 3600 is a proposed single-phase liquid-argon for WIMP dark matter with a fiducial mass of 1000 kg of a total 3600 kg liquid argon. The principle effort of design is background reduction to an expected background rate < 1 tonne-1 year-1. This paper discusses the DEAP-CLEAN program and then focuses on two important backgrounds. First, energetic electrons from 39Ar in the detector volume are reduced with pulse-shape discrimination. Analysis of the time-distribution of light within events is predicted to remove all electrons from the data sample with leakage < 1 × 10- while rejecting fewer than 50% of nuclear-recoil events. Our current measured limit for electron leakage is < 6 × 10-8 and is statistics limited. Second, surface-alpha contamination from 222Rn daughters that plate out on the acrylic walls is reduced using a novel resurfacing system that operates in vacuum before fill with argon. This resurfacer removes approximately 10 microns of acrylic material and applies a wavelength-shifting compound.

  12. Operation of the D0 uranium liquid-argon calorimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Guida, J. )

    1992-12-01

    The DO calorimeter consists of three separate cryostats containing uranium modules in liquid argon. This odorimeter has transverse segmentation of 0.1 [times] 0.1 in [eta] [times] 0 and consists of eight or nine longitudinal readout segments. The coverage in [eta] extends to 4. As a result of the large coverage and fine segmentation there are 50,000 channels of electronics. After a brief description of the electronics, stability and noise aspects will be investigated. Results of the liquid-argon purity studies will be discssed. The backgrounds in the calorimeter due to the Fermilab main ring will also be examined.

  13. Operation of the D0 uranium liquid-argon calorimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Guida, J.; The D0 Collaboration

    1992-12-01

    The DO calorimeter consists of three separate cryostats containing uranium modules in liquid argon. This odorimeter has transverse segmentation of 0.1 {times} 0.1 in {eta} {times} 0 and consists of eight or nine longitudinal readout segments. The coverage in {eta} extends to 4. As a result of the large coverage and fine segmentation there are 50,000 channels of electronics. After a brief description of the electronics, stability and noise aspects will be investigated. Results of the liquid-argon purity studies will be discssed. The backgrounds in the calorimeter due to the Fermilab main ring will also be examined.

  14. Explosive cavitation in superheated liquid argon.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, V E; Pavlov, P A; Baidakov, V G

    2008-06-21

    The kinetics of explosive boiling-up of liquid argon has been investigated at negative pressures created by the reflection of a compression pulse 3-5 mus long from the free surface of a liquid by the method of liquid pulse heating on a thin platinum wire (with a rate of temperature increase of about 1 Kmus). The limiting superheats T(*) (stretches p(*)), the effective nucleation rate J(*), and the derivative G(T)=(d ln JdT)(T=T(*) ) have been determined by experimental data on the thermal perturbation of a wire probe and the results of solution of the problem on the initial stage of explosive boiling-up of a liquid. The experimental data are compared with homogeneous nucleation theory. PMID:18570511

  15. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  16. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  17. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0more » to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.« less

  18. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield and scintillation pulse shape from nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H.; Alexander, T.; Aprahamian, A.; Avetisyan, R.; Back, H. O.; Cocco, A. G.; Dejongh, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, Y.; Kendziora, C.; Lippincott, W. H.; Love, C.; Lyons, S.; Manenti, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meng, Y.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Olvitt, D.; Pordes, S.; Qian, H.; Rossi, B.; Saldanha, R.; Sangiorgio, S.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S. Y.; Tan, W.; Tatarowicz, J.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Yoo, J.; Scene Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V /cm . For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V /cm . We also report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from Krm83 internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni ) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  19. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  20. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2001-04-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs.

  1. A study of the electron image due to ionizing events in a two-dimensional liquid argon TPC with a 24 cm drift gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, S.; Braggiotti, A.; Buckley, E.; Campanella, M.; Carugno, G.; Cecchet, G.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Ciocio, A.; Cittolin, S.; Dainese, B.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gonidec, A.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meroni, E.; Muñoz, R.; Perreau, J.-M.; Pietropaolo, F.; Ptohos, F.; Ragusa, F.; Rossi, P.; Rubbia, C.; Schinzel, D.; Schmidt, W. F.; Seidl, W.

    1990-01-01

    We have tested a liquid argon time projection chamber with a novel wire configuration based on electrostatic focussing which allows the realization of a nondestructive detection of the electron image produced by ionizing events. The chamber was tested in a 5 GeV pion beam at the CERN proton synchrotron. The measured pulse shapes at both 200 V/cm and 500 V/cm were in very good agreement with the expected shapes, calculated taking into account the electron lifetime, the response of the electronics and the longitudinal diffusion of the electron cloud. The measured electron drift velocity was in good agreement with the results of other workers as well as with our previous measurements. We have also analysed a sample of events containing delta rays in order to study the behaviour of low-energy electrons in the liquid argon. We find that for electron energies greater than 5 MeV the measured energy spectrum agrees very well with the predicted spectrum after corrections for acceptance and energy loss, hence demonstrating the feasibility of recognizing low-energy electrons in liquid argon.

  2. Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D.; McEachran, R. P.

    2015-04-21

    The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies.

  3. Development of a Liquefied Noble Gas Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, Ezra; White, Aaron; Aidala, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Liquefied noble gas detectors have been used for various applications in recent years for detecting neutrinos, neutrons, photons, and potentially dark matter. The University of Michigan is developing a detector with liquid argon to produce scintillation light and ionization electrons. Our data collection method will allow high-resolution energy measurement and spatial reconstruction of detected particles by using multi-pixel silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and a cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire endplate. We have already designed a liquid argon condenser and purification unit surrounded by an insulating vacuum, constructed circuitry for temperature and pressure sensors, and created software to obtain high-accuracy sensor readouts. The status of detector development will be presented. Funded through the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project.

  4. The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for SLD at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Nelson, D.; Freytag, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for the SLD project at SLAC is described. Amplification, storage of the analog information, and multiplexing is realized on specially developed hybrids, which will be mounted directly on the detector. This leads to a substantial reduction of the cable plant. Test results for the amplifier and for the sampling and multiplexing hybrid (CDU hybrid) are presented. The latter hybird contains a custom monolithic device, the Calorimeter Data Unit (CDU).

  5. A measurement of E/{pi} for a fast lead liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Makowiecki, D.; Gordon, H.A.; Ma, H.; Murtagh, M.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rescia, S.; Abrams, G.S.; Groom, D.E.; Kirsten, F.; Levi, M.; Siegrist, J.; Amako, K.; Inaba, O.; Kondo, T.; Baden, A.R.; Fong, D.; Hadley, N.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Bowen, T.; Forden, G.; Jenkins, E.; Johns, K.; Rutherfoord, J.; Shupe, M.; Burnett, T.; Cook, V.; Davisson, R.; Mockett, P.; Rothberg, J.; Williams, R.W.; Cremaldi, L.; Reidy, J.; Summers, D.; DiGiacomo, N.; Draper, P.; Ferbel, T.; Lobkowicz, F.; Faust, J.; Hauptman, J.; Pang, M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Hagopian, V.; Womersley, J.; Handler, T.; Hitlin, D.; Mulholland, G.T.; Watanabe, Y.; Weerts, H.

    1990-12-31

    The NA34 (HELIOS) calorimeter has measured e/{pi} {congruent} 1.1 in a uranium/liquid argon calorimeter with a shaping time of 135 nsec. Lead may be a viable alternative, but e/{pi} must first be measured at fast shaping times in lead. We re preparing to measure e/{pi} at momenta ranging from 0.5 to 20 GeV/c and with shaping times of 50, 100 and 150 nsec.

  6. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamowski, M.; Bremer, J.; Geynisman, M.; Hentschel, S.; Montanari, D.; Nessi, M.; Norris, B.

    2015-12-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these installations (parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). This paper gives an overview of the installations involved in these cryogenic projects, describes the functional demands made to these cryogenic systems and presents the initial studies on which these future cryogenic systems will be based.

  7. Anode-coupled readout for light collection in Liquid Argon TPCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Z.; Toups, M.; Bugel, L.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper will discuss a new method of signal read-out from photon detectors in ultra-large, underground liquid argon time projection chambers. In this design, the signal from the light collection system is coupled via capacitive plates to the TPC wire-planes. This signal is then read out using the same cabling and electronics as the charge information. This greatly benefits light collection: it eliminates the need for an independent readout, substantially reducing cost; it reduces the number of cables in the vapor region of the TPC that can produce impurities; and it cuts down on the number of feed-throughs in the cryostat wall that can cause heat-leaks and potential points of failure. We present experimental results that demonstrate the sensitivity of a LArTPC wire plane to photon detector signals. We also simulate the effect of a 1 μs shaping time and a 2 MHz sampling rate on these signals in the presence of noise, and find that a single photoelectron timing resolution of ~30 ns can be achieved.

  8. Evaporation characteristics of thin film liquid argon in nano-scale confinement: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to explore the evaporation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in nano-scale confinement. The present study has been conducted to realize the nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation inside a confined space for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of surface wetting conditions. The simulation domain consisted of two parallel platinum plates; one at the top and another at the bottom. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Considering hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of top and bottom surfaces, two different cases have been investigated: (i) Case A: Both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophilic, (ii) Case B: both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophobic. For all cases, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall was set to four different temperatures such as 110 K, 120 K, 130 K and 140 K to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat fluxes normal to top and bottom walls were estimated and discussed to illuminate the effectiveness of heat transfer in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic confinement at various boundary temperatures of the bottom plate.

  9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-10-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors.

  10. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, D.; Giganti, C.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Bottino, B.; Canci, N.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pocar, A.; Razeti, M.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Suvorov, Y.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Wang, H.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ``neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ~15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the 7Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  11. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, D.; Mufson, S.; Howard, B.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a composite model. Both models find τT = 1.52 μs for the decay time constant of the Ar2* triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the ``early'' light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE ≈ 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS ≈ 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value ~0.3 found by dark matter and double β-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  12. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Breakdown voltage of metal-oxide resistors in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, L. F.; Gollapinni, S.; James, C. C.; Jones, B. J.P.; Jostlein, H.; Lockwitz, S.; Naples, D.; Raaf, J. L.; Rameika, R.; Schukraft, A.; Strauss, T.; Weber, M. S.; Wolbers, S. A.

    2014-11-07

    We characterized a sample of metal-oxide resistors and measured their breakdown voltage in liquid argon by applying high voltage (HV) pulses over a 3 second period. This test mimics the situation in a HV-divider chain when a breakdown occurs and the voltage across resistors rapidly rise from the static value to much higher values. All resistors had higher breakdown voltages in liquid argon than their vendor ratings in air at room temperature. Failure modes range from full destruction to coating damage. In cases where breakdown was not catastrophic, subsequent breakdown voltages were lower in subsequent measuring runs. One resistor type withstands 131 kV pulses, the limit of the test setup.

  14. MicroBooNE and the Road to Large Liquid Argon Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgi, G.

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPC's) provide a promising technology for multi-kiloton scale detectors aiming to address-among other pressing particle physics questions-the possibility of short and long baseline electron neutrino and antineutrino appearance. MicroBooNE, a 170 ton LArTPC under construction, is the next necessary step in a phased R&D effort toward construction and stable operation of larger-scale LArTPC's. This development effort also leans heavily on the ArgoNeuT and LAr1 LArTPC R&D experiments at Fermilab. In addition to advancing the LArTPC technology, these projects also provide unique physics opportunities. For example, Micro-BooNE will be located in the Booster Neutrino Beamline at Fermilab, at ∼470 m from neutrino production. Thus, in addition to measuring a suite of low energy neutrino cross sections on argon, MicroBooNE will investigate the anomalous low energy excess seen by the MiniBooNE experiment. Furthermore, the neutrino beam energy and relatively short baseline provide MicroBooNE with sensitivity to high-∼m2 neutrino oscillations. These proceedings summarize the role of the MicroBooNE detector in the US LArTPC R&D program, present its physics reach, and briefly discuss the physics potential of a dedicated near-future neutrino oscillation program at the Booster Neutrino Beamline, as a way to maximize the physics output of the Fermilab LArTPC R&D projects.

  15. Searching for dark matter with single phase liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Thomas S., Jr.

    The first hint that we fail to understand the nature of a large fraction of the gravitating matter in the universe came from Fritz Zwicky's measurements of the velocity distribution of the Coma cluster in 1933. Using the Virial theorem, Zwicky found that galaxies in the cluster were orbiting far too fast to remain gravitationally bound when their mass was estimated by the brightness of the visible matter. This led to the postulation that some form of non-luminous dark matter is present in galaxies comprising a large fraction of the galactic mass. The nature of this dark matter remains yet unknown over 80 years after Zwicky's measurements despite the efforts of many experiments. Dark matter is widely believed to be a beyond the Standard Model particle which brings the dark matter problem into the realm of particle physics. Supersymmetry is one widely explored extension of the Standard model, from which particles meeting the constraints on dark matter properties can naturally arise. These particles are generically termed weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), and are a currently favored dark matter candidate. A variety of experimental efforts are underway aimed towards direct detection of dark matter through observation of rare scattering of WIMPs in terrestrial detectors. Single phase liquid argon detectors are an appealing WIMP detection technique due to the scintillation properties of liquid argon and the scalability of the single phase approach. The MiniCLEAN dark matter detector is a single phase liquid argon scintillation scintillation detector with a 500 kg active mass. The modular design offers 4pi coverage with 92 optical cassettes, each containing TPB coated acrylic and a cryogenic photomultiplier tube. The MiniCLEAN detector has recently completed construction at SNOLAB. The detector is currently being commissioned, and will soon begin operation with the liquid argon target. Utilizing advanced pulse-shape discrimination techniques, MiniCLEAN will

  16. Space-charge effects in liquid argon ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherfoord, J. P.; Walker, R. B.

    2015-03-01

    We have uniformly irradiated liquid argon ionization chambers with betas from high-activity 90Sr sources. The radiation environment is similar to that in the liquid argon calorimeters which are part of the ATLAS detector installed at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We measured the resulting ionization current over a wide range of applied potential for two different source activities and for three different chamber gaps. These studies provide operating experience at exceptionally high ionization rates. In particular they indicate a stability at the 0.1% level for these calorimeters over years of operation at the full LHC luminosity when operated in the normal mode at an electric field E = 1.0 kV / mm. We can operate these chambers in the normal mode or in the space-charge limited regime and thereby determine the transition point between the two. This transition point is parameterized by a positive argon ion mobility of μ+ = 0.08 ± 0.02mm2 / V s at a temperature of 88.0±0.5 K and at a pressure of 1.02±0.02 bar. In the space-charge limited regime the ionization currents are degraded and show signs of instability. At the highest electric fields in our study (6.7 kV/mm) the ionization current is still slowly rising with increasing electric field.

  17. Cryogenic Tests of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, J.; Fabre, C.; Passardi, G.; Chalifour, M.

    2006-04-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter consists of the barrel and two end-cap detectors housed in three independent cryostats filled with a total volume of 78 m3 of liquid argon. During cool-down the temperature differences in the composite structure of the detectors must be kept within strict limits to avoid excessive mechanical stresses and relative displacements. During normal operation the formation of gas bubbles, which are detrimental to the functioning of the detector, must be prevented and temperature gradients of less than 0.7 K across the argon bath are mandatory due to the temperature dependence of the energy measurements. Between April 2004 and May 2005 the barrel (120 t) and one end-cap (219 t) underwent qualification tests at the operating temperature of 87.3 K using a dedicated test facility at ground level. These tests provided a validation of the cooling methods to be adopted in the final underground configuration. In total 6.9 GJ and 15.7 GJ were extracted from the calorimeters and a temperature uniformity of the argon bath of less than 0.4 K was achieved.

  18. Ionization of liquid argon by x-rays: Effect of density on electron thermalization and free ion yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. S.-S.; Gee, Norman; Freeman, Gordon R.

    Free ion yields were measured in liquid argon as a function of electric field strength at densities 736-1343 kg/m 3 (temperatures 149-195 K). The field dependence of the yields was parametrized using the extended Onsager and box models. Over the present density range the total ion yield was constant within 1% and was taken as 4.4, the average of earlier values at 87-91 K. The absence of internal vibrational modes in argon makes its electron thermalizing ability smaller than that of methane. The electron thermalization distance bGP in liquid argon is 3-5 times longer than that in liquid methane at a given {d}/{d}c( dc = critical fluid density).

  19. PERFORMANCE OF THE LEAD/LIQUID ARGON SHOWER COUNTER SYSTEM OF THE MARK II DETECTOR AT SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, G.S.; Blocker, C.A.; Briggs, D.D.; Carithers, W.C.; Dieterle, W.E.; Eaton, M.W.; Lankford, A.J.; Pang, C.Y.; Vella, E.N.; Breidenbach, M.; Dorfan, J.M.; Hanson, G.; Hitlin, D.G.; Jenni, P.; Luth, V.

    1980-05-01

    The shower counter system of the SLAC-LBL Mark II detector is a large lead/liquid argon system of the type pioneered by Willis and Radekal; however, it differs in most details and is much larger than other such detectors currently in operation, It contains, for example, 8000 liters of liquid argon and 3000 channels of low noise electronics, which is about eight times the size of the system of Willis et al. in the CERN ISR. This paper reports, with little reference to design, on the operation and performance of the Mark II system during approximately a year and a half of operation at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's e{sup +}-e{sup -} facility, SPEAR. The design and construction of the system have previously been described and a detailed discussion of all aspects -- design, construction, operation, and performance -- is in preparation.

  20. Liquid Argon Maximm Convective Heat Flux vs. Liquid Depth

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.; /Fermilab

    1990-01-12

    In order to help answer questions about the magnitude of heat flux to the liquid argon in a liquid argon calorimeter which could cause boiling (bubbles), calculations estimating the heat flux which can be removed by free convection were made in February, 1988. These calculations are intended to be an estimate of the heat flux above which boiling would occur. No formal writeup was made of these calculations, although the graph dated 3 Feb 88 and revised (adding low-velocity forced convection lines) 19 Feb 88 was presented in several meetings and widely distributed. With this description of the calculations, copies of the original graph and calculations are being added to the D0 Engineering Note files. The liquid argon surface is in equilibrium with argon vapor at a pressure of 1.3 bar, so the surface is at 89.70 K. The liquid is entirely at this surface temperature throughout the bulk of the volume, except locally where it is warmed by a solid surface at a higher temperature than the bulk liquid. This surface temperature is taken to be the boiling temperature of argon at the pressure corresponding to 1.3 bar plus the liquid head; hence it is a function of depth below the surface. The free and forced convection correlations used are 'from Kreith, 'Heat Transfer', for heated flat plates in a large (i.e., no other objects nearby enough to disturb the flow) uniform volume of fluid. Heat flux is a function of plate size, really length along the flow path (since a boundary layer increases in thickness starting from the leading edge of the plate), and orientation (i.e., vertical or horizontal). The maximum heat flux which can be carried away by free convection (i.e., the heat flux above which boiling occurs) is .001 W/sq.cm. at 4 inches below the surface and 0.1 to 0.2 W/sq.cm. 15 feet below the surface. Forced convection over a 1 cm plate with a fluid velocity of 1 cm/sec, or a 10 cm plate at 10 cm/sec, is about like free convection. The line for much higher heat flux is

  1. Measurement of electron longitudinal diffusion coefficient in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yichen; Tang, Wei; Qian, Xin

    2016-03-01

    The electron longitudinal diffusion coefficients in Liquid Argon (LAr) are measured for a range of electric fields from 0.05 to 2.0 kV/cm up to a maximum drift distance of 120 mm using the two experimental setups at BNL. The measurement principle, apparatus, and data analysis are described. Our result represents the world's best measurement of electron longitudinal coefficients in this range. The measured longitudinal diffusion results are directly applicable to the existing experiments such as MicroBooNE and are essential for the future LAr based experiment detector design such as SBN and DUNE. We also report the performance of the gas purification system, which is important for the design of the purification system of future large LArTPCs.

  2. Photodegradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene coatings for liquid argon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. J. P.; VanGemert, J. K.; Conrad, J. M.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have detected the ultraviolet-blocking impurity benzophenone. We monitored the drop in performance and increase of benzophenone concentration in TPB plates with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and demonstrate the correlation between these two variables. Based on the presence and initially exponential increase in the concentration of benzophenone observed, we propose that TPB degradation is a free radical-mediated photooxidation reaction, which is subsequently confirmed by displaying delayed degradation using a free radical inhibitor. Finally we show that the performance of wavelength-shifting coatings of the type envisioned for the LBNE experiment can be improved by 10-20%, with significantly delayed UV degradation, by using a 20% admixture of 4-tert-Butylcatechol.

  3. Performance of the electronics for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter system of the SLC large detector

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, E.; Abt, I.; Haller, G.M.; Honma, A.

    1988-10-01

    Results of performance tests on electronics for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) for the SLD experiment at SLAC are presented. The behavior of a sub-unit called a ''tophat,'' which processes 720 detector signals, is described. The electronics consists of charge sensitive preamplifiers, analog memories, A/D converters, and associated control and readout circuitry. An internal charge injection system is used to calibrate the overall response of the devices. Linearity is better than 1% of 0--28 pC charge at the input of the amplifiers. Noise (expressed as equivalent input charge) is less than 3000 electrons at a shaping time of 4 ..mu..s, with a slope of 2600 e/sup /minus///nF. Crosstalk to adjacent channels is less than 0.5%. The power consumption at a duty cycle of 13% is 61 W. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Tetraphenyl-butadiene films: VUV-Vis optical characterization from room to liquid argon temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francini, R.; Montereali, R. M.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Canci, N.; Segreto, E.; Cavanna, F.; Di Pompeo, F.; Carbonara, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Perfetto, F.

    2013-09-01

    A thin film of Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) deposited onto the surface delimiting the active volume of the detector and/or onto the photosensor's optical window is the most common solution to down convert argon VUV scintillation light in current and planned liquid argon based experiments for dark matter searches and neutrino physics. Characterization of the main features of TPB coatings on different, commonly used substrates is reported, as a result of measurements at the specialized optical metrology labs of ENEA and University of Tor Vergata. Measured features include TPB emission spectra with lineshape and relative intensity variation recorded as a function of the film thickness and for the first time down to LAr temperature, as well as optical reflectance and transmittance spectra of the TPB coated substrates in the wavelength range of the TPB emission.

  5. Performance of the electronics for the liquid argon calorimeter system of the SLC large detector

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, E.; Abt, I.; Haller, G.M.; Honma, A.

    1989-02-01

    Results of performance tests on electrons for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) for the SLD experiment at SLAC are presented. The behavior of a sub-unit called a ''tophat,'' which processes 720 detector signals, is described. The electronics consists of charge sensitive preamplifiers, analog memories , A/D converters, and associated control and readout circuitry. An internal charge injection system is used to calibrate the overall response of the devices. Linearity is better than 1% for 0-28 pC charge at the input of the amplifiers. Noise (expressed as equivalent input charge) is less than 3,000 electrons at a shaping time of 4 ..mu..s, with a slope of 2,600 e/sup -//nF. Crosstalk to adjacent channels is less than 0.5%. The power consumption at a duty cycle of 13% is 61 W.

  6. Addition of photosensitive dopants to the D0 liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, N.A.; Anderson, D.F.; The D0 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The addition of photosensitive dopants to liquid argon greatly enhances the signal from heavily ionizing particles. Since binding energy losses we correlated with the heavily ionizing component in hadronic showers, the addition of photosensitive dopants has been suggested as a mechanism to tune the e/{pi} ratio in liquid argon calorimeters. A measurement was performed at the FNAL test beam, adding 4 ppM tetramethylgermanium to the D{phi} uranium-liquid argon calorimeter. An increase in response for electromagnetic and hadronic showers was observed, with no net change in the e/{pi} ratio.

  7. Photon Detection System for LBNE Liquid Argon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2014-03-01

    The LBNE (Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment) is the next generation accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment planned in US. The experiment will use a new muon-neutrino beam sent from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and will detect electron-neutrino appearance and muon-neutrino disappearance using a Liquid Argon TPC located at a distance of 1300 km at Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. The primary physics goal of the LBNE is a definitive determination the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination the octant of the neutrino mixing angle theta-23, and precise measurement of CP violation in neutrino oscillation. Neutrino interaction in LAr result in charged particles producing ionization and scintillation light signals. Dedicated photon detection system is under design for use in the LBNE LArTPC far detectors. The baseline design couples wavelength-shifter coated ultraviolet transmitting acrylic to 3 mm2 silicon photomultipliers. By detecting scintillation light we aim to improve event reconstruction capabilities and efficiently separate neutrino events from background. Current status of the system will be described.

  8. Simultaneous operation of a liquid argon detector as bubble chamber and calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berset, J. C.; Burns, M.; Harigel, G.; Lindsay, J.; Linser, G.; Schenk, F.

    1982-12-01

    The first successful operation of a new detector, filled with liquid argon is described. It can be used simultaneously as bubble chamber and calorimeter, and may find interesting applications at high-energy accelerators.

  9. Atomistic modelling of evaporation and explosive boiling of thin film liquid argon over internally recessed nanostructured surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to investigate evaporation and explosive boiling phenomena of thin film liquid argon on nanostructured solid surface with emphasis on the effect of solid-liquid interfacial wettability. The nanostructured surface considered herein consists of trapezoidal internal recesses of the solid platinum wall. The wetting conditions of the solid surface were assumed such that it covers both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic conditions and hence effect of interfacial wettability on resulting evaporation and boiling phenomena was the main focus of this study. The initial configuration of the simulation domain comprised of a three phase system (solid platinum, liquid argon and vapor argon) on which equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. After equilibrium of the three-phase system was established, the wall was set to different temperatures (130 K and 250 K for the case of evaporation and explosive boiling respectively) to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat flux normal to the solid surface was also calculated to illustrate the effectiveness of heat transfer for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces in cases of both nanostructured surface and flat surface. The results obtained show that both the wetting condition of the surface and the presence of internal recesses have significant effect on normal evaporation and explosive boiling of the thin liquid film. The heat transfer from solid to liquid in cases of surface with recesses are higher compared to flat surface without recesses. Also the surface with higher wettability (hydrophilic) provides more favorable conditions for boiling than the low-wetting surface (hydrophobic) and therefore, liquid argon responds quickly and shifts from liquid to vapor phase faster in

  10. MiniCLEAN-360: A liquid argon/neon dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rielage, Keith; DEAP/CLEAN Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    MiniCLEAN-360 utilizes 360 kg of liquid argon to detect the nuclear recoil from WIMP dark matter with a projected cross-section sensitivity of 10-45 cm2. To reach this planned sensitivity, a unique modular design is being developed with a spherical geometry to maximize light collection using PMTs. Pulse shape discrimination techniques separate nuclear recoil signal from the electron recoil backgrounds resulting from the beta decay of 39Ar and Compton scattering of gamma rays. The design allows for the replacement of the target material with liquid neon to examine any signal and backgrounds with a different sensitivity. It also provides research and development for a larger scale low energy solar neutrino experiment using neon (CLEAN: Cryogenic Low Energy Astrophysics with Noble gases) that plans to measure the pp-solar neutrino flux to 1%. Particular attention is being paid to mitigating the background from contamination of surfaces by radon daughters during assembly. The engineering design, radon mitigation plan, and various testing setups are presented. MiniCLEAN-360 anticipates the start of data collection in mid-2009 at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

  11. FPGA-based 10-Gbit Ethernet Data Acquisition Interface for the Upgraded Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohs, J. Philipp; Atlas Liquid Argon calorimeter Group

    2014-06-01

    A stepwise upgrade of the LHC is foreseen starting now until the year 2023 to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to five times of its design value. It implies a challenge for the ATLAS experiment coping with the expected event pile-up, especially for the Level-1 calorimeter trigger system. In order to keep the trigger rates within the limited bandwidth new algorithms have to be applied which in turn requires an upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter trigger readout electronics. Towards this upgrade, the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter group develops a high-speed data acquisition interface in ATCA standard using commercial hardware instead of complex and expensive in-house developments where possible. This paper gives an overview of the general concepts of the DAQ interface, the engaged technologies and the current status of the development efforts for an FPGA based fast data link with a standard 10 Gbps Ethernet protocol which may also be useful for DAQ systems of other high energy physics experiments.

  12. First measurement of the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, T.; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Bernstein, A.; Foxe, Michael P.; Hagmann, Chris; Jovanovic, Igor; Kazkaz, K.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Norman, E. B.; Pereverzev, S. V.; Rebassoo, Finn O.; Sorensen, Peter F.

    2014-05-01

    Liquid phase argon has long been used as a target medium for particle detection via scintillation light. Recently there has been considerable interest in direct detection of both hypothetical darkmatter particles and coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. These as-yet unobserved neutral particle interactions are expected to result in a recoiling argon atom O(keV), generally referred to in the literature as a nuclear recoil. This prompts the question of the available electromagnetic signal in a liquid argon detector. In this Letter we report the first measurement of the ionization yield (Qy), detected electrons per unit energy, resulting from nuclear recoils in liquid argon, measured at 6.7 keV. This is also the lowest energy measurement of nuclear recoils in liquid argon.

  13. Thermal information regarding the cooldown and operation of liquid argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, R. A.; Cooper, W. E.; Dixon, K. D.; Krempetz, K. J.; Mulholland, G. T.; Primdahl, K.; Urbin, J. B.

    1993-07-01

    Three liquid argon calorimeters were cooled down and operated as part of the D-Zero detector at Fermi National Accelerator laboratory. The largest vessel contains 248 metric tons of uranium and copper plates and 19 kL (5000 gal.) of liquid argon. The other two vessels are mirror images, each containing 185 metric tons of uranium and stainless steel plates and 12.1 kL (3200 gal.) of liquid argon. The cool down was accomplished by convection heat transfer between boiling liquid nitrogen filled finned heat exchangers and argon gas inside the vessels. Information regarding the general internal geometry of the calorimeters, cool down, operation, and steady state heat loads will be presented.

  14. A new ozone standard - The vapor pressure of ozone at liquid argon temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Hanson, D.; Morton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure of ozone has been measured at liquid argon temperatures. At the normal boiling point of argon (-185.9 C) an ozone pressure of 0.0405 torr was obtained with an accuracy of + or - 1.5 percent. Increases and decreases in liquid argon temperatures raised and lowered the ozone vapor pressure, respectively. During the vapor pressure measurements the purity of ozone was monitored with a mass spectrometer. The proposed ozone standard will considerably improve the calibration of experiments for atmospheric research, the determination of absorption cross sections and other laboratory ozone studies.

  15. The lead-liquid argon calorimeter for FNAL-E653

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, R.M.; Freyberger, A.P.; Lipton, R.J.; Nichols, W.R.; Potter, D.M.; Russ, J.S.; Zhang, Y.L.

    1987-02-01

    A lead-liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter has been constructed for Fermilab experiment E-653. The design, operation, energy and spatial resolution, and analysis are described. A description of a unique read-out geometry which gives the detector powerful pattern recognition capability is also given.

  16. First demonstration of imaging cosmic muons in a two-phase Liquid Argon TPC using an EMCCD camera and a THGEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrokoridis, K.; Carroll, J.; McCormick, K. J.; Paudyal, P.; Roberts, A.; Smith, N. A.; Touramanis, C.

    2015-10-01

    Colossal two-phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPCs) are a proposed option for future long-baseline neutrino experiments. This study illustrates the feasibility of using an EMCCD camera to capture light induced by single cosmic events in a two-phase LAr TPC employing a THGEM. An Andor iXon Ultra 897 EMCCD camera was externally mounted via a borosilicate glass viewport on the Liverpool two-phase LAr TPC. The camera successfully captured the secondary scintillation light produced at the THGEM holes that had been induced by cosmic events. The light collection capability of the camera for various EMCCD gains was assessed. For a THGEM gain of 64 and an EMCCD gain of 1000, clear images were captured with an average signal-to-noise ratio of 6. Preliminary 3D reconstruction of straight cosmic muon tracks has been performed by combining the camera images, PMT signals and THGEM charge data. Reconstructed cosmic muon tracks were used to determine THGEM gain and to calibrate the intensity levels of the EMCCD image.

  17. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter and its performance after two years of LHC operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aperio Bella, L.

    2013-08-01

    The ATLAS detector is designed to study proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its calorimeter system, for the electromagnetic and forward part and for a fraction of the hadronic part, is made of liquid argon sampling calorimeters. During the 2011 data taking period, ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency and recorded more than 5fb-1 integrated luminosity of 7 TeV center of mass energy proton-proton collisions. The ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters played a significant role in this achievement. Its main features are first described. Then, some of its performances over the past two years are given. Highlights are put on its operation, calibration, stability and data taking efficiency, as well as on the related physics performances.

  18. Upgraded Readout Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andeen, Timothy R.; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sum analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up background expected during the high luminosity phases of the LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons or photons, at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new Liquid Argon Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new, off-detector digital processing system. The digital processing system applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions. The refined trigger primitives are then transmitted to the first level trigger system to extract improved trigger signatures. The general concept of the upgraded liquid-argon calorimeter readout together with the various electronics components to be developed for such a complex system is presented. The research activities and architectural studies undertaken by the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group are described, particularly details of the on-going design of mixed-signal front-end electronics, of radiation tolerant optical-links, and of the high-speed off-detector digital processing system.

  19. Thermal conductivity of liquid argon in nanochannels from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Hyżorek, Krzysztof; Tretiakov, Konstantin V

    2016-05-21

    The thermal conductivity of liquid argon in nanochannels has been calculated over a wide range of densities using two independent methods-the Green-Kubo approach in equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and the Müller-Plathe method in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The Lennard-Jones potential was used to model interatomic interactions. The influence of transversal size and shape of a nanochannel on the thermal conductivity of liquid argon along the length of the channel has been investigated. The transversal size of nanochannel varied from 2.25 nm to 15 nm. The simulations revealed that the thermal conductivity weakly depends on the shape (square vs circular) of channel and scales with a cross-sectional area of nanochannel. It has been observed that thermal conductivity increases with an increase of the transversal size of the channel. Also, it reaches bulk values for some characteristic size of channel that depends strongly on density. Good agreement of the computed thermal conductivities of liquid argon over a wide density range with the experimental data allowed the value of the characteristic size of channel as a function of density to be estimated. This value depends on density and varies from 5 nm to 11 nm.

  20. Modeling ionization and recombination from low energy nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxe, M.; Hagmann, C.; Jovanovic, I.; Bernstein, A.; Joshi, T. H.; Kazkaz, K.; Mozin, V.; Pereverzev, S. V.; Sangiorgio, S.; Sorensen, P.

    2015-09-01

    Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS) is an as-yet undetected, flavor-independent neutrino interaction predicted by the Standard Model. Detection of CENNS could offer benefits for detection of supernova and solar neutrinos in astrophysics, or for detection of antineutrinos for nuclear reactor monitoring and nuclear nonproliferation. One challenge with detecting CENNS is the low energy deposition associated with a typical CENNS nuclear recoil. In addition, nuclear recoils result in lower ionization yields than those produced by electron recoils of the same energy. While a measurement of the nuclear recoil ionization yield in liquid argon in the keV energy range has been recently reported, a corresponding model for low-energy ionization yield in liquid argon does not exist. For this reason, a Monte Carlo simulation has been developed to predict the ionization yield at sub-10 keV energies. The model consists of two distinct components: (1) simulation of the atomic collision cascade with production of ionization, and (2) the thermalization and drift of ionization electrons in an applied electric field including local recombination. As an application of our results we report updated estimates of detectable ionization in liquid argon from CENNS at a nuclear reactor.

  1. Calibration of liquid argon and neon detectors with {sup 83}Kr{sup m}

    SciTech Connect

    Lippincott, W. H.; Cahn, S. B.; Kastens, L. W.; McKinsey, D. N.; Nikkel, J. A.; Gastler, D.; Kearns, E.

    2010-04-15

    We report results from tests of {sup 83}Kr{sup m} as a calibration source in liquid argon and liquid neon. {sup 83}Kr{sup m} atoms are produced in the decay of {sup 83}Rb, and a clear {sup 83}Kr{sup m} scintillation peak at 41.5 keV appears in both liquids when filling our detector through zeolite coated with {sup 83}Rb. Based on this scintillation peak, we observe 6.0 photoelectrons/keV in liquid argon with a resolution of 8.2% (sigma/E) and 3.0 photoelectrons/keV in liquid neon with a resolution of 19% (sigma/E). The observed peak intensity subsequently decays with the {sup 83}Kr{sup m} half-life after stopping the fill, and we find evidence that the spatial location of {sup 83}Kr{sup m} atoms in the chamber can be resolved. {sup 83}Kr{sup m} will be a useful calibration source for liquid argon, neon dark matter, and solar neutrino detectors.

  2. Photodiode radiation hardness, lyman-alpha emitting galaxies and photon detection in liquid argon neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Brian

    My dissertation is comprised of three projects: 1) studies of Lyman-alpha Emitting galaxies (LAEs), 2) radiation hardness studies of InGaAs photodiodes (PDs), and 3) scintillation photon detection in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors. I began work on the project that has now become WFIRST, developing a science case that would use WFIRST after launch for the observation of LAEs. The radiation hardness of PDs was as an effort to support the WFIRST calibration team. When WFIRST was significantly delayed, I joined an R&D effort that applied my skills to work on photon detection in LAr neutrino detectors. I report results on a broadband selection method developed to detect high equivalent width (EW) LAEs. Using photometry from the CFHT-Legacy Survey Deep 2 and 3 fields, I have spectroscopically confirmed 63 z=2.5-3.5 LAEs using the WIYN/Hydra spectrograph. Using UV continuum-fitting techniques I computed properties such as EWs, internal reddening and star formation rates. 62 of my LAEs show evidence to be normal dust-free LAEs. Second, I present an investigation into the effects of ionizing proton radiation on commercial off-the-shelf InGaAs PDs. I developed a monochromator-based test apparatus that utilized NIST-calibrated reference PDs. I tested the PDs for changes to their dark current, relative responsivity as a function of wavelength, and absolute responsivity. I irradiated the test PDs using 30, 52, and 98 MeV protons at the IU Cyclotron Facility. I found the InGaAs PDs showed increased dark current as the fluence increased with no evidence of broadband response degradation at the fluences expected at an L2 orbit and a 10-year mission lifetime. Finally, I detail my efforts on technology development of both optical detector technologies and waveshifting light guide construction for LAr vacuum UV scintillation light. Cryogenic neutrino detectors use photon detection for both accelerator based science and for SNe neutrino detection and proton decay. I have

  3. A 20-liter test stand with gas purification for liquid argon research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Thorn, C.; Tang, W.; Joshi, J.; Qian, X.; Diwan, M.; Kettell, S.; Morse, W.; Rao, T.; Stewart, J.; Tsang, T.; Zhang, L.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the design of a 20-liter test stand constructed to study fundamental properties of liquid argon (LAr). This system utilizes a simple, cost-effective gas argon (GAr) purification to achieve high purity, which is necessary to study electron transport properties in LAr. An electron drift stack with up to 25 cm length is constructed to study electron drift, diffusion, and attachment at various electric fields. A gold photocathode and a pulsed laser are used as a bright electron source. The operational performance of this system is reported.

  4. A 20-liter test stand with gas purification for liquid argon research

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Y.; Thorn, C.; Tang, W.; Joshi, J.; Qian, X.; Diwan, M.; Kettell, S.; Morse, W.; Rao, T.; Stewart, J.; et al

    2016-06-06

    Here, we describe the design of a 20-liter test stand constructed to study fundamental properties of liquid argon (LAr). Moreover, this system utilizes a simple, cost-effective gas argon (GAr) purification to achieve high purity, which is necessary to study electron transport properties in LAr. An electron drift stack with up to 25 cm length is constructed to study electron drift, diffusion, and attachment at various electric fields. Finally, a gold photocathode and a pulsed laser are used as a bright electron source. The operational performance of this system is reported.

  5. Laser-induced surface modification of metals and alloys in liquid argon medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakevich, V. S.; Kazakevich, P. V.; Yaresko, P. S.; Kamynina, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    Micro and nanostructuring of metals and alloys surfaces (Ti, Mo, Ni, T30K4) was considered by subnanocosecond laser radiation in stationary and dynamic mode in the liquid argon, ethanol and air. Depending of structures size on the samples surface from the energy density and the number of pulses were built. Non-periodic (NSS) and periodic (PSS) surface structures with periods about λ-λ/2 were obtained. PSS formation took place as at the target surface so at the NSS surface.

  6. Performance and calibration of the D0 uranium liquid-argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Guida, J.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-01-01

    The performance of the D{phi} uranium liquid-argon calorimeter is discussed, as well as the electromagnetic energy calibration. Results from test beam studies and collider data are incorporated to estimate the energy scale. The {phi} symmetry of the events is used to improve the understanding of the electromagnetic part of the calorimeter, and the EM energy scale is determined from Z {yields} e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} events. The calorimeter`s response to other resonances is also investigated.

  7. A cryogenic monitor system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter in the SLD detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.J.; Fox, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    This paper describes the monitoring electronics system design for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) portion of the SLD detector. This system measures temperatures and liquid levels inside the LAC cryostat and transfers the results over a fiber-optic serial link to an external monitoring computer. System requirements, unique design constraints, and detailed analog, digital and software designs are presented. Fault tolerance and the requirement for a single design to work in several different operating environments are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A G/NARRLI Effort. Measuring the Ionization Yield of Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Tenzing Henry Yatish

    2014-01-01

    Liquid argon has long been used for particle detection due to its attractive drift properties, ample abundance, and reasonable density. The response of liquid argon to lowenergy O(102 -1044 eV) interactions is, however, largely unexplored. Weakly interacting massive particles such as neutrinos and hypothetical dark-matter particles (WIMPs) are predicted to coherently scatter on atomic nuclei, leaving only an isolated low-energy nuclear recoil as evidence. The response of liquid argon to low-energy nuclear recoils must be studied to determine the sensitivity of liquid argon based detectors to these unobserved interactions. Detectors sensitive to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering may be used to monitor nuclear reactors from a distance, to detect neutrinos from supernova, and to test the predicted behavior of neutrinos. Additionally, direct detection of hypothetical weakly interacting dark matter would be a large step toward understanding the substance that accounts for nearly 27% of the universe. In this dissertation I discuss a small dual-phase (liquid-gas) argon proportional scintillation counter built to study the low-energy regime and several novel calibration and characterization techniques developed to study the response of liquid argon to low-energy O(102 -104 eV) interactions.

  9. First Tests of a New Fast Waveform Digitizer for PMT Signal Read-out from Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelc, A. M.; Canci, N.; Cavanna, F.; Cortopassi, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Mini, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Romboli, A.; Segreto, E.; Acciarri, R.

    A new generation Waveform Digitizer board as been recently made available on the market by CAEN. The new board CAEN V1751 with 8 Channels per board, 10 bit, 1 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer (or 4 channel, 10 bit, 2 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer -Dual Edge Sampling mode) with threshold and Auto-Trigger capabilities provides an ideal (relatively low-cost) solution for reading signals from liquid Argon detectors for Dark Matter search equipped with an array of PMTs for the detection of scintillation light. The board was extensively used in real experimental conditions to test its usefulness for possible future uses and to compare it with a state of the art digital oscilloscope. As results, PMT Signal sampling at 1 or 2 GS/s is appropriate for the reconstruction of the fast component of the signal scintillation in Argon (characteristic time of about 4 ns) and the extended dynamic range, after a small customization, allows for the detection of signals in the range of energy needed. The bandwidth is found to be adequate and the intrinsic noise is very low.

  10. Numerical experiments on evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid argon film on aluminum nanostructure substrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Zhang, Haiyan; Tian, Conghui; Meng, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film are of great significant fundamental importance for both science and engineering applications. The evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film absorbed on an aluminum nanostructure solid wall are investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated system consists of three regions: liquid argon, vapor argon, and an aluminum substrate decorated with nanostructures of different heights. Those simulations begin with an initial configuration for the complex liquid-vapor-solid system, followed by an equilibrating system at 90 K, and conclude with two different jump temperatures, including 150 and 310 K which are far beyond the critical temperature. The space and time dependences of temperature, pressure, density number, and net evaporation rate are monitored to investigate the phase transition process on a flat surface with and without nanostructures. The simulation results reveal that the nanostructures are of great help to raise the heat transfer efficiency and that evaporation rate increases with the nanostructures' height in a certain range.

  11. New Measurement of ^39Ar in Underground Argon with a Low Background Liquid Argon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingke

    2012-03-01

    A low background liquid argon detector has been developed for sensitive measurements of the beta radioactive ^39Ar in argon from underground sources. The measurement is motivated by the need to improve on earlier studies that showed no sign of ^39Ar in certain sources of underground argon, but with a limited sensitivity of ˜ 5% relative to ^39Ar in atmospheric argon[1]. We will report preliminary measurements taken with the low background detector that was commissioned and operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) in Virginia. A combination of passive and active background reduction techniques resulted in a very low background and a null result with sensitivity to ^39Ar less than 1% of atmospheric. The results confirm that underground argon is well suited for direct detection of dark matter WIMPs. [4pt] [1] D. Acosta-Kane et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 587:46 (2008)

  12. Performance of VUV-sensitive MPPC for liquid argon scintillation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Washimi, T.; Yorita, K.

    2016-10-01

    A new multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) sensitive to vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) light (wavelength λ < 150 nm) has recently been developed and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. In this study, the basic properties of the new MPPC are measured at the cryogenic facility of the Waseda University using liquid nitrogen. The temperature dependence of the breakdown voltage, capacitance, and dark count rate of the MPPCs are also evaluated. Using an 241Am α-ray source, the absolute photon detection efficiency (PDE) of the liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light (λ=128 nm) for the latest MPPC model is estimated to be 13%. Based on these basic measurements a possible application of the new MPPC to LAr detectors in dark matter search is suggested.

  13. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and Its Performance after One Year of LHC Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Julia; ATLAS Collaboration

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid Argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from η = 1.4 to η = 4.8. An overview of the system is shown as well as a discussion of its operation and performance at √s=900 GeV and 7 TeV since the start of LHC running. The latest status of the detector as well as problems and solutions addressed during the last years are also discussed.

  14. Muon-induced background to proton decay in the p →K+ ν decay channel with large underground liquid argon TPC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, J.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Richardson, M.; Spooner, N. J. C.

    2015-06-01

    Large liquid argon TPC detector programs such as LBNE and LAGUNA-LBNO will be able to make measurements of the proton lifetime which will outperform Cherenkov detectors in the proton decay channel p →K+ ν. At the large depths which are proposed for such experiments, a non-negligible source of isolated charged kaons may be produced in the showers of cosmogenic muons. We present an estimate of the cosmogenic muon background to proton decay in the p →K+ ν channel. The simulation of muon transport to a depth of 4 km w.e. is performed in the MUSIC framework and the subsequent propagation of muons and secondary particles in the vicinity of a cylindrical 20 kt LAr target is performed using GEANT4. An exposure time of 100 years is considered, with a rate of <0.0012 events/kt/year at 90% CL predicted from our simulations.

  15. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter; Performance after 2 years of LHC operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbouZeid, Hass; ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo-rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particle flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at about 88 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, around 9 fb-1 (as of June, 2012) of data have been collected at a center of mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating almost optimally, with performances very close to the specifications.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, N.

    2014-03-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose detector built for analyzing LHC collision data. In July 2012, ATLAS announced the discovery of the Higgs boson, the last undiscovered particle in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter played a crucial role in the discovery by providing accurate measurements of Higgs final state objects such as photons, electrons and jets. The LAr detector is a sampling calorimeter consisting of four subsystems: an electromagnetic barrel, electromagnetic endcaps, hadronic endcaps, and forward calorimeters. The purity and temperature of the liquid argon remained well above the required levels throughout the data-taking period. Overall the calorimeter performed very well, with over 99% of data it collected in 2012 proton-proton collisions being suitable for physics analyses. In order to ensure good LAr detector performance at future higher luminosity LHC operation, several upgrades are being planned and implemented.

  17. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter: One year of LHC operation and future upgrade plans for HL-LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, P. W.

    2011-07-01

    An overview of the ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeter system is provided, along with a discussion of its operation and performance during the first year of LHC running. Upgrade planning related to the proposed high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC is also discussed, with an emphasis on the forward part of the calorimeter where the effects of the higher luminosity are a particular challenge. (authors)

  18. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance after Three Years of LHC Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampl, W.

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo-rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadron calorimetry in the range 1.5-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterised by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadron calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at approximately 89 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, around 27 fb-1 of data have been collected at centre of mass energies of 7-8 TeV. During all these stages, the calorimeter has been operating almost optimally, with performance very close to specifications. The talk will cover all aspects of these first years of operation, including the calibration efforts and the data quality assessment procedure. The excellent performance achieved will also be briefly reviewed, especially in the context of the recently announced discovery of the Higgs boson.

  19. An IR spectroscopic study of liquid ozone and ozone dissolved in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanin, K. M.; Kolomiitsova, T. D.; Bertsev, V. V.; Shchepkin, D. N.

    2013-02-01

    We have measured and interpreted the IR spectra of liquid ozone films at 78-85 K and ozone dissolved in liquid argon at 91-95 K. A less hindered rotation of ozone molecules in argon manifests itself as an intensity redistribution, caused by the Coriolis interaction, from the states ν3( B 1) and ν1 + ν3( B 1) to the states ν1( A 1) and 2ν1( A 1), respectively. The occurrence of wings in the contours of the bands ν1( A 1), 2ν1( A 1), and 2ν3( A 1) in liquid Ar and their absence in the spectrum of O3 also confirms the conclusion that the rotational motion of ozone molecules in an inert solvent at low temperatures is relatively less hindered. Maxima of ozone bands in Ar solution are shifted toward lower frequencies compared to those in the gas phase by 1-30 cm-1, which corresponds to the following shifts of harmonic frequencies of the molecule: Δω1 = -1.85(5) cm-1, Δω2 = -0.67(7) cm-1, Δω3=-7.20(5) cm-1. It was found that the absorption band of the ν3 mode in the spectrum of O3 in the liquid phase has a complicated asymmetric contour because of the resonance dipole-dipole interaction. The first and second spectral moments of this band have been determined to be M 1 = 1030.6 cm-1 and M 2 = 240.0 cm-2.

  20. Modeling ionization and recombination from low energy nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; Hagmann, Chris; Jovanovic, Igor; Bernstein, A.; Joshi, T.; Kazkaz, K.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Pereverzev, S. V.; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Sorensen, Peter F.

    2015-09-01

    Coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering (CNNS) is an as-yet undetected, flavor-independent neutrino interaction predicted by the Standard Model. CNNS is a flavor-blind interaction, which offers potential benefits for its use in nonproliferation (nuclear reactor monitoring) and astrophysics (supernova and solar neutrinos) applications. One challenge with detecting CNNS is the low energy deposition associated with a typical CNNS nuclear recoil. In addition, nuclear recoils are predicted to result in lower ionization yields than those produced by electron recoils of the same energy. This ratio of nuclear- and electron-induced ionization, known as the nuclear quenching factor, is unknown at energies typical for CNNS interactions in liquid xenon (LXe) and liquid argon (LAr), detector media being considered for CNNS detection. While there have been recent measurements [1] of the ionization yield from nuclear recoils in LAr, there is no universal model for nuclear quenching and ionization yield. For this reason, a Monte Carlo simulation has been developed to predict the ionization yield at sub-10 keV energies. The local ionization yield of a recoiling atom in the medium is calculated first. The ejected electrons are subsequently tracked in the electric field resulting from both the local electric charges and the externally applied drift field. The dependence of the ionization yield on the drift electric field is obtained by combining the calculated ionization yield for the initial collision cascade with the electron escape probability. An updated estimate of the CNNS signal expected in a LAr detector operated near a nuclear power reactor is presented.

  1. Measurement of the response of the ATLAS liquid argon barrel calorimeter to electrons at the 2004 combined test-beam

    SciTech Connect

    Aharrouche, M.; Ma, H.; Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Aleksa, M.; Banfi, D.; Benchekroun, D.; Benslama, K.; Boonekamp, M.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Chen, H.; Citterio, M.; Dannheim, D.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Girolamo, B.; El Kacimi, M.; Fanti, M.; Froeschl, R.; Fournier, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Kado, M.; Kerschen, N.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Laplace, S.; Lechowski, M.; Lelas, D.; Liang, Z.; Loureiro, K.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; McPherson, R.; Meng, Z.; Paganis, S.; Prieur, D.; Puzo, P.; Ridel, M.; Riu, I.; Rousseau, D.; Sauvage, G.; Schwemling, P.; Simon, S.; Spano, F.; Straessner, A.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Thioye, M.; Unal, G.; Wilkens, H.; Wingerter-Seez, I. and Zhang, H.

    2010-03-11

    During summer and fall 2004, the response of a full slice of the ATLAS barrel detector to different particles was studied in controlled beam. One module of the ATLAS liquid argon barrel calorimeter - identical to the production modules and read out by the final front-end and back-end electronics - was used for electromagnetic calorimetry. This paper presents and discusses the electron performance of the LAr barrel calorimeter, including linearity, uniformity, and resolution with different amounts of material upstream the calorimeter and energies ranging from 1 to 250 GeV.

  2. Analysis of the 222Rn concentration in argon and a purification technique for gaseous and liquid argon.

    PubMed

    Simgen, H; Zuzel, G

    2009-05-01

    We present an investigation of the (222)Rn concentration in argon with ultra-low background proportional counters. Argon purification tests by means of cryo-adsorption of radon on activated carbon were performed. For gaseous argon the purification process was found to be very efficient. Also in liquid phase the (222)Rn concentration could be reduced significantly, however, the efficiency is lower than in the gas phase. We also have analyzed the initial (222)Rn concentrations in commercial liquid argon. It was found to be significantly higher than in liquid nitrogen.

  3. A low-latency, low-overhead encoder for data transmission in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Le; Li, Xiaoting; Gong, Datao; Chen, Jinghong; Deng, Binwei; Fan, Qingjun; Feng, Yulang; Guo, Di; He, Huiqin; Hou, Suen; Huang, Guangming; Liu, Chonghan; Liu, Tiankuan; Sun, Xiangming; Tang, Yuxuan; Teng, Ping-Kun; Vosooghi, Bozorgmehr; Xiang, Annie C.; Ye, Jingbo; You, Yang; Zuo, Zhiheng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present the design and test results of an encoder integrated circuit for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade. The encoder implements a low-latency and low-overhead line code called LOCic. The encoder operates at 320 MHz with a latency of no greater than 21 ns. The overhead of the encoder is 14.3%. The encoder is an important block of the transmitter ASIC LOCx2, which is prototyped with a commercial 0.25 μm Silicon-on-Sapphire CMOS technology and packaged in a 100-pin QFN package.

  4. VUV-Vis optical characterization of Tetraphenyl-butadiene films on glass and specular reflector substrates from room to liquid Argon temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francini, R.; Montereali, R. M.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Canci, N.; Segreto, E.; Cavanna, F.; Di Pompeo, F.; Carbonara, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Perfetto, F.

    2013-09-01

    The use of efficient wavelength-shifters from the vacuum-ultraviolet to the photo-sensor's range of sensitivity is a key feature in detectors for Dark Matter search and neutrino physics based on liquid argon scintillation detection. Thin film of Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) deposited onto the surface delimiting the active volume of the detector and/or onto the photosensor optical window is the most common solution in current and planned experiments. Detector design and response can be evaluated and correctly simulated only when the properties of the optical system in use (TPB film + substrate) are fully understood. Characterization of the optical system requires specific, sometimes sophisticated optical methodologies. In this paper the main features of TPB coatings on different, commonly used substrates is reported, as a result of two independent campaigns of measurements at the specialized optical metrology labs of ENEA and University of Tor Vergata. Measured features include TPB emission spectra with lineshape and relative intensity variation recorded as a function of the film thickness and for the first time down to LAr temperature, as well as optical reflectance and transmittance spectra of the TPB coated substrates in the wavelength range of the TPB emission.

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strizenec, P.

    2014-09-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid Argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a parallel plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at 88.5 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, around 27 fb-1 of data have been collected at a unprecedented center of mass energies between 7 TeV and 8 TeV. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating with performances very close to the specification ones. After 2019, the instantaneous luminosity will reach 2-3 × 1034 cm-2s-1, well above the luminosity for which the calorimeter was designed. In order to preserve its triggering capabilities, the detector will be upgraded with a new fully digital trigger system with a refined granularity. In 2023, the instantaneous luminosity will ultimately reach 5-7 × 1034 cm-2s-1, requiring a complete replacement of the readout electronics. Moreover, with an increased particle flux, several phenomena (liquid argon boiling, space charge effects...) will affect the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal). A replacement with a new FCal with smaller LAr gaps or a new calorimeter module are considered. The performance of these new

  6. IR spectroscopic study of the HCl···O3 molecular complex in liquid argon.

    PubMed

    Bulanin, Capital Ka Cyrillic М; Bulychev, V P; Herrebout, W; Schepkin, D N

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectra are reported of ozone and HCl dissolved in liquid argon (86-134 K) at concentrations varying from 5×10(-5) to 9×10(-6) M for HCl, and from 1×10(-3) to 5×10(-5) M for ozone. At low concentrations of O3 and of HCl, no spectral features due to O3-HCl complex were found. At higher concentrations (1×10(-3) of ozone vs 5×10(-5)-9×10(-6) of HCl), a new band near 2840 cm(-1) due to the HCl···O3 complex was observed. FWHM of νHCl of the complex is 8 cm(-1). From the temperature dependence of the absorption band intensity, the enthalpy of the complex formation was estimated, ΔH°=4.7±0.4 kJ mole(-1). The optimized geometry of the cis-HCl···O3 complex and a value of 6.3 kJ mole(-1) for its binding energy were determined by ab initio calculations.

  7. Phase-I trigger readout electronics upgrade of the ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    This article gives an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Trigger Readout. The design of custom developed hardware for fast real-time data processing and transfer are presented. Performance results from the prototype boards operated in the demonstrator system, first measurements of noise behavior and responses on the test pulses to the demonstrator system are shown.

  8. X-ray ionization yields and energy spectra in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, A.; Buzulutskov, A.; Dolgov, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Sokolov, A.

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to provide reference data on X-ray ionization yields and energy spectra in liquid Ar to the studies in the field of Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) for rare-event and other experiments, based on liquid Ar detectors. We present the results of two related researches. First, the X-ray recombination coefficients in the energy range of 10-1000 keV and ionization yields at different electric fields, between 0.6 and 2.3 kV/cm, are determined in liquid Ar based on the results of a dedicated experiment. Second, the energy spectra of pulsed X-rays in liquid Ar in the energy range of 15-40 keV, obtained in given experiments including that with the two-phase CRAD, are interpreted and compared to those calculated using a computer program, to correctly determine the absorbed X-ray energy. The X-ray recombination coefficients and ionization yields have for the first time been presented for liquid Ar in systematic way.

  9. Optical readout of a two phase liquid argon TPC using CCD camera and THGEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrokoridis, K.; Ball, F.; Carroll, J.; Lazos, M.; McCormick, K. J.; Smith, N. A.; Touramanis, C.; Walker, J.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study into the use of CCDs to image secondary scintillation light generated by THick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEMs) in a two phase LAr TPC. A Sony ICX285AL CCD chip was mounted above a double THGEM in the gas phase of a 40 litre two-phase LAr TPC with the majority of the camera electronics positioned externally via a feedthrough. An Am-241 source was mounted on a rotatable motion feedthrough allowing the positioning of the alpha source either inside or outside of the field cage. Developed for and incorporated into the TPC design was a novel high voltage feedthrough featuring LAr insulation. Furthermore, a range of webcams were tested for operation in cryogenics as an internal detector monitoring tool. Of the range of webcams tested the Microsoft HD-3000 (model no:1456) webcam was found to be superior in terms of noise and lowest operating temperature. In ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure 1 ppm pure argon gas, the THGEM gain was ≈ 1000 and using a 1 msec exposure the CCD captured single alpha tracks. Successful operation of the CCD camera in two-phase cryogenic mode was also achieved. Using a 10 sec exposure a photograph of secondary scintillation light induced by the Am-241 source in LAr has been captured for the first time.

  10. TIME Project: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.K.; Ford, J.

    1990-01-01

    The chapter describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) monitoring project to assess the effects of changes in acidic deposition on surface waters of the United States. This project is referred to as TIME (Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems). The TIME Project has been in the conceptual and design stage during the period 1987-1989. The planning period has allowed careful attention to many aspects of network design not usually covered prior to field implementation. The network design issues discussed in the paper are addressed within the context of the need for a policy-relevant, cost-effective national monitoring network to assess the effects of changes in atmospheric deposition of specific pollutants (sulfate and nitrate) on specific and well-defined target resources (U.S. surface waters of low acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC)).

  11. The STAR Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Retiere, F.; STAR Collaboration

    2002-01-11

    The STAR Time Projection Chamber was successfully operated during the first RHIC run in 2000. Most of the STAR contributions reported in these proceedings are based on the analysis of data from the TPC. In this article, we show that the performance achieved by the TPC, in terms of track reconstruction, position resolution, and particle identification are well suited for measuring precise and reliable physics observables.

  12. Long-term operation of a double phase LAr LEM Time Projection Chamber with a simplified anode and extraction-grid design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantini, C.; Epprecht, L.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Murphy, S.; Natterer, G.; Periale, L.; Resnati, F.; Rubbia, A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Viant, T.; Wu, S.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the successful operation of a double phase Liquid Argon Large Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber (LAr LEM-TPC) equipped with two dimensional projective anodes with dimensions 10 × 10 cm2, and with a maximum drift length of 21 cm. The anodes were manufactured for the first time from a single multilayer printed circuit board (PCB). Various layouts of the readout views have been tested and optimised. In addition, the ionisation charge was efficiently extracted from the liquid to the gas phase with a single grid instead of two previously. We studied the response and the gain of the detector to cosmic muon tracks. To study long-term stability over several weeks, we continuously operated the chamber at fixed electric field settings. We reproducibly observe that after an initial decrease with a characteristic time of τ ≈ 1.6 days, the observed gain is stable. In 46 days of operation, a total of 14.6 million triggers have been collected at a stable effective gain of G∞ ~ 15 corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)gtrsim60 for minimum ionising tracks. During the full period, eight discharges across the LEM were observed. A maximum effective gain of 90 was also observed, corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)gtrsim400 for minimum ionising tracks, or S/N ≈ 10 for an energy deposition of 15 keV on a single readout channel.

  13. Development of an ATCA IPMI controller mezzanine board to be used in the ATCA developments for the ATLAS Liquid Argon upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont Dayot, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LHC upgrade, we develop a new Read Out Driver (ROD) for the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) community. ATCA and μTCA (Advanced/Micro Telecom Computing Architecture) is becoming a standard in high energy physics and a strong candidate to be used for boards and crates. We work to master ATCA and to integrate a large number of high speed links (96 links at 8.5 Gbps) on a ROD evaluation ATCA board. A versatile ATCA IPMI controller for ATCA boards which is FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) compliant has been developed to control the ROD evaluation board.

  14. LOCx2, a low-latency, low-overhead, 2 × 5.12-Gbps transmitter ASIC for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, L.; Li, X.; Gong, D.; Chen, J.; Guo, D.; He, H.; Hou, S.; Huang, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Sun, X.; Teng, P.; Vosooghi, B.; Xiang, A. C.; Ye, J.; You, Y.; Zuo, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present the design and test results of LOCx2, a transmitter ASIC for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade. LOCx2 consists of two channels and each channel encodes ADC data with an overhead of 14.3% and transmits serial data at 5.12 Gbps with a latency of less than 27.2 ns. LOCx2 is fabricated with a commercial 0.25-μm Silicon-on-Sapphire CMOS technology and is packaged in a 100-pin QFN package. The power consumption of LOCx2 is about 843 mW.

  15. First operation and drift field performance of a large area double phase LAr Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber with an immersed Greinacher high-voltage multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badertscher, A.; Curioni, A.; Degunda, U.; Epprecht, L.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Knecht, L.; Lussi, D.; Marchionni, A.; Natterer, G.; Nguyen, K.; Resnati, F.; Rubbia, A.; Viant, T.

    2012-08-01

    We have operated a liquid-argon large-electron-multiplier time-projection chamber (LAr LEM-TPC) with a large active area of 76 × 40 cm2 and a drift length of 60 cm. This setup represents the largest chamber ever achieved with this novel detector concept. The chamber is equipped with an immersed built-in cryogenic Greinacher multi-stage high-voltage (HV) multiplier, which, when subjected to an external AC HV of ~ 1 kVpp, statically charges up to a voltage a factor of ~ 30 higher inside the LAr vessel, creating a uniform drift field of ~ 0.5 kV/cm over the full drift length. This large LAr LEM-TPC was brought into successful operation in the double-phase (liquid-vapor) operation mode and tested during a period of ~ 1 month, recording impressive three-dimensional images of very high-quality from cosmic particles traversing or interacting in the sensitive volume. The double phase readout and HV systems achieved stable operation in cryogenic conditions demonstrating their good characteristics, which particularly suit applications for next-generation giant-scale LAr-TPCs.

  16. Projects Worth Some Summer Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Four ways teachers can prepare for the upcoming school year are outlined: (1) organizing "teacher-idea" clippings; (2) planning for minicourses; (3) a project for cleaning up the community; and (4) setting up a classroom interest center. (JMK)

  17. Multiple View Geometry under Projective Projection in Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Cheng; Sato, Jun

    This paper introduces multiple view geometry under projective projection from four-dimensional, space to two-dimensional space which can represent multiple view geometry under the projection of space-time. We show the multifocal tensors defined under space-time projective projection can be derived from non-rigid object motions viewed from multiple cameras with arbitrary translational motions, and they are practical for generating images of non-rigid object motions viewed from cameras with arbitrary translational motions. The method is tested in real image sequences.

  18. Time-dependent projected Hartree-Fock

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-03-28

    Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) has recently emerged as an alternative approach to describing degenerate systems where static correlation is abundant, when the spin-symmetry is projected. Here, we derive a set of linearized time-dependent equations for PHF in order to be able to access excited states. The close connection of such linear-response time-dependent PHF (TDPHF) to the stability condition of a PHF wave function is discussed. Expanding this analysis also makes it possible to give analytical expressions for the projected coupling terms of Hamiltonian and overlaps between excited Slater determinants. TDPHF with spin-projection (TDSUHF) and its Tamm-Dancoff approximation are benchmarked for several electronically degenerate molecules including the dissociating H{sub 2}, F{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at equilibrium, and the distorted ethylene. It is shown that they give consistently better descriptions of excited states than does time-dependent HF (TDHF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that they offer not only singly but also doubly excited states, which naturally arise upon spin-projection. We also address the thermodynamic limit of TDSUHF, using non-interacting He gas. While TDPHF singly excited states tend to converge to those of HF with the size of the system due to the lack of size-extensivity of PHF, doubly excited states remain reasonable even at the thermodynamic limit. We find that the overall performance of our method is systematically better than the regular TDHF in many cases at the same computational scaling.

  19. High pressure hydrogen time projection chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a high pressure hydrogen gas time projection chamber which consists of two cylindrical drift regions each 45 cm in diameter and 75 cm long. Typically, at 15 atm of H/sub 2/ with 2 kV/cm drift field and 7 kV on the 35..mu.. sense wires, the drift velocity is about 0.5 cm/..mu..sec and the spatial resolution +-200..mu...

  20. Container Refurbishment Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aloi, t.; anthony, p; blair, t; forester, c; hall, k; hawk, t; gordon, b; johnsen, s; keck, g; clifford, m; reichert, d; rogers, p; richards, w; smallen, p; tilley, e

    2000-05-15

    In mid-1999, a Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) project was initiated by senior management to improve the overall efficiency of the Container Refurbishment process. A cross-functional team was formed by the Industrial Engineering Services group within Product Certification Organization to evaluate the current process and to propose necessary changes for improvement. The CTR team efforts have resulted in increased productivity equaling approximately $450K per year. The effort also significantly reduced the wait time required necessary to start assembly work on the shop floor. Increasing daily production time and identifying delays were key team goals. Following is a brief summary of accomplishments: (A) Productivity Improvements: (1) Reduced Radcon survey time for empty containers: (i) 50% at 9720-3 (ii) 67% at 9204-2 and (iii) 100% at 9212; (2) Eliminated container inspections at 9720-3; (3) Reduced charged time (includes hands-on labor and support functions) per empty container by 25%; (4) Reduced cycle time to refurbish a container by 25%. (Dramatic wait time reduction -Assembly); (5) Reduced the time for 9212 to receive empty, refurbished containers by 67-80%; (6) Reduced the time for 9204-2E to receive empty, refurbished containers from 1 day to immediate; (7) Implemented software to track time charged per container for continuous improvement; (8) Initiated continuous improvement efforts between Workstream experts and Refurbishment personnel, reworded complex Workstream prompts to allow worker data corrections, and reduces time of support groups, Workstream personnel, and Refurbishment personnel; (9) Consolidated refurbished, container warehousing areas, eliminated long travel times to areas outside the protected area portals to an area in the vicinity of the refurbishment area and a process area, benefits are improved container flow and better housekeeping; and (10) improved overall communication of team by flowcharting entire process. B. Annual Cost Savings: $453K

  1. Performance of the TOPAZ time projection chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Shirahashi, A.; Aihara, H.; Itoh, R.; Kamae, T.; Kusuki, N.; Tanaka, M.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, K.; Ikeda, H.; Iwasaki, H.

    1988-02-01

    The TOPAZ detector has began taking data at the TRISTAN e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliding beam ring in May 1987. The major detector elements including the time projection chamber (TPC) have been working quite satisfactorily. The authors report here the performance of TPC based on real e/sup +/e/sup -/ events and cosmic ray events. They measure spatial resolution of sigma/sub xy/ = 185..mu..m and sigma/sub z/ = 335..mu..m, momentum resolution of sigma/sub PT//P/sub T/ = ..sqrt..(1.5P/sub T/)/sup 2/ + (1.6)/sup 2%/ and dE/dx resolution of 4.6%.

  2. Project Management in Real Time: A Service-Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Erik; Drexler, John A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a service-learning assignment for a project management course. It is designed to facilitate hands-on student learning of both the technical and the interpersonal aspects of project management, and it involves student engagement with real customers and real stakeholders in the creation of real events with real outcomes. As…

  3. The Sol project: the sun in time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, L. G. F.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Do Nascimento, J. D., Jr.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    The solar place in the set of stellar properties of the neighborhood, such as chemical composition, magnetic activity, lithium depletion, and others, suggests that the Sun may not exactly be a representative star. A few of the solar putative peculiarities seem to involve details of its evolutionary history, and that some light might be shed onto this question by a new approach based on the analysis of a time line in the HR diagram, searching for stars that might represent past, present and future solar evolutionary loci. The SOL Project (Solar Origin and Life) aims towards the identification, among the nearby stars, of those that share in detail the solar evolutionary track, in order to put the Sun as a star in proper perspective. We aim at obtaining, spectroscopically, atmospheric parameters, Fe and Li abundances, space velocities, state of evolution, degree of chromospheric activity and rotational velocities of a stellar sample, selected from precise astrometry and photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue, as to represent the Sun in various evolutionary stages along the solar mass, solar metallicity theoretical track: the early Sun, the present Sun, the subgiant Sun and the giant Sun. Here we present a progress report of the survey: the sample selection, OPD spectroscopic observations and preliminary results of the atmospheric parameters and evolutionary status analysis. As a by-product, we also present a new effective temperature calibration, based on published Infrared Flux Method data, and calibrated explicitly for precise spectroscopic stellar metallicities, for the (B-V), (BT-VT), (R-I), (V-I), (V-R) and (V-K) color indices, and valid for cool, normal and moderately metal-poor giant stars.

  4. Extensive writing projects: tips for completing them on time.

    PubMed

    Oermann, M

    1999-01-01

    Have you considered writing a book, preparing a grant, editing a "topic" issue for a journal, or completing a thesis or dissertation? Some nurse authors are interested in large projects like these, but hesitate because of the project size. This experienced author, who has just finished her eighth book, gives you tips for completing extensive writing projects on time.

  5. 36 CFR 72.33 - Timing and duration of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Rehabilitation and Innovation § 72.33 Timing and duration of projects. (a) Construction components of projects... completing construction components of either Rehabilitation or Innovation proposals will be limited to three... Program, and of benefit to the federal government. Any component of an Innovation proposal which is...

  6. 36 CFR 72.33 - Timing and duration of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Rehabilitation and Innovation § 72.33 Timing and duration of projects. (a) Construction components of projects... completing construction components of either Rehabilitation or Innovation proposals will be limited to three... Program, and of benefit to the federal government. Any component of an Innovation proposal which is...

  7. 36 CFR 72.33 - Timing and duration of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Rehabilitation and Innovation § 72.33 Timing and duration of projects. (a) Construction components of projects... completing construction components of either Rehabilitation or Innovation proposals will be limited to three... Program, and of benefit to the federal government. Any component of an Innovation proposal which is...

  8. 36 CFR 72.33 - Timing and duration of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Rehabilitation and Innovation § 72.33 Timing and duration of projects. (a) Construction components of projects... completing construction components of either Rehabilitation or Innovation proposals will be limited to three... Program, and of benefit to the federal government. Any component of an Innovation proposal which is...

  9. 36 CFR 72.33 - Timing and duration of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Rehabilitation and Innovation § 72.33 Timing and duration of projects. (a) Construction components of projects... completing construction components of either Rehabilitation or Innovation proposals will be limited to three... Program, and of benefit to the federal government. Any component of an Innovation proposal which is...

  10. Railway network design with multiple project stages and time sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuby, Michael; Xu, Zhongyi; Xie, Xiaodong

    This paper presents a spatial decision support system for network design problems in which different kinds of projects can be built in stages over time. It was developed by the World Bank and China's Ministry of Railways to plan investment strategies for China's overburdened railway system. We first present a mixed-integer program for the single-period network design problem with project choices such as single or multiple tracks and/or electrification with economies of scale. Then, because such projects can be built all at once or in stages, we developed a heuristic backwards time sequencing procedure with a cost adjustment factor to solve the ``project staging'' problem. Other innovations include a preloading routine; coordinated modeling of arcs, paths, and corridors; and a custom-built GIS.

  11. A compact Time Projection Chamber for the Crystal Ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, O.; Wolfes, M.; Gradl, W.

    2016-07-01

    We report on a development of a compact Time Projection Chamber with triple Gas Electron Multiplier readout to replace the current tracking detector in the Crystal Ball/TAPS Experiment at the A2 Tagged Photon Facility at MAMI in Mainz, Germany. Challenges are the limitations in size and the absence of a longitudinal magnetic flied.

  12. Signal processing for the TOPAZ Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, H.; Iwasaki, H.; Iwata, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Matsuda, T.; Nakamura, K.; Yamauchi, M.; Aihara, H.; Enomoto, R.; Fujii, H.

    1987-02-01

    The signals from the TOPAZ Time Projection Chamber, after being processed by a low noise preamplifier and a shaper amplifier, are recorded by a CCD based digitizer system. The system achieved an integral operation in the environment of FASTBUS with Sector Sequencers and FPI.

  13. SUNLAB-The Project of a Polish Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, J.; Budzanowski, M.; Chorowski, M.; Cygan, S.; Dorda, J.; Hanzel, S.; Harańczyk, M.; Horoszczak, L.; Januszewska, K.; Jaroń, L.; Konefalł, A.; Kozak, K.; Lankof, L.; Mania, S.; Markiewicz, A.; Markowski, P.; Mazur, J.; Mertuszka, P.; Mietelski, J. W.; Poliński, J.; Puchalska, M.; Pytel, W.; Raczyński, M.; Sadecki, Z.; Sadowski, A.; Ślizowski, J.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Szeglowski, T.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Urbańczyk, K.; Zalewska, A.

    2010-11-01

    The project of the first Polish underground laboratory SUNLAB, in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper mine, belonging to the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. holding, is presented. Two stages of the project are foreseen: SUNLAB1 (a small laboratory in the salt layer exhibiting extremely low level of natural radioactivity) and SUNLAB2 (a big laboratory in the anhydrite layer, able to host the next generation liquid argon detector-GLACIER, which is considered within the LAGUNA FP7 project). The results of the natural radioactivity background measurements performed in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice salt cavern are also briefly summarized.

  14. SUNLAB - The Project of a Polish Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kisiel, J.; Dorda, J.; Konefall, A.; Mania, S.; Szeglowski, T.; Budzanowski, M.; Haranczyk, M.; Kozak, K.; Mazur, J.; Mietelski, J. W.; Puchalska, M.; Szarska, M.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Zalewska, A.; Chorowski, M.; Polinski, J.; Cygan, S.; Hanzel, S.; Markiewicz, A.; Mertuszka, P.

    2010-11-24

    The project of the first Polish underground laboratory SUNLAB, in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper mine, belonging to the KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. holding, is presented. Two stages of the project are foreseen: SUNLAB1 (a small laboratory in the salt layer exhibiting extremely low level of natural radioactivity) and SUNLAB2 (a big laboratory in the anhydrite layer, able to host the next generation liquid argon detector - GLACIER, which is considered within the LAGUNA FP7 project). The results of the natural radioactivity background measurements performed in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice salt cavern are also briefly summarized.

  15. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project, 1987-1997 Project Review.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M.; Hans, Karen M.; Beeman, John W.

    1997-12-01

    The assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project (Bonneville Power Administration Project 87-401) monitored attributes of salmonid smolt physiology in the Columbia and Snake River basins from 1987 to 1997, under the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, in cooperation with the Smolt Monitoring Program of the Fish Passage Center. The primary goal of the project was to investigate the physiological development of juvenile salmonids related to migration rates. The assumption was made that the level of smolt development, interacting with environmental factos such as flow, would be reflected in travel times. The Fish Passage Center applied the physiological measurements of smolt condition to Water Budget management, to regulate flows so as to decrease travel time and increase survival.

  16. The HARP Time Projection Chamber: Characteristics and physics performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammosov, V.; Bolshakova, A.; Boyko, I.; Chelkov, G.; Dedovitch, D.; Dydak, F.; Elagin, A.; Gapienko, V.; Gostkin, M.; Guskov, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Koreshev, V.; Linssen, L.; De Min, A.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nikolaev, K.; Semak, A.; Sviridov, Yu.; Usenko, E.; Wotschack, J.; Zaets, V.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2008-04-01

    The HARP spectrometer that took data at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in 2001 and 2002 had as large-angle detector system a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) surrounded by Resistive Plate Chambers. The design of the TPC, experience with its operation, and its good physics performance are described. The successful recovery from track distortions arising from inhomogeneities of the electric and magnetic fields in the TPC volume is discussed.

  17. Time Projection Compton Spectrometer (TPCS). User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Landron, C.O.; Baldwin, G.T.

    1994-04-01

    The Time Projection Compton Spectrometer (TPCS) is a radiation diagnostic designed to determine the time-integrated energy spectrum between 100 keV -- 2 MeV of flash x-ray sources. This guide is intended as a reference for the routine operator of the TPCS. Contents include a brief overview of the principle of operation, detailed component descriptions, detailed assembly and disassembly procedures, guide to routine operations, and troubleshooting flowcharts. Detailed principle of operation, signal analysis and spectrum unfold algorithms are beyond the scope of this guide; however, the guide makes reference to sources containing this information.

  18. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    PubMed Central

    Framinan, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times. PMID:24895672

  19. Fast Neutron Detection with the Double Chooz Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulai, Marjon

    2014-03-01

    The Double Chooz Time Projection Chamber (DCTPC) is a directional fast neutron detector that measures background neutron production at the Double Chooz reactor-based neutrino oscillation experiment's near (120 mwe) and far (300 mwe) halls. DCTPC will provide data at modest depths, tying near-surface measurements to those from deep underground laboratories. DCTPC will be used to search for a correlation between fast neutron production and rainfall and will provide valuable neutron measurements as a function of depth, direction, and energy. Calibration data will be presented, as well as preliminary findings from operation at Double Chooz.

  20. The timing upgrade project of the TOTEM Roman Pots detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, M.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the upgrade project developed by the TOTEM Collaboration to measure the time of flight (TOF) of the protons in the vertical Roman Pot detectors. The physics program that the upgraded system aims to accomplish will be addressed. Simulation studies allowed us to define a geometry of the sensor such that the detection inefficiency due to the pile-up of the particles in the same electrode is low even with a small amount of read-out channels. The measurement of the protons TOF with ~ 50 ps time resolution requires the development of several challenging technological solutions. The arrival time of the protons will be measured by scCVD diamond detectors, for which a dedicated fast and low-noise electronics for the signal amplification has been designed. Indeed, while diamond sensors have the advantage of higher radiation hardness, lower noise and faster signal than silicon sensors, the amount of charge released in the medium is lower. The sampling of the waveform is performed at a rate up to 10 GS/s with the SAMPIC chip. The sampled waveforms are then analysed offline where optimal algorithms can be implemented to reduce the time walk effects. The clock distribution system, based on the Universal Picosecond Timing System developed at GSI, is optimized in order to have a negligible uncertainty on the TOF measurement. Finally an overview of the control system which will interface the timing detectors to the experiment DAQ is given.

  1. Decomposition-order effects of time integrator on ensemble averages for the Nosé-Hoover thermostat.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Satoru G; Morishita, Tetsuya; Okumura, Hisashi

    2013-08-14

    Decomposition-order dependence of time development integrator on ensemble averages for the Nosé-Hoover dynamics is discussed. Six integrators were employed for comparison, which were extensions of the velocity-Verlet or position-Verlet algorithm. Molecular dynamics simulations by these integrators were performed for liquid-argon systems with several different time steps and system sizes. The obtained ensemble averages of temperature and potential energy were shifted from correct values depending on the integrators. These shifts increased in proportion to the square of the time step. Furthermore, the shifts could not be removed by increasing the number of argon atoms. We show the origin of these ensemble-average shifts analytically. Our discussion can be applied not only to the liquid-argon system but also to all MD simulations with the Nosé-Hoover thermostat. Our recommended integrators among the six integrators are presented to obtain correct ensemble averages.

  2. Time-resolved MR angiography with limited projections.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuexi; Wright, Graham A

    2007-08-01

    A method for reconstruction of time-resolved MRI called highly-constrained backprojection (HYPR) has been developed. To evaluate the HYPR reconstruction in relation to data sparsity and temporal dynamics, computer simulations were performed, investigating signal modulations under different situations that reflect dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA). In vivo studies were also performed with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) for abdominal MRA in a canine model to demonstrate the application of HYPR for three-dimensional (3D) time-resolved MRA. When contrast dynamics vary over space, large vessels (e.g., veins) tend to introduce signal interference to small vessels (e.g., arteries) in HYPR, particularly when the vessels are in close proximity. The enhancement of background tissue signals may also alter the arterial and venous temporal profiles in HYPR. However, the artifacts are manifest as intensity modulation rather than structural interference, and therefore have little impact on structural diagnosis. Increasing the number of projections per time point increases temporal blur while reducing corruption of temporal behavior from adjacent tissues. Uniformly interleaved acquisition order, such as the bit-reversed order, is important to reduce artifacts. With high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and limited artifacts, HYPR reconstruction has potential to greatly improve time-resolved MRA in clinical practice.

  3. Time Projection Chamber digitizer test system using a microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, C.

    1980-10-01

    A small computer system for testing digitizers, control cards, and backplanes was developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Lab to be used in the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) Detector. The objective of this development was to provide a low cost test system for fast debugging, maintenance, a quality control by outside vendors who fabricated these units as well as Laboratory personnel. When the system was delivered to the vendors, it consisted of the computer programming and documentation necessary to do a complete checkout of approximately 20,000 signal channels. To obtain this low cost system (totaling $1400) a commercial microcomputer with 16K of memory and a printer (40 characters per line, 30 characters per second) were selected. This paper describes the overall test system and programming features including the linking capabilities of the debug program. It also describes the various interfacing techniques that were used to obtain hardcopies.

  4. Proton Radiography With Timepix Based Time Projection Chambers.

    PubMed

    Biegun, Aleksandra K; Visser, Jan; Klaver, Tom; Ghazanfari, Nafiseh; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Koffeman, Els; van Beuzekom, Martin; Brandenburg, Sytze

    2016-04-01

    The development of a proton radiography system to improve the imaging of patients in proton beam therapy is described. The system comprises gridpix based time projection chambers, which are based on the Timepix chip designed by the Medipix collaboration, for tracking the protons. This type of detector was chosen to have minimal impact on the actual determination of the proton tracks by the tracking detectors. To determine the residual energy of the protons, a BaF 2 crystal with a photomultiplier tube is used. We present data taken in a feasibility experiment with phantoms that represent tissue equivalent materials found in the human body. The obtained experimental results show a good agreement with the performed simulations. PMID:26701179

  5. NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber for Fission Cross Section Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Ryan; Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    In order to design safer and more efficient Generation IV nuclear reactors, more accurate knowledge of fission cross sections is needed. The goal of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) used by the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration is to measure the cross sections of several fissile materials to within 1% uncertainty. The ability of the TPC to produce 3D ``pictures'' of charged particle trajectories will eliminate unwanted alpha particles in the data. Another important source of error is the normalization of data the U-235 standard. NIFFTE will use the H(n,n)H reaction instead, which is known to better than 0.2%. The run control and monitoring system will eventually allow for nearly complete automation and off-site monitoring of the experiment. This presentation will cover the need for precision measurements and an overview of the experiment. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Energy Research.

  6. Beam commissioning of the SπRIT time projection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhang, Genie; Barney, Jon; Estee, Justin; Isobe, Tadaaki; Kaneko, Masanori; Kurata-Nishimura, Mizuki; Cerizza, Giordano; Santamaria, Clementine; Lee, Jung Woo; Lasko, Paweł; Łukasik, Jerzy; Lynch, William G.; McIntosh, Alan B.; Murakami, Tetsuya; Pawłowski, Piotr; Shane, Rebecca; Tangwancharoen, Suwat; Tsang, Manyee Betty; Baba, Hidetada; Hong, Byungsik; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hyo Sang; Otsu, Hideaki; Pelczar, Krzysztof; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Xiao, Zhigang; Yennello, Sherry J.; Zhang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    The SπRIT Time Projection Chamber (TPC) was constructed at Michigan State University in the U.S.A. and transported to the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN in Japan. In October 2015, the SπRIT TPC was commissioned with 200 AMeV 79Se beams outside the SAMURAI dipole magnet. The experimental setup consists of the SπRIT TPC, a Multiplicity Trigger Array, a KATANA array, and a Active Veto array. The TPC is fully equipped with a newly-developed read-out electronics system, GET electronics. The trigger logic to select events of the TPC based on the ancillary detectors was tested. The analysis software, SpiRITROOT, was developed to analyze the SπRIT TPC data to determine the best trigger logic for upcoming experiments.

  7. Time-resolved Absolute Velocity Quantification with Projections

    PubMed Central

    Langham, Michael C.; Jain, Varsha; Magland, Jeremy F.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative information on time-resolved blood velocity along the femoral/popliteal artery can provide clinical information on peripheral arterial disease and complement MR angiography since not all stenoses are hemodynamically significant. The key disadvantages of the most widely used approach to time-resolve pulsatile blood flow by cardiac-gated velocity-encoded gradient-echo imaging are gating errors and long acquisition time. Here we demonstrate a rapid non-triggered method that quantifies absolute velocity on the basis of phase difference between successive velocity-encoded projections after selectively removing the background static tissue signal via a reference image. The tissue signal from the reference image’s center k-space line is isolated by masking out the vessels in the image domain. The performance of the technique, in terms of reproducibility and agreement with results obtained with conventional phase contrast (PC)-MRI was evaluated at 3T field strength with a variable-flow rate phantom and in vivo of the triphasic velocity waveforms at several segments along the femoral and popliteal arteries. Additionally, time-resolved flow velocity was quantified in five healthy subjects and compared against gated PC-MRI results. To illustrate clinical feasibility the proposed method was shown to be able to identify hemodynamic abnormalities and impaired reactivity in a diseased femoral artery. For both phantom and in vivo studies, velocity measurements were within 1.5 cm/s and the coefficient of variation was less than 5% in an in vivo reproducibility study. In five healthy subjects, the average differences in mean peak velocities and their temporal locations were within 1 cm/s and 10 ms compared to gated PC-MRI. In conclusion, the proposed method provides temporally-resolved arterial velocity with a temporal resolution of 20 ms with minimal post-processing. PMID:20677235

  8. "Babies Grow a Long Time": A Preschool Project about Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Andromahi

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project related to babies undertaken by preschoolers in a university-affiliated child care center in the Midwest. Following a description of the class, the author discusses the three phases of the project. Photographs taken during the project are included throughout the article. The article concludes with the author's…

  9. Y-12 Respirator Flow Cycle Time Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, C.T.; Rogers, P.E.

    2000-12-01

    In mid-July 2000, a Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) project was initiated by senior management to improve the flow and overall efficiency of the respirator distribution process at Y-12. A cross-functional team was formed to evaluate the current process and to propose necessary changes for improvement. Specifically, the team was challenged to make improvements that would eliminate production work stoppages due to the unavailability of respirators in Y-12 Stores. Prior to the team initiation, plant back orders for a specific model respirator were averaging above 600 and have been as high as 750+. The Cycle Time Reduction team segmented the respirator flow into detailed steps, with the focus and emphasis primarily being on the movement of dirty respirators out of work areas, transportation to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laundry, and return back to Y-12 Stores inventory. The team selected a popular model respirator, size large, to track improvements. Despite a 30 percent increase in respirator usage for the same period of time in the previous year, the team has reduced the back orders by 89% with a steady trend downward. Summary of accomplishments: A 47 percent reduction in the average cycle time for dirty respirators to be laundered and stocked for reuse at the Y-12 Complex; A 73 percent reduction in the average cycle time for dirty respirators to be laundered and stocked for reuse specifically for major users: Enriched Uranium Operations (EUO) and Facilities Maintenance Organization (FMO); Development of a performance measure for tracking back orders; An 89 percent reduction in the number of laundered respirators on back order; Implementation of a tracking method to account for respirator loss; Achievement of an annual cost savings/avoidance of $800K with a one-time cost of $20K; Implementation of a routine pick-up schedule for EUO (major user of respirators); Elimination of activities no longer determined to be needed; Elimination of routine complaint calls to

  10. Relationship between time management in construction industry and project management performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Najuwa; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Radzuan, Kamaruddin

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, construction industry particularly in Malaysia struggle in achieving status of eminent time management for construction project. Project managers have a great responsibility to keep the project success under time of project completion. However, studies shows that delays especially in Malaysian construction industry still unresolved due to weakness in managing the project. In addition, quality of time management on construction projects is generally poor. Due to the progressively extended delays issue, time performance becomes an important subject to be explored to investigate delay factors. The method of this study is review of literature towards issues in construction industry which affecting time performance of project in general by focusing towards process involved for project management. Based on study, it was found that knowledge, commitment, cooperation are the main criteria as an overall to manage the project into a smooth process during project execution until completion. It can be concluded that, the strength between project manager and team members in these main criteria while conducting the project towards good time performance is highly needed. However, there is lack of establishment towards factors of poor time performance which strongly related with project management. Hence, this study has been conducted to establish factors of poor time performance and its relations with project management.

  11. Motor Controls for the NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber Positioning Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamplin, Daniel; Pickle, Nathan

    2010-11-01

    The next generation nuclear power plants will be more efficient and produce smaller amounts of radioactive waste. Design of these new reactors is limited partially by the lack of precise neutron induced fission cross sections at certain incident neutron energies of several isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainty of the cross sections to less than 1 percent, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) was built by the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration. These improvements in precision will be possible due to the TPC's ability for a full 3-D reconstruction of the fission fragment tracks. The NIFFTE TPC will be installed at Los Alamos National Lab's LANSCE facility. Thin targets will be mounted in the center of the TPC in a pressurized hydrogen gas chamber so that both hemispheres of the reaction will be covered. In this work we will discuss the control of the stepper motors that drive the positioning table of the TPC, which has all of its readout electronics attached, to be lined up with the beam. This includes both the controlling software and its graphical interface to the MIDAS online data acquisition system.

  12. Motor Controls for the NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber Positioning Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamplin, Daniel; Pickle, Nathan

    2010-10-01

    The next generation nuclear power plants will be more efficient and produce smaller amounts of radioactive waste. Design of these new reactors is limited partially by the lack of precise neutron induced fission cross sections at certain incident neutron energies of several isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainty of the cross sections to less than 1%, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) was built by the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration. These improvements in precision will be possible due to the TPC's ability for a full 3-D reconstruction of the fission fragment tracks. The NIFFTE TPC will be installed at Los Alamos National Lab's LANSCE facility. Thin targets will be mounted in the center of the TPC in a pressurized hydrogen gas chamber so that both hemispheres of the reaction will be covered. This talk considers the control of the stepper motors that drive the positioning table of the TPC, which has all of its readout electronics attached, to be lined up with the beam. This includes both the controlling software and its graphical interface to the MIDAS online data acquisition system.

  13. The projected timing of climate departure from recent variability.

    PubMed

    Mora, Camilo; Frazier, Abby G; Longman, Ryan J; Dacks, Rachel S; Walton, Maya M; Tong, Eric J; Sanchez, Joseph J; Kaiser, Lauren R; Stender, Yuko O; Anderson, James M; Ambrosino, Christine M; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Giuseffi, Louise M; Giambelluca, Thomas W

    2013-10-10

    Ecological and societal disruptions by modern climate change are critically determined by the time frame over which climates shift beyond historical analogues. Here we present a new index of the year when the projected mean climate of a given location moves to a state continuously outside the bounds of historical variability under alternative greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Using 1860 to 2005 as the historical period, this index has a global mean of 2069 (±18 years s.d.) for near-surface air temperature under an emissions stabilization scenario and 2047 (±14 years s.d.) under a 'business-as-usual' scenario. Unprecedented climates will occur earliest in the tropics and among low-income countries, highlighting the vulnerability of global biodiversity and the limited governmental capacity to respond to the impacts of climate change. Our findings shed light on the urgency of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions if climates potentially harmful to biodiversity and society are to be prevented.

  14. 3-D tracking in a miniature time projection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahsen, S. E.; Hedges, M. T.; Jaegle, I.; Ross, S. J.; Seong, I. S.; Thorpe, T. N.; Yamaoka, J.; Kadyk, J. A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.

    2015-07-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) detection of millimeter-scale ionization trails is of interest for detecting nuclear recoils in directional fast neutron detectors and in direction-sensitive searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which may constitute the Dark Matter of the universe. We report on performance characterization of a miniature gas target Time Projection Chamber (TPC) where the drift charge is avalanche-multiplied with Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) and detected with the ATLAS FE-I3 Pixel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). We report on measurements of gain, gain resolution, point resolution, diffusion, angular resolution, and energy resolution with low-energy X-rays, cosmic rays, and alpha particles, using the gases Ar:CO2 (70:30) and He:CO2 (70:30) at atmospheric pressure. We discuss the implications for future, larger directional neutron and Dark Matter detectors. With an eye to designing and selecting components for these, we generalize our results into analytical expressions for detector performance whenever possible. We conclude by demonstrating the 3-D directional detection of a fast neutron source.

  15. Eeek...More than One Project at a Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loges, Fran

    1991-01-01

    Describes classroom projects in a second-grade classroom based on the Foxfire approach to instruction. Projects planned and implemented in the classroom by students included: (1) sub shop; (2) recycling; (3) Black cemetery; and (4) garden. Students engaged in brainstorming, creating webs, weekly planning, and writing about their activities. (KS)

  16. Real-Time Projection to Verify Plan Success During Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Knight, Russell L.; Morris, John R.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2012-01-01

    The Mission Data System provides a framework for modeling complex systems in terms of system behaviors and goals that express intent. Complex activity plans can be represented as goal networks that express the coordination of goals on different state variables of the system. Real-time projection extends the ability of this system to verify plan achievability (all goals can be satisfied over the entire plan) into the execution domain so that the system is able to continuously re-verify a plan as it is executed, and as the states of the system change in response to goals and the environment. Previous versions were able to detect and respond to goal violations when they actually occur during execution. This new capability enables the prediction of future goal failures; specifically, goals that were previously found to be achievable but are no longer achievable due to unanticipated faults or environmental conditions. Early detection of such situations enables operators or an autonomous fault response capability to deal with the problem at a point that maximizes the available options. For example, this system has been applied to the problem of managing battery energy on a lunar rover as it is used to explore the Moon. Astronauts drive the rover to waypoints and conduct science observations according to a plan that is scheduled and verified to be achievable with the energy resources available. As the astronauts execute this plan, the system uses this new capability to continuously re-verify the plan as energy is consumed to ensure that the battery will never be depleted below safe levels across the entire plan.

  17. Schedule Analysis Software Saves Time for Project Planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, a resource management team at Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and improved the Schedule Test and Assessment Tool, a software add-on capable of analyzing, summarizing, and finding logic gaps in project schedules. Companies like Lanham, Maryland-based Vantage Systems Inc. use the tool to manage NASA projects, but it has also been released for free to more than 200 US companies, agencies, and other entities.

  18. Large Time Projection Chambers for Rare Event Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, M

    2009-11-03

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept [add ref to TPC section] has been applied to many projects outside of particle physics and the accelerator based experiments where it was initially developed. TPCs in non-accelerator particle physics experiments are principally focused on rare event detection (e.g. neutrino and darkmater experiments) and the physics of these experiments can place dramatically different constraints on the TPC design (only extensions to the traditional TPCs are discussed here). The drift gas, or liquid, is usually the target or matter under observation and due to very low signal rates a TPC with the largest active mass is desired. The large mass complicates particle tracking of short and sometimes very low energy particles. Other special design issues include, efficient light collection, background rejection, internal triggering and optimal energy resolution. Backgrounds from gamma-rays and neutrons are significant design issues in the construction of these TPCs. They are generally placed deep underground to shield from cosmogenic particles and surrounded with shielding to reduce radiation from the local surroundings. The construction materials have to be carefully screened for radiopurity as they are in close contact with the active mass and can be a signification source of background events. The TPC excels in reducing this internal background because the mass inside the fieldcage forms one monolithic volume from which fiducial cuts can be made ex post facto to isolate quiet drift mass, and can be circulated and purified to a very high level. Self shielding in these large mass systems can be significant and the effect improves with density. The liquid phase TPC can obtain a high density at low pressure which results in very good self-shielding and compact installation with a lightweight containment. The down sides are the need for cryogenics, slower charge drift, tracks shorter than the typical electron diffusion, lower energy resolution (e

  19. Extreme argon purity in a large, non-evacuated cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Tope, Terry; Adamowski, Mark; Carls, B.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Skup, E.; Stancari, M.; Yang, T.

    2014-01-29

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) show promise as scalable devices for the large detectors needed for long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics. Over the last several years at Fermilab a staged approach to developing the technology for large detectors has been developed. The TPC detectors require ultra-pure liquid argon with respect to electronegative contaminants such as oxygen and water. The tolerable electronegative contamination level may be as pure as 60 parts per trillion of oxygen. Three liquid argon cryostats operated at Fermilab have achieved the extreme purity required by TPCs. These three cryostats used evacuation to remove atmospheric contaminants as the first purification step prior to filling with liquid argon. Future physics experiments may require very large detectors with tens of kilotonnes of liquid argon mass. The capability to evacuate such large cryostats adds significant cost to the cryostat itself in addition to the cost of a large scale vacuum pumping system. This paper describes a 30 ton liquid argon cryostat at Fermilab which uses purging to remove atmospheric contaminants instead of evacuation as the first purification step. This cryostat has achieved electronegative contamination levels better than 60 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent. The results of this liquid argon purity demonstration will strongly influence the design of future TPC cryostats.

  20. Fluctuations in Conjunction Miss Distance Projections as Time Approaches Time of Closest Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, John A., III

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Trajectory Operations Officer is to ensure that the International Space Station (ISS) avoids colliding with debris. United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) tracks and catalogs a portion of the debris in Earth orbit, but only objects with a perigee less than 600 km and a radar cross section (RCS) greater than 10 cm-objects that, in fact, represent only a small fraction of the objects in Earth orbit. To accommodate for this, the ISS uses shielding to protect against collisions with smaller objects. This study provides a better understanding of how quickly, and to what degree, USSPACECOM projections tend to converge to the final, true miss distance. The information included is formulated to better predict the behavior of miss distance data during real-time operations. It was determined that the driving components, in order of impact on miss distance fluctuations, are energy dissipation rate (EDR), RCS, and inclination. Data used in this analysis, calculations made, and conclusions drawn are stored in Microsoft Excel log sheets. A separate log sheet, created for each conjunction, contains information such as predicted miss distances, apogee and perigee of debris orbit, EDR, RCS, inclination, tracks and observations, statistical data, and other evaluation/orbital parameters.

  1. Beleaguered Egypt project running out of funds and time.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Started in 1979 as part of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), the Family of the Future (FOF) social marketing project accounts for 35% of all contraceptives used in Egypt. FOF left the IPPF in 1981 to work as a nonprofit, semiprivate organization under the supervision of Egypt's Ministry of Health and has become the third largest social marketing project in the world. FOF has, however, gone through 5 executive directors in the last 6 years, prompting critics to think that the Board of Directors is hand-picked by the Egyptian Ministry of Health. additional allegations of financial mismanagement have caused the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to cancel over $1.5 million in annual funding and product support for the program. Until recently, FOF has benefited from products and operations and technical assistance totalling near $20 million as part of a USAID 10-year, $118-million Egyptian effort. FOF has responded to the funding cut by downsizing its staff and preparing to raise contraceptive prices. Even though USAID has solicited proposals for competitive replacement programs, the new executive director is optimistic that funding cuts leading to organizational change and price increases will ultimately help FOF become self-sufficient. Once USAID-provided supplies have been depleted, FOF will most likely turn to IPPF for assistance.

  2. Allocating Time in FLES: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Current literature in the field of foreign language describes the benefits and challenges of elementary foreign language programs that meet several days a week over the course of a year, however little is known about elementary school foreign language programs that provide daily instruction within limited time frames of several weeks during the…

  3. Satellite time-transfer: recent developments and projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, W.; Nawrocki, J.

    2006-10-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) keep a central role in the international timekeeping. American Global Positioning System (GPS) is a navigation system that has proven itself to be a reliable source of positioning for both the military community and the civilian community. But, little known by many, is the fact that GPS has proven itself to be an important and valuable utility to the timekeeping community (Lewandowski et al. 1999). GPS is a versatile and global tool which can be used to both distribute time to an arbitrary number of users and synchronise clocks over large distances with a high degree of precision and accuracy. Similar performance can be obtained with Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). It is expected in the near future satellites of a new European navigation system GALILEO might bring some important opportunities for international timekeeping. This paper after a brief introduction to international timekeeping focuses on the description of recent progress in time transfer techniques using GNSS satellites.

  4. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinrath, Verena

    2015-04-28

    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235U); and Future Work (Refine 235U result, Process 239Pu data).

  5. Real Time Technology Application Demonstration Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, John; Hampson, Steve; Johnson, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    The work and results described in this final report pertain to the demonstration of real-time characterization technologies applied to potentially contaminated surface soils in and around Area of Concern (AOC) 492 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The work was conducted under the auspices of Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment (KRCEE). KRCEE was created to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) efforts to complete the expeditious and economically viable environmental restoration of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA), and surrounding areas.

  6. Search for Millisecond Pulsars for the Pulsar Timing Array project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milia, S.

    2012-03-01

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetised neutron stars (i.e. ultra dense stars, where about one solar mass is concentrated in a sphere with a radius of ~ 10 km), which irradiate radio beams in a fashion similar to a lighthouse. As a consequence, whenever the beams cut our line of sight we perceive a radio pulses, one (or two) per pulsar rotation, with a frequency up to hundred of times a second. Owing to their compact nature, rapid spin and high inertia, pulsars are in general fairly stable rotators, hence the Times of Arrival (TOAs) of the pulses at a radio telescope can be used as the ticks of a clock. This holds true in particular for the sub­class of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs), having a spin period smaller than the conventional limit of 30 ms, whose very rapid rotation and relatively older age provide better rotational stability than the ordinary pulsars. Indeed, some MSPs rotate so regularly that they can rival the best atomic clocks on Earth over timespan of few months or years.This feature allows us to use MSPs as tools in a cosmic laboratory, by exploiting a procedure called timing, which consists in the repeated and regular measurement of the TOAs from a pulsar and then in the search for trends in the series of the TOAs over various timespans, from fraction of seconds to decades.For example the study of pulsars in binary systems has already provided the most stringent tests to date of General Relativity in strong gravitational fields and has unambiguously showed the occurrence of the emission of gravitational waves from a binary system comprising two massive bodies in a close orbit. In last decades a new exciting perspective has been opened, i.e. to use pulsars also for a direct detection of the so far elusive gravitational waves and thereby applying the pulsar timing for cosmological studies. In fact, the gravitational waves (GWs) going across our Galaxy pass over all the Galactic pulsars and the Earth, perturbing the space­time at the

  7. Real-time lucky imaging in FastCam project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ramos, L. F.; Piqueras Meseguer, J. J.; Martin Hernando, Y.; Oscoz, A.; Rebolo, R.

    2008-07-01

    Lucky imaging techniques implemented by the FastCam group (see http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam/) at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias have demonstrated its ability to obtain spectacular diffraction limited images in telescopes ranging from 1 to 4.2 m in visible wavelengths (mainly in the I band), at the expense of using only a small percentage of the available images. This work presents the development of a real-time processor, FPGA-based, capable of performing all the required processing involved in the lucky imaging technique: Bias and flat-field correction, quality evaluation of images, quality threshold for image selection, image recentering and accumulation, and finally sending through Gigabit Ethernet both raw and processed images to a PC computer. Furthermore, a real time display is generated directly from FPGA showing both types of images, plus a histogram of the computed quality values and the threshold used. All processes can co-exist physically located in separated places inside the FPGA, using its natural parallel approach, and can easily handle the 512x512 pixels at 30 fps found at the sensor camera output (an Andor Ixon+ DU-897ECSO EMCCD). Flexibility and parallel processing features of the reconfigurable logic have been used to implement a novel imaging strategy for segmented-mirror telescopes, allowing separate evaluation of every segment and posterior accumulation to achieve the resolution limit of a single segment with the integration capability of the full primary mirror.

  8. Project deliverables - a waste of time or a chance for knowledge transfer and dissemination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sylvia

    2016-04-01

    Deliverables are a common tool to measure a distinct output of a project. They should be meaningful in terms of the project's objectives and are normally constituted by e.g. a written report or document, a developed tool or software, an organized training or conference. They can be scientific or technical. The number of deliverables must be reasonable and commensurate to the project and its content. Deliverables as contractual obligations are often time consuming and often seen as a waste of "research" time, as one more administrative task without any use. However, deliverables are needed to verify the progress of a project and to convince the sponsor that the project is going in the right direction and the money well-invested. The presentation will deal with the question on how to use a deliverable in a profitable way for the project and what are the possibilities of use.

  9. Project Education Reform: Time for Results. Newsletters--May, September, and December, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project Education Reform: Time for Results, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The major topics covered in these newsletters include: (1) background information on Project Education Reform; (2) "The Governors' 1991 Report on Education: Time for Results"; (3) elementary education and the National Governors' Association (NGA) project; (4) the goals of 16 school sites in carrying out recommendations from the NGA report on…

  10. Control of the formation of projective synchronisation in lower-dimensional discrete-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Chin Yi; Xu, Daolin

    2003-11-01

    Projective synchronisation was recently observed in partially linear discrete-time systems. The scaling factor that characterises the behaviour of projective synchronisation is however unpredictable. In order to manipulate the ultimate state of the synchronisation, a control algorithm based on Schur-Chon stability criteria is proposed to direct the scaling factor onto any predestined value. In the numerical experiment, we illustrate the application on two chaotic discrete-time systems.

  11. Generalized projective synchronization in time-delayed systems: nonlinear observer approach.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dibakar

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the projective-anticipating, projective, and projective-lag synchronization in a unified coupled time-delay system via nonlinear observer design. A new sufficient condition for generalized projective synchronization is derived analytically with the help of Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory for constant and variable time-delay systems. The analytical treatment can give stable synchronization (anticipatory and lag) for a large class of time-delayed systems in which the response system's trajectory is forced to have an amplitude proportional to the drive system. The constant of proportionality is determined by the control law, not by the initial conditions. The proposed technique has been applied to synchronize Ikeda and prototype models by numerical simulation.

  12. Analysis and modeling of concurrency, cycle time, and productivity in aerospace development projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilscher, Richard Walter

    Engineering development projects are a key element of continued economic growth and profitability for companies that produce durable goods based on evolving technology. Today's world economy and the rapid pace of technology development necessitate a minimum development project cycle time to maximize the economic value of new products. Concurrent engineering and Integrated Product-Process Development (IPPD) evolved as an industry-wide strategy in the late 1980's and early 1990's to address the need for rapid product development and improved product quality. Rapid development of computer-based tools for communications and engineering has occurred in parallel with the emergence of concurrent engineering strategies. The combination of new computer tools and concurrent engineering practices has rendered many project management tools less effective or obsolete. New methods are needed for tracking progress and benchmarking projects employing concurrent engineering. Concurrent engineering and the resulting concurrency between specific activities within development projects has been associated with both positive and negative effects on project performance. This research applies empirical data analysis and computer simulation to evaluate these relationships using new metrics designed specifically for concurrent engineering analysis. By looking within the project at concurrency between specific activities, new insights have been gained into the nature and progress of concurrent engineering implementation. These relationships are useful tools in developing project plans with greater probability of success. A new metric for measuring concurrency is applied that uses the timing of information transactions between project activities and yields different conclusions than those related to time-based metrics. The research also applies a new methodology for comparison of project performance across product lines within aerospace. By using productivity rates and a new work content

  13. Neutral-Current Supernova Neutrino Interactions in Liquid Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    We have investigated a new neutral-current ν-40 Ar channel for interaction of supernova neutrinos in liquid 40Ar. We used the default smearing assumptions and the ar17 kt detector configuration in SNOwGLoBES, an event rate calculator, to determine the expected number of events. For this analysis, the ``Livermore'' supernova flux and cross-section calculated by Dr. Anna Hayes were used. We found that there is a sizeable peak at this energy, which shows that this interaction will be easily measureable, and thus allow the total supernova neutrino flux to be calculated. In the future, we hope to improve the accuracy of our energy resolution algorithm since it might have been too optimistic, and we hope to use this data in full detector simulations to determine what effect this research will have in practice.

  14. "Making Time for What Matters Most." I3 Development Project: Year 5 Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Tara; Ho, Hsiang-Yah; Knotts, Ashli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study evaluates the work completed in the "Jefferson County Public Schools" (JCPS) project, "Making Time for What Matters Most", aiming to improve student achievement, narrow achievement gaps, strengthen students' college readiness skills, and increase the percentages of students who graduate and go on to…

  15. Report on Fission Time Projection Chamber M3FT-12IN0210052

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Jewell

    2012-08-01

    The Time Projection Chamber is a collaborative effort to implement an innovative approach and deliver unprecedented fission measurements to DOE programs. This 4?-detector system will provide unrivaled 3-D data about the fission process. Shown here is a half populated TPC (2?) at the LLNL TPC laboratory as it undergoes testing before being shipped to LANSCE for beam experiments.

  16. DELIVERING TIMELY WATER QUALITY INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY. THE LAKE ACCESS-MINNEAPOLIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a summary of the near-real-time water quality-monitoring project conducted by a consortium of interested parties in the greater Minneapolis area. It was funded by an EPA program known as EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring, Public Access, and Community Tracking). In 1...

  17. Real-time interactive projection system based on infrared structured-light method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiaorui; Zhou, Qian; Ni, Kai; He, Liang; Wu, Guanhao; Mao, Leshan; Cheng, Xuemin; Ma, Jianshe

    2012-11-01

    Interactive technologies have been greatly developed in recent years, especially in projection field. However, at present, most interactive projection systems are based on special designed interactive pens or whiteboards, which is inconvenient and limits the improvement of user experience. In this paper, we introduced our recent progress on theoretically modeling a real-time interactive projection system. The system permits the user to easily operate or draw on the projection screen directly by fingers without any other auxiliary equipment. The projector projects infrared striping patterns onto the screen and the CCD captures the deformational image. We resolve the finger's position and track its movement by processing the deformational image in real-time. A new way to determine whether the finger touches the screen is proposed. The first deformational fringe on the fingertip and the first fringe at the finger shadow are the same one. The correspondence is obtained, so the location parameters can be decided by triangulation. The simulation results are given, and errors are analyzed.

  18. Image projection clues for improved real-time vehicle tracking in tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelaca, Vedran; Niño Castaneda, Jorge Oswaldo; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle tracking is of great importance for tunnel safety. To detect incidents or disturbances in traffic flow it is necessary to reliably track vehicles in real-time. The tracking is a challenging task due to poor lighting conditions in tunnels and frequent light reflections from tunnel walls, the road and the vehicles themselves. In this paper we propose a multi-clue tracking approach combining foreground blobs, optical flow of Shi-Tomasi features and image projection profiles in a Kalman filter with a constant velocity model. The main novelty of our approach lies in using vertical and horizontal image projection profiles (so-called vehicle signatures) as additional measurements to overcome the problems of inconsistent foreground and optical flow clues in cases of severe lighting changes. These signatures consist of Radon-transform like projections along each image column and row. We compare the signatures from two successive video frames to align them and to correct the predicted vehicle position and size. We tested our approach on a real tunnel video sequence. The results show an improvement in the accuracy of the tracker and less target losses when image projection clues are used. Furthermore, calculation and comparison of image projections is computationally efficient so the tracker keeps real-time performance (25 fps, on a single 1.86 GHz processor).

  19. WE-G-BRF-04: Robust Real-Time Volumetric Imaging Based On One Single Projection

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y; Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Zhou, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Real-time volumetric imaging is highly desirable to provide instantaneous image guidance for lung radiation therapy. This study proposes a scheme to achieve this goal using one single projection by utilizing sparse learning and a principal component analysis (PCA) based lung motion model. Methods: A patient-specific PCA-based lung motion model is first constructed by analyzing deformable vector fields (DVFs) between a reference image and 4DCT images at each phase. At the training stage, we “learn” the relationship between the DVFs and the projection using sparse learning. Specifically, we first partition the projections into patches, and then apply sparse learning to automatically identify patches that best correlate with the principal components of the DVFs. Once the relationship is established, at the application stage, we first employ a patchbased intensity correction method to overcome the problem of different intensity scale between the calculated projection in the training stage and the measured projection in the application stage. The corrected projection image is then fed to the trained model to derive a DVF, which is applied to the reference image, yielding a volumetric image corresponding to the projection. We have validated our method through a NCAT phantom simulation case and one experiment case. Results: Sparse learning can automatically select those patches containing motion information, such as those around diaphragm. For the simulation case, over 98% of the lung region pass the generalized gamma test (10HU/1mm), indicating combined accuracy in both intensity and spatial domain. For the experimental case, the average tumor localization errors projected to the imager are 0.68 mm and 0.4 mm on the axial and tangential direction, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method is capable of accurately generating a volumetric image using one single projection. It will potentially offer real-time volumetric image guidance to facilitate lung

  20. Timely integration of safeguards and security with projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.; Blount, P. M.; Garcia, S. W.; Gonzales, R. L.; Salazar, J. B.; Campbell, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    The Safeguards and Security (S&S) Requirements Integration Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed and implemented an innovative management process that will be described in detail. This process systematically integrates S&S planning into construction, facility modifications or upgrades, mission changes, and operational projects. It extends and expands the opportunities provided by the DOE project management manual, DOE M 413.3-1. Through a series of LANL documents, a process is defined and implemented that formally identifies an S&S professional to oversee, coordinate, facilitate, and communicate among the identified S&S organizations and the project organizations over the life cycle of the project. The derived benefits, namely (1) elimination/reduction of re-work or costly retrofitting, (2) overall project cost savings because of timely and improved planning, (3) formal documentation, and (4) support of Integrated Safeguards and Security Management at LANL, will be discussed. How many times, during the construction of a new facility or the modification of an existing facility, have the persons responsible for the project waited until the last possible minute or until after construction is completed to approach the security organizations for their help in safeguarding and securing the facility? It's almost like, 'Oh, by the way, do we need access control and a fence around this building and just what are we going to do with our classified anyway?' Not only is it usually difficult; it's also typically expensive to retrofit or plan for safeguards and security after the fact. Safeguards and security organizations are often blamed for budget overruns and delays in facility occupancy and program startup, but these problems are usually due to poor front-end planning. In an effort to help projects engage safeguards and security in the pre-conceptual or conceptual stages, we implemented a high level formality of operations. We established institutional

  1. Comparison of back projection methods of determining earthquake rupture process in time and frequency domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Back projection is a method to back project the seismic energy recorded in a seismic array back to the earthquake source region and determine the rupture process of a large earthquake. The method takes advantage of the coherence of seismic energy in a seismic array and is quick in determining some important properties of earthquake source. The method can be performed in both time and frequency domains. In time domain, the most conventional procedure is beam forming with some measures of suppressing the noise, such as the Nth root stacking, etc. In the frequency domain, the multiple signal classification method (MUSIC) estimates the direction of arrivals of multiple waves propagating through an array using the subspace method. The advantage of this method is the ability to study rupture properties at various frequencies and to resolve simultaneous arrivals making it suitable for detecting biliteral rupture of an earthquake source. We present a comparison of back projection results on some large earthquakes between the methods in time domain and frequency domain. The time-domain procedure produces an image that is smeared and exhibits some artifacts, although some enhancing stacking methods can at some extent alleviate the problem. On the other hand, the MUSIC method resolves clear multiple arrivals and provides higher resolution of rupture imaging.

  2. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. I. Double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Irastorza, I.G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J. E-mail: faznar@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, C and others

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R and D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. In both this and its companion paper, we compile the main results of the project and give an outlook of application prospects for this detection technique. While in the companion paper we focus on axions and WIMPs, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the measurement of the double beta decay (DBD) of {sup 136}Xe in a high pressure Xe (HPXe) TPC. Micromegas of the microbulk type have been extensively studied in high pressure Xe and Xe mixtures. Particularly relevant are the results obtained in Xe + trimethylamine (TMA) mixtures, showing very promising results in terms of gain, stability of operation, and energy resolution at high pressures up to 10 bar. The addition of TMA at levels of ∼ 1% reduces electron diffusion by up to a factor of 10 with respect to pure Xe, improving the quality of the topological pattern, with a positive impact on the discrimination capability. Operation with a medium size prototype of 30 cm diameter and 38 cm of drift (holding about 1 kg of Xe at 10 bar in the fiducial volume, enough to contain high energy electron tracks in the detector volume) has allowed to test the detection concept in realistic experimental conditions. Microbulk Micromegas are able to image the DBD ionization signature with high quality while, at the same time, measuring its energy deposition with a resolution of at least a ∼ 3% FWHM @ Q{sub ββ}. This value was experimentally demonstrated for high-energy extended tracks at 10 bar, and is probably improvable down to the ∼ 1% FWHM levels as extrapolated from low energy events. In addition, first results on the topological signature information (one straggling track ending in two

  3. Reduction and solution of the chemical master equation using time scale separation and finite state projection.

    PubMed

    Peles, Slaven; Munsky, Brian; Khammash, Mustafa

    2006-11-28

    The dynamics of chemical reaction networks often takes place on widely differing time scales--from the order of nanoseconds to the order of several days. This is particularly true for gene regulatory networks, which are modeled by chemical kinetics. Multiple time scales in mathematical models often lead to serious computational difficulties, such as numerical stiffness in the case of differential equations or excessively redundant Monte Carlo simulations in the case of stochastic processes. We present a model reduction method for study of stochastic chemical kinetic systems that takes advantage of multiple time scales. The method applies to finite projections of the chemical master equation and allows for effective time scale separation of the system dynamics. We implement this method in a novel numerical algorithm that exploits the time scale separation to achieve model order reductions while enabling error checking and control. We illustrate the efficiency of our method in several examples motivated by recent developments in gene regulatory networks.

  4. A Time Projection Chamber for precision 239Pu(n,f) cross section measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, M

    2008-01-14

    High precision measurements of the {sup 239}Pu(n,f) cross section have been identified as important for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and other programs. Currently the uncertainty on this cross section is of the order 2-3% for neutron energies below 14 MeV and the goal is to reduce this to less than 1%. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has been identified as a possible tool to make this high precision measurement.

  5. Incentive contract design in project management with serial tasks and uncertain completion times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Zhao, Ruiqing; Lan, Yanfei

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates an incentive contract design problem for a project manager who operates a project consisting of multiple tasks performed sequentially by different subcontractors in which all task completion times are uncertain and described by fuzzy variables. On the basis of an expected value criterion and a critical value criterion, two classes of fuzzy bilevel programming models are developed. In the case where the uncertain task completion times are mutually independent, each model can first be decomposed into multiple equivalent sub-models by taking advantage of the structural characteristics, and then a two-step optimization method is employed to derive the optimal incentive contract in each sub-model. In a more general case where the uncertain task completion times are correlative, the approximation approach (AA) technique is adopted first in order to evaluate the objective functions involving fuzzy parameters, which are usually difficult to convert into their crisp equivalents. Then, an AA-based hybrid genetic algorithm integrated with the golden search method and variable neighbourhood search is designed to solve the proposed fuzzy bilevel programming models. Finally, a numerical example of a construction project is conducted to demonstrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  6. Fermion sign problem in imaginary-time projection continuum quantum Monte Carlo with local interaction.

    PubMed

    Calcavecchia, Francesco; Holzmann, Markus

    2016-04-01

    We use the shadow wave function formalism as a convenient model to study the fermion sign problem affecting all projector quantum Monte Carlo methods in continuum space. We demonstrate that the efficiency of imaginary-time projection algorithms decays exponentially with increasing number of particles and/or imaginary-time propagation. Moreover, we derive an analytical expression that connects the localization of the system with the magnitude of the sign problem, illustrating this behavior through numerical results. Finally, we discuss the computational complexity of the fermion sign problem and methods for alleviating its severity. PMID:27176442

  7. The NASA Smart Probe Project for real-time multiple microsensor tissue recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Russell J.; Mah, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Remote surgery requires automated sensors, effectors and sensor-effector communication. The NASA Smart Probe Project has focused on the sensor aspect. METHODS: The NASA Smart Probe uses neural networks and data from multiple microsensors for a unique tissue signature in real time. Animal and human trials use several probe configurations: (1) 8-microsensor probe (2.5 mm in diameter) for rodent studies (normal and subcutaneous mammary tumor tissues), and (2) 21-gauge needle probe with 3 spectroscopic fibers and an impedance microelectrode for breast cancer diagnosis in humans. Multisensor data are collected in real time (update 100 times/s) using PCs. RESULTS: Human data (collected by NASA licensee BioLuminate) from 15 women undergoing breast biopsy distinguished normal tissue from both benign tumors and breast carcinoma. Tumor margins and necrosis are rapidly detected. CONCLUSION: Real-time tissue identification is achievable. Potential applications, including probes incorporating nanoelectrode arrays, are presented. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Stone Soup Projects: Using real-time resources and creative partnering to meet multiple needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, S.; Searle, R.; Zala, K.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada oversees the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada undersea cabled observatories. Its Centre for Enterprise and Engagement communicates the scientific discoveries and technological innovations happening at the two systems. Not surprisingly, funders in ocean science are interested in seeing evidence of increased recruitment of Highly Qualified Personnel into marine science and industry. This demand creates a series of opportunities for inspiring students, ranging from graduate school down to middle school, to pursue studies in chemistry, biology, physics, geology, engineering, and beyond. As the Engagement section is a small operation, we partner with others to produce educational assets incorporating real-time data from VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada observatories that enable frontline educators to create exciting ocean science experiences for students and the public. In one project, the lab component of an entire undergraduate course lets students conduct their own investigations into marine oxygen levels by using VENUS data. In another, Fine Arts graduate and undergraduate students are using high-tech tools to create a series of webisodes that map the principles of Ocean Literacy onto the science themes of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada. In a third project, we hosted a website for a collaborative expedition to small coastal towns that focused on the marine science happening in the Salish Sea, British Columbia. Our projects and challenges for engaging students and the public with ocean science using real-time and other data offer strategies for outreach and education sections of similar organizations.

  9. Time-Gated Optical Projection Tomography Allows Visualization of Adult Zebrafish Internal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Foglia, Efrem Alessandro; Pistocchi, Anna; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Valentini, Gianluca; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; De Silvestri, Sandro; Cerullo, Giulio; Cotelli, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Optical imaging through biological samples is compromised by tissue scattering and currently various approaches aim to overcome this limitation. In this paper we demonstrate that an all optical technique, based on non-linear upconversion of infrared ultrashort laser pulses and on multiple view acquisition, allows the reduction of scattering effects in tomographic imaging. This technique, namely Time-Gated Optical Projection Tomography (TGOPT), is used to reconstruct three dimensionally the internal structure of adult zebrafish without staining or clearing agents. This method extends the use of Optical Projection Tomography to optically diffusive samples yielding reconstructions with reduced artifacts, increased contrast and improved resolution with respect to those obtained with non-gated techniques. The paper shows that TGOPT is particularly suited for imaging the skeletal system and nervous structures of adult zebrafish. PMID:23185643

  10. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    SciTech Connect

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states’ (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  11. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. II. Dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Irastorza, I.G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J. E-mail: faznar@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, C and others

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R and D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. While in the companion paper we focus on double beta decay, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the search for dark matter candidates, both axions and WIMPs. Small (few cm wide) ultra-low background Micromegas detectors are used to image the axion-induced x-ray signal expected in axion helioscopes like the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. Background levels as low as 0.8 × 10{sup −6} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have already been achieved in CAST while values down to ∼10{sup −7} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have been obtained in a test bench placed underground in the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC). Prospects to consolidate and further reduce these values down to ∼10{sup −8} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} will be described. Such detectors, placed at the focal point of x-ray telescopes in the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), would allow for 10{sup 5} better signal-to-noise ratio than CAST, and search for solar axions with g{sub a}γ down to few 10{sup 12} GeV{sup −1}, well into unexplored axion parameter space. In addition, a scaled-up version of these TPCs, properly shielded and placed underground, can be competitive in the search for low-mass WIMPs. The TREX-DM prototype, with ∼ 0.300 kg of Ar at 10 bar, or alternatively ∼ 0.160 kg of Ne at 10 bar, and energy threshold well below 1 keV, has been built to test this concept. We will describe the main technical solutions developed, as well as the results from the commissioning phase on surface. The anticipated sensitivity of this technique might reach ∼10{sup −44} cm{sup 2} for

  12. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. II. Dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irastorza, I. G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Galán, J.; Garcia, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Gómez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Luzon, G.; Mirallas, H.; Ruiz, E.; Seguí, L.; Tomás, A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R&D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. While in the companion paper we focus on double beta decay, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the search for dark matter candidates, both axions and WIMPs. Small (few cm wide) ultra-low background Micromegas detectors are used to image the axion-induced x-ray signal expected in axion helioscopes like the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. Background levels as low as 0.8 × 10-6 counts keV-1 cm-2 s-1 have already been achieved in CAST while values down to ~10-7 counts keV-1 cm-2 s-1 have been obtained in a test bench placed underground in the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC). Prospects to consolidate and further reduce these values down to ~10-8 counts keV-1 cm-2 s-1 will be described. Such detectors, placed at the focal point of x-ray telescopes in the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), would allow for 105 better signal-to-noise ratio than CAST, and search for solar axions with gaγ down to few 1012 GeV-1, well into unexplored axion parameter space. In addition, a scaled-up version of these TPCs, properly shielded and placed underground, can be competitive in the search for low-mass WIMPs. The TREX-DM prototype, with ~ 0.300 kg of Ar at 10 bar, or alternatively ~ 0.160 kg of Ne at 10 bar, and energy threshold well below 1 keV, has been built to test this concept. We will describe the main technical solutions developed, as well as the results from the commissioning phase on surface. The anticipated sensitivity of this technique might reach ~10-44 cm2 for low mass (<10 GeV) WIMPs, well beyond current experimental limits in this mass range.

  13. Comment on "Generalized projective synchronization in time-delayed systems: nonlinear observer approach" [Chaos 19, 013102 (2009); 20, 029902 (2010)].

    PubMed

    Theesar, S Jeeva Sathya; Balasubramaniam, P; Banerjee, Santo

    2012-09-01

    In Chaos 19, 013102 (2009), the author proposed generalized projective synchronization for time delay systems using nonlinear observer and obtained sufficient condition to ensure projective synchronization for modulated time varying delay. There are concerns with the obtained conditions as the result was applicable only to trivial case of time varying delay τ[over dot](1)(t)=dτ(1)(t)/dt<1. In this paper, we note the drawbacks of the proposed sufficient condition. The new improved sufficient condition for ensuring the projective synchronization of time varying delayed systems is presented. The proposed new criteria have been verified by adopting the Ikeda system.

  14. A Fission Time Projection Chamber for High Precision Cross Section Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Lucas; Greife, Uwe

    2010-11-01

    The design of next generation nuclear reactors and other nuclear applications are increasingly dependent on advanced simulations. Sensitivity studies have shown a need for high precision nuclear data to improve the predictive capabilities of these simulations. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration has constructed and is currently testing a prototype Time Projection Chamber (TPC) designed to measure fission cross sections to a higher accuracy than is capable with existing technology. In this talk, I will discuss the status of the fission TPC and progress on collecting the first set of data from ^252Cf spontaneous fission.

  15. The Human Placenta Project: placental structure, development, and function in real time.

    PubMed

    Guttmacher, A E; Maddox, Y T; Spong, C Y

    2014-05-01

    Despite its crucial role in the health of both the fetus and the pregnant woman, the placenta is the least understood human organ. Since a growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental development in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring, this lack of knowledge about placental structure and function is particularly concerning. Given modern approaches and technologies and the ability to develop new methods, we propose a coordinated "Human Placenta Project", with the ultimate goal of understanding human placental structure, development, and function in real time.

  16. A multiple sampling time projection ionization chamber for nuclear fragment tracking and charge measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Chance, J. C.; Christie, W. F.; Gilkes, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lynen, U.; Müller, Walter F. J.; Romero, J. L.; Sann, H.; Tull, C. E.; Warren, P.

    1997-02-01

    A detector has been developed for the tracking and charge measurement of the projectile fragment nuclei produced in relativistic nuclear collisions. This device, MUSIC II, is a second generation Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC), and employs the principles of ionization and time projection chambers. It provides unique charge determination for charges Z≥6, and excellent track position measurement. MUSIC II has been used most recently with the EOS (Equation of State) TPC and other EOS Collaboration detectors. Earlier it was used with other systems in experiments at the Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer (HISS) facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the ALADIN spectrometer at GSI.

  17. Overview of the CAPTAIN program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiuguang; CAPTAIN Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Liquid argon time projection chamber detectors are taking center stage for the next large projects that the high-energy physics society will pursue. A series of tens of kiloton liquid argon detectors are under development to be used to measure the neutrino oscillation parameters, the CP violation in the neutrino sector, and the neutrino mass hierarchy, while also for the opportunity to the search for proton decay and supernova measurement as part of the DUNE program. However, several smaller liquid argon detectors are needed to study cross-sections and perform studies at various energies. The CAPTAIN Collaboration is building a 10-ton liquid argon detector as well as a prototype detector to perform measurements that include neutron interactions in liquid argon using the beam at LANSCE and neutrino measurements using the beam at Fermilab. The prototype experiment, MiniCAPTAIN, has been commissioned and is successfully running with laser operations, cosmic rays, and recently with neutrons from LANSCE. I will present an overview and status of the CAPTAIN program.

  18. Project ARGUS and the challenge of real-time all-sky SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuch, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    Project Argus, a global effort of the non-profit SETI League, Inc., seeks to achieve continuous microwave monitoring of all four pi steradians of space, in real time. This project will ultimately involve 5000 small radiotelescopes worldwide, built, maintained, and operated by private individuals (primarily radio amateurs and microwave experimenters), coordinated so as to miss no likely candidate signals, and providing independent verification of any interesting signals detected. Prototype stations went into operation in 1996; full sky coverage is planned for 2001. Sensitivity and range are assessed by comparison of current capabilities to those in place at the Ohio State Radio Observatory 19 years ago, when the so-called Wow signal was detected. The Wow signal serves as a convenient benchmark, even though its exact nature remains unknown. Should a similar candidate signal appear during the fully deployed phase of Project Argus, it will not evade detection. Though utilizing just a small satellite TV dish as its antenna, each station achieves range and sensitivity on a par with the Ohio State Big Ear radio telescope, circa 1977. This paper explores the technological breakthroughs which have made this level of performance possible.

  19. Project My Heart Your Heart: An Idea Whose Time Has Come

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Kim A.; Crawford, Thomas C.; Baman, Timir

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that nearly 1 million patients in low-income countries die every year from bradyarrhythmias coupled with no access to a pacemaker. At the same time, it is estimated that tens of thousands of used devices could be harvested from hospitals, funeral homes, and crematories in wealthy nations if such a practice was legal and proven to be safe and efficacious. Project My Heart Your Heart is a collaborative, multinational effort with a goal of making pacemaker recycling a reality. Since its inception 4 years ago, the project has studied beliefs and attitudes of this idea among patients, pacemaker recipients, funeral home directors, and arrhythmia specialists. The project has explored the safety and efficacy of this practice in several small pilot studies. Nearly 15,000 used devices have been received and evaluated. Efforts to fully define optimal methods for sterilization and device processing have progressed positively. Safe, effective pacemaker recycling is possible and is generally supported by the public, patients, and cardiovascular specialists. An ongoing dialogue with the FDA will hopefully lead to a large pivotal study in five countries which will definitively establish this practice including optimal strategies for device removal, interrogation, sterilization, handling, implantation, and follow-up at charitable pacemaker facilities servicing low income patients throughout the world. PMID:26330671

  20. Waiting for children’s surgery in Canada: the Canadian Paediatric Surgical Wait Times project

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James G.; Menaker, Rena J.

    2011-01-01

    Background In addition to possibly prolonged suffering and anxiety, extended waits for children’s surgery beyond critical developmental periods has potential for lifelong impact. The goal of this study was to determine the duration of waits for surgery for children and youth at Canadian paediatric academic health sciences centres using clinically-derived access targets (i.e., the maximum acceptable waiting periods for completion of specific types of surgery) as used in this Canadian Paediatric Surgical Wait Times project. Methods We prospectively applied standardized wait-time targets for surgery, created by nominal-group consensus expert panels, to pediatric patients at children’s health sciences centres across Canada with decision-to-treat dates of Sept. 1, 2007 or later. From Jan. 1 to Dec. 30, 2009, patients’ actual wait times were compared with their target wait times to determine the percentage of patients receiving surgery after the target waiting period. Results Overall, 27% of pediatric patients from across Canada (17411 of 64012) received their surgery after their standardized target waiting period. Dentistry, ophthalmology, plastic surgery and cancer surgery showed the highest percentages of surgeries completed past target. Interpretation Many children wait too long for surgery in Canada. Specific attention is required, in particular, in dentistry, ophthalmology, plastic surgery and cancer care, to address children’s wait times for surgery. Improved access may be realized with use of national wait-time targets. PMID:21543299

  1. Real-time monitoring of CO2 storage sites: Application to Illinois Basin-Decatur Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Picard, G.; Berard, T.; Chabora, E.; Marsteller, S.; Greenberg, S.; Finley, R.J.; Rinck, U.; Greenaway, R.; Champagnon, C.; Davard, J.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage operations for efficiency and safety requires use of monitoring techniques and implementation of control protocols. The monitoring techniques consist of permanent sensors and tools deployed for measurement campaigns. Large amounts of data are thus generated. These data must be managed and integrated for interpretation at different time scales. A fast interpretation loop involves combining continuous measurements from permanent sensors as they are collected to enable a rapid response to detected events; a slower loop requires combining large datasets gathered over longer operational periods from all techniques. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it presents an analysis of the monitoring objectives to be performed in the slow and fast interpretation loops. Second, it describes the implementation of the fast interpretation loop with a real-time monitoring system at the Illinois Basin-Decatur Project (IBDP) in Illinois, USA. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Time domain holography: Forward projection of simulated and measured sound pressure fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Rochefoucauld, Ombeline; Melon, Manuel; Garcia, Alexandre

    2004-07-01

    In this article, the fundamental principles of forward projecting time domain acoustic pressure fields are summarized. Four different numerical approaches are presented and compared both with simulated and measured signals. The approaches differ in their definition domain: Frequency/time and space/wave vector domains. The simulated source is a planar baffled piston excited with a Gaussian pulsed velocity. The pressure radiated by two different real sources has been measured: The first source is made up of two baffled loudspeakers (a Gaussian white noise can be radiated by a third loudspeaker). The second one is a baffled aluminum plate excited by a short impact at its center. The influence of parameters such as the sound source radius, the array size, the number of microphones and the propagation distance is studied. Finally, results concerning the optimization of the sampling of the sound field are presented.

  3. Photoelectron Track Length Distributions Measured in a Negative Ion Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieskorn, Z. R.; Hill, J. E.; Kaaret, P. E.; Black, J. K.

    2014-04-01

    We report photoelectron track length distributions between 3 and 8 keV in gas mixtures of Ne+CO2+CH3NO2 (260:80:10 Torr) and CO2+CH3NO2 (197.5: 15 Torr). The measurements were made using a negative ion time projection chamber (NITPC) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). We report the first quantitative analysis of photoelectron track length distributions in a gas. The distribution of track lengths at a given energy is best fit by a lognormal distribution. A powerlaw distribution of the form, f(E)=a(E/Eo)n, is found to fit the relationship between mean track length and energy. We find n=1.29 +/- 0.07 for Ne+CO2+CH3NO2 and n=1.20 +/- 0.09 for CO2+CH3NO2. Understanding the distribution of photoelectron track lengths in proportional counter gases is important for optimizing the pixel size and the dimensions of the active region in electron-drift time projection chambers (TPCs) and NITPC X-ray polarimeters.

  4. Nuclear physics at PEP: Recent results using the Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikoff, S.O.

    1987-04-01

    A preliminary result on Bose-Einstein correlations is reported using the PEP-4 Time Projection Chamber facility. The data, from scattering 14.5 GeV electrons on nuclei, was taken at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center positron-electron (PEP) storage ring. Bose-Einstein (BE) correlations were measured from events having identified like-sign pion pairs. The particle identification and tracking capability of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) was used to select like-sign pion pair events. The resulting correlation function for the data was fitted to a gaussian form R(q) = 1 + lambda exp(-q/sup 2/sigma/sup 2/) where q is the relative four-momentum difference of the pions. The fitted value to the chaoticity is lambda = 0.37 +- 0.19 and sigma = 1.37 +- 0.41 fermi. This result agrees with that from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation data taken with the TPC. The operation of the TPC and the analysis of the data is explained. The feasibility of similar detectors for doing high energy electron scattering on nuclei at PEP is briefly discussed. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Center of pressure and the projection of the time-course of sitting skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Joshua L; Harbourne, Regina T; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    A normal time-course for the acquisition of sitting is essential. A delay in sitting may affect other developmental milestones, resulting in deficiencies in overall skill. Therefore, our aim was to identify variables whose measures at the very beginning of sitting would allow for the projection of the evolution of the sitting skill. Center of pressure data were collected from the postural sway of twenty-six typically developing infants while sitting on a force platform with a beginning ability to sit upright. Spatial, temporal and frequency variables of postural sway were obtained from both the medial/lateral and anterior/posterior directions of sway. Discriminant function analysis was conducted to identify potential predictors of the duration between onset and fully independent sitting. Gender (p=0.025), median frequency (p=0.006), and correlation dimension (p=0.002) were identified to be predictive of grouping with 73.1% correct classification of the participating infants into short, mid, and long delay groups. In conclusion, measures taken at the earliest stage of sitting may allow the projection of the time-course to achieve independent sitting for typical infants. This approach may be useful for monitoring typical development.

  6. Calibration of Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chambers for the Direct Detection of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastens, Louis William, IV

    Contemporary cosmological observations strongly suggest the presence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) which have not been directly detected to date. In this paper, I discuss the cosmological evidence which suggests the presence of WIMPs, and the justification for believing the cosmological models built around this evidence are sound. I will then discuss the expected WIMP-nucleon interaction rate, and methods of directly detecting these interactions, emphasizing liquid xenon two phase time projection chambers. Two of these liquid xenon time projection chambers will be discussed in detail, from design philosophies, construction, operation, and results to date. Finally, a novel method of calibrating large liquid xenon detectors with 83 mKr will be discussed. Calibration with a 83 mKr source allows for low energy electronic recoils in the fiducial region of the detector, a calibration need which traditional external sources cannot meet. The development of the 83 mKr source for use in a low-background dark matter detector is discussed.

  7. Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project: Feasibility test of real-time radiation monitoring during removal of surface contamination from concrete floors

    SciTech Connect

    Leino, R.; Corle, S.

    1995-10-01

    This feasibility test was conducted to determine if real-time radiation-monitoring instruments could be mounted on decontamination machines during remediation activities to provide useful and immediate feedback to equipment operators. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored this field test under the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to identify a more efficient method to remove radiological contamination from concrete floor surfaces. This test demonstrated that project durations and costs may be reduced by combining radiation-monitoring equipment with decontamination machines. The test also demonstrated that a microprocessor-based instrument such as a radiation monitor can withstand the type of vibration that is characteristic of floor scabblers with no apparent damage. Combining radiation-monitoring equipment with a decontamination machine reduces the time and costs required to decontaminate concrete surfaces. These time and cost savings result from the reduction in the number of interim radiological surveys that must be conducted to complete remediation. Real-time radiation monitoring allows equipment operators to accurately monitor contamination during the decontamination process without support from radiological technicians, which also reduces the project duration and costs. The DOE Grand Junction Projects Office recommends more extensive and rigorous testing of this real-time radiation monitoring to include a variety of surfaces and decontamination machines. As opportunities arise, additional testing will be conducted under GJPORAP.

  8. Statistical downscaling of meteorological time series and climatic projections in a watershed in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göncü, S.; Albek, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, meteorological time series from five meteorological stations in and around a watershed in Turkey were used in the statistical downscaling of global climate model results to be used for future projections. Two general circulation models (GCMs), Canadian Climate Center (CGCM3.1(T63)) and Met Office Hadley Centre (2012) (HadCM3) models, were used with three Special Report Emission Scenarios, A1B, A2, and B2. The statistical downscaling model SDSM was used for the downscaling. The downscaled ensembles were put to validation with GCM predictors against observations using nonparametric statistical tests. The two most important meteorological variables, temperature and precipitation, passed validation statistics, and partial validation was achieved with other time series relevant in hydrological studies, namely, cloudiness, relative humidity, and wind velocity. Heat waves, number of dry days, length of dry and wet spells, and maximum precipitation were derived from the primary time series as annual series. The change in monthly predictor sets used in constructing the multiple regression equations for downscaling was examined over the watershed and over the months in a year. Projections between 1962 and 2100 showed that temperatures and dryness indicators show increasing trends while precipitation, relative humidity, and cloudiness tend to decrease. The spatial changes over the watershed and monthly temporal changes revealed that the western parts of the watershed where water is produced for subsequent downstream use will get drier than the rest and the precipitation distribution over the year will shift. Temperatures showed increasing trends over the whole watershed unparalleled with another period in history. The results emphasize the necessity of mitigation efforts to combat climate change on local and global scales and the introduction of adaptation strategies for the region under study which was shown to be vulnerable to climate change.

  9. Synthetic future daily weather time-series over Switzerland in consistency with RCM projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Denise E.; Fischer, Andreas M.; Liniger, Mark A.; Appenzeller, Christof; Knutti, Reto

    2015-04-01

    Given the expected changes in the climate system over the 21st century, the need for future climate data with high resolution in space and time is continuously growing. This is especially true for impact modelers that require daily input data of several variables. Regional climate models (RCMs) typically provide information on possible future climatic changes at a spatial resolution of 10-50 km, which is often too coarse for direct use in climate impact models requiring realistic spatio-temporal structures. Hence, further statistical downscaling is necessary. In this regard, stochastic multi-site weather generators (WGs) are an appealing technique that allow the simulation of synthetic weather series consistent with the locally observed weather statistics across several stations and its future changes. Here, we present results of stochastically simulated future daily weather time-series (precipitation, minimum and maximum temperature) with a spatio-temporal correlation structure similar to present-day in-situ observations. For this purpose, a multi-site WG recently developed by the authors has been perturbed with WG parameter changes from RCM projections of the ENSEMBLES project. The multi-site WG is calibrated over a network of Swiss measurement stations from MeteoSwiss over the time-period 1980-2009 and run under future climate conditions for the time-period 2070-2099. The RCM analysis reveals that largest deviations from present-day precipitation time-series are expected in summer, consistent with the seasonal mean results from the Swiss climate scenario initiative CH2011. Both the number of wet days and the chances of two consecutive wet days is reduced in a future climate, while the likelihood to remain in a dry state given a preceding dry day increases. Concerning temperature, the temporal analysis of daily maximum temperature reveals, that future summers are characterized by more frequent and more persistent warm spells at the end of the 21st century. The

  10. A Quality Improvement Project to Assess Timing of Initial Investigations in Stroke Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sarah; Jones, Rhian

    2016-01-01

    There are several investigations that can be completed in the acute phase of admission for patients with suspected stroke.These include receiving a CT Head scan and also blood tests specific for stroke. The national guidelines regarding CT Head scans detail they should be completed within 12 hours of admission1 and the trust guidelines, local to where this quality improvement project was based, advise a CT Head should be completed within four hours of admission.2 The current national guidelines do not specify exact stroke blood tests, however trust guidelines give a specific set of blood tests that would be appropriate to be taken when a patient presents to A&E with a suspected stroke. These included FBC, U&E, blood glucose, ESR, cholesterol, TFTs, and coagulation screen.2 The aim of this quality improvement project was to assess the timing of CT Head scans and blood tests and to implement a tool to ensure these are done in a timely fashion, within the emergency care setting. The project was completed through three PSDA cycles. The first was undertaken in an A&E department, which was soon to be closed and moved to a different site. The second cycle was then completed at the new site, to assess if there had been any change in timings of these interventions. In the previous site it was found that 97% of patients audited received a CT Head scan within four hours. At the new site it was found 94% patients received a CT Head within four hours, therefore both meeting trust targets on the whole. A full set of stroke blood tests were completed at the old site in 53% of patients and this decreased to 22% of patients at the new site. At this point it was decided an intervention should be implemented to ensure this did not continue. The intervention used was updating a stroke panel on the trust computer system (an easy to use, one-click button entitled “Stroke/TIA”) with the correct blood tests and the use of this was promoted throughout the trust. A post

  11. Limited-memory scaled gradient projection methods for real-time image deconvolution in microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, F.; Zanella, R.; Zanghirati, G.; Zanni, L.

    2015-04-01

    Gradient projection methods have given rise to effective tools for image deconvolution in several relevant areas, such as microscopy, medical imaging and astronomy. Due to the large scale of the optimization problems arising in nowadays imaging applications and to the growing request of real-time reconstructions, an interesting challenge to be faced consists in designing new acceleration techniques for the gradient schemes, able to preserve their simplicity and low computational cost of each iteration. In this work we propose an acceleration strategy for a state-of-the-art scaled gradient projection method for image deconvolution in microscopy. The acceleration idea is derived by adapting a step-length selection rule, recently introduced for limited-memory steepest descent methods in unconstrained optimization, to the special constrained optimization framework arising in image reconstruction. We describe how important issues related to the generalization of the step-length rule to the imaging optimization problem have been faced and we evaluate the improvements due to the acceleration strategy by numerical experiments on large-scale image deconvolution problems.

  12. Simulation of the time-projection chamber with triple GEMs for the LAMPS at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhang, Genie; Lee, Jung Woo; Moon, Byul; Hong, Byungsik; Ahn, Jung Keun; Lee, Jong-Won; Lee, Kyong Sei; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hyo Sang

    2016-03-01

    The time-projection chamber (TPC) with triple gas-electron multipliers (GEMs) is designed for the large-acceptance multipurpose spectrometer (LAMPS) at the new radioactive ion-beam facility RAON, a pure Korean term for the accelerator complex, in Korea. The simulation environment has been set up to test the performance of the designed chamber, and the software package for analysis has been developed. Particle identification has been demonstrated to be possible up to 2 GeV/ c in momentum for particles with the charge number 1 and 2 by using the simulated heavy-ion events. The transverse-momentum resolutions are expected to be about 2% for protons and about 1.3% for pions in the relatively high-momentum region. The total reconstruction efficiencies are estimated to be about 90 and 80% for charged pions and protons, respectively.

  13. Time-Projection with Optical Readout for Dark Matter, Double Beta Decay, and Neutron Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlen, S. P.

    In recent years, there have been impressive advances in the technology of cameras using charged coupled devices (CCD's) and electron multiplying charged coupled devices (EMCCD's) that make possible a number of applications for the detection of ionizing radiation. The new cameras have quantum efficiencies exceeding 90%, effective noise levels less than one electron per pixel, and can be made to detect light ranging from the ultraviolet to the infrared. When combined with photomultiplier tubes (PMT's), and when used with Time-Projection-Chambers (TPC's) that contain narrow gap mesh charge amplification stages and scintillating gas compositions, these cameras can be used to provide three-dimensional images of particle tracks. There are many applications for such devices, including direction sensitive searches for dark matter, measurements of thermal and fast neutrons, and searches for double-beta-decay. I will describe the operation of optical TPC's and their various applications in this review article.

  14. Real-time multimedia communications in medical emergency - the CONCERTO project solution.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maria G; Iacobelli, Lorenzo; Bergeron, Cyril; Hewage, Chaminda T; Panza, Gianmarco; Piri, Esa; Vehkapera, Janne; Amon, Peter; Mazzotti, Matteo; Savino, Ketty; Bokor, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    The management of medical emergency, in particular cardiac emergency, requests prompt intervention and the possibility to communicate in real time from the emergency area / ambulance to the hospital as much diagnostic information as possible about the patient. This would enable a prompt emergency diagnosis and operation and the possibility to prepare the appropriate actions in the suitable hospital department. To address this scenario, the CONCERTO European project proposed a wireless communication system based on a novel cross-layer architecture, including the integration of building blocks for medical media content fusion, delivery and access. This paper describes the proposed system architecture, outlining the developed components and mechanisms, and the evaluation of the proposed system, carried out in a hospital with the support of medical staff. The technical results and the feedback received highlight the impact of the CONCERTO approach in the healthcare domain, in particular in enabling a prompt and reliable diagnosis in challenging medical emergency scenarios. PMID:26737983

  15. A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross-Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hill; K. Jewell; M. Heffner; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; L. Snyder; D. M. Asner; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; L. Wood; R. G. Baker; J. L. Klay; R. Kudo; S. Barrett; J. King; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; L. Yao; C. Brune; S. Grimes; N. Kornilov; T. N. Massey; J. Bundgaard; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; U. Hager; E. Burgett; J. Deaven; V. Kleinrath; C. McGrath; B. Wendt; N. Hertel; D. Isenhower; N. Pickle; H. Qu; S. Sharma; R. T. Thornton; D. Tovwell; R. S. Towell; S.

    2014-09-01

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4p acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  16. Time-travelling and mind-travelling: examining individual differences in self-projection.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Jayne; Buda, Marie; Darby, Gabrielle; Simons, Jon S

    2011-09-01

    It has recently been suggested that memory and theory of mind may share the characteristic of mentally projecting oneself into another time or place to imagine alternative perspectives. This study examines this possible relationship by investigating individual differences in performance on a reality monitoring task and two mentalising tasks: the faux pas task and the reading the mind in the eyes test. Consistent with recent functional neuroimaging studies that have observed activity during reality monitoring tasks in the same region of prefrontal cortex that was activated in previous mentalising studies, a significant positive correlation in performance was observed between memory for agency and faux-pas recognition. No correlation between memory and performance on the reading the mind in the eyes test was observed. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to the suggestion that memory and theory of mind rely on a common set of processes.

  17. SπRIT: A time-projection chamber for symmetry-energy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, R.; McIntosh, A. B.; Isobe, T.; Lynch, W. G.; Baba, H.; Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chartier, M.; Estee, J.; Famiano, M.; Hong, B.; Ieki, K.; Jhang, G.; Lemmon, R.; Lu, F.; Murakami, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Nishimura, M.; Olsen, R.; Powell, W.; Sakurai, H.; Taketani, A.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Tsang, M. B.; Usukura, T.; Wang, R.; Yennello, S. J.; Yurkon, J.

    2015-06-01

    A time-projection chamber (TPC) called the SAMURAI Pion-Reconstruction and Ion-Tracker (SπRIT) has recently been constructed at Michigan State University as part of an international effort to constrain the symmetry-energy term in the nuclear Equation of State (EoS). The SπRIT TPC will be used in conjunction with the SAMURAI spectrometer at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) at RIKEN to measure yield ratios for pions and other light isospin multiplets produced in central collisions of neutron-rich heavy ions, such as 132Sn+124Sn. The SπRIT TPC can function both as a TPC detector and as an active target. It has a vertical drift length of 50 cm, parallel to the magnetic field. Gas multiplication is achieved through the use of a multi-wire anode plane. Image charges, produced in the 12096 pads, are read out with the recently developed Generic Electronics for TPCs.

  18. Real-time multimedia communications in medical emergency - the CONCERTO project solution.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maria G; Iacobelli, Lorenzo; Bergeron, Cyril; Hewage, Chaminda T; Panza, Gianmarco; Piri, Esa; Vehkapera, Janne; Amon, Peter; Mazzotti, Matteo; Savino, Ketty; Bokor, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    The management of medical emergency, in particular cardiac emergency, requests prompt intervention and the possibility to communicate in real time from the emergency area / ambulance to the hospital as much diagnostic information as possible about the patient. This would enable a prompt emergency diagnosis and operation and the possibility to prepare the appropriate actions in the suitable hospital department. To address this scenario, the CONCERTO European project proposed a wireless communication system based on a novel cross-layer architecture, including the integration of building blocks for medical media content fusion, delivery and access. This paper describes the proposed system architecture, outlining the developed components and mechanisms, and the evaluation of the proposed system, carried out in a hospital with the support of medical staff. The technical results and the feedback received highlight the impact of the CONCERTO approach in the healthcare domain, in particular in enabling a prompt and reliable diagnosis in challenging medical emergency scenarios.

  19. AEP Ohio gridSMART Demonstration Project Real-Time Pricing Demonstration Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Somani, Abhishek; Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.

    2014-02-01

    This report contributes initial findings from an analysis of significant aspects of the gridSMART® Real-Time Pricing (RTP) – Double Auction demonstration project. Over the course of four years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) worked with American Electric Power (AEP), Ohio and Battelle Memorial Institute to design, build, and operate an innovative system to engage residential consumers and their end-use resources in a participatory approach to electric system operations, an incentive-based approach that has the promise of providing greater efficiency under normal operating conditions and greater flexibility to react under situations of system stress. The material contained in this report supplements the findings documented by AEP Ohio in the main body of the gridSMART report. It delves into three main areas: impacts on system operations, impacts on households, and observations about the sensitivity of load to price changes.

  20. Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

  1. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  2. Meeting Environmental Guidelines and Completing School Construction Projects on Time and Within Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preyar, Chester F.

    2000-01-01

    Taxpayers expect school-construction projects to be managed efficiently and in accordance with environmental standards. Phases include selecting an architect and site, stating project requirements, working with the architect, considering environmental factors, getting budget estimates and reviews, and choosing a contractor and project-schedule…

  3. The Chandra ACIS Timing Survey Project: glimpsing a sample of faint X-ray pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, G. L.; Esposito, P.; Rodríguez Castillo, G. A.; Sidoli, L.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the discovery of 41 new pulsating sources in the data of the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which is sensitive to X-ray photons in the 0.3-10 keV band. The archival data of the first 15 yr of Chandra observations were retrieved and analysed by means of fast Fourier transforms, employing a peak-detection algorithm able to screen candidate signals in an automatic fashion. We carried out the search for new X-ray pulsators in light curves with more than 50 photons, for a total of about 190 000 light curves out of about 430 000 extracted. With these numbers, the ChAndra Timing Survey at Brera And Roma astronomical observatories (CATS @ BAR) - as we called the project - represents the largest ever systematic search for coherent signals in the classic X-ray band. More than 50 per cent of the signals were confirmed by further Chandra (for those sources with two or more pointings), XMM-Newton or ROSAT data. The period distribution of the new X-ray pulsators above ˜2000 s resembles that of cataclysmic variables, while there is a paucity of sources with shorter period and low fluxes. Since there is not an obvious bias against these detections, a possible interpretation is in terms of a magnetic gating mechanism in accreting neutron stars. Finally, we note that CATS @ BAR is a living project and the detection algorithm will continue to be routinely applied to the new Chandra data as they become public. Based on the results obtained so far, we expect to discover about three new pulsators every year.

  4. Final Technical Report of project: "Contactless Real-Time Monitoring of Paper Mechanical Behavior During Papermaking"

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel Lafond; Paul Ridgway; Ted Jackson; Rick Russo; Ken Telschow; Vance Deason; Yves Berthelot; David Griggs; Xinya Zhang; Gary Baum

    2005-08-30

    The early precursors of laser ultrasonics on paper were Prof. Y. Berthelot from the Georgia Institute of Technology/Mechanical Engineering department, and Prof. P. Brodeur from the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, both located in Atlanta, Georgia. The first Ph.D. thesis that shed quite some light on the topic, but also left some questions unanswered, was completed by Mont A. Johnson in 1996. Mont Johnson was Prof. Berthelot's student at Georgia Tech. In 1997 P. Brodeur proposed a project involving himself, Y. Berthelot, Dr. Ken Telschow and Mr. Vance Deason from INL, Honeywell-Measurex and Dr. Rick Russo from LBNL. The first time the proposal was not accepted and P. Brodeur decided to re-propose it without the involvement from LBNL. Rick Russo proposed a separate project on the same topic on his side. Both proposals were finally accepted and work started in the fall of 1997 on the two projects. Early on, the biggest challenge was to find an optical detection method which could detect laser-induced displacements of the web surface that are of the order of .1 micron in the ultrasonic range. This was to be done while the web was having an out-of-plane amplitude of motion in the mm range due to web flutter; while moving at 10 m/s to 30 m/s in the plane of the web, on the paper machine. Both teams grappled with the same problems and tried similar methods in some cases, but came up with two similar but different solutions one year later. The IPST, GT, INL team found that an interferometer made by Lasson Technologies Inc. using the photo-induced electro-motive force in Gallium Arsenide was able to detect ultrasonic waves up to 12-15 m/s. It also developed in house an interferometer using the Two-Wave Mixing effect in photorefractive crystals that showed good promises for on-line applications, and experimented with a scanning mirror to reduce motion-induced texture noise from the web and improve signal to noise ratio. On its side, LBNL had the idea to combine a

  5. An Active Target-Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC) for reaccelerated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beceiro-Novo, Saul; Ahn, T.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Bazin, D.; Bradt, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Fritsch, A.; Kohley, Z.; Kolata, J. J.; Lynch, W.; Mittig, W.; Suzuki, D.; Usher, N.

    2014-09-01

    Reaccelerated radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier, which will soon be available from the ReA3 accelerator at NSCL, will open up new opportunities for the study of nuclear structure near the driplines. Since these beams can only be produced at modest intensities, efficient techniques must be used for measurement. The Active Target- Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC), which was developed at MSU, solves this problem by providing the increased luminosity of a thick target while maintaining a good energy resolution by tracking the reaction vertex over an essentially 4 π solid angle. The AT-TPC and similar detectors allow us to take full advantage of the radioactive ion beams at present and future nuclear physics facilities to explore the frontier of rare isotopes where much of the spectroscopic information is unknown. We used a prototype of the AT-TPC to study resonances in light nuclei, and some illustrative results will be shown. The AT-TPC technology will be presented together with new experimental results and the commissioning of the detector and its 10240 electronic channels. Reaccelerated radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier, which will soon be available from the ReA3 accelerator at NSCL, will open up new opportunities for the study of nuclear structure near the driplines. Since these beams can only be produced at modest intensities, efficient techniques must be used for measurement. The Active Target- Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC), which was developed at MSU, solves this problem by providing the increased luminosity of a thick target while maintaining a good energy resolution by tracking the reaction vertex over an essentially 4 π solid angle. The AT-TPC and similar detectors allow us to take full advantage of the radioactive ion beams at present and future nuclear physics facilities to explore the frontier of rare isotopes where much of the spectroscopic information is unknown. We used a prototype of the AT-TPC to study resonances in light nuclei

  6. The design and performance of a prototype water Cherenkov optical time-projection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberla, Eric; Frisch, Henry J.

    2016-04-01

    A first experimental test of tracking relativistic charged particles by 'drifting' Cherenkov photons in a water-based optical time-projection chamber (OTPC) has been performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. The prototype OTPC detector consists of a 77 cm long, 28 cm diameter, 40 kg cylindrical water mass instrumented with a combination of commercial 5.1 × 5.1cm2 micro-channel plate photo-multipliers (MCP-PMT) and 6.7 × 6.7cm2 mirrors. Five MCP-PMTs are installed in two columns along the OTPC cylinder in a small-angle stereo configuration. A mirror is mounted opposite each MCP-PMT on the inner surface of the detector cylinder, effectively increasing the photo-detection efficiency and providing a time-resolved image of the Cherenkov light on the opposing wall. Each MCP-PMT is coupled to an anode readout consisting of thirty 50 Ω microstrips. A 180-channel data acquisition system digitizes the MCP-PMT signals on one end of the microstrips using the PSEC4 waveform sampling-and-digitizing chip operating at a sampling rate of 10.24 Gigasamples-per-second. The single-ended microstrip readout determines the time and position of a photon arrival at the face of the MCP-PMT by recording both the direct signal and the pulse reflected from the unterminated far end of the strip. The detector was installed on the Fermilab MCenter secondary beam-line behind a steel absorber where the primary flux is multi-GeV muons. Approximately 80 Cherenkov photons are detected for a through-going muon track in a total event duration of ~2 ns. By measuring the time-of-arrival and the position of individual photons at the surface of the detector to ≤ 100 ps and a few mm, respectively, we have measured a spatial resolution of ~15 mm for each MCP-PMT track segment, and, from linear fits over the entire track length of ~40 cm, an angular resolution on the track direction of ~60 mrad.

  7. Multiobjective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling with a Time-Varying Number of Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Abello, Manuel Blanco

    2014-01-01

    In resource-constrained project scheduling (RCPS) problems, ongoing tasks are restricted to utilizing a fixed number of resources. This paper investigates a dynamic version of the RCPS problem where the number of tasks varies in time. Our previous work investigated a technique called mapping of task IDs for centroid-based approach with random immigrants (McBAR) that was used to solve the dynamic problem. However, the solution-searching ability of McBAR was investigated over only a few instances of the dynamic problem. As a consequence, only a small number of characteristics of McBAR, under the dynamics of the RCPS problem, were found. Further, only a few techniques were compared to McBAR with respect to its solution-searching ability for solving the dynamic problem. In this paper, (a) the significance of the subalgorithms of McBAR is investigated by comparing McBAR to several other techniques; and (b) the scope of investigation in the previous work is extended. In particular, McBAR is compared to a technique called, Estimation Distribution Algorithm (EDA). As with McBAR, EDA is applied to solve the dynamic problem, an application that is unique in the literature. PMID:24883398

  8. Lifetime Estimation of a Time Projection Chamber X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joanne E.; Black, J. Kevin; Brieda, Lubos; Dickens, Patsy L.; deGarcia, Kristina Montt; Hawk, Douglas L.; Hayato, Asami; Jahoda, Keith; Mohammed, Jelila

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) X-ray polarimeter Instrument (XPI) was designed to measure the polarization of 23 sources over the course of its 9 month mission. The XPI design consists of two telescopes each with a polarimeter assembly at the focus of a grazing incidence mirror. To make sensitive polarization measurements the GEMS Polarimeter Assembly (PA) employed a gas detection system based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) technique. Gas detectors are inherently at risk of degraded performance arising from contamination from outgassing of internal detector components or due to loss of gas. This paper describes the design and the materials used to build a prototype of the flight polarimeter with the required GEMS lifetime. We report the results from outgassing measurements of the polarimeter subassemblies and assemblies, enclosure seal tests, life tests, and performance tests that demonstrate that the GEMS lifetime is achievable. Finally we report performance measurements and the lifetime enhancement from the use of a getter.

  9. Exploiting the Photoelectric effect for X-ray Polarimetry using Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahoda, Keith; Black, Kevin; Deines-Jones, Philip; Hill, Joanne; Swank, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The promise of photoelectric X-ray polarimetry has now been realized in laboratory demonstrations and may soon be used for astrophysical observations. Photoelectric polarimetry in gas filled proportional counters achieves high sensitivity through a combination of broad band width and good modulation. The band can be tuned by careful choice of gas composition and pressure. The measurements rely on imaging the tracks of photoelectrons. The initial direction of each track carries information about the electric field of the X-ray photon, and an ensemble of such measurements thus measures the net polarization of the source. A novel readout geometry using time projection chambers (TPC) allows deep (i.e. high efficiency) detectors, albeit without the ability to image the sky. Polarimeters which exploit the TPC geometry can be optimized for use behind telescopes, to study faint persistent sources, or as wide field of view instruments, designed to study bright transient events such as gamma-ray bursts or solar flares. We present the conceptual design of both types of TPC polarimeter. Recent laboratory results demonstrate that these polarimeters can achieve substantial gains in the polarization sensitivity achievable in experiments of modest size.

  10. Performance evaluation of real-time video content analysis systems in the CANDELA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desurmont, Xavier; Wijnhoven, Rob; Jaspers, Egbert; Caignart, Olivier; Barais, Mike; Favoreel, Wouter; Delaigle, Jean-Francois

    2005-02-01

    The CANDELA project aims at realizing a system for real-time image processing in traffic and surveillance applications. The system performs segmentation, labels the extracted blobs and tracks their movements in the scene. Performance evaluation of such a system is a major challenge since no standard methods exist and the criteria for evaluation are highly subjective. This paper proposes a performance evaluation approach for video content analysis (VCA) systems and identifies the involved research areas. For these areas we give an overview of the state-of-the-art in performance evaluation and introduce a classification into different semantic levels. The proposed evaluation approach compares the results of the VCA algorithm with a ground-truth (GT) counterpart, which contains the desired results. Both the VCA results and the ground truth comprise description files that are formatted in MPEG-7. The evaluation is required to provide an objective performance measure and a mean to choose between competitive methods. In addition, it enables algorithm developers to measure the progress of their work at the different levels in the design process. From these requirements and the state-of-the-art overview we conclude that standardization is highly desirable for which many research topics still need to be addressed.

  11. Reducing Uncertainties in Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections Using a Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Brett; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections for actinides have long been of great interest for nuclear energy and stockpile stewardship. Traditionally, measurements were performed using fission chambers which provided limited information about the detected fission events. For the case of 239Pu(n,f), sensitivity studies have shown a need for more precise measurements. Recently the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) has developed the fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) to measure fission cross sections to better than 1% uncertainty by providing 3D tracking of fission fragments. The fissionTPC collected data to calculate the 239Pu(n,f) cross section at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center during the 2014 run cycle. Preliminary analysis has been focused on studying particle identification and target and beam non-uniformities to reduce the uncertainty on the cross section. Additionally, the collaboration is investigating other systematic errors that could not be well studied with a traditional fission chamber. LA-UR-15-24906.

  12. 36 CFR 218.12 - Timing of authorized hazardous fuel reduction project decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.10, or DN may occur on, but not before, the fifth business day following the end... hazardous fuel reduction project decision. 218.12 Section 218.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Administrative Review Process for Hazardous Fuel Reduction Projects Authorized by the Healthy Forests...

  13. 36 CFR 218.12 - Timing of authorized hazardous fuel reduction project decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.10, or DN may occur on, but not before, the fifth business day following the end... hazardous fuel reduction project decision. 218.12 Section 218.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Administrative Review Process for Hazardous Fuel Reduction Projects Authorized by the Healthy Forests...

  14. 36 CFR 218.12 - Timing of authorized hazardous fuel reduction project decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.10, or DN may occur on, but not before, the fifth business day following the end... hazardous fuel reduction project decision. 218.12 Section 218.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Administrative Review Process for Hazardous Fuel Reduction Projects Authorized by the Healthy Forests...

  15. "Our Journey through Time": An Oral History Project Carried out by Young People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…

  16. Low-cost real-time infrared scene generation for image projection and signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; King, David E.; Bowden, Mark H.

    1998-07-01

    As cost becomes an increasingly important factor in the development and testing of Infrared sensors and flight computer/processors, the need for accurate hardware-in-the- loop (HWIL) simulations is critical. In the past, expensive and complex dedicated scene generation hardware was needed to attain the fidelity necessary for accurate testing. Recent technological advances and innovative applications of established technologies are beginning to allow development of cost-effective replacements for dedicated scene generators. These new scene generators are mainly constructed from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components. At the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC), researchers have developed such a dynamic IR scene generator (IRSG) built around COTS hardware and software. The IRSG is used to provide dynamic inputs to an IR scene projector for in-band seeker testing and for direct signal injection into the seeker or processor electronics. AMCOM MRDEC has developed a second generation IRSG, namely IRSG2, using the latest Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI) Onyx2 with Infinite Reality graphics. As reported in previous papers, the SGI Onyx Reality Engine 2 is the platform of the original IRSG that is now referred to as IRSG1. IRSG1 has been in operation and used daily for the past three years on several IR projection and signal injection HWIL programs. Using this second generation IRSG, frame rates have increased from 120 Hz to 400 Hz and intensity resolution from 12 bits to 16 bits. The key features of the IRSGs are real time missile frame rates and frame sizes, dynamic missile-to-target(s) viewpoint updated each frame in real-time by a six-degree-of- freedom (6DOF) system under test (SUT) simulation, multiple dynamic objects (e.g. targets, terrain/background, countermeasures, and atmospheric effects), latency compensation, point-to-extended source anti-aliased targets, and

  17. Control time reduction using virtual source projection for treating a leg sarcoma with nonlinear perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kung-Shan; Yuan, Yu; Li, Zhen; Stauffer, Paul R.; Joines, William T.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Das, Shiva K.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Blood perfusion is a well-known factor that complicates accurate control of heating during hyperthermia treatments of cancer. Since blood perfusion varies as a function of time, temperature and location, determination of appropriate power deposition pattern from multiple antenna array Hyperthermia systems and heterogeneous tissues is a difficult control problem. Therefore, we investigate the applicability of a real-time eigenvalue model reduction (virtual source - VS) reduced-order controller for hyperthermic treatments of tissue with nonlinearly varying perfusion. Methods: We impose a piecewise linear approximation to a set of heat pulses, each consisting of a 1-min heat-up, followed by a 2-min cool-down. The controller is designed for feedback from magnetic resonance temperature images (MRTI) obtained after each iteration of heat pulses to adjust the projected optimal setting of antenna phase and magnitude for selective tumor heating. Simulated temperature patterns with additive Gaussian noise with a standard deviation of 1.0°C and zero mean were used as a surrogate for MRTI. Robustness tests were conducted numerically for a patient's right leg placed at the middle of a water bolus surrounded by a 10-antenna applicator driven at 150 MHz. Robustness tests included added discrepancies in perfusion, electrical and thermal properties, and patient model simplifications. Results: The controller improved selective tumor heating after an average of 4-9 iterative adjustments of power and phase, and fulfilled satisfactory therapeutic outcomes with approximately 75% of tumor volumes heated to temperatures >43°C while maintaining about 93% of healthy tissue volume < 41°C. Adequate sarcoma heating was realized by using only 2 to 3 VSs rather than a much larger number of control signals for all 10 antennas, which reduced the convergence time to only 4 to 9% of the original value. Conclusions: Using a piecewise linear approximation to a set of heat pulses in a VS

  18. Incidence of mesothelioma in Lombardy, Italy: exposure to asbestos, time patterns and future projections

    PubMed Central

    Mensi, Carolina; De Matteis, Sara; Dallari, Barbara; Riboldi, Luciano; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Consonni, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Italy, asbestos has been extensively used from 1945 to 1992. We evaluated the impact of exposure to asbestos on occurrence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in the Lombardy Region, Northwest Italy, the most populated and industrialised Italian region. Methods From the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, we selected all incident cases of MM diagnosed between 2000 and 2012. We described sources of exposure to asbestos and examined time trends of MM rates. Using Poisson age-cohort models, we derived projections of burden of MM in the Lombardy population for the period 2013–2029. Results In 2000–2012, we recorded 4442 cases of MM (2850 men, 1592 women). Occupational exposure to asbestos was more frequent in men (73.6%) than in women (38.2%). Non-occupational exposure was found for 13.6% of women and 3.6% of men. The average number of cases of MM per year was still increasing (+3.6% in men, +3.3% in women). Incidence rates were still increasing in individuals aged 65+ years and declining in younger people. A maximum of 417 cases of MM (267 men, 150 women) are expected in 2019. We forecast there will be 6832 more cases (4397 in men, 2435 in women) in the period 2013–2029, for a total of 11 274 cases of MM (7247 in men, 4027 in women) in 30 years. Conclusions This study documented a high burden of MM in both genders in the Lombardy Region, reflecting extensive occupational (mainly in men) and non-occupational (mainly in women) exposure to asbestos in the past. Incidence rates are still increasing; a downturn in occurrence of MM is expected to occur after 2019. PMID:27312399

  19. A distributed agent architecture for real-time knowledge-based systems: Real-time expert systems project, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    We propose a distributed agent architecture (DAA) that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and artificial intelligence. DAA consists of distributed agents that are classified into two categories: reactive and cognitive. Reactive agents can be implemented directly in Ada to meet hard real-time requirements and be deployed on on-board embedded processors. A traditional real-time computing methodology under consideration is the rate monotonic theory that can guarantee schedulability based on analytical methods. AI techniques under consideration for reactive agents are approximate or anytime reasoning that can be implemented using Bayesian belief networks as in Guardian. Cognitive agents are traditional expert systems that can be implemented in ART-Ada to meet soft real-time requirements. During the initial design of cognitive agents, it is critical to consider the migration path that would allow initial deployment on ground-based workstations with eventual deployment on on-board processors. ART-Ada technology enables this migration while Lisp-based technologies make it difficult if not impossible. In addition to reactive and cognitive agents, a meta-level agent would be needed to coordinate multiple agents and to provide meta-level control.

  20. Impact of gradient timing error on the tissue sodium concentration bioscale measured using flexible twisted projection imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Aiming; Atkinson, Ian C.; Vaughn, J. Thomas; Thulborn, Keith R.

    2011-12-01

    The rapid biexponential transverse relaxation of the sodium MR signal from brain tissue requires efficient k-space sampling for quantitative imaging in a time that is acceptable for human subjects. The flexible twisted projection imaging (flexTPI) sequence has been shown to be suitable for quantitative sodium imaging with an ultra-short echo time to minimize signal loss. The fidelity of the k-space center location is affected by the readout gradient timing errors on the three physical axes, which is known to cause image distortion for projection-based acquisitions. This study investigated the impact of these timing errors on the voxel-wise accuracy of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) bioscale measured with the flexTPI sequence. Our simulations show greater than 20% spatially varying quantification errors when the gradient timing errors are larger than 10 μs on all three axes. The quantification is more tolerant of gradient timing errors on the Z-axis. An existing method was used to measure the gradient timing errors with <1 μs error. The gradient timing error measurement is shown to be RF coil dependent, and timing error differences of up to ˜16 μs have been observed between different RF coils used on the same scanner. The measured timing errors can be corrected prospectively or retrospectively to obtain accurate TSC values.

  1. Effects of scatter modeling on time-activity curves estimated directly from dynamic SPECT projections

    SciTech Connect

    Reutter, Bryan W.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2003-10-29

    Quantitative analysis of uptake and washout of cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiopharmaceuticals has the potential to provide better contrast between healthy and diseased tissue, compared to conventional reconstruction of static images. Previously, we used B-splines to model time-activity curves (TACs) for segmented volumes of interest and developed fast least-squares algorithms to estimate spline TAC coefficients and their statistical uncertainties directly from dynamic SPECT projection data. This previous work incorporated physical effects of attenuation and depth-dependent collimator response. In the present work, we incorporate scatter and use a computer simulation to study how scatter modeling affects directly estimated TACs and subsequent estimates of compartmental model parameters. An idealized single-slice emission phantom was used to simulate a 15 min dynamic {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime cardiac patient study in which 500,000 events containing scatter were detected from the slice. When scatter was modeled, unweighted least-squares estimates of TACs had root mean square (RMS) error that was less than 0.6% for normal left ventricular myocardium, blood pool, liver, and background tissue volumes and averaged 3% for two small myocardial defects. When scatter was not modeled, RMS error increased to average values of 16% for the four larger volumes and 35% for the small defects. Noise-to-signal ratios (NSRs) for TACs ranged between 1-18% for the larger volumes and averaged 110% for the small defects when scatter was modeled. When scatter was not modeled, NSR improved by average factors of 1.04 for the larger volumes and 1.25 for the small defects, as a result of the better-posed (though more biased) inverse problem. Weighted least-squares estimates of TACs had slightly better NSR and worse RMS error, compared to unweighted least-squares estimates. Compartmental model uptake and washout parameter estimates obtained from the TACs were less

  2. Real-time multi-intensity image reconstruction from projections for multi-processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, A. K.

    1980-12-01

    The use of microprocessors to perform video data analysis is discussed. The application of projections in data analysis represents a significant data reduction while contributing to improved tracking algorithms and the enhancement of image identification. A mathematical analysis of the ambiguity of multi-intensity pictures (digitized video) with respect to their projections is presented. Two unique classes are defined that are general enough to represent a large class of digitized video pictures. The two classes are the band class and the bar class. A detailed description with proofs of uniqueness are given for each class. They are the basic building blocks for the reconstruction of ambiguous pictures. Since it is desired to reconstruct a picture using its projections in realtime, only fast reconstruction approximations are investigated. Four methods that accomplish fast reconstructions are presented in this dissertation. All four methods depend on block reconstruction techniques. Simulation results of all methods are presented.

  3. Design and Analysis for the DarkSide-10 Two-Phase Argon Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Christina Elena

    Astounding evidence for invisible "dark" matter has been found from galaxy clusters, cosmic and stellar gas motion, gravitational lensing studies, cosmic microwave background analysis, and large scale galaxy surveys. Although all studies indicate that there is a dominant presence of non-luminous matter in the universe (about 22 percent of the total energy density with 5 times more dark matter than baryonic matter), its identity and its "direct" detection (through non-gravitational effects) has not yet been achieved. Dark matter in the form of massive, weakly interacting particles (WIMPs) could be detected through their collisions with target nuclei. This requires detectors to be sensitive to very low-energy (less than 100 keV) nuclear recoils with very low expected rates (a few interactions per year per ton of target). Reducing the background in a direct dark matter detector is the biggest challenge. A detector capable of seeing such low-energy nuclear recoils is difficult to build because of the necessary size and the radio- and chemical- purity. Therefore it is imperative to first construct small-scale prototypes to develop the necessary technology and systems, before attempting to deploy large-scale detectors in underground laboratories. Our collaboration, the DarkSide Collaboration, utilizes argon in two-phase time projection chambers (TPCs). We have designed, built, and commissioned DarkSide-10, a 10 kg prototype detector, and are designing and building DarkSide-50, a 50 kg dark matter detector. The present work is an account of my contribution to these efforts. The two-phase argon TPC technology allows powerful discrimination between dark matter nuclear recoils and background events. Presented here are simulations, designs, and analyses involving the electroluminescence in the gas phase from extracted ionization charge for both DarkSide-10 and DarkSide-50. This work involves the design of the HHV systems, including field cages, that are responsible for

  4. A scientific project locked in time. The Terman Genetic Studies of Genius, 1920s-1950s.

    PubMed

    Cravens, H

    1992-02-01

    Lewis M. Terman is well-known in the history of American psychology for the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon intelligence tests and the Genetic Studies of Genius project. The same assumptions informed the genius project and Terman's work in intelligence testing: the notion of the fixity of the IQ at birth and the maturation theory. According to the maturation theory, individuals developed only within the range of differences made possible by the genetic endowment of the "group"--natural, cultural, or both--to which they belonged. In this article the historicity and nonuniversality of Terman's work is discussed.

  5. Function projective synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Abdurahman, Abdujelil; Jiang, Haijun; Rahman, Kaysar

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of function projective synchronization for a class of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time-varying delays. Based on the theory of differential equations with discontinuous right-hand side, some novel criteria are obtained to realize the function projective synchronization of addressed networks by combining open loop control and linear feedback control. As some special cases, several control strategies are given to ensure the realization of complete synchronization, anti-synchronization and the stabilization of the considered memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural network. Finally, a numerical example and its simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  6. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed embedded operating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, R. B.; Grass, J.; Johnston, G.; Kenny, K.; Russo, V.

    1986-01-01

    The EOS project is investigating the design and construction of a family of real-time distributed embedded operating systems for reliable, distributed aerospace applications. Using the real-time programming techniques developed in co-operation with NASA in earlier research, the project staff is building a kernel for a multiple processor networked system. The first six months of the grant included a study of scheduling in an object-oriented system, the design philosophy of the kernel, and the architectural overview of the operating system. In this report, the operating system and kernel concepts are described. An environment for the experiments has been built and several of the key concepts of the system have been prototyped. The kernel and operating system is intended to support future experimental studies in multiprocessing, load-balancing, routing, software fault-tolerance, distributed data base design, and real-time processing.

  7. Replacement Ratio Projections in Defined Contribution Retirement Plans: Time, Salary Growth, Investment Return, and Real Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Michael; King, Francis P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a method of projecting inflation-adjusted (real) retirement benefit replacement ratios for defined contribution retirement plans such as TIAA-CREF (Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association--College Retirement Equities Fund). The illustrated ratios are comparable to the ratios in defined benefit plans that result…

  8. Time Past: Impacts of ICT on the Pedagogic Discourse in the Interactive Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    The "pedagogic discourse" can describe the power relations and fields of influence within schools. This article extends the approach to include ICT-mediated learning in schools by considering evidence from the InterActive project, undertaken by the University of Bristol, England, in 2000-04. The article also considers how the pedagogic…

  9. Racing against Time: A Report on the Leupp Navajo Immersion Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillerup, Michael

    This paper describes a federally funded language preservation program at Leupp Public School, part of Flagstaff (Arizona) Unified School District but located on the Navajo Reservation. Funded in 1997 for 5 years, this schoolwide project is designed to help elementary students become proficient speakers, readers, and writers of Navajo while…

  10. Time, Space and Structure in an E-Learning and E-Mentoring Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loureiro-Koechlin, Cecilia; Allan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a project, "EMPATHY Net-Works," which developed a learning community as a means of encouraging women to progress into employment and management positions in the logistics and supply chain industries (LaSCI). Learning activities were organised in the form of a taught module containing face-to-face and online elements and…

  11. Two ESP Projects under the Test of Time: The Case of Brazil and Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labassi, Tahar

    2010-01-01

    The paper is a response to Holmes and Celani's (2006) invitation to learn from the Brazilian ESP experience. It discusses the conditions which sustained this experience, and compares the Brazilian situation to the Tunisian one. The paper also discusses the challenges that ESP projects in EFL environments face, the opportunities that ESP…

  12. Parallelism at CERN: real-time and off-line applications in the GP-MIMD2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calafiura, Paolo

    1997-02-01

    A wide range of General Purpose High-Energy Physics applications, ranging from Monte carlo simulation to data acquisition, from interactive data analysis to on-line filtering, have been ported, or developed, and run in parallel on IBM SP-2 and Meiko CS-2 CERN large multi-processor machines. The ESPRIT project GP-MIMD2 has been a catalyst for the interest in parallel computing at CERN. The project provided the 128 processors Meiko CS-2 system that is now succesfully integrated in the CERN computing environment. The CERN experiment NA48 was involved in the GP-MIMD2 project since the beginning. NA48 physicists run, as part of their day-to-day work, simulation and analysis programs parallelized using the Message Passing Interface MPI. The CS-2 is also a vital component of the experiment Data Acquisition System and will be used to calibrate in real-time the 13 000 channels liquid krypton calorimeter.

  13. Project of Near-Real-Time Generation of ShakeMaps and a New Hazard Map in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan; Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Target-orientated prevention and effective crisis management can reduce or avoid damage and save lives in case of a strong earthquake. To achieve this goal, a project for automatic generated ShakeMaps (maps of ground motion and shaking intensity) and updating the Austrian hazard map was started at ZAMG (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik) in 2015. The first goal of the project is set for a near-real-time generation of ShakeMaps following strong earthquakes in Austria to provide rapid, accurate and official information to support the governmental crisis management. Using newly developed methods and software by SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe) and GEM (Global Earthquake Model), which allows a transnational analysis at European level, a new generation of Austrian hazard maps will be ultimately calculated. More information and a status of our project will be given by this presentation.

  14. Optimizing 4D cone beam computed tomography acquisition by varying the gantry velocity and projection time interval.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ricky T; Cooper, Benjamin J; Keall, Paul J

    2013-03-21

    Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging clinical image guidance strategy for tumour sites affected by respiratory motion. In current generation 4DCBCT techniques, both the gantry rotation speed and imaging frequency are constant and independent of the patient's breathing which can lead to projection clustering. We present a mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) model for respiratory motion guided-4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT) which regulates the gantry velocity and projection time interval, in response to the patient's respiratory signal, so that a full set of evenly spaced projections can be taken in a number of phase, or displacement, bins during the respiratory cycle. In each respiratory bin, an image can be reconstructed from the projections to give a 4D view of the patient's anatomy so that the motion of the lungs, and tumour, can be observed during the breathing cycle. A solution to the full MIQP model in a practical amount of time, 10 s, is not possible with the leading commercial MIQP solvers, so a heuristic method is presented. Using parameter settings typically used on current generation 4DCBCT systems (4 min image acquisition, 1200 projections, 10 respiratory bins) and a sinusoidal breathing trace with a 4 s period, we show that the root mean square (RMS) of the angular separation between projections with displacement binning is 2.7° using existing constant gantry speed systems and 0.6° using RMG-4DCBCT. For phase based binning the RMS is 2.7° using constant gantry speed systems and 2.5° using RMG-4DCBCT. The optimization algorithm presented is a critical step on the path to developing a system for RMG-4DCBCT.

  15. Operation Sun Beam, Shot Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 10. Spectral analysis with high-time resolution of the thermal-radiation pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, J.J.; Harris, L.H.; Hennecke, H.J.; Claflin, A.B.; Fekete, M.W.

    1985-09-01

    The primary objective of this project was to investigate the spectral irradiance and luminosity versus time for the first thermal pulse at Shot Small Boy. This was accomplished by use of spectral filters with narrow band passes, phototubes, and magnetic tape recorders with high time resolution at two locations. The measured elapsed time to the first thermal maximum was from 50 to 110 microseconds, depending on wavelength. A graph of radiant thermal power versus time was obtained for the thermal pulse. The delineation of the first thermal pulse, especially the rise portion, is considered to be more definite than has been obtained previously. The resolution time of the instrumentation was approximately 50 microseconds. Secondary objectives were to measure the total luminosity versus time and also to measure the atmospheric attenuation. These objectives were accomplished by making measurements at two distances, 2.5 and 3.5 miles, from ground zero. In the case of the total luminosity measurements, a system of filters with a spectral transmittance approximating the sensitivity response of the average human eye was used. The results are tabulated in the report.

  16. The TimeStudio Project: An open source scientific workflow system for the behavioral and brain sciences.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Pär; Falck-Ytter, Terje; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-06-01

    This article describes a new open source scientific workflow system, the TimeStudio Project, dedicated to the behavioral and brain sciences. The program is written in MATLAB and features a graphical user interface for the dynamic pipelining of computer algorithms developed as TimeStudio plugins. TimeStudio includes both a set of general plugins (for reading data files, modifying data structures, visualizing data structures, etc.) and a set of plugins specifically developed for the analysis of event-related eyetracking data as a proof of concept. It is possible to create custom plugins to integrate new or existing MATLAB code anywhere in a workflow, making TimeStudio a flexible workbench for organizing and performing a wide range of analyses. The system also features an integrated sharing and archiving tool for TimeStudio workflows, which can be used to share workflows both during the data analysis phase and after scientific publication. TimeStudio thus facilitates the reproduction and replication of scientific studies, increases the transparency of analyses, and reduces individual researchers' analysis workload. The project website ( http://timestudioproject.com ) contains the latest releases of TimeStudio, together with documentation and user forums.

  17. The TimeStudio Project: An open source scientific workflow system for the behavioral and brain sciences.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Pär; Falck-Ytter, Terje; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-06-01

    This article describes a new open source scientific workflow system, the TimeStudio Project, dedicated to the behavioral and brain sciences. The program is written in MATLAB and features a graphical user interface for the dynamic pipelining of computer algorithms developed as TimeStudio plugins. TimeStudio includes both a set of general plugins (for reading data files, modifying data structures, visualizing data structures, etc.) and a set of plugins specifically developed for the analysis of event-related eyetracking data as a proof of concept. It is possible to create custom plugins to integrate new or existing MATLAB code anywhere in a workflow, making TimeStudio a flexible workbench for organizing and performing a wide range of analyses. The system also features an integrated sharing and archiving tool for TimeStudio workflows, which can be used to share workflows both during the data analysis phase and after scientific publication. TimeStudio thus facilitates the reproduction and replication of scientific studies, increases the transparency of analyses, and reduces individual researchers' analysis workload. The project website ( http://timestudioproject.com ) contains the latest releases of TimeStudio, together with documentation and user forums. PMID:26170051

  18. Multi-objective optimization of discrete time-cost tradeoff problem in project networks using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriari, Mohammadreza

    2016-03-01

    The time-cost tradeoff problem is one of the most important and applicable problems in project scheduling area. There are many factors that force the mangers to crash the time. This factor could be early utilization, early commissioning and operation, improving the project cash flow, avoiding unfavorable weather conditions, compensating the delays, and so on. Since there is a need to allocate extra resources to short the finishing time of project and the project managers are intended to spend the lowest possible amount of money and achieve the maximum crashing time, as a result, both direct and indirect costs will be influenced in the project, and here, we are facing into the time value of money. It means that when we crash the starting activities in a project, the extra investment will be tied in until the end date of the project; however, when we crash the final activities, the extra investment will be tied in for a much shorter period. This study is presenting a two-objective mathematical model for balancing compressing the project time with activities delay to prepare a suitable tool for decision makers caught in available facilities and due to the time of projects. Also drawing the scheduling problem to real world conditions by considering nonlinear objective function and the time value of money are considered. The presented problem was solved using NSGA-II, and the effect of time compressing reports on the non-dominant set.

  19. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  20. Projection of landfill stabilization period by time series analysis of leachate quality and transformation trends of VOCs.

    PubMed

    Sizirici, Banu; Tansel, Berrin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate suitability of using the time series analysis for selected leachate quantity and quality parameters to forecast the duration of post closure period of a closed landfill. Selected leachate quality parameters (i.e., sodium, chloride, iron, bicarbonate, total dissolved solids (TDS), and ammonium as N) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (i.e., vinyl chloride, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, chlorobenzene, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes, total BTEX) were analyzed by the time series multiplicative decomposition model to estimate the projected levels of the parameters. These parameters were selected based on their detection levels and consistency of detection in leachate samples. In addition, VOCs detected in leachate and their chemical transformations were considered in view of the decomposition stage of the landfill. Projected leachate quality trends were analyzed and compared with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for the respective parameters. Conditions that lead to specific trends (i.e., increasing, decreasing, or steady) and interactions of leachate quality parameters were evaluated. Decreasing trends were projected for leachate quantity, concentrations of sodium, chloride, TDS, ammonia as N, vinyl chloride, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes, and total BTEX. Increasing trends were projected for concentrations of iron, bicarbonate, and chlorobenzene. Anaerobic conditions in landfill provide favorable conditions for corrosion of iron resulting in higher concentrations over time. Bicarbonate formation as a byproduct of bacterial respiration during waste decomposition and the lime rock cap system of the landfill contribute to the increasing levels of bicarbonate in leachate. Chlorobenzene is produced during anaerobic biodegradation of 1,4-dichlorobenzene, hence, the increasing trend of chlorobenzene may be due to the declining trend of 1,4-dichlorobenzene. The time series multiplicative

  1. Interrupted Time Series Versus Statistical Process Control in Quality Improvement Projects.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus; Andersson Gäre, Boel; Elg, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    To measure the effect of quality improvement interventions, it is appropriate to use analysis methods that measure data over time. Examples of such methods include statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis. This article compares the use of statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis for evaluating the longitudinal effects of quality improvement interventions, using an example study on an evaluation of a computerized decision support system.

  2. Characterizing opto-electret based paper speakers by using a real-time projection Moiré metrology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Ling; Hsu, Kuan-Yu; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    Advancement of distributed piezo-electret sensors and actuators facilitates various smart systems development, which include paper speakers, opto-piezo/electret bio-chips, etc. The array-based loudspeaker system possess several advantages over conventional coil speakers, such as light-weightness, flexibility, low power consumption, directivity, etc. With the understanding that the performance of the large-area piezo-electret loudspeakers or even the microfluidic biochip transport behavior could be tailored by changing their dynamic behaviors, a full-field real-time high-resolution non-contact metrology system was developed. In this paper, influence of the resonance modes and the transient vibrations of an arraybased loudspeaker system on the acoustic effect were measured by using a real-time projection moiré metrology system and microphones. To make the paper speaker even more versatile, we combine the photosensitive material TiOPc into the original electret loudspeaker. The vibration of this newly developed opto-electret loudspeaker could be manipulated by illuminating different light-intensity patterns. Trying to facilitate the tailoring process of the opto-electret loudspeaker, projection moiré was adopted to measure its vibration. By recording the projected fringes which are modulated by the contours of the testing sample, the phase unwrapping algorithm can give us a continuous phase distribution which is proportional to the object height variations. With the aid of the projection moiré metrology system, the vibrations associated with each distinctive light pattern could be characterized. Therefore, we expect that the overall acoustic performance could be improved by finding the suitable illuminating patterns. In this manuscript, the system performance of the projection moiré and the optoelectret paper speakers were cross-examined and verified by the experimental results obtained.

  3. The Economics of Adolescents' Time Allocation: Evidence from the Young Agent Project in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Restrepo, Susana

    2012-01-01

    What are the socioeconomic implications of the time allocation decisions made by low-income adolescents? The way adolescents allocate their time between schooling, labor and leisure has important implications for their education attainment, college aspirations, job opportunities and future earnings. This study focuses on adolescents and young…

  4. Arctic sea ice decline: Projected changes in timing and extent of sea ice in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than most regions of the world due in part to increasing greenhouse gases and positive feedbacks associated with the loss of snow and ice cover. One consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades?a decline that is projected to continue by state-of-the-art models. Many stakeholders are therefore interested in how global warming may change the timing and extent of sea ice Arctic-wide, and for specific regions. To inform the public and decision makers of anticipated environmental changes, scientists are striving to better understand how sea ice influences ecosystem structure, local weather, and global climate. Here, projected changes in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are examined because sea ice influences the presence of, or accessibility to, a variety of local resources of commercial and cultural value. In this study, 21st century sea ice conditions in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are based on projections by 18 general circulation models (GCMs) prepared for the fourth reporting period by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. Sea ice projections are analyzed for each of two IPCC greenhouse gas forcing scenarios: the A1B `business as usual? scenario and the A2 scenario that is somewhat more aggressive in its CO2 emissions during the second half of the century. A large spread of uncertainty among projections by all 18 models was constrained by creating model subsets that excluded GCMs that poorly simulated the 1979-2008 satellite record of ice extent and seasonality. At the end of the 21st century (2090-2099), median sea ice projections among all combinations of model ensemble and forcing scenario were qualitatively similar. June is projected to experience the least amount of sea ice loss among all months. For the Chukchi Sea, projections show extensive ice melt during July and ice-free conditions during August, September, and October by the end of the century, with high agreement

  5. Retention Projection Enables Accurate Calculation of Liquid Chromatographic Retention Times Across Labs and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Freund, Dana M.; Ma, Yan; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Hollender, Juliane; Broeckling, Corey D.; Huhman, David V.; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Stoll, Dwight R.; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Schymanski, Emma L.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Boswell, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of small molecules by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be greatly improved if the chromatographic retention information is used along with mass spectral information to narrow down the lists of candidates. Linear retention indexing remains the standard for sharing retention data across labs, but it is unreliable because it cannot properly account for differences in the experimental conditions used by various labs, even when the differences are relatively small and unintentional. On the other hand, an approach called “retention projection” properly accounts for many intentional differences in experimental conditions, and when combined with a “back-calculation” methodology described recently, it also accounts for unintentional differences. In this study, the accuracy of this methodology is compared with linear retention indexing across eight different labs. When each lab ran a test mixture under a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates they selected independently, retention projections averaged 22-fold more accurate for uncharged compounds because they properly accounted for these intentional differences, which were more pronounced in steep gradients. When each lab ran the test mixture under nominally the same conditions, which is the ideal situation to reproduce linear retention indices, retention projections still averaged 2-fold more accurate because they properly accounted for many unintentional differences between the LC systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most successful study to date aiming to calculate (or even just to reproduce) LC gradient retention across labs, and it is the only study in which retention was reliably calculated under various multi-segment gradients and flow rates chosen independently by labs. PMID:26292625

  6. Time-dependent density-functional theory in massively parallel computer architectures: the OCTOPUS project.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Xavier; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Strubbe, David A; Oliveira, Micael J T; Nogueira, Fernando; Castro, Alberto; Muguerza, Javier; Arruabarrena, Agustin; Louie, Steven G; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Rubio, Angel; Marques, Miguel A L

    2012-06-13

    Octopus is a general-purpose density-functional theory (DFT) code, with a particular emphasis on the time-dependent version of DFT (TDDFT). In this paper we present the ongoing efforts to achieve the parallelization of octopus. We focus on the real-time variant of TDDFT, where the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are directly propagated in time. This approach has great potential for execution in massively parallel systems such as modern supercomputers with thousands of processors and graphics processing units (GPUs). For harvesting the potential of conventional supercomputers, the main strategy is a multi-level parallelization scheme that combines the inherent scalability of real-time TDDFT with a real-space grid domain-partitioning approach. A scalable Poisson solver is critical for the efficiency of this scheme. For GPUs, we show how using blocks of Kohn-Sham states provides the required level of data parallelism and that this strategy is also applicable for code optimization on standard processors. Our results show that real-time TDDFT, as implemented in octopus, can be the method of choice for studying the excited states of large molecular systems in modern parallel architectures. PMID:22562950

  7. Time-dependent density-functional theory in massively parallel computer architectures: the octopus project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Xavier; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Strubbe, David A.; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Nogueira, Fernando; Castro, Alberto; Muguerza, Javier; Arruabarrena, Agustin; Louie, Steven G.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Rubio, Angel; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2012-06-01

    Octopus is a general-purpose density-functional theory (DFT) code, with a particular emphasis on the time-dependent version of DFT (TDDFT). In this paper we present the ongoing efforts to achieve the parallelization of octopus. We focus on the real-time variant of TDDFT, where the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are directly propagated in time. This approach has great potential for execution in massively parallel systems such as modern supercomputers with thousands of processors and graphics processing units (GPUs). For harvesting the potential of conventional supercomputers, the main strategy is a multi-level parallelization scheme that combines the inherent scalability of real-time TDDFT with a real-space grid domain-partitioning approach. A scalable Poisson solver is critical for the efficiency of this scheme. For GPUs, we show how using blocks of Kohn-Sham states provides the required level of data parallelism and that this strategy is also applicable for code optimization on standard processors. Our results show that real-time TDDFT, as implemented in octopus, can be the method of choice for studying the excited states of large molecular systems in modern parallel architectures.

  8. Time-dependent density-functional theory in massively parallel computer architectures: the OCTOPUS project.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Xavier; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Strubbe, David A; Oliveira, Micael J T; Nogueira, Fernando; Castro, Alberto; Muguerza, Javier; Arruabarrena, Agustin; Louie, Steven G; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Rubio, Angel; Marques, Miguel A L

    2012-06-13

    Octopus is a general-purpose density-functional theory (DFT) code, with a particular emphasis on the time-dependent version of DFT (TDDFT). In this paper we present the ongoing efforts to achieve the parallelization of octopus. We focus on the real-time variant of TDDFT, where the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are directly propagated in time. This approach has great potential for execution in massively parallel systems such as modern supercomputers with thousands of processors and graphics processing units (GPUs). For harvesting the potential of conventional supercomputers, the main strategy is a multi-level parallelization scheme that combines the inherent scalability of real-time TDDFT with a real-space grid domain-partitioning approach. A scalable Poisson solver is critical for the efficiency of this scheme. For GPUs, we show how using blocks of Kohn-Sham states provides the required level of data parallelism and that this strategy is also applicable for code optimization on standard processors. Our results show that real-time TDDFT, as implemented in octopus, can be the method of choice for studying the excited states of large molecular systems in modern parallel architectures.

  9. High-speed real-time 3-D coordinates measurement based on fringe projection profilometry considering camera lens distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shijie; Chen, Qian; Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Yu, Shi Ling

    2014-10-01

    Optical three-dimensional (3-D) profilometry is gaining increasing attention for its simplicity, flexibility, high accuracy, and non-contact nature. Recent advances in imaging sensors and digital projection technology further its progress in high-speed, real-time applications, enabling 3-D shapes reconstruction of moving objects and dynamic scenes. However, the camera lens is never perfect and the lens distortion does influence the accuracy of the measurement result, which is often overlooked in the existing real-time 3-D shape measurement systems. To this end, here we present a novel high-speed real-time 3-D coordinates measuring technique based on fringe projection with the consideration of the camera lens distortion. A pixel mapping relation between a distorted image and a corrected one is pre-determined and stored in computer memory for real-time fringe correction. The out-of-plane height is obtained firstly and the acquisition for the two corresponding in-plane coordinates follows on the basis of the solved height. Besides, a method of lookup table (LUT) is introduced as well for fast data processing. Our experimental results reveal that the measurement error of the in-plane coordinates has been reduced by one order of magnitude and the accuracy of the out-plane coordinate been tripled after the distortions being eliminated. Moreover, owing to the generated LUTs, a 3-D reconstruction speed of 92.34 frames per second can be achieved.

  10. Protein Analysis Using Real-Time PCR Instrumentation: Incorporation in an Integrated, Inquiry-Based Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation for real-time PCR is used primarily for amplification and quantitation of nucleic acids. The capability to measure fluorescence while controlling temperature in multiple samples can also be applied to the analysis of proteins. Conformational stability and changes in stability due to ligand binding are easily assessed. Protein…

  11. THE JEFFERSON PARISH-LOUISIANA PROJECT - DELIVERING TIME RELEVANT WATER QUALITY INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has developed a handbook to help state and local governmental officials implement near-real-time water quality monitoring and outreach programs with step-by-step instructions on how to: 1) Employ satellite and robotic water monitoring equipment, 2) collect, transfer, an...

  12. Project Golden Gate: towards real-time Java in space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Daniel; Bollella, Greg; Canham, Tim; Carson, Vanessa; Champlin, Virgil; Giovannoni, Brian; Indictor, Mark; Meyer, Kenny; Murray, Alex; Reinholtz, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the problem domain and our experimentation with the first commercial implementation of the Real Time Specification for Java. The two main issues explored in this report are: (1) the effect of RTSJ's non-heap memory on the programming model, and (2) performance benchmarking of RTSJ/Linux relative to C++/VxWorks.

  13. The EREBOS Project: Time-Series Photometry of New HW Vir Binaries from the OGLE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalan-Hurtado, Rodrigo; Barlow, Brad; EREBOS Team

    2016-01-01

    Several post red giant hot subdwarf stars are found in tight binaries with cool main sequence companions. The separation distances in these so-called HW Vir systems are so small that the companions would have been inside of the envelopes of the red giant progenitors. Consequently, they are thought to be responsible for the formation of the hot subdwarfs by stripping off the outer layers of their red giant progenitor. For the past few years, fewer than 20 HW Vir binaries were known. Recently, however, 36 new candidate binaries were uncovered by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) survey. Follow-up photometry and spectrometry are needed to determine the stellar masses of these systems. We recently started the Eclipsing Reflection Effect Binaries from the OGLE Survey (EREBOS) project to achieve this goal and determine the overall companion mass distribution for HW Vir binaries. Here we present EREBOS follow-up observations obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m telescope and discuss our current findings.

  14. Cost of illness of the stomach cancer in Japan - a time trend and future projections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stomach cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Japan. The objectives of this study were to estimate and project the economic burden associated with stomach cancer in Japan, and to identify the key factors that drive the economic burden of stomach cancer. Methods We calculated Cost of illness (COI) of 1996, 2002, 2008, 2014 and 2020 by using government office statistics and the COI method. We calculated direct cost and indirect cost (morbidity cost and mortality cost), and estimated the COI by summing them up. Results The number of deaths remained at approximately 50,000 in 1996–2008. COI was in downward trend from 1,293.5 billion yen in 1996 to 1,114.2 billion yen in 2008. Morbidity cost was 85.6 billion yen and 54.0 billion yen, mortality cost was 972.3 billion yen and 806.4 billion yen, and mortality cost per person was 19.4 million yen and 16.1 million yen in 1996 and 2008, respectively. Decrease of mortality cost that accounted for a large part of the COI (72.4% in 2008) was the major contributing factor. COI is predicted to decrease if the trend of health related indicators continues (442.8-1,056.1 billion yen depending on the model in 2020). Mortality cost per person is also predicted to decrease (9.5-12.5 million yen depending on the model in 2020). Conclusions If the trend of health related indicators continues, it is estimated that COI of stomach cancer would decrease. “Aging”, “change of the healthcare providing system” and “new medical technology” are considered as contributing factors of COI. PMID:23879739

  15. Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms.

    PubMed

    Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A

    2016-01-28

    Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement--correlations in the properties of microscopic systems--to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million (87)Rb atoms in their 'clock' states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.

  16. Projection of controlled repeatable real-time moving targets to test and evaluate motion imagery quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopatz, Stephen D.; Mendez, Michael; Trent, Randall

    2015-05-01

    The projection of controlled moving targets is key to the quantitative testing of video capture and post processing for Motion Imagery. This presentation will discuss several implementations of target projectors with moving targets or apparent moving targets creating motion to be captured by the camera under test. The targets presented are broadband (UV-VIS-IR) and move in a predictable, repeatable and programmable way; several short videos will be included in the presentation. Among the technical approaches will be targets that move independently in the camera's field of view, as well targets that change size and shape. The development of a rotating IR and VIS 4 bar target projector with programmable rotational velocity and acceleration control for testing hyperspectral cameras is discussed. A related issue for motion imagery is evaluated by simulating a blinding flash which is an impulse of broadband photons in fewer than 2 milliseconds to assess the camera's reaction to a large, fast change in signal. A traditional approach of gimbal mounting the camera in combination with the moving target projector is discussed as an alternative to high priced flight simulators. Based on the use of the moving target projector several standard tests are proposed to provide a corresponding test to MTF (resolution), SNR and minimum detectable signal at velocity. Several unique metrics are suggested for Motion Imagery including Maximum Velocity Resolved (the measure of the greatest velocity that is accurately tracked by the camera system) and Missing Object Tolerance (measurement of tracking ability when target is obscured in the images). These metrics are applicable to UV-VIS-IR wavelengths and can be used to assist in camera and algorithm development as well as comparing various systems by presenting the exact scenes to the cameras in a repeatable way.

  17. Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms.

    PubMed

    Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A

    2016-01-28

    Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement--correlations in the properties of microscopic systems--to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million (87)Rb atoms in their 'clock' states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source. PMID:26751056

  18. Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J.; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement—correlations in the properties of microscopic systems—to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million 87Rb atoms in their ‘clock’ states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.

  19. Combining endoscopic ultrasound with Time-Of-Flight PET: The EndoTOFPET-US Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    The EndoTOFPET-US collaboration develops a multimodal imaging technique for endoscopic exams of the pancreas or the prostate. It combines the benefits of high resolution metabolic imaging with Time-Of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) and anatomical imaging with ultrasound (US). EndoTOFPET-US consists of a PET head extension for a commercial US endoscope and a PET plate outside the body in coincidence with the head. The high level of miniaturization and integration creates challenges in fields such as scintillating crystals, ultra-fast photo-detection, highly integrated electronics, system integration and image reconstruction. Amongst the developments, fast scintillators as well as fast and compact digital SiPMs with single SPAD readout are used to obtain the best coincidence time resolution (CTR). Highly integrated ASICs and DAQ electronics contribute to the timing performances of EndoTOFPET. In view of the targeted resolution of around 1 mm in the reconstructed image, we present a prototype detector system with a CTR better than 240 ps FWHM. We discuss the challenges in simulating such a system and introduce reconstruction algorithms based on graphics processing units (GPU).

  20. Commissioning the NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber: Towards the 238U / 235U (n, f) Cross-section Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meharchand, R.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Heffner, M.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Laptev, A. B.; Loveland, W.; Massey, T. N.; Qu, H.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Seilhan, B.; Snyder, L.; Stave, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.

    2014-05-01

    The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration is developing a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to measure neutron-induced fission cross sections with unprecedented accuracy. Modifying TPC technology for nuclear physics applications is a challenging endeavor, and frequent testing and evaluation is required to ensure that all components are behaving as expected. In-beam tests of the NIFFTE TPC at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LAN-SCE) commenced in 2010. An overview of the NIFFTE TPC experiments performed at LANSCE will be presented, along with preliminary performance results.

  1. Implementing performance improvement in New Zealand emergency departments: the six hour time target policy national research project protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In May 2009, the New Zealand government announced a new policy aimed at improving the quality of Emergency Department care and whole hospital performance. Governments have increasingly looked to time targets as a mechanism for improving hospital performance and from a whole system perspective, using the Emergency Department waiting time as a performance measure has the potential to see improvements in the wider health system. However, the imposition of targets may have significant adverse consequences. There is little empirical work examining how the performance of the wider hospital system is affected by such a target. This project aims to answer the following questions: How has the introduction of the target affected broader hospital performance over time, and what accounts for these changes? Which initiatives and strategies have been successful in moving hospitals towards the target without compromising the quality of other care processes and patient outcomes? Is there a difference in outcomes between different ethnic and age groups? Which initiatives and strategies have the greatest potential to be transferred across organisational contexts? Methods/design The study design is mixed methods; combining qualitative research into the behaviour and practices of specific case study hospitals with quantitative data on clinical outcomes and process measures of performance over the period 2006-2012. All research activity is guided by a Kaupapa Māori Research methodological approach. A dynamic systems model of acute patient flows was created to frame the study. Consequences of the target (positive and negative) will be explored by integrating analyses and insights gained from the quantitative and qualitative streams of the study. Discussion At the time of submission of this protocol, the project has been underway for 12 months. This time was necessary to finalise both the case study sites and the secondary outcomes through key stakeholder consultation. We

  2. Real-time three-dimensional surface measurement by color encoded light projection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. Y.; Li, Y. F.; Guan, Q.; Xiao, G.

    2006-09-11

    Existing noncontact methods for surface measurement suffer from the disadvantages of poor reliability, low scanning speed, or high cost. The authors present a method for real-time three-dimensional data acquisition by a color-coded vision sensor composed of common components. The authors use a digital projector controlled by computer to generate desired color light patterns. The unique indexing of the light codes is a key problem and is solved in this study so that surface perception can be performed with only local pattern analysis of the neighbor color codes in a single image. Experimental examples and performance analysis are provided.

  3. Climate Central World Weather Attribution (WWA) project: Real-time extreme weather event attribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haustein, Karsten; Otto, Friederike; Uhe, Peter; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather detection and attribution analysis has emerged as a core theme in climate science over the last decade or so. By using a combination of observational data and climate models it is possible to identify the role of climate change in certain types of extreme weather events such as sea level rise and its contribution to storm surges, extreme heat events and droughts or heavy rainfall and flood events. These analyses are usually carried out after an extreme event has occurred when reanalysis and observational data become available. The Climate Central WWA project will exploit the increasing forecast skill of seasonal forecast prediction systems such as the UK MetOffice GloSea5 (Global seasonal forecasting system) ensemble forecasting method. This way, the current weather can be fed into climate models to simulate large ensembles of possible weather scenarios before an event has fully emerged yet. This effort runs along parallel and intersecting tracks of science and communications that involve research, message development and testing, staged socialization of attribution science with key audiences, and dissemination. The method we employ uses a very large ensemble of simulations of regional climate models to run two different analyses: one to represent the current climate as it was observed, and one to represent the same events in the world that might have been without human-induced climate change. For the weather "as observed" experiment, the atmospheric model uses observed sea surface temperature (SST) data from GloSea5 (currently) and present-day atmospheric gas concentrations to simulate weather events that are possible given the observed climate conditions. The weather in the "world that might have been" experiments is obtained by removing the anthropogenic forcing from the observed SSTs, thereby simulating a counterfactual world without human activity. The anthropogenic forcing is obtained by comparing the CMIP5 historical and natural simulations

  4. Making Quality Improvement Happen in the Real World: Building Capability and Improving Multiple Projects at the Same Time

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Malcolm; Puxty, Alex; Miles, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Improving work as part of clinical practice is challenging. Plans for improvement are often made, but not followed through. A recent experience of failure in an ICU led to a change in approach. Members of the multi-professional team committed to meet weekly to learn about quality improvement by working on improvement projects. The group selected four topics they wanted to work on. These were: a bundle for patients admitted with septic shock; early (≤4 hours) sedation vacation after admission to ICU to allow titration of sedation to effect; achieving ≥ 20 minutes of mobilisation per day in ventilated patients; and medicines reconciliation. This quality improvement meeting was built into another regular weekly meeting. Initially the meeting ran for 30 minutes; each week some focused quality improvement teaching was provided in addition to talking about each individual project. The team found the meeting useful, they saw the progress they were making but felt the allotted time was too short. After 6 weeks, the initial early results persuaded the team to increase the duration of this meeting to 45 minutes. At the start reliability of each process was low (between 10% and 38%). All four projects achieved their stated process reliability aim. This took between 165 and 334 days for each project. Many tests of change ideas were required to achieve this. We have been able to improve multiple topics in a short period and produce sustainable change. The weekly meeting provided the focus to this improvement work. The teaching and coaching on quality improvement methodology that occurred as part of this meeting helped accelerate our rate of progress. We believe this experience and the learning we have gained will help provide ideas for others who also want to improve healthcare delivery in different settings. PMID:27158493

  5. The projection of world geothermal energy consumption from time series and regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanullang, Elwin Y.; Supriatna, Agus; Supriatna, Asep K.

    2015-12-01

    World population growth has many impacts on human live activities and other related aspects. One among the aspects is the increase of the use of energy to support human daily activities, covering industrial aspect, transportation, domestic activities, etc. It is plausible that the higher the population size in a country the higher the needs for energy to support all aspects of human activities in the country. Considering the depletion of petroleum and other fossil-based energy, recently there is a tendency to use geothermal as other source of energy. In this paper we will discuss the prediction of the world consumption of geothermal energy by two different methods, i.e. via the time series of the geothermal usage and via the time series of the geothermal usage combined with the prediction of the world total population. For the first case, we use the simple exponential smoothing method while for the second case we use the simple regression method. The result shows that taking into account the prediction of the world population size giving a better prediction to forecast a short term of the geothermal energy consumption.

  6. Combination of two Gas Electron Multipliers and a Micromegas as gain elements for a time projection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiola, S.; Ehlers, R. J.; Gu, S.; Harris, J. W.; Majka, R.; Mulligan, J. D.; Oliver, M.; Schambach, J.; Smirnov, N.

    2016-10-01

    We measured the properties of a novel combination of two Gas Electron Multipliers with a Micromegas for use as amplification devices in high-rate gaseous time projection chambers. The goal of this design is to minimize the buildup of space charge in the drift volume of such detectors in order to eliminate the standard gating grid and its resultant dead time, while preserving good tracking and particle identification performance. To characterize this micro-pattern gas detector configuration, we measured the positive ion back-flow and energy resolution at various element gains and electric fields, using a variety of gases, and additionally studied crosstalk effects and discharge rates. At a gain of 2000, this configuration achieves an ion back-flow below 0.4% and an energy resolution better than σ / E = 12 % for 55Fe X-rays.

  7. A decision-theoretic approach to the display of information for time-critical decisions: The Vista project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, Eric; Ruokangas, Corinne; Srinivas, Sampath; Barry, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    We describe a collaborative research and development effort between the Palo Alto Laboratory of the Rockwell Science Center, Rockwell Space Operations Company, and the Propulsion Systems Section of NASA JSC to design computational tools that can manage the complexity of information displayed to human operators in high-stakes, time-critical decision contexts. We shall review an application from NASA Mission Control and describe how we integrated a probabilistic diagnostic model and a time-dependent utility model, with techniques for managing the complexity of computer displays. Then, we shall describe the behavior of VPROP, a system constructed to demonstrate promising display-management techniques. Finally, we shall describe our current research directions on the Vista 2 follow-on project.

  8. Status of FARTECH's Multi-Sensor Real-Time Resistive Wall Mode Identification Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.; Edgell, D. H.; Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, Y. B.; Humphreys, D. A.; Walker, M. L.; Leuer, J. A.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2002-11-01

    Early detection of resistive wall mode (RWM) identification (ID) is possible utilizing multiple sensors to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and mode structure recognition with a pre-modeled numerical structure, assuming similar equilibria to be reproduced. Magnetic probes, and internal and external saddle loops are currently used. The predicted structures are modeled via FARVAC(D.H. Edgell, FARTECH, Inc. Report FT020523, May (2002).) and VACUUM using the GATO linear RWM mode. The RWM structures are then matched to the experimental data in real-time. For better algorithm and understanding of the modes, other sensors such as soft x-ray data are being incorporated in the program. In addition, an equilibrium and stability code is being developed for basic understanding of the RWM physics such as RWM rotation and dissipation. Systematic implementation and communication of our mode identification to the DIII-D PCS are being developed and tested.

  9. Quartic - a Precise Time-Of Counter for the Atlas Forward Physics Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinfold, James L.

    2010-04-01

    Precise ToF counters are employed by AFP to reduce pile-up background in the forward proton spectrometers. It is expected that at the highest LHC luminosity up to ~35 interactions occur at the same bunch crossing in ATLAS. A precision of the order of few mm (~10 ps) or better is required to adequately distinguish the vertex of interest - from which the unbroken scattered protons originate - from other pile-up vertices, with good efficiency. The development and testing of the QUARTIC precision ToF detector and its readout is described. This detector utilizes fused-silica radiators readout by Micro-Channel Plates Photomultipliers. The frontend readout electronics is based on the High Precision Time to Digital Converter (HPTDC).

  10. Low-cost real-time infrared scene generation for image projection and signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; King, David E.; Bowden, Mark H.

    1997-07-01

    As cost becomes an increasingly important factor in the development and testing of infrared (IR) sensors and flight computer/processors, the need for accurate hardware-in-the- loop simulations is critical. In the past, expensive and complex dedicated scene generation hardware was needed to attain the fidelity necessary for accurately testing systems under test (SUT). Recent technological advances and innovative applications of established technologies are beginning to allow development of cost effective replacements for dedicated scene generators. These new scene generators are mainly constructed from commercial off-the- shelf (COTS) hardware and software components. At the U.S. Army Missile Command (MICOM) researchers have developed such a dynamic IR scene generator (IRSG) built around COTS hardware and software. The IRSG is being used to provide inputs to an IR scene projector for in-band sensor testing and for direct signal injection into the sensor or processor electronics. Using this `baseline' IRSG, up to 120 frames per second (Hz) of 12-bit intensity images are being generated at 640 by 640 pixel resolution. The IRSG SUT-to- target viewpoint is dynamically updated in real time by a six-degree-of-freedom SUT simulation executing on a facility simulation computer, synchronized with an external signal from the SUT hardware, and compensates for system latency using a special purpose hardware component implemented on a single VME card. Multiple dynamic targets, terrain/backgrounds, countermeasures, and atmospheric effects in real time by the facility simulation computer via a shared memory interface to the IRSG. The `next generation' IRSG is currently under development at MICOM using `next generation' COTS hardware and software. `Next generation' performance specifications are estimated to yield 16-bit intensity, 250 - 300 Hz frame rate, at 1024 X 1024 pixel resolution.

  11. Possibilities For The LAGUNA Projects At The Frejus Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mosca, Luigi

    2010-11-24

    The present laboratory (LSM) at the Frejus site and the project of a first extension of it, mainly aimed at the next generation of dark matter and double beta decay experiments, are briefly reviewed. Then the main characteristics of the LAGUNA cooperation and Design Study network are summarized. Seven underground sites in Europe are considered in LAGUNA and are under study as candidates for the installation of Megaton scale detectors using three different techniques: a liquid Argon TPC (GLACIER), a liquid scintillator detector (LENA) and a Water Cerenkov (MEMPHYS), all mainly aimed at investigation of proton decay and properties of neutrinos from SuperNovae and other astrophysical sources as well as from accelerators (Super-beams and/or Beta-beams from CERN). One of the seven sites is located at Frejus, near the present LSM laboratory, and the results of its feasibility study are presented and discussed. Then the physics potential of a MEMPHYS detector installed in this site are emphasized both for non-accelerator and for neutrino beam based configurations. The MEMPHYNO prototype with its R and D programme is presented. Finally a possible schedule is sketched.

  12. The MODIS Rapid Response Project: Near-Real-Time Processing for Fire Monitoring and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descloitres, J.; Justice, C.; Sohlberg, R.; Giglio, L.; Schmaltz, J.; Seaton, J.; Davies, D.; Anyamba, A.; Hansen, M.; Carroll, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offers an unprecedented combination of daily spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral characteristics. These capabilities make MODIS ideal to observe a variety of rapid events: active fires, floods, smoke transport, dust storms, severe storms, iceberg calving, and volcanic eruptions. The MODIS Rapid Response System (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov) was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a rapid response to those events, with initial emphasis on active fire detection and 250m-resolution imagery. MODIS data for most of the Earth's land surface is processed just a few hours after data acquisition. A collaboration between NASA, the University of Maryland and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service has been developed to provide fire information derived from MODIS to federal fire managers. Active fire locations in the conterminous United States are produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System and communicated to the Forest Service within a few minutes of production. The MODIS Rapid Response processing was also adapted to Direct Broadcast to reduce the product turn-around to just minutes after data acquisition regionally. MODIS active fire locations are used by the Forest Service to generate regional fire maps over the United States, updated twice daily and provided to the fire managers to help them allocate firefighting resources. Active fire locations are also distributed in near-real-time to the Global Observation of Forest Cover (G.O.F.C.) user community through a web interface integrating MODIS active fire locations and Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) datasets. The suite of MODIS rapid fire products is currently being complemented with a Smoke Index product and a Burned Area product that will represent two new key tools available to the fire community. Finally a new collaboration with the U.S.D.A. Foreign Agricultural Service was

  13. Design and Operation of A Setup with A Camera and Adjustable Mirror to Inspect the Sense-Wire Planes of the Time Projection Chamber Inside the MicroBooNE Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Carls, Benjamin; Horton-Smith, Glenn; James, Catherine C.; Kubinski, Robert M.; Pordes, Stephen; Schukraft, Anne; Strauss, Thomas

    2015-08-26

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This inspection was performed after the transportation of the vessel with the enclosed detector to its final location, but before filling with liquid argon. Our paper describes an approach to view the inside of the MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper also describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.

  14. Design and operation of a setup with a camera and adjustable mirror to inspect the sense-wire planes of the Time Projection Chamber inside the MicroBooNE cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carls, B.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C. C.; Kubinski, R. M.; Pordes, S.; Schukraft, A.; Strauss, T.

    2015-08-01

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This inspection was performed after the transportation of the vessel with the enclosed detector to its final location, but before filling with liquid argon. This paper describes an approach to view the inside of the MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.

  15. Total variation based reconstruction of scattering inhomogeneities in tissue from time-resolved optical projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Alexander B.; Vlasov, Vitaly V.

    2016-04-01

    The important advantage of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is the possibility of tissue functional diagnosis. However the possibility implements if only we separately reconstruct the spatial distributions of optical parameters, specifically the absorption and scattering coefficients. We have recently demonstrated that time-domain DOT based on the perturbation model by Lyubimov is capable of reconstructing absorbing inhomogeneities in tissue with a DOT high spatial resolution (better than 3 mm at a depth of 4 cm). This paper continues our research and focuses on the reconstruction of scattering inhomogeneities. We consider the flat layer transmission geometry which is traditional for optical mammography, and use diffusion approximation to derive analytical expressions for weight functions responsible for the reconstruction of scattering inhomogeneities. To confirm that our calculations are correct we perform a numerical experiment where we reconstruct a rectangular scattering object 10×8 cm in size with 4 circular scattering macroinhomogeneities 4 mm in diameter each, and a randomly inhomogeneous scattering structure. The inverse DOT problem is solved with a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique where interim iterations are processed through total variation norm minimization. The results suggest that our DOT method reliably resolves the scattering macroinhomogeneities of mentioned size against a randomly inhomogeneous structure.

  16. Deep-Time drilling in the Australian Archean: the Agouron Institute geobiological drilling project. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Agouron Institute has sponsored deep-time drilling across the South African Archean-Proterozoic boundary, investigating the rise of oxygen over an onshore-offshore environmental transect. It is now supporting a drilling program in the Australian Archean of the Pilbara Craton, addressing a similar theme but with the added goal of resolving controversy over the age and origin of hydrocarbon biomarker molecules in ancient kerogenous shales. As these have been claimed to provide evidence for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis long before the rise of atmospheric oxygen to persistently high levels during the ~2.3 Ga “Great Oxidation Event”, their syngenesis with their host shales is thus of critical importance for the interpretation of Earth’s early oxygenation history. During the first drilling season, 3 holes were drilled using techniques and equipment to minimize organic geochemical contamination (new drill-string components cleaned before drilling potentially biomarker-bearing rocks, pre-contamination of drilling fluid with a synthetic organic compound of similar geochemical characteristics to biomarkers, sterile cutting and storage of samples immediately upon retrieval from the core-barrel). The initial hole was a blank control for organic geochemistry, drilled into rocks too metamorphosed to retain biomarker molecules. These rocks, cherts, carbonates and pelites of the 3.52 Ga Coucal Formation, Coonterunah Group, have been metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies at temperatures near 500°C and so should have had any ancient soluble hydrocarbons destroyed. However, because they contain both carbonate and organic carbon, these rocks can instead provide isotopic information about the earliest evolution of biological metabolism as they possess residues of both the reactant and product sides of the carbon-fixation reaction. The second hole sampled an on-shore section of carbonates and kerogenous shales in the ~2.65 Ga Carawine Dolomite and Lewin Shale

  17. Introducing the Illustris project: the evolution of galaxy populations across cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Sijacki, Debora; Nelson, Dylan; Snyder, Greg; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Torrey, Paul; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-11-01

    We present an overview of galaxy evolution across cosmic time in the Illustris simulation. Illustris is an N-body/hydrodynamical simulation that evolves 2 × 18203 resolution elements in a (106.5 Mpc)3 box from cosmological initial conditions down to z = 0 using the AREPO moving-mesh code. The simulation uses a state-of-the-art set of physical models for galaxy formation that was tuned to reproduce the z = 0 stellar mass function and the history of the cosmic star formation rate density. We find that Illustris successfully reproduces a plethora of observations of galaxy populations at various redshifts, for which no tuning was performed, and provide predictions for future observations. In particular, we discuss (a) the buildup of galactic mass, showing stellar mass functions and the relations between stellar mass and halo mass from z = 7 to 0, (b) galaxy number density profiles around massive central galaxies out to z = 4, (c) the gas and total baryon content of both galaxies and their haloes for different redshifts, and as a function of mass and radius, and (d) the evolution of galaxy specific star formation rates up to z = 8. In addition, we (i) present a qualitative analysis of galaxy morphologies from z = 5 to 0, for the stellar as well as the gaseous components, and their appearance in Hubble Space Telescope mock observations, (ii) follow galaxies selected at z = 2 to their z = 0 descendants, and quantify their growth and merger histories, and (iii) track massive z = 0 galaxies to high redshift and study their joint evolution in star formation activity and compactness. We conclude with a discussion of several disagreements with observations, and lay out possible directions for future research.

  18. Standards-based publication and sharing of time series information in the DRIHM project: a EU-US collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Richard; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Parodi, Antonio; Gochis, David; Jha, Shantenu; Whitenack, Thomas; Valentine, David; Caumont, Olivier; Dekic, Ljiljana; Ivkovic, Marija; Molini, Luca; Bedrina, Tatiana; Gijsbers, Peter J. A.; de Rooij, Erik; Rebora, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    To enable a plug-and-play infrastructure, the European DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project aims to develop a comprehensive data publication and sharing system presenting uniform standards-based data discovery and access interfaces for hydrometeorological data collected by DRIHM partners in several European countries. This is a challenging task due to heterogeneity in types of data being collected and organized for modeling, and different semantic and structural conventions adopted by different data publishers. To meet this goal, the DRIHM project, and its DRIHM2US extension, collaborates with the recently funded US SCIHM (Standards-based Cyberinfrastructure for HydroMeteorology) project to develop a data sharing infrastructure for time series information. We report initial results of the application of the data integrating technologies developed by the NSF-funded CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Data, Inc., Hydrologic Information System) project, to information collected within DRIHM. The CUAHSI HIS system has been widely used in the US; it provides access to about a hundred water data collections that can be queried via uniform web services. The DRIHM partners initially implementing the system, include the CIMA Research Foundation (Italy), the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. The collected time series information was ingested into CUAHSI Observations Data Model databases, and water data services were created for each of the partners. At the time of writing, the water data services include SOAP and REST endpoints that provide access to the time series in WaterML 1 and WaterML 2.0 formats. The former encoding, developed by CUAHSI HIS, has been adopted by a number of federal agencies and research groups in the US, while the latter, created by an international group of experts under the aegis of the Hydrology

  19. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  20. WHO Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD) project: innovating to improve quality of care around the time of childbirth.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, Olufemi T; Souza, João Paulo; Bohren, Meghan A; Tunçalp, Özge; Vogel, Joshua P; Fawole, Bukola; Mugerwa, Kidza; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2015-01-01

    As most pregnancy-related deaths and morbidities are clustered around the time of childbirth, quality of care during this period is critical to the survival of pregnant women and their babies. Despite the wide acceptance of partograph as the central tool to optimize labour outcomes for over 40 years, its use has not successfully improved outcomes in many settings for several reasons. There are also increasing questions about the validity and applicability of its central feature - "the alert line" - to all women regardless of their labour characteristics. Apart from the known deficiencies in labour care, attempts to improve quality of care in low resource settings have also failed to address and integrate women's birth experience into quality improvement processes. It was against this background that the World Health Organization (WHO) embarked on the Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD) project to improve the quality of intrapartum care in low- and middle-income countries. The main goal of the BOLD project is to reduce intrapartum-related stillbirths, maternal and newborn mortalities and morbidities by addressing the critical barriers to the process of good quality intrapartum care and enhancing the connection between health systems and communities. The project seeks to achieve this goal by (1) developing an evidence-based, easy to use, labour monitoring-to-action decision-support tool (currently termed Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action - SELMA); and (2) by developing innovative service prototypes/tools, co-designed with users of health services (women, their families and communities) and health providers, to promote access to respectful, dignified and emotionally supportive care for pregnant women and their companions at the time of birth ("Passport to Safer Birth"). This two-pronged approach is expected to positively impact on important domains of quality of care relating to both provision and experience of care. In this paper, we briefly

  1. Automatic algorithm for correcting motion artifacts in time-resolved two-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography using convex projections.

    PubMed

    Raj, Ashish; Zhang, Honglei; Prince, Martin R; Wang, Yi; Zabih, Ramin

    2006-03-01

    Time-resolved contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may suffer from involuntary patient motion. It is noted that while MR signal change associated with motion is large in magnitude and has smooth phase variation in k-phase, signal change associated with vascular enhancement is small in magnitude and has rapid phase variation in k-space. Based upon this observation, a novel projection onto convex sets (POCS) algorithm is developed as an automatic iterative method to remove motion artifacts. The presented POCS algorithm consists of high-pass phase filtering and convex projections in both k-space and image space. Without input of detailed motion knowledge, motion effects are filtered out, while vasculature information is preserved. The proposed method can be effective for a large class of nonrigid motions, including through-plane motion. The algorithm is stable and converges quickly, usually within five iterations. A double-blind evaluation on a set of clinical MRA cases shows that a completely unsupervised version of the algorithm produces significantly better rank scores (P=0.038) when compared to angiograms produced manually by an experienced radiologist.

  2. Search for α-Cluster Structure in Exotic Nuclei with the Prototype Active-Target Time-Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, A.; Ayyad, Y.; Bazin, D.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bradt, J.; Carpenter, L.; Cortesi, M.; Mittig, W.; Suzuki, D.; Ahn, T.; Kolata, J. J.; Becchetti, F. D.; Howard, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Some exotic nuclei appear to exhibit α-cluster structure. While various theoretical models currently describe such clustering, more experimental data are needed to constrain model predictions. The Prototype Active-Target Time-Projection Chamber (PAT-TPC) has low-energy thresholds for charged-particle decay and a high luminosity due to its thick gaseous active target volume, making it well-suited to search for low-energy α-cluster reactions. Radioactive-ion beams produced by the TwinSol facility at the University of Notre Dame were delivered to the PAT-TPC to study nuclei including 14C and 14O via α-resonant scattering. Differential cross sections and excitation functions were measured. Preliminary results from our recent experiments will be presented. This work is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  3. From RISING to the DESPEC fast-timing project within NUSTAR at FAIR: sub-nanosecond nuclear timing spectroscopy with LaBr3 scintillators.

    PubMed

    Regan, P H

    2012-07-01

    This paper summarises a presentation given at the IRRMA8 conference in June 2011 which reviewed briefly the topic of current research studies in the evolution of nuclear structure with changing proton and neutron numbers. A short review of relevant contemporary spectroscopic studies of the structure of nuclei with highly exotic N/Z ratios using projectile fragmentation and fission reactions is given, together with an overview of some of the physics research aims to be attacked using the proposed Decay Spectroscopy (DESPEC) LaBr3 Fast-Timing gamma-ray array for the NUSTAR project at the upcoming Facility for Anti-Proton and Ion Research (FAIR). Examples of recent results using both 'isomer' and β--delayed gamma-ray decay measurements with the Stopped RISING hyper-pure germanium array at GSI are summarised and used to highlight some of the fundamental physics studies which are expected to become available in this area of research in the coming decade. Examples of the performance of cerium-doped LaBr3 detectors from 'in-beam' test experiments are presented together with initial plans for the geometry of the planned multi-detector LaBr3(Ce) array for DESPEC. PMID:22285659

  4. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  5. Design improvements and x-ray performance of a time projection chamber polarimeter for persistent astronomical sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Joanne E.; Black, J. Kevin; Emmett, Thomas J.; Enoto, Teruaki; Jahoda, Keith M.; Kaaret, Philip; Nolan, David S.; Tamagawa, Toru

    2014-07-01

    The design of the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) Polarimeter for the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) was demonstrated to Technology Readiness Level 6 (TRL-6)3 and the flight detectors fabricated, assembled and performance tested. A single flight detector was characterized at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Synchrotron Light Source with polarized X-rays at 10 energies from 2.3-8.0 keV at five detector positions. The detector met all of the GEMS performance requirements. Lifetime measurements have shown that the existing flight design has 23 years of lifetime4, opening up the possibility of relaxing material requirements, in particular the consideration of the use of epoxy, to reduce risk elsewhere. We report on design improvements to the GEMS detector to enable a narrower transfer gap that, when operated with a lower transfer field, reduces asymmetries in the detector response. In addition, the new design reduces cost and risk by simplifying the assembly and reducing production time. Finally, we report on the performance of the narrow-gap detector in response to polarized and unpolarized X-rays.

  6. The allusive cognitive deficit in paranoia: the case for mental time travel or cognitive self-projection.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, R

    2010-08-01

    Delusional beliefs are characteristic of psychosis and, of the delusions, the paranoid delusion is the single most common type associated with psychosis. The many years of research focused on neurocognition in schizophrenia, using standardized neurocognitive tests, have failed to find conclusive cognitive deficits in relation to positive symptoms. However, UK-based psychological research has identified sociocognitive anomalies in relation to paranoid thinking in the form of theory of mind (ToM), causal reasoning and threat-related processing anomalies. Drawing from recent neuroscientific research on the default mode network, this paper asserts that the common theme running through the psychological tests that are sensitive to the cognitive impairment of paranoia is the need to cognitively project the self through time, referred to as mental time travel. Such an understanding of the cognitive roots of paranoid ideation provides a synthesis between psychological and biological accounts of psychosis while also retaining the powerful argument that understanding abnormal thinking must start with models of normal cognition. This is the core theme running through the cognitive psychological literature of psychiatric disorders that enables research from this area to inform psychological therapy.

  7. The allusive cognitive deficit in paranoia: the case for mental time travel or cognitive self-projection.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, R

    2010-08-01

    Delusional beliefs are characteristic of psychosis and, of the delusions, the paranoid delusion is the single most common type associated with psychosis. The many years of research focused on neurocognition in schizophrenia, using standardized neurocognitive tests, have failed to find conclusive cognitive deficits in relation to positive symptoms. However, UK-based psychological research has identified sociocognitive anomalies in relation to paranoid thinking in the form of theory of mind (ToM), causal reasoning and threat-related processing anomalies. Drawing from recent neuroscientific research on the default mode network, this paper asserts that the common theme running through the psychological tests that are sensitive to the cognitive impairment of paranoia is the need to cognitively project the self through time, referred to as mental time travel. Such an understanding of the cognitive roots of paranoid ideation provides a synthesis between psychological and biological accounts of psychosis while also retaining the powerful argument that understanding abnormal thinking must start with models of normal cognition. This is the core theme running through the cognitive psychological literature of psychiatric disorders that enables research from this area to inform psychological therapy. PMID:20594394

  8. Design Improvements and X-Ray Performance of a Time Projection Chamber Polarimeter for Persistent Astronomical Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joanne E.; Black, J. Kevin; Emmett, Thomas J.; Enoto, Teruaki; Jahoda, Keith M.; Kaaret, Philip; Nolan, David S.; Tamagawa, Toru

    2014-01-01

    The design of the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) Polarimeter for the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) was demonstrated to Technology Readiness Level 6 (TRL-6)3 and the flight detectors fabricated, assembled and performance tested. A single flight detector was characterized at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Synchrotron Light Source with polarized X-rays at 10 energies from 2.3-8.0 keV at five detector positions. The detector met all of the GEMS performance requirements. Lifetime measurements have shown that the existing flight design has 23 years of lifetime4, opening up the possibility of relaxing material requirements, in particular the consideration of the use of epoxy, to reduce risk elsewhere. We report on design improvements to the GEMS detector to enable a narrower transfer gap that, when operated with a lower transfer field, reduces asymmetries in the detector response. In addition, the new design reduces cost and risk by simplifying the assembly and reducing production time. Finally, we report on the performance of the narrow-gap detector in response to polarized and unpolarized X-rays.

  9. Assessment of a demonstration project to supply near real-time sea ice information to end users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackford, C.; Howes, Sally; Whitelaw, Alan S.; Laxon, S.; Mantripp, D.

    1994-12-01

    Sea ice maps are required by a diverse range of users for scientific research and operational activities. Satellite remote sensing provides opportunities for monitoring and producing sea ice maps at a range of scales, in near real time. During March 1994 ESYS Limited and the University College London Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) operated a sea ice demonstration project to supply near real time sea ice maps in the southern ocean. The sea ice information was derived from a number of data sources: DMSP SSM/I data; ERS-1 SAR and Radar Altimeter fast delivery data; NOAA AVHRR data; and PoSAT-1 imagery. The maps were supplied to three users, two involved in yacht races in the southern ocean and a ship on an oceanographic research cruise in the waters of the Princess Elizabeth Trough region of Antarctica. The demonstration was successful, supplying the users with sea ice information which they had previously not received and combining data from various sources to produce sea ice maps. The demonstration also developed operational skills within ESYS and enabled the transfer of knowledge from MSSL to ESYS.

  10. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators, technologists, and…

  11. SU-E-J-167: Improvement of Time-Ordered Four Dimensional Cone-Beam CT; Image Mosaicing with Real and Virtual Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M; Kida, S; Masutani, Y; Shiraki, T; Yamamoto, K; Shiraishi, K; Nakagawa, K; Haga, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In the previous study, we developed time-ordered fourdimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) technique to visualize nonperiodic organ motion, such as peristaltic motion of gastrointestinal organs and adjacent area, using half-scan reconstruction method. One important obstacle was that truncation of projection was caused by asymmetric location of flat-panel detector (FPD) in order to cover whole abdomen or pelvis in one rotation. In this study, we propose image mosaicing to extend projection data to make possible to reconstruct full field-of-view (FOV) image using half-scan reconstruction. Methods: The projections of prostate cancer patients were acquired using the X-ray Volume Imaging system (XVI, version 4.5) on Synergy linear accelerator system (Elekta, UK). The XVI system has three options of FOV, S, M and L, and M FOV was chosen for pelvic CBCT acquisition, with a FPD panel 11.5 cm offset. The method to produce extended projections consists of three main steps: First, normal three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction which contains whole pelvis was implemented using real projections. Second, virtual projections were produced by reprojection process of the reconstructed 3D image. Third, real and virtual projections in each angle were combined into one extended mosaic projection. Then, 4D CBCT images were reconstructed using our inhouse reconstruction software based on Feldkamp, Davis and Kress algorithm. The angular range of each reconstruction phase in the 4D reconstruction was 180 degrees, and the range moved as time progressed. Results: Projection data were successfully extended without discontinuous boundary between real and virtual projections. Using mosaic projections, 4D CBCT image sets were reconstructed without artifacts caused by the truncation, and thus, whole pelvis was clearly visible. Conclusion: The present method provides extended projections which contain whole pelvis. The presented reconstruction method also enables time-ordered 4D CBCT

  12. NIHAO project - I. Reproducing the inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time with a large sample of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Dutton, Aaron A.; Stinson, Gregory S.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W.; Wadsley, James

    2015-11-01

    We introduce project NIHAO (Numerical Investigation of a Hundred Astrophysical Objects), a set of 100 cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations performed using the GASOLINE code, with an improved implementation of the SPH algorithm. The haloes in our study range from dwarf (M200 ˜ 5 × 109 M⊙) to Milky Way (M200 ˜ 2 × 1012 M⊙) masses, and represent an unbiased sampling of merger histories, concentrations and spin parameters. The particle masses and force softenings are chosen to resolve the mass profile to below 1 per cent of the virial radius at all masses, ensuring that galaxy half-light radii are well resolved. Using the same treatment of star formation and stellar feedback for every object, the simulated galaxies reproduce the observed inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time as expressed through the stellar mass versus halo mass relation, and the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation. We thus conclude that stellar feedback is the chief piece of physics required to limit the efficiency of star formation in galaxies less massive than the Milky Way.

  13. Fusion studies with low-intensity radioactive ion beams using an active-target time projection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolata, J. J.; Howard, A. M.; Mittig, W.; Ahn, T.; Bazin, D.; Becchetti, F. D.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Chajecki, Z.; Febbrarro, M.; Fritsch, A.; Lynch, W. G.; Roberts, A.; Shore, A.; Torres-Isea, R. O.

    2016-09-01

    The total fusion excitation function for 10Be+40Ar has been measured over the center-of-momentum (c.m.) energy range from 12 to 24 MeV using a time-projection chamber (TPC). The main purpose of this experiment, which was carried out in a single run of duration 90 h using a ≈100 particle per second (pps) 10Be beam, was to demonstrate the capability of an active-target TPC to determine fusion excitation functions for extremely weak radioactive ion beams. Cross sections as low as 12 mb were measured with acceptable (50%) statistical accuracy. It also proved to be possible to separate events in which charged particles were emitted from the fusion residue from those in which only neutrons were evaporated. The method permits simultaneous measurement of incomplete fusion, break-up, scattering, and transfer reactions, and therefore fully exploits the opportunities presented by the very exotic beams that will be available from the new generation of radioactive beam facilities.

  14. Rapid method demonstration project at four New Jersey marine beaches using real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Ferretti, James A; Tran, Hiep V; Peterson, Sarah J; Loftin, Virginia

    2013-06-15

    Real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) was used at four marine bathing beaches in New Jersey as part of a demonstration project to evaluate the potential for use of qPCR as part of a routine beach monitoring program. Split sample analyses for Enterococcus spp. using membrane filtration (MF) and qPCR were performed for 11weeks during the summer of 2011 using swimming advisories based on qPCR results. Comparison of qPCR and MF results from split samples indicated that there was an 82% overall agreement rate between the two methods. Results from the qPCR tests were available by noon the same day of sample collection and swimming advisories were posted on a dedicated website. The qPCR method can be more labor intensive and requires a higher level of training to perform, however, qPCR was able to assess beach water quality in a timelier manner compared to conventional MF techniques. PMID:23623653

  15. The Prototype Active-Target Time-Projection Chamber used with TwinSol radioactive-ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, T.; Bardayan, D. W.; Bazin, D.; Beceiro Novo, S.; Becchetti, F. D.; Bradt, J.; Brodeur, M.; Carpenter, L.; Chajecki, Z.; Cortesi, M.; Fritsch, A.; Hall, M. R.; Hall, O.; Jensen, L.; Kolata, J. J.; Lynch, W.; Mittig, W.; O'Malley, P.; Suzuki, D.

    2016-06-01

    The study of low-energy reactions with radioactive-ion beams has been greatly enhanced by the recent use of active-target detectors, which have high efficiency and low thresholds to detect low-energy charged-particle decays. Both of these features have been used in experiments with the Prototype Active-Target Time-Projection Chamber to study α -cluster structure in unstable nuclei and 3-body charged-particle decays after implantation. Predicted α -cluster structures in 14 C were probed using resonant α scattering and the nature of the 3- α breakup of the 02+ Hoyle state in 12 C after the beta decay of 12 N and 12 B was studied. These experiments used in-flight radioactive-ion beams that were produced using the dual superconducting solenoid magnets TwinSol at the University of Notre Dame. Preliminary results from these experiments as well as the development of future radioactive beams to be used in conjunction with the PAT-TPC are presented.

  16. Using simulated historical time series to prioritize fuel treatments on landscapes across the United States: The LANDFIRE prototype project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, R.E.; Rollins, M.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Canopy and surface fuels in many fire-prone forests of the United States have increased over the last 70 years as a result of modern fire exclusion policies, grazing, and other land management activities. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act and National Fire Plan establish a national commitment to reduce fire hazard and restore fire-adapted ecosystems across the USA. The primary index used to prioritize treatment areas across the nation is Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) computed as departures of current conditions from the historical fire and landscape conditions. This paper describes a process that uses an extensive set of ecological models to map FRCC from a departure statistic computed from simulated time series of historical landscape composition. This mapping process uses a data-driven, biophysical approach where georeferenced field data, biogeochemical simulation models, and spatial data libraries are integrated using spatial statistical modeling to map environmental gradients that are then used to predict vegetation and fuels characteristics over space. These characteristics are then fed into a landscape fire and succession simulation model to simulate a time series of historical landscape compositions that are then compared to the composition of current landscapes to compute departure, and the FRCC values. Intermediate products from this process are then used to create ancillary vegetation, fuels, and fire regime layers that are useful in the eventual planning and implementation of fuel and restoration treatments at local scales. The complex integration of varied ecological models at different scales is described and problems encountered during the implementation of this process in the LANDFIRE prototype project are addressed. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Darkside-20k: A 20 ton Liquid Argon Dark Matter Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Henning; Darkside-20k Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Darkside-20k detector is the next step in the Darkside dark matter search program at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. The Darkside detectors have grown in fiducial mass starting with 10kg in Darkside10, to 50 kg in Darkside50, and finally a proposed 20,000 kg fiducial mass, Darkside20k. The Darkside detectors are dual-phase argon TPCs that combine the very powerful scintillation pulse-shape analysis and ionization information to discriminate against background events. Two unique aspects to the Darkside program is the use of an external neutron veto based on borated liquid scintillator, and the use of low radioactivity argon from underground sources as the target. Argon from the atmosphere has an 39Ar activity of 1Bq/kg, which would be the limiting background, but the underground argon is essentially free of 39Ar. Additionally, the detector is placed in a water Cherenkov muon veto. Combining all these techniques allows Darkside-20k to achieve a background-free 100 t-yr exposure accumulated in a 5 yr run. Darkside-20k is expected to start operations in 2020 with data taking starting in 2021, and will be sensitive to WIMP-nucleon interaction cross sections of 1×10-47 cm2 (1x10-46 cm2) for WIMPs of 1 TeV/c2 (10 TeV/c2) mass.

  18. Cryogenic THGEM-GPM for the readout of scintillation light from liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenqing; Fu, Yidong; Li, Yulan; Li, Jin; Li, Yuanjing; Yue, Qian

    2015-02-01

    A GPM (Gaseous Photo Multiplier) based on GEMs (Gas Electron Multipliers) and THGEMs (Thick Gas Electron Multipliers) is a promising detector for VUV (Vacuum Ultra Violet) photon readouts in rare event experiments which use cryogenic two-phase detectors with detection media of Ar and Xe. A GPM based on THGEM made of PTFE (herein named PTFE-THGEM) was developed inspired by the wide use of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethene) boards as low radioactive background PCB in rare event experiments. The efficiencies of the THGEM, a CsI photocathode, and finally a GPM are presented here. At low temperature (113 K) and 1.1 atm, the quantum efficiency of the GPM for VUV photons from liquid Ar in a two-phase detector is estimated to be 8.1% and the low threshold of the detector system for initial electrons prior to multiplication is 12 using 5 N purity Ar (0.99999).

  19. Strangeness in the Nucleon, Cold Dark Matter in the Universe, and Neutrino Scattering off Liquid Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Papavassiliou, V.

    2010-03-30

    The strangeness content of the nucleon and the contribution of strange quarks to various nucleon quantum numbers, besides being of fundamental interest, also affects calculations of cross sections of processes that are important in searches for new physics. Here we focus on direct searches for cold dark matter, in the scenario in which the lightest supersymmetric neutral particle dominates the CDM density in the universe and point out that interpretation of searches, as well as the choice of optimal materials for future experiments, are hobbled by uncertainties in the contribution of strange quarks to the nucleon spin. We show how a future low-energy neutrino experiment using a liquid-Ar TPC can make important contributions in determining this quantity with much better precision and reduced theoretical uncertainties.

  20. Radiation hardness tests of GaAs amplifiers operated in liquid argon in the ATLAS calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, J.; Brettel, H.; Cheplakov, A.; Cwienk, W.; Fent, J.; Golikov, V.; Golubyh, S.; Jakobs, K.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulagin, E.; Kurchaninov, L.; Ladygin, E.; Luschikov, V.; Oberlack, H.; Obudovsky, V.; Schacht, P.; Shalyugin, A.; Stiegler, U.; Zweimüller, T.

    2008-09-01

    Highly integrated Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) chips of preamplifiers and summing amplifiers have been exposed to high fluence of fast neutrons and γ-dose at the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna. A stable performance of the electronics has been demonstrated up to a fluence of 5×1014 n cm-2 and a γ-dose of 55 kGy. The radiation hardness tests confirm the applicability of the preamplifiers for more than 10 years operation in the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter at LHC.

  1. Precision calibration of calorimeter electronics in the D0 liquid argon/uranium particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, D.L.

    1991-12-01

    The ability to cross calibrate thousands of channels of detector electronics is of prime importance. This paper will describe the system used to deliver and distribute a 300 nanosecond pulse across 50,000 channels of electronics with better than 0.25% difference between channels from a location more than 200 feet away. The system is used for both cross calibration and functionality checking, (i.e., missing channels). Design of a fixed width pulse generator of high stability is presented as a key ingredient in the system`s overall performance. In addition, the design of a controlled impedance distribution system is discussed. 2 refs.

  2. The ArgoNeuT detector in the NuMI low-energy beam line at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Antonello, M.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fleming, B.; Greenlee, H.; Guenette, R.; Haug, S.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; Klein, E.; Lang, K.; Lathrop, A.; Laurens, P.; Linden, S.; McKee, D.; Mehdiyev, R.; Page, B.; Palamara, O.; Partyka, K.; Pordes, S.; Rameika, G.; Rebel, B.; Rossi, B.; Sanders, R.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Szelc, A. M.; Weber, M.; Wongjirad, T.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2012-10-01

    The ArgoNeuT liquid argon time projection chamber has collected thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events during an extended run period in the NuMI beam-line at Fermilab. This paper focuses on the main aspects of the detector layout and related technical features, including the cryogenic equipment, time projection chamber, read-out electronics, and off-line data treatment. The detector commissioning phase, physics run, and first neutrino event displays are also reported. The characterization of the main working parameters of the detector during data-taking, the ionization electron drift velocity and lifetime in liquid argon, as obtained from through-going muon data complete the present report.

  3. Using project life-cycles as guide for timing the archival of scientific data and supporting documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, E.; Glassy, J. M.; Fowler, D. K.; Khayat, M.; Olding, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Data Systems Working Groups (ESDSWG) focuses on improving technologies and processes related to science discovery and preservation. One particular group, the Data Preservation Practices, is defining a set of guidelines to aid data providers in planning both what to submit for archival, and when to submit artifacts, so that the archival process can begin early in the project's life cycle. This has the benefit of leveraging knowledge within the project before staff roll off to other work. In this poster we describe various project archival use cases and identify possible archival life cycles that map closely to the pace and flow of work. To understand "archival life cycles", i.e., distinct project phases that produce archival artifacts such as instrument capabilities, calibration reports, and science data products, the workig group initially mapped the archival requirements defined in the Preservation Content Specification to the typical NASA project life cycle. As described in the poster, this work resulted in a well-defined archival life cycle, but only for some types of projects; it did not fit well for condensed project life cycles experienced within airborne and balloon campaigns. To understand the archival process for projects with compressed cycles, the working group gathered use cases from various communities. This poster will describe selected uses cases that provided insight into the unique flow of these projects, as well as proposing archival life cycles that map artifacts to projects with compressed timelines. Finally, the poster will conclude with some early recommendations for data providers, which will be captured in a formal Guidelines document - to be published in 2015.

  4. Project 1: Microbial Genomes: A Genomic Approach to Understanding the Evolution of Virulence. Project 2: From Genomes to Life: Drosophilia Development in Space and Time

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeSalle

    2004-09-10

    This project seeks to use the genomes of two close relatives, A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. aphrophilus, to understand the evolutionary changes that take place in a genome to make it more or less virulent. Our primary specific aim of this project was to sequence, annotate, and analyze the genomes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (CU1000, serotype f) and Haemophilus aphrophilus. With these genome sequences we have then compared the whole genome sequences to each other and to the current Aa (HK1651 www.genome.ou.edu) genome project sequence along with other fully sequenced Pasteurellaceae to determine inter and intra species differences that may account for the differences and similarities in disease. We also propose to create and curate a comprehensive database where sequence information and analysis for the Pasteurellaceae (family that includes the genera Actinobacillus and Haemophilus) are readily accessible. And finally we have proposed to develop phylogenetic techniques that can be used to efficiently and accurately examine the evolution of genomes. Below we report on progress we have made on these major specific aims. Progress on the specific aims is reported below under two major headings--experimental approaches and bioinformatics and systematic biology approaches.

  5. Idaho Completion Project’s Accelerated Retrieval Project Overview of the Pit 4 Non-Time Critical Removal Action

    SciTech Connect

    T. L. Clements; R. E. Arbon; B. D. Preussner

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Accelerated Retrieval Project performed by the Idaho Completion Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Topics include an overall description of the process and methods that will retrieve, characterize, and certify newly generated transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The retrieval and characterization of buried TRU waste presents unique challenges. Innovative approaches developed and discussed are: excavation, RCRA waste sampling, visual examination, and deployment of the WIPP Central Characterization Project mobile systems to the INL.

  6. SU-E-I-20: Dead Time Count Loss Compensation in SPECT/CT: Projection Versus Global Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Siman, W; Kappadath, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare projection-based versus global correction that compensate for deadtime count loss in SPECT/CT images. Methods: SPECT/CT images of an IEC phantom (2.3GBq 99mTc) with ∼10% deadtime loss containing the 37mm (uptake 3), 28 and 22mm (uptake 6) spheres were acquired using a 2 detector SPECT/CT system with 64 projections/detector and 15 s/projection. The deadtime, Ti and the true count rate, Ni at each projection, i was calculated using the monitor-source method. Deadtime corrected SPECT were reconstructed twice: (1) with projections that were individually-corrected for deadtime-losses; and (2) with original projections with losses and then correcting the reconstructed SPECT images using a scaling factor equal to the inverse of the average fractional loss for 5 projections/detector. For both cases, the SPECT images were reconstructed using OSEM with attenuation and scatter corrections. The two SPECT datasets were assessed by comparing line profiles in xyplane and z-axis, evaluating the count recoveries, and comparing ROI statistics. Higher deadtime losses (up to 50%) were also simulated to the individually corrected projections by multiplying each projection i by exp(-a*Ni*Ti), where a is a scalar. Additionally, deadtime corrections in phantoms with different geometries and deadtime losses were also explored. The same two correction methods were carried for all these data sets. Results: Averaging the deadtime losses in 5 projections/detector suffices to recover >99% of the loss counts in most clinical cases. The line profiles (xyplane and z-axis) and the statistics in the ROIs drawn in the SPECT images corrected using both methods showed agreement within the statistical noise. The count-loss recoveries in the two methods also agree within >99%. Conclusion: The projection-based and the global correction yield visually indistinguishable SPECT images. The global correction based on sparse sampling of projections losses allows for accurate SPECT deadtime

  7. The ArgoNeuT experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, J.; /Yale U.

    2010-01-01

    ArgoNeuT is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber neutrino experiment that recently completed its physics run in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Along with research and design for future LArTPCs, the experiments goals include performing a number of neutrino and anti-neutrino cross section measurements. Also, ArgoNeuT hopes to further the understanding of the nuclear physics involved in neutrino scattering by characterizing the low energy protons created in such interactions.

  8. A real-time, full-field, and low-cost velocity sensing approach for linear motion using fringe projection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wei-Hung; Co, Wei-Ting

    2016-06-01

    A velocity sensing approach using the fringe projection technique is presented. The moving object is projected with a sinusoidal fringe pattern. A CCD camera located at a different view angle observes the projected fringes on the dynamic object. The long exposure time of the CCD camera makes the fringes blurred by linear motion. The blurred fringes provide additional information to describe the depth displacement, and therefore the velocity vector can be identified. There is no need to take multiple-shot measurements to address the change in 3D positions at a sequence of time. Only one-shot measurement is required. Consequently, there is no need to perform image registration. The full-field approach also makes it possible to simultaneously inspect several objects.

  9. TIME (Training in a Manila Envelope): A Child Care Plus+ Outreach Project To Expand Care and Education Options for Young Children with Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sandra L.

    This final report summarizes the activities of TIME (Training in a Manila Envelope), a federally funded project designed to replicate the Child Care plus+ model of inservice training by providing: (1) a course on inclusion directly for child care providers and other early childhood professionals in rural areas across the nation; and (2) training…

  10. PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING A REAL-TIME AIR POLLUTION MONITORING AND OUTREACH PROGRAM FOR YOUR COMMUNITY: THE AIRBEAT PROJECT OF ROXBURY, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Roxbury Air Monitoring (AirBeat) Project. The purpose of AirBeat is to make real-time air quality monitoring information (for ozone, black carbon, and fine particulates) available to the Boston MA community of Roxbur...

  11. NASA Ames DEVELOP Interns: Helping the Western United States Manage Natural Resources One Project at a Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Erin; Newcomer, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The western half of the United States is made up of a number of diverse ecosystems ranging from arid desert to coastal wetlands and rugged forests. Every summer for the past 7 years students ranging from high school to graduate level gather at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) as part of the DEVELOP Internship Program. Under the guidance of Jay Skiles [Ames Research Center (ARC) - Ames DEVELOP Manager] and Cindy Schmidt [ARC/San Jose State University Ames DEVELOP Coordinator] they work as a team on projects exploring topics including: invasive species, carbon flux, wetland restoration, air quality monitoring, storm visualizations, and forest fires. The study areas for these projects have been in Washington, Utah, Oregon, Nevada, Hawaii, Alaska and California. Interns combine data from NASA and partner satellites with models and in situ measurements to complete prototype projects demonstrating how NASA data and resources can help communities tackle their Earth Science related problems.

  12. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, Denver

    2015-11-19

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  13. Photon detection system designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, D.

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  14. Project ISLA: A Space/Time/Full-Text/Format Search and Retrieval System Designed by End Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Leta (Li); Wegner, Lucy S.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the role of end users in the design of a multi-format digital library project, ISLA (name derived from Spanish word for "island"), being developed at the University of Southern California library for the study of the Los Angeles region. Topics include spatial and temporal indexing; the geographic information system element; search and…

  15. Balancing Act: How College Students Manage Technology While in the Library during Crunch Time. Project Information Literacy Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents findings from 560 interviews with undergraduates on 10 campuses distributed across the US, as part of Project Information Literacy (PIL). Overall, the findings suggest that students use a "less is more" approach to manage and control all of the IT devices and information systems available to them while they are in the library…

  16. DELIVERING TIMELY WATER QUALITY INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY: THE CHESAPEAKE BAY/NATIONAL AQUARIUM IN BALTIMORE EMPACT PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The TTSD in conjunction with a multi-agency Chesapeake Bay Project team, has developed this handbook to provide state and local governments and others "How-to" steps needed to design, employ, and maintain water quality monitoring, data management/delivery, and communications syst...

  17. Design and Operation of A Setup with A Camera and Adjustable Mirror to Inspect the Sense-Wire Planes of the Time Projection Chamber Inside the MicroBooNE Cryostat

    DOE PAGES

    Carls, Benjamin; Horton-Smith, Glenn; James, Catherine C.; Kubinski, Robert M.; Pordes, Stephen; Schukraft, Anne; Strauss, Thomas

    2015-08-26

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This inspection was performed after the transportation of the vessel with the enclosed detector to its final location, but before filling with liquid argon. Our paper describes an approach to view the inside of themore » MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper also describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.« less

  18. First results of Liguria-Trento transplant network project: a model for a macroregional network and real-time registry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Valente, R; Cambiaso, F; Santori, G; Ghirelli, R; Gianelli, A; Valente, U

    2004-04-01

    In Italy, health-care telematic is funded and supported at the level of national government or regional institutions. In 1999, the Italian Ministry of Health started to fund the Liguria-Trento Transplant Network (LTTN) project, a health research project with the aim to build an informative system for donor management and transplantation activity in a macroregional area. At the time of LTTN project proposal, no published Transplant Network Informative System fulfilled Italian rules on telematic management of electronic documentation concerning transplantation activity. Partnership of LTTN project were two Regional Transplant Coordinating Centres, Nord Italia Transplant Interregional Coordinating Centre and the Italian Institute of Health/National Transplant Coordinating Centre. Project Total Quality Management methods were adopted. Technological and case analysis followed ANSI-HL7, CEN-TC251, and Object-Oriented Software Engineering standards. A low-tech prototype powered by a web access relational database is running on a transplant network including web-based clients located in 17 intensive care units, in Nord Italia Transplant Interregional Coordinating Centre, and at the Italian Institute of Health/National Transplant Coordinating Centre. LTTN registry includes pretransplant, surgical, and posttransplant phases regarding liver, kidney, pancreas, and kidney-pancreas transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. Clinical specifications were prioritized in agreement with the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method. Further implementation will include formal rules for data access and output release, fault tolerance, and a continuous registry evolution plan.

  19. Reducing time delay in the thrombolysis of myocardial infarction: an internal quality improvement project. ARIAM Project Group. Analisis del Retraso en Infarto Agudo de Miocardio.

    PubMed

    Saturno, P J; Felices, F; Segura, J; Vera, A; Rodriguez, J J

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to improve thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction by reducing the "door-to-needle" time in a 285-bed university hospital in Spain. A quality management approach was used involving all the relevant staff. Target standard was set at 35 minutes. Baseline data, intervention effect, and continuous monitoring were analyzed using x control charts. Analysis of baseline data showed a wide out-of-control variation and 72 minutes' average delay. Cause analysis revealed organizational and clinical problems that were subjected to intervention. Postintervention data showed a stable process, with an average of 30 minutes. Continuous monitoring showed further improvement in average time and predictable variation. The template of the current control chart has an average of 26 minutes. Quality management methods, particularly staff involvement in problem analysis and intervention design, and the use of control charts were useful to understand, solve, and continuously monitor an important clinical problem whose existence was evident only after it was measured. PMID:10872258

  20. Reducing time delay in the thrombolysis of myocardial infarction: an internal quality improvement project. ARIAM Project Group. Analisis del Retraso en Infarto Agudo de Miocardio.

    PubMed

    Saturno, P J; Felices, F; Segura, J; Vera, A; Rodriguez, J J

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to improve thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction by reducing the "door-to-needle" time in a 285-bed university hospital in Spain. A quality management approach was used involving all the relevant staff. Target standard was set at 35 minutes. Baseline data, intervention effect, and continuous monitoring were analyzed using x control charts. Analysis of baseline data showed a wide out-of-control variation and 72 minutes' average delay. Cause analysis revealed organizational and clinical problems that were subjected to intervention. Postintervention data showed a stable process, with an average of 30 minutes. Continuous monitoring showed further improvement in average time and predictable variation. The template of the current control chart has an average of 26 minutes. Quality management methods, particularly staff involvement in problem analysis and intervention design, and the use of control charts were useful to understand, solve, and continuously monitor an important clinical problem whose existence was evident only after it was measured.

  1. Application of power time-projection on the operator-splitting coupling scheme of the TRACE/S3K coupled code

    SciTech Connect

    Wicaksono, D.; Zerkak, O.; Nikitin, K.; Ferroukhi, H.; Chawla, R.

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports refinement studies on the temporal coupling scheme and time-stepping management of TRACE/S3K, a dynamically coupled code version of the thermal-hydraulics system code TRACE and the 3D core simulator Simulate-3K. The studies were carried out for two test cases, namely a PWR rod ejection accident and the Peach Bottom 2 Turbine Trip Test 2. The solution of the coupled calculation, especially the power peak, proves to be very sensitive to the time-step size with the currently employed conventional operator-splitting. Furthermore, a very small time-step size is necessary to achieve decent accuracy. This degrades the trade-off between accuracy and performance. A simple and computationally cheap implementation of time-projection of power has been shown to be able to improve the convergence of the coupled calculation. This scheme is able to achieve a prescribed accuracy with a larger time-step size. (authors)

  2. Where the Sun Breezes Don't Stop Shining. Teachers' Journals and Students' Writings on First-Time Homebuying from the New American Homeowners Project, February-June 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Catherine, Ed.

    The writings of both teachers and students participating in the New Americans Homeowners Project, a project combining English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and information on first-time home-buying for immigrants in language minority groups are presented. The project provided training and technical assistance to ESL teachers, and reached…

  3. The Gap-Tpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Di Meo, P.; Longo, G.; Vanzanella, A.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Fiorillo, G.

    2016-02-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency.

  4. Oral biopharmaceutics tools - time for a new initiative - an introduction to the IMI project OrBiTo.

    PubMed

    Lennernäs, H; Aarons, L; Augustijns, P; Beato, S; Bolger, M; Box, K; Brewster, M; Butler, J; Dressman, J; Holm, R; Julia Frank, K; Kendall, R; Langguth, P; Sydor, J; Lindahl, A; McAllister, M; Muenster, U; Müllertz, A; Ojala, K; Pepin, X; Reppas, C; Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Verwei, M; Weitschies, W; Wilson, C; Karlsson, C; Abrahamsson, B

    2014-06-16

    OrBiTo is a new European project within the IMI programme in the area of oral biopharmaceutics tools that includes world leading scientists from nine European universities, one regulatory agency, one non-profit research organization, four SMEs together with scientists from twelve pharmaceutical companies. The OrBiTo project will address key gaps in our knowledge of gastrointestinal (GI) drug absorption and deliver a framework for rational application of predictive biopharmaceutics tools for oral drug delivery. This will be achieved through novel prospective investigations to define new methodologies as well as refinement of existing tools. Extensive validation of novel and existing biopharmaceutics tools will be performed using active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), formulations and supporting datasets from industry partners. A combination of high quality in vitro or in silico characterizations of API and formulations will be integrated into physiologically based in silico biopharmaceutics models capturing the full complexity of GI drug absorption. This approach gives an unparalleled opportunity to initiate a transformational change in industrial research and development to achieve model-based pharmaceutical product development in accordance with the Quality by Design concept. Benefits include an accelerated and more efficient drug candidate selection, formulation development process, particularly for challenging projects such as low solubility molecules (BCS II and IV), enhanced and modified-release formulations, as well as allowing optimization of clinical product performance for patient benefit. In addition, the tools emerging from OrBiTo are expected to significantly reduce demand for animal experiments in the future as well as reducing the number of human bioequivalence studies required to bridge formulations after manufacturing or composition changes.

  5. Oral biopharmaceutics tools - time for a new initiative - an introduction to the IMI project OrBiTo.

    PubMed

    Lennernäs, H; Aarons, L; Augustijns, P; Beato, S; Bolger, M; Box, K; Brewster, M; Butler, J; Dressman, J; Holm, R; Julia Frank, K; Kendall, R; Langguth, P; Sydor, J; Lindahl, A; McAllister, M; Muenster, U; Müllertz, A; Ojala, K; Pepin, X; Reppas, C; Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Verwei, M; Weitschies, W; Wilson, C; Karlsson, C; Abrahamsson, B

    2014-06-16

    OrBiTo is a new European project within the IMI programme in the area of oral biopharmaceutics tools that includes world leading scientists from nine European universities, one regulatory agency, one non-profit research organization, four SMEs together with scientists from twelve pharmaceutical companies. The OrBiTo project will address key gaps in our knowledge of gastrointestinal (GI) drug absorption and deliver a framework for rational application of predictive biopharmaceutics tools for oral drug delivery. This will be achieved through novel prospective investigations to define new methodologies as well as refinement of existing tools. Extensive validation of novel and existing biopharmaceutics tools will be performed using active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), formulations and supporting datasets from industry partners. A combination of high quality in vitro or in silico characterizations of API and formulations will be integrated into physiologically based in silico biopharmaceutics models capturing the full complexity of GI drug absorption. This approach gives an unparalleled opportunity to initiate a transformational change in industrial research and development to achieve model-based pharmaceutical product development in accordance with the Quality by Design concept. Benefits include an accelerated and more efficient drug candidate selection, formulation development process, particularly for challenging projects such as low solubility molecules (BCS II and IV), enhanced and modified-release formulations, as well as allowing optimization of clinical product performance for patient benefit. In addition, the tools emerging from OrBiTo are expected to significantly reduce demand for animal experiments in the future as well as reducing the number of human bioequivalence studies required to bridge formulations after manufacturing or composition changes. PMID:24189462

  6. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry of DNA laser-ablated from frozen aqueous solutions: applications to the Human Genome Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Peter W.; Schieltz, David; Nelson, Randall W.; Chou, Chau-Wen; Luo, Cong-Wen; Thomas, Robert

    1993-06-01

    Techniques have been developed to volatilize intact massive DNA molecules using pulsed laser ablation of thin frozen films of aqueous DNA solutions. Electrophoresis assay of the ablated DNA shows that molecules as massive as approximately 400,000 Da can be ablated intact. It has been possible to obtain time-of-flight mass spectra of ablated multicomponent mixtures of single-stranded DNA with masses up to approximately 18,000 Da (a 60-nucleotide DNA oligomer). The possible application of time-of-flight mass spectrometry to the analysis and readout of DNA sequence mixtures, and the potential thereby to accelerate the Human Genome project, are discussed.

  7. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Reduce Sedentary Time in Young Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Project STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes)

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Edwardson, Charlotte L.; Wilmot, Emma G.; Yates, Thomas; Gorely, Trish; Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Ashra, Nuzhat; Khunti, Kamlesh; Nimmo, Myra A.; Davies, Melanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a serious and prevalent chronic disease, is traditionally associated with older age. However, due to the rising rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyles, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the younger population. Sedentary (sitting) behaviour has been shown to be associated with greater risk of cardio-metabolic health outcomes, including T2DM. Little is known about effective interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in younger adults at risk of T2DM. We aimed to investigate, through a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design, whether a group-based structured education workshop focused on sitting reduction, with self-monitoring, reduced sitting time. Methods Adults aged 18–40 years who were either overweight (with an additional risk factor for T2DM) or obese were recruited for the Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes (STAND) RCT. The intervention programme comprised of a 3-hour group-based structured education workshop, use of a self-monitoring tool, and follow-up motivational phone call. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 3 and 12 months after baseline. The primary outcome measure was accelerometer-assessed sedentary behaviour after 12 months. Secondary outcomes included other objective (activPAL) and self-reported measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity, and biochemical, anthropometric, and psycho-social variables. Results 187 individuals (69% female; mean age 33 years; mean BMI 35 kg/m2) were randomised to intervention and control groups. 12 month data, when analysed using intention-to-treat analysis (ITT) and per-protocol analyses, showed no significant difference in the primary outcome variable, nor in the majority of the secondary outcome measures. Conclusions A structured education intervention designed to reduce sitting in young adults at risk of T2DM was not successful in changing behaviour at 12 months. Lack of change may be due to the brief nature of such an intervention and lack of focus

  8. Grasping time scales from galactic life cycles to personal life projects at a linear scale of 1 mm per 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm Jacobsen, Bo

    2010-05-01

    The ambition is to make the citizen (i.e. pupil/student/scholar/voter/journalist/politician) comprehend better and more scientifically all time scales from the lifespan of the universe to the personal life project by a consistent geographical mapping of time at a scale of 1 mm per 100 years. The processes which change earth systems like life, climate, topography and plate tectonics operate at very different timescales. The understanding of these systems is essential not only for students and scholars of earth science but also for pupils, voters and politicians who make decisions of possibly significant consequence to climate and biodiversity not only for our generation but for thousands or even millions of years ahead. With a consistent linear mapping of time to a scale of 1 millimetre per 100 years, historical time (

  9. 'Shooting at the sun god Apollo': the Apollonian-Dionysian balance of the TimeSlips Storytelling Project.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel R

    2013-09-01

    In The Birth of Tragedy, Friedrich Nietzsche celebrated the dueling forces of reason and emotion as personified by the ancient Greek gods Apollo and Dionysus. A subtle Apollonian-Dionysian balance can be observed in TimeSlips, a group-based creative storytelling activity developed in the 1990s and increasingly used in dementia care settings worldwide. This article explains how the Apollonion-Dionysian aspects of TimeSlips are beneficial not only for persons with dementia, but also for their carers. Narrative data from medical students at Penn State College of Medicine who participated in TimeSlips at a local retirement community are shared.

  10. 'Shooting at the sun god Apollo': the Apollonian-Dionysian balance of the TimeSlips Storytelling Project.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel R

    2013-09-01

    In The Birth of Tragedy, Friedrich Nietzsche celebrated the dueling forces of reason and emotion as personified by the ancient Greek gods Apollo and Dionysus. A subtle Apollonian-Dionysian balance can be observed in TimeSlips, a group-based creative storytelling activity developed in the 1990s and increasingly used in dementia care settings worldwide. This article explains how the Apollonion-Dionysian aspects of TimeSlips are beneficial not only for persons with dementia, but also for their carers. Narrative data from medical students at Penn State College of Medicine who participated in TimeSlips at a local retirement community are shared. PMID:23722245

  11. 45 CFR 2102.10 - Timing, scope and content of submissions for proposed projects involving land, buildings, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS MEETINGS AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Procedures on Submissions of Plans or Designs § 2102.10 Timing, scope and content of...

  12. In Vivo Time-Lapse Imaging in the Zebrafish Lateral Line: A Flexible, Open-Ended Research Project for an Undergraduate Neurobiology Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Molly H.; Tobias, Zachary J.C.; Cohen, Hannah R.; Glover, Greta; Weissman, Tamily A.

    2015-01-01

    The lateral line sensory system in fish detects movements in the water and allows fish to respond to predators, prey, and other stimuli. As the lateral line forms in the first two days of zebrafish development, axons extend caudally along the lateral surface of the fish, eventually forming synapses with hair cells of neuromasts. Growing lateral line axons are located superficially under the skin and can be labeled in living zebrafish using fluorescent protein expression. This system provides a relatively straightforward approach for in vivo time-lapse imaging of neuronal development in an undergraduate setting. Here we describe an upper-level neurobiology laboratory module in which students investigate aspects of axonal development in the zebrafish lateral line system. Students learn to handle and image living fish, collect time-lapse videos of moving mitochondria, and quantitatively measure mitochondrial dynamics by generating and analyzing kymographs of their movements. Energy demands may differ between axons with extending growth cones versus axons that have already reached their targets and are forming synapses. Since relatively little is known about this process in developing lateral line axons, students generate and test their own hypotheses regarding how mitochondrial dynamics may differ at two different time points in axonal development. Students also learn to incorporate into their analysis a powerful yet accessible quantitative tool, the kymograph, which is used to graph movement over time. After students measure and quantify dynamics in living fish at 1 and 2 days post fertilization, this module extends into independent projects, in which students can expand their studies in a number of different, inquiry-driven directions. The project can also be pared down for courses that wish to focus solely on the quantitative analysis (without fish handling), or vice versa. This research module provides a useful approach for the design of open-ended laboratory

  13. The Use of PIT Tagging to Estimate Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration Time Through the Priest Rapids Project Area on the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R; McMichael, Geoffrey A. )

    2000-12-01

    We are in the process of evaluating how the Priest Rapids Project (PRP, located north of the Hanford reach on the Columbia River) affects populations of wild, fall Chinook salmon that are produced. One part of this project involves using mark-recapture technique to monitor fall juvenile Chinook movement in the area. A passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag technology was used to document migration timing out of the influence of the PRP, and track fish through downstream dams as they make their way to the ocean. On June 6 and 7, 2000, we tagged 1083 fall Chinook sub-yearlings above and below Wanapum Dam, subsequently detecting them as they began to pass through downstream dams. As of 9 August 2000, 122 fish had been detected in one or more of the dams downstream of the PRP. A mean migration time for tagged the fish of 5.5 km/day below the McNary dam and 4.5 km/day above the McNary Dam. The mean migration rate between McNary Dam and John Day Dam was 21.4 km/day. Back calculation, indicated the mean date of departure for juveniles tagged in the pool above Wanapum Dam was July 16, 2000, while juveniles tagged below Wanapum Dam was July 1, 2000. Because fish are still being detected at the dams only preliminary conclusions can be attempted. Since the peak of migration time for these fish seems to have passed, the time when these fish most likely left the PRP area can also be estimated. Data analysis will continue analysis, and hopefully some of the adult returns will be measured as they come through the dams throughout the duration of the project.

  14. In Vivo Time-Lapse Imaging in the Zebrafish Lateral Line: A Flexible, Open-Ended Research Project for an Undergraduate Neurobiology Laboratory Course.

    PubMed

    Marra, Molly H; Tobias, Zachary J C; Cohen, Hannah R; Glover, Greta; Weissman, Tamily A

    2015-01-01

    The lateral line sensory system in fish detects movements in the water and allows fish to respond to predators, prey, and other stimuli. As the lateral line forms in the first two days of zebrafish development, axons extend caudally along the lateral surface of the fish, eventually forming synapses with hair cells of neuromasts. Growing lateral line axons are located superficially under the skin and can be labeled in living zebrafish using fluorescent protein expression. This system provides a relatively straightforward approach for in vivo time-lapse imaging of neuronal development in an undergraduate setting. Here we describe an upper-level neurobiology laboratory module in which students investigate aspects of axonal development in the zebrafish lateral line system. Students learn to handle and image living fish, collect time-lapse videos of moving mitochondria, and quantitatively measure mitochondrial dynamics by generating and analyzing kymographs of their movements. Energy demands may differ between axons with extending growth cones versus axons that have already reached their targets and are forming synapses. Since relatively little is known about this process in developing lateral line axons, students generate and test their own hypotheses regarding how mitochondrial dynamics may differ at two different time points in axonal development. Students also learn to incorporate into their analysis a powerful yet accessible quantitative tool, the kymograph, which is used to graph movement over time. After students measure and quantify dynamics in living fish at 1 and 2 days post fertilization, this module extends into independent projects, in which students can expand their studies in a number of different, inquiry-driven directions. The project can also be pared down for courses that wish to focus solely on the quantitative analysis (without fish handling), or vice versa. This research module provides a useful approach for the design of open-ended laboratory

  15. In the queue for total joint replacement: patients' perspectives on waiting times. Ontario Hip and Knee Replacement Project Team.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn-Thomas, H A; Arshinoff, R; Bell, M; Williams, J I; Naylor, C D

    1998-02-01

    We assessed patients on the waiting lists of a purposive sample of orthopaedic surgeons in Ontario, Canada, to determine patients' attitudes towards time waiting for hip or knee replacement. We focused on 148 patients who did not have a definite operative date, obtaining complete information on 124 (84%). Symptom severity was assessed with the Western Ontario/McMaster Osteoarthritis Index and a disease-specific standard gamble was used to elicit patients' overall utility for their arthritic state. Next, in a trade-off task, patients considered a hypothetical choice between a 1-month wait for a surgeon who could provide a 2% risk of post-operative mortality, or a 6-month wait for joint replacement with a 1% risk of post-operative mortality. Waiting times were then shifted systematically until the patient abandoned his/her initial choice, generating a conditional maximal acceptable wait time. Patients were divided in their attitudes, with 57% initially choosing a 6-month wait with a 1% mortality risk. The overall distribution of conditional maximum acceptable wait time scores ranged from 1 to 26 months, with a median of 7 months. Utility values were independently but weakly associated with patients' tolerance of waiting times (adjusted R-square = 0.059, P = 0.004). After splitting the sample along the median into subgroups with a relatively 'low' and 'high' tolerance for waiting, the subgroup with the apparently lower tolerance for waiting reported lower utility scores (z = 2.951; P = 0.004) and shorter times since their surgeon first advised them of the need for surgery (z = 3.014; P = 0.003). These results suggest that, in the establishment and monitoring of a queue management system for quality-of-life-enhancing surgery, patients' own perceptions of their overall symptomatic burden and ability to tolerate delayed relief should be considered along with information derived from clinical judgements and pre-weighted health status instruments.

  16. High dynamic range adaptive real-time smart camera: an overview of the HDR-ARTiST project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Heyrman, Barthélémy; Ginhac, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Standard cameras capture only a fraction of the information that is visible to the human visual system. This is specifically true for natural scenes including areas of low and high illumination due to transitions between sunlit and shaded areas. When capturing such a scene, many cameras are unable to store the full Dynamic Range (DR) resulting in low quality video where details are concealed in shadows or washed out by sunlight. The imaging technique that can overcome this problem is called HDR (High Dynamic Range) imaging. This paper describes a complete smart camera built around a standard off-the-shelf LDR (Low Dynamic Range) sensor and a Virtex-6 FPGA board. This smart camera called HDR-ARtiSt (High Dynamic Range Adaptive Real-time Smart camera) is able to produce a real-time HDR live video color stream by recording and combining multiple acquisitions of the same scene while varying the exposure time. This technique appears as one of the most appropriate and cheapest solution to enhance the dynamic range of real-life environments. HDR-ARtiSt embeds real-time multiple captures, HDR processing, data display and transfer of a HDR color video for a full sensor resolution (1280 1024 pixels) at 60 frames per second. The main contributions of this work are: (1) Multiple Exposure Control (MEC) dedicated to the smart image capture with alternating three exposure times that are dynamically evaluated from frame to frame, (2) Multi-streaming Memory Management Unit (MMMU) dedicated to the memory read/write operations of the three parallel video streams, corresponding to the different exposure times, (3) HRD creating by combining the video streams using a specific hardware version of the Devebecs technique, and (4) Global Tone Mapping (GTM) of the HDR scene for display on a standard LCD monitor.

  17. TRANSIT MONITORING IN THE SOUTH (TraMoS) PROJECT: DISCARDING TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-5b

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, S.; Rojo, P.; Lopez-Morales, M. E-mail: pato@das.uchile.cl

    2012-03-20

    We report nine new transit epochs of the extrasolar planet WASP-5b, observed in the Bessell I band with the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope at the Cerro Pachon Observatory and with the SMARTS 1 m Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, between 2008 August and 2009 October. The new transits have been combined with all previously published transit data for this planet to provide a new Transit Timing Variation (TTV) analysis of its orbit. We find no evidence of TTV rms variations larger than 1 minute over a 3 year time span. This result discards the presence of planets more massive than about 5 M{sub Circled-Plus }, 1 M{sub Circled-Plus }, and 2 M{sub Circled-Plus} around the 1:2, 5:3, and 2:1 orbital resonances, respectively. These new detection limits exceed by {approx}5-30 times the limits imposed by current radial velocity observations in the mean motion resonances of this system. Our search for the variation of other parameters, such as orbital inclination and transit depth, also yields negative results over the total time span of the transit observations. This result supports formation theories that predict a paucity of planetary companions to hot Jupiters.

  18. Integration of Multiple OGC Standards for Delivery of Earth Science Information - Presentation of Time-Enabled WMS Through KML as Implemented by the PHAiRS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Benedict, K. K.

    2008-12-01

    Since 2004 the Earth Data Analysis Center has, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Arizona and George Mason University, with funding from NASA, developed a services oriented architecture (SOA) designed for the delivery of historic and current dust forecast data products to the public health user community. This system has generated nearly three years of daily 48-hour dust forecasts, ultimately representing over 289,000 individual hourly forecast rasters for ground surface dust concentrations in four model particle size classes and PM 2.5 and PM 10 size classes. This large collection of model outputs is published as a time-enabled Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) that allows for the efficient retrieval of a single hourly forecast map image for each of these particle size classes, for the entire collection of model outputs. While this WMS service has proven effective in meeting the specific project goals of providing services that support the integration of project products into existing public health decision support systems, the development of an alternative visualization capability that takes advantage of virtual globe technologies was also seen as a valuable complementary capability for making these model outputs accessible to a greater audience of environmental public health users. This paper presents the results of a development effort that produced a system that automatically generates time-enabled KML that enables sequential acquisition of hourly model outputs (via time-enabled WMS) in time-enabled virtual globe applications (e.g. Google Earth). While this effort has proven very successful, it has also highlighted areas where support for time-enabled WMS could be improved, both within the KML standard, and within clients that implement time-enabled viewers.

  19. An Efficient, FPGA-Based, Cluster Detection Algorithm Implementation for a Strip Detector Readout System in a Time Projection Chamber Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E. (Editor); Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photoelectron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  20. An efficient, FPGA-based, cluster detection algorithm implementation for a strip detector readout system in a Time Projection Chamber polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E.; Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photo- electron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  1. An alternative interpretation for a hyper-runaway star based on the 5-dimension space-time projection theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kai Wai; Curatolo, Susana; Dreschhoff, Gisela

    The distribution of masses in the galaxy have been investigated within the frame of the 5D space-time field theory [1,2; also see www.google groups/group/5Duniverse/]. Here we will focus on one of the results which is related to the exponentially time increasing outward spiral speed of stars in the galaxy. The solution of the centripetal force equation leading to this result also indicates that this hypervelocity may be present only during the early stage after the galaxy's creation. However, it can also be shown, that, as the outward spiral rate of this star depends on the motion of all the galactic masses within the galaxy, the star must slow down with aging as the other masses spiral outward. For this reason it is suggested that the 5D space-time field theory may be applicable to the recent findings of some runaway stars, such as HD 271791, seemingly escaping from the galaxy [3]. [1] K.W. Wong, Nova Sciences, in press [2] K.W. Wong, Nova science, in press [3] N. Przybilla et al., Ap. J., 684, L103-l106, 2008

  2. Catalog of earth photographs from the Apollo-Soyuz test project. [listing cloud photographs and data acquired at time photograph was taken

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Information is given on earth photographs obtained by the Apollo astronauts during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project. The data are arranged in three sections. A map index shows the boundaries of each photograph and is used for a quick survey of the coverage for a given geographical area. A tabular index provides the following data: list of photographs by serial number, description of geographic location, latitude and longitude of the center point of the photograph, date when photograph was taken, ground elapsed time, revolution number of Apollo spacecraft, approximate spacecraft altitude, tilt, sun angle, camera, and lens. The photographic index provides same size black and white prints made from the original color negatives.

  3. Large detector array and real-time processing and elemental image projection of X-ray and proton microprobe fluorescence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, C. G.; Siddons, D. P.; Moorhead, G.; Kirkham, R.; Dunn, P. A.; Dragone, A.; De Geronimo, G.

    2007-07-01

    A detector concept is described that integrates a large solid-angle detector array developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and a high speed pipelined parallel processing engine developed at CSIRO for machine vision, with an embedded implementation of the Dynamic Analysis method for fluorescence spectra deconvolution and image projection, to yield a detection system capable of energy-dispersive detection, spectral deconvolution and real-time elemental imaging at ˜10 8 events per second for PIXE elemental imaging using the nuclear microprobe and SXRF elemental imaging using the synchrotron X-ray microprobe.

  4. An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Feldman, Gene C.; Hooker, Stanford B.

    2004-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project Office was formally initiated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in 1990. Seven years later, the sensor was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation under a data-buy contract to provide 5 years of science quality data for global ocean biogeochemistry research. To date, the SeaWiFS program has greatly exceeded the mission goals established over a decade ago in terms of data quality, data accessibility and usability, ocean community infrastructure development, cost efficiency, and community service. The SeaWiFS Project Office and its collaborators in the scientific community have made substantial contributions in the areas of satellite calibration, product validation, near-real time data access, field data collection, protocol development, in situ instrumentation technology, operational data system development, and desktop level-0 to level-3 processing software. One important aspect of the SeaWiFS program is the high level of science community cooperation and participation. This article summarizes the key activities and approaches the SeaWiFS Project Office pursued to define, achieve, and maintain the mission objectives. These achievements have enabled the user community to publish a large and growing volume of research such as those contributed to this special volume of Deep-Sea Research. Finally, some examples of major geophysical events (oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial) captured by SeaWiFS are presented to demonstrate the versatility of the sensor.

  5. Multifrequency space time orthogonal projection (MF-STOP): a radar signal processing algorithm for detecting and discriminating targets in heavy clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrat, Yalew; Hatleberg, Clancy

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we present a Multi-Frequency Space-Time Orthogonal (MF-STOP) adaptive filtering approach for detection and discrimination of targets based on a two stage orthogonal projection whereby target parameters can be extracted in the presence of heavy clutter and noise. The proposed technique detects targets within heavy clutter tracked by a radar system. After targets are detected, motion information is extracted that can be used to discriminate threats such as reentry vehicles from other targets. Target detection is generated in stage one by a combination of Windowed Short Time Fast Fourier Transform (WSTFFT) processing and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Target discrimination is done in a second stage via Partial Least Squares (PLS) using a training filter constructed from the stage one detection. The target is discriminated explicitly by metric criteria such as size or precession. These discriminate features do not have to be known a priori.

  6. Calculation of the electron spin relaxation times in InSb and InAs by the projection-reduction method

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Nam Lyong

    2014-12-07

    The electron spin relaxation times in a system of electrons interacting with piezoelectric phonons mediated through spin-orbit interactions were calculated using the formula derived from the projection-reduction method. The results showed that the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the relaxation times in InSb and InAs were similar. The piezoelectric material constants obtained by a comparison with the reported experimental result were P{sub pe}=4.0×10{sup 22} eV/m for InSb and P{sub pe}=1.2×10{sup 23} eV/m for InAs. The result also showed that the relaxation of the electron spin by the Elliot-Yafet process is more relevant for InSb than InAs at a low density.

  7. Time of flight mass spectrometry of DNA laser-ablated from frozen aqueous solutions: applications to the Human Genome Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Peter

    1994-02-01

    Time of flight mass spectrometry offers an extremely rapid and accurate alternative to gel electrophoresis for sizing DNA fragments in the Sanger sequencing process, if large single-stranded DNA molecules can be volatilized and ionized without fragmentation. A process based on pulsed laser ablation of thin frozen films of DNA solutions has been shown to ablate intact DNA molecules up to [approximate]400 kDa in mass, and also has been shown to yield molecular ions of single-stranded DNA up to [approximate]18 500 Da. The theoretical basis and the progress to date in this approach are described and the potential impact of mass spectrometry on large-scale DNA sequencing is discussed.

  8. Calculation of the weighting functions for the reconstruction of absorbing inhomogeneities in tissue by time-resolved optical projections

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalov, A B; Vlasov, V V

    2014-08-31

    We report a new method for determining the weighting functions to reconstruct absorbing inhomogeneities in tissue by perturbation time-domain diffuse optical tomography using the transmission geometry of a flat layer. The method is based on an analytical approach to the calculation of the weighting functions for a semi-infinite scattering medium and on the use of the original method of an equivalent inverse source in order to obtain weight distributions for the flat layer geometry. The correctness of the proposed method of the weighting function calculation is evaluated by a numerical experiment on the reconstruction of absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that the perturbation reconstruction model based on the proposed weighting function calculation method allows the inhomogeneities smaller than 0.3 cm and ∼0.4 cm, located respectively in the transverse and longitudinal directions to the probe light direction, to be resolved in the centre of an 8-cm-thick object. (laser biophotonics)

  9. Antibiotic Prescriptions and Prophylaxis in Italian Children. Is It Time to Change? Data from the ARPEC Project

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani, Carlotta; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Romanengo, Marta; Tagliabue, Claudia; Centenari, Chiara; D’Argenio, Patrizia; Lundin, Rebecca; Giaquinto, Carlo; Galli, Luisa; Guarino, Alfredo; Esposito, Susanna; Sharland, Mike; Versporten, Ann; Goossens, Herman; Nicolini, Giangiacomo

    2016-01-01

    Background Antimicrobials are the most commonly prescribed drugs. Many studies have evaluated antibiotic prescriptions in the paediatric outpatient but few studies describing the real antibiotic consumption in Italian children’s hospitals have been published. Point-prevalence survey (PPS) has been shown to be a simple, feasible and reliable standardized method for antimicrobials surveillance in children and neonates admitted to the hospital. In this paper, we presented data from a PPS on antimicrobial prescriptions carried out in 7 large Italian paediatric institutions. Methods A 1-day PPS on antibiotic use in hospitalized neonates and children was performed in Italy between October and December 2012 as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children project (ARPEC). Seven institutions in seven Italian cities were involved. The survey included all admitted patients less than 18 years of age present in the ward at 8:00 am on the day of the survey, who had at least one on-going antibiotic prescription. For all patients data about age, weight, underlying disease, antimicrobial agent, dose and indication for treatment were collected. Results The PPS was performed in 61 wards within 7 Italian institutions. A total of 899 patients were eligible and 349 (38.9%) had an on-going prescription for one or more antibiotics, with variable rates among the hospitals (25.7% - 53.8%). We describe antibiotic prescriptions separately in neonates (<30 days old) and children (> = 30 days to <18 years old). In the neonatal cohort, 62.8% received antibiotics for prophylaxis and only 37.2% on those on antibiotics were treated for infection. Penicillins and aminoglycosides were the most prescribed antibiotic classes. In the paediatric cohort, 64.4% of patients were receiving antibiotics for treatment of infections and 35.5% for prophylaxis. Third generation cephalosporins and penicillin plus inhibitors were the top two antibiotic classes. The main reason for

  10. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. III. Optical Continuum Emission and Broadband Time Delays in NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausnaugh, M. M.; Denney, K. D.; Barth, A. J.; Bentz, M. C.; Bottorff, M. C.; Carini, M. T.; Croxall, K. V.; De Rosa, G.; Goad, M. R.; Horne, Keith; Joner, M. D.; Kaspi, S.; Kim, M.; Klimanov, S. A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Leonard, D. C.; Netzer, H.; Peterson, B. M.; Schnülle, K.; Sergeev, S. G.; Vestergaard, M.; Zheng, W.-K.; Zu, Y.; Anderson, M. D.; Arévalo, P.; Bazhaw, C.; Borman, G. A.; Boroson, T. A.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.; Brewer, B. J.; Cackett, E. M.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Efimova, N. V.; Ely, J.; Evans, P. A.; Filippenko, A. V.; Flatland, K.; Gehrels, N.; Geier, S.; Gelbord, J. M.; Gonzalez, L.; Gorjian, V.; Grier, C. J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P. B.; Hicks, S.; Horenstein, D.; Hutchison, T.; Im, M.; Jensen, J. J.; Jones, J.; Kaastra, J.; Kelly, B. C.; Kennea, J. A.; Kim, S. C.; Korista, K. T.; Kriss, G. A.; Lee, J. C.; Lira, P.; MacInnis, F.; Manne-Nicholas, E. R.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I. M.; Montouri, C.; Musso, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Norris, R. P.; Nousek, J. A.; Okhmat, D. N.; Pancoast, A.; Papadakis, I.; Parks, J. R.; Pei, L.; Pogge, R. W.; Pott, J.-U.; Rafter, S. E.; Rix, H.-W.; Saylor, D. A.; Schimoia, J. S.; Siegel, M.; Spencer, M.; Starkey, D.; Sung, H.-I.; Teems, K. G.; Treu, T.; Turner, C. S.; Uttley, P.; Villforth, C.; Weiss, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Yan, H.; Young, S.

    2016-04-01

    We present ground-based optical photometric monitoring data for NGC 5548, part of an extended multiwavelength reverberation mapping campaign. The light curves have nearly daily cadence from 2014 January to July in nine filters (BVRI and ugriz). Combined with ultraviolet data from the Hubble Space Telescope and Swift, we confirm significant time delays between the continuum bands as a function of wavelength, extending the wavelength coverage from 1158 Å to the z band (~9160 Å). We find that the lags at wavelengths longer than the V band are equal to or greater than the lags of high-ionization-state emission lines (such as He ii λ 1640 and λ 4686), suggesting that the continuum-emitting source is of a physical size comparable to the inner broad-line region (BLR). The trend of lag with wavelength is broadly consistent with the prediction for continuum reprocessing by an accretion disk with τ \\propto {λ }4/3. However, the lags also imply a disk radius that is 3 times larger than the prediction from standard thin-disk theory, assuming that the bolometric luminosity is 10% of the Eddington luminosity (L=0.1{L}{{Edd}}). Using optical spectra from the Large Binocular Telescope, we estimate the bias of the interband continuum lags due to BLR emission observed in the filters. We find that the bias for filters with high levels of BLR contamination (~20%) can be important for the shortest continuum lags and likely has a significant impact on the u and U bands owing to Balmer continuum emission.

  11. A case study on the feasibility and performance of an UWB-AoA real time location system for resources management of civil construction projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Esmond; Xia, Linyuan; Retscher, Guenther; Tian, Hui

    2010-06-01

    The application of integrated satellite and modern wireless positioning technologies for ubiquitous real-time resources management in large scale civil engineering projects can greatly optimize the time and cost in the construction process, and is now the trend for modern construction project management. As the outdoor conditions of most civil construction sites are open to sky, satellite positioning with the popularly used Global Positioning System (GPS) has been proved to be very efficient and effective. However, the condition in indoor and underground construction site is very complicated due to the fact that different construction activities would be carried out in different congested areas, involving heavy construction plant, equipment, professionals and technical personnel. Nowadays different emerging technologies such as Wi-Fi and ZigBee can be adopted for position and tracking in indoor environments. Nevertheless, under the very complicated construction site conditions these technologies may fail due to movement of human resources and construction plant, variation of metrological conditions, and serious multipath effects of signals. It is considered that Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology is more suitable for indoor construction site environments. In this paper, a case study on the attempt of integrating GPS with Ubisense Real-time Location System (RTLS) for resources management in an underground railway construction site is discussed. Laboratory and field tests have shown that the RTLS can provide better resources management capability in terms of positioning accuracy and stability than Wi-Fi and ZigBee technologies under complicated construction environments. The test results show that the system can normally achieve better than 15 cm accuracy, and better than 1 m under adverse geometrical site condition. However, the high instrumental set up cost and the requirement for high quality data transmission cable for high precision time synchronization between

  12. Real-Time Access to Altimetry and Operational Oceanography Products via OPeNDAP/LAS Technologies : the Example of Aviso, Mercator and Mersea Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudel, S.; Blanc, F.; Jolibois, T.; Rosmorduc, V.

    2004-12-01

    The Products and Services (P&S) department in the Space Oceanography Division at CLS is in charge of diffusing and promoting altimetry and operational oceanography data. P&S is so involved in Aviso satellite altimetry project, in Mercator ocean operational forecasting system, and in the European Godae /Mersea ocean portal. Aiming to a standardisation and a common vision and management of all these ocean data, these projects led to the implementation of several OPeNDAP/LAS Internet servers. OPeNDAP allows the user to extract via a client software (like IDL, Matlab or Ferret) the data he is interested in and only this data, avoiding him to download full information files. OPeNDAP allows to extract a geographic area, a period time, an oceanic variable, and an output format. LAS is an OPeNDAP data access web server whose special feature consists in the facility for unify in a single vision the access to multiple types of data from distributed data sources. The LAS can make requests to different remote OPeNDAP servers. This enables to make comparisons or statistics upon several different data types. Aviso is the CNES/CLS service which distributes altimetry products since 1993. The Aviso LAS distributes several Ssalto/Duacs altimetry products such as delayed and near-real time mean sea level anomaly, absolute dynamic topography, absolute geostrophic velocities, gridded significant wave height and gridded wind speed modulus. Mercator-Ocean is a French operational oceanography centre which distributes its products by several means among them LAS/OPeNDAP servers as part of Mercator Mersea-strand1 contribution. 3D ocean description (temperature, salinity, current and other oceanic variables) of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean are real-time available and weekly updated. LAS special feature consisting in the possibility of making requests to several remote data centres with same OPeNDAP configurations particularly fitted to Mersea strand-1 problematics. This European

  13. Mechanisms of time-dependent crack growth at elevated temperature. Final project report, July 1, 1986--August 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A.; Stock, S.R.

    1990-04-15

    Objective of this 3-y study was to conduct creep and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments and to characterize the crack tip damage mechanisms in a model material (Cu-1wt%Sb), which is known to cavitate at grain boundaries under creep deformation. Results were: In presence of large scale cavitation damage and crack branching, time rate of creep crack growth da/dt does not correlate with C{sub t} or C{sup *}. When cavitation damage is constrained, da/dt is characterized by C{sub t}. Area fraction of grain boundary cavitated is the single damage parameter for the extent of cavitation damage ahead of crack tips. C{sub t} is used for the creep-fatigue crack growth behavior. In materials prone to rapid cavity nucleation, creep cracks grow faster initially and then reach a steady state whose growth rate is determined by C{sub t}. Percent creep life exhausted correlates with average cavity diameter and fraction of grain boundary area occupied by cavities. Synchrotron x-ray tomographic microscopy was used to image individual cavities in Cu-1wt% Sb. A methodology was developed for predicting the remaining life of elevated temperature power plant components; (C{sub t}){sub avg} was used to correlate creep-fatigue crack growth in Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steel and weldments.

  14. Development Status of the WetLab-2 Project: New Tools for On-orbit Real-time Quantitative Gene Expression.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Jimmy; Parra, Macarena P.; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis; Chinn, Tori; Ricco, Antonio; Souza, Kenneth; Hyde, Liz; Rukhsana, Yousuf; Richey, C. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of NASA Ames Research Centers WetLab-2 Project is to place on the ISS a research platform to facilitate gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of biological specimens grown or cultured on orbit. The WetLab-2 equipment will be capable of processing multiple sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. In addition to the logistical benefits of in-situ sample processing and analysis, conducting qRT-PCR on-orbit eliminates the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms. The system can also validate terrestrial analyses of samples returned from ISS by providing quantitative on-orbit gene expression benchmarking prior to sample return. The ability to get on orbit data will provide investigators with the opportunity to adjust experimental parameters for subsequent trials based on the real-time data analysis without need for sample return and re-flight. Finally, WetLab-2 can be used for analysis of air, surface, water, and clinical samples to monitor environmental contaminants and crew health. The verification flight of the instrument is scheduled to launch on SpaceX-5 in Aug. 2014.Progress to date: The WetLab-2 project completed a thorough study of commercially available qRT-PCR systems and performed a downselect based on both scientific and engineering requirements. The selected instrument, the Cepheid SmartCycler, has advantages including modular design (16 independent PCR modules), low power consumption, and rapid ramp times. The SmartCycler has multiplex capabilities, assaying up to four genes of interest in each of the 16 modules. The WetLab-2 team is currently working with Cepheid to modify the unit for housing within an EXPRESS rack locker on the ISS. This will enable the downlink of data to the ground and provide uplink capabilities for programming, commanding, monitoring, and instrument maintenance. The project is

  15. Ace Project as a Project Management Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Melinda; Guynes, Carl S.; Simard, Karine

    2010-01-01

    The primary challenge of project management is to achieve the project goals and objectives while adhering to project constraints--usually scope, quality, time and budget. The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of resources necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. Project management software provides an active…

  16. Early-type stars observed in the ESO UVES Paranal Observatory Project - V. Time-variable interstellar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Catherine M.; Smoker, Jonathan V.; Dufton, Philip L.; Smith, Keith T.; Kennedy, Michael B.; Keenan, Francis P.; Lambert, David L.; Welty, Daniel E.; Lauroesch, James T.

    2015-08-01

    The structure and properties of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) on small scales, sub-au to 1 pc, are poorly understood. We compare interstellar absorption lines, observed towards a selection of O- and B-type stars at two or more epochs, to search for variations over time caused by the transverse motion of each star combined with changes in the structure in the foreground ISM. Two sets of data were used: 83 VLT/UVES spectra with approximately 6 yr between epochs and 21 McDonald observatory 2.7-m telescope echelle spectra with 6-20 yr between epochs, over a range of scales from ˜0-360 au. The interstellar absorption lines observed at the two epochs were subtracted and searched for any residuals due to changes in the foreground ISM. Of the 104 sightlines investigated with typically five or more components in Na I D, possible temporal variation was identified in five UVES spectra (six components), in Ca II, Ca I and/or Na I absorption lines. The variations detected range from 7 per cent to a factor of 3.6 in column density. No variation was found in any other interstellar species. Most sightlines show no variation, with 3σ upper limits to changes of the order 0.1-0.3 dex in Ca II and Na I. These variations observed imply that fine-scale structure is present in the ISM, but at the resolution available in this study, is not very common at visible wavelengths. A determination of the electron densities and lower limits to the total number density of a sample of the sightlines implies that there is no striking difference between these parameters in sightlines with, and sightlines without, varying components.

  17. BRITICE-CHRONO: A multi-method project to determine the timing and rates of change of a marine-influenced ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabel, Derek; Clark, Chris; Chiverrell, Richard; O'Cofaigh, Colm; Scourse, James; Hindmarsh, Richard

    2016-04-01

    BRITICE-CHRONO is a five-year Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funded consortium of more than 44 researchers comprising glaciologists, marine and terrestrial Quaternary scientists and ice sheet-modellers, with the specific aim to systematically collect and date material to constrain the timing and rates of change of the marine-influenced sectors of the collapsing British Irish Ice Sheet (http://britice-chrono.org/). At the halfway point of the project we have collected over 400 cores during two 40-day research cruises circumnavigating the British Isles and Ireland, and completed over 300 person-days of terrestrial fieldwork, yielding around 15 tonnes of samples for dating by optically stimulated luminescence-, surface exposure-, and radiocarbon methods. By end 2016 we expect to have generated about 850 new dates from landforms associated with the deglaciation of the last British and Irish ice-sheet. The success of the project will in part depend on the team being able to provide ice-sheet modellers with robust chronological markers against which the ice-sheet models can be tested. The decision-making process in deciding robustness of ages derived from multiple samples and different Quaternary geochronological methods will be discussed. Some geochronological highlights thus far are that deglaciation of the northwest sector of the ice-sheet was in progress at 28ka, well before the global LGM, and the northern tip of mainland Scotland was ice free by 25ka. At the same time the Irish Sea ice stream in the south appears to have been advancing towards its maximum extend. Although deglaciation in the south commences much later, both the main southern and northern ice streams appear to have persisted for at least 10ka with final retreat onto the mainland occurring at approximately the same time (16ka).

  18. H.R. 680: A Bill to extend the time for construction of certain FERC licensed hydro projects. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 680, A Bill to extend the time for construction of certain FERC licensed hydro projects. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 25, 1995.

  19. HELICoiD project: a new use of hyperspectral imaging for brain cancer detection in real-time during neurosurgical operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabelo, Himar; Ortega, Samuel; Kabwama, Silvester; Callico, Gustavo M.; Bulters, Diederik; Szolna, Adam; Pineiro, Juan F.; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral images allow obtaining large amounts of information about the surface of the scene that is captured by the sensor. Using this information and a set of complex classification algorithms is possible to determine which material or substance is located in each pixel. The HELICoiD (HypErspectraL Imaging Cancer Detection) project is a European FET project that has the goal to develop a demonstrator capable to discriminate, with high precision, between normal and tumour tissues, operating in real-time, during neurosurgical operations. This demonstrator could help the neurosurgeons in the process of brain tumour resection, avoiding the excessive extraction of normal tissue and unintentionally leaving small remnants of tumour. Such precise delimitation of the tumour boundaries will improve the results of the surgery. The HELICoiD demonstrator is composed of two hyperspectral cameras obtained from Headwall. The first one in the spectral range from 400 to 1000 nm (visible and near infrared) and the second one in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm (near infrared). The demonstrator also includes an illumination system that covers the spectral range from 400 nm to 2200 nm. A data processing unit is in charge of managing all the parts of the demonstrator, and a high performance platform aims to accelerate the hyperspectral image classification process. Each one of these elements is installed in a customized structure specially designed for surgical environments. Preliminary results of the classification algorithms offer high accuracy (over 95%) in the discrimination between normal and tumour tissues.

  20. Near Real Time Surface Solar Radiation and Meteorological Parameters From the CERES FLASHFlux Project: Examples of Usage for Energy-Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stockhouse, P.; Chandler, W.; Zhang, T.; Kratz, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.; Wilber, A. C.; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Edwards, A. C.; Westberg, D.; Zell, E.; Leng, G.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Fast Longwave And SHortwave Radiative Fluxes (FLASHFlux) project is producing global near real-time surface and top of Atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes and analyzing these quantities and their variability on regional and global scales. This is being accomplished by using a portion of the existing Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) processing system that fuses CERES with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) to produce orbital flux products. The orbital products from both Terra and Aqua are subsequently merged to derive global gridded radiative flux products. The FLASHFlux processing system also uses meteorological surface and profile file information from NASA Global Modeling and Data Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) operational analysis version 5.2. The production of these together considering the latency times results in the global gridded surface radiative fluxes within 6-7 days of the original satellite observations. Data from the FLASHFlux have been merged and made available through a user-friendly web-based data portal (http://power.larc.nasa.gov/). Solar data from this portal are being continuously updated to provide time series of daily solar radiation to current time minus 7-days. While the current solar data represents an average over a 1-degree cell, comparison with ground observations exhibits a high degree of correlation on a daily time scale. These data are promoted to the web along with surface meteorological data from the GMAO GEOS 5.2 to provide a complete suite of parameters useful for many applications. This paper highlights the use of these data sets in the Ventyx Corporation database Velocity Suite that is being provided to utilities for power load forecasting. Examples of the usage and impact of this data on subsequent load forecasts are presented. The data sets are also being evaluated in collaboration with the Natural Resource Canada RETScreen

  1. Measurement and simulation of two-phase CO2 cooling in Micromegas modules for a Large Prototype of Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, D. S.; Attié, D.; Colas, P.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Majumdar, N.; Bhattacharya, S.; Sarkar, S.; Bhattacharya, A.; Ganjour, S.

    2015-08-01

    The readout electronics of a Micromegas (MM) module consume nearly 26 W of electric power, which causes the temperature of electronic board to increase upto 70 oC. Increase in temperature results in damage of electronics. Development of temperature gradient in the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) may affect precise measurement as well. Two-phase CO2 cooling has been applied to remove heat from the MM modules during two test beam experiments at DESY, Hamburg. Following the experimental procedure, a comprehensive study of the cooling technique has been accomplished for a single MM module by means of numerical simulation. This paper is focused to discuss the application of two-phase CO2 cooling to keep the temperature below 30 oC and stabilized within 0.2 oC.

  2. Using loose-fill perlite with normal weight precast wall panels to lower the cost, time of construction projects, and to provide an alternative to lightweight concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al kulabi, Ahmed Kamil

    Lightweight concrete has been used in construction because of its properties, such as thermal, and fire resistances although it is more expensive and less available than normal weight concrete. One way to save time, cost, and to provide an alternative to lightweight concrete in construction projects is to reduce the number of installed insulations on precast wall panels and to improve the properties of normal weight concrete panels, respectively. These goals can be achieved by improving the four properties of precast panels, such as thermal resistance, fire resistance, heat capacity, and sound insulation by using perlite as insulation. The main goals of this research are getting buildings constructed or modified in less time and cost by producing superior wall panels and improving the properties of normal weight panels. Superior wall panels are new panels that provide the four properties listed above. Precast panels with different cross sections, concrete type, and different amounts of perlite will be investigated to observe the impact of each factor on the mentioned properties. The cost of each panel will be studied, and analytical methods will be used to find the optimum panel that provides the four mentioned properties with least cost. Moreover, theoretical methods will be applied to calculate the four properties for each panel. The preliminary theoretical calculations approved a good improvement in the four properties. In summary, the four properties of precast panels can be improved, time, and cost of construction can be reduced by using perlite as insulation.

  3. Visualising apoptosis in live zebrafish using fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical projection tomography to map FRET biosensor activity in space and time.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Natalie; Ramel, Marie-Christine; Kumar, Sunil; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Kelly, Douglas J; Warren, Sean C; Kerry, Louise; Lockwood, Nicola; Frolov, Antonina; Frankel, Paul; Bugeon, Laurence; McGinty, James; Dallman, Margaret J; French, Paul M W

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) combined with optical projection tomography (OPT) has the potential to map Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) readouts in space and time in intact transparent or near transparent live organisms such as zebrafish larvae, thereby providing a means to visualise cell signalling processes in their physiological context. Here the first application of FLIM OPT to read out biological function in live transgenic zebrafish larvae using a genetically expressed FRET biosensor is reported. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is mapped in 3-D by imaging the activity of a FRET biosensor that is cleaved by Caspase 3, which is a key effector of apoptosis. Although apoptosis is a naturally occurring process during development, it can also be triggered in a variety of ways, including through gamma irradiation. FLIM OPT is shown here to enable apoptosis to be monitored over time, in live zebrafish larvae via changes in Caspase 3 activation following gamma irradiation at 24 hours post fertilisation. Significant apoptosis was observed at 3.5 hours post irradiation, predominantly in the head region.

  4. Estimated lag time in global carbon emissions and CO2 concentrations produced by commercial nuclear power through 2009 with projections through 2030.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Neil M; Abramson, Lee R; Coleman, Fiona A B

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the past and future impact of nuclear reactors on anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. If nuclear power had never been commercially developed, what additional global carbon emissions would have occurred? More than 44 y of global nuclear power have caused a lag time of at least 1.2 y in carbon emissions and CO2 concentrations through the end of 2009. This lag time incorporates the contribution of life cycle carbon emissions due to the construction and operation of nuclear plants. Cumulative global carbon emissions would have been about 13 Gt greater through 2009, and the mean annual CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa would have been ~2.7 ppm greater than without nuclear power. This study finds that an additional 14–17 Gt of atmospheric carbon emissions could be averted by the global use of nuclear power through 2030, for a cumulative total of 27–30 Gt averted during the period 1965–2030. This result is based on International Atomic Energy Agency projections of future growth in nuclear power from 2009–2030, modified by the recent loss or permanent shutdown of 14 reactors in Japan and Germany PMID:22420021

  5. Estimated lag time in global carbon emissions and CO2 concentrations produced by commercial nuclear power through 2009 with projections through 2030.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Neil M; Abramson, Lee R; Coleman, Fiona A B

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the past and future impact of nuclear reactors on anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. If nuclear power had never been commercially developed, what additional global carbon emissions would have occurred? More than 44 y of global nuclear power have caused a lag time of at least 1.2 y in carbon emissions and CO2 concentrations through the end of 2009. This lag time incorporates the contribution of life cycle carbon emissions due to the construction and operation of nuclear plants. Cumulative global carbon emissions would have been about 13 Gt greater through 2009, and the mean annual CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa would have been ~2.7 ppm greater than without nuclear power. This study finds that an additional 14–17 Gt of atmospheric carbon emissions could be averted by the global use of nuclear power through 2030, for a cumulative total of 27–30 Gt averted during the period 1965–2030. This result is based on International Atomic Energy Agency projections of future growth in nuclear power from 2009–2030, modified by the recent loss or permanent shutdown of 14 reactors in Japan and Germany

  6. The application of operations research methodologies to the delivery of care model for traumatic spinal cord injury: the access to care and timing project.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Vanessa K; Soril, Lesley; Atkins, Derek; Lewis, Rachel; Santos, Argelio; Fehlings, Michael G; Burns, Anthony S; Singh, Anoushka; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2012-09-01

    The long-term impact of spinal cord injury (SCI) on the health care system imposes a need for greater efficiency in the use of resources and the management of care. The Access to Care and Timing (ACT) project was developed to model the health care delivery system in Canada for patients with traumatic SCI. Techniques from Operations Research, such as simulation modeling, were used to predict the impact of best practices and policy initiatives on outcomes related to both the system and patients. These methods have been used to solve similar problems in business and engineering and may offer a unique solution to the complexities encountered in SCI care delivery. Findings from various simulated scenarios, from the patients' point of injury to community re-integration, can be used to inform decisions on optimizing practice across the care continuum. This article describes specifically the methodology and implications of producing such simulations for the care of traumatic SCI in Canada. Future publications will report on specific practices pertaining to the access to specialized services and the timing of interventions evaluated using the ACT model. Results from this type of research will provide the evidence required to support clinical decision making, inform standards of care, and provide an opportunity to engage policymakers.

  7. Relative sea level trend and variability in the central Mediterranean in the time span 1872-2014 from tide gauge data: implications for future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzidei, Marco; Vecchio, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    We used tidal data collected in the time span 1872-2014 from a set of historical and modern stations located in the central Mediterranean, along the coasts of Italy, France, Slovenia and Croatia. The longest records span across the last two or three centuries for the tidal stations of Genova, Marseille, Trieste and Venice. While data from Bakar, Dubrovink, Rovinji and Split, all located along the coast of the Adriatic sea, provide valid records for a time span about 50 years long. In addition to these stations, since 1998 become available for the Italian region new sea level data from the dense national tidal network (www.mareografico.it). These digital stations are collecting data continuously at 10 minute sampling interval with a nominal accuracy at 1 mm. Therefore, in addition to the historical stations, we have the opportunity to analyze a sea level data set that cover about the last 16 years. In this study we show and discuss the results of our analysis of sea level data for the central Mediterranean, providing new insights on sea level trend and variability for about the past 140 years. Finally, based on sea level data and IPCC reports, we provide future sea level projections for this region for the year 2100 with implications for coastal flooding of lowland areas.

  8. Bayesian Event Tree (BET) approach to Near Real Time monitoring on active volcanoes within ASI-SRV project: Mt. Etna test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Taroni, Matteo; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Dini, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    ASI-Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) project is devoted to the development of a pre-operative integrated system managing different Earth Observation (EO) and Non EO data to respond to specific needs of the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) and improve the monitoring of Italian active volcanoes. The project provides the capability to maintain a repository where the acquired data are stored and generates products offering a support to risk managers during the different volcanic activity phases. All the products are obtained considering technical choices and developments of ASI-SRV based on flexible and scalable modules which take into account also the new coming space sensors and new processing algorithms. An important step of the project development regards the technical and scientific feasibility of the provided products that depends on the data availability, accuracy algorithms and models used in the processing and of course the possibility to validate the results by means of comparison with non-EO independent measurements. The multivariate analysis allows to perform multiple comparisons in order to have a first idea of which variables are largely preferentially or rather rarely distributed, also considering their geographic localization. The "Volcanic Parameter" cross correlation will allow to define the weight of each product that will be used as input in the BET-EF model (Bayesian Event Tree model for eruption forecasting ) which is an already developed algorithm for the eruption model, and will be adapt, as it is, to the ASI-SRV needs. The BET model represents a flexible tool to provide probabilities of any specific event at which we are interested in, by merging any kind of available and relevant information, such as theoretical models, a priori beliefs, monitoring measures, and past data. It is mainly based on a Bayesian procedure and it relies on the fuzzy approach to manage monitoring data. The method deals with short- and long-term forecasting

  9. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  10. The Challenge of Time-Dependent Control of Both Processing and Performance of Materials at the Mesoscale, and the MaRIE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Cris W.

    DOE and NNSA are recognizing a mission need for flexible and reduced-cost product-based solutions to materials through accelerated qualification, certification, and assessment. The science challenge lies between the nanoscale of materials and the integral device scale, at the middle or ''mesoscale'' where interfaces, defects, and microstructure determine the performance of the materials over the lifecycle of the intended use. Time-dependent control of the processing, structure and properties of materials at this scale lies at the heart of qualifying and certifying additive manufactured parts; experimental data of high fidelity and high resolution are necessary to discover the right physical mechanisms to model and to validate and calibrate those reduced-order models in codes on Exascale computers. The scientific requirements to do this are aided by a revolution in coherent imaging of non-periodic features that can be combined with scattering off periodic structures. This drives the need to require a coherent x-ray source, brilliant and high repetition rate, of sufficiently high energy to see into and through the mesoscale. The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) Project is a proposal to build such a very-high-energy X-ray Free Electron Laser.

  11. Binaries discovered by the SPY project . V. GD 687 - a massive double degenerate binary progenitor that will merge within a Hubble time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2010-06-01

    Aims: The ESO SN Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY) aims at finding merging double degenerate binaries as candidates for supernova type Ia (SN Ia) explosions. A white dwarf merger has also been suggested to explain the formation of rare types of stars like R CrB, extreme helium or He sdO stars. Here we present the hot subdwarf B binary GD 687, which will merge in less than a Hubble time. Methods: The orbital parameters of the close binary have been determined from time resolved spectroscopy. Since GD 687 is a single-lined binary, the spectra contain only information about the subdwarf primary and its orbit. From high resolution spectra the projected rotational velocity was derived. Assuming orbital synchronisation, the inclination of the system and the mass of the unseen companion were constrained. Results: The derived inclination is i = 39.3+6.2-5.6 °. The mass M2 = 0.71-0.21+0.22 M_⊙ indicates that the companion must be a white dwarf, most likely of C/O composition. This is only the fourth case that an sdB companion has been proven to be a white dwarf unambiguously. Its mass is somewhat larger than the average white dwarf mass, but may be as high as 0.93 M_⊙ in which case the total mass of the system comes close to the Chandrasekhar limit. Conclusions: GD 687 will evolve into a double degenerate system and merge to form a rare supermassive white dwarf with a mass in excess of solar. A death in a sub-Chandrasekhar supernova is also conceivable. Based on observations at the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programme No. 165.H-0588(A). Based on observations at the La Silla Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes No. 072.D-0510(B), 079.D-0288(A), 080.D-0685(A) and 084.D-0348(A).

  12. The Proposal Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The proposal project stretches over a significant portion of the semester-long sophomore course Professional Communication (ENG 250) at Monroe Community College. While developing their proposal project, students need to use time management skills to successfully complete a quality project on time. In addition, excellent oral and written…

  13. Highly dynamic sediment deposition in modern times on the submarine Amazon Delta - First results from the AMADEUS project (Cruise MSM 20/3, February/March 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, T.; Mulitza, S.; Chiessi, C.; Haberkern, J.; Wiers, S.

    2012-12-01

    The submarine Amazon Delta is the major sink for the enormous sediment load of the Amazon River during modern times. Supported by its large drainage area (7 M km2) and the huge total run-off of 6300 km3/yr, which is 20% of the global run-off into the oceans, the Amazon River discharges the worldwide highest total sediment load to the oceans, namely 1200 Mt/yr. Characterized by sedimentation rates of decimeters per year, the submarine Amazon Delta can act as an ultra-high resolution archive of the Anthropocene climatic history of the Amazon basin. However, it has to be kept in mind that the accumulation on the delta is controlled by an interaction of sediment supply and the shelf current pattern including strong tides. To study in general the response of Amazon sedimentation to deforestation, land use and climate variability, the Project AMADEUS has been established in cooperation between the MARUM, Bremen, Germany and the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Within this project a first cruise was carried out with the RV Maria S. Merian in February/March 2012 in order to collect high-resolution seismic data (Mini GI Gun, 50 m analogue streamer), sediment echosounder data (Parasound; 4 kHz, 18 kHz, 40 kHz), swath-sounder data (bathymetry and backscatter), sediment samples and water column samples in front of the Amazon River mouth. The presentation will focus mainly on the seismo-acoustic data sets. As a first step, the data were analyzed to understand the internal architecture of the recent clinoform build-up in time and space. The main emphasis were set on the foreset and bottomset, where most of the accretion occur, to allow volume and sediment budget calculations in relation to the denudation history of the Amazon basin. Especially the Parasound data reveal significant changes of the clinoform along the delta front in terms of thickness, slope angle, shape (oblique-sigmoidal-convex) and internal architecture (especially depths and character of erosional

  14. Status Projections of Low-Income Youth in the U.S.A.: Changes Over Time and a Look to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, A. Lee

    Based upon the unpublished data of a study focusing upon the status projections of low-income youth from seven southern states (rural white Appalachians, rural blacks, inner-city urban blacks, and poor urban whites from one state), this paper synthesizes a longitudinal analysis of status projections. Baseline data (1969) derived from 1,500 fifth…

  15. Project BALLOTS: Bibliographic Automation of Large Library Operations Using a Time-Sharing System. Progress Report (3/27/69 - 6/26/69).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaner, Allen B.

    Project BALLOTS is a large-scale library automation development project of the Stanford University Libraries which has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting on-line interactive searches of complex bibliographic files, with a large number of users working simultaneously in the same or different files. This report documents the continuing…

  16. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT ESTABLISHMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TIME DOMAIN SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DST

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-14

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DST assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil, and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DST and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained waste. Soil-structure interaction analyses are traditionally solved in the frequency

  17. Project management skills.

    PubMed

    Perce, K H

    1998-08-01

    1. Project management skills are important to develop because occupational and environmental health nurses are increasingly asked to implement and manage health related projects and programs. 2. Project management is the process of planning and managing project tasks and resources, and communicating the progress and results. This requires the coordination of time, tasks, equipment, people, and budget. 3. Three main critical skill areas are needed to be an effective project manager: behavioral skills such as negotiation, conflict resolution, and interpersonal problem solving; use of project management tools to manage project tasks and resources; and effective communication skills. PMID:9748920

  18. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  19. The Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) Project Design: 1. Classification of Northeast Lakes Using a Combination of Geographic, Hydrogeochemical, and Multivariate Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Thomas C.; Stoddard, John L.

    1996-08-01

    This investigation is part of the Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems ((TIME) project, an effort to meet the difficult challenge of monitoring surface water quality in the northeastern United States for signs of change in response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The overall objective of the study was to develop a unified scheme for classifying lakes in the northeast into relatively homogeneous groups and improve the likelihood of detecting water quality trends in the region. The study approach involved combining the best elements of several procedures recently used for defining regional subpopulations of lakes; these were termed the hydrogeochemical model (HM), geographical model (GM), and multivariate statistical model (MSM). Lake and watershed data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Eastern Lake Survey (ELS) were used to evaluate the classification methods and their modifications. After preliminary comparisons were made of the three classification schemes, it was concluded that the resulting subpopulations indicated that there was meaningful similarity among methods but that the significant dissimilarity reflected distinctive attributes of each classification method. These differences were deemed important; accordingly, integration of the methods entailed efforts to preserve parts of each. This was accomplished by assigning each lake of the ELS data set into a lake cluster that had been defined by jointly applying the HM and GM methods. Subsequently, the jointly classified clusters were aggregated by coupling an application of the MSM (cluster analysis) with subjective judgment regarding termination of the process of cluster formation. This integration of procedures gave rise to nine subpopulations that separated mainly on the basis of hydrogeochemical factors, though geographic influences also were evident in the results. The integrated classification procedure provided an explicit method involving the combination of several kinds

  20. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

  1. Recent Results from ArgoNeuT and Status of MicroBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Szelc, Andrzej

    2015-07-10

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) detectors hold the key to answering the outstanding questions about the role of neutrinos in the Standard Model of Particle physics and beyond. Their fine granularity combined with calorimetric capabilities allows for precision measurements that answering these questions will require. Here, we discuss the recent results from the ArgoNeuT experiment as well as the status and prospects for MicroBooNE, both a part of the US-based LArTPC neutrino program.

  2. Some recent results from ICARUS

    SciTech Connect

    Farnese, Christian

    2015-07-15

    ICARUS T600 is the largest Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) ever built. Thanks to the excellent spatial and calorimetric resolutions and the three-dimensional visualization capabilities ICARUS T600 represents a major milestone towards the realization of future LAr detectors for neutrino physics and for the search of rare events. Three new important results from the analysis of the events collected by this detector will be here shortly presented: in particular the new improved results on the electron neutrino search, the results on the determination of the muon momentum using the Multiple Scattering and the new LAr purification methods and improvements of the electron lifetime.

  3. Improving Dark Matter Searches by Measuring the Nucleon Axial Form Factor: Perspectives from MicroBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Miceli, Tia; Papavassiliou, Vassili; Pate, Stephen; Woodruff, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    The MicroBooNE neutrino experiment at Fermilab is constructing a liquid-argon time-projection chamber for the Booster Neutrino Beam to study neutrino oscillations and interactions with nucleons and nuclei, starting in 2014. We describe the experiment and focus on its unique abilities to measure cross sections at low values of $Q^2$. In particular, the neutral-current elastic scattering cross section is especially interesting, as it is sensitive to the contribution of the strange sea quark spin to the angular-momentum of the nucleon, $\\Delta s$. Implications for dark-matter searches are discussed.

  4. Steady Stream of High School Graduates Enter B.C. Public Post-Secondary Education for the First Time Each Year. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Transitions Project, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Student Transition project (STP) has collected eleven years of grade 12 and post-secondary enrollment data, since it's inception in 2003. This information is used to track student transitions from grade 12 graduation into post-secondary education, student mobility between post-secondary institutions and post-secondary credential completions.…

  5. No Enemies in Aliceville: A Seventh Grade Writing Project Takes on a Deeper Meaning, Thanks to a Piece of Local History that Time Forgot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Alice

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience of participating in "The Novel Process" workshop, given by Roz Morris in Hoover, Alabama, for her seventh grade advanced reading class at Robert F. Bumpus Middle School. "The Novel Process" is a year-long writing project that culminates in the publication of a novel that students have written as a…

  6. Accelerating Software Development through Agile Practices--A Case Study of a Small-Scale, Time-Intensive Web Development Project at a College-Level IT Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuesong; Dorn, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Agile development has received increasing interest both in industry and academia due to its benefits in developing software quickly, meeting customer needs, and keeping pace with the rapidly changing requirements. However, agile practices and scrum in particular have been mainly tested in mid- to large-size projects. In this paper, we present…

  7. Photovoltaic Installation Data from the Open PV Project: Real-time Status of the Solar Photovoltaic Market in the U.S.

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Open PV Project is a collaborative effort between government, industry, and the public that is compiling a comprehensive database of photovoltaic (PV) installation data for the United States. Data for the project are voluntarily contributed from a variety of sources including utilities, installers, and the general public. The data collected is actively maintained by the contributors and are always changing to provide an evolving, up-to-date snapshot of the US solar power market. The database allows searching by state or zipcode, size or date ranges, and organization name. The results include the cost of each solar install and an average of cost per power watt in that specific state. The Open PV Visualization Gallery features four interactive data maps that instantly reconfigure to display updated information as soon as an individual or organization uploads new data.

  8. Time-resolved cardiac interventional cone-beam CT reconstruction from fully truncated projections using the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thériault Lauzier, Pascal; Tang, Jie; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2012-05-01

    C-arm cone-beam CT could replace preoperative multi-detector CT scans in the cardiac interventional setting. However, cardiac gating results in view angle undersampling and the small size of the detector results in projection data truncation. These problems are incompatible with conventional tomographic reconstruction algorithms. In this paper, the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) reconstruction method was adapted to solve these issues. The performance of the proposed method was compared to that of FDK, FDK with extrapolated projection data (E-FDK), and total variation-based compressed sensing. A canine projection dataset acquired using a clinical C-arm imaging system supplied realistic cardiac motion and anatomy for this evaluation. Three different levels of truncation were simulated. The relative root mean squared error and the universal image quality index were used to quantify the reconstruction accuracy. Three main conclusions were reached. (1) The adapted version of the PICCS algorithm offered the highest image quality and reconstruction accuracy. (2) No meaningful variation in performance was observed when the amount of truncation was changed. (3) This study showed evidence that accurate interior tomography with an undersampled acquisition is possible for realistic objects if a prior image with minimal artifacts is available.

  9. SIMBIOS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; McClain, Charles R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide current documentation of the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities, NASA Research Announcement (NRAI) research status, satellite data processing, data product validation, and field calibration. This documentation is necessary to ensure that critical information is related to the scientific community and NASA management. This critical information includes the technical difficulties and challenges of validating and combining ocean color data from an array of independent satellite systems to form consistent and accurate global bio-optical time series products. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational project.

  10. Projects Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    The great educational value of projects is emphasized by contrasting negative aspects of the life of today's children with the goals of project work. This is illustrated by a project "Shopping." It is shown what children are learning in such projects and what the advantages of project work are. Relevant topic areas, criteria for selecting a…

  11. Evaluating interannual vegetation anomalies in the Basilicata region using satellite spot vegetation 1999-2011 time series: preliminary results from the Mitra project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Desantis, Fortunato; Aromando, Angelo; Lanorte, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Basilicata region funded a fesr project, MITRA to develop reliable low cost technologies to preserve and enhance natural and cultural heritage in some relevant areas selected as test cases. " Cultural heritage and the natural heritage are increasingly threatened with destruction not only by the traditional causes of decay, but also by changing social and economic conditions which aggravate the situation with even more formidable phenomena of damage or destruction, from THE GENERAL CONFERENCE of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization meeting in Paris from 17 October to 21 November 1972, at its seventeenth session, available on line " (http://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext/). This paper is focused on the preliminary results obtained in the framework of the Mitra project. In particular, a temporal series (1999-2011) of the yearly Maximum Value Composit of SPOT/VEGETATION NDVI was used to carried out investigation on the whole Basilicata region. The PCA was used as a first step of data transform to enhance regions of localized change in multi-temporal data sets (Lasaponara 2006). Results from PCA were further processed using Support Vector machine (SVM) to identify and map land degradation phenomenon Both naturally vegetated areas (forest, shrub-land, herbaceous cover) and agricultural lands have been investigated in order to extract the most prominent natural and/or man induced alterations affecting vegetation behavior. Such analyses can provide valuable information for monitoring the status of vegetation which is an indicator of the degree of stress namely any disturbance that adversely influences plants in response to natural hazards and/or anthropogenic activities. Our findings suggest that the jointly use of PCA and SVM PCA can provide valuable information for environmental management policies involving biodiversity preservation and rational exploitation of natural and agricultural resources. Rosa Lasaponara 2006, On the use of

  12. The ‘pit-crew’ model for improving door-to-needle times in endovascular stroke therapy: a Six-Sigma project

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ansaar T; Smith, Matthew S; Boo, SoHyun; Tarabishy, Abdul R; Hobbs, Gerald R; Carpenter, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Background Delays in delivering endovascular stroke therapy adversely affect outcomes. Time-sensitive treatments such as stroke interventions benefit from methodically developed protocols. Clearly defined roles in these protocols allow for parallel processing of tasks, resulting in consistent delivery of care. Objective To present the outcomes of a quality-improvement (QI) process directed at reducing stroke treatment times in a tertiary level academic medical center. Methods A Six-Sigma-based QI process was developed over a 3-month period. After an initial analysis, procedures were implemented and fine-tuned to identify and address rate-limiting steps in the endovascular care pathway. Prospectively recorded treatment times were then compared in two groups of patients who were treated ‘before’ (n=64) or ‘after’ (n=30) the QI process. Three time intervals were measured: emergency room (ER) to arrival for CT scan (ER–CT), CT scan to interventional laboratory arrival (CT–Lab), and interventional laboratory arrival to groin puncture (Lab–puncture). Results The ER–CT time was 40 (±29) min in the ‘before’ and 26 (±15) min in the ‘after’ group (p=0.008). The CT–Lab time was 87 (±47) min in the ‘before’ and 51 (±33) min in the ‘after’ group (p=0.0002). The Lab–puncture time was 24 (±11) min in the ‘before’ and 15 (±4) min in the ‘after’ group (p<0.0001). The overall ER–arrival to groin-puncture time was reduced from 2 h, 31 min (±51) min in the ‘before’ to 1 h, 33 min (±37) min in the ‘after’ group, (p<0.0001). The improved times were seen for both working hours and off-hours interventions. Conclusions A protocol-driven process can significantly improve efficiency of care in time-sensitive stroke interventions. PMID:26863106

  13. Project Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  14. Objective and Self-Rated Sedentary Time and Indicators of Metabolic Health in Dutch and Hungarian 10–12 Year Olds: The ENERGY-Project

    PubMed Central

    Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Yıldırım, Mine; Altenburg, Teatske M.; Singh, Amika S.; Kovács, Éva; Molnár, Dénes; Brug, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between objectively assessed sedentary time and metabolic risk factors in childhood have rarely been studied. Therefore, we examined the independent relationship between objectively assessed and self-rated sedentary time and indicators of metabolic health in Dutch and Hungarian 10–12 year olds. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional survey in primary schools. Participants were Dutch and Hungarian girls (n = 73, aged 12.2±0.6 years, 18% overweight/obese) and boys (n = 69, aged 12.2±0.7 years, 38% overweight/obese). Sedentary time and physical activity were assessed by the Actigraph accelerometer. TV and PC time were assessed by self-report. Adiposity indicators included body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined in capillary blood and summed into a metabolic risk score. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for physical activity, number of sedentary bouts and WC. Children spent on average 7.6 hours of their daily waking time in sedentary behavior and self-reported 116±64 min/day watching TV and 85±57 min/day using the computer. Comparing the 1st and 4th quartile of objectively assessed sedentary time, C-Peptide levels, WC and BMI were significantly higher in the most sedentary quartile, while the difference in metabolic risk score was borderline significant (p = 0.09). Comparing the 1st and 4th quartile of TV time, BMI was significantly higher in the most sedentary quartile, while the difference in WC score was borderline significant (p = 0.06). In the adjusted linear regression analysis we found no significant association of sedentary time with metabolic risk. Conclusions/Significance Although BMI and WC were higher in the most sedentary versus the least sedentary children; we found no further evidence that more sedentary

  15. Project Longshot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. Curtis; Chamberlain, Sally A.; Stevens, Robert; Pagan, Neftali

    1989-01-01

    Project Longshot is an unmanned probe to our nearest star system, Alpha Centauri, 4.3 light years away. The Centauri system is a trinary system consisting of two central stars (A and B) orbiting a barycenter, and a third (Proxima Centauri) orbiting the two. The system is a declination of -67 degrees. The goal is to reach the Centauri system in 50 years. This time space was chosen because any shorter time would be impossible of the relativistic velocities involved, and any greater time would be impossible because of the difficulty of creating a spacecraft with such a long lifetime. Therefore, the following mission profile is proposed: (1) spacecraft is assembled in Earth orbit; (2) spacecraft escapes Earth and Sun in the ecliptic with a single impulse maneuver; (3) spacecraft changed declination to point toward Centauri system; (4) spacecraft accelerates to 0.1c; (5) spacecraft coasts at 0.1c for 41 years; (6) spacecraft decelerates upon reaching Centauri system; and (7) spacecraft orbits Centauri system, conducts investigations, and relays data to Earth. The total time to reach the Centauri system, taking into consideration acceleration and deceleration, will be approximately 50 years.

  16. VIPER project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kershaw, John

    1990-01-01

    The VIPER project has so far produced a formal specification of a 32 bit RISC microprocessor, an implementation of that chip in radiation-hard SOS technology, a partial proof of correctness of the implementation which is still being extended, and a large body of supporting software. The time has now come to consider what has been achieved and what directions should be pursued in the future. The most obvious lesson from the VIPER project was the time and effort needed to use formal methods properly. Most of the problems arose in the interfaces between different formalisms, e.g., between the (informal) English description and the HOL spec, between the block-level spec in HOL and the equivalent in ELLA needed by the low-level CAD tools. These interfaces need to be made rigorous or (better) eliminated. VIPER 1A (the latest chip) is designed to operate in pairs, to give protection against breakdowns in service as well as design faults. We have come to regard redundancy and formal design methods as complementary, the one to guard against normal component failures and the other to provide insurance against the risk of the common-cause failures which bedevil reliability predictions. Any future VIPER chips will certainly need improved performance to keep up with increasingly demanding applications. We have a prototype design (not yet specified formally) which includes 32 and 64 bit multiply, instruction pre-fetch, more efficient interface timing, and a new instruction to allow a quick response to peripheral requests. Work is under way to specify this device in MIRANDA, and then to refine the spec into a block-level design by top-down transformations. When the refinement is complete, a relatively simple proof checker should be able to demonstrate its correctness. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  17. High sensitive reflection type long period fiber grating biosensor for real time detection of thyroglobulin, a differentiated thyroid cancer biomarker: the Smart Health project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quero, G.; Severino, R.; Vaiano, P.; Consales, M.; Ruvo, M.; Sandomenico, A.; Borriello, A.; Giordano, M.; Zuppolini, S.; Diodato, L.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a reflection-type long period fiber grating (LPG) biosensor able to perform the real time detection of thyroid cancer markers in the needle washout of fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A standard LPG is first transformed in a practical probe working in reflection mode, then it is coated by an atactic-polystyrene overlay in order to increase its surrounding refractive index sensitivity and to provide, at the same time, the desired interfacial properties for a stable bioreceptor immobilization. The results provide a clear demonstration of the effectiveness and sensitivity of the developed biosensing platform, allowing the in vitro detection of human Thyroglobulin at sub-nanomolar concentrations.

  18. THE BNL ASTD FIELD LAB - NEAR - REAL - TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF BNL STOCKPILED SOILS TO ACCELERATE COMPLETION OF THE EM CHEMICAL HOLES PROJECT.

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERMAN,B.S.; ADAMS,J.W.; HEISER,J.; KALB,P.D.; LOCKWOOD,A.

    2003-04-01

    As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 yd{sup 3} of stockpiled soil remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical/Animal/Glass Pits disposal area. The soils were originally contaminated with radioactive materials and heavy metals, depending on what materials had been interred in the pits, and how the pits were excavated. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a large quantity of metal and glass debris. Nearly all of these materials have been disposed of. In order to ensure that all debris was removed and to characterize the large quantity of heterogeneous soil, BNL initiated an extended sorting, segregation, and characterization project directed at the remaining soil stockpiles. The project was co-funded by the Department of Energy Environmental Management Office (DOE EM) through the BNL Environmental Restoration program and through the DOE EM Office of Science and Technology Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program. The focus was to remove any non-conforming items, and to assure that mercury and radioactive contaminant levels were within acceptable limits for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Soils with mercury concentrations above allowable levels would be separated for disposal as mixed waste. Sorting and segregation were conducted simultaneously. Large stockpiles (ranging from 150 to 1,200 yd{sup 3}) were subdivided into manageable 20 yd{sup 3} units after powered vibratory screening. The 1/2-inch screen removed almost all non-conforming items (plus some gravel). Non-conforming items were separated for further characterization. Soil that passed through the screen was also visually inspected before being moved to a 20 yd{sup 3} ''subpile.'' Eight samples from each subpile were collected after establishing a grid of four quadrants: north, east, south and west, and

  19. Analysis of High Precision GPS Time Series and Strain Rates for the Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of Washington State Prospects Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-22

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earthscope’s Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Central Washington University’s Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA). GPS station velocities were used to infer strain rates using the ‘splines in tension’ method. Strain rates were derived separately for subduction zone locking at depth and block rotation near the surface within crustal block boundaries.

  20. Project CAPABLE: Model Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madawaska School District, ME.

    Project CAPABLE (Classroom Action Program: Aim: Basic Learning Effectiveness) is a classroom approach which integrates the basic learning skills with content. The goal of the project is to use basic learning skills to enhance the learning of content and at the same time use the content to teach basic learning skills. This manual illustrates how…

  1. Underestimation of Project Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  2. SISCAL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    The first "ocean colour" sensor, Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched in 1978. Oceanographers learnt a lot from CZCS but it remained a purely scientific sensor. In recent years, a new generation of satellite-borne earth observation (EO) instruments has been brought into space. These instruments combine high spectral and spatial resolution with revisiting rates of the order of one per day. More instruments with further increased spatial, spectral and temporal resolution will be available within the next years. In the meantime, evaluation procedures taking advantage of the capabilities of the new instruments were derived, allowing the retrieval of ecologically important parameters with higher accuracy than before. Space agencies are now able to collect and to process satellite data in real time and to disseminate them via the Internet. It is therefore meanwhile possible to envisage using EO operationally. In principle, a significant demand for EO data products on terrestrial or marine ecosystems exists both with public authorities (environmental protection, emergency management, natural resources management, national parks, regional planning, etc) and private companies (tourist industry, insurance companies, water suppliers, etc). However, for a number of reasons, many data products that can be derived from the new instruments and methods have not yet left the scientific community towards public or private end users. It is the intention of the proposed SISCAL (Satellite-based Information System on Coastal Areas and Lakes) project to contribute to the closure of the existing gap between space agencies and research institutions on one side and end users on the other side. To do so, we intend to create a data processor that automatically derives and subsequently delivers over the Internet, in Near-Real-Time (NRT), a number of data products tailored to individual end user needs. The data products will be generated using a Geographical Information System (GIS

  3. SISCAL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    The first "ocean colour" sensor, Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched in 1978. Oceanographers learnt a lot from CZCS but it remained a purely scientific sensor. In recent years, a new generation of satellite-borne earth observation (EO) instruments has been brought into space. These instruments combine high spectral and spatial resolution with revisiting rates of the order of one per day. More instruments with further increased spatial, spectral and temporal resolution will be available within the next years. In the meantime, evaluation procedures taking advantage of the capabilities of the new instruments were derived, allowing the retrieval of ecologically important parameters with higher accuracy than before. Space agencies are now able to collect and to process satellite data in real time and to disseminate them via the Internet. It is therefore meanwhile possible to envisage using EO operationally. In principle, a significant demand for EO data products on terrestrial or marine ecosystems exists both with public authorities (environmental protection, emergency management, natural resources management, national parks, regional planning, etc) and private companies (tourist industry, insurance companies, water suppliers, etc). However, for a number of reasons, many data products that can be derived from the new instruments and methods have not yet left the scientific community towards public or private end users. It is the intention of the proposed SISCAL (Satellite-based Information System on Coastal Areas and Lakes) project to contribute to the closure of the existing gap between space agencies and research institutions on one side and end users on the other side. To do so, we intend to create a data processor that automatically derives and subsequently delivers over the Internet, in Near-Real-Time (NRT), a number of data products tailored to individual end user needs. The data products will be generated using a Geographical Information System (GIS

  4. SIMBIOS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; McClain, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide current documentation of the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities, NASA Research Announcement (NRA) research status, satellite data processing, data product validation, and field calibration. This documentation is necessary to ensure that critical information is related to the scientific community and NASA management. This critical information includes the technical difficulties and challenges of validating and combining ocean color data from an array of independent satellite systems to form consistent and accurate global bio-optical time series products. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational project. The SIMBIOS Science Team Principal Investigators' (PIs) original contributions to this report are in chapters four and above. The purpose of these contributions is to describe the current research status of the SIMBIOS-NRA-96 funded research. The contributions are published as submitted, with the exception of minor edits to correct obvious grammatical or clerical errors.

  5. Pre-waste-emplacement ground-water travel time sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed to estimate critical factors in the performance of the site with respect to a criterion in terms of pre-waste-emplacement ground-water travel time. The degree of failure in the analytical model to meet the criterion is sensitive to the estimate of fracture porosity in the upper welded unit of the problem domain. Fracture porosity is derived from a number of more fundamental measurements including fracture frequency, fracture orientation, and the moisture-retention characteristic inferred for the fracture domain.

  6. DOE Robotics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document provide the bimonthly progress reports on the Department of Energy (DOE) Robotics Project by the University of Michigan. Reports are provided for the time periods of December 90/January 91 through June 91/July 91. (FI)

  7. Manpower and project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David W.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to study how manpower and projects are planned at the Facilities Engineering Division (FENGD) within the Systems Engineering and Operations Directorate of the LaRC and to make recommendations for improving the effectiveness and productivity ot the tools that are used. The existing manpower and project planning processes (including the management plan for the FENGD, existing manpower planning reports, project reporting to LaRC and NASA Headquarters, employee time reporting, financial reporting, and coordination/tracking reports for procurement) were discussed with several people, and project planning software was evaluated.

  8. The ACS LCID Project. XI. On the Early Time Resolution of SFHs of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies: Comparing the Effects of Reionization in Models with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Skillman, Evan; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Navarro, Julio; Cole, Andrew; Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard; Dolphin, Andrew; Stetson, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of the early star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies, obtained from their resolved stellar populations, is relevant as a test for cosmological models. However, the early time resolution of observationally derived SFHs is limited by several factors. Thus, direct comparison of observationally derived SFHs with those derived from theoretical models of galaxy formation is potentially biased. Here we investigate and quantify this effect. For this purpose, we analyze the duration of the early star formation activity in a sample of four Local Group dwarf galaxies and test whether they are consistent with being true fossils of the pre-reionization era; i.e., if the quenching of their star formation occurred before cosmic reionization by UV photons was completed. Two classical dSph (Cetus and Tucana) and two dTrans (LGS-3 and Phoenix) isolated galaxies with total stellar masses between 1.3× {10}6 and 7.2× {10}6 {M}⊙ have been studied. Accounting for time resolution effects, the SFHs peak as much as 1.25 Gyr earlier than the optimal solutions. Thus, this effect is important for a proper comparison of model and observed SFHs. It is also shown that none of the analyzed galaxies can be considered a true fossil of the pre-reionization era, although it is possible that the outer regions of Cetus and Tucana are consistent with quenching by reionization. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #10505.

  9. The ACS LCID Project. XI. On the Early Time Resolution of SFHs of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies: Comparing the Effects of Reionization in Models with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Skillman, Evan; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Navarro, Julio; Cole, Andrew; Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard; Dolphin, Andrew; Stetson, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of the early star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies, obtained from their resolved stellar populations, is relevant as a test for cosmological models. However, the early time resolution of observationally derived SFHs is limited by several factors. Thus, direct comparison of observationally derived SFHs with those derived from theoretical models of galaxy formation is potentially biased. Here we investigate and quantify this effect. For this purpose, we analyze the duration of the early star formation activity in a sample of four Local Group dwarf galaxies and test whether they are consistent with being true fossils of the pre-reionization era; i.e., if the quenching of their star formation occurred before cosmic reionization by UV photons was completed. Two classical dSph (Cetus and Tucana) and two dTrans (LGS-3 and Phoenix) isolated galaxies with total stellar masses between 1.3× {10}6 and 7.2× {10}6 {M}ȯ have been studied. Accounting for time resolution effects, the SFHs peak as much as 1.25 Gyr earlier than the optimal solutions. Thus, this effect is important for a proper comparison of model and observed SFHs. It is also shown that none of the analyzed galaxies can be considered a true fossil of the pre-reionization era, although it is possible that the outer regions of Cetus and Tucana are consistent with quenching by reionization. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #10505.

  10. 44 CFR 206.204 - Project performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 44 CFR 13.21, Payment. (c) Time limitations for completion of work—(1) Deadlines. The project... find that the actual project costs exceed the approved Project Worksheet estimates. Such cost...

  11. 44 CFR 206.204 - Project performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 44 CFR 13.21, Payment. (c) Time limitations for completion of work—(1) Deadlines. The project... find that the actual project costs exceed the approved Project Worksheet estimates. Such cost...

  12. 44 CFR 206.204 - Project performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 44 CFR 13.21, Payment. (c) Time limitations for completion of work—(1) Deadlines. The project... find that the actual project costs exceed the approved Project Worksheet estimates. Such cost...

  13. 44 CFR 206.204 - Project performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 44 CFR 13.21, Payment. (c) Time limitations for completion of work—(1) Deadlines. The project... find that the actual project costs exceed the approved Project Worksheet estimates. Such cost...

  14. Project GlobWave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busswell, Geoff; Ash, Ellis; Piolle, Jean-Francois; Poulter, David J. S.; Snaith, Helen; Collard, Fabrice; Sheera, Harjit; Pinnock, Simon

    2010-12-01

    The ESA GlobWave project is a three year initiative, funded by ESA and CNES, to service the needs of satellite wave product users across the globe. Led by Logica UK, with support from CLS, IFREMER, SatOC and NOCS, the project will provide free access to satellite wave data and products in a common format, both historical and in near real time, from various European and American SAR and altimeter missions. Building on the successes of similar projects for Sea Surface Temperature and ocean colour, the project aims to stimulate increased use and analysis of satellite wave products. In addition to common-format satellite data the project will provide comparisons with in situ measurements, interactive data analysis tools and a pilot spatial wave forecast verification scheme for operational forecast production centres. The project will begin operations in January 2010, with direction from regular structured user consultation.

  15. Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) project and a next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, S.

    2012-12-01

    The first Workshop of Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER1) was held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan from February 23 to 24, 2012. The workshop focused on the formulation of strategies to reduce the risks of disasters worldwide caused by the occurrence of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. More than 150 participants attended the workshop. During the workshop, the G-EVER1 accord was approved by the participants. The Accord consists of 10 recommendations like enhancing collaboration, sharing of resources, and making information about the risks of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions freely available and understandable. The G-EVER Hub website (http://g-ever.org) was established to promote the exchange of information and knowledge among the Asia-Pacific countries. Several G-EVER Working Groups and Task Forces were proposed. One of the working groups was tasked to make the next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system. The next-generation volcano hazard assessment system is useful for volcanic eruption prediction, risk assessment, and evacuation at various eruption stages. The assessment system is planned to be developed based on volcanic eruption scenario datasets, volcanic eruption database, and numerical simulations. Defining volcanic eruption scenarios based on precursor phenomena leading up to major eruptions of active volcanoes is quite important for the future prediction of volcanic eruptions. Compiling volcanic eruption scenarios after a major eruption is also important. A high quality volcanic eruption database, which contains compilations of eruption dates, volumes, and styles, is important for the next-generation volcano hazard assessment system. The volcanic eruption database is developed based on past eruption results, which only represent a subset of possible future scenarios. Hence, different distributions from the previous deposits are mainly observed due to the differences in

  16. DAF Glovebox Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.W.; Higgs, R.L.

    2000-11-14

    This document defines how the glovebox project will be managed and executed. It provides a path forward for establishing a glovebox capability in Building 341 of the DAF in time to meet JASPER programmatic requirements as the first user. Note that some elements of the glovebox project have been under way for some time and are more mature than others; other elements are being worked concurrently. This plan serves the following purposes: Assign organizational and individual responsibilities for bringing the glovebox capability online; Coordinate activities between organizations; Facilitate communication between project members and management; and Identify the mechanisms used to manage and control the project. The scope of this plan includes all activities conducted to achieve project objectives, culminating in DOE/NV approval to operate. This plan does not address the issues associated with the steady-state operation of the glovebox.

  17. Project Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    Covered in the short discussion of Project Gifted for Intermediate grade children are program description, instructional strategy, classification of question categories to cue various levels of thinking, traits common to intellectually gifted students, and procedure for selection of students participating in Project Gifted. Project Gifted is…

  18. High Resolution Telesesimic P-wave Back-Projection Imaging Using Variable Travel Time Corrections: Characterizing Sub-Events of the Great April 11th 2012 Indian Ocean Intraplate Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, K. B.; Koper, K. D.; Yue, H.; Lay, T.

    2012-12-01

    Two of the largest strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded occurred off the coast of northern Sumatra on April 11th 2012. The Mw 8.7 mainshock and Mw 8.2 aftershock occurred east of the NinetyEast Ridge in the Wharton Basin, a region of intraplate deformation with prominent fracture zones striking NNE-SSW. The relative lack of geodetic and local seismic data compared to other recent great earthquakes make teleseismic data especially important for understanding the rupture properties of these events. We performed short-period P-wave back-projection imaging using independent networks of stations in Europe and Japan. Preliminary images from the two networks showed similarly complex multi-event sources for the mainshock that indicate rupture occurred along both nodal planes of the gCMT solution, consistent with the locations of early aftershocks. Back-projection images of the Mw 8.2 aftershock showed a single, compact, bilateral rupture corresponding to the NNE-SSW nodal plane of the CMT solution [Yue et al., 2012]. Here we improve upon the resolution and accuracy of our initial back-projection images by estimating station specific travel time corrections that vary across the source region [e.g., Ishii et al., 2007]. These corrections are used to compensate for 3D variations in Earth structure that occur between the source region and the seismometers, and act to focus the array beams. We perform multi-channel cross-correlations of P waves recorded for 7 aftershocks that were (1) distributed broadly around the source region and (2) well-observed at seismometers in Europe. For each seismometer in the array, the 8 measured static corrections are smoothly interpolated over the entire source region with a Kriging method to form a travel time correction surface. These surfaces are then used with an otherwise conventional back-projection approach [Xu et al., 2009] to image the ruptures. Our new images are broadly consistent with our original results, indicating that the

  19. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  20. Improvements in NOAA SURFRAD and ISIS sites for near real-time solar irradiance for verification of NWP solar forecasts for the DOE NOAA Solar Forecast Improvement Project (SFIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, K. O.; McComiskey, A. C.; Long, C. N.; Marquis, M.; Olson, J. B.; James, E.; Benjamin, S.; Clack, C.

    2015-12-01

    The DOE-NOAA Solar Forecasting Improvement Project's (SFIP) main goal is to improve solar forecasting and thereby increase penetration of solar renewable energy on the electric grid. NOAA's ISIS and SURFRAD network is part of this initiative by providing high quality solar irradiance measurements for verification of improvements in solar forecasting for the short-term, day ahead, and ramp events. There are 14 ISIS and SURFRAD stations across the continental United States. We will give an overview of recent improvements in the networks for this project. The NOAA SURFRAD team has three main components: 1) In addition to the existing stations, two mobile SURFRAD stations have been built and deployed for 1 year each at two separate solar utility plants. 2) NOAA SURFRAD/ISIS will update the communications at their sites to provide near real-time data for verification activities at the 14 sites. 3) Global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal solar irradiance (DNI), and aerosol optical depth at various spatial and temporal averaging will be compared to forecasts from the 3-km High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) and an advanced version of the 13-km Rapid Refresh (RAP) models. We will explore statistical correlations between in-coming and out-going shortwave radiation and longwave radiation at the surface for specific meteorological regimes and how well these are captured by NWP models.

  1. Project management controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.S.; Carnes, W.S.

    1990-12-31

    Project management controls are utilized to enhance the probability that a project will be successful. The control system used by a project manager can take many forms and can be applied at different times to varying degrees on a given project depending upon its complexity. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is one project of many at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The United States Department of Energy Order 4700.1 is a project management system that is applied on a site-wide basis, thus including the CIF. The control system required by this order is proceduralized to ensure that it is applied in a consistent manner and will produce reliable results. These results provide the project manager with a correlation of both costs and schedule within the defined scope to adequately asses the status of the project. This is an iterative process and can be simply stated: plan, actual, variance, corrective action, prediction, and revision. This paper presents the basis for the project management controls applied at the Savannah River Site.

  2. Project management controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.S. ); Carnes, W.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Project management controls are utilized to enhance the probability that a project will be successful. The control system used by a project manager can take many forms and can be applied at different times to varying degrees on a given project depending upon its complexity. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is one project of many at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The United States Department of Energy Order 4700.1 is a project management system that is applied on a site-wide basis, thus including the CIF. The control system required by this order is proceduralized to ensure that it is applied in a consistent manner and will produce reliable results. These results provide the project manager with a correlation of both costs and schedule within the defined scope to adequately asses the status of the project. This is an iterative process and can be simply stated: plan, actual, variance, corrective action, prediction, and revision. This paper presents the basis for the project management controls applied at the Savannah River Site.

  3. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  4. Map projections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    A map projection is used to portray all or part of the round Earth on a flat surface. This cannot be done without some distortion. Every projection has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. There is no "best" projection. The mapmaker must select the one best suited to the needs, reducing distortion of the most important features. Mapmakers and mathematicians have devised almost limitless ways to project the image of the globe onto paper. Scientists at the U. S. Geological Survey have designed projections for their specific needs—such as the Space Oblique Mercator, which allows mapping from satellites with little or no distortion. This document gives the key properties, characteristics, and preferred uses of many historically important projections and of those frequently used by mapmakers today.

  5. Project LASER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA formally launched Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering and Research) in March 1990, a program designed to help teachers improve science and mathematics education and to provide 'hands on' experiences. It featured the first LASER Mobile Teacher Resource Center (MTRC), is designed to reach educators all over the nation. NASA hopes to operate several MTRCs with funds provided by private industry. The mobile unit is a 22-ton tractor-trailer stocked with NASA educational publications and outfitted with six work stations. Each work station, which can accommodate two teachers at a time, has a computer providing access to NASA Spacelink. Each also has video recorders and photocopy/photographic equipment for the teacher's use. MTRC is only one of the five major elements within LASER. The others are: a Space Technology Course, to promote integration of space science studies with traditional courses; the Volunteer Databank, in which NASA employees are encouraged to volunteer as tutors, instructors, etc; Mobile Discovery Laboratories that will carry simple laboratory equipment and computers to provide hands-on activities for students and demonstrations of classroom activities for teachers; and the Public Library Science Program which will present library based science and math programs.

  6. A Walk through Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfroe, Mark; Letendre, Wanda

    1996-01-01

    Describes a seventh-grade class project where students constructed a "time tunnel" (a walk-through display with models and exhibits illustrating various themes and eras). Beginning modestly, the tunnel grew over seven years to include 11 different display scenes. Discusses the construction of the project and benefits to the school. (MJP)

  7. $xy$ Position Reconstruction in DarkSide-50

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Jason Philip

    2015-01-01

    The DarkSide-50 experiment seeks to directly detect dark matter in a liquid argon time projection chamber. In this dissertation, I present an algorithm of my design that determines the position of particle interactions with the liquid argon. This position reconstruction algorithm will be used by DarkSide-50 to reject backgrounds, particularly backgrounds from radioactive elements on the detector surface. The position reconstruction algorithm functions by constructing light response functions (LRFs) that map locations in the detector to the expected distribution of signal in DarkSide-50's 38 photomultiplier tubes. Accurate LRFs cannot be produced by simulations of DarkSide-50's optics because such simulations are known to be awed. Instead, this algorithm constructs LRFs using an iterative process driven by data. Initial, awed LRFs are produced using simulated events but then used to produce new LRFs from data events. Multiple generations of LRFs are created from data with each generation driven to better satisfy a known feature of the detector: the dominant argon-39 background is uniformly distributed. I also discuss a method of discriminating against surface background as an alternative to the common approach of ducialization. This method considers the di erence in goodnessof- t between the best- t reconstructed position and the best- t position at the detector's surface. I conclude by presenting results on the performance and validity of this algorithm, including some discussion of reconstruction errors.

  8. Operation and performance of the ICARUS T600 cryogenic plant at Gran Sasso underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, M.; Aprili, P.; Baibussinov, B.; Boffelli, F.; Bubak, A.; Calligarich, E.; Canci, N.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Cieślik, K.; Cline, D. B.; Cocco, A. G.; Dabrowska, A.; Dermenev, A.; Disdier, J. M.; Falcone, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Guglielmi, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Holeczek, J.; Ivashkin, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kochanek, I.; Lagoda, J.; Mania, S.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plonski, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P. R.; Scaramelli, A.; Segreto, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Stefan, D.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Terrani, M.; Torti, M.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H. G.; Yang, X.; Zalewska, A.; Zani, A.; Zaremba, K.

    2015-12-01

    ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber is the first large mass electronic detector of a new generation able to combine the imaging capabilities of the old bubble chambers with an excellent calorimetric energy measurement. After the three months demonstration run on surface in Pavia during 2001, the T600 cryogenic plant was significantly revised, in terms of reliability and safety, in view of its long term operation in an underground environment. The T600 detector was activated in Hall B of the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory during spring 2010, where it was operated without interruption for about three years, taking data exposed to the CERN to Gran Sasso long baseline neutrino beam (CNGS) and cosmic rays. In this paper the T600 cryogenic plant is described in detail together with the commissioning procedures that lead to the successful operation of the detector shortly after the end of the filling with liquid argon. Overall plant performance and stability during the underground run are discussed. Finally, the decommissioning procedures, carried out about six months after the end of the CNGS neutrino beam operation, are reported.

  9. Results from the first use of low radioactivity argon in a dark matter search

    DOE PAGES

    Agnes, P.

    2016-04-08

    Liquid argon is a bright scintillator with potent particle identification properties, making it an attractive target for direct-detection dark matter searches. The DarkSide-50 dark matter search here reports the first WIMP search results obtained using a target of low-radioactivity argon. DarkSide-50 is a dark matter detector, using two-phase liquid argon time projection chamber, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The underground argon is shown to contain Ar-39 at a level reduced by a factor (1.4 +- 0.2) x 103 relative to atmospheric argon. We report a background-free null result from (2616 +- 43) kg d of data, accumulatedmore » over 70.9 live-days. When combined with our previous search using an atmospheric argon, the 90 % C.L. upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section based on zero events found in the WIMP search regions, is 2.0 x 10-44 cm2 (8.6 x 10-44 cm2, 8.0 x 10-43 cm2) for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c2 (1 TeV/c2 , 10 TeV/c2).« less

  10. Results from the first use of low radioactivity argon in a dark matter search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.; DarkSide Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Liquid argon is a bright scintillator with potent particle identification properties, making it an attractive target for direct-detection dark matter searches. The DarkSide-50 dark matter search here reports the first WIMP search results obtained using a target of low-radioactivity argon. DarkSide-50 is a dark matter detector, using a two-phase liquid argon time projection chamber, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The underground argon is shown to contain 39Ar at a level reduced by a factor (1.4 ±0.2 )×103 relative to atmospheric argon. We report a background-free null result from (2616 ±43 ) kg d of data, accumulated over 70.9 live days. When combined with our previous search using an atmospheric argon, the 90% C.L. upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section, based on zero events found in the WIMP search regions, is 2.0 ×10-44 cm2 (8.6 ×10-44 cm2 , 8.0 ×10-43 cm2 ) for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV /c2 (1 TeV /c2 , 10 TeV /c2 ).

  11. TIMED Imaging Photometer Experiment (TIPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Stephen B.; Fritts, D. C.; Hecht, James H.; Killeen, T. L.; Llewellyn, Edward J.; Lowe, Robert P.; Mcdade, Ian C.; Ross, Martin N.; Swenson, Gary R.; Turnbull, David N.

    1994-01-01

    This document contains a summary of the TIMED Imaging Photometer Experiment (TIPE) instrument study at the time of the termination of project due to TIPE being de-selected from the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission.

  12. Project EASIER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, David J.; Tack, Leland R.; Dallam, Jerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of Project EASIER, a collaborative electronic-data interchange for networking Iowa local school districts, education agencies, community colleges, universities, and the Department of Education. The primary goal of this project is to develop and implement a system for collection of student information for state and federal…

  13. Project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    California Polytechnic State University's design project for the 1990-91 school year was the design of a close air support aircraft. There were eight design groups that participated and were given requests for proposals. These proposals contained mission specifications, particular performance and payload requirements, as well as the main design drivers. The mission specifications called for a single pilot weighing 225 lb with equipment. The design mission profile consisted of the following: (1) warm-up, taxi, take off, and accelerate to cruise speed; (2) dash at sea level at 500 knots to a point 250 nmi from take off; (3) combat phase, requiring two combat passes at 450 knots that each consist of a 360 deg turn and an energy increase of 4000 ft. - at each pass, half of air-to-surface ordnance is released; (4) dash at sea level at 500 knots 250 nmi back to base; and (5) land with 20 min of reserve fuel. The request for proposal also specified the following performance requirements with 50 percent internal fuel and standard stores: (1) the aircraft must be able to accelerate from Mach 0.3 to 0.5 at sea level in less than 20 sec; (2) required turn rates are 4.5 sustained g at 450 knots at sea level; (3) the aircraft must have a reattack time of 25 sec or less (reattack time was defined as the time between the first and second weapon drops); (4) the aircraft is allowed a maximum take off and landing ground roll of 2000 ft. The payload requirements were 20 Mk 82 general-purpose free-fall bombs and racks; 1 GAU-8A 30-mm cannon with 1350 rounds; and 2 AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles and racks. The main design drivers expressed in the request for proposal were that the aircraft should be survivable and maintainable. It must be able to operate in remote areas with little or no maintenance. Simplicity was considered the most important factor in achieving the former goal. In addition, the aircraft must be low cost both in acquisition and operation. The summaries of the aircraft

  14. TIARA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malecki, P.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - the TIARA project[1] is to consolidate and support the European R&D program in the field of physics and techniques of particle accelerators. This project, partially funded by the European Commission, groups 11 participants from 8 European countries, including Poland. Its present, threeyear (2011-2013) preparatory phase (PP) is shortly described in this paper. The project is divided into 9 work packages (WP). We will concentrate on four of them dedicated to governance, R&D infrastructures, joint R&D programming, and education and training, in which Polish participants are actively involved.

  15. RESOLVE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ray O.

    2012-01-01

    The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph- mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize C!Jmponent and integrated system performance. Ray will be assisting with component testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments. He will be developing procedures to guide these tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, he will gain experience with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis Ray will conduct include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WOO's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. In this Research and Technology environment, Ray will be asked to problem solve real-time as issues arise. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, Ray will be utilizing his chemical engineering background to

  16. Sleep-time ambulatory blood pressure as a prognostic marker of vascular and other risks and therapeutic target for prevention by hypertension chronotherapy: Rationale and design of the Hygia Project.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Ramón C

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, objectives, design and conduct of the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM)-based Hygia Project. Given the substantial evidence of the significantly better prognostic value of ABPM compared to clinic BP measurements, several international guidelines now propose ABPM as a requirement to confirm the office diagnosis of hypertension. Nonetheless, all previous ABPM outcome investigations, except the Monitorización Ambulatoria para Predicción de Eventos Cardiovasculares study (MAPEC) study, relied upon only a single, low-reproducible 24 h ABPM assessment per participant done at study inclusion, thus precluding the opportunity to explore the potential reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with modification of prognostic ABPM-derived parameters by hypertension therapy. The findings of the single-center MAPEC study, based upon periodic systematic 48 h ABPM evaluation of all participants during a median follow-up of 5.6 years, constitute the first proof-of-concept evidence that the progressive reduction of the asleep systolic blood pressure (SBP) mean and correction of the sleep-time relative SBP decline toward the normal dipper BP profile, most efficiently accomplished by a bedtime hypertension treatment strategy, best attenuates the risk of CVD, stroke and development of new-onset diabetes. The Hygia Project, primarily designed to extend the use of ABPM in primary care as a requirement for diagnosis of hypertension, evaluation of response to treatment and individualized assessment of CVD and other risks, is a research network presently composed of 40 clinical sites and 292 investigators. Its main objectives are to (i) investigate whether specific treatment-induced changes in ABPM-derived parameters reduce risk of CVD events, stroke, new-onset diabetes and/or development of chronic kidney disease (CKD); and (ii) test the hypothesis that bedtime chronotherapy entailing the entire daily dose of ≥1

  17. Project Reptile!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Integrating curriculum is important in helping children make connections within and among areas. Presents a class project for kindergarten children which came out of the students' interests and desire to build a reptile exhibit. (ASK)

  18. Project Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Architectural Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Fellows of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture Environmental Experience Stipends Program describe their project activities for 1973-74 including: an inservice course for teachers, television programs, graduate courses, high school courses, and workshops. (Author/PG)

  19. Alzheimer's Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... about the films on our message board . Watch films free online now "The Memory Loss Tapes" (85 ... ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National Institute on Aging at the ...

  20. Geodynamics Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Charles L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes activities of Geodynamics Project of the Federal Council on Science and Technology, such as the application of multichannel seismic-reflection techniques to study the nature of the deep crust and upper mantle. (MLH)

  1. Project Management Methodology in Human Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josler, Cheryl; Burger, James

    2005-01-01

    When charged with overseeing a project, how can one ensure that the project will be completed on time, within budget, and to the satisfaction of everyone involved? In this article, the authors examine project management methodology as a means of ensuring that projects are conducted in a disciplined, well-managed and consistent manner that serves…

  2. Simultaneous operation of a test apparatus filled with liquid argon as bubble chamber, calorimeter and scintillation detector: Outlook and possible applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    1984-09-01

    Physics motivations for the use of argon as a new bubble chamber liquid are discussed. Results, obtained from a 2.7 1 argon detector in SPS and SC beams at CERN, comprise its track sensitivity to ionizing particles and to a laser beam in the bubble chamber mode, its use as a calorimeter through the collection of free charges in an electric field and the recording of the scintillation light produced by ionizing particles. Various interference phenomena during the simultaneous use of the hybrid properties, as well as purity requirements on the liquid are discussed. Furthermore, nitrogen and argon/nitrogen mixtures were investigated. Applications of our technique for neutrino experiments at TeV accelerators and as vertex detectors are briefly outlined. In-line holography, successfully tested in BEBC, could simplify the optical track recording and improve the resolution in very large detectors.

  3. Putting 'projectized' development in perspective.

    PubMed

    Honadle, G H; Rosengard, J K

    1983-01-01

    The project approach to development assistance has been attached for its inability to make results self-sustaining. This has been attributed to a short time horizon, an inability to pick up recurrent costs (such as repair and maintenance of a newly built road), and a tendency to either by-pass or fragment local institutions and therefore to neglect the need for local capacity building. Donor-supported projects foster dependence on outside sources by establishing independent management units to administer projects, rather than utilizing local capacities which are needed in the long run for project implementation and sustainability. At the same time, claims have been made that projects are politically advantageous due to quick high visibility results and they are useful instruments for experimentation, social learning and capacity building. Nevertheless, the practice of project development is in need of drastic overhaul, particularly in the area of design which sets the stage for problems and successes encountered during implementation. Design teams are commonly outsiders completing a product--a design document. This very fact supports poor projects by separating design from implementation and by ignoring the process of project development. To better equip projects in their encounters with local institutional environments, a new approach is needed where the project design process itself becomes a longer term effort to build local coalitions and mobilize local resources. Conclusions point to the need for altering rather than abandoning the project as an instrument for development. PMID:12312809

  4. Workplace Factors That Shape Information Technology Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Dan Schilling

    2013-01-01

    Information technology (IT) project success depends on having a project manager with effective decision making, leadership, and project management skills. Project success also depends on completing the project in a given budget, time, and scope. Despite these critical qualities of a successful project manager, little research has explored the…

  5. Integrating SPOT-VEGETATION 13-yr time series and land-surface modelling to forecast the terrestrial carbon dynamics in a changing climate - The VEGECLIM project: achievements and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defourny, Pierre; Verbeeck, Hans; Moreau, Inès; De Weirdt, Marjolein; Verhegghen, Astrid; Kibambe-Lubamba, Jean-Paul; Jungers, Quentin; Maignan, Fabienne; Najdovski, Nicolas; Poulter, Benjamin; MacBean, Natasha; Peylin, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation is a major carbon sink and is as such a key component of the international response to climate change caused by the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. However, anthropogenic disturbances like deforestation are the primary mechanism that changes ecosystems from carbon sinks to sources, and are hardly included in the current carbon modelling approaches. Moreover, in tropical regions, the seasonal/interannual variability of carbon fluxes is still uncertain and a weak or even no seasonality is taken into account in global vegetation models. In the context of climate change and mitigation policies like "Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries" (REDD), it is particularly important to be able to quantify and forecast the vegetation dynamics and carbon fluxes in these regions. The overall objective of the VEGECLIM project is to increase our knowledge on the terrestrial carbon cycle in tropical regions and to improve the forecast of the vegetation dynamics and carbon stocks and fluxes under different climate-change and deforestation scenarios. Such an approach aims to determine whether the African terrestrial carbon balance will remain a net sink or could become a carbon source by the end of the century, according to different climate-change and deforestation scenarios. The research strategy is to integrate the information of the land surface characterizations obtained from 13 years of consistent SPOT-VEGETATION time series (land cover, vegetation phenology through vegetation indices such as the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)) as well as in-situ carbon flux data into the process based ORCHIDEE global vegetation model, capable of simulating vegetation dynamics and carbon balance. Key challenge of this project was to bridge the gap between the land cover and the land surface model teams. Several improvements of the ORCHIDEE model have been realized such as a new seasonal leaf dynamics for tropical evergreen

  6. ISOE Pilot Project Update

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Hagemeyer D. E. Lewis

    2012-05-05

    This slide show introduces the Pilot Project to increase the value of Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) data by increasing participation and amount of data reported from the U.S., reduce the hurdles and effort in participating, streamline the process of reporting and reduce time delay, and eliminate data entry and redundant effort.

  7. The Barriers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confederation Coll. of Applied Arts and Technology, Thunder Bay (Ontario).

    In 1987, the Barriers Project was initiated by Confederation College of Applied Arts and Technology to engage 31 selected community colleges in Canada in an organized self-appraisal of institutional barriers to the enrollment of part-time credit students. From the outset, colleges were encouraged to limit their investigation to barriers over which…

  8. Meteor Beliefs Project: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, A.; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2003-05-01

    A new project to investigate beliefs in meteors and meteoric phenomena in past and present times using chiefly folklore, mythology, prose and poetic literature, is described. Some initial examples are given, along with a bibliography of relevant items already in print in IMO publications.

  9. METHODS OF PROJECTING BIRTHS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OKADA, TETSUO

    THIS NOTE DESCRIBES AND CRITICIZES THE VARIOUS METHODS CURRENTLY IN USE FOR PROJECTING BIRTHS--(1) COHORT-FERTILITY, (2) AGE-SPECIFIC, (3) COHORT-FERTILITY (SCRIPPS), AND (4) MARRIAGE-PARITY-PROGRESSION. VARIABLES USED IN THE VARIOUS METHODS ARE AGE OF MOTHER, COMPLETED FERTILITY, MARRIAGE STATUS, TIME SINCE MARRIAGE, PARITY, AND BIRTH INTERVAL.…

  10. The Wish Tree Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  11. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  12. Reviews Book: At Home: A Short History of Private Life Book: The Story of Mathematics Book: Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Equipment: Rotational Inertial Wands DVD: Planets Book: The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Equipment: Scale with Dial Equipment: Infrared Thermometers Book: 300 Science and History Projects Book: The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Equipment: Red Tide Spectrometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Story of Mathematics Book shows the link between maths and physics Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Book explains how to write good time-travelling science fiction Rotational Inertial Wands Wands can help explore the theory of inertia Infrared Thermometers Kit measures temperature differences Red Tide Spectrometer Spectrometer gives colour spectra WORTH A LOOK At Home: A Short History of Private Life Bryson explores the history of home life The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Book wades into the science/religion debate Scale with Dial Cheap scales can be turned into Newton measuring scales 300 Science History Projects Fun science projects for kids to enjoy The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Text looks at fascinating optical effects HANDLE WITH CARE Planets DVD takes a trip through the solar system WEB WATCH Websites offer representations of nuclear chain reactions

  13. Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects have a higher likelihood of being successful if at the time of appraisal, they underwent good quality economic analysis. Analysis shows a strong relationship between the quality of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis and the quality of project outcomes. Economic…

  14. LLAMA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Giménez de Castro, G.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Larrarte, J. J.; Lepine, J.; Morras, R.; Viramonte, J.

    2014-10-01

    The project LLAMA, acronym of Long Latin American Millimetre Array is very briefly described in this paper. This project is a joint scientific and technological undertaking of Argentina and Brazil on the basis of an equal investment share, whose mail goal is both to install and to operate an observing facility capable of exploring the Universe at millimetre and sub/millimetre wavelengths. This facility will be erected in the argentinean province of Salta, in a site located at 4830m above sea level.

  15. Cloudnet Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hogan, Robin

    2008-01-15

    Cloudnet is a research project supported by the European Commission. This project aims to use data obtained quasi-continuously for the development and implementation of cloud remote sensing synergy algorithms. The use of active instruments (lidar and radar) results in detailed vertical profiles of important cloud parameters which cannot be derived from current satellite sensing techniques. A network of three already existing cloud remote sensing stations (CRS-stations) will be operated for a two year period, activities will be co-ordinated, data formats harmonised and analysis of the data performed to evaluate the representation of clouds in four major european weather forecast models.

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-10-25

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  17. Project Boomerang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Allen L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experimental project on boomerangs designed for an undergraduate course in classical mechanics. The students designed and made their own boomerangs, devised their own procedures, and carried out suitable measurements. Presents some of their data and a simple analysis for the two-bladed boomerang. (Author/MLH)

  18. Project SUCCEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarger, Sam; Klingner, Janette

    This paper describes Project SUCCEED (School University Community Coalition for Excellence in Education). The coalition includes the University of Miami School of Education, the University of Miami College of Arts and Sciences, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, and the Miami Museum of Science. The goal is to provide a comprehensive approach to…

  19. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  20. Project Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Listed and described are student A-level biology projects in the following areas: Angiosperm studies (e.g., factors affecting growth of various plants), 7; Bacterial studies, 1; Insect studies, 2; Fish studies, 1; Mammal studies, 1; Human studies, 1; Synecology studies, 2; Environmental studies, 2; and Enzyme studies, 1. (CS)