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Sample records for liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals

  1. Photonic time crystals.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  2. Photonic crystal pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anscombe, Nadya

    2011-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.

  3. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  4. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    passive and active versions of each fiber designed under this task. Crystal Fibre shall provide characteristics of the fiber fabricated to include core...passive version of multicore fiber iteration 2. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Laser physics, Fibre Lasers, Photonic Crystal, Multicore, Fiber Laser 16...9 00* 0 " CRYSTAL FIBRE INT ODUCTION This report describes the photonic crystal fibers developed under agreement No FA8655-o5-a- 3046. All

  5. EDITORIAL: Photonic Crystal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab K.

    2007-05-01

    The engineering of electromagnetic modes at optical frequencies in artificial dielectric structures with periodic and random variation of the refractive index, enabling control of the radiative properties of the materials and photon localization, was first proposed independently by Yablonovitch and John in 1987. It is possible to control the flow of light in the periodic dielectric structures, known as photonic crystals (PC). As light waves scatter within the photonic crystal, destructive interference cancels out light of certain wavelengths, thereby forming a photonic bandgap, similar to the energy bandgap for electron waves in a semiconductor. Photons whose energies lie within the gap cannot propagate through the periodic structure. This property can be used to make a low-loss cavity. If a point defect, such as one or more missing periods, is introduced into the periodic structure a region is obtained within which the otherwise forbidden wavelengths can be locally trapped. This property can be used to realize photonic microcavities. Similarly, a line of defects can serve as a waveguide. While the realization of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals received considerable attention initially, planar two-dimensional (2D) structures are currently favoured because of their relative ease of fabrication. 2D photonic crystal structures provide most of the functionality of 3D structures. These attributes have generated worldwide research and development of sub-μm and μm size active and passive photonic devices such as single-mode and non- classical light sources, guided wave devices, resonant cavity detection, and components for optical communication. More recently, photonic crystal guided wave devices are being investigated for application in microfludic and biochemical sensing. Photonic crystal devices have been realized with bulk, quantum well and quantum dot active regions. The Cluster of articles in this issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics provides a

  6. Reconfigurable topological photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, Mikhail I.; Desnavi, Sameerah; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2018-02-01

    Topological insulators are materials that conduct on the surface and insulate in their interior due to non-trivial topology of the band structure. The edge states on the interface between topological (non-trivial) and conventional (trivial) insulators are topologically protected from scattering due to structural defects and disorders. Recently, it was shown that photonic crystals (PCs) can serve as a platform for realizing a scatter-free propagation of light waves. In conventional PCs, imperfections, structural disorders, and surface roughness lead to significant losses. The breakthrough in overcoming these problems is likely to come from the synergy of the topological PCs and silicon-based photonics technology that enables high integration density, lossless propagation, and immunity to fabrication imperfections. For many applications, reconfigurability and capability to control the propagation of these non-trivial photonic edge states is essential. One way to facilitate such dynamic control is to use liquid crystals (LCs), which allow to modify the refractive index with external electric field. Here, we demonstrate dynamic control of topological edge states by modifying the refractive index of a LC background medium. Background index is changed depending on the orientation of a LC, while preserving the topology of the system. This results in a change of the spectral position of the photonic bandgap and the topological edge states. The proposed concept might be implemented using conventional semiconductor technology, and can be used for robust energy transport in integrated photonic devices, all-optical circuity, and optical communication systems.

  7. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  8. Natural photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-10-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  9. Photonic crystal optofluidic biolaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Mohammad Hazhir; Ebnali-Heidari, Majid; Abaeiani, Gholamreza; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-09-01

    Optofluidic biolasers are recently being considered in bioanalytical applications due to their advantages over the conventional biosensing methods Exploiting a photonic crystal slab with selectively dye-infiltrated air holes, we propose a new optofluidic heterostructure biolaser, with a power conversion efficiency of 25% and the spectral linewidth of 0.24 nm. Simulations show that in addition to these satisfactory lasing characteristics, the proposed lab-on-a-chip biolaser is highly sensitive to the minute biological changes that may occur in its cavity and can detect a single virus with a radius as small as 13 nm.

  10. Planar Photonic Crystals for Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Beheiry, Mohamed

    In this thesis, planar photonic crystals for optofluidic biosensing applications are analyzed. Planar photonic crystals are optically resonant structures which possess modal characteristics which can be exploited for biosensing applications. Sensing is achieved by detecting changes in refractive index due to analyte interactions in a sampled fluid. This work describes a broad study of photonic crystal slab sensors, with special consideration to biosensing. Outlined are considerations pertaining to sensing figures of merit, device fabrication, and performance. Results of simulations and device characterization indicate that planar photonic crystals possess sensing attributes similar or better than existing optically resonant refractive index sensors, such as surface plasmon resonance, grating, and interferometric waveguide sensors. Additionally, these photonic crystals can be patterned in large-areas which enable a simple light coupling scheme. All considered, their appeal as a biosensing solution is justified in the area of in vitro diagnostics.

  11. Multicolor photonic crystal laser array

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Jeremy B; Brener, Igal; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2015-04-28

    A multicolor photonic crystal laser array comprises pixels of monolithically grown gain sections each with a different emission center wavelength. As an example, two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers comprising broad gain-bandwidth III-nitride multiple quantum well axial heterostructures were fabricated using a novel top-down nanowire fabrication method. Single-mode lasing was obtained in the blue-violet spectral region with 60 nm of tuning (or 16% of the nominal center wavelength) that was determined purely by the photonic crystal geometry. This approach can be extended to cover the entire visible spectrum.

  12. Configurable silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Prorok, Stefan; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred

    2013-12-23

    In this Letter, we demonstrate that the mode cut off of a photonic crystal waveguide can be trimmed with high accuracy by electron beam bleaching of a chromophore doped polymer cladding. Using this method, configurable waveguides are realized, which allow for spatially resolved changes of the photonic crystal's effective lattice constant as small as 7.6 pm. We show three different examples how to take advantage of configurable photonic crystal waveguides: Shifting of the complete transmission spectrum, definition of cavities with high quality factor, and tuning of existing cavities.

  13. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Maigyte, Lina; Staliunas, Kestutis; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., inmore » the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.« less

  14. Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal

    DOEpatents

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2013-01-29

    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  16. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-23

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  17. Energy shift experiment in photonic crystal medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmadeev, A. A.; Gainutdinov, R. Kh; Hermann, G.; Khamadeev, M. A.; Steryakov, O. V.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2015-05-01

    We propose experimental confirmation of the new effect of the electron mass changes in photonic crystal medium, which was recently predicted. The method consists in measuring the Lamb shift in hydrogen atoms placed in the medium of photonic crystal. We discuss the experimental scheme based on the Lamb and Retherford experiment as well as the requirements for the samples of photonic crystals.

  18. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    spontaneous emis- sion rate as they can dramatically increase electromagnetic density of states (DOS) with respect to free space (also known as the Purcell...cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system , IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., 3, 808-811 (1997) 20leos02.qxd 4/5/06 2:41 PM Page 11 ...crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications ranging from low-threshold nonlin- ear optics to improved lasers. In this article, we

  19. Quantum dots in photonic crystals for integrated quantum photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Je-Hyung; Richardson, Christopher J. K.; Leavitt, Richard P.; Waks, Edo

    2017-08-01

    Integrated quantum photonic technologies hold a great promise for application in quantum information processing. A major challenge is to integrate multiple single photon sources on a chip. Quantum dots are bright sources of high purity single photons, and photonic crystals can provide efficient photonic platforms for generating and manipulating single photons from integrated quantum dots. However, integrating multiple quantum dots with photonic crystal devices still remains as a challenging task due to the spectral randomness of the emitters. Here, we present the integration of multiple quantum dots with individual photonic crystal cavities and report quantum interference from chip-integrated multiple quantum dots. To solve the problem of spectral randomness, we introduce local engineering techniques for tuning multiple quantum dots and cavities. From integrated quantum dot devices we observe indistinguishable nature of single photons from individual quantum dots on the same chip. Therefore, our approach paves the way for large-scale quantum photonics with integrated quantum emitters.

  20. Photonic crystals, amorphous materials, and quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Edagawa, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Photonic crystals consist of artificial periodic structures of dielectrics, which have attracted much attention because of their wide range of potential applications in the field of optics. We may also fabricate artificial amorphous or quasicrystalline structures of dielectrics, i.e. photonic amorphous materials or photonic quasicrystals. So far, both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to reveal the characteristic features of their optical properties, as compared with those of conventional photonic crystals. In this article, we review these studies and discuss various aspects of photonic amorphous materials and photonic quasicrystals, including photonic band gap formation, light propagation properties, and characteristic photonic states.

  1. Photonic crystals, amorphous materials, and quasicrystals

    PubMed Central

    Edagawa, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Photonic crystals consist of artificial periodic structures of dielectrics, which have attracted much attention because of their wide range of potential applications in the field of optics. We may also fabricate artificial amorphous or quasicrystalline structures of dielectrics, i.e. photonic amorphous materials or photonic quasicrystals. So far, both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to reveal the characteristic features of their optical properties, as compared with those of conventional photonic crystals. In this article, we review these studies and discuss various aspects of photonic amorphous materials and photonic quasicrystals, including photonic band gap formation, light propagation properties, and characteristic photonic states. PMID:27877676

  2. Optical Magnetometer Incorporating Photonic Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; Florescu, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    According to a proposal, photonic crystals would be used to greatly increase the sensitivities of optical magnetometers that are already regarded as ultrasensitive. The proposal applies, more specifically, to a state-of-the-art type of quantum coherent magnetometer that exploits the electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) method for determining a small change in a magnetic field indirectly via measurement of the shift, induced by that change, in the hyperfine levels of resonant atoms exposed to the field.

  3. Hybrid colloidal plasmonic-photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Sergei G; Korovin, Alexander V; Regensburger, Alois; Peschel, Ulf

    2011-06-17

    We review the recently emerged class of hybrid metal-dielectric colloidal photonic crystals. The hybrid approach is understood as the combination of a dielectric photonic crystal with a continuous metal film. It allows to achieve a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering at electronic excitations in the metal component into moulding of the light flow in series to the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystal. We consider different realizations of hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystals based on two- and three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals in association with flat and corrugated metal films. In agreement with model calculations, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tuneable functionality of these crystals. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Topological photonic crystal with ideal Weyl points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luyang; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    Weyl points in three-dimensional photonic crystals behave as monopoles of Berry flux in momentum space. Here, based on symmetry analysis, we show that a minimal number of symmetry-related Weyl points can be realized in time-reversal invariant photonic crystals. We propose to realize these ``ideal'' Weyl points in modified double-gyroid photonic crystals, which is confirmed by our first-principle photonic band-structure calculations. Photonic crystals with ideal Weyl points are qualitatively advantageous in applications such as angular and frequency selectivity, broadband invisibility cloaking, and broadband 3D-imaging.

  5. Topological photonic crystal with equifrequency Weyl points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luyang; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Weyl points in three-dimensional photonic crystals behave as monopoles of Berry flux in momentum space. Here, based on general symmetry analysis, we show that a minimal number of four symmetry-related (consequently equifrequency) Weyl points can be realized in time-reversal invariant photonic crystals. We further propose an experimentally feasible way to modify double-gyroid photonic crystals to realize four equifrequency Weyl points, which is explicitly confirmed by our first-principle photonic band-structure calculations. Remarkably, photonic crystals with equifrequency Weyl points are qualitatively advantageous in applications including angular selectivity, frequency selectivity, invisibility cloaking, and three-dimensional imaging.

  6. Tunable liquid crystal photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yun-Hsing

    2005-07-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based adaptive optics are important for information processing, optical interconnections, photonics, integrated optics, and optical communications due to their tunable optical properties. In this dissertation, we describe novel liquid crystal photonic devices. In Chap. 3, we demonstrate a novel electrically tunable-efficiency Fresnel lens which is devised for the first time using nanoscale PDLC. The tunable Fresnel lens is very desirable to eliminate the need of external spatial light modulator. The nanoscale LC devices are polarization independent and exhibit a fast response time. Because of the small droplet sizes, the operating voltage is higher than 100 Vrms. To lower the driving voltage, in Chap. 2 and Chap. 3, we have investigated tunable Fresnel lens using polymer-network liquid crystal (PNLC) and phase-separated composite film (PSCOF). The operating voltage is below 12 Vrms. The PNLC and PSCOF devices are polarization dependent. To overcome this shortcoming, stacking two cells with orthogonal alignment directions is a possibility. Using PNLC, we also demonstrated LC blazed grating. The diffraction efficiency of these devices is continuously controlled by the electric field. We also develop a system with continuously tunable focal length. A conventional mechanical zooming system is bulky and power hungry. In Chap. 4, we developed an electrically tunable-focus flat LC spherical lens and microlens array. A huge tunable range from 0.6 m to infinity is achieved by the applied voltage. In Chap. 5, we describe a LC microlens array whose focal length can be switched from positive to negative by the applied voltage. The fast response time feature of our LC microlens array will be very helpful in developing 3-D animated images. In Chap. 6, we demonstrate polymer network liquid crystals for switchable polarizers and optical shutters. The use of dual-frequency liquid crystal and special driving scheme leads to a sub-millisecond response time. In

  7. Colloidal photonic crystals: from lasing to microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clays, Koen; Zhong, Kuo; Song, Kai

    2017-08-01

    Colloidal photonic crystals are photonic crystals made by bottom-up physical chemistry strategies from monodisperse colloidal particles. The self-assembly process is automatically leading to inherently three-dimensional structures with their optical properties determined by the periodicity, induced by this ordering process, in the dielectric properties of the colloidal material. The best-known optical effect is the photonic band gap, the range of energies, or wavelengths, that is forbidden for photons to exist in the structure. This photonic band gap is similar to the electronic band gap of electronic semiconductor crystals. We have previously shown how with the proper photonic band gap engineering, we can insert allowed pass band defect modes and use the suppressing band gap in combination with the transmitting pass band to induce spectral narrowing of emission. We show now how with a high-quality narrow pass band in a broad stop band, it is possible to achieve photonic crystal lasing in self-assembled colloidal photonic crystals with a planar defect. In addition, with proper surface treatment in combination with patterning, we prepare for addressable integrated photonics. Finally, by incorporating a water in- and outlet, we can create optomicrofluidic structures on a photonic crystal allowing the optical probing of microreactors or micro-stopped-flow in the lab-on-an-optical-chip.

  8. Energy transduction in surface photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuchyi

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation is a detailed investigation of the fabrication, design, characterization, and understanding of physical principles of energy transduction in surface photonic crystals which are engineered for various applications. One-dimensional photonic crystals are engineered as optically tunable reflectance filters for lambda = 632.8 nm wavelength light by incorporating azobenzene liquid crystal dye molecules into the photonic crystal structure. Optical energy is transduced to accomplish mechanical work by exciting the dye molecules into different physical configurations, leading to changes in the optical properties of the dye molecules, namely their refractive index. This mechanism is used to tune the reflection resonance of the photonic crystal filter. The spectral and temporal optical tuning response of the photonic crystal filter due to excitation light at lambda = 532 nm is characterized. Modulation of the transmitted and reflected lambda = 632.8 nm light is achieved at microsecond time response. Two-dimensional photonic crystals are also investigated as reflectance filters for lambda = 532 nm wavelength light. Both optically tunable and static reflectance filters are studied. Again, azobenzene liquid crystal molecules are incorporated into the photonic crystal to achieve optical tuning of the reflectance wavelength. In this case, the lambda = 532 nm wavelength light is used for self-modulation. That is, the light serves both to optically tune the photonic crystal filter as well as to modulate its own reflection efficiency through the photonic crystal filter. Moreover, stacking of multiple photonic crystals into a single filter is studied for both static and optically tunable photonic crystal filters. It is shown that this approach improves the performance of the photonic crystal reflectance filter by increasing its optical density and its angular tolerance at the reflection wavelength of lambda = 532 nm. Additionally, surface photonic crystals are

  9. Photonic crystal scintillators and methods of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Torres, Ricardo D.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Cortes-Concepcion, Jose

    2015-08-11

    Photonic crystal scintillators and their methods of manufacture are provided. Exemplary methods of manufacture include using a highly-ordered porous anodic alumina membrane as a pattern transfer mask for either the etching of underlying material or for the deposition of additional material onto the surface of a scintillator. Exemplary detectors utilizing such photonic crystal scintillators are also provided.

  10. Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Po; Williams, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

  11. Terahertz photonic crystal microfluidic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta Silveira, Laura Cecilia

    Challenges associated with meeting needs in the pharmaceutical industry, environment monitoring and food safety are in the interrogation of small volumes of samples with high sensitivity and specificity. The use of terahertz (THz) sensors is of significant interest due to its rich spectral content. The key focus of this research is to demonstrate THz microfluidic sensors for use in continuous flow monitoring that provide high sensitivity while using small volumes of samples. In order to achieve high sensitivity, photonic crystal (PC) based structures operating at the THz spectral region, are examined. One dimension (1D) PC devices with and without defect layers are designed for continuous flow characterization of liquids and vapors. For further improvement of the sensing capabilities a 3D PC sensor is also examined. The devices are built using alternating high and low permittivity materials with characteristics (material properties and thicknesses) that regulate the THz wave through transmission. When the air region is filled with a higher permittivity sample such as a liquid or vapor, the THz wave transmission through the PC is altered. In contrast to conventional sample holders, the use of PC enhances the change in transmitted signal due to the sample being loaded into the air gaps in the PC. This sensing configuration allows for high sensitivity while using a small volume of samples. A material characterization method is developed for 1D PC based sensor in order to extract the corresponding samples dielectric properties. Details of design, fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal terahertz microfluidic sensors are presented in this thesis.

  12. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markos, Christos; Travers, John C.; Abdolvand, Amir; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Bang, Ole

    2017-10-01

    This article offers an extensive survey of results obtained using hybrid photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) which constitute one of the most active research fields in contemporary fiber optics. The ability to integrate novel and functional materials in solid- and hollow-core PCFs through various postprocessing methods has enabled new directions toward understanding fundamental linear and nonlinear phenomena as well as novel application aspects, within the fields of optoelectronics, material and laser science, remote sensing, and spectroscopy. Here the recent progress in the field of hybrid PCFs is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated with various liquids, glasses, semiconductors, and metals. The second part concentrates on recent and state-of-the-art advances in the field of gas-filled hollow-core PCFs. Extreme ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics toward light generation in the extreme wavelength regions of vacuum ultraviolet, pulse propagation, and compression dynamics in both atomic and molecular gases, and novel soliton-plasma interactions are reviewed. A discussion of future prospects and directions is also included.

  13. Electrically Driven Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    crystal nanobeam LEDs, and have built fiber taper coupled electro-optic modulators. Fiber- coupled photodetectors based on two-photon absorption are...crystal nanobeam LEDs and have built fiber taper coupled electro-optic modulators. Fibercoupled photodetectors based on two-photon absorption are also...implantation [22]. LCI has become routine for silicon- based electro-optic ring modulators in recent years owing to mature device process knowledge [26

  14. Nonlinear photonic crystals in chalcogenide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillet, C.; Freeman, D.; Luther-Davies, B.; Madden, S.; Smith, C.; Magi, E.; McPhedran, R.; Moss, D. J.; Steel, Michael J.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    All optical switching devices based on kerr-effect, where light switches light, are enjoying renewed interest. The dream of ultra compact devices operating at very low power and integrable on a chip is entering the realm of reality thanks to the advent of photonic crystal, enabling high Q/V ratio. We show that marrying photonic crystal and a new class of highly non linear material, Chalcogenide glasses, is a very promising way to achieve an all-optical chip. We describe the fabrication techniques we have developed for manufacturing two-dimensional Chalcogenide photonic crystal. Different types of photonic crystal resonances are investigated. Coupling technique to chalcogenide based photonic crystal waveguides and cavities via tapered nanowires is thoroughly described. We demonstrate resonant guiding in a chalcogenide glass photonic crystal membrane using a fano probe technique. We observe strong resonances in the optical transmission spectra at normal incidence, associated with Fano coupling between free space and guided modes. We obtain good agreement with modeling results based on three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations, and identify the guided modes near the centre of the first Brillouin zone responsible for the main spectral features.

  15. Optical trapping apparatus, methods and applications using photonic crystal resonators

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, David; Chen, Yih-Fan

    2015-06-16

    A plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses and a plurality optical trapping methods using the plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses include located and formed over a substrate a photonic waveguide that is coupled (i.e., either separately coupled or integrally coupled) with a photonic crystal resonator. In a particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a monocrystalline silicon (or other) photonic material absent any chemical functionalization. In another particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a silicon nitride material which when actuating the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus with a 1064 nanometer resonant photonic radiation wavelength (or other resonant photonic radiation wavelength in a range from about 700 to about 1200 nanometers) provides no appreciable heating of an aqueous sample fluid that is analyzed by the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus.

  16. Photonic crystal fiber heat sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twigg, S.; Coompson, J.; Colalillo, A.; Wynne, R.

    2011-04-01

    A sensing configuration based on commercially available triple-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for the image-based collection of thermal information is presented. Detection of thermal phenomena on the micro and nano scale is important for monitoring thermodynamic processes including cooling mechanisms for industry and basic research in both civil and mechanical systems. The thermal characteristics of the PCF combined with coupled-mode theory principles are used to construct a three core PCF with a 1-D core arrangement to simultaneously measure heat flux and temperature. The PCF sensor demonstrated high detection sensitivity (<1°C) and fast response times (<30μs), which is a significant improvement to current commercial standards. PCFs are specialty optical fibers that contain carefully spaced micronsized cavities that provide extraordinary waveguide characteristics not demonstrated by standard optical fiber. The three core PCF has a core diameter of 3.9μm, outer diameter of 132.5μm and varied inter core spacing. A single mode fiber is fusion spliced with the multi-core PCF such that the optical field is confined and launched into the PCF core. The output end of the fiber is inspected and imaged with a CCD camera. A 25mm section of the PCF is surrounded by a guarded hotplate configuration to control the thermal conditions for sensor characterization. Evanescent wave coupling occurs whereby power is transferred from the central core to a neighboring core. Minimum detection sensitivities of 0.2 °C were recorded. Theoretical sensitivities on the order of 10-2 °C are possible. Experimental results were in agreement with coupled-mode theoretical results.

  17. Terbium-doped colloidal photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaponenko, N. V.; Shelekhina, V. M.; Prokhorov, O. A.; Stupak, A. P.; Gaponenko, Sergey V.

    2001-06-01

    Sol-gel process is shown as a promising synthetic route to develop the 3D photonic crystals doped with the optically active terbium. Using silica and Tb-doped titania sols the colloidal crystal with photonic stop band ranging from 480 to 550 nm have been developed, thus fitting the 5D4 yields 7F6 and 5D4 yields 7F5 transition of Tb3+ ions. Pronounced inhibition of optical transitions of Tb3+ ions was observed. The structures fabricated are considered as promising probes to examine the influence of photonic stop band on modification of the spontaneous emission spectra of phosphors.

  18. Analysis of photonic band gap in novel piezoelectric photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malar Kodi, A.; Doni Pon, V.; Joseph Wilson, K. S.

    2018-03-01

    The transmission properties of one-dimensional novel photonic crystal having silver-doped novel piezoelectric superlattice and air as the two constituent layers have been investigated by means of transfer matrix method. By changing the appropriate thickness of the layers and filling factor of nanocomposite system, the variation in the photonic band gap can be studied. It is found that the photonic band gap increases with the filling factor of the metal nanocomposite and with the thickness of the layer. These structures possess unique characteristics enabling one to operate as optical waveguides, selective filters, optical switches, integrated piezoelectric microactuators, etc.

  19. Amplified Photon Upconversion by Photonic Shell of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2017-04-26

    As an effective platform to exploit triplet-triplet-annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC), microcapsules composed of a fluidic UC core and photonic shell are microfluidically prepared using a triple emulsion as the template. The photonic shell consists of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) with a periodic helical structure, exhibiting a photonic band gap. Combined with planar anchoring at the boundaries, the shell serves as a resonance cavity for TTA-UC emission and enables spectral tuning of the UC under low-power-density excitation. The CLC shell can be stabilized by introducing a polymerizable mesogen in the LC host. Because of the microcapsule spherical symmetry, spontaneous emission of the delayed fluorescence is omnidirectionally amplified at the edge of the stop band. These results demonstrate the range of opportunities provided by TTA-UC systems for the future design of low-threshold photonic devices.

  20. A Three-Dimensional Optical Photonic Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.G.; Lin, S.

    1998-12-17

    The search for a photonic crystal to confine optical waves in all three dimensions (3D) has proven to be a formidable task. It evolves from an early theoretical suggestion [1,2], a brief skepticism [3-5] and triumph in developing the mm-wave [6-8] and infrared 3D photonic crystals [9]. Yet, the challenge remains, as the ultimate goal for optoelectronic applications is to realize a 3D crystal at X=1.5 pm communication wavelengths. Operating at visible and near infrared wavelengths, X=1-2 pm, a photonic crystal may enhance the spontaneous emission rate [1, 10] and give rise to a semiconductor lasers with a zero lasingmore » threshold[11, 12]. Another important application is optically switching, routing and interconnecting light [13,14] with an ultrafast transmission speed of terabits per second. A photonic crystal may also serve as a platform for integrating an all-optical circuitry with multiple photonic components, such as waveguides and switches, built on one chip [15]. In this Letter, we report on the successful fabrication of a working 3D crystal operating at optical L The minimum feature size of the 3D structure is 180 nanometers. The 3D crystal is free from defects over the entire 6-inch silicon wafer and has an absolute photonic band gap centered at A.-1.6 pm. Our data provides the first conclusive evidence for the existence of a full 3D photonic band gap in optical A. This development will pave the way to tinier, cheaper, more effective waveguides, optical switches and lasers.« less

  1. Thermal tunability of photonic bandgaps in liquid crystal filled polymer photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Doudou; Chen, Guoxiang; Wang, Lili

    2016-05-01

    A highly tunable bandgap-guiding polymer photonic crystal fiber is designed by infiltrating the cladding air holes with liquid crystal 5CB. Structural parameter dependence and thermal tunability of the photonic bandgaps, mode properties and confinement losses of the designed fiber are investigated. Bandgaps red shift as the temperature goes up. Average thermal tuning sensitivity of 30.9 nm/°C and 20.6 nm/°C is achieved around room temperature for the first and second photonic bandgap, respectively. Our results provide theoretical references for applications of polymer photonic crystal fiber in sensing and tunable fiber-optic devices.

  2. Photonic crystals with active organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yeheng

    The concept of photonic crystals, which involves periodically arranged dielectrics that form a new type of material having novel photonic properties, was first proposed about two decades ago. Since then, a number of applications in photonic technology have been explored. Specifically, organic and hybrid photonic crystals are promising because of the unique advantages of the organic materials. A one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (multilayer) has high reflectance across a certain wavelength range. We report on studies of 1D multilayer polymer films that were fabricated using spin-coating, free film stacking, and co-extrusion techniques. For example, a stack fabricated by placing a laser dye-doped gain medium between two multilayer reflecting polymer films forms a micro-resonator laser or distributed Bragg laser. The resulting laser system is made entirely of plastic and is only several tens of micrometers in thickness. When the gain, a dye-doped medium, comprises one type of a two-type multilayer film, it results a laser exhibiting distributed feedback. At the edge of the photonic band, the group velocity becomes small and the density of photon states becomes high, which leads to laser emission. Such distributed feedback lasers were fabricated using the co-extrusion technique. The refractive indices and the photonic lattice determine the photonic band gap, which can be tuned by changing these parameters. Materials with Kerr nonlinearity exhibit a change in refractive index depending on the incident intensity of the light. To demonstrate such switching, electrochemical etching techniques on silicon wafers were used to form two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals. By incorporating the nonlinear organic material into the 2D structure, we have made all-optical switches. The reflection of a beam from the 2D photonic crystal can be controlled by another beam because it induces a refractive index change in the active material by altering the reflection band. A mid

  3. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  4. Switching of Photonic Crystal Lasers by Graphene.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Min-Soo; Kim, Ha-Reem; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Park, Jin-Sung; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Won Il; Song, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Min-Kyo; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-03-08

    Unique features of graphene have motivated the development of graphene-integrated photonic devices. In particular, the electrical tunability of graphene loss enables high-speed modulation of light and tuning of cavity resonances in graphene-integrated waveguides and cavities. However, efficient control of light emission such as lasing, using graphene, remains a challenge. In this work, we demonstrate on/off switching of single- and double-cavity photonic crystal lasers by electrical gating of a monolayer graphene sheet on top of photonic crystal cavities. The optical loss of graphene was controlled by varying the gate voltage V g , with the ion gel atop the graphene sheet. First, the fundamental properties of graphene were investigated through the transmittance measurement and numerical simulations. Next, optically pumped lasing was demonstrated for a graphene-integrated single photonic crystal cavity at V g below -0.6 V, exhibiting a low lasing threshold of ∼480 μW, whereas lasing was not observed at V g above -0.6 V owing to the intrinsic optical loss of graphene. Changing quality factor of the graphene-integrated photonic crystal cavity enables or disables the lasing operation. Moreover, in the double-cavity photonic crystal lasers with graphene, switching of individual cavities with separate graphene sheets was achieved, and these two lasing actions were controlled independently despite the close distance of ∼2.2 μm between adjacent cavities. We believe that our simple and practical approach for switching in graphene-integrated active photonic devices will pave the way toward designing high-contrast and ultracompact photonic integrated circuits.

  5. Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulnier, Nicole A.

    Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab

  6. One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.

  7. Veselago lens by photonic hyper-crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zun, E-mail: zun@purdue.edu; Narimanov, Evgenii E.; Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

    2014-07-21

    Based on the recent concept of the photonic hyper-crystal—an artificial optical medium that combines the properties of hyperbolic materials and photonic crystals, we present the imaging system functioning as a Veselago lens. This planar lens shows a nearly constant negative refractive index with substantially reduced image aberrations, and can find potential applications in photolithography and hot-spots detection of silicon-based integrated circuits.

  8. Ultra compact spectrometer apparatus and method using photonic crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of photonic crystal formation, and to methods and apparatus for using such photonic crystals, particularly in conjunction with detector arrays. Photonic crystal parameters and detector array parameters are compared to optimize the selection and orientation of a photonic crystal shape. A photonic crystal is operatively positioned relative to a plurality of light sensors. The light sensors can be separated by a pitch distance and positioned within one half of the pitch distance of an exit surface of the photonic crystals.

  9. Absorption enhancement in graphene photonic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Khaleque, Abdul; Hattori, Haroldo T

    2016-04-10

    Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, is attracting significant interest because of its potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Although graphene exhibits almost uniform absorption within a large wavelength range, its interaction with light is weak. In this paper, the enhancement of the optical absorption in graphene photonic crystal structures is studied: the structure is modified by introducing scatterers and mirrors. It is shown that the absorption of the graphene photonic crystal structure can be enhanced about four times (nearly 40%) with respect to initial reference absorption of 9.8%. The study can be a useful tool for investigating graphene physics in different optical settings.

  10. Toward Photonic Crystals from Crosslinked Block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Nitash P.; Hahn, Hyeok; Eitouni, Hany B.

    2002-03-01

    We propose a new strategy for making photonic crystals using block copolymers. By shear aligning polystyrene-block-polyisoprene copolymers and polystyrene homopolymer blends, a single crystal of hexagonally packed cylinders of polystyrene in a matrix of polyisoprene is made. The matrix is crosslinked with dicumyl peroxide to preserve the crystal structure. The homopolymer is then removed to obtain a scaffolding for building the photonic crystal. The cylindrical channels left behind will be infiltrated with cadmium sulfide, resulting in an organic/inorganic hybrid material. The rheological and optical properties of the crosslinked block copolymer scaffolds have been studied as a function of cross-linking density and homopolymer concentration. We are currently conducting the templating experiments and their results will be discussed.

  11. Applications of Photonic Crystals to Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Stephen

    Photonic crystals are structures that exhibit wavelength-scale spatial periodicity in their dielectric function. They are best known for their ability to exhibit complete photonic band gaps (PBGs) - spectral regions over which no light can propagate within the crystal. PBGs are specific instances of a more general phenomenon, in which the local photonic density of states can be enhanced or suppressed over different frequency ranges by tuning the properties of the crystal. This can be used to redirect, concentrate, or even trap light incident on the crystal. In this thesis, we investigate how photonic crystals can be used to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic devices by trapping light. Due to the many different types of photovoltaic devices in existence (varying widely in materials used, modes of operation, and internal structure), there is no single light trapping architecture that can be applied to all photovoltaics. In this work we study a number of different devices: dye-sensitized solar cells, polymer solar cells, silicon-perovskite tandem cells, and single-junction silicon cells. We propose novel photonic crystal-based light trapping designs for each type of device, and evaluate these designs numerically to demonstrate their effectiveness. Full-field optical simulations of the cell are performed for each design, using either finite element method (FEM) or finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) techniques. Where appropriate, electrical modelling of the cell is also performed, through either the use of a simple one-diode model, or by obtaining full solutions to the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations within the cell. In all cases we find that the photonic crystal-based designs significantly outperform their non-nanostructured counterparts. In the case of dye-sensitized and polymer cells, enhancements in light absorption of 33% and 40% (respectively) are seen, relative to reference cells with planar geometries. In the case of silicon-perovskite tandem cells

  12. Self-assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals.

    PubMed

    Smolyaninova, Vera N; Yost, Bradley; Lahneman, David; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2014-07-16

    We demonstrate a novel artificial optical material, the "photonic hyper-crystal", which combines the most interesting features of hyperbolic metamaterials and photonic crystals. Similar to hyperbolic metamaterials, photonic hyper-crystals exhibit broadband divergence in their photonic density of states due to the lack of usual diffraction limit on the photon wave vector. On the other hand, similar to photonic crystals, hyperbolic dispersion law of extraordinary photons is modulated by forbidden gaps near the boundaries of photonic Brillouin zones. Three dimensional self-assembly of photonic hyper-crystals has been achieved by application of external magnetic field to a cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid. Unique spectral properties of photonic hyper-crystals lead to extreme sensitivity of the material to monolayer coatings of cobalt nanoparticles, which should find numerous applications in biological and chemical sensing.

  13. Realization of a complementary medium using dielectric photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Fang, Anan; Jia, Ziyuan; Ji, Liyu; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-12-01

    By exploiting the scaling invariance of photonic band diagrams, a complementary photonic crystal slab structure is realized by stacking two uniformly scaled double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal slabs together. The space cancellation effect in complementary photonic crystals is demonstrated in both numerical simulations and microwave experiments. The refractive index dispersion of double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal is experimentally measured. Using pure dielectrics, our photonic crystal structure will be an ideal platform to explore various intriguing properties related to a complementary medium.

  14. Photonic Crystal Sensors Based on Porous Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Pacholski, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential. PMID:23571671

  15. Fabrication and Analysis of Photonic Crystals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Korte, Kylee E.; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    These laboratory experiments are designed to explore aspects of nanoscale chemistry by constructing and spectroscopically analyzing thin films of photonic crystals. Films comprised of colloidal spheres and polydimethylsiloxane exhibit diffraction-based stop bands that shift reversibly upon exposure to some common solvents. Topics covered in these…

  16. Topological photonic crystals with zero Berry curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Deng, Hai-Yao; Wakabayashi, Katsunori

    2018-02-01

    Topological photonic crystals are designed based on the concept of Zak's phase rather than the topological invariants such as the Chern number and spin Chern number, which rely on the existence of a nonvanishing Berry curvature. Our photonic crystals (PCs) are made of pure dielectrics and sit on a square lattice obeying the C4 v point-group symmetry. Two varieties of PCs are considered: one closely resembles the electronic two-dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, and the other continues as an extension of this analogy. In both cases, the topological transitions are induced by adjusting the lattice constants. Topological edge modes (TEMs) are shown to exist within the nontrivial photonic band gaps on the termination of those PCs. The high efficiency of these TEMs transferring electromagnetic energy against several types of disorders has been demonstrated using the finite-element method.

  17. Topological transitions in continuously deformed photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Changqing; Lai, Yun; Jiang, Jian-Hua; John, Sajeev

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate that multiple topological transitions can occur, with high sensitivity, by continuous change of the geometry of a simple two-dimensional dielectric-frame photonic crystal consisting of circular air holes. By changing the radii of the holes and/or the distance between them, multiple transitions between normal and topological photonic band gaps (PBGs) can appear. The time-reversal symmetric topological PBGs resemble the quantum spin Hall insulator of electrons and have two counterpropagating edge states. We search for optimal topological transitions, i.e., sharp transitions sensitive to the geometry, and optimal topological PBGs, i.e., large PBGs with a clean spectrum of edge states. Such optimizations reveal that dielectric-frame photonic crystals are promising for optical sensors and unidirectional waveguides.

  18. Highly birefringent terahertz polarization maintaining plastic photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Cho, M; Kim, J; Park, H; Han, Y; Moon, K; Jung, E; Han, H

    2008-01-07

    Guided-wave propagation of sub-ps terahertz (THz) pulses in a highly birefringent plastic photonic crystal fiber was studied by using a THz time domain spectroscopy technique. The plastic photonic crystal fiber was fabricated by using high density polyethylene tubes and solid filaments. The fabricated THz plastic photonic crystal fibers exhibit an extremely large birefringence of ~ 2.1 x 10(-2), which is almost one order of magnitude larger than that of previously reported photonic crystal fibers.

  19. Photonic crystal nanocavity lasers for integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ling

    The goal of the work throughout this thesis is to develop two-dimensional photonic crystal micro/nanocavity lasers to meet all the five requirements for practical onchip sources. They are (1) electrical injection, (2) continuous-wave operation at room temperature and above, (3) sufficient in-plane output power, (4) high modulation bandwidth and low noise and (5) an integration platform. Chapter 1 discussed the five requirements. Chapter 2 worked out the third requirement: sufficient laser output power was collected under pulsed operations. Chapter 3 picked quantum well intermixing as a solution to the fifth requirement and worked out the fabrication. Chapter 4 worked out the fifth requirement by integrating photonic crystal nanocavity laser with the intermixing approach. Chapter 5 worked out a high-performance laser-waveguide coupling design using the intermixing platform. Chapter 6 obtained the gain compression factor and thermal resistance of a room-temperature continuous-wave laser on sapphire. Gain compression is a limiting factor for modulation bandwidth in the fourth requirement; thermal resistance is the key parameter for the second requirement. Chapter 7 analyzed the symmetry properties in two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides. This analysis explains the modes in Type B photonic crystal structure which may lead to high-quality-factor on-substrate designs that can fulfill all the requirements. Appendix A calculated the surface states in the Gamma-M direction of the triangular photonic crystal lattice in the membrane structure. The understanding of the surface modes is helpful to the design of lattice termination at device junctions and boundaries. Appendix B showed the application of digital image processing in nano-fabrication. Fabrication imperfections can be quantified by analyzing the SEM images. Sub-pixel alignment is achieved in electron-beam-lithography using correlation techniques. Appendix C summarized the fabrication recipes.

  20. Self-assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals

    PubMed Central

    Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Yost, Bradley; Lahneman, David; Narimanov, Evgenii E.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel artificial optical material, the “photonic hyper-crystal”, which combines the most interesting features of hyperbolic metamaterials and photonic crystals. Similar to hyperbolic metamaterials, photonic hyper-crystals exhibit broadband divergence in their photonic density of states due to the lack of usual diffraction limit on the photon wave vector. On the other hand, similar to photonic crystals, hyperbolic dispersion law of extraordinary photons is modulated by forbidden gaps near the boundaries of photonic Brillouin zones. Three dimensional self-assembly of photonic hyper-crystals has been achieved by application of external magnetic field to a cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid. Unique spectral properties of photonic hyper-crystals lead to extreme sensitivity of the material to monolayer coatings of cobalt nanoparticles, which should find numerous applications in biological and chemical sensing. PMID:25027947

  1. Sensing applications of photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasilowski, Tomasz; Statkiewicz, Gabriela; Szpulak, Marcin; Olszewski, Jacek; Golojuch, Grzegorz; Martynkien, Tadeusz; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Mergo, Pawel; Makara, Mariusz; Wojcik, Jan; Van Erps, Jurgen; Vlekken, Johan; Chojetzki, Christoph; Berghmans, Francis; Thienpont, Hugo

    2007-04-01

    Fast, frequent, accurate and reliable measurements of physical factors such as temperature, stress or strain play a key role when it comes to ensuring the smooth operation of processes in many domestic, commercial and industrial constructions or devices. For example, most fabrication devices and production process rely on temperature and stress measurements to operate; and most large buildings depend on a series of temperature sensors to control the heating or cooling to maintain the temperature. Photonic crystal fibres (PCF), constitute a class of optical fibres, which has a large potential for number of novel applications either in the telecom or in the sensing domain. Analysis of sensing characteristics of different photonic crystal fibre structures, including effective index and mode field distribution, photonic bandgap, chromatic dispersion, phase and group modal birefringence, confinement and bending losses, sensitivity to temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and other physical parameters are revealed. The benefits of PCF allow fabrication of different types of specialty microstructured fibres such as endlessly single mode, double clad, germanium or rare earth doped, highly birefringent, and many other microstructured fibres as sensor components. The developed characterization techniques of specialty microstructured fibres are reviewed as well. Finally, the new microstructured fibres and fibre component for sensing applications which were designed, fabricated and characterized will be presented. One of the demonstrated components is the effective Bragg grating written in highly birefringent and single mode photonic crystal fibre.

  2. The bifoil photodyne: a photonic crystal oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, J. E.; Doti, R.; Sanchez, N.; de La Mora, M. B.; Del Rio, J. A.; Faubert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers is an example how to use light to generate a physical force. They have been used to levitate viruses, bacteria, cells, and sub cellular organisms. Nonetheless it would be beneficial to use such force to develop a new kind of applications. However the radiation pressure usually is small to think in moving larger objects. Currently, there is some research investigating novel photonic working principles to generate a higher force. Here, we studied theoretically and experimentally the induction of electromagnetic forces in one-dimensional photonic crystals when light impinges on the off-axis direction. The photonic structure consists of a micro-cavity like structure formed of two one-dimensional photonic crystals made of free-standing porous silicon, separated by a variable air gap and the working wavelength is 633 nm. We show experimental evidence of this force when the photonic structure is capable of making auto-oscillations and forced-oscillations. We measured peak displacements and velocities ranging from 2 up to 35 microns and 0.4 up to 2.1 mm/s with a power of 13 mW. Recent evidence showed that giant resonant light forces could induce average velocity values of 0.45 mm/s in microspheres embedded in water with 43 mW light power.

  3. The bifoil photodyne: a photonic crystal oscillator.

    PubMed

    Lugo, J E; Doti, R; Sanchez, N; de la Mora, M B; del Rio, J A; Faubert, J

    2014-01-15

    Optical tweezers is an example how to use light to generate a physical force. They have been used to levitate viruses, bacteria, cells, and sub cellular organisms. Nonetheless it would be beneficial to use such force to develop a new kind of applications. However the radiation pressure usually is small to think in moving larger objects. Currently, there is some research investigating novel photonic working principles to generate a higher force. Here, we studied theoretically and experimentally the induction of electromagnetic forces in one-dimensional photonic crystals when light impinges on the off-axis direction. The photonic structure consists of a micro-cavity like structure formed of two one-dimensional photonic crystals made of free-standing porous silicon, separated by a variable air gap and the working wavelength is 633 nm. We show experimental evidence of this force when the photonic structure is capable of making auto-oscillations and forced-oscillations. We measured peak displacements and velocities ranging from 2 up to 35 microns and 0.4 up to 2.1 mm/s with a power of 13 mW. Recent evidence showed that giant resonant light forces could induce average velocity values of 0.45 mm/s in microspheres embedded in water with 43 mW light power.

  4. The bifoil photodyne: a photonic crystal oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, J. E.; Doti, R.; Sanchez, N.; de la Mora, M. B.; del Rio, J. A.; Faubert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers is an example how to use light to generate a physical force. They have been used to levitate viruses, bacteria, cells, and sub cellular organisms. Nonetheless it would be beneficial to use such force to develop a new kind of applications. However the radiation pressure usually is small to think in moving larger objects. Currently, there is some research investigating novel photonic working principles to generate a higher force. Here, we studied theoretically and experimentally the induction of electromagnetic forces in one-dimensional photonic crystals when light impinges on the off-axis direction. The photonic structure consists of a micro-cavity like structure formed of two one-dimensional photonic crystals made of free-standing porous silicon, separated by a variable air gap and the working wavelength is 633 nm. We show experimental evidence of this force when the photonic structure is capable of making auto-oscillations and forced-oscillations. We measured peak displacements and velocities ranging from 2 up to 35 microns and 0.4 up to 2.1 mm/s with a power of 13 mW. Recent evidence showed that giant resonant light forces could induce average velocity values of 0.45 mm/s in microspheres embedded in water with 43 mW light power. PMID:24423985

  5. Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chiang, Chih-Kai; Chou, Bo-Tsun; Huang, Zhen-Ting; Ku, Yun-Cheng; Kuo, Mao-Kuen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Lin, Tzy-Rong

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated a hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavity consisting of a silicon grating nanowire adjacent to a metal surface with a gain gap between them. The hybrid plasmonic cavity modes are highly confined in the gap due to the strong coupling of the photonic crystal cavity modes and the surface plasmonic gap modes. Using finite-element method (FEM), guided modes of the hybrid plasmonic waveguide (WG) were numerically determined at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The modal characteristics such as WG confinement factors and modal losses of the fundamental hybrid plasmonic modes were obtained as a function of groove depth at various gap heights. Furthermore, the band structure of the hybrid crystal modes corresponding to a wide band gap of 17.8 THz is revealed. To enclose the optical energy effectively, a single defect was introduced into the hybrid crystal. At a deep subwavelength defect length as small as 270 nm, the resonant mode exhibits a high quality factor of 567 and an ultrasmall mode volume of 1.9 × 10- 3 ( λ/ n eff)3 at the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm. Compared to conventional photonic crystal nanowire cavities in the absence of a metal surface, the factor Q/ V m is significantly enhanced by about 15 times. The designed hybrid photonic-plasmonic cavity sensors exhibit distinguished characteristics such as sensitivity of 443 nm/RIU and figure of merit of 129. The proposed nanocavities open new possibilities for various applications with strong light-matter interaction, such as biosensors and nanolasers.

  6. Breakdown of Bose-Einstein distribution in photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2015-03-30

    In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed.

  7. Breakdown of Bose-Einstein Distribution in Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed. PMID:25822135

  8. A plasma photonic crystal bandgap device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    A fully tunable plasma photonic crystal is used to control the propagation of free space electromagnetic waves in the S to X bands of the microwave spectrum. An array of discharge plasma tubes forms a simple square crystal structure with the individual plasma dielectric constant tuned through variation in the plasma density. We show, through simulations and experiments, that transverse electric mode bandgaps exist, arising from the positive and negative dielectric constant regimes of the plasma, and that the respective bandgap frequencies can be shifted through changing the dielectric constant by varying discharge current density.

  9. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Keyu; Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Photonic Information Technology, Shenzhen 518067; College of Electronic Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518067

    2014-11-24

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  10. Photonic Crystal Microcavities for Quantum Information Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemeier, Jenna Nicole

    Quantum information science and technology is a broad and fascinating field, encompassing diverse research areas such as materials science, atomic physics, superconductors, solid-state physics, and photonics. A goal of this field is to demonstrate the basic functions of information initialization, manipulation, and read-out in systems that take advantage of quantum physics to greatly enhance computing performance capabilities. In a hybrid quantum information network, different systems are used to perform different functions, to best exploit the advantageous properties of each system. For example, matter quantum bits (qubits) can be used for local data storage and manipulation while photonic qubits can be used for long-distance communication between storage points of the network. Our research focuses on the following two solid-state realizations of a matter qubit for the purpose of building such a hybrid quantum network: the electronic spin of a self-assembled indium arsenide quantum dot and the electronic spin of a nitrogen-vacancy defect center in diamond. Light--matter interactions are necessary to transfer the information from the matter qubit to the photonic qubit, and this interaction can be enhanced by embedding the spin system in an optical cavity. We focus on photonic crystal microcavities for this purpose, and we study interactions between the optical cavity modes and incorporated spin systems. To improve the performance of this spin--photon interface, it is important to maximize the coupling strength between the spin and photonic systems and to increase the read-out efficiency of information stored in the cavity. In this thesis, we present our work to deterministically couple a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a photonic crystal microcavity in gallium phosphide. This is achieved by nanopositioning a pre-selected diamond nanocrystal in the intensity maximum of the optical cavity mode. We also present an optimized design of a photonic crystal

  11. Silicon photonic crystals and spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dood, Michiel Jacob Andries

    2002-04-01

    Photonic crystals, i.e. materials that have a periodic variation in refractive index, form an interesting new class of materials that can be used to modify spontaneous emission and manipulate optical modes in ways that were impossible so far. This thesis is divided in three parts. Part I discusses the design and fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals in silicon using deep anisotropic etching with a SF6/O2 plasma. The etching process was optimized for the fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals by tuning the main parameters of the etching process, i.e. temperature, bias voltage and O2 flow. Vertical confinement in these structures is provided by integrating the structures in a dielectric waveguide. For this purpose, amorphous silicon, silicon-on-insulator and SiGe structures were considered. Fabrication of structures in both amorphous silicon and silicon-on-insulator was successfully demonstrated. The incorporation of luminescent species, such as laser dyes, was demonstrated using a new wet chemical coating technique that forms thin silica layers on a substrate. Part II discusses the modification of spontaneous emission in one dimensional systems by studying the decay rate of luminescing Cr ions close to a dielectric interface. The decay rate of the Cr ions can be changed by bringing the samples into contact with a range of liquids with different refractive indices. The change in radiative decay rate can be calculated by calculating the local density of states. To explain the experimental results additional non-radiative decay channels have to be introduced and yields a quantum efficiency of ~50% for the Cr R-line luminescence. This concept was further extended to a thin silica layer on silicon implanted with erbium ions and resulted in the radiative rate of erbium in pure silica: 54 s-1. This number was used to analyze the decay rate of erbium ions in silica colloidal spheres that can be used as building block for three-dimensional photonic

  12. Manipulating electromagnetic radiation with magnetic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z F; Chui, S T

    2007-08-15

    We examine manipulating electromagnetic waves in magnetic photonic crystals (MPCs) with external magnetic fields. We predict new giant magnetoreflectivity and giant magnetorefractivity effects: with an external magnetic field of a magnitude much smaller than the anisotropy field of the ferromagnet, the MPC can be changed from completely reflecting to nonreflecting with corresponding changes in the angle of refraction. Application to the storage of electromagnetic radiation is also discussed.

  13. Capsize of polarization in dilute photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Hakhoumian, Arsen; Gasparian, Vladimir; Cuevas, Emilio

    2017-11-29

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, polarization rotation effects in dilute photonic crystals with transverse permittivity inhomogeneity perpendicular to the traveling direction of waves. A capsize, namely a drastic change of polarization to the perpendicular direction is observed in a one-dimensional photonic crystal in the frequency range 10 ÷ 140 GHz. To gain more insights into the rotational mechanism, we have developed a theoretical model of dilute photonic crystal, based on Maxwell's equations with a spatially dependent two dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity. We show that the polarization's rotation can be explained by an optical splitting parameter appearing naturally in Maxwell's equations for magnetic or electric fields components. This parameter is an optical analogous of Rashba like spin-orbit interaction parameter present in quantum waves, introduces a correction to the band structure of the two-dimensional Bloch states, creates the dynamical phase shift between the waves propagating in the orthogonal directions and finally leads to capsizing of the initial polarization. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  14. Integrated optic platform for photonic crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medri, Kristian E.

    This research explores loading optical dielectric waveguides with patterned thin photonic crystal overlays of higher dielectric value than the waveguide. The asymmetry of the overlaid waveguide region is designed such that the original waveguide retains the field maximum within its boundaries but produces a sizeable field contribution in the photonic crystal such that the properties of photonic crystals can be exploited. The enabling feature is that the peak transition and the effective index transition are discovered to be not coincident for increasing propagation constant. The waveguide dimensions are chosen such that when configured as a channel they are compatible for efficient coupling to optical fibres. Materials are chosen with fabrication techniques in mind. The theoretical analysis focuses on optimizing the coupling of the waveguide to the overlay. Three techniques of modeling the behavior of a high index contrast 1D photonic crystal overlay on glass are examined. The findings for 1D can be expanded for more complex photonic crystal designs to be built on the same platform. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation is found to be the most appropriate for the tuning of high dielectric contrast overlay designs. The sensitivity of light to variations in the refractive index, thickness, period, and length of patterned overlay are examined using FDTD simulations. Transmission and reflection spectrums are obtained using active and passive optical device configurations which can be optimized based on the Bragg response shape and filter edge location. Novel devices created by a structured overlay such as distributed Bragg filters are modeled. A glass-based slab waveguide, coated with a thin patterned high dielectric overlay, is configured into a refractive index sensor. The asymmetric nature of the waveguide configuration is exploited by keeping the mode in the slab waveguide while enhancing the field level in the overlay-superstrate. An index of refraction

  15. Amorphous photonic crystals with only short-range order.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Yafeng; Dong, Biqin; Zhan, Tianrong; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian

    2013-10-04

    Distinct from conventional photonic crystals with both short- and long-range order, amorphous photonic crystals that possess only short-range order show interesting optical responses owing to their unique structural features. Amorphous photonic crystals exhibit unique light scattering and transport, which lead to a variety of interesting phenomena such as isotropic photonic bandgaps or pseudogaps, noniridescent structural colors, and light localization. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the study of amorphous photonic crystals are summarized, focusing on their unique optical properties, artificial fabrication, bionspiration, and potential applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Magnetized plasma photonic crystals band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataei, Elahe; Sharifian, Mehdi; Bidoki, Najmeh Zare; Bidoki

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of the magnetic field on one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal band gaps is studied. The one-dimensional fourfold plasma photonic crystal is applied that contains four periodic layers of different materials, namely plasma1-MgF2-plasma2-glass in one unit cell. Based on the principle of Kronig-Penney's model, dispersion relation for such a structure is obtained. The equations for effective dielectric functions of these two modes are theoretically deduced, and dispersion relations for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves are calculated. At first, the main band gap width increases by applying the exterior magnetic field. Subsequently, the frequency region of this main band gap transfers completely toward higher frequencies. There is a particular upper limit for the magnitude of the magnetic field above which increasing the exterior magnetic field strength doesn't have any significant influence on the dispersion function behavior. (With an increase in incident angle up to θ1 = 66°, the width of photonic band gap (PBG) changes for both TM/TE polarization.) With an increase in incident angle up to θ1 = 66°, the width of PBG decreases for TM polarization and the width of PBG increases for TE polarization, but it increases with further increasing of the incident angle from θ1 = 66° to 89° for both TE- and TM-polarizations. Also, it has been observed that the width of the photonic band gaps changes rapidly by relative difference of the two-plasma frequency. Results show the existence of several photonic band gaps that their frequency and dispersion magnitude can be controlled by the exterior magnetic field, incident angle, and two plasma frequencies. The result of this research would provide theoretical instructions for designing filters, microcavities, fibers, etc.

  17. Electromagnetic wave propagation through a graphene-based photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Oleg; Boyko, Vladimir S.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2011-03-01

    A novel type of photonic crystal formed by embedding a periodic array of constituent stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric discs into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The frequency band structure of a 2D photonic crystal with the square lattice of the metamaterial stacks of the alternating graphene and dielectric discs is obtained. The electromagnetic wave transmittance of such photonic crystal is calculated. The graphene-based photonic crystals have the following advantages that distinguish them from the other types of photonic crystals. They can be used as the frequency filters and waveguides for the far infrared region of spectrum at the wide range of the temperatures including the room temperatures. The photonic band structure of the graphene-based photonic crystals can be controlled by changing the thickness of the dielectric layers between the graphene discs and by the doping. The sizes of the graphene-based photonic crystals can be much larger than the sizes of metallic photonic crystals due to the small dissipation of the electromagnetic wave. The advantages of the graphene-based photonic crystal are discussed.

  18. Ultracold molecule assembly with photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Kim, May E.; Hung, Chen-Lung

    2017-12-01

    Photoassociation (PA) is a powerful technique to synthesize molecules directly and continuously from cold and ultracold atoms into deeply bound molecular states. In freespace, however, PA efficiency is constrained by the number of spontaneous decay channels linking the initial excited molecular state to a sea of final (meta)stable rovibronic levels. Here, we propose a novel scheme based on molecules strongly coupled to a guided photonic mode in a photonic crystal waveguide that turns PA into a powerful tool for near deterministic formation of ultracold molecules in their ground rovibrational level. Our example shows a potential ground state molecule production efficiency > 90 % , and a saturation rate > {10}6 molecules per second. By combining state-of-the-art cold atomic and molecular physics with nanophotonic engineering, our scheme presents a novel experimental package for trapping, cooling, and optically manipulating ultracold molecules, thus opening up new possibilities in the direction of ultracold chemistry and quantum information.

  19. Photonic Crystal Emitters for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Chan, Walker R.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of 2D photonic crystal (PhC) thermal emitters for a millimeter-scale hydrocarbon TPV microgenerator as a possible replacement for batteries in portable microelectronics, robotics, etc. In our TPV system, combustion heats a PhC emitter to incandescence and the resulting radiation is converted by a low-bandgap TPV cell. The PhC tailors the photonic density of states to produce spectrally confined thermal emission that matches the bandgap of the TPV cell, enabling high heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The work builds on a previously developed fabrication process to produce a square array of cylindrical cavities in a metal substrate. We will present ongoing incremental improvements in the optical and thermo-mechanical properties, the fabrication process, and the system integration, as recently combined with fabrication using novel materials, such as sputtered coatings, to enable a monolithic system.

  20. Photonic crystal devices formed by a charged-particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Koops, Hans W. P.

    2000-01-01

    A photonic crystal device and method. The photonic crystal device comprises a substrate with at least one photonic crystal formed thereon by a charged-particle beam deposition method. Each photonic crystal comprises a plurality of spaced elements having a composition different from the substrate, and may further include one or more impurity elements substituted for spaced elements. Embodiments of the present invention may be provided as electromagnetic wave filters, polarizers, resonators, sources, mirrors, beam directors and antennas for use at wavelengths in the range from about 0.2 to 200 microns or longer. Additionally, photonic crystal devices may be provided with one or more electromagnetic waveguides adjacent to a photonic crystal for forming integrated electromagnetic circuits for use at optical, infrared, or millimeter-wave frequencies.

  1. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal. PMID:26271208

  2. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-08-14

    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.

  3. Engineering and Characterizing Light-Matter Interactions in Photonic Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Adv. Mater, vol. 18, 2006, pp. 461-465. [74] J.J. Wierer, A. David, and M.M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light - emitting diodes with...Yablonovitch, “ Light extraction from optically pumped light - emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 75, 1999, p...3.1 Introduction Photonic crystals structures with periodicity on the order of the wavelength of light , can be particularly useful for light emitting

  4. Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Borel, P; Harpøth, A; Frandsen, L; Kristensen, M; Shi, P; Jensen, J; Sigmund, O

    2004-05-03

    Topology optimization is used to design a planar photonic crystal waveguide component resulting in significantly enhanced functionality. Exceptional transmission through a photonic crystal waveguide Z-bend is obtained using this inverse design strategy. The design has been realized in a silicon-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguide. A large low loss bandwidth of more than 200 nm for the bandgap polarization is experimentally confirmed.

  5. Broadband dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sigang; Zhang, Yejin; He, Lina; Xie, Shizhong

    2006-10-01

    We present a modified dual-core photonic crystal fiber, based on pure silica, with special grapefruit holes in the inner cladding. The fiber has large, broadband negative dispersion, and the dispersion value varies linearly from -380to-420 ps/(nmkm) in the C band. To decrease the fabrication difficulty, large air holes are adopted. Furthermore, the chromatic dispersion of the fiber is not sensitive to the structure parameters. So the proposed fiber structure can greatly facilitate fiber drawing and can be used for broadband dispersion compensation.

  6. Photonic crystals: role of architecture and disorder on spectral properties.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rupesh; Audhkhasi, Romil; Thyagarajan, Krishna; Banerjee, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Many of the present-day optical devices use photonic crystals. These are multilayers of dielectric media that control the reflection and transmission of light falling on them. In this paper, we study the optical properties of periodic, fractal, and aperiodic photonic crystals and compare them based on their attributes. Our calculations of the band reflectivity and degree of robustness reveal novel features, e.g., fractal photonic crystals are found to reflect the maximum amount of incident light. On the other hand, aperiodic photonic crystals have the largest immunity to disorder. We believe that such properties will be useful in a variety of applications in the field of optical communication.

  7. Switchable Photonic Crystals Using One-Dimensional Confined Liquid Crystals for Photonic Device Application.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seong Ho; Gim, Min-Jun; Lee, Wonsuk; Choi, Suk-Won; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2017-01-25

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have recently attracted considerable attention, with much effort devoted to photonic bandgap (PBG) control for varying the reflected color. Here, fabrication of a modulated one-dimensional (1D) anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) PC with a periodic porous structure is reported. The PBG of the fabricated PC can be reversibly changed by switching the ultraviolet (UV) light on/off. The AAO nanopores contain a mixture of photoresponsive liquid crystals (LCs) with irradiation-activated cis/trans photoisomerizable azobenzene. The resultant mixture of LCs in the porous AAO film exhibits a reversible PBG, depending on the cis/trans configuration of azobenzene molecules. The PBG switching is reliable over many cycles, suggesting that the fabricated device can be used in optical and photonic applications such as light modulators, smart windows, and sensors.

  8. Novel fluorescence adjustable photonic crystal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ni, Yaru; Fang, Jiaojiao; Fang, Liang; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi

    2017-11-01

    Novel photonic crystal materials (PCMs) with adjustable fluorescence were fabricated by distributing organic fluorescent powders of Yb0.2Er0.4Tm0.4(TTA)3Phen into the opal structures of self-assembled silica photonic crystals (PCs). Via removing the silica solution in a constant speed, PCs with controllable thicknesses and different periodic sizes were obtained on glass slides. Yb0.2Er0.4Tm0.4(TTA)3Phen powders were subsequently distributed into the opal structures. The structures and optical properties of the prepared PCMs were investigated. Finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) calculation was used to further analyze the electric field distributions in PCs with different periodic sizes while the relation between periodic sizes and fluorescent spectra of PCMs was discussed. The results showed that the emission color of the PCMs under irradiation of 980 nm laser can be easily adjusted from green to blue by increasing the periodic size from 250 to 450 nm.

  9. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qinglan; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2016-08-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO{sub 2} dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions withmore » much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.« less

  10. Anomalous transparency in photonic crystals and its application to point-by-point grating inscription in photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Baghdasaryan, Tigran; Geernaert, Thomas; Chah, Karima; Caucheteur, Christophe; Schuster, Kay; Kobelke, Jens; Thienpont, Hugo; Berghmans, Francis

    2018-04-03

    It is common belief that photonic crystals behave similarly to isotropic and transparent media only when their feature sizes are much smaller than the wavelength of light. Here, we counter that belief and we report on photonic crystals that are transparent for anomalously high normalized frequencies up to 0.9, where the crystal's feature sizes are comparable with the free space wavelength. Using traditional photonic band theory, we demonstrate that the isofrequency curves can be circular in the region above the first stop band for triangular lattice photonic crystals. In addition, by simulating how efficiently a tightly focused Gaussian beam propagates through the photonic crystal slab, we judge on the photonic crystal's transparency rather than on isotropy only. Using this approach, we identified a wide range of photonic crystal parameters that provide anomalous transparency. Our findings indicate the possibility to scale up the features of photonic crystals and to extend their operational wavelength range for applications including optical cloaking and graded index guiding. We applied our result in the domain of femtosecond laser micromachining, by demonstrating what we believe to be the first point-by-point grating inscribed in a multi-ring photonic crystal fiber.

  11. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  12. Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Kenji; Noda, Susumu

    2009-07-16

    In three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals, refractive-index variations with a periodicity comparable to the wavelength of the light passing through the crystal give rise to so-called photonic bandgaps, which are analogous to electronic bandgaps for electrons moving in the periodic electrostatic potential of a material's crystal structure. Such 3D photonic bandgap crystals are envisioned to become fundamental building blocks for the control and manipulation of photons in optical circuits. So far, such schemes have been pursued by embedding artificial defects and light emitters inside the crystals, making use of 3D bandgap directional effects. Here we show experimentally that photons can be controlled and manipulated even at the 'surface' of 3D photonic crystals, where 3D periodicity is terminated, establishing a new and versatile route for photon manipulation. By making use of an evanescent-mode coupling technique, we demonstrate that 3D photonic crystals possess two-dimensional surface states, and we map their band structure. We show that photons can be confined and propagate through these two-dimensional surface states, and we realize their localization at arbitrary surface points by designing artificial surface-defect structures through the formation of a surface-mode gap. Surprisingly, the quality factors of the surface-defect mode are the largest reported for 3D photonic crystal nanocavities (Q up to approximately 9,000). In addition to providing a new approach for photon manipulation by photonic crystals, our findings are relevant for the generation and control of plasmon-polaritons in metals and the related surface photon physics. The absorption-free nature of the 3D photonic crystal surface may enable new sensing applications and provide routes for the realization of efficient light-matter interactions.

  13. Recent advances in liquid-crystal fiber optics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woliński, T. R.; Siarkowska, A.; Budaszewski, D.; Chychłowski, M.; Czapla, A.; Ertman, S.; Lesiak, P.; Rutkowska, K. A.; Orzechowski, K.; Sala-Tefelska, M.; Sierakowski, M.; DÄ browski, R.; Bartosewicz, B.; Jankiewicz, B.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Mergo, P.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid crystals over the last two decades have been successfully used to infiltrate fiber-optic and photonic structures initially including hollow-core fibers and recently micro-structured photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). As a result photonic liquid crystal fibers (PLCFs) have been created as a new type of micro-structured fibers that benefit from a merge of "passive" PCF host structures with "active" LC guest materials and are responsible for diversity of new and uncommon spectral, propagation, and polarization properties. This combination has simultaneously boosted research activities in both fields of Liquid Crystals Photonics and Fiber Optics by demonstrating that optical fibers can be more "special" than previously thought. Simultaneously, photonic liquid crystal fibers create a new class of fiber-optic devices that utilize unique properties of the photonic crystal fibers and tunable properties of LCs. Compared to "classical" photonic crystal fibers, PLCFs can demonstrate greatly improved control over their optical properties. The paper discusses the latest advances in this field comprising PLCFs that are based on nanoparticles-doped LCs. Doping of LCs with nanoparticles has recently become a common method of improving their optical, magnetic, electrical, and physical properties. Such a combination of nanoparticles-based liquid crystals and photonic crystal fibers can be considered as a next milestone in developing a new class of fiber-based optofluidic systems.

  14. Heteroplasmon hybridization in stacked complementary plasmo-photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Choi, Bongseok

    2015-03-11

    We constructed plasmo-photonic crystals in which efficient light-trapping, plasmonic resonances couple with photonic guided resonances of large density of states and high-quality factor. We have numerically and experimentally shown that heteroplasmon hybrid modes emerge in stacked complementary (SC) plasmo-photonic crystals. The resonant electromagnetic-field distributions evidence that the two hybrid modes originate from two different heteroplasmons, exhibiting a large energy splitting of 300 meV. We further revealed a series of plasmo-photonic modes in the SC crystals.

  15. Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.

  16. Fano resonance in anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Peng; Xu, Shao Hui; Ouyang, Hao Miao; De Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals with periodic porous structure have been prepared using voltage compensation method. The as-prepared sample showed an ultra-narrow photonic bandgap. Asymmetric line-shape profiles of the photonic bandgaps have been observed, which is attributed to Fano resonance between the photonic bandgap state of photonic crystal and continuum scattering state of porous structure. And the exhibited Fano resonance shows more clearly when the sample is saturated ethanol gas than air-filled. Further theoretical analysis by transfer matrix method verified these results. These findings provide a better understanding on the nature of photonic bandgaps of photonic crystals made up of porous materials, in which the porous structures not only exist as layers of effective-refractive-index material providing Bragg scattering, but also provide a continuum light scattering state to interact with Bragg scattering state to show an asymmetric line-shape profile. PMID:24398625

  17. Fano resonance in anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Peng; Xu, Shao Hui; Ouyang, Hao Miao; Zhang, Li De

    2014-01-08

    Anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals with periodic porous structure have been prepared using voltage compensation method. The as-prepared sample showed an ultra-narrow photonic bandgap. Asymmetric line-shape profiles of the photonic bandgaps have been observed, which is attributed to Fano resonance between the photonic bandgap state of photonic crystal and continuum scattering state of porous structure. And the exhibited Fano resonance shows more clearly when the sample is saturated ethanol gas than air-filled. Further theoretical analysis by transfer matrix method verified these results. These findings provide a better understanding on the nature of photonic bandgaps of photonic crystals made up of porous materials, in which the porous structures not only exist as layers of effective-refractive-index material providing Bragg scattering, but also provide a continuum light scattering state to interact with Bragg scattering state to show an asymmetric line-shape profile.

  18. Asymptotics for metamaterials and photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Antonakakis, T.; Craster, R. V.; Guenneau, S.

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterial and photonic crystal structures are central to modern optics and are typically created from multiple elementary repeating cells. We demonstrate how one replaces such structures asymptotically by a continuum, and therefore by a set of equations, that captures the behaviour of potentially high-frequency waves propagating through a periodic medium. The high-frequency homogenization that we use recovers the classical homogenization coefficients in the low-frequency long-wavelength limit. The theory is specifically developed in electromagnetics for two-dimensional square lattices where every cell contains an arbitrary hole with Neumann boundary conditions at its surface and implemented numerically for cylinders and split-ring resonators. Illustrative numerical examples include lensing via all-angle negative refraction, as well as omni-directive antenna, endoscope and cloaking effects. We also highlight the importance of choosing the correct Brillouin zone and the potential of missing interesting physical effects depending upon the path chosen. PMID:23633908

  19. Asymptotics for metamaterials and photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Antonakakis, T; Craster, R V; Guenneau, S

    2013-04-08

    Metamaterial and photonic crystal structures are central to modern optics and are typically created from multiple elementary repeating cells. We demonstrate how one replaces such structures asymptotically by a continuum, and therefore by a set of equations, that captures the behaviour of potentially high-frequency waves propagating through a periodic medium. The high-frequency homogenization that we use recovers the classical homogenization coefficients in the low-frequency long-wavelength limit. The theory is specifically developed in electromagnetics for two-dimensional square lattices where every cell contains an arbitrary hole with Neumann boundary conditions at its surface and implemented numerically for cylinders and split-ring resonators. Illustrative numerical examples include lensing via all-angle negative refraction, as well as omni-directive antenna, endoscope and cloaking effects. We also highlight the importance of choosing the correct Brillouin zone and the potential of missing interesting physical effects depending upon the path chosen.

  20. Liquid Photonic Crystals for Mesopore Detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Biting; Fu, Qianqian; Chen, Ke; Ge, Jianping

    2018-01-02

    Nitrogen adsorption-desorption for mesopore characterization requires the using of expensive instrumentation, time-consuming processes, and the consumption of liquid nitrogen. Herein, a new method is developed to measure the pore parameters through mixing a mesoporous substance with a supersaturated SiO 2 colloidal solution at different temperatures, and subsequent rapid measurement of reflection changes of the precipitated liquid photonic crystals. The pore volumes and diameters of mesoporous silica were measured according to the positive correlation between unit mass reflection change (Δλ/m) and pore volume (V), and the negative correlation between average absorption temperature (T) and pore diameter (D). This new approach may provide an alternative method for fast, convenient and economical characterization of mesoporous materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a/λ  =  0.280 and a/λ  =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25λ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  2. Photonic crystal light-emitting sources.

    PubMed

    David, Aurélien; Benisty, Henri; Weisbuch, Claude

    2012-12-01

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) are periodically structured optical media offering the opportunity for spontaneous emission (SpE) to be strongly controlled in spatial terms (directions) or in absolute terms (rates). We discuss the application of this concept for practical light-emitting sources, summarizing the principles and actual merits of various approaches based on two- and three-dimensional PhCs. We take into consideration the numerous constraints on real-world light-emitting structures and materials. The various mechanisms through which modified photonic bands and band gaps can be used are first revisited in view of their use in light sources. We then present an in-depth discussion of planar emitters and enhanced extraction of light thanks to grating diffraction. Applications to conventional III-V semiconductors and to III-nitrides are reviewed. Comparison with random surface roughening reveals some common physical limitations. Some advanced approaches with complex structures or etched active structures are also discussed. Finally, the most promising mechanism to enhance the SpE rate, the Purcell effect, is considered. Its implementation, including through plasmonic effects, is shown to be effective only for very specific sources. We conclude by outlining the mix of physics and material parameters needed to grasp the relevant issues.

  3. Automated optimization of photonic crystal slab cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkov, Momchil; Savona, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Thanks to their high quality factor, combined to the smallest modal volume, defect-cavities in photonic crystal slabs represent a promising, versatile tool for fundamental studies and applications in photonics. In paricular, the L3, H0, and H1 defects are the most popular and widespread cavity designs, due to their compactness, simplicity, and small mode volume. For these cavities, the current best optimal designs still result in Q-values of a few times 105 only, namely one order of magnitude below the bound set by fabrication imperfections and material absorption in silicon. Here, we use a genetic algorithm to find a global maximum of the quality factor of these designs, by varying the positions of few neighbouring holes. We consistently find Q-values above one million - one order of magnitude higher than previous designs. Furthermore, we study the effect of disorder on the optimal designs and conclude that a similar improvement is also expected experimentally in state-of-the-art systems.

  4. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, G; Spatschek, K H

    2016-06-03

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  5. Structural Color Patterns by Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printed Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Tian, Lei; Liu, Cihui; Fu, Guangbin; Shang, Luoran; Gu, Zhongze

    2017-04-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication of photonic crystal patterns with controllable morphologies and structural colors utilizing electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing with colloidal crystal inks. The final shape of photonic crystal units is controlled by the applied voltage signal and wettability of the substrate. Optical properties of the structural color patterns are tuned by the self-assembly of the silica nanoparticle building blocks. Using this direct printing technique, it is feasible to print customized functional patterns composed of photonic crystal dots or photonic crystal lines according to relevant printing mode and predesigned tracks. This is the first report for E-jet printing with colloidal crystal inks. Our results exhibit promising applications in displays, biosensors, and other functional devices.

  6. Large Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Based on Monocrystalline Liquid Crystal Blue Phases (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-29

    electromagnetic propagation and substantially modifies the dispersion around a specific wavelength (frequency) region. 3D photonic crystals and their...variants that contain specifically designed defect structures to further modify their electromagnetic properties continue to attract intensive...crystals are designed to work in the ultraviolet-visible spectrum . Here we report the experimental realization of a truly 3D photonic crystal

  7. Generation of broadband single-photon states in photonic-crystal fibers with flattened dispersion profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuprina, Ilya; Latypov, Ilnur

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically analyze the capability of generating broadband single-photon states in photonic crystal fibers (PCF) formed by spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) using femtosecond laser pulses. The design of PCF structures with the flat dispersion profile is proposed. The characteristics of the correlated photon pairs with a broadband spectrum and low spectral correlation for these structures are calculated.

  8. Coherent Cherenkov radiation and laser oscillation in a photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, T.; van Dijk, M. W.; Lee, J. H. H.; van der Meer, R.; Strooisma, A.; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Vos, W. L.; Boller, K.-J.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate that photonic crystals can be used to generate powerful and highly coherent Cherenkov radiation that is excited by the injection of a beam of free electrons. Using theoretical and numerical investigations we present the startup dynamics and coherence properties of such a laser, in which gain is provided by matching the optical phase velocity in the photonic crystal to the velocity of the electron beam. The operating frequency can be varied by changing the electron beam energy and scaled to different ranges by varying the lattice constant of the photonic crystal.

  9. Three Dimensional Photonic Crystals Operating at Optical Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Susumu

    2000-03-01

    Much interest has been drawing in photonic crystals in which the refractive index changes periodically. A photonic band gap is formed in the crystals, and the propagation of electromagnetic waves is prohibited for all wave vectors. Various important scientific and engineering applications such as a control of spontaneous emission, a zero-threshold laser, a very sharp bending of light, and so on, are expected by utilizing the photonic band gap and the artificially introduced defect states and/or light-emitters. To extract these potentials of photonic crystals as much as possible and put them in the real world, the following requirements should be satisfied: (i)a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal with a complete photonic band gap is constructed in optical wavelength region, (ii)the introduction of an arbitrary defect state into the crystal is possible at an arbitrary position, (iii)the introduction of an efficient light-emitting element is also possible, and (iv)the electronically conductive crystal is desirable for the actual device application. Although various important approaches such as a self-assembled colloidal crystal, a GaAs based three-axis dry-etching crystal, and a silicon based layer-by-layer crystal have been proposed and developed to construct the 3D photonic crystals, it is considered difficult for these methods to satisfy the above requirements simultaneously. For example, in case of the photonic crystal based on silicon with indirect band gap, it is difficult to apply it to an active photonic device. Recently, we have developed a complete 3D photonic crystal based on a method where III-V semiconductor stripes are stacked with a wafer-fusion and a laser-beam assisted very precise alignment technique to construct an asymmetric face-centered cubic structure. In the method, since the crystal is constructed with III-V semiconductors which are widely utilized for optoelectronic devices, the above requirement (iii) is satisfied. Moreover, since the

  10. Gold Nanoparticles in Photonic Crystals Applications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Iole

    2017-01-24

    This review concerns the recently emerged class of composite colloidal photonic crystals (PCs), in which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are included in the photonic structure. The use of composites allows achieving a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering with electronic excitations of the gold component (surface plasmon resonance, SPR) realizing a combination of absorption bands with the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystals. Considering different preparations of composite plasmonic-photonic crystals, based on 3D-PCs in presence of AuNPs, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tunable functionality of these crystals. Several chemical methods for fabrication of opals and inverse opals are presented together with preparations of composites plasmonic-photonic crystals: the influence of SPR on the optical properties of PCs is also discussed. Main applications of this new class of composite materials are illustrated with the aim to offer the reader an overview of the recent advances in this field.

  11. Gold Nanoparticles in Photonic Crystals Applications: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Venditti, Iole

    2017-01-01

    This review concerns the recently emerged class of composite colloidal photonic crystals (PCs), in which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are included in the photonic structure. The use of composites allows achieving a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering with electronic excitations of the gold component (surface plasmon resonance, SPR) realizing a combination of absorption bands with the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystals. Considering different preparations of composite plasmonic-photonic crystals, based on 3D-PCs in presence of AuNPs, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tunable functionality of these crystals. Several chemical methods for fabrication of opals and inverse opals are presented together with preparations of composites plasmonic-photonic crystals: the influence of SPR on the optical properties of PCs is also discussed. Main applications of this new class of composite materials are illustrated with the aim to offer the reader an overview of the recent advances in this field. PMID:28772458

  12. Imaging of protein crystals with two–photon microscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Padayatti, Pius; Palczewska, Grazyna; Sun, Wenyu; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Salom, David

    2012-01-01

    Second–order non–linear optical imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC), that portrays second harmonic generation (SHG) by non–centrosymmetric crystals, is emerging as a powerful imaging technique for protein crystals in media opaque to visible light because of its high signal–to–noise ratio. Here we report the incorporation of both SONICC and two–photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) into one imaging system that allows visualization of crystals as small as ~10 μm in their longest dimension. Using this system, we then documented an inverse correlation between the level of symmetry in examined crystals and the intensity of their SHG. Moreover, because of blue-green TPEF exhibited by most tested protein crystals, we also could identify and image SHG–silent protein crystals. Our experimental data suggests that the TPEF in protein crystals is mainly caused by the oxidation of tryptophan residues. Additionally, we found that unspecific fluorescent dyes are able to bind to lysozyme crystals and enhance their detection by TPFE. We finally confirmed that the observed fluorescence was generated by a two-photon rather than a three-photon process. The capability for imaging small protein crystals in turbid or opaque media with non–damaging infrared light in a single system, makes the combination of SHG and intrinsic visible TPEF a powerful tool for non–destructive protein crystal identification and characterization during crystallization trials. PMID:22324807

  13. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2017-12-05

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  14. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2016-12-20

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  15. Reconfigurable and tunable flat graphene photonic crystal circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zan Hui; Tan, Qi Long; Lao, Jieer; Liang, Yao; Huang, Xu Guang

    2015-07-07

    Photonic crystal waveguides and circuits are one of the basic modules for integrated photonic devices. They mainly rely on photonic bandgaps to achieve light confinement and manipulation. Herein, we propose a novel general principle or method to achieve reconfigurable and tunable flat graphene photonic crystals (FG-PCs) by selectively electrostatic gating a layer of graphene with periodic gold electrodes. The tunable flat photonic bandgap structure of the FG-PCs as a function of the Fermi level is investigated. Reconfigurable FG-PC defect waveguides and cavities created by external patterned-gate-voltage control are also proposed and discussed. The features of reconfigurable/tunable FG-PCs will add more flexibility and capabilities for the single chip integration of graphene-based integrated photonic devices.

  16. Scattering Forces within a Left-Handed Photonic Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Angeleene S.; Sukhov, Sergey V.; Dogariu, Aristide; Shalin, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves are known to exert optical forces on particles through radiation pressure. It was hypothesized previously that electromagnetic waves inside left-handed metamaterials produce negative radiation pressure. Here we numerically examine optical forces inside left-handed photonic crystals demonstrating negative refraction and reversed phase propagation. We demonstrate that even though the direction of force might not follow the flow of energy, the positive radiation pressure is maintained inside photonic crystals. PMID:28112217

  17. Terahertz pulse transmission in plastic photonic crystal fibres.

    PubMed

    Park, H; Cho, M; Kim, J; Han, H

    2002-11-07

    Guided-wave single-mode propagation of sub-ps terahertz (THz) pulses in a plastic photonic crystal fibre has been experimentally demonstrated. The plastic photonic crystal fibre (PPCF) is fabricated from high-density polyethylene tubes and filaments. The fibre exhibits low loss and relatively low dispersive propagation of THz pulses within the experimental bandwidth of 0.1-3 THz. Such PPCFs have the promise of low loss, mechanically flexible interconnect channels for compact THz devices and systems.

  18. Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; El-Kady, Ihab [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-07-18

    An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

  19. Hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal formed on gel-immobilized colloidal crystal via solvent substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Sho; Mori, Atsushi; Nagashima, Ken; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Okamoto, Toshihiro

    2017-06-01

    Gel-immobilized colloidal crystals were prepared to obtain hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystals, in which electric field enhancement to a greater extent than that due to localized surface plasmons (LSP) alone was expected due to coupling between LSP and the photonic band. Polystyrene colloidal crystals immobilized by the N-(hydroxymethyl)acrylamide gel were immersed in an aqueous dispersion of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Then, the gel-immobilized colloidal crystals were picked out and immersed in an ionic liquid mixture. The surfaces of the gel-immobilized colloidal crystals immersed in the AuNP dispersion were observed via scanning electron microscopy after this solvent substitution. The lattice spacing of the colloidal crystal varied as the composition of the ionic liquid mixture was changed. The composition was determined so that the photonic band gap wavelength coincided with the LSP wavelength. Further, the reflection spectra were measured. Thus, we successfully prepared a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal.

  20. Magnetoresponsive discoidal photonic crystals toward active color pigments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Soo; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Joon-Seok; Sim, Jae Young; Seo, Jung Yoon; Oh, You-Kwan; Yang, Seung-Man; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2014-09-03

    Photonic microdisks with a multilayered structure are designed from photocurable suspensions by step-by-step photolithography. In each step of photolithography, either a colloidal photonic crystal or a magnetic-particle-laden layer is stacked over the windows of a photomask. Sequential photolithography enables the creation of multilayered photonic microdisks that have brilliant structural colors that can be switched by an external magnetic field. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Enhanced Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics With Microstructure Fibers And Photonic Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    NANOHOLES FREQUENCY-TUNABLE ANTI-STOKES LINE EMISSION BY EIGENMODES OF A BIREFRINGENT MICROSTRUCTURE FIBER GENERATION OF FEMTOSECOND ANTI-STOKES PULSES...laser technologies, and ultrafast photonics. ANTI-STOKES GENERATION IN GUIDED MODES OF PHOTONIC-CRYSTAL FIBERS MODIFIED WITH AN ARRAY OF NANOHOLES

  2. On-chip steering of entangled photons in nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Leng, H Y; Yu, X Q; Gong, Y X; Xu, P; Xie, Z D; Jin, H; Zhang, C; Zhu, S N

    2011-08-16

    One promising technique for working toward practical photonic quantum technologies is to implement multiple operations on a monolithic chip, thereby improving stability, scalability and miniaturization. The on-chip spatial control of entangled photons will certainly benefit numerous applications, including quantum imaging, quantum lithography, quantum metrology and quantum computation. However, external optical elements are usually required to spatially control the entangled photons. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of on-chip spatial control of entangled photons, based on a domain-engineered nonlinear photonic crystal. We manipulate the entangled photons using the inherent properties of the crystal during the parametric downconversion, demonstrating two-photon focusing and beam-splitting from a periodically poled lithium tantalate crystal with a parabolic phase profile. These experimental results indicate that versatile and precise spatial control of entangled photons is achievable. Because they may be operated independent of any bulk optical elements, domain-engineered nonlinear photonic crystals may prove to be a valuable ingredient in on-chip integrated quantum optics.

  3. High resolution reversible color images on photonic crystal substrates.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pilgyu; Ogunbo, Samuel O; Erickson, David

    2011-08-16

    When light is incident on a crystalline structure with appropriate periodicity, some colors will be preferentially reflected (Joannopoulos, J. D.; Meade, R. D.; Winn, J. N. Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 1995; p ix, 137 pp). These photonic crystals and the structural color they generate represent an interesting method for creating reflective displays and drawing devices, since they can achieve a continuous color response and do not require back lighting (Joannopoulos, J. D.; Villeneuve, P. R.; Fan, S. H. Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light. Nature 1997, 386, 143-149; Graham-Rowe, D. Tunable structural colour. Nat. Photonics 2009, 3, 551-553.; Arsenault, A. C.; Puzzo, D. P.; Manners, I.; Ozin, G. A. Photonic-crystal full-colour displays. Nat. Photonics 2007, 1, 468-472; Walish, J. J.; Kang, Y.; Mickiewicz, R. A.; Thomas, E. L. Bioinspired Electrochemically Tunable Block Copolymer Full Color Pixels. Adv. Mater.2009, 21, 3078). Here we demonstrate a technique for creating erasable, high-resolution, color images using otherwise transparent inks on self-assembled photonic crystal substrates (Fudouzi, H.; Xia, Y. N. Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers. Langmuir 2003, 19, 9653-9660). Using inkjet printing, we show the ability to infuse fine droplets of silicone oils into the crystal, locally swelling it and changing the reflected color (Sirringhaus, H.; Kawase, T.; Friend, R. H.; Shimoda, T.; Inbasekaran, M.; Wu, W.; Woo, E. P. High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits. Science 2000, 290, 2123-2126). Multicolor images with resolutions as high as 200 μm are obtained from oils of different molecular weights with the lighter oils being able to penetrate deeper, yielding larger red shifts. Erasing of images is done simply by adding a low vapor pressure oil which dissolves the image, returning the substrate to its original state.

  4. Square spiral 3D photonic bandgap crystals at telecommunications frequencies.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Martin; Brett, Michael

    2005-05-02

    We present evidence of complete, three-dimensional photonic bandgaps in obliquely deposited thin films with a porous microstructure of tetragonally arranged square spirals. We further present a capability to engineer the bandgap center to wavelengths as low as 1.65 mum, with bandgap widths of up to 10.9%. Using new deposition methods that provide detailed control over the photonic crystal dimensions and morphology, this approach allows advanced photonic crystal architectures to be realized over large scales with uncomplicated fabrication technology.

  5. 2D photonic crystal and its angular reflective azimuthal spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senderakova, Dagmar; Drzik, Milan; Tomekova, Juliana

    2016-12-01

    Contemporary, attention is paid to photonic crystals, which can strongly modify light propagation through them and enable a controllable light manipulation. The contribution is focused on a sub-wavelength 2D structure formed by Al2O3 layer on silicon substrate, patterned with periodic hexagonal lattice of deep air holes. Using various laser sources of light at single wavelength, azimuthal angle dependence of the mirror-like reflected light intensity was recorded photo-electrically. The results obtained can be used to sample the band-structure of leaky modes of the photonic crystal more reliably and help us to map the photonic dispersion diagram.

  6. Light-emitting biological photonic crystals: the bioengineering of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucki, Melanie; Landwehr, Stefan; Rühling, Harald; Maniak, Markus; Fuhrmann-Lieker, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Diatoms can be regarded as self-reproducing photonic crystal slab waveguides due to their silica cell walls that exhibit periodic pore patterns. The algae thus offer possibilities for biotechnological production of photonic crystals. Two techniques for incorporating organic laser dyes into the structures are demonstrated. First, Rhodamine B was covalently attached to the silica by an aminoalkylsilane linker. Second, highly fluorescent Rhodamine derivatives added to the culture medium were successfully taken up by the diatoms and deposited into the shell. By this techniques, it is possible to cultivate dye functionalized diatoms with emission behaviour adapted to photonic resonances.

  7. Alignment of crystal orientations of the multi-domain photonic crystals in Parides sesostris wing scales

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, S.; Fujita, H.; Kinoshita, S.; Matsuhana, B.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the wing scales of the emerald-patched cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type photonic crystals, which produce a green structural colour. However, the photonic crystal is not a single crystal that spreads over the entire scale, but it is separated into many small domains with different crystal orientations. As a photonic crystal generally has band gaps at different frequencies depending on the direction of light propagation, it seems mysterious that the scale is observed to be uniformly green under an optical microscope despite the multi-domain structure. In this study, we have carefully investigated the structure of the wing scale and discovered that the crystal orientations of different domains are not perfectly random, but there is a preferred crystal orientation that is aligned along the surface normal of the scale. This finding suggests that there is an additional factor during the developmental process of the microstructure that regulates the crystal orientation. PMID:24352678

  8. Characterization of photonic colloidal crystals in real and reciprocal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thijssen, J. H. J.

    2007-05-01

    In this thesis, we present experimental work on the characterization of photonic colloidal crystals in real and reciprocal space. Photonic crystals are structures in which the refractive index varies periodically in space on the length scale of the wavelength of light. Self-assembly of colloidal particles is a promising route towards three-dimensional (3-D) photonic crystals. However, fabrication of photonic band-gap materials remains challenging, so calculations that predict their optical properties are indispensable. Our photonic band-structure calculations on binary Laves phases have led to a proposed route towards photonic colloidal crystals with a band gap in the visible region. Furthermore, contrary to results in literature, we found that there is no photonic band gap for inverse BCT crystals. Finally, optical spectra of colloidal crystals were analyzed using band-structure calculations. Self-assembled photonic crystals are fabricated in multiple steps. Each of these steps can significantly affect the 3-D structure of the resulting crystal. X-rays are an excellent probe of the internal structure of photonic crystals, even if the refractive-index contrast is large. In Chapter 3, we demonstrate that an angular resolution of 0.002 mrad is achievable at a third-generation synchrotron using compound refractive optics. As a result, the position and the width of Bragg reflections in 2D diffraction patterns can be resolved, even for lattice spacings larger than a micrometer (corresponding to approximately 0.1 mrad). X-ray diffraction patterns and electron-microscopy images are used in Chapter 4 to determine the orientation of hexagonal layers in convective-assembly colloidal crystals. Quantitative analysis revealed that, in our samples, the layers were not exactly hexagonal and the stacking sequence was that of face-centered cubic (FCC) crystals, though stacking faults may have been present. In Chapter 5, binary colloidal crystals of organic spheres (polystyrene

  9. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  10. Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Arka; Kim, Jonghwan; Vuckovic, Jelena; Wang, Feng

    2013-02-13

    The efficient conversion of an electrical signal to an optical signal in nanophotonics enables solid state integration of electronics and photonics. The combination of graphene with photonic crystals is promising for electro-optic modulation. In this paper, we demonstrate that by electrostatic gating a single layer of graphene on top of a photonic crystal cavity, the cavity resonance can be changed significantly. A ~2 nm change in the cavity resonance line width and almost 400% (6 dB) change in resonance reflectivity is observed. In addition, our analysis shows that a graphene-photonic crystal device can potentially be useful for a high speed and low power absorptive and refractive modulator, while maintaining a small physical footprint.

  11. Graphene-based one-dimensional photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Berman, Oleg L; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya

    2012-01-11

    A novel type of one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal formed by an array of periodically located stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric stripes embedded into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The wave equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating in such a structure is solved in the framework of the Kronig-Penney model. The frequency band structure of the 1D graphene-based photonic crystal is obtained analytically as a function of the filling factor and the thickness of the dielectric between the graphene stripes. The photonic frequency corresponding to the electromagnetic wave localized by a defect of the photonic crystal formed by an extra dielectric placed in the position of one stack of alternating graphene and dielectric stripes is obtained.

  12. Large three-dimensional photonic crystals based on monocrystalline liquid crystal blue phases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Hou, Chien-Tsung; Li, Cheng-Chang; Jau, Hung-Chang; Wang, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ching-Lang; Guo, Duan-Yi; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chiang, Sheng-Ping; Bunning, Timothy J; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-09-28

    Although there have been intense efforts to fabricate large three-dimensional photonic crystals in order to realize their full potential, the technologies developed so far are still beset with various material processing and cost issues. Conventional top-down fabrications are costly and time-consuming, whereas natural self-assembly and bottom-up fabrications often result in high defect density and limited dimensions. Here we report the fabrication of extraordinarily large monocrystalline photonic crystals by controlling the self-assembly processes which occur in unique phases of liquid crystals that exhibit three-dimensional photonic-crystalline properties called liquid-crystal blue phases. In particular, we have developed a gradient-temperature technique that enables three-dimensional photonic crystals to grow to lateral dimensions of ~1 cm (~30,000 of unit cells) and thickness of ~100 μm (~ 300 unit cells). These giant single crystals exhibit extraordinarily sharp photonic bandgaps with high reflectivity, long-range periodicity in all dimensions and well-defined lattice orientation.Conventional fabrication approaches for large-size three-dimensional photonic crystals are problematic. By properly controlling the self-assembly processes, the authors report the fabrication of monocrystalline blue phase liquid crystals that exhibit three-dimensional photonic-crystalline properties.

  13. Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Ptasinski, Joanna; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2014-01-01

    In this work we explore the negative thermo-optic properties of liquid crystal claddings for passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic integrated circuits. Photonic circuits are playing an increasing role in communications and computing, but they suffer from temperature dependent performance variation. Most existing techniques aimed at compensation of thermal effects rely on power hungry Joule heating. We show that integrating a liquid crystal cladding helps to minimize the effects of a temperature dependent drift. The advantage of liquid crystals lies in their high negative thermo-optic coefficients in addition to low absorption at the infrared wavelengths. PMID:28788565

  14. Dynamic Photonic Materials Based on Liquid Crystals (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0059 DYNAMIC PHOTONIC MATERIALS BASED ON LIQUID CRYSTALS (POSTPRINT) Luciano De Sio and Cesare Umeton University...ON LIQUID CRYSTALS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) (see back...10.1016/B978-0-444-62644-8.00001-7. 14. ABSTRACT Liquid crystals, combining optical non-linearity and self-organizing properties with fluidity, and being

  15. Photonic crystal engineering in glancing angle deposition thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Hans Martin Overgaard

    2005-11-01

    From living rooms to operating rooms, our world is becoming dependent on information technology. For half a century a transformation in computing and communications has been borne by semiconductor microelectronics, but to serve us tomorrow, new materials transcending the performance and cost of current technology must be developed. An emerging optical material is the photonic bandgap crystal, which so fundamentally manipulates the emission and propagation of light that photons may be harnessed to eclipse what electronics accomplish today. However, the crystals consist of intricate, sub micrometre structures that are complex to fabricate, and even harder to engineer for technological applications. Indeed, fabrication challenges have inhibited photonic crystal progress. This thesis responds by enabling photonic crystal engineering through a chiral thin film fabrication technique known as glancing angle deposition. By oblique vapour deposition onto rotating substrates, the approach creates tetragonal lattices of square spirals with widths of a few hundred nanometres, predicted to yield strong photonic bandgaps at useful optical wavelengths. Within the scope of the thesis research, high resolution, high density direct write lithography is developed to deliver large area crystal substrates with extensive design freedom. The evolution of square spiral photonic crystal thin films on such substrates is analyzed, and new deposition methods are devised to allow engineering of the photonic bandgap by reducing the dimensions and enhancing the fine structure of the square spirals. Optical characterization is performed to evaluate the presence of a complete, three dimensional photonic bandgap, confirm an engineered bandgap at 1.65 mum, and quantify the improvement in crystal quality to a bandgap width of 10.9%. With a potential for use as photonic waveguides, the engineering of embedded, functional air and dielectric defects is also established. Furthermore, the thesis develops

  16. Super-resolution optical microscopy based on photonic crystal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Davis, Christopher C.; Elliott, Jill; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2005-08-01

    Theoretical model of the enhanced optical resolution and the principles of subdiffraction imaging using two-dimensional photonic and plasmon-polaritonic crystals is presented based on the properties of electromagnetic Bloch waves in periodic structures. The super-resolution is achieved due to coupling of evanescent components of the diffraction field generated by the object to the propagating Bloch modes of the photonic crystal space. The resolution enhancement is shown to occur in a general case of photonic-crystal-type materials with either positive or negative effective refractive index. Both signs of the effective refractive index have been observed in the imaging experiments with surface polaritonic crystals, in which individual virus imaging has been achieved.

  17. Optical nonlinearities near single photon level with a quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Deepak

    Over the last decade, exponential increase of information bandwidth over the internet and other communication media has increased the total power consumed by the devices associated with information exchange. With ever increasing number of users, and packing of a higher number of devices onto a chip, there is a great need for reduction in not only the power consumption of the devices but also the costs associated with information transfer. Currently, the benchmark in the energy consumption per logic operation is at femtojoule level and is set by the CMOS industry. However, optical devices based on single photon emitters coupled to a microcavity have the potential to reduce the optical power dissipation down to attojoule levels wherein only few 10s of photons are consumed for a logic operation. This work presents our theoretical and experimental efforts towards realization of all optical device based on the enhanced nonlinearities of a single photon emitter in a photonic crystal cavity. We show that a single quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal cavity can be used to route an incoming optical beam with optical power dissipation of 14 attojoules, corresponding to only 65 photons. This value is well below the operational level for current CMOS devices indicating the potential for chip based optical transistors for reduction in energy consumption. The single photon emitters that we use to create the nonlinearity are the quantum dots, which are semiconductor nanostructures that exhibit a discrete energy spectrum. The interaction of the quantum dot, with light confined inside a photonic crystal cavity, results in strong atom-photon interactions which can be used for ultra-low power all optical switching. The strong interactions between a quantum dot and photonic crystal cavity can be further utilized to realize quantum computation schemes on a chip. I also describe techniques for integrating this transistor into an optical circuit, and discuss methods for post

  18. Optimization of planar self-collimating photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, Raymond C; Pazos, Javier J

    2013-07-01

    Self-collimation in photonic crystals has received a lot of attention in the literature, partly due to recent interest in silicon photonics, yet no performance metrics have been proposed. This paper proposes a figure of merit (FOM) for self-collimation and outlines a methodical approach for calculating it. Performance metrics include bandwidth, angular acceptance, strength, and an overall FOM. Two key contributions of this work include the performance metrics and identifying that the optimum frequency for self-collimation is not at the inflection point. The FOM is used to optimize a planar photonic crystal composed of a square array of cylinders. Conclusions are drawn about how the refractive indices and fill fraction of the lattice impact each of the performance metrics. The optimization is demonstrated by simulating two spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystals, where one has a high FOM and the other has a low FOM. This work gives optical designers tremendous insight into how to design and optimize robust self-collimating photonic crystals, which promises many applications in silicon photonics and integrated optics.

  19. Exceptional enhancement of Raman scattering on silver chlorobromide nanocube photonic crystals: chemical and photonic contributions

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zheng; Gosztola, David J.; Sun, Cheng-Jun; ...

    2015-02-02

    Photonic crystals made from self-assembly of mono-dispersed AgCl xBr 1-x nanocubes, which are not plasmonically active, have been discovered to exceptionally enhance Raman scattering of molecules chemically adsorbed on their surfaces. Comprehensive control measurements and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy indicate that the Raman enhancement on the AgCl xBr 1-x nanocube photonic crystals is primarily ascribed to the chemical enhancement mechanism associated with the chemical interactions between adsorbing molecules and the AgCl xBr 1-x surfaces. In addition, the ordering of the AgCl xBr 1-x nanocubes in the photonic crystals can selectively reflect Raman scattering back to the detector at themore » bandgap position of the photonic crystals to provide additional enhancement, i.e., photonic mode enhancement. The thiophenol molecules adsorbed on the AgCl 0.44Br 0.56 nanocube photonic crystals exhibit astonishingly strong Raman signals that are on the same order of magnitude as those recorded from the thiophenol molecules adsorbed on the assembled Ag nanocubes.« less

  20. Tuning and Freezing Disorder in Photonic Crystals using Percolation Lithography.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian B; Abedzadeh, Navid; Kay, Theresa M; Shneidman, Anna V; Cranshaw, Derek J; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-21

    Although common in biological systems, synthetic self-assembly routes to complex 3D photonic structures with tailored degrees of disorder remain elusive. Here we show how liquids can be used to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In these optofluidic crystals, dynamically tunable disorder is superimposed onto the periodic optical structure through partial wetting or evaporation. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking is driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry. These variations direct site-selective infiltration of liquids through capillary interactions. Incorporating cross-linkable resins into our liquids, we developed methods to freeze in place the filling patterns at arbitrary degrees of partial wetting and intermediate stages of drying. These percolation lithography techniques produced permanent photonic structures with adjustable disorder. By coupling strong changes in optical properties to subtle differences in fluid behavior, optofluidic crystals may also prove useful in rapid analysis of liquids.

  1. Excitation enhancement and extraction enhancement with photonic crystals

    DOEpatents

    Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin; Zhen, Bo; Chua, Song-Liang; Lee, Jeongwon; Joannopoulos, John

    2015-03-03

    Disclosed herein is a system for stimulating emission from at least one an emitter, such as a quantum dot or organic molecule, on the surface of a photonic crystal comprising a patterned dielectric substrate. Embodiments of this system include a laser or other source that illuminates the emitter and the photonic crystal, which is characterized by an energy band structure exhibiting a Fano resonance, from a first angle so as to stimulate the emission from the emitter at a second angle. The coupling between the photonic crystal and the emitter may result in spectral and angular enhancement of the emission through excitation and extraction enhancement. These enhancement mechanisms also reduce the emitter's lasing threshold. For instance, these enhancement mechanisms enable lasing of a 100 nm thick layer of diluted organic molecules solution with reduced threshold intensity. This reduction in lasing threshold enables more efficient organic light emitting devices and more sensitive molecular sensing.

  2. Excitation enhancement and extraction enhancement with photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin; Zhen, Bo

    2015-03-03

    Disclosed herein is a system for stimulating emission from at least one an emitter, such as a quantum dot or organic molecule, on the surface of a photonic crystal comprising a patterned dielectric substrate. Embodiments of this system include a laser or other source that illuminates the emitter and the photonic crystal, which is characterized by an energy band structure exhibiting a Fano resonance, from a first angle so as to stimulate the emission from the emitter at a second angle. The coupling between the photonic crystal and the emitter may result in spectral and angular enhancement of the emissionmore » through excitation and extraction enhancement. These enhancement mechanisms also reduce the emitter's lasing threshold. For instance, these enhancement mechanisms enable lasing of a 100 nm thick layer of diluted organic molecules solution with reduced threshold intensity. This reduction in lasing threshold enables more efficient organic light emitting devices and more sensitive molecular sensing.« less

  3. Tuning and Freezing Disorder in Photonic Crystals using Percolation Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian B.; Abedzadeh, Navid; Kay, Theresa M.; Shneidman, Anna V.; Cranshaw, Derek J.; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Although common in biological systems, synthetic self-assembly routes to complex 3D photonic structures with tailored degrees of disorder remain elusive. Here we show how liquids can be used to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In these optofluidic crystals, dynamically tunable disorder is superimposed onto the periodic optical structure through partial wetting or evaporation. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking is driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry. These variations direct site-selective infiltration of liquids through capillary interactions. Incorporating cross-linkable resins into our liquids, we developed methods to freeze in place the filling patterns at arbitrary degrees of partial wetting and intermediate stages of drying. These percolation lithography techniques produced permanent photonic structures with adjustable disorder. By coupling strong changes in optical properties to subtle differences in fluid behavior, optofluidic crystals may also prove useful in rapid analysis of liquids. PMID:26790372

  4. Delay of a microwave pulse in a photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babitski, V. S.; Baryshevsky, V. G.; Gurinovich, A. A.; Gurnevich, E. A.; Molchanov, P. V.; Simonchik, L. V.; Usachonak, M. S.; Zuyeuski, R. F.

    2017-08-01

    Propagation of a nanosecond microwave pulse through a photonic crystal placed into an X-band waveguide is investigated. The nanosecond pulse is produced via shortening of the microsecond microwave pulse by the plasma electromagnetic band gap structure, which is formed in the waveguide by microwave breakdown ignited discharges inside three neon-filled glass tubes. Measured delay time for nanosecond microwave pulse propagation through the photonic crystal is about 23 ns that is in good agreement with the value obtained by numerical simulation. This time delay value corresponds to the group velocity of microwave pulses in the photonic crystal vgr ≈ 0.11c, where c is the speed of light in vacuum.

  5. Tuning and Freezing Disorder in Photonic Crystals using Percolation Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian B.; Abedzadeh, Navid; Kay, Theresa M.; Shneidman, Anna V.; Cranshaw, Derek J.; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Although common in biological systems, synthetic self-assembly routes to complex 3D photonic structures with tailored degrees of disorder remain elusive. Here we show how liquids can be used to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In these optofluidic crystals, dynamically tunable disorder is superimposed onto the periodic optical structure through partial wetting or evaporation. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking is driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry. These variations direct site-selective infiltration of liquids through capillary interactions. Incorporating cross-linkable resins into our liquids, we developed methods to freeze in place the filling patterns at arbitrary degrees of partial wetting and intermediate stages of drying. These percolation lithography techniques produced permanent photonic structures with adjustable disorder. By coupling strong changes in optical properties to subtle differences in fluid behavior, optofluidic crystals may also prove useful in rapid analysis of liquids.

  6. Polarization gaps in one-dimensional magnetic photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Guangjun; Han, Yanling; Chen, Fenxiong

    2014-01-01

    We studied the property of magnetic photonic crystal by using the 4×4-matrix method. The transmittance cures and the corresponding band structures show that this kind of structure possesses significant polarization gaps. We find that application of an external static magnetic field causes the right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized waves to become separated, the polarization gap open up while the absolute photonic band gap disappears.

  7. Direct fiber-coupled single photon source based on a photonic crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Byeong-Hyeon, E-mail: seygene@kaist.ac.kr; Lee, Chang-Min; Lim, Hee-Jin

    2015-08-24

    A single photon source plays a key role in quantum applications such as quantum computers and quantum communications. Epitaxially grown quantum dots are one of the promising platforms to implement a good single photon source. However, it is challenging to realize an efficient single photon source based on semiconductor materials due to their high refractive index. Here we demonstrate a direct fiber coupled single photon source with high collection efficiency by employing a photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide and a tapered micro-fiber. To confirm the single photon nature, the second-order correlation function g{sup (2)}(τ) is measured with a Hanbury Brown-Twiss setup.more » The measured g{sup (2)}(0) value is 0.15, and we can estimate 24% direct collection efficiency from a quantum dot to the fiber.« less

  8. Surface platinum metal plasma resonance photonic crystal fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Deyu; Chen, Heming; Bai, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    A two rings, triangular lattice photonic crystal fiber sensor element using surface plasma resonance phenomenon is proposed. The performance of the sensor is analyzed by finite element (FEM) analysis software Multiphysics COMSOL. The influence of structural parameters on the performance of the sensor is discussed. The results show that the maximum sensitivity is 6000nm/RIU, when refractive index is in the range of 1.31 to 1.38. The sensor can be directly placed in the liquid and platinum layer is placed outer surface of the photonic crystal fiber, which can simplify the manufacturing process and the measurement process , has important practical value.

  9. Photonic crystal hydrogel sensor for detection of nerve agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayu; Yan, Chunxiao; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Chaohua; Hu, Xiaochun; Qi, Fenglian

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the photonic crystal hydrogel materials have shown great promise in the detection of different chemical analytes, including creatinine, glucose, metal ions and so on. In this paper, we developed a novel three-dimensional photonic crystal hydrogel, which was hydrolyzed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and immobilized with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) by 1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride(EDC). They are demonstrated to be excellent in response to sarin and a limit of detection(LOD) of 1×10-9 mg mL-1 was achieved.

  10. An integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Walker R.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Allmon, William R.; Waits, Christopher M.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is appealing for portable millimeter- scale generators because of its simplicity, but it relies on a high temperatures. The performance and reliability of the high-temperature components, a microcombustor and a photonic crystal emitter, has proven challenging because they are subjected to 1000-1200°C and stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatches. In this paper, we adopt the industrial process of diffusion brazing to fabricate an integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal by bonding stacked metal layers. Diffusion brazing is simpler and faster than previous approaches of silicon MEMS and welded metal, and the end result is more robust.

  11. Hanging colloidal drop: A new photonic crystal synthesis route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandu, Ion; Dumitru, Marius; Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor; Dumitrache, Florian

    2018-05-01

    High-quality photonic crystals (hundreds of micrometres in thickness) were grown by the free evaporation of a colloidal drop consisting of silica and polystyrene nanospheres with dimensions of 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1000 nm. The essence of experimental findings is that the drop has to hang on a pillar. This leads to the inhibition of the droplet spreading, the minimisation of the convective force, and the zeroing of the static frictional force between nanospheres and the liquid/air interface, where the first layer is formed. The theoretical essence is the continuous adjustment of nanospheres positions during the growth of photonic crystal, a key condition of the self-assembling phenomenon.

  12. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-08-01

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure.

  13. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-08-03

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from themore » photonic crystal structure.« less

  14. Binary photonic crystal for refractometric applications (TE case)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taya, Sofyan A.; Shaheen, Somaia A.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a binary photonic crystal is proposed as a refractometric sensor. The dispersion relation and the sensitivity are derived for transverse electric (TE) mode. In our analysis, the first layer is considered to be the analyte layer and the second layer is assumed to be left-handed material (LHM), dielectric or metal. It is found that the sensitivity of the LHM structure is the highest among other structures. It is possible for LHM photonic crystal to achieve a sensitivity improvement of 412% compared to conventional slab waveguide sensor.

  15. Modal reduction in 6-rod bundled single-crystal sapphire photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffenberger, Neal T.; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the finite element modeling of a unique 6-rod bundled sapphire photonic crystal fiber. The structure is composed of five rods of single crystal sapphire fiber 70μm in diameter symmetrically arranged around a solid single crystal sapphire core region, which is 50μm in diameter. The modeling work focuses on the optimization and modal analysis of this photonic crystal fiber using Comsol Multiphysics 4.2a. In sensor design and realization, reduction of the modal volume of the fiber can offer significant advantages, and as such, this research work is focused on computational determination of the structures, which may minimize the number of modes of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber. The fiber design being analyzed in this paper may be especially important for sensors operating in harsh high temperature environments.

  16. Single photon extraction and propagation in photonic crystal waveguides incorporating site-controlled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigal, B.; Dwir, B.; Rudra, A.; Kulkova, I.; Lyasota, A.; Kapon, E.

    2018-01-01

    Deterministic integration of site-controlled quantum dots with photonic crystal waveguides is demonstrated, which allows positioning the dots for optimal overlap with the waveguide modes. The coupling efficiency (β-factor) of quantum dot emission to propagating waveguide modes ranging from 0 to 88% is measured accounting for statistical variations of quantum dot properties. Using site controlled quantum dots permits us to distinguish between the spectral and spatial origins of fluctuations in β. The role of Fabry-Pérot modes that prevent reaching a deterministic coupling between quantum dots and photonic crystal waveguides is revealed, and ways to overcome this problem are proposed. The results are useful for constructing high-flux single photon emitters based on multiplexed single photon sources.

  17. Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference, Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects for Optical Amplification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-26

    EDGE EFFECTS FOR OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION Shawn-Yu Lin Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 8th Street Troy, New York 12180 26 Jan 2016 Final Report...2014 – 11 Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference, Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. i Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Table of Contents 1.0 Summary

  18. Interference Effects In A Photonic Crystal Cavity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-20

    3D periodic dielectric material with an exact analytical expression (in terms of a transcendental equation) for the photon dispersion relation [6... Heisenberg picture and rearranging the formulation so that the non-Markovian convolution integrals between the atomic and field degrees of freedom can be...Here ! ) " jj are the Heisenberg -picture atomic state population operators, ! ) a v k s () a v k s + ) are the field raising (lowering

  19. Dual concentric crystal low energy photon detector

    DOEpatents

    Guilmette, R.A.

    A photon detector for biological samples includes a block of NaI(T1) having a hole containing a thin walled cylinder of CsI(T1). At least three photo multiplier tubes are evenly spaced around the parameter of the block. Biological samples are placed within the hole, and emissions which are sensed by at least two of the photo multipliers from only the NaI(T1) detector are counted.

  20. Inkjet-Printed Nanocavities on a Photonic Crystal Template.

    PubMed

    Brossard, Frederic S F; Pecunia, Vincenzo; Ramsay, Andrew J; Griffiths, Jonathan P; Hugues, Maxime; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed the rapid development of inkjet printing as an attractive bottom-up microfabrication technology due to its simplicity and potentially low cost. The wealth of printable materials has been key to its widespread adoption in organic optoelectronics and biotechnology. However, its implementation in nanophotonics has so far been limited by the coarse resolution of conventional inkjet-printing methods. In addition, the low refractive index of organic materials prevents the use of "soft-photonics" in applications where strong light confinement is required. This study introduces a hybrid approach for creating and fine tuning high-Q nanocavities, involving the local deposition of an organic ink on the surface of an inorganic 2D photonic crystal template using a commercially available high-resolution inkjet printer. The controllability of this approach is demonstrated by tuning the resonance of the printed nanocavities by the number of printer passes and by the fabrication of photonic crystal molecules with controllable splitting. The versatility of this method is evidenced by the realization of nanocavities obtained by surface deposition on a blank photonic crystal. A new method for a free-form, high-density, material-independent, and high-throughput fabrication technique is thus established with a manifold of opportunities in photonic applications. © 2017 Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Band Gap Optimization Design of Photonic Crystals Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Yu, B.; Gao, X.

    2017-12-01

    The photonic crystal has a fundamental characteristic - photonic band gap, which can prevent light to spread in the crystals. This paper studies the width variation of band gaps of two-dimension square lattice photonic crystals by changing the geometrical shape of the unit cells’ inner medium column. Using the finite element method, we conduct numerical experiments on MATLAB 2012a and COMSOL 3.5. By shortening the radius in vertical axis and rotating the medium column, we design a new unit cell, with a 0.3*3.85e-7 vertical radius and a 15 degree deviation to the horizontal axis. The new cell has a gap 1.51 percent wider than the circle medium structure in TE gap and creates a 0.0124 wide TM gap. Besides, the experiment shows the first TM gap is partially overlapped by the second TE gap in gap pictures. This is helpful to format the absolute photonic band gaps and provides favorable theoretical basis for designing photonic communication material.

  2. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    DOEpatents

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  3. Ultra-refractive and extended-range one-dimensional photonic crystal superprisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, D. Z. Y.

    2003-01-01

    We describe theoretical analysis and design of one-dimensional photonic crystal prisms. We found that inside the photonic crystal, for frequencies near the band edges, light propagation direction is extremely sensitive to the variations in wavelength and incident angle.

  4. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Yasha [Somerville, MA; Kimerling, Lionel C [Concord, MA; Duan, Xiaoman [Amesbury, MA; Zeng, Lirong [Cambridge, MA

    2009-01-27

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  5. [INVITED] New perspectives in photonic crystal fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villatoro, Joel; Zubia, Joseba

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we analyse the recent advances on sensors based on photonic crystal fibres(PCFs) and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Some innovative approaches to overcome the main limitations of PCF sensors are also analysed. In addition, we discuss some opportunities and challenges in PCF sensing for the coming years.

  6. Multicolor fluorescence enhancement from a photonics crystal surface

    PubMed Central

    Pokhriyal, A.; Lu, M.; Huang, C. S.; Schulz, S.; Cunningham, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    A photonic crystal substrate exhibiting resonant enhancement of multiple fluorophores has been demonstrated. The device, fabricated uniformly from plastic materials over a ∼3×5 in.2 surface area by nanoreplica molding, utilizes two distinct resonant modes to enhance electric field stimulation of a dye excited by a λ=632.8 nm laser (cyanine-5) and a dye excited by a λ=532 nm laser (cyanine-3). Resonant coupling of the laser excitation to the photonic crystal surface is obtained for each wavelength at a distinct incident angle. Compared to detection of a dye-labeled protein on an ordinary glass surface, the photonic crystal surface exhibited a 32× increase in fluorescent signal intensity for cyanine-5 conjugated streptavidin labeling, while a 25× increase was obtained for cyanine-3 conjugated streptavidin labeling. The photonic crystal is capable of amplifying the output of any fluorescent dye with an excitation wavelength in the 532 nm<λ<633 nm range by selection of an appropriate incident angle. The device is designed for biological assays that utilize multiple fluorescent dyes within a single imaged area, such as gene expression microarrays. PMID:20957067

  7. Transverse magnetic field impact on waveguide modes of photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Sylgacheva, Daria; Khokhlov, Nikolai; Kalish, Andrey; Dagesyan, Sarkis; Prokopov, Anatoly; Shaposhnikov, Alexandr; Berzhansky, Vladimir; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alameh, Kamal; Belotelov, Vladimir

    2016-08-15

    This Letter presents a theoretical and experimental study of waveguide modes of one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals magnetized in the in-plane direction. It is shown that the propagation constants of the TM waveguide modes are sensitive to the transverse magnetization and the spectrum of the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect has resonant features at mode excitation frequencies. Two types of structures are considered: a non-magnetic photonic crystal with an additional magnetic layer on top and a magneto-photonic crystal with a magnetic layer within each period. We found that the magneto-optical non-reciprocity effect is greater in the first case: it has a magnitude of δ∼10-4, while the second structure type demonstrates δ∼10-5 only, due to the higher asymmetry of the claddings of the magnetic layer. Experimental observations show resonant features in the optical and magneto-optical Kerr effect spectra. The measured dispersion properties are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. An amplitude of light intensity modulation of up to 2.5% was observed for waveguide mode excitation within the magnetic top layer of the non-magnetic photonic crystal structure. The presented theoretical approach may be utilized for the design of magneto-optical sensors and modulators requiring pre-determined spectral features.

  8. Soft glasses for photonic crystal fibers and microstructured optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepien, Ryszard; Cimek, Jaroslaw; Pysz, Dariusz; Kujawa, Ireneusz; Klimczak, Mariusz; Buczynski, Ryszard

    2014-07-01

    Thermally stable tellurite, lead-bismuth-gallium oxides based boron-silicate and lead-silicate glasses dedicated for multiple thermal processing are presented. The glasses are successfully used for the development of photonic crystal fibers, nanostructured gradient index lenses, all-solid microstructured fibers as well as refractive or diffractive micro-optical elements with ultra-broadband transmission.

  9. Thermal properties photonic crystal fiber transducers with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybysz, N.; Marć, P.; Kisielewska, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of the research is to design new types of fiber optic transducers based on filled photonic crystal fibers for sensor applications. In our research we propose to use as a filling material nanoparticles' ferrofluids (Fe3O4 NPs). Optical properties of such transducers are studied by measurements of spectral characteristics' changes when transducers are exposed to temperature and magnetic field changes. From synthesized ferrofluid several mixtures with different NPs' concentrations were prepared. Partially filled commercially available photonic crystal fiber LMA 10 (NKT Photonics) was used to design PCF transducers. Their thermo-optic properties were tested in a temperature chamber. Taking into account magnetic properties of synthetized NPs the patch cords based on a partially filled PM 1550 PCF were measured.

  10. Photonic crystal nanocavity assisted rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yun; Xia, Jinsong; Zhang, Yong; Dong, Jianji; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Driven by the increasing demand on handing microwave signals with compact device, low power consumption, high efficiency and high reliability, it is highly desired to generate, distribute, and process microwave signals using photonic integrated circuits. Silicon photonics offers a promising platform facilitating ultracompact microwave photonic signal processing assisted by silicon nanophotonic devices. In this paper, we propose, theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme to realize ultracompact rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a silicon photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity with fixed extinction ratio. Using a conventional modulation scheme with only a single phase modulator (PM), the rejection ratio of the presented MPF can be tuned from about 10 dB to beyond 60 dB. Moreover, the central frequency tunable operation in the high rejection ratio region is also demonstrated in the experiment. PMID:28067332

  11. Plasmonic photonic crystals realized through DNA-programmable assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Daniel J.; Zhang, Chuan; Ku, Jessie C.

    2014-12-29

    Three-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals have well-established enhanced light-matter interactions via high Q factors. Their plasmonic counterparts based on arrays of nanoparticles, however, have not been experimentally well explored owing to a lack of available synthetic routes for preparing them. However, such structures should facilitate these interactions based on the small mode volumes associated with plasmonic polarization. Herein we report strong light-plasmon interactions within 3D plasmonic photonic crystals that have lattice constants and nanoparticle diameters that can be independently controlled in the deep subwavelength size regime by using a DNA-programmable assembly technique. The strong coupling within such crystals is probed withmore » backscattering spectra, and the mode splitting (0.10 and 0.24 eV) is defined based on dispersion diagrams. Numerical simulations predict that the crystal photonic modes (Fabry-Perot modes) can be enhanced by coating the crystals with a silver layer, achieving moderate Q factors (~102) over the visible and near-infrared spectrum.« less

  12. Plasmonic photonic crystals realized through DNA-programmable assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Daniel J; Zhang, Chuan; Ku, Jessie C; Zhou, Yu; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-01-27

    Three-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals have well-established enhanced light-matter interactions via high Q factors. Their plasmonic counterparts based on arrays of nanoparticles, however, have not been experimentally well explored owing to a lack of available synthetic routes for preparing them. However, such structures should facilitate these interactions based on the small mode volumes associated with plasmonic polarization. Herein we report strong light-plasmon interactions within 3D plasmonic photonic crystals that have lattice constants and nanoparticle diameters that can be independently controlled in the deep subwavelength size regime by using a DNA-programmable assembly technique. The strong coupling within such crystals is probed with backscattering spectra, and the mode splitting (0.10 and 0.24 eV) is defined based on dispersion diagrams. Numerical simulations predict that the crystal photonic modes (Fabry-Perot modes) can be enhanced by coating the crystals with a silver layer, achieving moderate Q factors (∼10(2)) over the visible and near-infrared spectrum.

  13. Two-dimensional photonic crystal slab nanocavities on bulk single-crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Noel H.; Mouradian, Sara; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Color centers in diamond are promising spin qubits for quantum computing and quantum networking. In photon-mediated entanglement distribution schemes, the efficiency of the optical interface ultimately determines the scalability of such systems. Nano-scale optical cavities coupled to emitters constitute a robust spin-photon interface that can increase spontaneous emission rates and photon extraction efficiencies. In this work, we introduce the fabrication of 2D photonic crystal slab nanocavities with high quality factors and cubic wavelength mode volumes—directly in bulk diamond. This planar platform offers scalability and considerably expands the toolkit for classical and quantum nanophotonics in diamond.

  14. Density of photonic states in cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolganov, P. V.

    2015-04-01

    Density of photonic states ρ (ω ) , group vg, and phase vph velocity of light, and the dispersion relation between wave vector k , and frequency ω (k ) were determined in a cholesteric photonic crystal. A highly sensitive method (measurement of rotation of the plane of polarization of light) was used to determine ρ (ω ) in samples of different quality. In high-quality samples a drastic increase in ρ (ω ) near the boundaries of the stop band and oscillations related to Pendellösung beatings are observed. In low-quality samples photonic properties are strongly modified. The maximal value of ρ (ω ) is substantially smaller, and density of photonic states increases near the selective reflection band without oscillations in ρ (ω ) . Peculiarities of ρ (ω ) , vg, and ω (k ) are discussed. Comparison of the experimental results with theory was performed.

  15. Aberrated surface soliton formation in a nonlinear 1D and 2D photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A; Lysak, Tatiana M; Trykin, Evgenii M

    2018-01-01

    We discuss a novel type of surface soliton-aberrated surface soliton-appearance in a nonlinear one dimensional photonic crystal and a possibility of this surface soliton formation in two dimensional photonic crystal. An aberrated surface soliton possesses a nonlinear distribution of the wavefront. We show that, in one dimensional photonic crystal, the surface soliton is formed at the photonic crystal boundary with the ambient medium. Essentially, that it occupies several layers at the photonic crystal boundary and penetrates into the ambient medium at a distance also equal to several layers, so that one can infer about light energy localization at the lateral surface of the photonic crystal. In the one dimensional case, the surface soliton is formed from an earlier formed soliton that falls along the photonic crystal layers at an angle which differs slightly from the normal to the photonic crystal face. In the two dimensional case, the soliton can appear if an incident Gaussian beam falls on the photonic crystal face. The influence of laser radiation parameters, optical properties of photonic crystal layers and ambient medium on the one dimensional surface soliton formation is investigated. We also discuss the influence of two dimensional photonic crystal configuration on light energy localization near the photonic crystal surface. It is important that aberrated surface solitons can be created at relatively low laser pulse intensity and for close values of alternating layers dielectric permittivity which allows their experimental observation.

  16. Aberrated surface soliton formation in a nonlinear 1D and 2D photonic crystal

    PubMed Central

    Lysak, Tatiana M.; Trykin, Evgenii M.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss a novel type of surface soliton—aberrated surface soliton—appearance in a nonlinear one dimensional photonic crystal and a possibility of this surface soliton formation in two dimensional photonic crystal. An aberrated surface soliton possesses a nonlinear distribution of the wavefront. We show that, in one dimensional photonic crystal, the surface soliton is formed at the photonic crystal boundary with the ambient medium. Essentially, that it occupies several layers at the photonic crystal boundary and penetrates into the ambient medium at a distance also equal to several layers, so that one can infer about light energy localization at the lateral surface of the photonic crystal. In the one dimensional case, the surface soliton is formed from an earlier formed soliton that falls along the photonic crystal layers at an angle which differs slightly from the normal to the photonic crystal face. In the two dimensional case, the soliton can appear if an incident Gaussian beam falls on the photonic crystal face. The influence of laser radiation parameters, optical properties of photonic crystal layers and ambient medium on the one dimensional surface soliton formation is investigated. We also discuss the influence of two dimensional photonic crystal configuration on light energy localization near the photonic crystal surface. It is important that aberrated surface solitons can be created at relatively low laser pulse intensity and for close values of alternating layers dielectric permittivity which allows their experimental observation. PMID:29558497

  17. Imaging and tuning of coupled photonic crystal cavities (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurioli, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Photonic microcavities (PMC) coupled through their evanescent field are used for a large variety of classical and quantum devices. In such systems, a molecular-like spatial delocalization of the coupled modes is achieved by an evanescent tunnelling. The tunnelling rate depends on the height and depth of the photonic barrier between two adjacent resonators and therefore it is sensitive to the fabrication-induced disorder present in the center of the molecule. In this contribution, we address the problem of developing a post fabrication control of the tunnelling rate in photonic crystal coupled PMCs. The value of the photonic coupling (proportional to the tunnelling rate) is directly measured by the molecular mode splitting at the anticrossing point. By exploiting a combination of tuning techniques such as local infiltration of water, micro-evaporation, and laser induced non thermal micro-oxidation, we are able to either increase or decrease the detuning and the photonic coupling, independently. Near field imaging is also used for mapping the modes and establish delocalization. By water micro-infiltration, we were able to increase the photon coupling by 28%. On the contrary, by laser induced non thermal oxidation, we got a reduction of g by 30%. The combination of the two methods would therefore give a complete control of g with excellent accuracy. This could make possible the realization of array of photonic cavities with on demand tunnelling rate between each pair of coupled resonators. We believe that this peculiar engineering of photonic crystal molecules would open the road to possible progress in the exploitation of coherent interference between coupled optical resonators both for quantum information processing and optical communication.

  18. Enhanced transmission and beaming via a zero-index photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Hodjat, E-mail: hodjat.hajian@bilkent.edu.tr; Ozbay, Ekmel; Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2016-07-18

    Certain types of photonic crystals with Dirac cones at the Γ point of their band structure have a zero effective index of refraction at Dirac cone frequency. Here, by an appropriate design of the photonic structure, we obtain a strong coupling between modes around the Dirac cone frequency of an all-dielectric zero-index photonic crystal and the guided ones supported by a photonic crystal waveguide. Consequently, we experimentally demonstrate that the presence of the zero-index photonic crystal at the inner side of the photonic crystal waveguide leads to an enhancement in the transmission of some of the guided waves passing throughmore » this hybrid system. Moreover, those electromagnetic waves extracted from the structure with enhanced transmission exhibit high directional beaming due to the presence of the zero-index photonic crystal at the outer side of the photonic crystal waveguide.« less

  19. Optomechanics with one-dimensional gallium phosphide photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Katharina; Welter, Pol; Baumgartner, Yannick; Hönl, Simon; Hahn, Herwig; Czornomaz, Lukas; Seidler, Paul

    2017-08-01

    We present the first investigation of optomechanics in an integrated one-dimensional gallium phosphide (GaP) photonic crystal cavity. The devices are fabricated with a newly developed process flow for integration of GaP devices on silicon dioxide (SiO2) involving direct wafer bonding of an epitaxial GaP/AlxGa1-xP/GaP heterostructure onto an oxidized silicon wafer. Device designs are transferred into the top GaP layer by inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching and made freestanding by removal of the underlying SiO2. Finite-element simulations of the photonic crystal cavities predict optical quality factors greater than 106 at a design wavelength of 1550 nm and optomechanical coupling rates as high as 900 kHz for the mechanical breathing mode localized in the center of the photonic crystal cavity. The first fabricated devices exhibit optical quality factors as high as 6.5 × 104, and the mechanical breathing mode is found to have a vacuum coupling rate of 200 kHz at a frequency of 2.59 GHz. These results, combined with low two-photon absorption at telecommunication wavelengths and piezoelectric behavior, make GaP a promising material for the development of future nanophotonic devices in which optical and mechanical modes as well as high-frequency electrical signals interact.

  20. Electrothermally Driven Fluorescence Switching by Liquid Crystal Elastomers Based On Dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changxu; Jiang, Yin; Tao, Cheng-An; Yin, Xianpeng; Lan, Yue; Wang, Chen; Wang, Shiqiang; Liu, Xiangyang; Li, Guangtao

    2017-04-05

    In this article, the fabrication of an active organic-inorganic one-dimensional photonic crystal structure to offer electrothermal fluorescence switching is described. The film is obtained by spin-coating of liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) and TiO 2 nanoparticles alternatively. By utilizing the property of LCEs that can change their size and shape reversibly under external thermal stimulations, the λ max of the photonic band gap of these films is tuned by voltage through electrothermal conversion. The shifted photonic band gap further changes the matching degree between the photonic band gap of the film and the emission spectrum of organic dye mounting on the film. With rhodamine B as an example, the enhancement factor of its fluorescence emission is controlled by varying the matching degree. Thus, the fluorescence intensity is actively switched by voltage applied on the system, in a fast, adjustable, and reversible manner. The control chain of using the electrothermal stimulus to adjust fluorescence intensity via controlling the photonic band gap is proved by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis reflectance. This mechanism also corresponded to the results from the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The comprehensive usage of photonic crystals and liquid crystal elastomers opened a new possibility for active optical devices.

  1. Spatial filtering of light by chirped photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Staliunas, Kestutis; Sanchez-Morcillo, Victor J.

    2009-05-15

    We propose an efficient method for spatial filtering of light beams by propagating them through two-dimensional (also three dimensional) chirped photonic crystals, i.e., through the photonic structures with fixed transverse lattice period and with the longitudinal lattice period varying along the direction of the beam propagation. We prove the proposed idea by numerically solving the paraxial propagation equation in refraction-index-modulated media and we evaluate the efficiency of the process by harmonic-expansion analysis. The technique can be also applied for filtering (for cleaning) of the packages of atomic waves (Bose condensates), also to improve the directionality of acoustic and mechanical waves.

  2. Observation of valley-selective microwave transport in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liping; Yang, Yuting; Hong Hang, Zhi; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the discrete valley degree of freedom has attracted extensive attention in condensed matter physics. Here, we present an experimental observation of the intriguing valley transport for microwaves in photonic crystals, including the bulk valley transport and the valley-projected edge modes along the interface separating different photonic insulating phases. For both cases, valley-selective excitations are realized by a point-like chiral source located at proper locations inside the samples. Our results are promising for exploring unprecedented routes to manipulate microwaves.

  3. Quasiperiodic one-dimensional photonic crystals with adjustable multiple photonic bandgaps.

    PubMed

    Vyunishev, Andrey M; Pankin, Pavel S; Svyakhovskiy, Sergey E; Timofeev, Ivan V; Vetrov, Stepan Ya

    2017-09-15

    We propose an elegant approach to produce photonic bandgap (PBG) structures with multiple photonic bandgaps by constructing quasiperiodic photonic crystals (QPPCs) composed of a superposition of photonic lattices with different periods. Generally, QPPC structures exhibit both aperiodicity and multiple PBGs due to their long-range order. They are described by a simple analytical expression, instead of quasiperiodic tiling approaches based on substitution rules. Here we describe the optical properties of QPPCs exhibiting two PBGs that can be tuned independently. PBG interband spacing and its depth can be varied by choosing appropriate reciprocal lattice vectors and their amplitudes. These effects are confirmed by the proof-of-concept measurements made for the porous silicon-based QPPC of the appropriate design.

  4. Structuring β-Ga2O3 photonic crystal photocatalyst for efficient degradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofang; Zhen, Xiuzheng; Meng, Sugang; Xian, Jiangjun; Shao, Yu; Fu, Xianzhi; Li, Danzhen

    2013-09-03

    Coupling photocatalysts with photonic crystals structure is based on the unique property of photonic crystals in confining, controlling, and manipulating the incident photons. This combination enhances the light absorption in photocatalysts and thus greatly improves their photocatalytic performance. In this study, Ga2O3 photonic crystals with well-arranged skeleton structures were prepared via a dip-coating infiltration method. The positions of the electronic band absorption for Ga2O3 photonic crystals could be made to locate on the red edge, on the blue edge, and away from the edge of their photonic band gaps by changing the pore sizes of the samples, respectively. Particularly, the electronic band absorption of the Ga2O3 photonic crystal with a pore size of 135 nm was enhanced more than other samples by making it locate on the red edge of its photonic band gap, which was confirmed by the higher instantaneous photocurrent and photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic pollutants under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism over Ga2O3 photonic crystals was discussed. The design of Ga2O3 photonic crystals presents a prospective application of photonic crystals in photocatalysis to address light harvesting and quantum efficiency problems through manipulating photons or constructing photonic crystal structure as groundwork.

  5. Zak phase induced multiband waveguide by two-dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuting; Xu, Tao; Xu, Yun Fei; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-08-15

    Interface states in photonic crystals provide efficient approaches to control the flow of light. Photonic Zak phase determines the bulk band properties of photonic crystals, and, by assembling two photonic crystals with different bulk band properties together, deterministic interface states can be realized. By translating each unit cell of a photonic crystal by half the lattice constant, another photonic crystal with identical common gaps but a different Zak phase at each photonic band can be created. By assembling these two photonic crystals together, multiband waveguide can thus be easily created and then experimentally characterized. Our experimental results have good agreement with numerical simulations, and the propagation properties of these measured interface states indicate that this new type of interface state will be a good candidate for future applications of optical communications.

  6. Flying particle sensors in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, D. S.; Schmidt, O. A.; Euser, T. G.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-07-01

    Optical fibre sensors make use of diverse physical effects to measure parameters such as strain, temperature and electric field. Here we introduce a new class of reconfigurable fibre sensor, based on a ‘flying-particle’ optically trapped inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre and illustrate its use in electric field and temperature sensing with high spatial resolution. The electric field distribution near the surface of a multi-element electrode is measured with a resolution of ∼100 μm by monitoring changes in the transmitted light signal due to the transverse displacement of a charged silica microparticle trapped within the hollow core. Doppler-based velocity measurements are used to map the gas viscosity, and thus the temperature, along a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. The flying-particle approach represents a new paradigm in fibre sensors, potentially allowing multiple physical quantities to be mapped with high positional accuracy over kilometre-scale distances.

  7. Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers for optical coherence tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Feroza; Zhang, Yuncui; Kaijage, Shubi; Namihira, Yoshinori; Zou, Nianyu

    2009-11-01

    We propose a simple highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber in optical coherence tomography window. Based on the finite difference method, different properties of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers are calculated. It is demonstrated that the nonlinear coefficients more than 64 and 55 [Wkm]-1 at 1.06 μm and 1.31 μm, respectively, with flattened chromatic dispersion of 0 +/- 3.7 ps/(nm.km) and low confinement losses less than 10-9 dB/m, simultaneously. It is also shown that small chromatic dispersion value and nearly zero dispersion slop provide the possibility of efficient supercontinuum generation in the optical coherence tomography window using a few ps pulses.

  8. Method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal

    DOEpatents

    Williams, John D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-10-26

    A method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal requires only two lithographic exposures and does not require mask repositioning between exposures. The mask and photoresist-coated substrate are spaced a fixed and constant distance apart using a spacer and the stack is clamped together. The stack is then tilted at a crystallographic symmetry angle (e.g., 45 degrees) relative to the X-ray beam and rotated about the surface normal until the mask is aligned with the X-ray beam. The stack is then rotated in plane by a small stitching angle and exposed to the X-ray beam to pattern the first half of the structure. The stack is then rotated by 180.degree. about the normal and a second exposure patterns the remaining half of the structure. The method can use commercially available DXRL scanner technology and LIGA processes to fabricate large-area, high-quality tilted logpile photonic crystals.

  9. Slow light enhanced gas sensing in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraeh, Christian; Martinez-Hurtado, J. L.; Popescu, Alexandru; Hedler, Harry; Finley, Jonathan J.

    2018-02-01

    Infrared spectroscopy allows for highly selective and highly sensitive detection of gas species and concentrations. Conventional gas spectrometers are generally large and unsuitable for on-chip applications. Long absorption path lengths are usually required and impose a challenge for miniaturization. In this work, a gas spectrometer is developed consisting of a microtube photonic crystal structure. This structure of millimetric form factors minimizes the required absorption path length due to slow light effects. The microtube photonic crystal allows for strong transmission in the mid-infrared and, due to its large void space fraction, a strong interaction between light and gas molecules. As a result, enhanced absorption of light increases the gas sensitivity of the device. Slow light enhanced gas absorption by a factor of 5.8 in is experimentally demonstrated at 5400 nm. We anticipate small form factor gas sensors on silicon to be a starting point for on-chip gas sensing architectures.

  10. Photonic crystal biosensor based on angular spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Hallynck, Elewout; Bienstman, Peter

    2010-08-16

    The need for cost effective and reliable biosensors in e.g. medical applications is an ever growing and everlasting one. Not only do we strive to increase sensitivity and detection limit of such sensors; ease of fabrication or implementation are equally important. In this work, we propose a novel, photonic crystal based biosensor that is able to operate at a single frequency, contrary to resonance based sensors. In a certain frequency range, guided photonic crystal modes can couple to free space modes resulting in a Lorentzian shape in the angular spectrum. This Lorentzian can shift due to refractive index changes and simulations have shown sensitivities of 65 degrees per refractive index unit and more.

  11. Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Limpert, J; Schmidt, O; Rothhardt, J; Röser, F; Schreiber, T; Tünnermann, A; Ermeneux, S; Yvernault, P; Salin, F

    2006-04-03

    We report on an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber with a core diameter of 60 microm and mode-field-area of ~2000 microm(2) of the emitted fundamental mode. Together with the short absorption length of 0.5 m this fiber possesses a record low nonlinearity which makes this fiber predestinated for the amplification of short laser pulses to very high peak powers. In a first continuous-wave experiment a power of 320 W has been extracted corresponding to 550 W per meter. To our knowledge this represents the highest power per unit length ever reported for fiber lasers. Furthermore, the robust single-transverse-mode propagation in a passive 100 microm core fiber with a similar design reveals the potential of extended large-mode-area photonic crystal fibers.

  12. Photonic crystal borax competitive binding carbohydrate sensing motif†

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qingzhou; Muscatello, Michelle M. Ward; Asher, Sanford A.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a photonic crystal sensing method for diol containing species such as carbohydrates based on a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel containing an embedded crystalline colloidal array (CCA). The polymerized CCA (PCCA) diffracts visible light. We show that in the presence of borax the diffraction wavelength shifts as the concentration of glucose changes. The diffraction shifts result from the competitive binding of glucose to borate, which reduces the concentration of borate bound to the PVA diols. PMID:19381378

  13. Photonic crystal borax competitive binding carbohydrate sensing motif.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qingzhou; Ward Muscatello, Michelle M; Asher, Sanford A

    2009-05-01

    We developed a photonic crystal sensing method for diol containing species such as carbohydrates based on a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel containing an embedded crystalline colloidal array (CCA). The polymerized CCA (PCCA) diffracts visible light. We show that in the presence of borax the diffraction wavelength shifts as the concentration of glucose changes. The diffraction shifts result from the competitive binding of glucose to borate, which reduces the concentration of borate bound to the PVA diols.

  14. Wafer-scale plasmonic and photonic crystal sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M. C.; Liu, J.-N.; Farhang, A.; Williamson, B.; Black, M.; Wangensteen, T.; Fraser, J.; Petrova, R.; Cunningham, B. T.

    2015-08-01

    200 mm diameter wafer-scale fabrication, metrology, and optical modeling results are reviewed for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors based on 2-D metallic nano-dome and nano-hole arrays (NHA's) as well as 1-D photonic crystal sensors based on a leaky-waveguide mode resonance effect, with potential applications in label free sensing, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and surface-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SEFS). Potential markets include micro-arrays for medical diagnostics, forensic testing, environmental monitoring, and food safety. 1-D and 2-D nanostructures were fabricated on glass, fused silica, and silicon wafers using optical lithography and semiconductor processing techniques. Wafer-scale optical metrology results are compared to FDTD modeling and presented along with application-based performance results, including label-free plasmonic and photonic crystal sensing of both surface binding kinetics and bulk refractive index changes. In addition, SEFS and SERS results are presented for 1-D photonic crystal and 2-D metallic nano-array structures. Normal incidence transmittance results for a 550 nm pitch NHA showed good bulk refractive index sensitivity, however an intensity-based design with 665 nm pitch was chosen for use as a compact, label-free sensor at both 650 and 632.8 nm wavelengths. The optimized NHA sensor gives an SPR shift of about 480 nm per refractive index unit when detecting a series of 0-40% glucose solutions, but according to modeling shows about 10 times greater surface sensitivity when operating at 532 nm. Narrow-band photonic crystal resonance sensors showed quality factors over 200, with reasonable wafer-uniformity in terms of both resonance position and peak height.

  15. Electrical Control of Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity by Graphene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of California at Berkeley,Department of Physics,Berkeley,CA,94720 8. PERFORMING... ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S...width and almost 400% (6 dB) change in resonance reflectivity is observed. In addition, our analysis shows that a graphene&# 8722 ;photonic crystal

  16. Cascaded photonic crystal fibers for three-stage soliton compression.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Cheng, Zihao

    2016-11-01

    Cascaded higher-order soliton compression in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is demonstrated, where both the hyperbolic secant and Gaussian input pulses are considered. Detailed fiber designs for three-stage higher-order soliton compression where soliton order is three or non-integer are presented. A highest compression factor of 221.32 has been achieved with only 49.48% pedestal energy.

  17. Study and analysis on slow light in photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Shuzhen; Shu, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Slow light is to reduce the light propagation speed in the medium. In recent years, because slow light technology is the key to achieving all-optical network technologies constitute optics, it attracted people's attention. Compared with other methods, photonic crystal waveguides provide slow light with many adventages, especially we can fine tune the structure to control the performance of the slow-light. Because the two-dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystal is easier to form band gaps than two-dimensional cubic lattice photonic crystal, the circular dielectric rod is easier to form band gaps than square dielectric cylinder, when the photonic crystal lattice vector angle is greater than 60 degrees, it can make the performance of slow light more excellent. So in this paper,we will rotate the cubic lattice 45 degrees counterclockwise. By reducing the radius of middle row of medium column to form the line defect; Additionly, we design a coupled cavity waveguide. Using the plane wave expansion method (PWE), we have analyzed the dispersion curves of the guided mode, the corresponding group refractive index and group velocity dispersion of slow light. For the line defected waveguide, we have realized the group refractive index changing from 8.1 to 84.8 by fine tuning the radius of the defective rod, the position and radius of the first row of the dielectric cylinder close to the waveguide. For the coupled cavity waveguide, we have realized the group refractive index changing from 16 to 79 by fine tuning the radius of the defective rod.

  18. TE-polarized graphene modes sustained by photonic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Degli-Eredi, I; Sipe, J E; Vermeulen, N

    2015-05-01

    We present the design of a supporting photonic crystal structure that would allow for the excitation of the predicted transverse electric (TE) polarized excitation in a single layer of graphene. We show that it is possible to measure this excitation at room temperature, and that adding an extra layer of dielectric material on top of the structure would further facilitate the experimental observation of the graphene mode.

  19. Selective mode excitation in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galea, A. D.; Couny, F.; Coupland, S.; Roberts, P. J.; Sabert, H.; Knight, J. C.; Birks, T. A.; Russell, Philip St. J.

    2005-04-01

    Modes are selectively excited by launching light through the cladding from the side into a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Measuring the total output power at the end of the fiber as a function of the angle of incidence of the exciting laser beam provides a powerful diagnostic for characterizing the cladding bandgap. Furthermore, various types of modes on either side of the bandgap are excited individually, and their near-field images are obtained.

  20. Method of calculating local dispersion in arbitrary photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, Babak; Mohtashami, Abbas; Hingerl, Kurt; Zarbakhsh, Javad

    2007-10-15

    We introduce a novel method to calculate the local dispersion relation in photonic crystal waveguides, based on the finite-difference time-domain simulation and filter diagonalization method (FDM). In comparison with the spatial Fourier transform method (SFT), the highly local dispersion calculations based on FDM are considerably superior and pronounced. For the first time to our knowledge, the presented numerical technique allows comparing the dispersion in straight and bent waveguides.

  1. Coupled Quantum Dots and Photonic Crystals for Nanophotonic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    size of incident ion beam, which is typically 10 nm in diameter. Recently, many optoelectronic devices employ subwavelength -scale structures, such as...diffraction gratings , distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), 1- or 2-dimensional photonic crystals, and surface plasmon devices. It can be difficult to...infrared camera. flip perj F RCO pulse source zoom barrel flipper OSA 850nm pump laser polarizer u flipper fiber coupler dichromatic mirror fiber

  2. Double gyroid photonic crystal: synthesis and mid-infrared photonic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Siying; Zhang, Runyu; Khabiboulline, Emil; Barim, Vitoria; Chen, Hongjie; Hon, Philip; Garcia, Juan; Sweatlock, Luke; Braun, Paul; Atwater, Harry

    Gyroids are triply symmetric and have surfaces containing no straight lines. Single gyroid (SG) photonic crystals have a large band gap, while double gyroids (DG) with P-breaking symmetry possess Weyl points and topologically non-trivial surface states. These topologically protected states give rise to backscattering immune unidirectional transport. We have synthesized and characterized the first mid-IR gyroid photonic crystals, including both SGs and DGs with Weyl points. Polymer gyroid scaffold was written by DLW, followed by ALD of Al2O3, polymer removal and conformally coating of a-Si. The resulting DGs have Weyl points at 8 μ m and k between 0.3-0.5 π/a. Characterization of SG and DG have been performed by angle resolved mid-IR spectroscopy. The photonic bandstructure is constructed from angle resolved reflectance and transmittance spectra, all the way close to the light line. Constructed bandstructures from SGs exhibit a photonic bandgap. For DGs the bandstructures reveal defect photonic states emerging inside the bandgap. Strategies to observe protected surface states in DGs will be discussed.

  3. Temperature insensitive curvature sensor based on cascading photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangwei; Li, Yunpu; Fu, Xinghu; Jin, Wa; Bi, Weihong

    2018-03-01

    A temperature insensitive curvature sensor is proposed based on cascading photonic crystal fiber. Using the arc fusion splicing method, this sensor is fabricated by cascading together a single-mode fiber (SMF), a three layers air holes structure of photonic crystal fiber (3PCF), a five layers air holes structure of photonic crystal fiber (5PCF) and a SMF in turn. So the structure SMF-3PCF-5PCF-SMF can be obtained with a total length of 20 mm. During the process of fabrication, the splicing machine parameters and the length of each optical fiber are adjusted to obtain a high sensitivity curvature sensor. The experimental results show that the curvature sensitivity is -8.40 nm/m-1 in the curvature variation range of 0-1.09 m-1, which also show good linearity. In the range of 30-90 °C, the temperature sensitivity is only about 3.24 pm/°C, indicating that the sensor is not sensitive to temperature. The sensor not only has the advantages of easy fabricating, simple structure, high sensitivity but also can solve the problem of temperature measurement cross sensitivity, so it can be used for different areas including aerospace, large-scale bridge, architectural structure health monitoring and so on.

  4. Optofluidic evanescent sensing by polymer photonic crystal band edge lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Arango, Felipe Bernal; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2008-08-01

    Organic dye doped polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers, fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography, are applied as evanescent-wave refractometry sensors. The emission characteristics of the lasers are altered in two ways, when the refractive index of the cladding is changed. Not only does the emission wavelength change, with a sensitivity of 1 nm per 10-2 refractive index units, but also the relative emission intensity along the two symmetry directions of the rectangular device. The latter phenomenon is caused by the interplay between the symmetry of the triangular photonic crystal lattice and the rectangular device shape. This causes two of the three emission axes expected from the photonic crystal geometry to collapse into one. The optical losses of these two modes are influenced in different ways when the refractive index of the cladding is altered, thus also causing the emitted intensities along the symmetry directions to change. This suggests an integrated sensing scheme, where intensity is measured rather than emission wavelength. Since intensity measurements are simpler to integrate than spectrometers, the concept can be implemented in compact lab-on-a-chip systems.

  5. Silicon and polymer nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Yongqiang; Gu, Lanlan; Wang, Li; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Ray T.

    2006-02-01

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) provide a promising nanophotonic platform for developing novel optoelectronic devices with significantly reduced device size and power consumption. Silicon nanophotonics is anticipated to play a pivotal role in the future nano-system integration owing to the maturity of sub-micron silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. An ultra-compact silicon modulator was experimentally demonstrated based on silicon photonic crystal waveguides. Modulation operation was achieved by carrier injection into an 80-micron-long silicon PhC waveguide of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure. The driving current to obtain a phase shift of pi across the active region was as low as 0.15 mA, owing to slow light group velocity in PhC waveguides. The modulation depth was 92%. The electrode between the two waveguide arms of the MZI structure was routed to the space outside the MZI. In real devices, this planarized routing design would be essential to integrating the silicon modulator with electrical driving circuitry on a single silicon chip. For laboratory test, this routing scheme also eliminated the need of placing a bulky pad between the two arms and gave our modulator a distinctive slim profile and a much smaller footprint. Polymeric photonic crystals were designed for superprism based laser beam steering applications, and were fabricated by nano-imprint and other techniques.

  6. Dynamically tunable graphene/dielectric photonic crystal transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Ian; Mousavi, S. Hossein; Wang, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that graphene supports plasmonic modes with high field confinement and lower losses when compared to conventional metals. Additionally, graphene features a highly tunable conductivity through which the plasmon dispersion can be modulated. Over the years these qualities have inspired a wide range of applications for graphene in the THz and infrared regimes. In this presentation we theoretically demonstrate a graphene parallel plate waveguide (PPWG) that sandwiches a 2D photonic crystal slab. The marriage of these two geometries offers a large two dimensional band gap that can be dynamically tuned over a very broad bandwidth. Our device operates in the low-THz band where the graphene PPWG supports a quasi-TEM mode with a relatively flat attenuation. Unlike conventional photonic crystal slabs, the quasi-TEM nature of the graphene PPWG mode allows the slab thickness to be less than 1/10 of the photonic crystal lattice constant. These features offer up a wealth of opportunities, including tunable metamaterials with a possible platform for large band gaps in 3D structures through tiling and stacking. Additionally, the geometry provides a platform for tunable defect cavities without needing three dimensional periodicity.

  7. Soft glass photonic crystal fibres and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczyński, Ryszard; Klimczak, Mariusz; Pysz, Dariusz; Stepniewski, Grzegorz; Siwicki, Bartłomiej; Cimek, Jarosław; Kujawa, Ireneusz; Piechal, Bernard; Stepień, Ryszard

    2015-05-01

    Most of the research work related to photonic crystal fibres has to date been focused on silica based fibres. Only in the recent years has there been a fraction of research devoted to fibres based on soft glasses, since some of them offer interesting properties as significantly higher nonlinearity than silica glass and wide transparency in the infrared range. On the other hand, attenuation in those glasses is usually one or more orders of magnitude higher that in silica glass, which limits their application area due to limited length of the fibres, which can be practically used. We report on the development of single-mode photonic crystal fibres made of highly nonlinear lead-bismuth-gallate glass with a zero dispersion wavelength at 1460 nm and flat anomalous dispersion. A two-octave spanning supercontinuum in the range 700-3000 nm was generated in 2 cm of the fibre. In contrast to the silica glass, various oxide based soft glasses with large refractive index difference can jointly undergo multiple thermal processing steps without degradation. The use of two soft glasses gives additional degrees of freedom in the design of photonic crystal fibres. As a result, highly nonlinear fibres with unique dispersion characteristics can be obtained. Soft glass allow also development of fibres with complex subwavelength refractive index distribution inside core of the fibre. A highly birefringent fibre with anisotropic core composed of subwavelength glass layers ordered in a rectangular structure was developed and is demonstrated

  8. Bending behavior of a flexible single crystal nanomembrane photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaochuan; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we present experimental and theoretical studies on the bending induced resonance shift of a photonic crystal cavity. The photonic crystal devices are fabricated on a 2cm x 2cm large-area single crystal SiNM which is transferred defect-freely onto a Kapton substrate with an SU-8 bottom cladding. Photonic crystal tapers are implemented at the strip-photonic crystal waveguide interfaces, which lowers the coupling loss and enables operation closer to the band edge. Subwavelength grating (SWG) couplers are employed at the input and output of the device in order to enable device characterization. The device is mounted on the two jaws of a caliper and it can be buckled up and down through sliding one of the jaws. The bending radius at the top of the curvature can be estimated with the length of the specimen and the distance between the two jaws. A minimum bending radius of 5 mm is achieved. Finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the deformation and the strain of the nanomembrane. The results are used as the input of finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The analysis shows that the strain sensitivities are 0.673 pm/μɛ, 0.656 pm/μɛ, 0.588 pm/μɛ, and 0.591 pm/μɛ, for longitudinal face-out, longitudinal face-in, transverse face-out, and transverse face-in bending, respectively.

  9. Block Copolymer Micelles for Photonic Fluids and Crystals.

    PubMed

    Poutanen, Mikko; Guidetti, Giulia; Gröschel, Tina I; Borisov, Oleg V; Vignolini, Silvia; Ikkala, Olli; Gröschel, Andre H

    2018-03-15

    Block copolymer micelles (BCMs) are self-assembled nanoparticles in solution with a collapsed core and a brush-like stabilizing corona typically in the size range of tens of nanometers. Despite being widely studied in various fields of science and technology, their ability to form structural colors at visible wavelength has not received attention, mainly due to the stringent length requirements of photonic lattices. Here, we describe the precision assembly of BCMs with superstretched corona, yet with narrow size distribution to qualify as building blocks for tunable and reversible micellar photonic fluids (MPFs) and micellar photonic crystals (MPCs). The BCMs form free-flowing MPFs with an average interparticle distance of 150-300 nm as defined by electrosteric repulsion arising from the highly charged and stretched corona. Under quiescent conditions, millimeter-sized MPCs with classical FCC lattice grow within the photonic fluid-medium upon refinement of the positional order of the BCMs. We discuss the generic properties of MPCs with special emphasis on surprisingly narrow reflected wavelengths with full width at half-maximum (fwhm) as small as 1 nm. We expect this concept to open a generic and facile way for self-assembled tunable micellar photonic structures.

  10. The Synthesis and Calculation of Heterostructural Photonic Crystals with Large Bandgap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chong; Yu, Mei; Yang, Cancan; Yu, Zhe

    2017-12-01

    Heterostructural photonic crystals (HPC) have attracted considerable interest due to its large photonic bandgap. Here we report a facile method to calculate and fabricate the heterostructural photonic crystals by using optical transfer-matrix method and polystyrene (PS) spheres with different particle sizes. Results suggest that the numerical simulation match well with the experimental spectra. In addition, compared with the single-structural photonic crystals (SPC), the HPCs have larger photonic bandgap, which is equal to a total of the photonic bandgaps of each SPC. Therefore, the HPCs with large bandgap can be well designed and then synthesized.

  11. Dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator based channel drop filter using two-dimensional photonic crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com; Dusad, Lalit Kumar

    2016-05-06

    In this paper channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). The photonic band gap (PBG) is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the photonic crystal (PhC) based on two dimensional (2D) square lattice periodic arrays of silicon (Si) rods in air structure have been investigated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20 respectively with lattice constant 0.540 nm and rod radius r = 0.1 µm. The channel drop filter has been optimized for telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.591 µm with refractivemore » indices 3.533. In the designed structure further analysis is also done by changing whole rods refractive index and it has been observed that this filter may be used for filtering several other channels also. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.« less

  12. Photonic crystal ring resonator based optical filters for photonic integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S., E-mail: mail2robinson@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, a two Dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator (PCRR) based optical Filters namely Add Drop Filter, Bandpass Filter, and Bandstop Filter are designed for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). The normalized output response of the filters is obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and the band diagram of periodic and non-periodic structure is attained by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The size of the device is minimized from a scale of few tens of millimeters to the order of micrometers. The overall size of the filters is around 11.4 μm × 11.4 μm which ismore » highly suitable of photonic integrated circuits.« less

  13. One-dimensional dielectric bi-periodic photonic structures based on ternary photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadoenkova, Nataliya N.; Dadoenkova, Yuliya S.; Panyaev, Ivan S.; Sannikov, Dmitry G.; Lyubchanskii, Igor L.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the transmittivity spectra, fields, and energy distribution of the electromagnetic eigenwaves propagating in a one-dimensional (1D) dielectric photonic crystal [(TiO2/SiO2)NAl2O3]M with two periods formed by unit cells TiO2/SiO2 and (TiO2/SiO2)NAl2O3. Spectra of TE- and TM-modes depend on the geometric parameters of the structure and undergo modifications with the change in the period numbers, layer thicknesses, and incidence angle. Special attention is paid to the applicability of the hybrid effective medium approximation comprising the long-wave approximation and two-dimensional (2 × 2) transfer matrix method. We demonstrate spectral peculiarities of the bi-periodic structure and also show the differences between the band gap spectra of the bi-periodic and ternary 1D dielectric photonic crystals. The presented photonic crystal structure can find its applications in optoelectronics and nanophotonics areas as omnidirectional reflectors, optical ultra-narrow bandpass filters, and antireflection coatings.

  14. Application of Bottlebrush Block Copolymers as Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Liberman-Martin, Allegra L; Chu, Crystal K; Grubbs, Robert H

    2017-07-01

    Brush block copolymers are a class of comb polymers that feature polymeric side chains densely grafted to a linear backbone. These polymers display interesting properties due to their dense functionality, low entanglement, and ability to rapidly self-assemble to highly ordered nanostructures. The ability to prepare brush polymers with precise structures has been enabled by advancements in controlled polymerization techniques. This Feature Article highlights the development of brush block copolymers as photonic crystals that can reflect visible to near-infrared wavelengths of light. Fabrication of these materials relies on polymer self-assembly processes to achieve nanoscale ordering, which allows for the rapid preparation of photonic crystals from common organic chemical feedstocks. The characteristic physical properties of brush block copolymers are discussed, along with methods for their preparation. Strategies to induce self-assembly at ambient temperatures and the use of blending techniques to tune photonic properties are emphasized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. X-ray Microscopy on Thin Metallic Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crecea, Vasilica

    2005-03-01

    We present a high-resolution microscopy experiment that uses hard X-rays supplied by Sector 34-ID C from the Advanced Photon Source. The sample of interest is a two-layered inverted nickel photonic crystal with spherical voids of 1900nm diameter and an expected feature size of c. 200nm. Although existing soft X-ray microscopy techniques can reach a sub-hundred nanometer resolution, nickel does not transmit light with energies in the range of the beams used in these cases (c. 1keV), thus rendering them inappropriate for the imaging of such samples. However, with hard X-rays nickel absorbs very little (c. 2-4 percent) light whose energy lies about its absorption edge, which is at 8.4keV. In this new experiment we were able to obtain a magnified image of the Ni photonic crystal with a resolution of 100nm, a result that is unprecedented in this type of system. The experimental set-up uses advanced hard X-ray optical components, such as Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors, Fresnel zone plates, and a scintillator screen.

  16. Thermo-, photo-, and mechano-responsive liquid crystal networks enable tunable photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, N; Hisano, K; Tatsumi, R; Aizawa, M; Barrett, C J; Shishido, A

    2017-10-25

    Tunable photonic crystals exhibiting optical properties that respond reversibly to external stimuli have been developed using liquid crystal networks (LCNs) and liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs). These tunable photonic crystals possess an inverse opal structure and are photo-responsive, but circumvent the usual requirement to contain dye molecules in the structure that often limit their applicability and cause optical degradation. Herein, we report tunable photonic crystal films that reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength under thermo-, photo- and mechano-stimuli, through bilayering a stimuli-responsive LCN including azobenzene units with a colourless inverse opal film composed of non-responsive, flexible durable polymers. By mechanically deforming the azobenzene containing LCN via various stimuli, the reflection peak wavelength from the bilayered film assembly could be shifted on demand. We confirm that the reflection peak shift occurs due to the deformation of the stimuli-responsive layer propagating towards and into the inverse opal layer to change its shape in response, and this shift behaviour is repeatable without optical degradation.

  17. Narrowband attenuation at 157 GHz by a plasma photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. J.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2017-11-01

    A plasma photonic crystal operating as a notch filter at 157 GHz ({νo} ) has been demonstrated. Comprising a 5  ×  10 array of microplasma jets, having a pitch and jet diameter of 1 mm and 400 µm, respectively, this two-dimensional plasma crystal exhibits an unexpectedly narrow stopband (Δ{ν}   =  1.0 GHz (FWHM)  =  0.6% {νo} ) and a maximum, time-averaged attenuation of 5% at 157.0 GHz. Simulations accurately predict the position of line center, and the assumption of a time-averaged electron density of 3  ×  1013 cm-3 is necessary for the predicted magnitude of peak attenuation (at 157 GHz) to be in agreement with experiment. Reconfigurable plasma photonic crystals, synthesized from microcavity plasmas and providing electromagnetic functionality in the 100 GHz-1 THz spectral region (300 µm  ⩽  λ  ⩽  3 mm), are now feasible.

  18. Study on sensing property of one-dimensional ring mirror-defect photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Luo, Pei; Cao, Huiying; Zhao, Zhiyong; Zhu, Qiguang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the photon localization and the photonic bandgap characteristics of photonic crystals (PCs), one-dimensional (1D) ring mirror-defect photonic crystal structure is proposed. Due to the introduction of mirror structure, a defect cavity is formed in the center of the photonic crystal, and then the resonant transmission peak can be obtained in the bandgap of transmission spectrum. The transfer matrix method is used to establish the relationship model between the resonant transmission peak and the structure parameters of the photonic crystals. Using the rectangular air gate photonic crystal structure, the dynamic monitoring of the detected gas sample parameters can be achieved from the shift of the resonant transmission peak. The simulation results show that the Q-value can attain to 1739.48 and the sensitivity can attain to 1642 nm ṡ RIU-1, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the sensing structure. The structure can provide certain theoretical reference for air pollution monitoring and gas component analysis.

  19. Light harvesting in photonic crystals revisited: why do slow photons at the blue edge enhance absorption?

    PubMed

    Deparis, O; Mouchet, S R; Su, B-L

    2015-11-11

    Light harvesting enhancement by slow photons in photonic crystal catalysts or dye-sensitized solar cells is a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of photoreactions. This structural effect is exploited in inverse opal TiO2 photocatalysts by tuning the red edge of the photonic band gap to the TiO2 electronic excitation band edge. In spite of many experimental demonstrations, the slow photon effect is not fully understood yet. In particular, observed enhancement by tuning the blue edge has remained unexplained. Based on rigorous couple wave analysis simulations, we quantify light harvesting enhancement in terms of absorption increase at a specific wavelength (monochromatic UV illumination) or photocurrent increase (solar light illumination), with respect to homogeneous flat slab of equivalent material thickness. We show that the commonly accepted explanation relying on light intensity confinement in high (low) dielectric constant regions at the red (blue) edge is challenged in the case of TiO2 inverse opals because of the sub-wavelength size of the material skeleton. The reason why slow photons at the blue edge are also able to enhance light harvesting is the loose confinement of the field, which leads to significant resonantly enhanced field intensity overlap with the skeleton in both red and blue edge tuning cases, yet with different intensity patterns.

  20. Enhancement of broadband optical absorption in photovoltaic devices by band-edge effect of photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu

    2013-08-26

    We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.

  1. Decoupling efficiency of multiple coupled photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tianbao; He, Lingjuan; Zhang, Jun; Fang, Liguang; Wu, Ping

    2009-11-01

    We investigate decoupling characteristics and efficiency of multiple coupled photonic crystal waveguides (M-CPCWs) using coupled mode theory on the basis of self-imaging principle. The three-, four- and eight-CPCWs are selected as the typical structures to discuss the general characteristics of the M-CPCWs. It is found that around the frequency where the multiple guided modes are almost degenerate, which leads to that the power transfer in the M-CPCWs is eliminated for any entrance. The frequency region for decoupling is insensitive to the number of coupled waveguides with the extinction ratios higher than -15dB. An optimization way by introducing a defect mode is utilized to enhance the decoupling efficiency. The simulation results are based on the finite-difference time-domain method. The decoupling of the M-CPCWs exhibit many advantages and may have practical applications in photonic integrated circuits.

  2. Photonic crystal materials and their application in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huadong; Lou, Rong; Chen, Yanxiao; Chen, Lili; Lu, Jingya; Dong, Qianqian

    2017-11-01

    Photonic crystal (PC) materials exhibit unique structural colors that originate from their intrinsic photonic band gap. Because of their highly ordered structure and distinct optical characteristics, PC-based biomaterials have advantages in the multiplex detection, biomolecular screening and real-time monitoring of biomolecules. In addition, PCs provide good platforms for drug loading and biomolecule modification, which could be applied to biosensors and biological carriers. A number of methods are now available to fabricate PC materials with variable structure colors, which could be applied in biomedicine. Emphasis is given to the description of various applications of PC materials in biomedicine, including drug delivery, biodetection and tumor screening. We believe that this article will promote greater communication among researchers in the fields of chemistry, material science, biology, medicine and pharmacy.

  3. Tunable defect mode realized by graphene-based photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiahui; Chen, Wan; Lv, Bo

    2016-04-01

    In this literature, we propose an active terahertz 1D photonic crystal, which consists of silicon layers and air layers. A graphene sheet is embedded at the interface between dielectric and air. Tunable photonic band gap is realized by changing the Fermi level of graphene. Transmission Matrix Method is utilized to explain the influence of the graphene layer. We also demonstrate that a dielectric slab attached with a thin sheet made of single-negative metamaterial acts like a pure dielectric slab with a thinner thickness. A tunable blue shift of the band gap can be realized by simply applying different chemical potentials on the graphene sheet. This feature can be utilized for the design of tunable high-gain antenna array and force generator in terahertz band.

  4. Photonic crystal waveguides on silicon rich nitride platform.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Kapil; Bucio, Thalia Dominguez; Al-Attili, Abdelrahman; Khokhar, Ali Z; Saito, Shinichi; Gardes, Frederic Y

    2017-02-20

    We demonstrate design, fabrication, and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides on a suspended silicon rich nitride (SRN) platform for applications at telecom wavelengths. Simulation results suggest that a 210 nm photonic band gap can be achieved in such PhC structures. We also developed a fabrication process to realize suspended PhC waveguides with a transmission bandwidth of 20 nm for a W1 PhC waveguide and over 70 nm for a W0.7 PhC waveguide. Using the Fabry-Pérot oscillations of the transmission spectrum we estimated a group index of over 110 for W1 PhC waveguides. For a W1 waveguide we estimated a propagation loss of 53 dB/cm for a group index of 37 and for a W0.7 waveguide the lowest propagation was 4.6 dB/cm.

  5. A photonic crystal superlattice based on triangular lattice.

    PubMed

    Neff, Curtis; Summers, Christopher

    2005-04-18

    A two-dimensional superlattice photonic crystal structure is investigated in which the holes in adjacent rows of a triangular lattice alternate between two different radii. The superimposition of a superlattice on a triangular lattice is shown to reduce the photonic bandgap, introduce band splitting, and change the dispersion contours so that dramatic effects are seen in the propagation, refraction, and dispersion properties of the structure. For single mode propagation, the superlattice shows regions of both positive and negative refraction as well as refraction at normal incidence. The physical mechanisms responsible for these effects are directly related to Brillouin Zone folding effects on the triangular lattice that lowers the lattice symmetry and introduces anisotropy in the lattice.

  6. Recent advances and progress in photonic crystal-based gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Amit Kumar; Sankar Dutta, Hemant; Pal, Suchandan

    2017-05-01

    This review covers the recent progress made in the photonic crystal-based sensing technology for gas sensing applications. Photonic crystal-based sensing has tremendous potential because of its obvious advantages in sensitivity, stability, miniaturisation, portability, online use, remote monitoring etc. Several 1D and 2D photonic crystal structures including photonic crystal waveguides and cavities for gas sensing applications have been discussed in this review. For each kind of photonic crystal structure, the novelty, measurement principle and their respective gas sensing properties are presented. The reported works and the corresponding results predict the possibility to realize a commercially viable miniaturized and highly sensitive photonic crystal-based optical gas sensor having flexibility in the structure of ultra-compact size with excellent sensing properties.

  7. Broadband slow light in one-dimensional logically combined photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2015-01-28

    Here, we demonstrate the broadband slow light effects in a new family of one dimensional photonic crystals, which are obtained by logically combining two photonic crystals of slightly different periods. The logical combination slowly destroys the original translational symmetries of the individual photonic crystals. Consequently, the Bloch modes of the individual photonic crystals with different wavevectors couple with each other, creating a vast number of slow modes. Specifically, we describe a photonic crystal architecture that results from a logical "OR" mixture of two one dimensional photonic crystals with a periods ratio of r = R/(R - 1), where R > 2 is an integer. Such a logically combined architecture, exhibits a broad region of frequencies in which a dense number of slow modes with varnishing group velocities, appear naturally as Bloch modes.

  8. Beaming of light and enhanced transmission via surface modes of photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Bulu, Irfan; Caglayan, Humeyra; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2005-11-15

    We report beaming and enhanced transmission of electromagnetic waves by use of surface corrugated photonic crystals. The modes of a finite-size photonic crystal composed of dielectric rods in free space have been analyzed by the plane-wave expansion method. We show the existence of surface propagating modes when the surface of the finite-size photonic crystal is corrugated. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the transmission through photonic crystal waveguides can be substantially increased by the existence of surface propagating modes at the input surface. In addition, the power emitted from the photonic crystal waveguide is confined to a narrow angular region when an appropriate surface corrugation is added to the output surface of the photonic crystal.

  9. Group theoretic expressions of optical singularities in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeldon, Jeffrey F.

    2009-08-01

    Fundamental theoretical insights into the fine structure of electromagnetic fields in photonic crystals are developed, by examining the singular nature of field representations in linear systems, and fundamental design paradigms are established in this meta-material system. Photonic crystals are optical meta-materials that permit the transport of electromagnetic energy that can be tailored by modifying the underlying periodically structured dielectric profile. Propagation is characterized by the dispersion surface through the Bloch states, where frequency wave vector relations characterize system response. A renewed appreciation for the richness of the dispersion relations has led to a deeper consideration of the modal structure itself and its inherent relationship to symmetry. This has led to a group theoretic treatment of the fundamental system space symmetries expressed through local representations of the singular character of the Bloch mode and its vortex states. Central to this study is an analysis of the local energy transport, which has uncovered the existence of optical vortices centered about phase singularities. Further investigation into the energy transport properties at the local level (i.e., far below the scale of the wavelength) reveals optical features never before explicated in the photonic crystal community. It is shown that the electromagnetic mode structure bears the hallmarks of singular optics, whereby the field becomes characterized by singularities---that is, spatial locations where mathematical descriptions of optical properties become undefined. Optical vortices, revealed by energy circulation about a singular point, are expressed by global system space symmetries and the particular character of the dispersion surface. Vortices are the local field magnitude response to their associated phase singularities. In this study, the locations of optical vortices in real space are determined using phasor geometry, and the symmetry rules for their

  10. Detection of endotoxin using a photonic crystal nanolaser

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Daichi; Hachuda, Shoji; Watanabe, Takumi

    2015-03-30

    Fast and reliable detection of endotoxin (ET) in medical equipment and pharmaceutical products is an essential precursor to clinical treatment. In this study, we demonstrate the use of shifts in wavelength of photonic crystal nanolasers for sensing the Limulus amebocyte lysate reaction, which is a standard method for detecting ET. From working curves of wavelength shift vs ET concentration, whose correlation factors were as high as 98%, we detected a required concentration of 0.001 EU/ml within 33 min and detected a low concentration of 0.0001 EU/ml.

  11. Surface photonic crystal structures for LED emission modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherek, Frantisek; Škriniarová, Jaroslava; Kuzma, Anton; Šušlik, Łuboš; Lettrichova, Ivana; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Application of photonic crystal structures (PhC) can be attractive for overall and local enhancement of light from patterned areas of the light emitting diode (LED) surface. We used interference and near-field scanning optical microscope lithography for patterning of the surface of GaAs/AlGaAs based LEDs emitted at 840 nm. Also new approach with patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane applied directly on the surface of red emitting LED was investigated. The overall emission properties of prepared LED with patterned structure show enhanced light extraction efficiency, what was documented from near- and far-field measurements.

  12. Hybrid plasmon photonic crystal resonance grating for integrated spectrometer biosensor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-01-15

    Using nanofabricated hybrid metal-dielectric nanohole array photonic crystal gratings, a hybrid plasmonic optical resonance spectrometer biosensor is demonstrated. The new spectrometer sensor technique measures plasmonic optical resonance from the first-order diffraction rather than via the traditional method of measuring optical resonance from transmission. The resonance spectra measured with the new spectrometer technique are compared with the spectra measured using a commercial optical spectrometer. It is shown that the new optical resonance spectrometer can be used to measure plasmonic optical resonance that otherwise cannot be measured with a regular optical spectrometer.

  13. Determination of glucose concentrations using photonic crystal LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yu-Yang; Chen, Yung-Tsan; Chang, Cheng-Yu; Lan, Wen-Yi; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2016-09-01

    As internet of things (IOT) has become a popular topic in current consumer electronics, there is a demand for cost-effective sensors to monitor bio-signals. Traditional optical sensors employ low-dimensional gratings and high-resolution spectrometers to detect the refractive index changes of the solutions. In this work, we develop an alternative approach to correlate the concentration of molecules to the band diagrams of the photonic crystals. A relatively low-resolution spectrum analyzer can be employed, yet achieves higher sensitivity than traditional approaches.

  14. Reflected wave of finite circulation from magnetic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Chui, S T; Liu, Shiyang; Lin, Zhifang

    2010-05-12

    We study the reflection of electromagnetic waves from a two-dimensional magnetic photonic crystal consisting of a periodic array of magnetic cylinders. At some frequencies the reflected wave is found to exhibit a strong circulation in that, locally, the angular momenta of the components are all of the same sign. As a result of this finite circulation, beams incident from different directions exhibit a dramatic change in their reflected waves. This effect can be used to build subwavelength one way waveguides, nearly perfect beam benders and splitters.

  15. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    PubMed Central

    Konopsky, Valery N.; Karakouz, Tanya; Alieva, Elena V.; Vicario, Chiara; Sekatskii, Sergey K.; Dietler, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS/PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately. PMID:23429517

  16. Nonreciprocal optical isolation via graphene based photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshan Entezar, S.; Karimi Habil, M.

    2018-03-01

    The transmission properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing graphene mono-layers are studied using the transfer matrix method. It is shown that the structure can be used as a polarization-selective nonreciprocal device which discriminates between the two circularly polarized waves with different handedness impinging in the same direction. This structure may be utilized in designing optical isolators for the circularly polarized waves due to the gyrotropic behavior of the graphene mono-layers under the perpendicularly applied external magnetic field. Moreover, the effect of an external magnetic field and the chemical potential of the graphene mono-layers on the band gap of the structure are investigated.

  17. Photonic Crystal Enabled Thermophotovoltaics for a Portable Microgenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Walker R.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Waits, Christopher M.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    This work presents the design and characterization of a first-of-a-kind millimeter- scale thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system using a metallic microburner, photonic crystal emitter, and low-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells. In our TPV system, combustion heats the emitter to incandescence and the resulting thermal radiation is converted to electricity by the low bandgap PV cells. Our motivation is to harness the high specific energy of hydrocarbon fuels at the micro- and millimeter-scale in order to meet the increasing power demands of micro robotics and portable electronics. Our experimental demonstration lays the groundwork for developing a TPV microgenerator as a viable battery replacement.

  18. Array integration of thousands of photonic crystal nanolasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takumi; Abe, Hiroshi; Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Baba, Toshihiko

    2014-03-01

    Photonic crystal (PC) nanolasers often consist of air-bridge PC slab, which enhances optical confinement while limiting its size to 30 × 30 μm2 due to the mechanical fragileness. This limit is broken by resin-mediated bonding of the PC slab on a host substrate. In this paper, we demonstrate a GaInAsP PC slab with a size of over 100 × 100 μm2 in which 1089, 2376, and 11 664 nanolasers showing high-yield laser operation are integrated.

  19. Anti-stiction coating for mechanically tunable photonic crystal devices.

    PubMed

    Petruzzella, M; Zobenica, Ž; Cotrufo, M; Zardetto, V; Mameli, A; Pagliano, F; Koelling, S; van Otten, F W M; Roozeboom, F; Kessels, W M M; van der Heijden, R W; Fiore, A

    2018-02-19

    A method to avoid the stiction failure in nano-electro-opto-mechanical systems has been demonstrated by coating the system with an anti-stiction layer of Al 2 O 3 grown by atomic layer deposition techniques. The device based on a double-membrane photonic crystal cavity can be reversibly operated from the pull-in back to its release status. This enables to electrically switch the wavelength of a mode over ~50 nm with a potential modulation frequency above 2 MHz. These results pave the way to reliable nano-mechanical sensors and optical switches.

  20. An ion trap built with photonic crystal fibre technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenfelser, F., E-mail: friederl@phys.ethz.ch; Keitch, B.; Kienzler, D.

    2015-03-15

    We demonstrate a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated using techniques transferred from the manufacture of photonic-crystal fibres. This provides a relatively straightforward route for realizing traps with an electrode structure on the 100 micron scale with high optical access. We demonstrate the basic functionality of the trap by cooling a single ion to the quantum ground state, allowing us to measure a heating rate from the ground state of 787 ± 24 quanta/s. Variation of the fabrication procedure used here may provide access to traps in this geometry with trap scales between 100 μm and 10 μm.

  1. Temperature characteristic of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lishuang; Jiao, Hongchen; Ren, Xiaoyuan; Song, Wenshuai

    2014-11-01

    The drift of birefringence difference can be caused by the ambient temperature variety of the fiber, which will lead to the change of lightwave polarization mode in the fiber. In the resonator fiber optic gyro systems, the change of lightwave polarization mode of the light transmission in the fiber can bring about the measurement error of the system. The hollowcore photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) resonator is designed to reduce the drift of birefringence difference caused by the temperature variety. It is verified experimentally that the temperature coefficient of the HCPCF birefringence difference is decreased about two orders of magnitude which is lower than that of the normal polarization maintaining fiber (PMF).

  2. High transmission in a metal-based photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Huanyang; Cai, Guoxiong

    2018-01-01

    We propose metal-based photonic crystals (PCs) with annular air cavities. The unit cell could be analogue to a two-dimensional finite quantum well, which makes the PC system closely describe the similar physics of atomic crystals. By tuning the filling ratio of air annuluses, we discover a band inversion between monopolar and dipolar states (or similarly, the s and p states in quantum mechanics). There is a transition system of accidental degeneracy, where a Dirac-like cone could be achieved. Such design could be used to implement high transmission in a bulk metal near the frequency of the Dirac-like point. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the wave transport behaviors of such a metallic system.

  3. The method of impedance transformation for electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Jingfeng; Yuan, Chengxun, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Gao, Ruilin

    2016-08-15

    This study focuses on the transmission of normal-incidence electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals. Using the Maxwell's equations in a medium, a method that is based on the concept of impendence is employed to perform the simulation. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by simulating a one-layer plasma and conventional photonic crystal. In frequency-domain, the transmission and reflection coefficients in the unmagnetized plasma photonic crystal were calculated, and the influence factors on plasma photonic crystals including dielectric constants of dielectric, spatial period, filling factor, plasma frequency, and collision frequency were studied.

  4. Bending self-collimated one-way light by using gyromagnetic photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qing-Bo; Jiangsu Key Construction Laboratory of Modern Measurement Technology and Intelligent System, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300; Li, Zhen

    2015-12-14

    We theoretically demonstrate that electromagnetic waves can self-collimate and propagate unidirectionally in photonic crystals fabricated using semicylindrical ferrite rods in magnetized states. The parity and time-reversal symmetries of such photonic crystals are broken, resulting in a self-collimated one-way body wave within the photonic crystals. By applying the bias magnetic field in a complex configuration, the self-collimated one-way wave beam can be bent into arbitrary trajectories within the photonic crystal, providing an avenue for controlling wave beams.

  5. Compact engineering of path-entangled sources from a monolithic quadratic nonlinear photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Jin, H; Xu, P; Luo, X W; Leng, H Y; Gong, Y X; Yu, W J; Zhong, M L; Zhao, G; Zhu, S N

    2013-07-12

    An integrated realization of photonic entangled states becomes an inevitable tendency toward integrated quantum optics. Here we report the compact engineering of steerable photonic path-entangled states from a monolithic quadratic nonlinear photonic crystal. The crystal acts as a coherent beam splitter to distribute photons into designed spatial modes, producing the heralded single-photon and appealing beamlike two-photon path entanglement. We characterize the path entanglement by implementing quantum spatial beating experiments. Such a multifunctional entangled source can be further extended to the high-dimensional fashion and multiphoton level, which paves a desirable way to engineering miniaturized quantum light sources.

  6. Photonic molecules for improving the optical response of macroporous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing purposes.

    PubMed

    Cardador, D; Segura, D; Rodríguez, A

    2018-02-19

    In this paper, we report the benefits of working with photonic molecules in macroporous silicon photonic crystals. In particular, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the optical properties of a resonant peak produced by a single photonic atom of 2.6 µm wide can be sequentially improved if a second and a third cavity of the same length are introduced in the structure. As a consequence of that, the base of the peak is reduced from 500 nm to 100 nm, while its amplitude remains constant, increasing its Q-factor from its initial value of 25 up to 175. In addition, the bandgap is enlarged almost twice and the noise within it is mostly eliminated. In this study we also provide a way of reducing the amplitude of one or two peaks, depending whether we are in the two- or three-cavity case, by modifying the length of the involved photonic molecules so that the remainder can be used to measure gas by spectroscopic methods.

  7. Electrically assisted bandedge mode selection of photonic crystal lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Ta; Chen, Chun-Wei; Yang, Tzu-Hsuan; Nys, Inge; Li, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Selection of the bandedge lasing mode of a photonic crystal laser has been realized in a fluorescent dye doped chiral nematic liquid crystal by exerting electrical control over the mode competition. The bandedge lasing can be reversibly switched from the short-wavelength edge mode to the long-wavelength edge mode by applying a voltage of only 20 V, without tuning the bandgap. The underlying mechanism is the field-induced change in the order parameter of the fluorescent dye in the liquid crystal. The orientation of the transition dipole moment determines the polarization state of the dye emission, thereby promoting lasing in the bandedge mode that favors the emission polarization. Moreover, the dynamic mode-selection capability is retained upon polymer-stabilizing the chiral nematic liquid crystal laser. In the polymer-stabilized system, greatly improved stability and lasing performance are observed.

  8. A thermally tunable inverse opal photonic crystal for monitoring glass transition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liguo; Xie, Zhuoying; Xu, Hua; Xu, Ming; Han, Guozhi; Wang, Cheng; Bai, Xuduo; Gu, ZhongZe

    2012-03-01

    An optical method was developed to monitor the glass transition of the polymer by taking advantage of reflection spectrum change of the thermally tunable inverse opal photonic crystal. The thermally tunable photonic bands of the polymer inverse opal photonic crystal were traceable to the segmental motion of macromolecules, and the segmental motion was temperature dependent. By observing the reflection spectrum change of the polystyrene inverse opal photonic crystal during thermal treatment, the glass transition temperature of polystyrene was gotten. Both changes of the position and intensity of the reflection peak were observed during the glass transition process of the polystyrene inverse opal photonic crystal. The optical change of inverse opal photonic crystal was so large that the glass transition temperature could even be estimated by naked eyes. The glass transition temperature derived from this method was consistent with the values measured by differential scanning calorimeter.

  9. A Nanofluidic Biosensor Based on Nanoreplica Molding Photonic Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu; Zhang, Dailin

    2016-09-01

    A nanofluidic biosensor based on nanoreplica molding photonic crystal (PC) was proposed. UV epoxy PC was fabricated by nanoreplica molding on a master PC wafer. The nanochannels were sealed between the gratings on the PC surface and a taped layer. The resonance wavelength of PC-based nanofluidic biosensor was used for testing the sealing effect. According to the peak wavelength value of the sensor, an initial label-free experiment was realized with R6g as the analyte. When the PC-based biosensor was illuminated by a monochromatic light source with a specific angle, the resonance wavelength of the sensor will match with the light source and amplified the electromagnetic field. The amplified electromagnetic field was used to enhance the fluorescence excitation result. The enhancement effect was used for enhancing fluorescence excitation and emission when matched with the resonance condition. Alexa Fluor 635 was used as the target dye excited by 637-nm laser source on a configured photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) setup, and an initial PCEF enhancement factor was obtained.

  10. Photonic crystal slab and Si-wire waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hirohito; Chu, Tao; Gomyo, Akiko; Ushida, Jun; Shirane, Masayuki; Ishida, Satomi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2006-09-01

    We fabricated various microscopic optical devices using photonic crystal slab and Si-wire waveguides and demonstrated their fundamental characteristics. We demonstrated a channel-dropping filter with a photonic crystal slab point-defect optical cavity. Wavelength resolution of less than 1.5 nm and signal dropping efficiency of more than 90 % were obtained for a 20-μm-square device. We also demonstrated an optical add/drop multiplexer with Bragg grating reflectors made from Si-wire waveguides. Its dropping wavelength bandwidth was less than 2 nm, and the center wavelength of the dropped optical signal could be tuned by thermo-optic control using a microheater formed on the Bragg reflector. Using Si-wire waveguide, we also demonstrated thermo-optic switches by forming a micro heater on a branch of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer constructed from the waveguides. In this switching operation, we observed an extinction ratio of more than 30 dB, switching power of less than 100 mW, and switching response speed of less than 100 μs using a 1 × 2 optical switch with an 85 × 30 μm2 footprint. Using the 1 × 2 optical switch elements, we also fabricated a compact 1 × 4 optical switch and demonstrated its fundamental operation.

  11. Multi-Color Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeremy; Liu, Sheng; Wang, George; Li, Qiming; Benz, Alexander; Koleske, Daniel; Lu, Ping; Xu, Huiwen; Lester, Luke; Luk, Ting; Brener, Igal; Subramania, Ganapathi

    2014-03-01

    Emerging applications such as solid-state lighting and display technologies require micro-scale vertically emitting lasers with controllable distinct lasing wavelengths and broad wavelength tunability arranged in desired geometrical patterns to form ``super-pixels.'' Conventional edge-emitting lasers and current surface-emitting lasers do not produce a viable solution as they require abrupt changes in semiconductor bandgaps or cavity length. Here, we successfully address these challenges by introducing a new paradigm that extends the laser tuning range additively by employing multiple monolithically grown gain sections each with a different emission center wavelength. Using broad gain-bandwidth III-nitride multiple quantum well (MQW) heterostructures and a novel top-down nanowire photonic crystal nanofabrication we obtain single-mode lasing in the blue-violet spectral region(Sci.Rep,3,2982(2013)). This has a remarkable 60 nm of tuning (or 16% of the nominal centre wavelength) that is determined purely by the photonic crystal geometry. This approach can be extended to cover the entire visible spectrum. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. What is the Brillouin zone of an anisotropic photonic crystal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivarajah, P.; Maznev, A. A.; Ofori-Okai, B. K.; Nelson, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    The concept of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in relation to a photonic crystal fabricated in an optically anisotropic material is explored both experimentally and theoretically. In experiment we used femtosecond laser pulses to excite THz polaritons and image their propagation in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate photonic crystal (PhC) slabs. We directly measured the dispersion relation inside PhCs and observed that the lowest band gap expected to form at the BZ boundary forms inside the BZ in the anisotropic lithium niobate PhC. Our analysis shows that in an anisotropic material the BZ—defined as the Wigner-Seitz cell in the reciprocal lattice—is no longer bounded by Bragg planes and thus does not conform to the original definition of the BZ by Brillouin. We construct an alternative Brillouin zone defined by Bragg planes and show its utility in identifying features of the dispersion bands. We show that for an anisotropic two-dimensional PhC without dispersion, the Bragg plane BZ can be constructed by applying the Wigner-Seitz method to a stretched or compressed reciprocal lattice. We also show that in the presence of the dispersion in the underlying material or in a slab waveguide, the Bragg planes are generally represented by curved surfaces rather than planes. The concept of constructing a BZ with Bragg planes should prove useful in understanding the formation of dispersion bands in anisotropic PhCs and in selectively tailoring their optical properties.

  13. Some emerging photonic technologies and their device impact: photonic crystals, plasmonics, and electromagnetically induced transparency (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylen, Lars; Qiu, Min

    2005-06-01

    Photonics is far behind electronics in maturity. The devices are orders of magnitude larger than their electronics counterparts and the functionality is low. But it appears that these issues are not fundamentally impossible to solve. In this paper some of the emerging possibilities to overcome the limitations mentioned above are briefly treated, and we discuss the utilization of these comparatively new phenomena to widen the application envelope of photonics technology to generate functions not normally associated with photonics. These developments could lead to quantum leaps in photonics devices, to complement the forceful engineering improvements. Examples of such potential candidate research fields for quantum leaps are: Coherent light matter interaction, plasmonics, quantum information and communications, photonic crystals, intersubband based devices. The list is by no means exhaustive. This paper will concentrate on coherent light matter interaction, plasmonics and photonic crystals.

  14. Observation of soliton compression in silicon photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Redondo, A.; Husko, C.; Eades, D.; Zhang, Y.; Li, J.; Krauss, T.F.; Eggleton, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Solitons are nonlinear waves present in diverse physical systems including plasmas, water surfaces and optics. In silicon, the presence of two photon absorption and accompanying free carriers strongly perturb the canonical dynamics of optical solitons. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of soliton-effect pulse compression of picosecond pulses in silicon, despite two photon absorption and free carriers. Here we achieve compression of 3.7 ps pulses to 1.6 ps with <10 pJ energy. We demonstrate a ~1-ps free-carrier-induced pulse acceleration and show that picosecond input pulses are critical to these observations. These experiments are enabled by a dispersion-engineered slow-light photonic crystal waveguide and an ultra-sensitive frequency-resolved electrical gating technique to detect the ultralow energies in the nanostructured device. Strong agreement with a nonlinear Schrödinger model confirms the measurements. These results further our understanding of nonlinear waves in silicon and open the way to soliton-based functionalities in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible platforms. PMID:24423977

  15. Photonic Crystal Structures with Tunable Structure Color as Colorimetric Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors. PMID:23539027

  16. Nanostructured Surfaces and Detection Instrumentation for Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhery, Vikram; George, Sherine; Lu, Meng; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal (PC) surfaces have been demonstrated as a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics and life science research. PCs can be engineered to support optical resonances at specific wavelengths at which strong electromagnetic fields are utilized to enhance the intensity of surface-bound fluorophore excitation. Meanwhile, the leaky resonant modes of PCs can be used to direct emitted photons within a narrow range of angles for more efficient collection by a fluorescence detection system. The multiplicative effects of enhanced excitation combined with enhanced photon extraction combine to provide improved signal-to-noise ratios for detection of fluorescent emitters, which in turn can be used to reduce the limits of detection of low concentration analytes, such as disease biomarker proteins. Fabrication of PCs using inexpensive manufacturing methods and materials that include replica molding on plastic, nano-imprint lithography on quartz substrates result in devices that are practical for single-use disposable applications. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity fluorescence detection in the context of molecular diagnosis and gene expression analysis though the use of PC surfaces. Recent efforts to improve the design and fabrication of PCs and their associated detection instrumentation are summarized, including the use of PCs coupled with Fabry-Perot cavities and external cavity lasers. PMID:23624689

  17. Experimental GVD engineering in slow light slot photonic crystal waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Serna, Samuel; Colman, Pierre; Zhang, Weiwei; Le Roux, Xavier; Caer, Charles; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The use in silicon photonics of the new optical materials developed in soft matter science (e.g. polymers, liquids) is delicate because their low refractive index weakens the confinement of light and prevents an efficient control of the dispersion properties through the geometry. We experimentally demonstrate that such materials can be incorporated in 700 μm long slot photonic crystal waveguides, and hence can benefit from both slow-light field enhancement effect and slot-induced ultra-small effective areas. Additionally, we show that their dispersion can be engineered from anomalous to normal regions, along with the presence of multiple zero group velocity dispersion (ZGVD) points exhibiting Normalized Delay Bandwidth Product as high as 0.156. The reported results provide experimental evidence for an accurate control of the dispersion properties of fillable periodical slotted structures in silicon photonics, which is of direct interest for on-chip all-optical data treatment using nonlinear optical effects in hybrid-on-silicon technologies. PMID:27243377

  18. Photonic crystals for enhancing the absorption of organic photovoltaic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duché, D.; Escoubas, L.; Simon, J. J.; Torchio, Ph.; Flory, F.; Roumiguières, J.-L.; Labeyrie, A.; Eyraud, M.

    2008-04-01

    Our work deals with the improvement of "light harvesting" in organic photovoltaic cells by using photonic nanostructures. We have theoretically studied a periodically nanostructured poly (3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT)/6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) thin film in order to increase its absorption in the near infrared spectral range. We have used a software, based on the FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method, to calculate the absorption of light in organics solar cells. We have also considered the nanostructured photoactive layer of solar cells as a photonic crystal and we have computed band diagrams to study the dispersion curves of this structure. We have first studied a blend (bulk heterojunction) with the same proportions of P3HT and PCBM. This material provide at this time the best results in terms of photovoltaic efficiency. Nevertheless, in order to improve the transport of charges to the electrodes, a model with P3HT and PCBM independently nanostructured (ordered heterostructure) was also used. Moreover, this periodic nanostructuration allows "slow Bloch modes" to be coupled inside the device with a low group velocity of electromagnetic waves. Thus, the interaction duration between light and organics materials is improved. The P3HT/PCBM photonic crystal parameters have been adjusted to maximize the density of Bloch modes and to obtain flat dispersion curves. We have found that the light matter interaction was strongly enhanced which resulted in a 35.6% increase of absorption in the 600 nm to 700 nm spectral range. In order to realize nanostructured organic solar cells, we are also developing an experimental prototype, based on a patented process, which allows to nanostructure several kinds of polymers.

  19. Realizing functional two-dimensional photonic crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustai, David M.

    In this thesis, I propose the use of semiconductor-based optical integrated circuits (OICs) as a paradigm shift for next-generation integrated circuits, where the path of the optical signal is controlled by means of photonic-crystals (PhCs). In the past decade, there has been a growing interest in the realization of photonic crystals as optical components and circuits, mainly due to their unique ability to control the propagation of light. Particularly, this realization has been sought through the embodiment of planar PhCs due to the relative ease in which they are computationally modeled and subsequently fabricated for operation at optical frequencies. In this thesis, I realize such planar PhCs by perforating a dielectric slab with air holes, wherein they can be optimized to manipulate the photonic bandgap (PBG) as well as the inherent unique dispersive characteristics. I discuss how the ability to precisely control the parameters of the PhC through global and local modifications can be exploited to create novel devices for improving the overall functionality of PhCs for use in OICs. Specifically, this entails locally modifying the PhC to achieve light localization within the PhC by introducing defects into the PhC lattice. Additionally, I employ alternative mechanisms to efficiently guide light in a PhC by engineering the dispersion properties such that incident waves with a certain angular range are naturally collimated along certain directions via self-collimation. Finally, the first realized dispersion engineered devices are presented.

  20. Thermal optical nonlinearity in photonic crystal fibers filled with nematic liquid crystals doped with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesiak, Piotr; Budaszewski, Daniel; Bednarska, Karolina; Wójcik, Michał; Sobotka, Piotr; Chychłowski, Miłosz; Woliński, Tomasz R.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we studied a newly reported class of nonlinear effects observed in 5CB liquid crystals doped with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The size of the GNP was determined by direct TEM imaging and by X-ray scattering of the diluted NP solution. GNPs was coated by thiols with the ratio of mesogenic to n-alkyl thiols varying from 1:2 to 1:1. The research involved comparing properties of both undoped and doped 5CB (nematic LC) by infiltrating LC cell and microholes of the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) separately. In our experiment the PCF fiber type LMA-10 made by NKT Photonics as host material has been used.

  1. Extraordinary wavelength reduction in terahertz graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Ian A. D.; Mousavi, S. Hossein; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal slabs have been widely used in nanophotonics for light confinement, dispersion engineering, nonlinearity enhancement, and other unusual effects arising from their structural periodicity. Sub-micron device sizes and mode volumes are routine for silicon-based photonic crystal slabs, however spectrally they are limited to operate in the near infrared. Here, we show that two single-layer graphene sheets allow silicon photonic crystal slabs with submicron periodicity to operate in the terahertz regime, with an extreme 100× wavelength reduction from graphene’s large kinetic inductance. The atomically thin graphene further leads to excellent out-of-plane confinement, and consequently photonic-crystal-slab band structures that closely resemble those of ideal two-dimensional photonic crystals, with broad band gaps even when the slab thickness approaches zero. The overall photonic band structure not only scales with the graphene Fermi level, but more importantly scales to lower frequencies with reduced slab thickness. Just like ideal 2D photonic crystals, graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs confine light along line defects, forming waveguides with the propagation lengths on the order of tens of lattice constants. The proposed structure opens up the possibility to dramatically reduce the size of terahertz photonic systems by orders of magnitude. PMID:27143314

  2. Extraordinary wavelength reduction in terahertz graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Ian A D; Mousavi, S Hossein; Wang, Zheng

    2016-05-04

    Photonic crystal slabs have been widely used in nanophotonics for light confinement, dispersion engineering, nonlinearity enhancement, and other unusual effects arising from their structural periodicity. Sub-micron device sizes and mode volumes are routine for silicon-based photonic crystal slabs, however spectrally they are limited to operate in the near infrared. Here, we show that two single-layer graphene sheets allow silicon photonic crystal slabs with submicron periodicity to operate in the terahertz regime, with an extreme 100× wavelength reduction from graphene's large kinetic inductance. The atomically thin graphene further leads to excellent out-of-plane confinement, and consequently photonic-crystal-slab band structures that closely resemble those of ideal two-dimensional photonic crystals, with broad band gaps even when the slab thickness approaches zero. The overall photonic band structure not only scales with the graphene Fermi level, but more importantly scales to lower frequencies with reduced slab thickness. Just like ideal 2D photonic crystals, graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs confine light along line defects, forming waveguides with the propagation lengths on the order of tens of lattice constants. The proposed structure opens up the possibility to dramatically reduce the size of terahertz photonic systems by orders of magnitude.

  3. Self-energy shift of the energy levels of atomic hydrogen in photonic crystal medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, R. Kh; Khamadeev, M. A.; Steryakov, O. V.; Ziyatdinova, K. A.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2016-05-01

    Corrections to the average kinetic energy of atomic electrons caused by the change in electron mass in the photonic crystal medium are investigated. Corresponding shift of energy levels of atoms placed in a photonic crystal is shown to be of order of the ordinary Lamb shift.

  4. Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y.; Pirotta, S.; Urbinati, G.; Gerace, D.; Minkov, M.; Savona, V.; Badolato, A.; Galli, M.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ≃ 2 × 106 in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

  5. Parametric down-conversion with optimized spectral properties in nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Maria; U'Ren, Alfred B.

    2007-10-15

    We study the joint spectral properties of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal in a collinear, degenerate, type-II geometry. We show that the photonic crystal properties may be exploited to compensate for material dispersion and obtain photon pairs that are nearly factorable, in principle, for arbitrary materials and spectral regions, limited by the ability to fabricate the nonlinear crystal with the required periodic variation in the refractive indices for the ordinary and extraordinary waves.

  6. Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Y.; Badolato, A., E-mail: antonio.badolato@gmail.com; Pirotta, S.

    2014-06-16

    We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ≃ 2 × 10{sup 6} in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

  7. Three-dimensional photonic crystals created by single-step multi-directional plasma etching.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kitano, Keisuke; Ishizaki, Kenji; Noda, Susumu

    2014-07-14

    We fabricate 3D photonic nanostructures by simultaneous multi-directional plasma etching. This simple and flexible method is enabled by controlling the ion-sheath in reactive-ion-etching equipment. We realize 3D photonic crystals on single-crystalline silicon wafers and show high reflectance (>95%) and low transmittance (<-15dB) at optical communication wavelengths, suggesting the formation of a complete photonic bandgap. Moreover, our method simply demonstrates Si-based 3D photonic crystals that show the photonic bandgap effect in a shorter wavelength range around 0.6 μm, where further fine structures are required.

  8. Two-photon fluorescence biosensing with conventional and photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myaing, Mon Thiri; Ye, Jing Yong; Norris, Theodore B.; Thomas, Thommey P.; Baker, James R., Jr.; Wadsworth, William J.; Bouwmans, Geraud; Knight, Jonathan C.; Russell, Philip S. J.

    2004-06-01

    Fluorescence is a powerful tool for biosensing, but conventional fluorescence measurements are limited because solid tumors are highly scattering media. To obtain quantitative in vivo fluorescence information from tumors, we have developed a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence (TPOFF) probe where excitation light is delivered and the two-photon fluorescence (TPF) excited at the tip of the fiber is collected back through the same fiber. In order to determine whether this system can provide quantitative information, we measured the fluorescence from a variety of systems including mouse tumors (both ex vivo and in vivo) which were transfected with the gene to express varying amounts of green fluorescence protein (GFP), and tumors which were labeled with targeted dendrimer-based drug delivery agents. The TPOFF technique showed results quantitatively in agreement with those from flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In order to improve the sensitivity of our fiber probe, we developed a dual-clad photonic-crystal fiber which allowed single-mode excitation and multimode (high numerical aperture) collection of TPF. These experiments indicate that the TPOFF technique is highly promising for real-time, in vivo, quantitative fluorescence measurements.

  9. Frequency tunability of solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with nanoparticle-doped liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Lara; Gauza, Sebastian; Xianyu, Haiqing; Zhai, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Wu, Shin-Tson; Bjarklev, Anders

    2009-03-02

    We infiltrate liquid crystals doped with BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a photonic crystal fiber and compare the measured transmission spectrum with the one achieved without dopant. New interesting features, such as frequency modulation response of the device and a transmission spectrum with tunable attenuation on the short wavelength side of the widest bandgap, suggest a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber gain equalization filter with an adjustable slope. The tunability of the device is achieved by varying the amplitude and the frequency of the applied external electric field. The threshold voltage for doped and undoped liquid crystals in a silica capillary and in a glass cell are also measured as a function of the frequency of the external electric field and the achieved results are compared.

  10. Electrically tunable Yb-doped fiber laser based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device.

    PubMed

    Olausson, Christina B; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei; Noordegraaf, Danny; Weirich, Johannes; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Hansen, Kim P; Bjarklev, Anders

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an all-spliced laser cavity based on the liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber mounted on a silicon assembly, a pump/signal combiner with single-mode signal feed-through and an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. The laser cavity produces a single-mode output and is tuned in the range 1040-1065 nm by applying an electric field to the silicon assembly.

  11. In-plane single-photon emission from a L3 cavity coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Schwagmann, Andre; Kalliakos, Sokratis; Ellis, David J P; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P; Jones, Geb A C; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2012-12-17

    We report on the design and experimental demonstration of a system based on an L3 cavity coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide for in-plane single-photon emission. A theoretical and experimental investigation for all the cavity modes within the photonic bandgap is presented for stand-alone L3 cavity structures. We provide a detailed discussion supported by finite-difference time-domain calculations of the evanescent coupling of an L3 cavity to a photonic crystal waveguide for on-chip single-photon transmission. Such a system is demonstrated experimentally by the in-plane transmission of quantum light from an InAs quantum dot coupled to the L3 cavity mode.

  12. Highly versatile in-reflection photonic crystal fibre interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Rajan; Villatoro, Joel; Kreuzer, Mark; Finazzi, Vittoria; Pruneri, Valerio

    2009-10-01

    We report a simple and highly versatile photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer that operates in reflection mode. The device consists of a short section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard single mode fiber. The air-holes of the PCF are intentionally collapsed over a microscopic region around the splice. The collapsed region broadens the propagating mode because of diffraction. This allows the coupling and recombination of two PCF modes. Depending on the PCF structure two core modes or a core and a cladding mode can be excited. In either case the devices exhibit sinusoidal interference patterns with fringe spacing depending on the PCF length. The interferometers are highly stable over time and can operate at high temperatures with minimal degradation. The interferometers are suitable for highresolution sensing of strain, refractive index (biosensing), gases, volatile organic compounds, etc.

  13. Photonic crystals cause active colour change in chameleons

    PubMed Central

    Teyssier, Jérémie; Saenko, Suzanne V.; van der Marel, Dirk; Milinkovitch, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    Many chameleons, and panther chameleons in particular, have the remarkable ability to exhibit complex and rapid colour changes during social interactions such as male contests or courtship. It is generally interpreted that these changes are due to dispersion/aggregation of pigment-containing organelles within dermal chromatophores. Here, combining microscopy, photometric videography and photonic band-gap modelling, we show that chameleons shift colour through active tuning of a lattice of guanine nanocrystals within a superficial thick layer of dermal iridophores. In addition, we show that a deeper population of iridophores with larger crystals reflects a substantial proportion of sunlight especially in the near-infrared range. The organization of iridophores into two superposed layers constitutes an evolutionary novelty for chameleons, which allows some species to combine efficient camouflage with spectacular display, while potentially providing passive thermal protection. PMID:25757068

  14. Magnetic Field Measurements Based on Terfenol Coated Photonic Crystal Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Sully M. M.; Martelli, Cicero; Braga, Arthur M. B.; Valente, Luiz C. G.; Kato, Carla C.

    2011-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor based on the integration of a high birefringence photonic crystal fiber and a composite material made of Terfenol particles and an epoxy resin is proposed. An in-fiber modal interferometer is assembled by evenly exciting both eigenemodes of the HiBi fiber. Changes in the cavity length as well as the effective refractive index are induced by exposing the sensor head to magnetic fields. The magnetic field sensor has a sensitivity of 0.006 (nm/mT) over a range from 0 to 300 mT with a resolution about ±1 mT. A fiber Bragg grating magnetic field sensor is also fabricated and employed to characterize the response of Terfenol composite to the magnetic field. PMID:22247655

  15. Grapefruit photonic crystal fiber sensor for gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chuanyi; Wei, Heming; Zhu, Yinian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-05-01

    Use of long period gratings (LPGs) formed in grapefruit photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with thin-film overlay coated on the inner surface of air holes for gas sensing is demonstrated. The finite-element method was used to numerically simulate the grapefruit PCF-LPG modal coupling characteristics and resonance spectral response with respect to the refractive index of thin-film inside the holey region. A gas analyte-induced index variation of the thin-film immobilized on the inner surface of the holey region of the fiber can be observed by a shift of the resonance wavelength. As an example, we demonstrate a 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) sensor using grapefruit PCF-LPGs. The sensor exhibits a wavelength blue-shift of ˜820 pm as a result of exposure to DNT vapor with a vapor pressure of 411 ppbv at 25°C, and a sensitivity of 2 pm ppbv-1 can be achieved.

  16. Dual-hole Photonic Crystal Fiber Intermodal Interference based Refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Guo, Xuan; Zhang, Qing; Fu, Xinghu

    2017-12-01

    A refractive-index (RI) sensor and its sensing characteristics based on intermodal interference of dual-hole Polarization Maintaining Photonic Crystal Fiber (PM-PCF) are demonstrated in this letter. The sensor works from the interference between LP01 and LP11 modes of hydrofluoric acid etched PM-PCF. The influence of corrosion zone radius on the RI sensing sensitivity is also discussed. Via choosing a 2.5 cm etched PM-PCF(the etched area radius is 27.5 μm) and 650 nm laser, the sensor exhibits the RI sensitivity of 7.48 V/RIU. The simple sensor structure and inexpensive demodulation method can make this technology for online refractive index measurement in widespread areas.

  17. Hydrostatic Pressure Sensing with High Birefringence Photonic Crystal Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Fávero, Fernando C.; Quintero, Sully M. M.; Martelli, Cicero; Braga, Arthur M.B.; Silva, Vinícius V.; Carvalho, Isabel C. S.; Llerena, Roberth W. A.; Valente, Luiz C. G.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the waveguiding properties of high birefringence photonic crystal fibers (HiBi PCF) is evaluated both numerically and experimentally. A fiber design presenting form birefringence induced by two enlarged holes in the innermost ring defining the fiber core is investigated. Numerical results show that modal sensitivity to the applied pressure depends on the diameters of the holes, and can be tailored by independently varying the sizes of the large or small holes. Numerical and experimental results are compared showing excellent agreement. A hydrostatic pressure sensor is proposed and demonstrated using an in-fiber modal interferometer where the two orthogonally polarized modes of a HiBi PCF generate fringes over the optical spectrum of a broad band source. From the analysis of experimental results, it is concluded that, in principle, an operating limit of 92 MPa in pressure could be achieved with 0.0003% of full scale resolution. PMID:22163435

  18. Numerical analyses of splice losses of photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongnan; Duan, Kailiang; Liu, Zejin; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei

    2009-12-01

    Splice losses between a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and a single mode fiber (SMF) or a PCF are numerically investigated by using finite element method (FEM) with the circular perfectly matched layer (PML). Results show that the splice loss between a SMF and a PCF with air holes completely collapsed can reach many times of that between a SMF and a PCF without air-hole collapse. We calculate the rotation losses between two identical PCFs of three kinds: large mode area, polarization maintaining and grapefruit. It is shown that for the large mode area PCF and the grapefruit PCF, the rotation losses are sensitive to the wavelength when the rotation angle is larger than zero degree. The non-circular mode field distribution is the main source of the rotation loss.

  19. Optical Tamm states in one-dimensional superconducting photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    El Abouti, O.; El Boudouti, E. H.; IEMN, UMR-CNRS 8520, UFR de Physique, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we investigate localized and resonant optical waves associated with a semi-infinite superlattice made out of superconductor-dielectric bilayers and terminated with a cap layer. Both transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves are considered. These surface modes are analogous to the so-called Tamm states associated with electronic states found at the surface of materials. The surface guided modes induced by the cap layer strongly depend on whether the superlattice ends with a superconductor or a dielectric layer, the thickness of the surface layer, the temperature of the superconductor layer as well as on the polarization of the waves. Differentmore » kinds of surface modes are found and their properties examined. These structures can be used to realize the highly sensitive photonic crystal sensors.« less

  20. Brilliant camouflage: photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis.

    PubMed

    Wilts, Bodo D; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2012-07-07

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structure. Reflectance spectra measured from individual scale domains perfectly match model spectra, calculated with anatomical data and finite-difference time-domain methods. The reflections of single domains are extremely directional (observed with a point source less than 5°), but the special arrangement of the scales in the concave pits significantly broadens the angular distribution of the reflections. The resulting virtually angle-independent green coloration of the weevil closely approximates the colour of a foliaceous background. While the close-distance colourful shininess of E. imperialis may facilitate intersexual recognition, the diffuse green reflectance of the elytra when seen at long-distance provides cryptic camouflage.

  1. Magnetic field sensor based on coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Han; Zhou, Guangya; Zhao, Yunshan; Chen, Guoqiang; Chau, Fook Siong

    2017-02-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a resonant Lorentz force magnetic field sensor based on dual-coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. Compared with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Lorentz force magnetometers, the proposed magnetic field sensor has an ultra-small footprint (less than 70 μm × 40 μm) and a wider operation bandwidth (of 160 Hz). The sensing mechanism is based on the resonance wavelength shift of a selected supermode of the coupled cavities, which is caused by the Lorentz force-induced relative displacement of the cavity nanobeams, and thus the optical transmission variation. The sensitivity and resolution of the device demonstrated experimentally are 22.9 mV/T and 48.1 μT/Hz1/2, respectively. The results can be further improved by optimizing the initial offset of the two nanobeams.

  2. Photonic crystals cause active colour change in chameleons.

    PubMed

    Teyssier, Jérémie; Saenko, Suzanne V; van der Marel, Dirk; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2015-03-10

    Many chameleons, and panther chameleons in particular, have the remarkable ability to exhibit complex and rapid colour changes during social interactions such as male contests or courtship. It is generally interpreted that these changes are due to dispersion/aggregation of pigment-containing organelles within dermal chromatophores. Here, combining microscopy, photometric videography and photonic band-gap modelling, we show that chameleons shift colour through active tuning of a lattice of guanine nanocrystals within a superficial thick layer of dermal iridophores. In addition, we show that a deeper population of iridophores with larger crystals reflects a substantial proportion of sunlight especially in the near-infrared range. The organization of iridophores into two superposed layers constitutes an evolutionary novelty for chameleons, which allows some species to combine efficient camouflage with spectacular display, while potentially providing passive thermal protection.

  3. Brilliant camouflage: photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis

    PubMed Central

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structure. Reflectance spectra measured from individual scale domains perfectly match model spectra, calculated with anatomical data and finite-difference time-domain methods. The reflections of single domains are extremely directional (observed with a point source less than 5°), but the special arrangement of the scales in the concave pits significantly broadens the angular distribution of the reflections. The resulting virtually angle-independent green coloration of the weevil closely approximates the colour of a foliaceous background. While the close-distance colourful shininess of E. imperialis may facilitate intersexual recognition, the diffuse green reflectance of the elytra when seen at long-distance provides cryptic camouflage. PMID:22378806

  4. Robust spin squeezing preservation in photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wo-Jun; Li, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xing; Xie, Ying-Mao

    2016-08-01

    We show that the robust spin squeezing preservation can be achieved by utilizing detuning modification for an ensemble of N separate two-level atoms embedded in photonic crystal cavities (PCC). In particular, we explore the different dynamical behaviors of spin squeezing between isotropic and anisotropic PCC cases when the atomic frequency is inside the band gap. In both cases, it is shown that the robust preservation of spin squeezing is completely determined by the formation of bound states. Intriguingly, we find that unlike the isotropic case where steady-state spin squeezing varies smoothly when the atomic frequency moves from the inside to the outside band edge, a sudden transition occurs for the anisotropic case. The present results may be of direct importance for, e.g. quantum metrology in open quantum systems.

  5. A modified hexagonal photonic crystal fiber for terahertz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Sultana, Jakeya; Faisal, Mohammad; Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Dinovitser, Alex; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Abbott, Derek

    2018-05-01

    We present a Zeonex based highly birefringent and dispersion flattened porous core photonic crystal fiber (PC-PCF) for polarization preserving applications in the terahertz region. In order to facilitate birefringence, an array of elliptical shaped air holes surrounded by porous cladding is introduced. The porous cladding comprises circular air-holes in a modified hexagonal arrangement. The transmission characteristics of the proposed PCF are investigated using a full-vector finite element method with perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions. Simulation results show a high birefringence of 0.086 and an ultra-flattened dispersion variation of ± 0.03 ps/THz/cm at optimal design parameters. Besides, a number of other important wave-guiding properties including frequency dependence of the effective material loss (EML), confinement loss, and effective area are also investigated to assess the fiber's effectiveness as a terahertz waveguide.

  6. Magnetic Light-Matter Interactions in a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burresi, M.; Kampfrath, T.; van Oosten, D.; Prangsma, J. C.; Song, B. S.; Noda, S.; Kuipers, L.

    2010-09-01

    We study the magnetic coupling between a metal-coated near-field probe and a photonic crystal nanocavity. The resonance of the nanocavity shifts to shorter wavelengths when the ringlike apex of the probe is above an antinode of the magnetic field of the cavity. We show that this can be attributed to a magnetic light-matter interaction and is in fact a manifestation of Lenz’s law at optical frequencies. We use these measurements to determine the magnetic polarizability of the apex of the probe and find good agreement with theory. We discuss how this method could be applied to study the electric and magnetic polarizibilities of nano-objects.

  7. Systematic design of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jui-Ming

    2017-03-01

    This article systematically designs and theoretically investigates a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber (HB-PCF) for reducing the effect of polarization mode dispersion in high-speed optical communication system. To achieve a high modal birefringence in the proposed HB-PCF, four types of HB-PCF were designed by adding some birefringence-enhancing factors step by step in sequence. Ultimately, as per the simulation results, in the condition of single-mode operation, the numeric values of modal birefringence and confinement loss of the proposed HB-PCF is about 21.85 × 10- 3 and 0.47 dB/km at the habitual wavelength λ = 1.55 µm of optical-fiber communications.

  8. Hollow core photonic crystal fiber as a reusable Raman biosensor.

    PubMed

    Khetani, Altaf; Riordon, Jason; Tiwari, Vidhu; Momenpour, Ali; Godin, Michel; Anis, Hanan

    2013-05-20

    We report that a single hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) can be used for repetitive characterization of multiple samples by Raman spectroscopy. This was achieved by integrating the HC-PCF to a differential pressure system that allowed effective filling, draining and re-filling of samples into a HC-PCF under identical optical conditions. Consequently, high-quality and reliable spectral data could be obtained which were suitable for multivariate analysis (partial least squares). With the present scheme, we were able to accurately predict different concentrations of heparin and adenosine in serum. Thus the detection scheme as presented here paves a path for the inclusion of HC-PCFs in point-of-care technologies and environmental monitoring where rapid sample characterization is of utmost importance.

  9. Cavity optomechanics with 2D photonic crystal membrane reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingaraju, Navin B.; Shuai, Yichen; Lawall, John

    2016-03-01

    Membranes made from silicon nitride have significantly higher mechanical Q-factors under tensile stress than those made of other dielectric materials. This makes them ideal candidates for membrane reflectors that provide high finesse in Fabry-Perot cavities or membrane-in-the-middle optomechanical systems. Building on our previous work with one-dimensional gratings on suspended membranes, we patterned two-dimensional photonic crystal gratings on monolithic, suspended membranes made from silicon nitride. These high-Q membranes exhibited high reflectivity, upwards of 99%, over several nanometers in the telecom band. To probe their optical response in a cavity environment, we used these membrane reflectors as the moving mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity. We were able to realize cavities with a finesse of over 4,500.

  10. Functionalized photonic crystal for the sensing of Sarin agents.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chunxiao; Qi, Fenglian; Li, Shuguang; Xu, Jiayu; Liu, Chao; Meng, Zihui; Qiu, Lili; Xue, Min; Lu, Wei; Yan, Zequn

    2016-10-01

    The indiscriminate use of nerve agents by terrorist groups has attracted attention of the scientific communities toward the development of novel sensor technique for these deadly chemicals. A photonic crystal (PhC) hydrogel immobilized with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) was firstly prepared for the sensing of Sarin agents. Periodic polystyrene colloidal (240nm) array was embedded inside an acrylamide hydrogel, and then BuChE was immobilized inside the hydrogel matrix via condensation with 3-(diethoxyphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-benzotriazin-4(3h)-one (DEPBT). It indicated that a total of 3.7 units of BuChE were immobilized onto the PhC hydrogel. The functionalized hydrogel recognized the Sarin agent and then shrunk, thus the diffraction of PhC hydrogel blue shifted significantly, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 10(-15)molL(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Simple plane wave implementation for photonic crystal calculations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shangping; Albin, Sacharia

    2003-01-27

    A simple implementation of plane wave method is presented for modeling photonic crystals with arbitrary shaped 'atoms'. The Fourier transform for a single 'atom' is first calculated either by analytical Fourier transform or numerical FFT, then the shift property is used to obtain the Fourier transform for any arbitrary supercell consisting of a finite number of 'atoms'. To ensure accurate results, generally, two iterating processes including the plane wave iteration and grid resolution iteration must converge. Analysis shows that using analytical Fourier transform when available can improve accuracy and avoid the grid resolution iteration. It converges to the accurate results quickly using a small number of plane waves. Coordinate conversion is used to treat non-orthogonal unit cell with non-regular 'atom' and then is treated by standard numerical FFT. MATLAB source code for the implementation requires about less than 150 statements, and is freely available at http://www.lions.odu.edu/~sguox002.

  12. Ultrafast modulators based on nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhifu; Li, Jianheng; Tu, Yongming; Ho, Seng-Tiong; Wessels, Bruce W.

    2011-03-01

    Nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides are being developed for ultrafast modulators. To enable phase velocity matching we have investigated one- and two-dimensional structures. Photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides based on epitaxial barium titanate (BTO) thin film in a Si3N4/BTO/MgO multilayer structure were fabricated by electron beam lithography or focused ion beam (FIB) milling. For both one- and two-dimensional PhCs, simulation shows that sufficient refractive index contrast is achieved to form a stop band. For one-dimensional Bragg reflector, we measured its slow light properties and the group refractive index of optical wave. For a millimeter long waveguide a 27 nm wide stop band was obtained at 1550 nm. A slowing of the light was observed, the group refractive indices at the mid band gap and at the band edges were estimated to be between 8.0 and 12 for the transverse electric (TE) mode, and 6.9 and 13 for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode. For TE optical modes, the enhancement factor of EO coefficient ranges from 7 to 13, and for the TM mode, the factor ranges from 5.9 to 15. Measurements indicate that near velocity phase matching can be realized. Upon realizing the phase velocity matching condition, devices with a small foot print with bandwidths at 490 GHz can be attained. Two-dimensional PhC crystal with a hexagonal lattice was also investigated. The PhCs were fabricated from epitaxial BTO thin film multilayers using focused ion beam milling. The PhCs are based on BTO slab waveguide and air hole arrays defined within Si3N4 and BTO thin films. A refractive index contrast of 0.4 between the barium titanate thin film multilayers and the air holes enables strong light confinement. For the TE optical mode, the hexagonal photonic crystal lattice with a diameter of 155 nm and a lattice constant of 740 nm yields a photonic bandgap over the wavelength range from 1525 to 1575 nm. The transmission spectrum of the PhC waveguide exhibits stronger Fabry Perot

  13. Hexagonal photonic crystal waveguide based on barium titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianheng; Liu, Zhifu; Wessels, Bruce W.; Tu, Yongming; Ho, Seng-Tiong; Joshi-Imre, Alexandra; Ocola, Leonidas E.

    2011-03-01

    The simulation, fabrication and measurement of nonlinear photonic crystals (PhCs) with hexagonal symmetry in epitaxial BaTiO3 were investigated. The optical transmission properties of a PhC were simulated by a 2-D finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. A complete bandgap exists for both the TE and TM optical modes. The fabricated PhC has a well-defined stop band over the spectral region of 1525 to 1575 nm. A microcavity structure was also fabricated by incorporation of a line defect in the PhC. Transmission of the microcavity structure over the spectral region from 1456 to 1584nm shows a well-defined 5 nm wide window at 1495nm. Simulations indicate that the phase velocity matched PhC microcavity device of 0.5 mm long can potentially serve as modulator with a 3 dB bandwidth of 4 THz.

  14. Photonic Crystals from Order to Disorder: Perturbative Methods in Nanophotonics

    ScienceCinema

    Johnson, Steven G. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2017-12-09

    Photonic crystals are periodic dielectric structures in which light can behave much differently than in a homogeneous medium. This talk gives an overview of some of the interesting properties and applications of these media, from switching in subwavelength microcavities to slow-light devices, to guiding light in air. However, some of the most interesting and challenging problems occur when the periodicity is disturbed, either by design or by inevitable fabrication imperfections. The talk focuses especially on small perturbations that have important effects, from slow-light tapers to surface roughness disorder, and will show that many classic perturbative approaches must be rethought for high-contrast nanophotonics. The combination of strong periodicity with large field discontinuities at interfaces causes standard methods to fail, but succumbs to new generalizations, while some problems remain open.

  15. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Surface states in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Aleksei P.; Dorofeenko, Aleksandr V.; Merzlikin, Aleksandr M.; Lisyansky, Aleksandr A.

    2010-06-01

    The propagation of surface electromagnetic waves along photonic crystal (PC) boundaries is examined. It is shown that in a number of cases, these are backward waves. The nature of surface electromagnetic states localized at the PC boundary is discussed; these states transfer no energy along the boundary (their tangential wave number is zero). An analogy with the well-known Tamm and Shockley surface states in solid state physics is drawn. It is shown that in the case of a PC, both types of states can be regarded as Tamm states. Experimental results on the observation of surface states are presented. A system using an external magnetic field to control a surface state is considered.

  16. Microscopic theory of Smith-Purcell radiation from 2D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva, D. Yu.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2017-07-01

    The theory of Smith-Purcell effect for a 2D photonic crystal is constructed from the first principles proceeding from Maxwell's equations and microscopic characteristics of particles the crystal consists of. Two-dimensionality 2D is thought in two ways: i) the photonic crystal is an arranged system of particles disposed in a monolayer, ii) the periodicity is in two different directions. We derive the expression for the spectral and angular distribution of arising Smith-Purcell radiation. We analyse the features distinctive for the 2D photonic crystal and show that its spatial distribution differs drastically from the distribution of the radiation from conventional diffraction gratings.

  17. High-Q CMOS-integrated photonic crystal microcavity devices

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Karan K.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Sternberg, Zvi; Bafrali, Reha; Meade, Roy; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated optical resonators are necessary or beneficial in realizations of various functions in scaled photonic platforms, including filtering, modulation, and detection in classical communication systems, optical sensing, as well as addressing and control of solid state emitters for quantum technologies. Although photonic crystal (PhC) microresonators can be advantageous to the more commonly used microring devices due to the former's low mode volumes, fabrication of PhC cavities has typically relied on electron-beam lithography, which precludes integration with large-scale and reproducible CMOS fabrication. Here, we demonstrate wavelength-scale polycrystalline silicon (pSi) PhC microresonators with Qs up to 60,000 fabricated within a bulk CMOS process. Quasi-1D resonators in lateral p-i-n structures allow for resonant defect-state photodetection in all-silicon devices, exhibiting voltage-dependent quantum efficiencies in the range of a few 10 s of %, few-GHz bandwidths, and low dark currents, in devices with loaded Qs in the range of 4,300–9,300; one device, for example, exhibited a loaded Q of 4,300, 25% quantum efficiency (corresponding to a responsivity of 0.31 A/W), 3 GHz bandwidth, and 30 nA dark current at a reverse bias of 30 V. This work demonstrates the possibility for practical integration of PhC microresonators with active electro-optic capability into large-scale silicon photonic systems. PMID:24518161

  18. An optical system via liquid crystal photonic devices for photobiomodulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Chigrinov, Vladimir Grigorievich

    2018-03-09

    Photobiomodulation or low-level light therapy (LLLT) has extensive applications based on light-induced effects in biological systems. Photobiomodulation remains controversial because of a poorly understood biochemical mechanism limited by the well-known biphasic dose response or Arndt-Schulz curve. The Arndt-Schulz curve states that an optimal dose of light is a key factor for realizing a therapeutic effect. In this report, we demonstrate a tunable optical system for photobiomodulation to aid physicians in overcoming the constraints of light due to biphasic dose response. The tunable optical system is based on a white light-emitting diode and four liquid crystal (LC) photonic devices: three LC phase retarders, and one LC lens. The output light of the tunable optical system exhibits electrical tunability for the wavelength, energy density and beam size. The operating principle is introduced, and the experimental results are presented. The proposed concept can be further extended to other electrically tunable photonic devices for different clinical purposes for photobiomodulation.

  19. Compact RBF meshless methods for photonic crystal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, E. E.; Cox, S. J.; Djidjeli, K.

    2011-06-01

    Meshless methods based on compact radial basis functions (RBFs) are proposed for modelling photonic crystals (PhCs). When modelling two-dimensional PhCs two generalised eigenvalue problems are formed, one for the transverse-electric (TE) mode and the other for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode. Conventionally, the Band Diagrams for two-dimensional PhCs are calculated by either the plane wave expansion method (PWEM) or the finite element method (FEM). Here, the eigenvalue equations for the two-dimensional PhCs are solved using RBFs based meshless methods. For the TM mode a meshless local strong form method (RBF collocation) is used, while for the tricker TE mode a meshless local weak form method (RBF Galerkin) is used (so that the discontinuity of the dielectric function ɛ(x) can naturally be modelled). The results obtained from the meshless methods are found to be in good agreement with the standard PWEM. Thus, the meshless methods are proved to be a promising scheme for predicting photonic band gaps.

  20. Polarization sensitive beam bending using a spatially variant photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digaum, Jennefir L.; Pazos, Javier; Rumpf, Raymond; Chiles, Jeff; Fathpour, Sasan; Thomas, Jeremy N.; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2015-02-01

    A spatially-variant photonic crystal (SVPC) that can control the spatial propagation of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions with high polarization sensitivity was fabricated and characterized. The geometric attributes of the SVPC lattice were spatially varied to make use of the directional phenomena of self-collimation to tightly bend an unguided beam coherently through a 90 degree angle. Both the lattice spacing and the fill factor of the SVPC were maintained to be nearly constant throughout the structure. A finite-difference frequency-domain computational method confirms that the SVPC can self-collimate and bend light without significant diffuse scatter caused by the bend. The SVPC was fabricated using multi-photon direct laser writing in the photo-polymer SU-8. Mid-infrared light having a vacuum wavelength of λ0 = 2.94 μm was used to experimentally characterize the SVPCs by scanning the sides of the structure with optical fibers and measuring the intensity of light emanating from each face. Results show that the SVPC is capable of directing power flow of one polarization through a 90-degree turn, confirming the self-collimating and polarization selective light-guiding properties of the structures.

  1. Suspended 2-D photonic crystal aluminum nitride membrane reflector.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Soon, Bo Woon; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-04-20

    We experimentally demonstrated a free-standing two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal (PhC) aluminum nitride (AlN) membrane to function as a free space (or out-of-plane) reflector working in the mid infrared region. By etching circular holes of radius 620nm in a 330nm thick AlN slab, greater than 90% reflection was measured from 3.08μm to 3.78μm, with the peak reflection of 96% at 3.16μm. Due to the relatively low refractive index of AlN, we also investigated the importance of employing methods such as sacrificial layer release to enhance the performance of the PhC. In addition, characterization of the AlN based PhC was also done up to 450°C to examine the impact of thermo-optic effect on the performance. Despite the high temperature operation, the redshift in the peak reflection wavelengths of the device was estimated to be only 14.1nm. This equates to a relatively low thermo-optic coefficient 2.22 × 10(-5) K(-1) for AlN. Such insensitivity to thermo-optic effect makes AlN based 2-D PhC a promising technology to be used as photonic components for high temperature applications such as Fabry-Perot interferometer used for gas sensing in down-hole oil drilling and ruggedized electronics.

  2. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g-1 with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics.

  3. Efficient heat dissipation of photonic crystal microcavity by monolayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Shih, Min-Hsiung; Li, Lain-Jong; Yang, Yi-Chun; Chou, Hsiang-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Te; Su, Ching-Yuan

    2013-12-23

    Graphene, which exhibits excellent thermal conductivity, is a potential heat dissipation medium for compact optoelectronic devices. Photonic devices normally produce large- quantity of unwanted heat, and thus, a heat dissipation strategy is urgently needed. In this study, single-layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used to cover the surface of a photonic crystal (PhC) cavity, where the heat flux produced by the PhC cavity can be efficiently dissipated along the in-plane direction of the SLG. The thermal properties of the graphene-capped PhC cavity were characterized by experiments and theoretical calculations. The thermal resistance of the SLG-capped PhC cavity obtained from experiments is lower than half of that of a bare PhC cavity. The temperature of a SLG-capped PhC cavity is 45 K lower than that without SLG capping under an optical power of 100 μW. Our simulation results indicate that SLG receives the majority of the heat fluxes from the device, leading to the efficient heat dissipation. Both the experimental and simulation results suggest that the SLG is a promising material to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency for optoelectronic applications.

  4. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-12-22

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g(-1) with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics.

  5. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g−1 with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics. PMID:26689375

  6. Rydberg atoms in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Epple, G.; Kleinbach, K. S.; Euser, T. G.; Joly, N. Y.; Pfau, T.; Russell, P. St. J.; Löw, R.

    2014-01-01

    The exceptionally large polarizability of highly excited Rydberg atoms—six orders of magnitude higher than ground-state atoms—makes them of great interest in fields such as quantum optics, quantum computing, quantum simulation and metrology. However, if they are to be used routinely in applications, a major requirement is their integration into technically feasible, miniaturized devices. Here we show that a Rydberg medium based on room temperature caesium vapour can be confined in broadband-guiding kagome-style hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Three-photon spectroscopy performed on a caesium-filled fibre detects Rydberg states up to a principal quantum number of n=40. Besides small energy-level shifts we observe narrow lines confirming the coherence of the Rydberg excitation. Using different Rydberg states and core diameters we study the influence of confinement within the fibre core after different exposure times. Understanding these effects is essential for the successful future development of novel applications based on integrated room temperature Rydberg systems. PMID:24942281

  7. Optimized optical coupling to silica-clad photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yosuke; Miyasaka, Kenji; Kondo, Keisuke; Ishikura, Norihiro; Tamura, Takuya; Baba, Toshihiko

    2017-11-15

    Silica-clad silicon photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) are promising components for various applications because of their simple fabrication and generation of slow light. However, an optical loss higher than 4 dB occurs when they are simply coupled to input/output silicon wire waveguides. To reduce the optical loss, we proposed a junction structure in which light in the waveguide is first coupled to a high-group-velocity radiation mode at an expanded core and subsequently converted to the slow-light mode in a tapered core of the PCW. The coupling loss at a junction is calculated to be 0.28 dB at its minimum and less than 0.5 dB for the wavelength range of 12 nm. We measured a coupling loss of 0.46 dB for the device fabricated by the silicon photonics process. This low-loss junction well supports the practical use of PCWs.

  8. Photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chuanyi; Wei, Heming; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    The detection of explosives and their residues is of great importance in public health, antiterrorism and homeland security applications. The vapor pressures of most explosive compounds are extremely low and attenuation of the available vapor is often great due to diffusion in the environment, making direct vapor detection difficult. In this paper, a photonic-microfluidic integrated sensor for highly sensitive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) detection is described based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). A segment of PCF is inserted between standard single-mode fibers (SMF) via butt coupling to form a modal interferometer, in which the cladding modes are excited and interfere with the fundamental core mode. Due to butt coupling, the small air gap between SMF and PCF forms a coupling region and also serves as an inlet/outlet for the gas. The sensor is fabricated by immobilizing a chemo-recognition coating on the inner surface of the holey region of the PCF, which selectively and reversibly binds TNT molecules on the sensitized surface. The sensing mechanism is based on the determination of the TNT-induced wavelength shift of interference peaks due to the refractive index change of the holey-layer. The sensor device therefore is capable of field operation.

  9. Fine tuning of optical signals in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals by apodized sinusoidal pulse anodisation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Chin Lei, Dominique Wong; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-11-03

    In this study, we present an advanced nanofabrication approach to produce gradient-index photonic crystal structures based on nanoporous anodic alumina. An apodization strategy is for the first time applied to a sinusoidal pulse anodisation process in order to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in depth. Four apodization functions are explored, including linear positive, linear negative, logarithmic positive and logarithmic negative, with the aim of finely tuning the characteristic photonic stop band of these photonic crystal structures. We systematically analyse the effect of the amplitude difference (from 0.105 to 0.840 mA cm -2 ), the pore widening time (from 0 to 6 min), the anodisation period (from 650 to 950 s) and the anodisation time (from 15 to 30 h) on the quality and the position of the characteristic photonic stop band and the interferometric colour of these photonic crystal structures using the aforementioned apodization functions. Our results reveal that a logarithmic negative apodisation function is the most optimal approach to obtain unprecedented well-resolved and narrow photonic stop bands across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum of NAA-based gradient-index photonic crystals. Our study establishes a fully comprehensive rationale towards the development of unique NAA-based photonic crystal structures with finely engineered optical properties for advanced photonic devices such as ultra-sensitive optical sensors, selective optical filters and all-optical platforms for quantum computing.

  10. In-situ measurement of bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchmair, Stefan; Gansch, Roman; Genevet, Patrice; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Capasso, Federico; Loncar, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Photonic crystal slabs have been subject to research for more than a decade, yet the existence of bound states in the radiation continuum (BICs) in photonic crystals has been reported only recently [1]. A BIC is formed when the radiation from all possible channels interferes destructively, causing the overall radiation to vanish. In photonic crystals, BICs are the result of accidental phase matching between incident, reflected and in-plane waves at seemingly random wave vectors [2]. While BICs in photonic crystals have been discussed previously using reflection measurements, we reports for the first time in-situ measurements of the bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs. By embedding a photodetector into a photonic crystal slab we were able to directly observe optical BICs. The photonic crystal slabs are processed from a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells heterostructure, providing intersubband absorption in the mid-infrared wavelength range. The generated photocurrent is collected via doped contact layers on top and bottom of the suspended photonic crystal slab. We were mapping out the photonic band structure by rotating the device and by acquiring photocurrent spectra every 5°. Our measured photonic bandstructure revealed several BICs, which was confirmed with a rigorously coupled-wave analysis simulation. Since coupling to external fields is suppressed, the photocurrent measured by the photodetector vanishes at the BIC wave vector. To confirm the relation between the measured photocurrent and the Q-factor we used temporal coupled mode theory, which yielded an inverse proportional relation between the photocurrent and the out-coupling loss from the photonic crystal. Implementing a plane wave expansion simulation allowed us to identify the corresponding photonic crystal modes. The ability to directly measure the field intensity inside the photonic crystal presents an important milestone towards integrated opto-electronic BIC devices. Potential

  11. Optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals obtained by micromatchining silicon (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmachev, V. A.

    2017-04-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional photonic crystals created by micromatchining silicon, which have been performed by the author as part of his doctoral dissertation, are presented. The most important result of the work is the development of a method of modeling photonic crystals based on photonic band gap maps plotted in structure-property coordinates, which can be used with any optical materials and in any region of electromagnetic radiation, and also for nonperiodic structures. This method made it possible to realize the targeted control of the optical contrast of photonic crystals and to predict the optical properties of optical heterostructures and three-component and composite photonic crystals. The theoretical findings were experimentally implemented using methods of micromatchining silicon, which can be incorporated into modern technological lines for the production of microchips. In the IR spectra of a designed and a fabricated optical heterostructure (a composite photonic crystal), extended bands with high reflectivities were obtained. In a Si-based three-component photonic crystal, broad transmission bands and photonic band gaps in the middle IR region have been predicted and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Si-liquid crystal periodic structures with electric-field tunable photonic band-gap edges have been investigated. The one-dimensional photonic crystals developed based on micromatchining silicon can serve as a basis for creating components of optical processors, as well as highly sensitive chemical and biological sensors in a wide region of the IR spectrum (from 1 to 20 μm) for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  12. Band gap and dispersion engineering of photonic crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Caihua

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) have been of great interest in a variety of fields in the past decade due to their great capability for manipulating photons in a manner similar to how electrons are controlled in a semiconductor material. In particular, PhCs are expected to revolutionize such fields as optical signal processing and optical communication by allowing the development of novel optical devices for high-density photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The development of PhC devices will be greatly accelerated by systematic designs. In this dissertation, I developed several procedures to systematically engineer the dispersion properties of PhCs. Using these procedures, I presented a variety of novel applications intended for use in future high-density PICs. These were achieved through efficient implementations of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the plane wave method (PWM). Specifically, by combining these efficient electromagnetic tools with the direct binary search (DBS) method or simulated annealing (SA), I developed very efficient synthesis processes and used them to optimize absolute photonic band gaps (PBGs) of PhC structures and a beam steering device based on a PhC with PBG(s). I also presented another novel PhC device working in PBG, namely a PhC ring drop filter. On the other hand, I utilized the FDTD method and the PWM to shape dispersion surfaces and/or contours of PhC structures for manipulating light propagation. In particular, I engineered PhCs with square- and circle-shaped equi-frequency contours (EFCs) and presented several applications using these two unique PhCs. These applications include optical beam routing, coupling and splitting a wide beam into multiple narrow self-guiding beams, a unidirectional emitter, and an in-plane lens coupler. I also explored negative refraction and left-handed behavior in PhCs and presented a flat lens using a PhC exhibiting negative refraction and left-handed behavior.

  13. Synthesis of Two-Photon Materials and Two-Photon Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Girija

    2001-01-01

    The duration of the grant was interrupted by two major accidents that the PI met with-- an auto accident in Pasadena, CA during her second summer at JPL which took almost eight months for recovery and a second accident during Fall 2000 that left her in crutches for the entire semester. Further, the time released agreed by the University was not given in a timely fashion. The candidate has been given post-grant expire time off. In spite of all these problems, the PI synthesized a number of new two-photon materials and studied the structure-activity correlation to arrive at the best-optimized structure. The PI's design proved to be one of the best in the sense that these materials has a hitherto unreported two-photon absorption cross section. Many materials based on PI's design was later made by the NASA colleague. This is Phase 1. Phase II of this grant is to orate liquid crystalline nature into this potentially useful materials and is currently in progress. Recent observations of nano- and pico-second response time of homeotropically aligned liquid crystals suggest their inherent potentials to act as laser hardening materials, i.e., as protective devices against short laser pulses. The objective of the current project is to exploit this potential by the synthesis of liquid crystals with high optical nonlinearity and optimizing their performance. The PI is trying structural variations to bring in liquid crystalline nature without losing the high two-photon cross section. Both Phase I and Phase II led to many invited presentations and publications in reputed journals like 'Science' and 'Molecular Crystals'. The list of presentations and reprints are enclosed. Another important and satisfying outcome of this grant is the opportunity that this grant offered to the budding undergraduate scientists to get involved in a visible research of international importance. All the students had a chance to learn a lot during research, had the opportunity to present their work at

  14. Electrically tunable zero dispersion wavelengths in photonic crystal fibers filled with a dual frequency addressable liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wahle, Markus, E-mail: markus.wahle@uni-paderborn.de; Kitzerow, Heinz-Siegfried

    2015-11-16

    We present a liquid crystal (LC) infiltrated photonic crystal fiber, which enables the electrical tuning of the position of zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs). A dual frequency addressable liquid crystal is aligned perpendicular on the inclusion walls of a photonic crystal fiber, which results in an escaped radial director field. The orientation of the LC is controlled by applying an external electric field. Due to the high index of the liquid crystal the fiber guides light by the photonic band gap effect. Multiple ZDWs exist in the visible and near infrared. The positions of the ZDWs can be either blue ormore » red shifted depending on the frequency of the applied voltage.« less

  15. Silicon-based photonic crystals fabricated using proton beam writing combined with electrochemical etching method.

    PubMed

    Dang, Zhiya; Breese, Mark Bh; Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Azimi, Sara; Song, Jiao; Liang, Haidong; Banas, Agnieszka; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Martín-Palma, Raúl José

    2012-07-23

    A method for fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanostructures based on selective formation of porous silicon using ion beam irradiation of bulk p-type silicon followed by electrochemical etching is shown. It opens a route towards the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D silicon-based photonic crystals with high flexibility and industrial compatibility. In this work, we present the fabrication of 2D photonic lattice and photonic slab structures and propose a process for the fabrication of 3D woodpile photonic crystals based on this approach. Simulated results of photonic band structures for the fabricated 2D photonic crystals show the presence of TE or TM gap in mid-infrared range.

  16. Silicon-based photonic crystals fabricated using proton beam writing combined with electrochemical etching method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A method for fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanostructures based on selective formation of porous silicon using ion beam irradiation of bulk p-type silicon followed by electrochemical etching is shown. It opens a route towards the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D silicon-based photonic crystals with high flexibility and industrial compatibility. In this work, we present the fabrication of 2D photonic lattice and photonic slab structures and propose a process for the fabrication of 3D woodpile photonic crystals based on this approach. Simulated results of photonic band structures for the fabricated 2D photonic crystals show the presence of TE or TM gap in mid-infrared range. PMID:22824206

  17. Nano-Engineered Tunable Photonic Crystals in the Near-IR and Visible Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, Harry; Matsuura, Naomi

    Photonic crystals offer a well-recognized ability to control the propagation of modes of light in an analogous fashion to the way in which nanostructures have been harnessed to control electron-based phenomena. This has led to proposals and indeed demonstrations of a wide variety of photonic-crystal-based photonic devices with applications in areas including communications, computing and sensing, for example. In such applications, photonic crystals can offer both a unique performance advantage, as well as the potential for substantial miniaturization of photonic systems. However, as this review outlines, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) structures for the spectral region covering frequencies from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared (≈2 μm) are challenging to fabricate with appropriate precision, and in a cost-effective and also flexible way, using traditional methods. Naturally, a key concern is how amenable a given approach is to the intentional incorporation of selected defects into a particular structure. Beyond passive structures, attention turns to so-called active photonic crystals, in which the response of the photonic crystal to light can be externally changed or tuned. This capability has widespread potential in planar lightwave circuits for telecommunications, where it offers mechanisms for selective switching, for example. This review discusses alternative proposals for tuning of such photonic crystals.

  18. Valley photonic crystals for control of spin and topology

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jian-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, Hanyu

    2016-11-28

    Photonic crystals offer unprecedented opportunity for light manipulation and applications in optical communication and sensing1,2,3,4. Exploration of topology in photonic crystals and metamaterials with non-zero gauge field has inspired a number of intriguing optical phenomena such as one-way transport and Weyl points5,6,7,8,9,10. Recently, a new degree of freedom, valley, has been demonstrated in two-dimensional materials11,12,13,14,15. Here, we propose a concept of valley photonic crystals with electromagnetic duality symmetry but broken inversion symmetry. We observe photonic valley Hall effect originating from valley-dependent spin-split bulk bands, even in topologically trivial photonic crystals. Valley–spin locking behaviour results in selective net spin flow insidemore » bulk valley photonic crystals. We also show the independent control of valley and topology in a single system that has been long pursued in electronic systems, resulting in topologically-protected flat edge states. Valley photonic crystals not only offer a route towards the observation of non-trivial states, but also open the way for device applications in integrated photonics and information processing using spin-dependent transportation.« less

  19. Valley photonic crystals for control of spin and topology.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Photonic crystals offer unprecedented opportunity for light manipulation and applications in optical communication and sensing. Exploration of topology in photonic crystals and metamaterials with non-zero gauge field has inspired a number of intriguing optical phenomena such as one-way transport and Weyl points. Recently, a new degree of freedom, valley, has been demonstrated in two-dimensional materials. Here, we propose a concept of valley photonic crystals with electromagnetic duality symmetry but broken inversion symmetry. We observe photonic valley Hall effect originating from valley-dependent spin-split bulk bands, even in topologically trivial photonic crystals. Valley-spin locking behaviour results in selective net spin flow inside bulk valley photonic crystals. We also show the independent control of valley and topology in a single system that has been long pursued in electronic systems, resulting in topologically-protected flat edge states. Valley photonic crystals not only offer a route towards the observation of non-trivial states, but also open the way for device applications in integrated photonics and information processing using spin-dependent transportation.

  20. Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon source based on quantum dots in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    PubMed Central

    DAVEAU, RAPHAËL S.; BALRAM, KRISHNA C.; PREGNOLATO, TOMMASO; LIU, JIN; LEE, EUN H.; SONG, JIN D.; VERMA, VARUN; MIRIN, RICHARD; NAM, SAE WOO; MIDOLO, LEONARDO; STOBBE, SØREN; SRINIVASAN, KARTIK; LODAHL, PETER

    2017-01-01

    Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benefit from a high brightness, fiber-coupled source of triggered single photons. Here, we present a fiber-coupled photonic-crystal waveguide single-photon source relying on evanescent coupling of the light field from a tapered out-coupler to an optical fiber. A two-step approach is taken where the performance of the tapered out-coupler is recorded first on an independent device containing an on-chip reflector. Reflection measurements establish that the chip-to-fiber coupling efficiency exceeds 80 %. The detailed characterization of a high-efficiency photonic-crystal waveguide extended with a tapered out-coupling section is then performed. The corresponding overall single-photon source efficiency is 10.9 % ± 2.3 %, which quantifies the success probability to prepare an exciton in the quantum dot, couple it out as a photon in the waveguide, and subsequently transfer it to the fiber. The applied out-coupling method is robust, stable over time, and broadband over several tens of nanometers, which makes it a highly promising pathway to increase the efficiency and reliability of planar chip-based single-photon sources. PMID:28584859

  1. Low-voltage tunable photonics devices: grove on thin porous structures containing liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criante, Luigino; Moretti, Luca; Scotognella, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    In this study we demonstrate the fabrication of one-dimensional porous multilayer photonic crystals made by metal oxide nanoparticles. We show the infiltration of these porous structures with a liquid crystal via a very simple method, resulting in a red shift of the photonic band gap due to increase of the effective refractive index of the medium. Taking advantage of structure thickness of only few micrometers, we have observed a blue shift of the photonic band gap owing the non-linear response of the liquid crystals by applying a very low external electric voltage, i.e. 8 V. The experimental observation of electric voltage tuning on the transmission spectrum has been corroborated by transfer matrix method simulations, by taking into account the non-linear optical properties of the liquid crystal. In this framework, we propose how the optical properties of these structure can be accurately predicted by our simulation software in terms of diffraction efficiency, of photonic band gap position when the porous photonic crystals is doped with a liquid crystal, of modulation of the photonic band gap position (electro-optic tuning) in the presence of applied voltage. According with results carried out by the custom simulation software it is possible to control the optical proprieties of the photonics crystal in very thin structures. Furthermore, the presented device could be very interesting for applications where high sensitivity sensor and selective color tunability is needed with the use of cheap and low voltage power supplies.

  2. Polymer Stabilization of Liquid-Crystal Blue Phase II toward Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seong-Yong; Jeon, Sung-Wook; Kim, Byeong-Cheon; Bae, Jae-Hyun; Araoka, Fumito; Choi, Suk-Won

    2017-03-15

    The temperature ranges where a pure simple-cubic blue phase (BPII) emerges are quite narrow compared to the body-centered-cubic BP (BPI) such that the polymer stabilization of BPII is much more difficult. Hence, a polymer-stabilized BPII possessing a wide temperature range has been scarcely reported. Here, we fabricate a polymer-stabilized BPII over a temperature range of 50 °C including room temperature. The fabricated polymer-stabilized BPII is confirmed via polarized optical microscopy, Bragg reflection, and Kossel diagram observations. Furthermore, we demonstrate reflective BP liquid-crystal devices utilizing the reflectance-voltage performance as a potential application of the polymer-stabilized BPII. Our work demonstrates the possibility of practical application of the polymer-stabilized BPII to photonic crystals.

  3. Black phosphorus-based one-dimensional photonic crystals and microcavities.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Ilka; Toffanin, Stefano; Scotognella, Francesco

    2016-11-10

    The latest achievements in the fabrication of thin layers of black phosphorus (BP), toward the technological breakthrough of a phosphorene atomically thin layer, are paving the way for their use in electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. In this work, we have simulated the optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures, i.e., photonic crystals and microcavities, in which few-layer BP is one of the components. The insertion of the 5-nm black phosphorous layers leads to a photonic band gap in the photonic crystals and a cavity mode in the microcavity that is interesting for light manipulation and emission enhancement.

  4. Mesoscopic self-collimation and slow light in all-positive index layered photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Arlandis, Julien; Centeno, Emmanuel; Pollès, Rémi; Moreau, Antoine; Campos, Julien; Gauthier-Lafaye, Olivier; Monmayrant, Antoine

    2012-01-20

    We demonstrate a mesoscopic self-collimation effect in photonic crystal superlattices consisting of a periodic set of all-positive index 2D photonic crystal and homogeneous layers. We develop an electromagnetic theory showing that diffraction-free beams are observed when the curvature of the optical dispersion relation is properly compensated for. This approach allows us to combine slow-light regime together with self-collimation in photonic crystal superlattices presenting an extremely low filling ratio in air. © 2012 American Physical Society

  5. Illusion optics via one-dimensional ultratransparent photonic crystals with shifted spatial dispersions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhongqi; Luo, Jie; Lai, Yun

    2017-12-11

    In this work, we propose that one-dimensional ultratransparent dielectric photonic crystals with wide-angle impedance matching and shifted elliptical equal frequency contours are promising candidate materials for illusion optics. The shift of the equal frequency contour does not affect the refractive behaviors, but enables a new degree of freedom in phase modulation. With such ultratransparent photonic crystals, we demonstrate some applications in illusion optics, including creating illusions of a different-sized scatterer and a shifted source with opposite phase. Such ultratransparent dielectric photonic crystals may establish a feasible platform for illusion optics devices at optical frequencies.

  6. Frequency splitter based on the directional emission from surface modes in dielectric photonic crystal structures

    DOE PAGES

    Tasolamprou, Anna C.; Zhang, Lei; Kafesaki, Maria; ...

    2015-05-19

    We demonstrate the numerical design and the experimental validation of frequency dependent directional emission from a dielectric photonic crystal structure. The wave propagates through a photonic crystal line-defect waveguide, while a surface layer at the termination of the photonic crystal enables the excitation of surface modes and a subsequent grating layer transforms the surface energy into outgoing propagating waves of the form of a directional beam. Furthermore, the angle of the beam is controlled by the frequency and the structure operates as a frequency splitter in the intermediate and far field region.

  7. Subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide with trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars in optical systems

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Ray T.

    2017-02-07

    A method for reducing loss in a subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend is disclosed. The method comprising: forming the subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend with a series of trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars centered about a bend radius; wherein each of the trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars comprise a top width, a bottom width, and a trapezoid height; wherein the length of the bottom width is greater than the length of the top width; and wherein the bottom width is closer to the center of the bend radius of the subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend than the top width. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  8. Subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide with trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars in optical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Ray T.

    2017-02-07

    A method for reducing loss in a subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend is disclosed. The method comprising: forming the subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend with a series of trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars centered about a bend radius; wherein each of the trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars comprise a top width, a bottom width, and a trapezoid height; wherein the length of the bottom width is greater than the length of the top width; and wherein the bottom width is closer to the center of the bend radius of the subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend than the top width. Other embodiments aremore » described and claimed.« less

  9. Tunable photonic devices based on liquid crystals and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asquini, R.; d'Alessandro, A.

    2013-09-01

    Tunable photonic switches and filters employing liquid crystals (LC) or LC-composites can be used in several fields of application such as optical communications, sensors and imaging systems. Their excellent electro-optic, thermo-optic and nonlinear optical responses can be exploited for producing components in guided-wave microstructures operating at low optical and electric powers. This review deals with various integrated optics structures, some of them already experimentally demonstrated for optical processing, including routers, Bragg filters and all-optical switches. A compact (160μm long) two-way router in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) waveguide was designed and demonstrated operating in the near infrared with voltage modulation as low as 0.21 V. Wavelength-tunable voltage-controlled Bragg reflectors were analyzed in different geometries: one has a reflectivity above 80% in a 14 nm range (1530-1550 nm) with bias voltages from 2.5 to 3.0 V; another one exploits coplanar comb electrodes to achieve an extended tuning range of about 104 nm (1521-1625 nm) with reflection above 50% for voltages from 2.9 to 10.2 V. Tunable gratings made with microslices of polymers and NLC on glass waveguides were also characterized in the 1.55 μm spectral window, demonstrating electro-optic filters adjustable over 4 nm for bias fields of about 3 V/μm. An alloptically tunable filter was also demonstrated in dye-doped NLC with tuning range over 6.6 nm when illuminated with a green laser beam of a few mW.

  10. Engineering quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals for frequency conversion of lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baoqin; Hong, Lihong; Hu, Chenyang; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Rongjuan; Li, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion offers an effective way to extend the laser wavelength range. Quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals (NPCs) are artificial materials composed of domain-inversion structures whose sign of nonlinear coefficients are modulated with desire to implement quasi-phase matching (QPM) required for nonlinear frequency conversion. These structures can offer various reciprocal lattice vectors (RLVs) to compensate the phase-mismatching during the quadratic nonlinear optical processes, including second-harmonic generation (SHG), sum-frequency generation and the cascaded third-harmonic generation (THG). The modulation pattern of the nonlinear coefficients is flexible, which can be one-dimensional or two-dimensional (2D), be periodic, quasi-periodic, aperiodic, chirped, or super-periodic. As a result, these NPCs offer very flexible QPM scheme to satisfy various nonlinear optics and laser frequency conversion problems via design of the modulation patterns and RLV spectra. In particular, we introduce the electric poling technique for fabricating QPM structures, a simple effective nonlinear coefficient model for efficiently and precisely evaluating the performance of QPM structures, the concept of super-QPM and super-periodically poled lithium niobate for finely tuning nonlinear optical interactions, the design of 2D ellipse QPM NPC structures enabling continuous tunability of SHG in a broad bandwidth by simply changing the transport direction of pump light, and chirped QPM structures that exhibit broadband RLVs and allow for simultaneous radiation of broadband SHG, THG, HHG and thus coherent white laser from a single crystal. All these technical, theoretical, and physical studies on QPM NPCs can help to gain a deeper insight on the mechanisms, approaches, and routes for flexibly controlling the interaction of lasers with various QPM NPCs for high-efficiency frequency conversion and creation of novel lasers.

  11. Finite element method analysis of band gap and transmission of two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals at terahertz frequencies.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, Elif; Landais, Pascal

    2013-10-20

    Photonic band gap and transmission characteristics of 2D metallic photonic crystals at THz frequencies have been investigated using finite element method (FEM). Photonic crystals composed of metallic rods in air, in square and triangular lattice arrangements, are considered for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. The modes and band gap characteristics of metallic photonic crystal structure are investigated by solving the eigenvalue problem over a unit cell of the lattice using periodic boundary conditions. A photonic band gap diagram of dielectric photonic crystal in square lattice array is also considered and compared with well-known plane wave expansion results verifying our FEM approach. The photonic band gap designs for both dielectric and metallic photonic crystals are consistent with previous studies obtained by different methods. Perfect match is obtained between photonic band gap diagrams and transmission spectra of corresponding lattice structure.

  12. All-optically controllable dye-doped liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Rong; Lin, Jia-De; Huang, Yan-Jhen; Huang, Shih-Chan; Lin, Shih-Hung; Yu, Chin-Ping

    2011-05-09

    A novel demonstration of an all-optically controllable dye-doped liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fiber (DDLCIPCF) is presented. Overall spectral transmittance of the DDLCIPCF can decrease and then increase with a concomitant red-shift of the spectrum curve with increasing irradiation time of one UV beam. Continuing irradiation of one green beam following UV illumination on the DDLCIPCF can cause the transmission spectrum to recover completely. The reversible all-optical controllability of the photonic band structure of the fiber is attributable to the isothermal planar nematic (PN)→scattering (S)→isotropic (I) and I→S→PN state transitions of the LCs via the UV-beam-induced trans→cis and green-beam-induced cis→trans back isomerizations of the azo-dye, respectively, in the cladding of the DDLCIPCF. The photoinduced appearance of the S state and the variation of the index modulation between the core and the cladding of the fiber result in the variation of overall spectral transmittance and the shift of transmission spectrum, respectively. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Tunable photonic band gap crystals based on a liquid crystal-infiltrated inverse opal structure.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shoichi; Gu, Zhong-Ze; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Fujishima, Akira; Segawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Osamu

    2004-07-07

    Composite materials comprised of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) and SiO(2) inverse opal films were fabricated. Their optical properties were quite different from those of inverse opal films without the LCs. The optical properties could be controlled by changing the refractive indices of the LCs, which vary with orientation, phase, and temperature. In particular, the optical properties were drastically changed by thermal or photoinduced isothermal phase transitions of the LCs. This means that the photonic band structure could be controlled, and tunable photonic crystals have been achieved, based on the inverse opal structure. The mechanism of this change was investigated by the evaluation of the effective refractive indices. As a result, it was found that the change in optical properties was derived from the orientation of the LC molecules in the voids in the inverse opal film. Furthermore, once the mechanism was understood, it was also possible to control the position of the reflection peak by changing the alignment of the LCs. Such materials have the possibility for practical use in optical devices and fundamental research systems.

  14. Tunable photonic crystals with partial bandgaps from blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric-doped blue phases.

    PubMed

    Stimulak, Mitja; Ravnik, Miha

    2014-09-07

    Blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are demonstrated to combine multiple components with different symmetries in one photonic material, creating a photonic crystal with variable and micro-controllable photonic band structure. In this composite photonic material, one contribution to the band structure is determined by the 3D periodic birefringent orientational profile of the blue phases, whereas the second contribution emerges from the regular array of the colloidal particles or from the dielectric/nanoparticle-doped defect network. Using the planewave expansion method, optical photonic bands of the blue phase I and II colloidal crystals and related nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are calculated, and then compared to blue phases with no particles and to face-centred-cubic and body-centred-cubic colloidal crystals in isotropic background. We find opening of local band gaps at particular points of Brillouin zone for blue phase colloidal crystals, where there were none in blue phases without particles or dopants. Particle size and filling fraction of the blue phase defect network are demonstrated as parameters that can directly tune the optical bands and local band gaps. In the blue phase I colloidal crystal with an additionally doped defect network, interestingly, we find an indirect total band gap (with the exception of one point) at the entire edge of SC irreducible zone. Finally, this work demonstrates the role of combining multiple - by symmetry - differently organised components in one photonic crystal material, which offers a novel approach towards tunable soft matter photonic materials.

  15. Enhanced photothermal lens using a photonic crystal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yunfei; Liu, Longju; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2016-08-15

    A photonic crystal (PC)-enhanced photothermal lens (PTL) is demonstrated for the detection of optically thin light absorption materials. The PC-enhanced PTL system is based on a pump-probe scheme consisting of a PC surface, pump laser beam, and probe laser beam. Heated by the pump beam, light absorption materials on the PC surface generate the PTL and cause a substantial change to the guided-mode resonance supported by the PC structure. The change of the PC resonance is detected using the probe laser beam by measuring its reflectivity from the PC surface. When applied to analyze dye molecules deposited on the PCmore » substrate, the developed system is capable of enhancing the PTL signal by 10-fold and reducing the lowest distinguishable concentration by 8-fold, in comparison to measuring without utilizing the PC resonance. The PC-enhanced PTL was also used to detect gold nanoparticles on the PC surface and exhibited a 20-fold improvement of the lowest distinguishable concentration. The PC-enhanced PTL technology offers a potential tool to obtain the absorption signatures of thin films in a broad spectral range with high sensitivity and inexpensive instrumentation. As a result, this technology will enable a broad range of applications of photothermal spectroscopy in chemical analysis and biomolecule sensing.« less

  16. Hybrid optical security system using photonic crystals and MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciosek, Jerzy; Ostrowski, Roman

    2017-10-01

    An important issue in security systems is that of selection of the appropriate detectors or sensors, whose sensitivity guarantees functional reliability whilst avoiding false alarms. Modern technology enables the optimization of sensor systems, tailored to specific risk factors. In optical security systems, one of the safety parameters considered is the spectral range in which the excitation signal is associated with a risk factor. Advanced safety systems should be designed taking into consideration the possible occurrence of, often multiple, complex risk factors, which can be identified individually. The hazards of concern in this work are chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds present in the forms of gases and aerosols. The proposed sensor solution is a hybrid optical system consisting of a multi-spectral structure of photonic crystals associated with a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) resonator. The crystallographic structures of carbon present in graphene rings and graphenecarbon nanotube nanocomposites have properties which make them desirable for use in detectors. The advantage of this system is a multi-spectral sensitivity at the same time as narrow-band selectivity for the identification of risk factors. It is possible to design a system optimized for detecting specified types of risk factor from very complex signals.

  17. Dataset on photonic crystal fiber based chemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kawsar; Paul, Bikash Kumar; Chowdhury, Sawrab; Islam, Md Shadidul; Sen, Shuvo; Islam, Md Ibadul; Asaduzzaman, Sayed; Bahar, Ali Newaz; Miah, Mohammad Badrul Alam

    2017-06-01

    This article represents the data set of micro porous core photonic crystal fiber based chemical sensor. The suggested structure is folded cladding porous shaped with circular air hole. Here is investigated four distinctive parameters including relative sensitivity, confinement loss, numerical aperture (NA), and effective area ( A eff). The numerical outcomes are computed over the E+S+C+L+U communication band. The useable sensed chemicals are methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol whose are lies in the alcohol series (Paul et al., 2017) [1]. Furthermore, V -parameter ( V ), Marcuse spot size (MSS), and beam divergence (BD) are also investigated rigorously. All examined results have been obtained using finite element method based simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2 versions with anisotropic circular perfectly matched layer (A-CPML). The proposed PCF shows the high NA from 0.35 to 0.36; the low CL from ~10 -11 to ~10 -7  dB/m; the high A eff from 5.50 to 5.66 µm 2 ; the MSS from 1.0 to 1.08 µm; the BD from 0.43 to 0.46 rad at the controlling wavelength λ = 1.55 µm for employing alcohol series respectively.

  18. Tungsten Oxide Photonic Crystals as Optical Transducer for Gas Sensing.

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Wu, Xia; Wagner, Thorsten

    2018-01-26

    Some metal oxide semiconductors, such as tungsten trioxide or tin dioxide, are well-known as resistive transducers for gas sensing and offer high sensitivities down to the part per billion level. Electrical signal read-out, however, limits the information obtained on the electronic properties of metal oxides to a certain frequency range and its application because of the required electrical contacts. Therefore, a novel approach for building an optical transducer for gas reactions utilizing metal oxide photonic crystals is presented here. By the rational design of the structure and composition it is possible to synthesize a functional material which allows one to obtain insight into its electronic properties in the optical frequency range with simple experimental measures. The concept is demonstrated by tungsten trioxide inverse opal structure as optical transducer material for hydrogen sensing. The sensing behavior is analyzed in a temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C and in a wide hydrogen concentration range (3000 ppm to 10%). The sensing mechanism is mainly the refractive index change resulting from hydrogen intercalation in tungsten trioxide, but the back reaction has also impact on the optical properties of this system. Detailed chemical reaction studies provide suggestions for specific sensing conditions.

  19. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  20. Photonic crystal enhanced silicon cell based thermophotovoltaic systems

    DOE PAGES

    Yeng, Yi Xiang; Chan, Walker R.; Rinnerbauer, Veronika; ...

    2015-01-30

    We report the design, optimization, and experimental results of large area commercial silicon solar cell based thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems. Using global non-linear optimization tools, we demonstrate theoretically a maximum radiative heat-to-electricity efficiency of 6.4% and a corresponding output electrical power density of 0.39 W cm⁻² at temperature T = 1660 K when implementing both the optimized two-dimensional (2D) tantalum photonic crystal (PhC) selective emitter, and the optimized 1D tantalum pentoxide – silicon dioxide PhC cold-side selective filter. In addition, we have developed an experimental large area TPV test setup that enables accurate measurement of radiative heat-to-electricity efficiency formore » any emitter-filter-TPV cell combination of interest. In fact, the experimental results match extremely well with predictions of our numerical models. Our experimental setup achieved a maximum output electrical power density of 0.10W cm⁻² and radiative heat-to-electricity efficiency of 1.18% at T = 1380 K using commercial wafer size back-contacted silicon solar cells.« less

  1. Mode conversion enables optical pulling force in photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tongtong; Novitsky, Andrey; Cao, Yongyin; Mahdy, M. R. C.; Wang, Lin; Sun, Fangkui; Jiang, Zehui; Ding, Weiqiang

    2017-08-01

    We propose a robust scheme to achieve optical pulling force using the guiding modes supported in a hollow core double-mode photonic crystal waveguide instead of the structured optical beams in free space investigated earlier. The waveguide under consideration supports both the 0th order mode with a larger forward momentum and the 1st order mode with a smaller forward momentum. When the 1st order mode is launched, the scattering by the object inside the waveguide results in the conversion from the 1st order mode to the 0th order mode, thus creating the optical pulling force according to the conservation of linear momentum. We present the quantitative agreement between the results derived from the mode conversion analysis and those from rigorous simulation using the finite-difference in the time-domain numerical method. Importantly, the optical pulling scheme presented here is robust and broadband with naturally occurred lateral equilibriums and has a long manipulation range. Flexibilities of the current configuration make it valuable for the optical force tailoring and optical manipulation operation, especially in microfluidic channel systems.

  2. Spectral properties of superconducting microwave photonic crystals modeling Dirac billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, B.; Klaus, T.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Richter, A.

    2015-01-01

    We determined experimentally the eigenvalues of two rectangular quantum billiards that contain circular scatterers forming a triangular grid, so-called Dirac billiards. For this we performed measurements of unprecedented accuracy using superconducting macroscopic-size microwave billiards that enclose a photonic crystal. The objective was the investigation of the peculiar features of the density of the eigenvalues (DOE), which resemble that of a graphene flake, and of their fluctuation properties. We identified in the measured resonance spectra Dirac points and in their adjacent bands the van Hove singularities (VHSs), that show up as sharp peaks in the DOE. The analysis of the experimental resonance frequencies and of the band structure, which was computed with a tight-binding model, revealed that the VHSs divide the associated band into regions where the system is governed by the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation of the quantum billiard and the Dirac equation of the graphene billiard of corresponding shape, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Dirac billiards are most suitable for the modeling of idealized graphene. Indeed, the DOEs of both systems are well described by a finite tight-binding model which includes first-, second-, and third-nearest-neighbor couplings.

  3. Photon Throughput Calculations for a Spherical Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, C. J.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Hill, K.; Kraus, B.; Gao, L.; Pablant, N.

    2017-10-01

    X-ray imaging crystal spectrometers of the type described in Refs. have become a standard diagnostic for Doppler measurements of profiles of the ion temperature and the plasma flow velocities in magnetically confined, hot fusion plasmas. These instruments have by now been implemented on major tokamak and stellarator experiments in Korea, China, Japan, and Germany and are currently also being designed by PPPL for ITER. A still missing part in the present data analysis is an efficient code for photon throughput calculations to evaluate the chord-integrated spectral data. The existing ray tracing codes cannot be used for a data analysis between shots, since they require extensive and time consuming numerical calculations. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the geometrical properties of the ray pattern. This method allows us to minimize the extent of numerical calculations and to create a more efficient code. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  4. Miniature photonic-crystal hydrophone optimized for ocean acoustics.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Onur; Digonnet, Michel J F; Kino, Gordon S; Solgaard, Olav

    2011-04-01

    This work reports on an optical hydrophone that is insensitive to hydrostatic pressure, yet capable of measuring acoustic pressures as low as the background noise in the ocean in a frequency range of 1 Hz to 100 kHz. The miniature hydrophone consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer made of a photonic-crystal reflector interrogated with a single-mode fiber and is compatible with existing fiber-optic technologies. Three sensors with different acoustic power ranges placed within a sub-wavelength sized hydrophone head allow a high dynamic range in the excess of 160 dB with a low harmonic distortion of better than -30 dB. A method for suppressing cross-coupling between sensors in the same hydrophone head is also proposed. A prototype was fabricated, assembled, and tested. The sensitivity was measured from 100 Hz to 100 kHz, demonstrating a sound-pressure-equivalent noise spectral density down to 12 μPa/Hz(1/2), a flatband wider than 10 kHz, and very low distortion.

  5. Hollow-core silver coated photonic crystal fiber plasmonic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momota, Moriom Rojy; Hasan, Md. Rabiul

    2018-02-01

    We propose a simple hollow-core circular lattice photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) refractive index sensor. The sensing performance is investigated by using the finite element method (FEM). Silver is used as the plasmonic material for this design, which is placed on the outer surface of the PCF to facilitate the fabrication. The proposed sensor shows a maximum wavelength sensitivity of 4200 nm/RIU with a sensor resolution of 2.38 × 10-5 RIU. Besides, a maximum amplitude sensitivity of 300 RIU-1 and a resolution of 3.33 × 10-5 RIU is reported for an analyte refractive index of 1.37. Moreover, the effect of varying structural parameters on the sensing performance such as pitch, air hole diameter and silver layer thickness are also discussed thoroughly. Sensitivity analysis of the proposed sensor is performed in order to investigate the impact on loss depth and amplitude sensitivity. Thanks to high sensitivity and linearity characteristics, the proposed sensor can be potentially employed in practical bio-sensing and chemical sensing applications.

  6. Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Produced by Electroset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Zhang, X.; Tao, R.; Reitz

    1996-03-01

    Electroset is a new technology which uses the electrorheological effect to produce new materials. In our experiment, we place a castable resin in a capacitor. After an electric field is applied, some chemical reaction is triggered to generate gases in the form of small bubbles. Because the bubbles have low dielectric constant/conductivity while the resin has a high dielectric constant/conductivity, the bubbles are polarized. The dipole-dipole interactions are much stronger than the gravity, bubbles are trapped inside the resin while the resin itself is truning into a solid. A foamed material is finally produced. We found that in a DC field, the bubbles are positively charged; thus the DC filed produces nonuniform foamed materials. In ac field, the bubbles are uniformly distributed. If the setting time is long enough, the dipolar interaction will force the buubles to form crystalline structure. As the bubbles have a size of micrometers, the produced materials are good three-dimensional photonic crystals.

  7. Design of highly sensitive multichannel bimetallic photonic crystal fiber biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O.; Alrayk, Yassmin K. A.; Shaalan, Abdelhamid A.; El Deeb, Walid S.; Obayya, Salah S. A.

    2016-10-01

    A design of a highly sensitive multichannel biosensor based on photonic crystal fiber is proposed and analyzed. The suggested design has a silver layer as a plasmonic material coated by a gold layer to protect silver oxidation. The reported sensor is based on detection using the quasi transverse electric (TE) and quasi transverse magnetic (TM) modes, which offers the possibility of multichannel/multianalyte sensing. The numerical results are obtained using a finite element method with perfect matched layer boundary conditions. The sensor geometrical parameters are optimized to achieve high sensitivity for the two polarized modes. High-refractive index sensitivity of about 4750 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 4300 nm/RIU with corresponding resolutions of 2.1×10-5 RIU, and 2.33×10-5 RIU can be obtained according to the quasi TM and quasi TE modes of the proposed sensor, respectively. Further, the reported design can be used as a self-calibration biosensor within an unknown analyte refractive index ranging from 1.33 to 1.35 with high linearity and high accuracy. Moreover, the suggested biosensor has advantages in terms of compactness and better integration of microfluidics setup, waveguide, and metallic layers into a single structure.

  8. Measurement of gas viscosity using photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.-K.; Sheehe, S. L.; Kurtz, J.; O'Byrne, S.

    2016-11-01

    A new measurement technique for gas viscosity coefficient is designed and demonstrated using the technique of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Gas flow is driven by a pressure gradient between two gas cells, through a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) surrounded by a furnace for temperature adjustment. PCF with 20-micron diameter affords physical space for gas-light interaction and provides a basis for gas viscosity measurement by determining the time for flow to exit a capillary tube under the influence of a pressure gradient. Infrared radiation from a diode laser is coupled into the fiber to be guided through the gas, and the light attenuation due to absorption from the molecular absorbing species is measured by a photo detector placed at the exit of the fiber. A numerical model from Sharipov and Graur describing local number density distribution in a unsteady state is applied for the determination of gas viscosity, based on the number density of gas measured by the absorption of the laser light, using the Beer-Lambert law. The measurement system is confirmed by measuring the viscosity of CO2 as a reference gas.

  9. Photonic crystal waveguide-based biosensor for detection of diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Harshita; Kaler, Rajinder S.; Painam, Balveer

    2016-07-01

    A biosensor is a device that is used to detect the analytes or molecules of a sample by means of a binding mechanism. A two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide-based biosensor is designed with a diamond-shaped ring resonator and two waveguides: a bus waveguide and a drop waveguide. The sensing mechanism is based on change in refractive index of the analytes, leading to a shift in the peak resonant wavelength. This mechanism can be used in the field of biomedical treatment where different body fluids such as blood, tears, saliva, or urine can be used as the analyte in which different components of the fluid can be detected. It can also be used to differentiate between the cell lines of a normal and an unhealthy human being. Average value of quality factor for this device comes out to be 1082.2063. For different analytes used, the device exhibits enhanced sensitivity and, hence, it is useful for the detection of diseases.

  10. Temporal photonic crystals with modulations of both permittivity and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Romero, Juan Sabino; Becerra-Fuentes, O. M.; Halevi, P.

    2016-06-01

    We present an in-depth study of electromagnetic wave propagation in a temporal photonic crystal, namely, a nonconducting medium whose permittivity ɛ (t ) and/or permeability μ (t ) are modulated periodically by unspecified agents (these modulations not necessarily being in phase). Maxwell's equations lead to an eigenvalue problem whose solution provides the dispersion relation ω (k ) for the waves that can propagate in such a dynamic medium. This is a generalization of previous work [J. R. Zurita-Sánchez and P. Halevi, Phys. Rev. A 81, 053834 (2010)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.053834 that was restricted to the electric modulation ɛ (t ) . For our numerical work (only) we assumed the harmonic modulations ɛ (t ) =ɛ ¯[1 +mɛsin(Ω t ) ] and μ (t ) =μ ¯[1 +mμsin(Ω t +θ ) ] , where Ω is the circular modulation frequency; mɛ and mμ are, respectively, the strengths of the electric and magnetic modulations; and θ is the phase difference between these modulations. An analytic calculation for weak modulations (mɛ≪1 ,mμ≪1 ) leads to two k bands, k1(ω ) and k2(ω ) , that are separated by a k gap. If the modulations are in phase (θ =0 ) , this gap is proportional to | mɛ-mμ| , while the gap is proportional to (mɛ+mμ) if the modulations are out of phase (θ =π ) . The gap thus disappears for equal, in-phase, modulations (mɛ=mμ) . An exact solution of the eigenvalue equation confirms that these approximations hold reasonably well even for moderate modulations. In fact, there are no k gaps for equal modulations even if these are very strong (mɛ ,μ≲1 ) . The photonic band structure k (ω ) is periodic in ω , with period Ω , and there is an infinite number of bands k1(ω ) , k2(ω ) ,... Further, by allowing ɛ (t ) and μ (t ) to have imaginary parts, we examined the effects of damping [Im k (ω )] on the k bands. We also determined the optical response of a temporal photonic crystal slab, applying the above harmonic model for ɛ (t ) and μ (t

  11. Effective bichromatic potential for ultra-high Q-factor photonic crystal slab cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpeggiani, Filippo; Andreani, Lucio Claudio; Gerace, Dario

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a confinement mechanism in photonic crystal slab cavities, which relies on the superposition of two incommensurate one-dimensional lattices in a line-defect waveguide. It is shown that the resulting photonic profile realizes an effective quasi-periodic bichromatic potential for the electromagnetic field confinement yielding extremely high quality (Q) factor nanocavities, while simultaneously keeping the mode volume close to the diffraction limit. We apply these concepts to pillar- and hole-based photonic crystal slab cavities, respectively, and a Q-factor improvement by over an order of magnitude is shown over existing designs, especially in pillar-based structures. Thanks to the generality and easy adaptation of such confinement mechanism to a broad class of cavity designs and photonic lattices, this work opens interesting routes for applications where enhanced light-matter interaction in photonic crystal structures is required.

  12. Fabrication of Ceramic Layer-by-Layer Infrared Wavelength Photonic Band Gap Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Henry Hao-Chuan

    2004-12-19

    Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals, also known as photonic crystals, are periodic dielectric structures which form a photonic band gap that prohibit the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves of certain frequencies at any incident angles. Photonic crystals have several potential applications including zero-threshold semiconductor lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emission, dielectric mirrors, and wavelength filters. If defect states are introduced in the crystals, light can be guided from one location to another or even a sharp bending of light in micron scale can be achieved. This generates the potential for optical waveguide and optical circuits, which will contribute to themore » improvement in the fiber-optic communications and the development of high-speed computers.« less

  13. Hierarchically structured photonic crystals for integrated chemical separation and colorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qianqian; Zhu, Biting; Ge, Jianping

    2017-02-16

    A SiO 2 colloidal photonic crystal film with a hierarchical porous structure is fabricated to demonstrate an integrated separation and colorimetric detection of chemical species for the first time. This new photonic crystal based thin layer chromatography process requires no dyeing, developing and UV irradiation compared to the traditional TLC. The assembling of mesoporous SiO 2 particles via a supersaturation-induced-precipitation process forms uniform and hierarchical photonic crystals with micron-scale cracks and mesopores, which accelerate the diffusion of developers and intensify the adsorption/desorption between the analytes and silica for efficient separation. Meanwhile, the chemical substances infiltrated to the voids of photonic crystals cause an increase of the refractive index and a large contrast of structural colors towards the unloaded part, so that the sample spots can be directly recognized with the naked eye before and after separation.

  14. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride photonic crystals for improved-performance surface electromagnetic wave biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Ballarini, Mirko; Mandracci, Pietro; Danz, Norbert; Michelotti, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We exploit the properties of surface electromagnetic waves propagating at the surface of finite one dimensional photonic crystals to improve the performance of optical biosensors with respect to the standard surface plasmon resonance approach. We demonstrate that the hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride technology is a versatile platform for fabricating one dimensional photonic crystals with any desirable design and operating in a wide wavelength range, from the visible to the near infrared. We prepared sensors based on photonic crystals sustaining either guided modes or surface electromagnetic waves, also known as Bloch surface waves. We carried out for the first time a direct experimental comparison of their sensitivity and figure of merit with surface plasmon polaritons on metal layers, by making use of a commercial surface plasmon resonance instrument that was slightly adapted for the experiments. Our measurements demonstrate that the Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride photonic crystals outperform surface plasmon polaritons by a factor 1.3 in terms of figure of merit.

  15. [Research on increasing X-ray protection capability based on photonic crystal technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Light cannot be propagated within the range of photonic crystal band gaps. Based on this unique property, we proposed a method to improve anti-radiation capability through one-dimensional photonic crystal coating. Using transmission matrix method, we determined the appropriate dielectric materials, thickness and periodic numbers of photonic crystals through Matlab programming simulation. Then, compound one-dimensional photonic crystal coating was designed which was of high anti-radiation rate within the range of X-ray. As is shown through simulation experiments, the reflection rate against X-ray was higher than 90 percent, and the desired anti-radiation effect was achieved. Thus, this method is able to help solve the technical problems facing the inorganic lead glass such as thickness, weightiness, costliness, high lead equivalent, low transparency and high cost. This method has won China's national invention patent approval, and the patent number is 201220228549.2.

  16. Increased fluorescence of PbS quantum dots in photonic crystals by excitation enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Carlo; Roder, Sebastian; Brodoceanu, Daniel; Kraus, Tobias; Hammerschmidt, Martin; Burger, Sven; Becker, Christiane

    2017-07-01

    We report on the enhanced fluorescence of lead sulfide quantum dots interacting with leaky modes of slab-type silicon photonic crystals. The photonic crystal slabs were fabricated, supporting leaky modes in the near infrared wavelength range. Lead sulfite quantum dots which are resonant in the same spectral range were prepared in a thin layer above the slab. We selectively excited the leaky modes by tuning the wavelength and angle of incidence of the laser source and measured distinct resonances of enhanced fluorescence. By an appropriate experiment design, we ruled out directional light extraction effects and determined the impact of enhanced excitation. Three-dimensional numerical simulations consistently explain the experimental findings by strong near-field enhancements in the vicinity of the photonic crystal surface. Our study provides a basis for systematic tailoring of photonic crystals used in biological applications such as biosensing and single molecule detection, as well as quantum dot solar cells and spectral conversion applications.

  17. Photonic Crystal Biosensor with In-Situ Synthesized DNA Probes for Enhanced Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shuren; Zhao, Y.; Retterer, Scott T

    2013-01-01

    We report on a nearly 8-fold increase in multi-hole defect photonic crystal biosensor response by incorporating in-situ synthesis of DNA probes, as compared to the conventional functionalization method employing pre-synthesized DNA probe immobilization.

  18. Operation of an InAs quantum-dot embedded GaAs photonic crystal slab waveguide laser by using two-photon pumping for photonics integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, H., E-mail: h-oda@photon.chitose.ac.jp; Yamanaka, A.; Ozaki, N.

    2016-06-15

    The development of small sized laser operating above room temperature is important in the realization of optical integrated circuits. Recently, micro-lasers consisting of photonic crystals (PhCs) and whispering gallery mode cavities have been demonstrated. Optically pumped laser devices could be easily designed using photonic crystal-slab waveguides (PhC-WGs) with an air-bridge type structure. In this study, we observe lasing at 1.3μm from two-photon pumped InAs-quantum-dots embedded GaAs PhC-WGs above room temperature. This type of compact laser shows promise as a new light source in ultra-compact photonics integrated circuits.

  19. Dynamically controlling the emission of single excitons in photonic crystal cavities

    PubMed Central

    Pagliano, Francesco; Cho, YongJin; Xia, Tian; van Otten, Frank; Johne, Robert; Fiore, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Single excitons in semiconductor microcavities represent a solid state and scalable platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics, potentially enabling an interface between flying (photon) and static (exciton) quantum bits in future quantum networks. While both single-photon emission and the strong coupling regime have been demonstrated, further progress has been hampered by the inability to control the coherent evolution of the cavity quantum electrodynamics system in real time, as needed to produce and harness charge–photon entanglement. Here using the ultrafast electrical tuning of the exciton energy in a photonic crystal diode, we demonstrate the dynamic control of the coupling of a single exciton to a photonic crystal cavity mode on a sub-nanosecond timescale, faster than the natural lifetime of the exciton. This opens the way to the control of single-photon waveforms, as needed for quantum interfaces, and to the real-time control of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. PMID:25503405

  20. Compact and Robust Refilling and Connectorization of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Gas Reference Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Meras, Patrick; Chang, Daniel H.; Spiers, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for refilling and connectorization of hollow core photonic crystal fiber gas reference cells. Thees hollow-core photonic crystal fiber allow optical propagation in air or vacuum and are for use as gas reference cell is proposed and demonstrated. It relies on torch-sealing a quartz filling tube connected to a mechanical splice between regular and hollow-core fibers.

  1. Transverse coupling to the core of a photonic crystal fiber: the photo-inscription of gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Graham D.; Kan, Dougal J.; Asatryan, Ara A.; Botten, Lindsay C.; Withford, Michael J.

    2007-06-01

    The effect of the microstructure on transversely coupled laser light into the core of a photonic crystal fiber is investigated. Computational two-dimensional modeling and direct experimental measurements indicate that there exist angles and positions of the fiber microstructure, relative to a transversely launched laser beam, that preferentially couple laser light into the fiber core. The implications of these observations on long period and fiber-Bragg grating fabrication in photonic crystal fibers are discussed.

  2. Ultralow-Threshold Electrically Pumped Quantum-Dot Photonic-Crystal Nanocavity Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    photonic-crystal laser device. a, AFM topography image of the fabricated device without photonic crystal. b, SCM image of the region in a. The p-side of the...alignment of the doping regions. ‘ SCM data’ is a combination of the phase and amplitude of capacitance data, where the strength of the signal is directly...www.nature.com/naturephotonics298 © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. capacitance microscopy ( SCM )19. Figure 2a,b shows the

  3. Investigation on the properties of omnidirectional photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng, E-mail: hanlor@163.com; Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132; Liu, Shao-Bin

    2016-01-15

    The properties of omnidirectional photonic band gaps (OBGs) in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (2D PPCs) are theoretically investigated by the modified plane wave expansion method. In the simulation, we consider the off-plane incident wave vector. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the triangular lattices filled with the nonmagnetized plasma cylinders in the homogeneous and isotropic dielectric background. The calculated results show that the proposed 2D PPCs possess a flatbands region and the OBGs. Compared with the OBGs in the conventional 2D dielectric-air PCs, it can be obtained more easily and enlarged in the 2D PPCs with a similar structure. Themore » effects of configurational parameters of the PPCs on the OBGs also are studied. The simulated results demonstrate that the locations of OBGs can be tuned easily by manipulating those parameters except for changing plasma collision frequency. The achieved OBGs can be enlarged by optimizations. The OBGs of two novel configurations of PPCs with different cross sections are computed for a comparison. Both configurations have the advantages of obtaining the larger OBGs compared with the conventional configuration, since the symmetry of 2D PPCs is broken by different sizes of periodically inserted plasma cylinders or connected by the embedded plasma cylinders with thin veins. The analysis of the results shows that the bandwidths of OBGs can be tuned by changing geometric and physical parameters of such two PPCs structures. The theoretical results may open a new scope for designing the omnidirectional reflectors or mirrors based on the 2D PPCs.« less

  4. Realisation and optical engineering of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Sukarno; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel

    2017-06-08

    We present the first realisation of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-LVBPFs) photonic crystal structures. NAA gradient-index filters (NAA-GIFs) are produced by sinusoidal pulse anodisation and used as photonic crystal platforms to generate NAA-LVBPFs. The anodisation period of NAA-GIFs is modified from 650 to 850 s to systematically tune the characteristic photonic stopband of these photonic crystals across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. Then, the nanoporous structure of NAA-GIFs is gradually widened along the surface under controlled conditions by wet chemical etching using a dip coating approach aiming to create NAA-LVBPFs with finely engineered optical properties. We demonstrate that the characteristic photonic stopband and the iridescent interferometric colour displayed by these photonic crystals can be tuned with precision across the surface of NAA-LVBPFs by adjusting the fabrication and etching conditions. Here, we envisage for the first time the combination of the anodisation period and etching conditions as a cost-competitive, facile, and versatile nanofabrication approach that enables the generation of a broad range of unique LVBPFs covering the spectral regions. These photonic crystal structures open new opportunities for multiple applications, including adaptive optics, hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence diagnostics, spectroscopy, and sensing.

  5. Controlling the spatial correlation of entangled photon states using engineered crystal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, S. N.; Yu, X. Q.; Xu, P.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we will illustrate a scheme to tailor and manipulate the spatial mode of the quantum entanglement of two photons by carefully engineering a nonlinear crystal. We study the entangled state generated from a crystal of lithium tantalite with parallel stripes at intervals of 200 micrometres. These stripes are periodically poled with the period of λ = 7.548 μm. The longitudinal nonlinearity works for quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down conversion (QPM-SPDC), whereas the transverse modulation is used to manipulate the two-photon state's spatial mode. When a 532 nm laser is directed on the crystal, it can split the 532nm photon into two degenerate 1064 nm photons. They must be entangled and the structural information in periodic crystal patterns would be transferred into their spatial mode. We performed a far-field interference experiment with such entangled photon pairs. The coincidence count shows a multi-beam two-photon sub-wavelength interference pattern with the peak interval of 3.72 mm and the visibility of the fringe is 0.82±0.03. The result implies that it is possible to control the spatial properties of the entangled photons simply by changing the periodic patterns of nonlinear crystal.

  6. Dynamic increase and decrease of photonic crystal nanocavity Q factors for optical pulse control.

    PubMed

    Upham, Jeremy; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2008-12-22

    We introduce recent advances in dynamic control over the Q factor of a photonic crystal nanocavity system. By carefully timing a rapid increase of the Q factor from 3800 to 22,000, we succeed in capturing a 4ps signal pulse within the nanocavity with a photon lifetime of 18ps. By performing an additional transition of the Q factor within the photon lifetime, the held light is once again ejected from of the system on demand.

  7. Photonic Crystal Surfaces as a General Purpose Platform for Label-Free and Fluorescent Assays

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Brian T.

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces can be designed to provide a wide range of functions that are used to perform biochemical and cell-based assays. Detection of the optical resonant reflections from photonic crystal surfaces enables high sensitivity label-free biosensing, while the enhanced electromagnetic fields that occur at resonant wavelengths can be used to enhance the detection sensitivity of any surface-based fluorescence assay. Fabrication of photonic crystals from inexpensive plastic materials over large surface areas enables them to be incorporated into standard formats that include microplates, microarrays, and microfluidic channels. This report reviews the design of photonic crystal biosensors, their associated detection instrumentation, and biological applications. Applications including small molecule high throughput screening, cell membrane integrin activation, gene expression analysis, and protein biomarker detection are highlighted. Recent results in which photonic crystal surfaces are used for enhancing the detection of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and the development of high resolution photonic crystal-based laser biosensors are also described. PMID:20383277

  8. Globular and Optically Transparent Photonic Crystals Based on 3D-opal Matrix and REE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivicheva, S. N.; Kargin, Yu. F.; Gorelik, V. S.

    By repeatedly filling the octahedral and tetrahedral pores of 3D-silica opal matrices with silica sol doped with rare-earth elements with subsequent heat treatment globular photonic crystals filled with mesoporous glass and optically transparent photonic crystals (quantytes) containing 10-30 ppm REE were produced, depending on the annealing temperature. Voids of fcc lattice formed by amorphous spherical globules of SiO2 in globular photonic crystals are filled (up to 70%) by mesoporous glass doped with rare earth elements. Pores in the transparent photonic crystals disappear during sintering of globules of silica and mesoporous glass, but the periodic arrangement of REE-enriched silica areas (quantum dots) is retained. The reflection and luminescence spectra of photonic crystals filled with sols doped with europium Eu3+ and terbium Tb3+ were experimentally studied. A significant increase in the photoluminescence intensity of Eu3+ ions at the approach of the spectral position of the transition 5D0 → 7F2 to the edge of the bandgaps of the photonic crystal was determined. The authors come to the conclusion that a lowering of the threshold for lasing transitions in ions of rare elements is possible.

  9. Accidental degeneracy in photonic bands and topological phase transitions in two-dimensional core-shell dielectric photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang; Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-08

    A simple core-shell two-dimensional photonic crystal is studied where the triangular lattice symmetry and the C6 point group symmetry give rich physics in accidental touching points of photonic bands. We systematically evaluate different types of accidental nodal points at the Brillouin zone center for transverse-magnetic harmonic modes when the geometry and permittivity of the core-shell material are continuously tuned. The accidental nodal points can have different dispersions and topological properties (i.e., Berry phases). These accidental nodal points can be the critical states lying between a topological phase and a normal phase of the photonic crystal. They are thus very important for the study of topological photonic states. We show that, without breaking time-reversal symmetry, by tuning the geometry of the core-shell material, a phase transition into the photonic quantum spin Hall insulator can be achieved. Here the "spin" is defined as the orbital angular momentum of a photon. We study the topological phase transition as well as the properties of the edge and bulk states and their application potentials in optics.

  10. Strong Photonic-Band-Gap Effect on the Spontaneous Emission in 3D Lead Halide Perovskite Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; Li, Mingzhu; Wang, Kang; Li, Huizeng; Li, Yanan; Li, Chang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yongsheng; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-25

    Stimulated emission in perovskite-embedded polymer opal structures is investigated. A polymer opal structure is filled with a perovskite, and perovskite photonic crystals are prepared. The spontaneous emission of the perovskite embedded in the polymer opal structures exhibits clear signatures of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) via gain modulation. The difference in refractive-index contrast between the perovskite and the polymer opal is large enough for retaining photonic-crystals properties. The photonic band gap has a strong effect on the fluorescence emission intensity and lifetime. The stimulated emission spectrum exhibits a narrow ASE rather than a wide fluorescence peak in the thin film. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Photonic crystal fiber monitors for intracellular ice formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battinelli, Emily; Reimlinger, Mark; Wynne, Rosalind

    2012-04-01

    An all-silica steering wheel photonic crystal fiber (SW-PCF) device with real-time analysis for cellular temperature sensing is presented. Results are provided for water-filled SW-PCF fibers experiencing cooling down near -40°C. Cellular temperature sensors with fast response times are of interest particularly to the study of cryopreservation, which has been influential in applications such as tissue preservation, food quality control, genetic engineering, as well as drug discovery and in- vitro toxin testing. Results of this investigation are relevant to detection of intracellular ice formation (IIF) and better understanding cell freezing at very low temperatures. IIF detection is determined as a function of absorption occurring within the core of the SW-PCF. The SW-PCF has a 3.3μm core diameter, 125μm outer diameter and steering wheel-like air hole pattern with triangular symmetry, with a 20μm radius. One end of a 0.6m length of the SW-PCF is placed between two thermoelectric coolers, filled with ~0.1μL water. This end is butt coupled to a 0.5m length of single mode fiber (SMF), the distal end of the fiber is then inserted into an optical spectrum analyzer. A near-IR light source is guided through the fiber, such that the absorption of the material in the core can be measured. Spectral characteristics demonstrated by the optical absorption of the water sample were present near the 1300-1700nm window region with strongest peaks at 1350, 1410 and 1460nm, further shifting of the absorption peaks is possible at cryogenic temperatures making this device suitable for IIF monitoring applications.

  12. Miniature fiber acoustic sensors using a photonic-crystal membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wonuk; Akkaya, Onur C.; Solgaard, Olav; Digonnet, Michel J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses recent developments in fiber acoustic sensors utilizing a miniature Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer fabricated at the tip of a fiber. The FP is made of a high-reflectivity photonic-crystal membrane placed ˜30 μm from the reflective end of a single-mode fiber. When exposed to an acoustic wave the compliant membrane vibrates, and this vibration is detected as a modulation of the optical power reflected by the FP. The interferometer is enclosed in a sensor head designed, with the assistance of an electro-mechanical model, to minimize squeezed-film damping of the thin air gap between the reflectors and obtain a good acoustic response. The sensor head is fabricated out of silica elements and assembled with silicate bonding to minimize thermal expansion and ensure thermal stability. In the first sensor of this type the reflector at the fiber tip is a gold coating. It exhibits an average minimum detectable pressure (MDP) of 33 μPa/√Hz (1-30 kHz), a high thermal stability, and a weak polarization dependence. The second sensor incorporates several improvements, including a larger membrane for increased vibration amplitude, and higher reflectivity mirrors (PC and fiber tip) for increased displacement sensitivity. Its measured response is flat between ˜600 Hz and 20 kHz, with a normalized sensitivity as high as ˜0.17 Pa-1. Between 1 kHz and 30 kHz its average MDP is ˜2.6 μPa/√Hz, the lowest reported value for a fiber acoustic sensor this small. These results demonstrate the promising potential of this class of stable and compact optical sensors for highly sensitive detection in the audible range.

  13. Studies on spatial modes and the correlation anisotropy of entangled photons generated from 2D quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. W.; Xu, P.; Sun, C. W.; Jin, H.; Hou, R. J.; Leng, H. Y.; Zhu, S. N.

    2017-06-01

    Concurrent spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes have proved to be an appealing approach for engineering the path-entangled photonic state with designable and tunable spatial modes. In this work, we propose a general scheme to construct high-dimensional path entanglement and demonstrate the basic properties of concurrent SPDC processes from domain-engineered quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals, including the spatial modes and the photon flux, as well as the anisotropy of spatial correlation under noncollinear quasi-phase-matching geometry. The overall understanding about the performance of concurrent SPDC processes will give valuable references to the construction of compact path entanglement and the development of new types of photonic quantum technologies.

  14. Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime measurements through a double-clad photonic crystal fiber for tissue micro-endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Florian; Yankelevich, Diego R; Liu, Jing; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Marcu, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an endoscopic configuration for measurements of tissue autofluorescence using two-photon excitation and time-correlated single photon counting detection through a double-clad photonic crystal fiber (DC-PCF) without pre-chirping of laser pulses. The instrument performance was evaluated by measurements of fluorescent standard dyes, biological fluorophores (collagen and elastin), and tissue specimens (muscle, cartilage, tendon). Current results demonstrate the ability of this system to accurately retrieve the fluorescence decay profile and lifetime of these samples. This simple setup, which offers larger penetration depth than one-photon-based techniques, may be combined with morphology-yielding techniques such as photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Iridescence and spectral filtering of the gyroid-type photonic crystals in Parides sesostris wing scales

    PubMed Central

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The cover scales on the wing of the Emerald-patched Cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type biological photonic crystals that brightly reflect green light. A pigment, which absorbs maximally at approximately 395 nm, is immersed predominantly throughout the elaborate upper lamina. This pigment acts as a long-pass filter shaping the reflectance spectrum of the underlying photonic crystals. The additional effect of the filtering is that the spatial distribution of the scale reflectance is approximately angle-independent, leading to a stable wing pattern contrast. The spectral tuning of the original reflectance is verified by photonic band structure modelling. PMID:24098853

  16. Investigation of 2D photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator for CWDM system

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com; Dusad, Lalit Kumar; Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, Rajasthan

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, the design & performance of two dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter is investigated using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator. In this paper, Photonic Crystal (PhC) based on square lattice periodic arrays of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in air structure have been investigated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and photonic band gap is being calculated using Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The PhC designs have been optimized for telecommunication wavelength λ= 1571 nm by varying the rods lattice constant. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 andmore » 20, with lattice constant 0.540 nm it illustrates that the arrangement of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in the structure which gives the overall size of the device around 11.4 µm × 10.8 µm. The designed filter gives good dropping efficiency using 3.298, refractive index. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.« less

  17. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Maskaly, Karlene Rosera

    2005-06-01

    Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectricmore » interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap

  18. Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingnan

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves withmore » frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity ϵ, magnetic permeability μ are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective μ < 1 or even μ < 0. Varactor based

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Three Dimensional Photonic Crystals Generated by Multibeam Interference Lithography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ying-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Multibeam interference lithography is investigated as a manufacturing technique for three-dimensional photonic crystal templates. In this research, optimization of the optical setup and the photoresist initiation system leads to a significant improvement of the optical quality of the crystal, as characterized by normal incidence optical…

  20. Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Deubel, Markus; von Freymann, Georg; Wegener, Martin; Pereira, Suresh; Busch, Kurt; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2004-07-01

    The past decade has witnessed intensive research efforts related to the design and fabrication of photonic crystals. These periodically structured dielectric materials can represent the optical analogue of semiconductor crystals, and provide a novel platform for the realization of integrated photonics. Despite intensive efforts, inexpensive fabrication techniques for large-scale three-dimensional photonic crystals of high enough quality, with photonic bandgaps at near-infrared frequencies, and built-in functional elements for telecommunication applications, have been elusive. Direct laser writing by multiphoton polymerization of a photoresist has emerged as a technique for the rapid, cheap and flexible fabrication of nanostructures for photonics. In 1999, so-called layer-by-layer or woodpile photonic crystals were fabricated with a fundamental stop band at 3.9 microm wavelength. In 2002, a corresponding 1.9 microm was achieved, but the important face-centred-cubic (f.c.c.) symmetry was abandoned. Importantly, fundamental stop bands or photonic bandgaps at telecommunication wavelengths have not been demonstrated. In this letter, we report the fabrication--through direct laser writing--and detailed characterization of high-quality large-scale f.c.c. layer-by-layer structures, with fundamental stop bands ranging from 1.3 to 1.7 microm.

  1. Enhancement of fluorescent emission in photonic crystal film and application in photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng; Zhou, Wenying; Fang, Jiaojiao; Ni, Yaru; Fang, Liang; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi; Kang, Zhitao

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent photonic crystal films composed of monodisperse NaYF4:15Yb,0.5Tm@SiO2 (where 15 and 0.5 represent the mole percentage of reactants) core–shell spheres were successfully fabricated and applied in photocatalysis. The core–shell spheres were prepared using a modified Stober method, and fluorescent photonic crystal films were fabricated via a simple self-assembly method. The morphologies, structures and upconversion fluorescent properties of the fluorescent photonic crystal films with different photonic band gaps were characterized. Moreover, their photocatalytic capability in decomposing rhodamine B using near-infrared light was studied. Results indicate that the band edge effect plays a critical role in the enhancement of short wave emission intensity of fluorescent photonic crystal films. Specifically, in comparison to the reference sample without a band edge effect, the 363 nm emission intensity was enhanced by 5.97 times, while the percentage of UV upconversion emission was improved by 6.23%. In addition, the 451 nm emission intensity was enhanced by 5.81 times, and the percentage of visible upconversion emission was improved by 8.88%. Furthermore, fluorescent photonic crystal films with enhanced short wave emission exhibited great photocatalytic performance in the degradation of rhodamine B aqueous solutions under near-infrared light.

  2. Slow light generation in single-mode rectangular core photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Sandeep; Saini, Than Singh; Kumar, Ajeet, E-mail: ajeetdph@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, we have designed and analyzed a rectangular core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in Tellurite material. For the designed photonics crystal fiber, we have calculated the values of confinement loss and effective mode area for different values of air filling fraction (d/Λ). For single mode operation of the designed photonic crystal fiber, we have taken d/Λ= 0.4 for the further calculation of stimulated Brillouin scattering based time delay. A maximum time delay of 158 ns has been achieved for input pump power of 39 mW. We feel the detailed theoretical investigations and simulations carried out in the study have themore » potential impact on the design and development of slow light-based photonic devices.« less

  3. Engineering a light-emitting planar defect within three-dimensional photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guiqiang; Chen, Yan; Ye, Zhiqing

    2009-01-01

    Sandwich structures, constructed from a planar defect of rhodamine-B (RhB)-doped titania (TiO2) and two photonic crystals, were synthesized via the self-assembly method combined with spin-coating. The modification of the spontaneous emission of RhB molecules in such structures was investigated experimentally. The spontaneous emission of RhB-doped TiO2 film with photonic crystals was reduced by a factor of 5.5 over a large bandwidth of 13% of the first-order Bragg diffraction frequency when compared with that of RhB-doped TiO2 film without photonic crystals. The angular dependence of the modification and the photoluminescence lifetime of RhB molecules demonstrate that the strong and wide suppression of the spontaneous emission of the RhB molecules is due to the presence of the photonic band gap. PMID:27877309

  4. Nanoporous hard data: optical encoding of information within nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-04-21

    Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information.

  5. Measurement of azimuthal dependence of resonant coupling in 2D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Držík, M.; Šoltýs, J.; Kajtár, G.; Chlpík, J.; Pisarčík, M.; Uherek, F.

    2017-11-01

    An optical setup, inspired from that used for angle resolved reflective spectra measurement is used to determine photonic bands dispersion of 2D photonic crystals for all-around observation. The observation relies on coupling between the incoming beam and the photonic modes in periodically patterned planar structure, generating resonant features in the optical spectra. The features as a function of specific azimuthal angle lead to the determination of in-plane wave vector at a given frequency. To probe a performance of the photonic structures, the optical response of the photonic crystal in radiative region above light line was determined, and the structure of leaky modes for both polarization planes TE, TM at several incident angles was mapped. Leaky modes structure was approved by numerical RCWA-based modelling. The measured azimuthal dependences were evaluated to obtain equi-frequency curves.

  6. Broadband photonic crystal fiber coupler with polarization selection of coupling ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marć, Paweł; Szymański, Michał

    2010-09-01

    In the paper a new broadband photonic crystal fiber coupler is presented. The proper application of the biconical taper technology has been used for manufacturing the coupler without air holes collapse in LMA10 fiber (NKT Photonics Crystal). This coupler, operates in the weakly coupling condition, protects coupling operation in range from 900 nm to 1700 nm. The coupling ratio between output arms is depending on wavelength and can be tuning by selection the proper input state of polarization. It gives opportunity to use the broadband crystal fiber coupler in many applications in which it is necessary to tune a coupling between output arms during the measurement.

  7. Characterizing configurable transmission modes in plasma photonic crystals using scanning field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Benjamin; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    A fully tunable plasma photonic crystal is used to control the propagation of free space electromagnetic waves in the S to X band of the microwave spectrum. A structured array of discharge plasma tubes are arranged in a square crystal lattice with the individual plasma dielectric constant tuned through variation in the plasma density. Microwave field-mapping is used to characterize the transmitted electromagnetic fields of the tunable device operating in waveguiding and bending modes. These modes are obtained by introducing appropriate line defects in the photonic crystal structure by controlling the activity of individual plasma tubes. Comparisons are made of the measured fields to those simulated using commercially-available software.

  8. Ultra-high tunable liquid crystal-plasmonic photonic crystal fiber polarization filter.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O; Heikal, A M; Younis, B M; Abdelrazzak, Maher; Obayya, S S A

    2015-03-23

    A novel ultra-high tunable photonic crystal fiber (PCF) polarization filter is proposed and analyzed using finite element method. The suggested design has a central hole infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) that offers high tunability with temperature and external electric field. Moreover, the PCF is selectively filled with metal wires into cladding air holes. Results show that the resonance losses and wavelengths are different in x and y polarized directions depending on the rotation angle φ of the NLC. The reported filter of compact device length 0.5 mm can achieve 600 dB / cm resonance losses at φ = 90° for x-polarized mode at communication wavelength of 1300 mm with low losses of 0.00751 dB / cm for y-polarized mode. However, resonance losses of 157.71 dB / cm at φ = 0° can be achieved for y-polarized mode at the same wavelength with low losses of 0.092 dB / cm for x-polarized mode.

  9. Tailoring the photon spin via light-matter interaction in liquid-crystal-based twisting structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yang; Chen, Peng; Ji, Wei; Wei, Bing-yan; Lee, Chun-hong; Lin, Tsung-hsien; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the photonic spin Hall effect in a system comprising designable liquid crystal materials. The photoalignment technique provides an effective approach to control the directors of the liquid crystal molecules. Twisting structures with different transverse distributions are conveniently introduced into the liquid crystal plates for tailoring the spin-orbit coupling process to present various photonic spin Hall effect phenomena. The light-matter interaction in the twisting mediums is described with a Schrödinger-like equation. The photonic spin Hall effect considered in the study is explained as the result of an effective magnetic field acting on a pseudospin. Moreover, owing to the designability of the liquid crystal system, it is a potential platform for Hamiltonian engineering. Several valuable multiple quantum systems are possible to be presented in classical analogies.

  10. Photonic crystals possessing multiple Weyl points and the experimental observation of robust surface states

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Meng; Chan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Weyl points, as monopoles of Berry curvature in momentum space, have captured much attention recently in various branches of physics. Realizing topological materials that exhibit such nodal points is challenging and indeed, Weyl points have been found experimentally in transition metal arsenide and phosphide and gyroid photonic crystal whose structure is complex. If realizing even the simplest type of single Weyl nodes with a topological charge of 1 is difficult, then making a real crystal carrying higher topological charges may seem more challenging. Here we design, and fabricate using planar fabrication technology, a photonic crystal possessing single Weyl points (including type-II nodes) and multiple Weyl points with topological charges of 2 and 3. We characterize this photonic crystal and find nontrivial 2D bulk band gaps for a fixed kz and the associated surface modes. The robustness of these surface states against kz-preserving scattering is experimentally observed for the first time. PMID:27703140

  11. Compact 3D photonic crystals sensing platform with 45 degree angle polished fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuqing; Chen, Lu; Zhu, Jiali; Ni, Haibin; Xia, Wei; Wang, Ming

    2017-07-01

    Three dimensional photonic crystals are a kind of promising sensing materials in biology and chemistry. A compact structure, consists of planner colloidal crystals and 45 degree angle polished fiber, is proposed as a platform for accurate, fast, reliable three dimensional photonic crystals sensing in practice. This structure show advantages in compact size for integration and it is ease for large scale manufacture. Reflectivity of the 45 degree angle polished surface with and without a layer of Ag film are simulated by FDTD simulation. Refractive index sensing properties as well as mode distribution of this structure consists of both polystyrene opal and silica inverse opal film is investigated, and an experimental demonstration of silica inverse opal film is performed, which shows a sensitivity of 733 nm/RIU. Different kinds of three dimensional photonic crystals can also be applied in this structure for particular purpose.

  12. Optical surface modes in finite photonic crystals based on porous silicon studied by third-harmonic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, D. G.; Aktsipetrov, O. A.

    2005-07-01

    This work is devoted to the first experimental observation of optical features in spectra of reflectance and third-harmonic generation of the finite one-dimensional photonic crystals based of the porous silicon, which caused by "surface" modes of an electromagnetic field, similarly to surface states of semiconductors and dielectrics. Semiconductor surface states correspond to electronic wave which total reflect from potential barrier crystal-vacuum as well as crystal lattice due to Brag interference. Therefore the electrons can propagate only along the crystal surface. Similar effect can observed in electromagnetic spectrum of photonic crystals. Although ordinary photonic crystals have not potential barrier crystal-vacuum for photons but they have modified density of modes at the surface. The surface waves existed at the interface of two optically different media can be observed using attenuated total reflectance configuration whereas the change of density of modes gives a sensitive tool to observe optical properties in the surface region. For observation optical features associated to surface states of photonic crystal we have to create the photonic crystal with few layers - finite photonic crystal. Also we can observe changes of electromagnetic density of modes by using third-harmonic generation spectroscopy. Dependence of resonances of third-harmonic generation on number of layers in the structure was observed. Increase of Q-factor of photonic crystals lead to wash out optical features of surface modes in a linear spectrum, whereas the nonlinear optics remains sensitive to eigenmodes.

  13. Growth of bulk single crystals of urea for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranraj, Arumugam; Dhas, Sathiyadhas Sahaya Jude; Jose, Michael; Martin Britto Dhas, Sathiyadhas Amalapusham

    2018-01-01

    We report the growth of technologically important urea crystals of record size (48 × 16 × 8 mm3) by doping sulfuric acid and employing slow evaporation technique. The grown crystal was identified by single crystal X-Ray diffraction and FTIR spectral analysis. Optical properties of the grown crystal were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrum and the presence of H2SO4 was confirmed by EDAX analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Photo acoustic studies were also carried out to determine the thermal properties of the grown crystal. The dielectric properties for wide range of frequencies (1 Hz to 1 MHz) at different temperatures (35, 40, 60, 80, 100 °C) were analyzed. The second harmonic conversion efficiency of the grown H2SO4 doped urea crystal was found to be 3.75 times higher than the commercially available KDP crystals. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Structural coloration of chitosan-cationized cotton fabric using photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, G.; Zille, A.; Seventekin, N.; Souto, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, poly (styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) P(St-MMA-AA) composite nanospheres were deposited onto chitosan-cationized woven cotton fabrics followed by a second layer of chitosan. The deposited photonic crystals (PCs) on the fabrics were evaluated for coating efficiency and resistance, chemical analysis and color variation by optical and SEM microscopy, ATR-FTIR, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and washing fastness. Chitosan deposition on cotton fabric provided cationic groups on the fiber surface promoting electrostatic interaction with photonic crystals. SEM images of the washed samples indicate that the PCs are firmly coated on the cotton surface only in the chitosan treated sample. The photonic nanospheres show an average diameter of 280 nm and display a face-centered cubic closepacking structure with an average thickness of 10 μm. A further chitosan post-treatment enhances color yield of the samples due to the chitosan transparent covering layer that induce bright reflections where the angles of incidence and reflection are the same. After washing, no photonic crystal can be detected on control fabric surface. However, the sample that received a chitosan post-treatment showed a good washing fastness maintaining a reasonable degree of iridescence. Chitosan fills the spaces between the polymer spheres in the matrix stabilizing the photonic structure. Sizeable variations in lattice spacing will allow color variations using more flexible non-close-packed photonic crystal arrays in chitosan hydrogels matrices.

  15. Hemispherical Brillouin zone imaging of a diamond-type biological photonic crystal

    PubMed Central

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The brilliant structural body colours of many animals are created by three-dimensional biological photonic crystals that act as wavelength-specific reflectors. Here, we report a study on the vividly coloured scales of the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis. Electron microscopy identified the chitin and air assemblies inside the scales as domains of a single-network diamond (Fd3m) photonic crystal. We visualized the topology of the first Brillouin zone (FBZ) by imaging scatterometry, and we reconstructed the complete photonic band structure diagram (PBSD) of the chitinous photonic crystal from reflectance spectra. Comparison with calculated PBSDs indeed showed a perfect overlap. The unique method of non-invasive hemispherical imaging of the FBZ provides key insights for the investigation of photonic crystals in the visible wavelength range. The characterized extremely large biophotonic nanostructures of E. imperialis are structurally optimized for high reflectance and may thus be well suited for use as a template for producing novel photonic devices, e.g. through biomimicry or direct infiltration from dielectric material. PMID:22188768

  16. Coherent control of energy transfer in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tao; Bose, Ranojoy; Choudhury, Kaushik R.; Solomon, Glenn S.; Waks, Edo

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum Rabi oscillation is a damped oscillation in which energy can transfer between an atomic excitation and a photon when an atom is strongly coupled to a photonic cavity. This process is challenging to be coherently controlled due to the fact that interaction between the atom and the electromagnetic resonator needs to be modulated in a quick manner compared to vacuum Rabi frequency. This control has been achieved at microwave frequencies, but has remained challenging to be implemented in the optical domain. Here we demonstrated coherent control of energy transfer in a semiconductor quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule by manipulating the vacuum Rabi oscillation of the system. Instead of using a single photonic crystal cavity, we utilized a photonic crystal molecule consisting two coupled photonic crystal defect cavities to obtain both strong quantum dot-cavity coupling and cavityenhanced AC stark shift. In our system the AC stark shift modulates the coupling interaction between the quantum dot and the cavity by shifting the quantum dot resonance, on timescales (picosecond) shorter than the vacuum Rabi period. We demonstrated the ability to transfer excitation between a quantum dot and cavity, and performed coherent control of light-matter states. Our results provides an ultra-fast approach for probing and controlling light-matter interactions in an integrated nanophotonic device, and could pave the way for gigahertz rate synthesis of arbitrary quantum states of light at optical frequencies.

  17. Effect of background dielectric on TE-polarized photonic bandgap of metallodielectric photonic crystals using Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, Aliasghar; Rezaei, Behrooz

    2016-11-20

    Using the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated the photonic band structure of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals having the square and triangular lattices of circular metal rods in a dielectric background. We have selected the transverse electric mode of electromagnetic waves, and the resulting band structures showed the existence of photonic bandgap in these structures. We theoretically study the effect of background dielectric on the photonic bandgap.

  18. Hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube photonic crystals for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ming; Zhou, Sihua; Yang, Lun; Gan, Zhixing; Liu, Kuili; Tian, Fengshou; Zhu, Yu; Li, ChunYang; Liu, Weifeng; Yuan, Honglei; Zhang, Yan

    2018-04-02

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of novel TiO 2 nanotube photonic crystals with a crystalline core/disordered shell structure as well as substantial oxygen vacancies for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The novel TiO 2 nanotube photonic crystals are fabricated by annealing of anodized TiO 2 nanotube photonic crystals in hydrogen atmosphere at various temperatures. The optimized novel TiO 2 nanotube photonic crystals produce a maximal photocurrent density of 2.2 mA cm -2 at 0.22 V versus Ag/AgCl, which is two times higher that of the TiO 2 nanotube photonic crystals annealed in air. Such significant PEC performance improvement can be ascribed to synergistic effects of the disordered surface layer and oxygen vacancies. The reduced band gap owing to the disordered surface layer and localized states induced by oxygen vacancies can enhance the efficient utilization of visible light. In addition, the disordered surface layer and substantial oxygen vacancies can promote the efficiency for separation and transport of the photogenerated carriers. This work may open up new opportunities for the design and construction of the high efficient and low-cost PEC water splitting system.

  19. Efficient procedures for the optimization of defects in photonic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Christian; Xudong, Cui; Smajic, Jasmin; Vahldieck, Ruediger

    2007-04-01

    Seven different stochastic binary optimizers--based on the concepts of genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies--are developed, applied to determine defect locations in several photonic crystal structures that serve as test cases, and compared by extensive statistical analysis. In addition to the stochastic optimizers, a quasi-deterministic optimizer based on an algorithm inspired by hill-climbing algorithms was implemented. The test cases include the prominent 90 degrees photonic crystal waveguide bend and a photonic crystal power divider. The analysis of the results shows that many different photonic crystal structures with high transmission may be found for any operating frequency. All of the eight optimizers outperform standard codes-because they maintain an incomplete fitness table-and find the global optima with a high probability even when the number of fitness evaluations is much smaller than the number of potential solutions contained in the discrete search space. Based on the incomplete fitness table, an algorithm to estimate bit-fitness values is presented. The bit-fitness values are then used to improve the performance of some algorithms. The four best algorithms-an extended microgenetic algorithm, two mutation-based algorithms, and the quasi-deterministic algorithm inspired by hill-climbing algorithms-are considered to be of high value for the optimization of defects in photonic crystals and for similar binary optimization problems.

  20. Controlling spontaneous emission with the local density of states of honeycomb photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ya-Chih; Lin, Chien-Fan; Chang, Jui-Wen

    2009-05-01

    We calculated the local density of state for various positions in a photonic crystal of honeycomb lattice to study how the spontaneous emission rate of a radiating dipole is altered in the presence of the photonic crystal. The local density of states is found to be position-sensitive and its value can be enhanced or depressed relative to the density of states, depending on the location of the dipole. Our study shows that the density of states tends to underestimate the effect of a photonic crystal on the prohibition of light propagation, while on the contrary tends to overestimate the effect on the enhancement of light emission. The calculations also indicate that it is possible to tailor the spontaneous emission of an active medium by careful selecting its location in the photonic crystal. The results are helpful in determining the insertion location of the active medium and in evaluating the efficiency of active photonic crystal devices such as light-emitting diodes or lasers.

  1. Hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube photonic crystals for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Ming; Zhou, Sihua; Yang, Lun; Gan, Zhixing; Liu, Kuili; Tian, Fengshou; Zhu, Yu; Li, ChunYang; Liu, Weifeng; Yuan, Honglei; Zhang, Yan

    2018-04-01

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of novel TiO2 nanotube photonic crystals with a crystalline core/disordered shell structure as well as substantial oxygen vacancies for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The novel TiO2 nanotube photonic crystals are fabricated by annealing of anodized TiO2 nanotube photonic crystals in hydrogen atmosphere at various temperatures. The optimized novel TiO2 nanotube photonic crystals produce a maximal photocurrent density of 2.2 mA cm-2 at 0.22 V versus Ag/AgCl, which is two times higher that of the TiO2 nanotube photonic crystals annealed in air. Such significant PEC performance improvement can be ascribed to synergistic effects of the disordered surface layer and oxygen vacancies. The reduced band gap owing to the disordered surface layer and localized states induced by oxygen vacancies can enhance the efficient utilization of visible light. In addition, the disordered surface layer and substantial oxygen vacancies can promote the efficiency for separation and transport of the photogenerated carriers. This work may open up new opportunities for the design and construction of the high efficient and low-cost PEC water splitting system.

  2. Characterization of a plasma photonic crystal using a multi-fluid plasma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. R.; Shumlak, U.; Wang, B.; Righetti, F.; Cappelli, M. A.; Miller, S. T.

    2017-10-01

    Plasma photonic crystals have the potential to significantly expand the capabilities of current microwave filtering and switching technologies by providing high speed (μs) control of energy band-gap/pass characteristics in the GHz through low THz range. While photonic crystals consisting of dielectric, semiconductor, and metallic matrices have seen thousands of articles published over the last several decades, plasma-based photonic crystals remain a relatively unexplored field. Numerical modeling efforts so far have largely used the standard methods of analysis for photonic crystals (the Plane Wave Expansion Method, Finite Difference Time Domain, and ANSYS finite element electromagnetic code HFSS), none of which capture nonlinear plasma-radiation interactions. In this study, a 5N-moment multi-fluid plasma model is implemented using University of Washington's WARPXM finite element multi-physics code. A two-dimensional plasma-vacuum photonic crystal is simulated and its behavior is characterized through the generation of dispersion diagrams and transmission spectra. These results are compared with theory, experimental data, and ANSYS HFSS simulation results. This research is supported by a Grant from United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  3. Two-photon interband absorption coefficients in tungstate and molybdate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukanin, V. I.; Karasik, A. Ya.

    2015-02-01

    Two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficients were measured in tungstate and molybdate crystals - BaWO4, KGW, CaMoO4, BaMoO4, CaWO4, PbWO4 and ZnWO4 upon different orientations of excitation polarization with respect to the crystallographic axes. Trains of 25 ps pulses with variable radiation intensities of third (349 nm) harmonics of passively mode-locked 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser were used for interband two-photon excitation of the crystals. It was suggested that in the case, when 349 nm radiation pumping energy exceeds the bandgap width (hν>Eg), the nonlinear excitation process can be considered as two-step absorption. The interband two-photon absorption in all the studied crystals induces the following one-photon absorption from the exited states, which affects the nonlinear process dynamics and leads to a hysteresis in the dependence of the transmission on the excitation intensity. This fact was taken into account under analysis of the experimental dependences of the reciprocal transmission on the excitation intensity. Laser excitation in the transparency region of the crystals caused stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) not for all the crystals studied. The measured nonlinear coefficients allowed us to explain the suppression of SRS in crystals as a result of competition between the SRS and TPA.

  4. Nanoporous hard data: optical encoding of information within nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information.Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for

  5. Light trapping and circularly polarization at a Dirac point in 2D plasma photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Hu, Lei; Mao, Qiuping; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Xie, Kang; Wei, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Light trapping at the Dirac point in 2D plasma photonic crystal has been obtained. The new localized mode, Dirac mode, is attributable to neither photonic bandgap nor total internal reflection. It exhibits a unique algebraic profile and possesses a high-Q factor resonator of about 105. The Dirac point could be modulated by tuning the filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency, respectively. When a magnetic field parallel to the wave vector is applied, Dirac modes for right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves could be obtained at different frequencies, and the Q factor could be tuned. This property will add more controllability and flexibility to the design and modulation of novel photonic devices. It is also valuable for the possibilities of Dirac modes in photonic crystal containing other kinds of metamaterials.

  6. Writing and probing light-induced waveguides thanks to an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Huy, Kien Phan; Safioui, Jassem; Guichardaz, Blandine; Devaux, Fabrice; Chauvet, Mathieu

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate writing and probing of light-induced waveguides in photorefractive bulk LiNbO3 crystal using an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber. The optical waveguides are written at visible wavelengths by slightly raising the ferroelectric crystal temperature to benefit from the pyroelectric-driven photorefractive effect and the guiding properties are investigated at telecom wavelengths using the same photonic crystal fiber. End butt coupling with this photonic crystal fiber enables writing and probing of optical waveguides due to the self-alignment properties of spatial solitons.

  7. Enhanced ODR range using exponentially graded refractive index profile of 1D binary photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevsharma145@gmail.com; Kumar, Rajendra, E-mail: khundrakpam-ss@yahoo.com; Singh, Kh. S., E-mail: khundrakpam-ss@yahoo.com

    2016-05-06

    A simple design of broadband one dimensional dielectric/semiconductor multilayer structure having refractive index profile of exponentially graded material has been proposed. The theoretical analysis shows that the proposed structure works as a perfect mirror within a certain wavelength range (1550 nm). In order to calculate the reflection properties a transfer matrix method (TMM) has been used. This property shows that binary graded photonic crystal structures have widened omnidirectional reflector (ODR) bandgap. Hence a exponentially graded photonic crystal structure can be used as a broadband optical reflector and the range of reflection can be tuned to any wavelength region by varying themore » refractive index profile of exponentially graded photonic crystal structure.« less

  8. Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.

    2015-02-23

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities χ{sub zxx}{sup (2)}, χ{sub zyy}{sup (2)} and the electric fields of the fundamentalmore » cavity mode.« less

  9. Optimal radii of photonic crystal holes within DBR mirrors in long wavelength VCSEL.

    PubMed

    Czyszanowski, Tomasz; Dems, Maciej; Thienpont, Hugo; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2007-02-05

    The modal characteristics of a Photonic-Crystal Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting diode Laser (PC-VCSEL) have been investigated. Photonic crystal structure, realized by a regular net of air holes within the layers, has been etched in the upper DBR mirror. An advanced three-dimensional, vectorial electromagnetic model has been applied to a phosphide - based device design featuring InGaAlAs active region, AlGaAs/GaAs mirrors and a tunnel junction to confine the current flow. For the structure under consideration a single mode operation has been found for the hole diameter over photonic crystal lattice constant ratio between 0.1 - 0.3.

  10. Light-induced dynamic structural color by intracellular 3D photonic crystals in brown algae.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Garcia, Martin; Masters, Nathan; O'Brien, Heath E; Lennon, Joseph; Atkinson, George; Cryan, Martin J; Oulton, Ruth; Whitney, Heather M

    2018-04-01

    Natural photonic crystals are responsible for strong reflectance at selective wavelengths in different natural systems. We demonstrate that intracellular opal-like photonic crystals formed from lipids within photosynthetic cells produce vivid structural color in the alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia . The reflectance of the opaline vesicles is dynamically responsive to environmental illumination. The structural color is present in low light-adapted samples, whereas higher light levels produce a slow disappearance of the structural color such that it eventually vanishes completely. Once returned to low-light conditions, the color re-emerges. Our results suggest that these complex intracellular natural photonic crystals are responsive to environmental conditions, changing their packing structure reversibly, and have the potential to manipulate light for roles beyond visual signaling.

  11. Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals for Sensitive Microscale Chemical and Biochemical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Photonic crystals – optical devices able to respond to changes in the refractive index of a small volume of space – are an emerging class of label-free chemical-and bio-sensors. This review focuses on one class of photonic crystal, in which light is confined to a patterned planar material layer of sub-wavelength thickness. These devices are small (on the order of tens to 100s of microns square), suitable for incorporation into lab-on-a-chip systems, and in theory can provide exceptional sensitivity. We introduce the defining characteristics and basic operation of two-dimensional photonic crystal sensors, describe variations of their basic design geometry, and summarize reported detection results from chemical and biological sensing experiments. PMID:25563402

  12. Two-dimensional photonic crystals for sensitive microscale chemical and biochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Baker, James E; Sriram, Rashmi; Miller, Benjamin L

    2015-02-21

    Photonic crystals - optical devices able to respond to changes in the refractive index of a small volume of space - are an emerging class of label-free chemical- and bio-sensors. This review focuses on one class of photonic crystal, in which light is confined to a patterned planar material layer of sub-wavelength thickness. These devices are small (on the order of tens to hundreds of microns square), suitable for incorporation into lab-on-a-chip systems, and in theory can provide exceptional sensitivity. We introduce the defining characteristics and basic operation of two-dimensional photonic crystal sensors, describe variations of their basic design geometry, and summarize reported detection results from chemical and biological sensing experiments.

  13. The smart Petri dish: a nanostructured photonic crystal for real-time monitoring of living cells.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael P; Derfus, Austin M; Alvarez, Sara D; Bhatia, Sangeeta N; Sailor, Michael J

    2006-08-01

    The intensity of light scattered from a porous Si photonic crystal is used to monitor physiological changes in primary rat hepatocytes. The cells are seeded on the surface of a porous Si photonic crystal that has been filled with polystyrene and treated with an O2 plasma. Light resonant with the photonic crystal is scattered by the cell layer and detected as an optical peak with a charge-coupled-device spectrometer. It is demonstrated that exposure of hepatocytes to the toxins cadmium chloride or acetaminophen leads to morphology changes that cause a measurable increase in scattered intensity. The increase in signal occurs before traditional assays are able to detect a decrease in viability, demonstrating the potential of the technique as a complementary tool for cell viability studies. The scattering method presented here is noninvasive and can be performed in real time, representing a significant advantage compared to other techniques for in vitro monitoring of cell morphology.

  14. Generation of a pulsed polarization entangled-photon pair via a two-crystal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, B.-S.; Tomita, Akihisa

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we report a scheme for the generation of a pulsed polarization entangled-photon pair in a two-crystal geometry. These two crystals are oriented with their optical axes aligned in a perpendicular plane, stacked in the vertical direction. The stack direction and the pass direction of pump laser are orthogonal. This scheme has some advantages compared to other schemes: no time compensation or narrow-band filter is needed, it is insensitive to the thickness of the nonlinear crystal. As a demonstration of its workability, we get more than 86% high visibility of two-photon quantum interference experimentally for the polarization variable,more » without any time compensation and narrow-band filter. This scheme may be a useful technique for the generation of a pulsed entangled-photon pair.« less

  15. Tamm-plasmon polaritons in one-dimensional photonic quasi-crystals.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Mukesh Kumar; Das, Ritwick

    2018-02-01

    We present an investigation to ascertain the existence of Tamm-plasmon-polariton-like modes in one-dimensional (1D) quasi-periodic photonic systems. Photonic bandgap formation in quasi-crystals is essentially a consequence of long-range periodicity exhibited by multilayers and, thus, it can be explained using the dispersion relation in the Brillouin zone. Defining a "Zak"-like topological phase in 1D quasi-crystals, we propose a recipe to ascertain the existence of Tamm-like photonic surface modes in a metal-terminated quasi-crystal lattice. Additionally, we also explore the conditions of efficient excitation of such surface modes along with their dispersion characteristics.

  16. Unidirectional transmission in photonic-crystal gratings at beam-type illumination.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Atilla Ozgur; Colak, Evrim; Serebryannikov, Andriy E; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2010-10-11

    Unidirectional transmission is studied theoretically and experimentally for the gratings with one-side corrugations (non-symmetric gratings), which are based on two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of alumina rods. The unidirectional transmission appears at a fixed angle of incidence as a combined effect of the peculiar dispersion features of the photonic crystal and the properly designed corrugations. It is shown that the basic unidirectional transmission characteristics, which are observed at a plane-wave illumination, are preserved at Gaussian-beam and horn antenna illuminations. The main attention is paid to the single-beam unidirectional regime, which is associated with the strong directional selectivity arising due to the first negative diffraction order. An additional degree of freedom for controlling the transmission of the electromagnetic waves is obtained by making use of the asymmetric corrugations at the photonic crystal interface.

  17. Tunable alumina 2D photonic-crystal structures via biomineralization of peacock tail feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yonggang; Wang, Rui; Feng, Lin; Li, Jian; An, Zhonglie; Zhang, Deyuan

    2018-04-01

    Peacock tail feathers with subtle periodic nanostructures exhibit diverse striking brilliancy, which can be applied as natural templates to fabricate artificial photonic crystals (PhCs) via a biomineralization method. Alumina photonic-crystal structures are successfully synthesized via an immersion and two-step calcination process. The lattice constants of the artificial PhCs are greatly reduced compared to their natural matrices. The lattice constants are tunable by modifying the final annealing conditions in the biomineralization process. The reflection spectra of the alumina photonic-crystal structures are measured, which is related to their material and structural parameters. This work suggests a facile fabrication process to construct alumina PhCs with a high-temperature resistance.

  18. Waveguide modes of 1D photonic crystals in a transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sylgacheva, D. A., E-mail: sylgacheva.darjja@physics.msu.ru; Khokhlov, N. E.; Kalish, A. N.

    2016-11-15

    We analyze waveguide modes in 1D photonic crystals containing layers magnetized in the plane. It is shown that the magnetooptical nonreciprocity effect emerges in such structures during the propagation of waveguide modes along the layers and perpendicularly to the magnetization. This effect involves a change in the phase velocity of the mode upon reversal of the direction of magnetization. Comparison of the effects in a nonmagnetic photonic crystal with an additional magnetic layer and in a photonic crystal with magnetic layers shows that the magnitude of this effect is several times larger in the former case in spite of themore » fact that the electromagnetic field of the modes in the latter case is localized in magnetic regions more strongly. This is associated with asymmetry of the dielectric layers contacting with the magnetic layer in the former case. This effect is important for controlling waveguide structure modes with the help of an external magnetic field.« less

  19. Coupled dipole method for radiation dynamics in finite photonic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Bordas, Frédéric; Louvion, Nicolas; Callard, Ségolène; Chaumet, Patrick C; Rahmani, Adel

    2006-05-01

    We present a coupled-dipole treatment of radiation dynamics in the weak-coupling regime in a finite three-dimensional photonic crystal structure. The structure is discretized in real space and the self-consistent local field is computed. We illustrate the computation of radiation dynamics by calculating the spontaneous emission rate for a source located in a defect cavity inside a slab photonic crystal structure. We compute the cavity spectral response, the near-field modal structure, and the far-field radiation pattern of the microcavity. We also discuss our results in light of the recent experimental near-field observations of the optical modes of a photonic crystal microcavity.

  20. Photonic Crystals-Inhibited Spontaneous Emission: Optical Antennas-Enhanced Spontaneous Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablonovitch, Eli

    Photonic crystals are also part of everyday technological life in opto-electronic telecommunication devices that provide us with internet, cloud storage, and email. But photonic crystals have also been identified in nature, in the coloration of peacocks, parrots, chameleons, butterflies and many other species.In spite of its broad applicability, the original motivation of photonic crystals was to create a ``bandgap'' in which the spontaneous emission of light would be inhibited. Conversely, the opposite is now possible. The ``optical antenna'' can accelerate spontaneous emission. Over 100 years after the radio antenna, we finally have tiny ``optical antennas'' which can act on molecules and quantum dots. Employing optical antennas, spontaneous light emission can become faster than stimulated emission.

  1. A novel architecture of ultracompact pulse position modulator in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshaghi, Armaghan; Mirsalehi, Mir M.; Attari, Amir R.

    2009-05-01

    We propose and analyze a novel photonic crystal pulse position modulator utilizing a coupled cavity waveguide delay line. Also, a nonlinear photonic crystal directional coupler is used as an all-optical switch in the proposed structure. The input data acts as the control signal of the switch and activates the switching operation. We show that the device size can be reduced significantly by designing the delay line to achieve a reduced group velocity and a quasi-flat impurity band. The size of the designed modulator is 32 a × 16 a, where a represents the lattice constant of the photonic crystal. The characteristics of the device are investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and plane wave expansion (PWE) methods.

  2. Hybrid inorganic/organic photonic crystal biochips for cancer biomarkers detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Danz, Norbert; Munzert, Peter; Michelotti, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    We report on hybrid inorganic/organic one-dimensional photonic crystal biochips sustaining Bloch surface waves. The biochips were used, together with an optical platform operating in a label-free and fluorescence configuration simultaneously, to detect the cancer biomarker Angiopoietin 2 in a protein base buffer. The hybrid photonic crystals embed in their geometry a thin functionalization poly-acrylic acid layer deposited by plasma polymerization, which is used to immobilize a monoclonal antibody for highly specific biological recognition. The fluorescence operation mode is described in detail, putting into evidence the role of field enhancement and localization at the photonic crystal surface in the shaping and intensification of the angular fluorescence pattern. In the fluorescence operation mode, the hybrid biochips can attain the limit of detection 6 ng/ml.

  3. A Tunable Eight-Wavelength Terahertz Modulator Based on Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, K.; Chen, H.; Zhou, W.; Zhuang, Y.; Wang, J.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a tunable eight-wavelength terahertz modulator based on a structure of triple triangular lattice photonic crystals by using photonic crystals in the terahertz regime. The triple triangular lattice was formed by nesting circular, square, and triangular dielectric cylinders. Three square point defects were introduced into the perfect photonic crystal to produce eight defect modes. GaAs was used as the point defects to realize tunability. We used a structure with a reflecting barrier to achieve modulation at high transmission rate. The insertion loss and extinction ratio were 0.122 and 38.54 dB, respectively. The modulation rate was 0.788 dB. The performance of the eightwavelength terahertz modulator showed great potential for use in future terahertz communication systems.

  4. Light-induced dynamic structural color by intracellular 3D photonic crystals in brown algae

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Natural photonic crystals are responsible for strong reflectance at selective wavelengths in different natural systems. We demonstrate that intracellular opal-like photonic crystals formed from lipids within photosynthetic cells produce vivid structural color in the alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia. The reflectance of the opaline vesicles is dynamically responsive to environmental illumination. The structural color is present in low light–adapted samples, whereas higher light levels produce a slow disappearance of the structural color such that it eventually vanishes completely. Once returned to low-light conditions, the color re-emerges. Our results suggest that these complex intracellular natural photonic crystals are responsive to environmental conditions, changing their packing structure reversibly, and have the potential to manipulate light for roles beyond visual signaling. PMID:29651457

  5. Structural Color Palettes of Core-Shell Photonic Ink Capsules Containing Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Seok; Seo, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Photonic microcapsules with onion-like topology are microfluidically designed to have cholesteric liquid crystals with opposite handedness in their core and shell. The microcapsules exhibit structural colors caused by dual photonic bandgaps, resulting in a rich variety of color on the optical palette. Moreover, the microcapsules can switch the colors from either core or shell depending on the selection of light-handedness. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Robust microfluidic encapsulation of cholesteric liquid crystals toward photonic ink capsules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Seok; Kim, Bomi; Kim, Su Kyung; Won, Jong Chan; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2015-01-27

    Robust photonic microcapsules are created by microfluidic encapsulation of cholesteric liquid crystals with a hydrogel membrane. The membrane encloses the cholesteric core without leakage in water and the core exhibits pronounced structural colors. The photonic ink capsules, which have a precisely controlled bandgap position and size, provide new opportunities in colorimetric micro-thermometers and optoelectric applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Improving femtosecond laser pulse delivery through a hollow core photonic crystal fiber for temporally focused two-photon endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejin; So, Peter T. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a strategy to improve delivery of femtosecond laser pulses from a regenerative amplifier through a hollow core photonic crystal fiber for temporally focused wide-field two-photon endomicroscopy. For endomicroscope application, wide-field two-photon excitation has the advantage of requiring no scanning in the distal end. However, wide-field two-photon excitation requires peak power that is 104–105 times higher than the point scanning approach corresponding to femtosecond pulses with energy on the order of 1–10 μJ at the specimen plane. The transmission of these high energy pulses through a single mode fiber into the microendoscope is a significant challenge. Two approaches were pursued to partially overcome this limitation. First, a single high energy pulse is split into a train of pulses with energy below the fiber damage threshold better utilizing the available laser energy. Second, stretching the pulse width in time by introducing negative dispersion was shown to have the dual benefit of reducing fiber damage probability and compensating for the positive group velocity dispersion induced by the fiber. With these strategy applied, 11 fold increase in the two photon excitation signal has been demonstrated. PMID:25316120

  8. Improved photon-pair generation from transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers embedded in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng

    2018-04-01

    We have theoretically investigated photon-pair generation from transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers embedded in photonic crystals (PCs) by a rigorous quantum model of spontaneous parametric downconversion. The mean number of output photon pairs and the signal-field energy spectrum have been elaborated. Two different structures are studied: one is a monolayer WS 2 embedded in the defective PC, and the other is a stack of WS 2 layers in the dielectric multilayer structure. It is clearly shown that an obvious improvement of the generation rate of the correlated photon pairs from the monolayer WS 2 can be realized in these two structures, and the enhancement can reach as much as 14 orders of magnitude. Such an effective improvement utilizes the improved field localization at the defect state or the band-edge state, the propagation of photons in the PCs, and coherent superposition; similar phenomena can occur for other TMDC monolayers. These phenomena are very beneficial for the design of optical devices.

  9. Improving femtosecond laser pulse delivery through a hollow core photonic crystal fiber for temporally focused two-photon endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heejin; So, Peter T C

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we present a strategy to improve delivery of femtosecond laser pulses from a regenerative amplifier through a hollow core photonic crystal fiber for temporally focused wide-field two-photon endomicroscopy. For endomicroscope application, wide-field two-photon excitation has the advantage of requiring no scanning in the distal end. However, wide-field two-photon excitation requires peak power that is 10(4)-10(5) times higher than the point scanning approach corresponding to femtosecond pulses with energy on the order of 1-10 μJ at the specimen plane. The transmission of these high energy pulses through a single mode fiber into the microendoscope is a significant challenge. Two approaches were pursued to partially overcome this limitation. First, a single high energy pulse is split into a train of pulses with energy below the fiber damage threshold better utilizing the available laser energy. Second, stretching the pulse width in time by introducing negative dispersion was shown to have the dual benefit of reducing fiber damage probability and compensating for the positive group velocity dispersion induced by the fiber. With these strategy applied, 11 fold increase in the two photon excitation signal has been demonstrated.

  10. Selective optical response of hydrolytically stable stratified Si rugate mirrors to liquid infiltration.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, Tero; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Koda, Ryo; Sakka, Tetsuo; Ogata, Yukio H; Salonen, Jarno

    2014-02-26

    Stratified optical filters with distinct spectral features and layered surface chemistry were prepared on silicon substrates with stepwise anodic porosification and thermal carbonization. The use of differing parameters for successive carbonization treatments enabled the production of hydrolytically stable porous silicon-based layered optical structures where the adsorption of water to the lower layer is inhibited. This enables selective shifting of reflectance bands by means of liquid infiltration. The merit of using thermal carbonization for creating layered functionality was demonstrated by comparing the hydrolytic stability resulting from this approach to other surface chemistries available for Si. The functionality of the stratified optical structures was demonstrated under water and ethanol infiltration, and changes in the adsorption properties after 9 months of storage were evaluated. The changes observed in the structure were explained using simulations based on the transfer matrix method and the Bruggeman effective medium approximation. Scanning electron microscopy was used for imaging the morphology of the porous structure. Finally, the adaptability of the method for preparing complex structures was demonstrated by stacking superimposed rugate structures with several reflective bands.

  11. Directional elastic wave propagation in high-aspect-ratio photoresist gratings: liquid infiltration and aging.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Redondo, E; Gueddida, A; Li, J; Graczykowski, B; Sotomayor Torres, C M; Pennec, Y; Yang, S; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Fytas, G

    2017-02-23

    Determination of the mechanical properties of nanostructured soft materials and their composites in a quantitative manner is of great importance to improve the fidelity in their fabrication and to enable the subsequent reliable utility. Here, we report on the characterization of the elastic and photoelastic parameters of a periodic array of nanowalls (grating) by the non-invasive Brillouin light scattering technique and finite element calculations. The resolved elastic vibrational modes in high and low aspect ratio nanowalls reveal quantitative and qualitative differences related to the two-beam interference lithography fabrication and subsequent aging under ambient conditions. The phononic properties, namely the dispersion relations, can be drastically altered by changing the surrounding material of the nanowalls. Here we demonstrate that liquid infiltration turns the phononic function from a single-direction phonon-guiding to an anisotropic propagation along the two orthogonal directions. The susceptibility of the phononic behavior to the infiltrating liquid can be of unusual benefits, such as sensing and alteration of the materials under confinement.

  12. Bottom-up Fabrication of Multilayer Stacks of 3D Photonic Crystals from Titanium Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kubrin, Roman; Pasquarelli, Robert M; Waleczek, Martin; Lee, Hooi Sing; Zierold, Robert; do Rosário, Jefferson J; Dyachenko, Pavel N; Montero Moreno, Josep M; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Janssen, Rolf; Eich, Manfred; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schneider, Gerold A

    2016-04-27

    A strategy for stacking multiple ceramic 3D photonic crystals is developed. Periodically structured porous films are produced by vertical convective self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) microspheres. After infiltration of the opaline templates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania and thermal decomposition of the polystyrene matrix, a ceramic 3D photonic crystal is formed. Further layers with different sizes of pores are deposited subsequently by repetition of the process. The influence of process parameters on morphology and photonic properties of double and triple stacks is systematically studied. Prolonged contact of amorphous titania films with warm water during self-assembly of the successive templates is found to result in exaggerated roughness of the surfaces re-exposed to ALD. Random scattering on rough internal surfaces disrupts ballistic transport of incident photons into deeper layers of the multistacks. Substantially smoother interfaces are obtained by calcination of the structure after each infiltration, which converts amorphous titania into the crystalline anatase before resuming the ALD infiltration. High quality triple stacks consisting of anatase inverse opals with different pore sizes are demonstrated for the first time. The elaborated fabrication method shows promise for various applications demanding broadband dielectric reflectors or titania photonic crystals with a long mean free path of photons.

  13. Plasmonic enhancement in BiVO4 photonic crystals for efficient water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwu; Lin, Chia-Yu; Valev, Ventsislav K; Reisner, Erwin; Steiner, Ullrich; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2014-10-15

    Photo-electrochemical water splitting is a very promising and environmentally friendly route for the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen. However, the solar-to-H2 conversion efficiency is still very low due to rapid bulk recombination of charge carriers. Here, a photonic nano-architecture is developed to improve charge carrier generation and separation by manipulating and confining light absorption in a visible-light-active photoanode constructed from BiVO4 photonic crystal and plasmonic nanostructures. Synergistic effects of photonic crystal stop bands and plasmonic absorption are observed to operate in this photonic nanostructure. Within the scaffold of an inverse opal photonic crystal, the surface plasmon resonance is significantly enhanced by the photonic Bragg resonance. Nanophotonic photoanodes show AM 1.5 photocurrent densities of 3.1 ± 0.1 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus RHE, which is among the highest for oxide-based photoanodes and over 4 times higher than the unstructured planar photoanode. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Electrically driven quantum light emission in electromechanically tuneable photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzella, M.; Pagliano, F. M.; Zobenica, Ž.; Birindelli, S.; Cotrufo, M.; van Otten, F. W. M.; van der Heijden, R. W.; Fiore, A.

    2017-12-01

    A single quantum dot deterministically coupled to a photonic crystal environment constitutes an indispensable elementary unit to both generate and manipulate single-photons in next-generation quantum photonic circuits. To date, the scaling of the number of these quantum nodes on a fully integrated chip has been prevented by the use of optical pumping strategies that require a bulky off-chip laser along with the lack of methods to control the energies of nano-cavities and emitters. Here, we concurrently overcome these limitations by demonstrating electrical injection of single excitonic lines within a nano-electro-mechanically tuneable photonic crystal cavity. When an electrically driven dot line is brought into resonance with a photonic crystal mode, its emission rate is enhanced. Anti-bunching experiments reveal the quantum nature of these on-demand sources emitting in the telecom range. These results represent an important step forward in the realization of integrated quantum optics experiments featuring multiple electrically triggered Purcell-enhanced single-photon sources embedded in a reconfigurable semiconductor architecture.

  15. Modeling of Thermal Phase Noise in a Solid Core Photonic Crystal Fiber-Optic Gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningfang; Ma, Kun; Jin, Jing; Teng, Fei; Cai, Wei

    2017-10-26

    A theoretical model of the thermal phase noise in a square-wave modulated solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope has been established, and then verified by measurements. The results demonstrate a good agreement between theory and experiment. The contribution of the thermal phase noise to the random walk coefficient of the gyroscope is derived. A fiber coil with 2.8 km length is used in the experimental solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope, showing a random walk coefficient of 9.25 × 10 -5 deg/√h.

  16. Metallo-dielectric photonic crystals for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Ye, Jing; Chen, Li-Miao; Lau, Shu-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-04-26

    Metallo-dielectric photonic crystals (MDPCs) are used as ultrasensitive molecular detectors for concentrations down to picomolar level based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Calculations show that the amorphous silicon photonic crystals (a-Si PCs) embedded in multiple metallo-dielectric (MD) units can significantly increase the electromagnetic fields at the air-dielectric interface, leading to remarkable Raman enhancement. Corresponding experiments show the multiple MDPC structures can serve as an ultrasensitive SERS substrate with excellent reproducibility and stability, capable of quantitative analysis down to 10 pM level. The MDPC structure can be generalized to other applications, such as plasmonic devices, ultrasensitive sensors, and nanophotonic systems.

  17. Intra-cavity index sensor based on ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ying; Hao, Congjing; Duan, Liangcheng; Wu, Baoqun; Mayilamu, Musideke; Yao, Jianquan

    2013-09-01

    We propose an intra-cavity index sensor based on double cladding ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber filled with liquid analyte in the air holes of optical fiber cladding. In such sensor, when pumped by 976 nm light, the output power of the ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber laser can be influenced by the refraction index of liquid analyte to achieve the intra-cavity fiber sensing. The numerical analysis shows that the power change is larger in a small range of loss when the end reflectivity is higher, and the sensor's sensitivity will be higher for the change of refractive index of analyte.

  18. Numerical investigation of photonic crystal fiber sensor sensitivity based on evanescent wave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Benchong; Lou, Jun; Xu, Hongzhi; Huang, Jie; Xu, Ben; Shen, Weimin

    2014-11-01

    We have carried out a detailed simulative study of the photonic band-gap crystal fiber sensor sensitivity by using the finite difference beam propagate method. The effect of the incident wavelength and the fill factor on the relative sensitivity of the sensors has been simulated. The simulative results show that with the incident wavelength and the fill factor increased, the relative sensitivity will be improved, the sensitivity of photonic band-gap crystal fiber sensor will be higher. The simulation results can provide the guidance for the further experimental study.

  19. Semi-analytical model for a slab one-dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libman, M.; Kondratyev, N. M.; Gorodetsky, M. L.

    2018-02-01

    In our work we justify the applicability of a dielectric mirror model to the description of a real photonic crystal. We demonstrate that a simple one-dimensional model of a multilayer mirror can be employed for modeling of a slab waveguide with periodically changing width. It is shown that this width change can be recalculated to the effective refraction index modulation. The applicability of transfer matrix method of reflection properties calculation was demonstrated. Finally, our 1-D model was employed to analyze reflection properties of a 2-D structure - a slab photonic crystal with a number of elliptic holes.

  20. Porous silicon photonic crystals as hosts for polymers, biopolymers, and magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang Yang

    This thesis describes the construction of one-dimensional photonic crystals of porous silicon by electrochemically etching and the use of these materials as hosts for polymers, biopolymers, and magnetic nanoparticles. The spectral features of the photonic crystals derive from a porosity gradient that is determined by the electrochemical etching parameters. Since the photonic crystals are constructed of a porous material, they can serve as hosts for other materials. The first chapter of the thesis provides an introduction to porous Si, templating techniques and the use of porous materials for controlled release of drugs. This latter section is added because much of the thesis work addresses the application of porous Si hosts for controlled release of drugs. In the second chapter, it is shown that the spectral properties of the porous Si photonic crystal template can be transferred to a variety of organic and biopolymers. It is demonstrated that these castings can be used as vapor sensors and as self-reporting, bioresorbable materials. If the template is not removed, porous Si polymer composites are formed. The third chapter discussed that by spray-coating a fine mist of polymer solution onto the porous Si film, robust and smooth micron-sized cylindrical photonic crystals suitable for bioassays can be prepared. The fourth chapter focuses on using porous Si photonic crystals as a host for magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles in this work are found to adhere to the surface of the porous Si film as well to infiltrate the pore structure. In a demonstration of optical switching that may be useful for information display applications, flipping between the colored to dark sides by application of a magnetic field is found to occur at rates of as large as 175 Hz. As the host for soluble molecular species, porous Si photonic crystals can be impregnated from solution. The aggregates that form upon evaporation of solvent are found to scatter light from the resonant

  1. Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Zou, Yi; Chen, Ray T.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated photonic crystal microcavity based resonant sensors coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in silicon nano-membrane on insulator for chemical and bio-sensing. Linear L-type microcavities are considered. In contrast to cavities with small mode volumes, but low quality factors for bio-sensing, we showed increasing the length of the microcavity enhances the quality factor of the resonance by an order of magnitude and increases the resonance wavelength shift while retaining compact device characteristics. Q~26760 and sensitivity down to 15 ng/ml and~110 pg/mm2 in bio-sensing was experimentally demonstrated on silicon-on-insulator devices. PMID:22466197

  2. Ultrafast Coherent Dynamics of a Photonic Crystal all-Optical Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman, Pierre; Lunnemann, Per; Yu, Yi; Mørk, Jesper

    2016-12-01

    We present pump-probe measurements of an all-optical photonic crystal switch based on a nanocavity, resolving fast coherent temporal dynamics. The measurements demonstrate the importance of coherent effects typically neglected when considering nanocavity dynamics. In particular, we report the observation of an idler pulse and more than 10 dB parametric gain. The measurements are in good agreement with a theoretical model that ascribes the observation to oscillations of the free-carrier population in the nanocavity. The effect opens perspectives for the realization of new all-optical photonic crystal switches with unprecedented switching contrast.

  3. Numerical analysis of highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber for temperature sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufenar, R.; Bouamar, M.; Hocini, A.

    2017-05-01

    In the present paper, we propose and investigate theoretically by full vector finite element method a novel temperature sensor, based on highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with ethanol along the fiber length. Simulation results show a linear dependence of the fiber birefringence with temperature. Birefringence is an increasing function of temperature, and the temperature sensitivity coefficient can reach 7,51 × 10-6 by Celsius degree. In comparison with other temperature sensors based on birefringent photonic crystal fibers, our designed sensor presents a higher sensitivity.

  4. Resonant Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts at photonic crystal slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Thomas; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Menzel, Christoph; Lederer, Falk

    2008-05-01

    We show that a longitudinal (Goos-Hänchen) and a transverse (Imbert-Fedorov) beam displacement can be observed upon total internal reflection at two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs. By inspecting only the dispersion relation of the photonic crystal we derive qualitative criteria for the direction of the beam shift. Furthermore, it will be shown that the beam shift can be strongly enhanced at particular angles of incidence where Fabry-Pérot resonances of the slab are excited. The Renard model, which predicts the strength of the shifts based on the Poynting vector in the totally reflecting medium, has been adapted to quantitatively analyze the beam shift.

  5. Experimental vizualization of 2D photonic crystal equi-frequency contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senderakova, Dagmar; Drzik, Milan; Pisarcik, Matej

    2017-12-01

    Photonic crystals have been extensively studied for their unique optical properties that promise interesting novel devices. Our contribution is focused on a 2D photonic crystal structure formed by Al2O3 layer on silicon substrate, patterned with periodic hexagonal lattice of deep air holes. Azimuthal angle dependences of the specular light reflection were recorded photo-electrically at various angles of icidence and wavelengths. Data obtained were processed via mapping in reciprocal k-space. The method promises a possibility to visualize the equi-frequency contours and get more detailed information about the properties of the sample used.

  6. Refractive index measurement for planar photonic crystal using a microscopy-spectrometry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Mike X.; Onyiriuka, Emmanuel C.; Kinney, L. D.

    2000-11-01

    We report a unique technique to measure the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), and thickness of thin films based on either the reflection or transmission spectra. The method combines a spectrometer, an optical microscope and a video camera. It is inexpensive, versatile and fast (< a few sec). Using this technology, n&k of 1.68 and 0.376, respectively, at 1500 nm was measured on a planar photonic crystal. The photonic crystal with a dimension of 117 X 90 micrometers 2 mm has a periodic cermet structure on Si substrate made by Deutsch Telekom using the electron induced deposition.

  7. Modeling of Thermal Phase Noise in a Solid Core Photonic Crystal Fiber-Optic Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ningfang; Ma, Kun; Jin, Jing; Teng, Fei; Cai, Wei

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical model of the thermal phase noise in a square-wave modulated solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope has been established, and then verified by measurements. The results demonstrate a good agreement between theory and experiment. The contribution of the thermal phase noise to the random walk coefficient of the gyroscope is derived. A fiber coil with 2.8 km length is used in the experimental solid core photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope, showing a random walk coefficient of 9.25 × 10−5 deg/h. PMID:29072605

  8. High-resolution wavefront shaping with a photonic crystal fiber for multimode fiber imaging.

    PubMed

    Amitonova, Lyubov V; Descloux, Adrien; Petschulat, Joerg; Frosz, Michael H; Ahmed, Goran; Babic, Fehim; Jiang, Xin; Mosk, Allard P; Russell, Philip St J; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that a high-numerical-aperture photonic crystal fiber allows lensless focusing at an unparalleled resolution by complex wavefront shaping. This paves the way toward high-resolution imaging exceeding the capabilities of imaging with multi-core single-mode optical fibers. We analyze the beam waist and power in the focal spot on the fiber output using different types of fibers and different wavefront shaping approaches. We show that the complex wavefront shaping technique, together with a properly designed multimode photonic crystal fiber, enables us to create a tightly focused spot on the desired position on the fiber output facet with a subwavelength beam waist.

  9. Experimental investigation of interface states in photonic crystal heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiyong; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hongqiang; Jiang, Haitao; Chen, Hong

    2008-08-01

    Optical Tamm states, a kind of interface modes, are also called Tamm plasmon-polaritons. They are experimentally observed in photonic heterostructures based on microstrip transmission lines. The position of optical Tamm states can be designed exactly under effective impedance match and effective phase shift match conditions. Our results show that the photonic band gaps can have the effect of negative-permittivity or negative-permeability media in constructing the interface modes. The simulations and experimental results agree with each other quite well.

  10. Confinement of band-edge modes in a photonic crystal slab.

    PubMed

    Bordas, Frédéric; Steel, M J; Seassal, Christian; Rahmani, Adel

    2007-08-20

    We study the confinement of low group velocity band-edge modes in a photonic crystal slab. We use a rigorous, three dimensional, finite-difference time-domain method to compute the electromagnetic properties of the modes of the photonic structures. We show that by combining a defect mode approach with the high-density of states associated with bandedge modes, one can design compact, fabrication-tolerant, high-Q photonic microcavities. The electromagnetic confinement properties of these cavities can foster enhanced radiation dynamics and should be well suited for ultralow-threshold microlasers and cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  11. Efficient side-coupling into the slow light modes of photonic crystal slot waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yameng; Gao, Dingshan; Zhang, Xinliang; Cassan, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Silicon hybrid photonics has attracted in the last years a growing interest for the integration of various materials within silicon photonics. In this picture, hollow-core slot photonic crystal waveguides play an important role as they allow an efficient overlap between the high electromagnetic power density of propagating modes and the introduced materials. Besides this potential advantage, part of the cost to pay is that light coupling into such waveguides from strip waveguides becomes difficult. We propose here a strategy in order to efficiently side-couple light into such slow light modes, leading to a typical 80% efficiency at nG=30.

  12. Symmetry Breaking in Photonic Crystals: On-Demand Dispersion from Flatband to Dirac Cones.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H S; Dubois, F; Deschamps, T; Cueff, S; Pardon, A; Leclercq, J-L; Seassal, C; Letartre, X; Viktorovitch, P

    2018-02-09

    We demonstrate that symmetry breaking opens a new degree of freedom to tailor energy-momentum dispersion in photonic crystals. Using a general theoretical framework in two illustrative practical structures, we show that breaking symmetry enables an on-demand tuning of the local density of states of the same photonic band from zero (Dirac cone dispersion) to infinity (flatband dispersion), as well as any constant density over an adjustable spectral range. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate experimentally the transformation of the very same photonic band from a conventional quadratic shape to a Dirac dispersion, a flatband dispersion, and a multivalley one. This transition is achieved by finely tuning the vertical symmetry breaking of the photonic structures. Our results provide an unprecedented degree of freedom for optical dispersion engineering in planar integrated photonic devices.

  13. Symmetry Breaking in Photonic Crystals: On-Demand Dispersion from Flatband to Dirac Cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. S.; Dubois, F.; Deschamps, T.; Cueff, S.; Pardon, A.; Leclercq, J.-L.; Seassal, C.; Letartre, X.; Viktorovitch, P.

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate that symmetry breaking opens a new degree of freedom to tailor energy-momentum dispersion in photonic crystals. Using a general theoretical framework in two illustrative practical structures, we show that breaking symmetry enables an on-demand tuning of the local density of states of the same photonic band from zero (Dirac cone dispersion) to infinity (flatband dispersion), as well as any constant density over an adjustable spectral range. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate experimentally the transformation of the very same photonic band from a conventional quadratic shape to a Dirac dispersion, a flatband dispersion, and a multivalley one. This transition is achieved by finely tuning the vertical symmetry breaking of the photonic structures. Our results provide an unprecedented degree of freedom for optical dispersion engineering in planar integrated photonic devices.

  14. Visual Sensor for Sterilization of Polymer Fixtures Using Embedded Mesoporous Silicon Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kumeria, Tushar; Wang, Joanna; Chan, Nicole; Harris, Todd J; Sailor, Michael J

    2018-01-26

    A porous photonic crystal is integrated with a plastic medical fixture (IV connector hub) to provide a visual colorimetric sensor to indicate the presence or absence of alcohol used to sterilize the fixture. The photonic crystal is prepared in porous silicon (pSi) by electrochemical anodization of single crystal silicon, and the porosity and the stop band of the material is engineered such that the integrated device visibly changes color (green to red or blue to green) when infiltrated with alcohol. Two types of self-reporting devices are prepared and their performance compared: the first type involves heat-assisted fusion of a freestanding pSi photonic crystal to the connector end of a preformed polycarbonate hub, forming a composite where the unfilled portion of the pSi film acts as the sensor; the second involves generation of an all-polymer replica of the pSi photonic crystal by complete thermal infiltration of the pSi film and subsequent chemical dissolution of the pSi portion. Both types of sensors visibly change color when wetted with alcohol, and the color reverts to the original upon evaporation of the liquid. The sensor performance is verified using E. coli-infected samples.

  15. Direct Writing of Three-Dimensional Macroporous Photonic Crystals on Pressure-Responsive Shape Memory Polymers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yin; Ni, Yongliang; Leo, Sin-Yen; Wang, Bingchen; Basile, Vito; Taylor, Curtis; Jiang, Peng

    2015-10-28

    Here we report a single-step direct writing technology for making three-dimensional (3D) macroporous photonic crystal patterns on a new type of pressure-responsive shape memory polymer (SMP). This approach integrates two disparate fields that do not typically intersect: the well-established templating nanofabrication and shape memory materials. Periodic arrays of polymer macropores templated from self-assembled colloidal crystals are squeezed into disordered arrays in an unusual shape memory "cold" programming process. The recovery of the original macroporous photonic crystal lattices can be triggered by direct writing at ambient conditions using both macroscopic and nanoscopic tools, like a pencil or a nanoindenter. Interestingly, this shape memory disorder-order transition is reversible and the photonic crystal patterns can be erased and regenerated hundreds of times, promising the making of reconfigurable/rewritable nanooptical devices. Quantitative insights into the shape memory recovery of collapsed macropores induced by the lateral shear stresses in direct writing are gained through fundamental investigations on important process parameters, including the tip material, the critical pressure and writing speed for triggering the recovery of the deformed macropores, and the minimal feature size that can be directly written on the SMP membranes. Besides straightforward applications in photonic crystal devices, these smart mechanochromic SMPs that are sensitive to various mechanical stresses could render important technological applications ranging from chromogenic stress and impact sensors to rewritable high-density optical data storage media.

  16. Observation of wavelength-dependent shift in Brewster angle in 3D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya; Nair, Rajesh V.

    2017-06-01

    The interaction of polarized light with photonic crystals exhibits unique features due to its sub-wavelength nature on the surface and the periodic variation of refractive index in the depth of the crystals. Here, we present a detailed study of polarization anisotropy in light scattering associated with three-dimensional photonic crystals with face centered cubic symmetry over a broad range of wavelength and angle. The polarization anisotropy leads to a shift in the conventional Brewster angle defined for a planar interface with certain refractive index. The observed shift in Brewster angle depends strongly on the index contrast and lattice constant. Polarization-dependent stop gap measurements are performed on photonic crystals with different index contrasts and lattice constants. These measurements indicate unique stop gap branching at high-symmetry points in the Brillouin zone of the photonic crystals. The inherited stop gap branching is observed for TE polarization whereas it is suppressed for TM polarization as a consequence of the Brewster effect. Our results have consequences in the scattering of polarized light from plasmonic structures and dielectric meta-surfaces and are also useful in applications such as nanoscale polarization splitters and lasers.

  17. Modelling defect cavities formed in inverse three-dimensional rod-connected diamond photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverne, M. P. C.; Ho, Y.-L. D.; Zheng, X.; Liu, S.; Chen, L.-F.; Lopez-Garcia, M.; Rarity, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Defect cavities in 3D photonic crystal can trap and store light in the smallest volumes allowable in dielectric materials, enhancing non-linearities and cavity QED effects. Here, we study inverse rod-connected diamond (RCD) crystals containing point defect cavities using plane-wave expansion and finite-difference time domain methods. By optimizing the dimensions of the crystal, wide photonic bandgaps are obtained. Mid-bandgap resonances can then be engineered by introducing point defects in the crystal. We investigate a variety of single spherical defects at different locations in the unit cell focusing on high-refractive-index-contrast (3.3:1) inverse RCD structures; quality factors (Q-factors) and mode volumes of the resonant cavity modes are calculated. By choosing a symmetric arrangement, consisting of a single sphere defect located at the center of a tetrahedral arrangement, mode volumes < 0.06 cubic wavelengths are obtained, a record for high-index cavities.

  18. Simulating human photoreceptor optics using a liquid-filled photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Rativa, Diego; Vohnsen, Brian

    2011-02-11

    We introduce a liquid-filled photonic crystal fiber to simulate a retinal cone photoreceptor mosaic and the directionality selective mechanism broadly known as the Stiles-Crawford effect. Experimental measurements are realized across the visible spectrum to study waveguide coupling and directionality at different managed waveguide parameters. The crystal fiber method is a hybrid tool between theory and a real biological sample and a valuable addition as a retina model for real eye simulations.

  19. High-speed, Low Voltage, Miniature Electro-optic Modulators Based on Hybrid Photonic-Crystal/Polymer/Sol-Gel Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    code) 01/02/2012 FINAL 15/11/2008 - 15/11/2011 High-speed, Low Voltage, Miniature Electro - optic Modulators Based on Hybrid Photonic-Crystal/Polymer... optic modulator, silicon photonics, integrated optics, electro - optic polymer, avionics, optical communications, sol-gel, nanotechnology U U U UU 25...2011 Program Manager: Dr. Charles Y-C Lee High-speed, Low Voltage, Miniature Electro - optic Modulators Based on Hybrid Photonic-Crystal/Polymer/Sol

  20. A fluid sensor based on a sub-terahertz photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasek, T.; Kurt, H.; Citrin, D. S.; Koch, M.

    2007-02-01

    We present two-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides for fluid-sensing applications in the sub-terahertz range. The structures are produced using a standard machining processes and are characterized in the frequency range from 67 to 110 GHz using a vector network analyzer. The photonic crystal consists of an air-hole array drilled into a high-density polyethylene block. A waveguide is introduced by reducing the diameter of the holes in one row. The holes can be loaded with liquid samples. For all structures we observe photonic band gaps between 97 and 109 GHz. While the pure photonic crystal shows the deepest stop band (28 dB), its depth is reduced by 5 dB when inserting a waveguiding structure. The depth of the photonic band gap is further reduced by several decibels depending on the refractive index of the liquid that is inserted. With this type of fluid sensor we can clearly distinguish between cyclohexane and tetrachloromethane with refractive indices of 1.42 and 1.51, respectively. The results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on the 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  1. Loss-reduction in midinfrared photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers using metallic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gangyi; Colombelli, Raffaele; Beaudoin, Gregoire; Largeau, Ludovic; Mauguin, Olivia; Sagnes, Isabelle

    2010-11-01

    We describe a mechanism for plasmonic loss reduction in midinfrared metallic photonic crystals and apply it to surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers. We obtain pulsed, room-temperature operation of surface-emitting photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers operating at λ~7.4 μm. The photonic crystal resonator is patterned in the device top metallization, and laser operation is obtained on a band-edge mode of the photonic band structure. The emission is spectrally single mode, with a side-mode suppression ratio of 20 dB, and on-chip tunability is obtained over a wavelength range of ~0.52 μm. Simulations based on a finite elements approach and on the finite-difference time-domain method allow us to study the photonic-band structure, the electromagnetic field distributions, and especially, the influence of the device parameters on the losses. The comparison between the measured and simulated far-field emission patterns and polarization proves the lasers operate on a monopolar-symmetry mode

  2. Surface modification of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals for photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Siew Yee; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel

    2018-01-01

    Herein, we report on the development of a rationally designed composite photocatalyst material by combining nanoporous anodic alumina-rugate filters (NAA-RFs) with photo-active layers of titanium dioxide (TiO2). NAA-RFs are synthesised by sinusoidal pulse anodisation and subsequently functionalised with TiO2 by sol-gel method to provide the photonic structures with photocatalytic properties. We demonstrate that the characteristic photonic stopband (PSB) of the surface-modified NAA-RFs can be precisely tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum to enhance the photon-toelectron conversion of TiO2 by `slow photon effect'. We systematically investigate the effect of the anodisation parameters (i.e. anodisation period and pore widening time) on the position of the PSB of NAA-RFs as well as the photocatalytic performances displayed by these photonic crystal structures. When the edges of the PSB of surfacemodified NAA-RFs are positioned closely to the absorption peak of the model organic dye (i.e. methyl orange - MO), the photocatalytic performance of the system to degrade these molecules is enhanced under simulated solar light irradiation due to slow photon effect. Our investigation also reveals that the photocatalytic activity of surface-modified NAA-RFs is independent of slow photon effect and enhances with increasing period length (i.e. increasing anodisation period) of the photonic structures when there is no overlap between the PSB and the absorption peak of MO. This study therefore provides a rationale towards the photocatalytic enhancement of photonic crystals by a rational design of the PSB, creating new opportunities for the future development of high-performance photocatalysts.

  3. Modal dynamics in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers with elliptical veins.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2005-08-08

    Modal characteristics of hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers with elliptical veins are studied by use of a recently proposed numerical method. The dynamic behavior of bandgap guided modes, as the wavelength and aspect ratio are varied, is shown to include zero-crossings of the birefringence, polarization dependent radiation losses, and deformation of the fundamental mode.

  4. Design and Development of Plasmonic Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber for Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Tushar; Majumder, Subir; Pal, Mrinmay; Bhadra, Shyamal K.

    We report design and fabrication of specialty hollow core photonic crystal fiber for utilizing them in surface plasmon resonance based material sensing. The refractive index of an unknown fluid can be determined by placing it into the hollow core of the fiber. Surface plasmons are generated by replacing air hole of the cladding selectively by silver or gold.

  5. Modeling of two core photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer for refractive index measurement by equalization wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatar, Peter; Kacik, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    We propose a modification structure model of in-fiber sensor based on intermodal interference in two core photonic crystal fiber for external refractive index measuring. Essential characteristics and influences of the structure are investigated. Formation of an extreme (equalization wavelength) in phase constant spectral dependence is presented and its using for simple external refractive index determination.

  6. Compact and Robust Refilling and Connectorization of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Gas Reference Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Meras, Patrick; Chang, Daniel H.; Spiers, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for evacuating, refilling and connectorizing hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for use asgas reference cell is proposed and demonstrated. It relies on torch-sealing a quartz filling tube connected to amechanical splice between regular and hollow-core fibers.

  7. Genetic algorithm driven spectral shaping of supercontinuum radiation in a photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaeli, Linor; Bahabad, Alon

    2018-05-01

    We employ a genetic algorithm to control a pulse-shaping system pumping a nonlinear photonic crystal with ultrashort pulses. With this system, we are able to modify the spectrum of the generated supercontinuum (SC) radiation to yield narrow Gaussian-like features around pre-selected wavelengths over the whole SC spectrum.

  8. Properties of a photonic crystal formed in a solution featuring the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Rytik, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that a solution featuring the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) oscillating chemical reaction can exhibit the properties of a photonic crystal with alternating bandgap width. Thicknesses and dielectric permittivities of structural elements in the BR reaction solution have been determined by measuring the reflection and transmission spectra of microwave radiation in the range of 5-8 GHz.

  9. Quantum and Classical Correlations in the Production of Photon-Pairs with Nonlinear Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Durán, J.; Rosas-Ortiz, O.

    2017-05-01

    The spatial distribution of photon-pairs produced by nonlinear crystals in the spontaneous parametric down conversion of type-II is analyzed. The correlations induced by the phase matching conditions are calculated by assuming that the ideal spatial distributions are of Gaussian proifile. Some predictions for the zones in the detection plane in which the entanglement of polarization is maximal are presented.

  10. Study on transition from photonic-crystal laser to random laser.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Garuda; Matsumoto, Toshiro; Takahashi, Toru; Ueta, Tsuyoshi

    2012-03-26

    The dependence of the lasing threshold on the amount of positional disorder in photonic crystal structures is newly studied by means of the finite element method, not of the finite difference time domain method usually used. A two-dimensional model of a photonic crystal consisting of dielectric cylinders arranged on a triangular lattice within a circular region is considered. The cylinders are assumed to be homogeneous and infinitely long. Positional disorder of the cylinders is introduced to the photonic crystals. Optically active medium is introduced to the interspace among the cylinders. The population inversion density of the optically active medium is modeled by the negative imaginary part of dielectric constant. The ratio between radiative power of electromagnetic field without amplification and that with amplification is computed as a function of the frequency and the imaginary part of the dielectric constant, and the threshold of the imaginary part, namely population inversion density for laser action is obtained. These analyses are carried out for various amounts of disorder. The variation of the lasing threshold from photonic-crystal laser to random laser is revealed by systematic computations with numerical method of reliable accuracy for the first time. Moreover, a novel phenomenon, that the lasing threshold have a minimum against the amount of disorder, is found. In order to investigate the properties of the lasing states within the circular system, the distributions of the electric field amplitudes of the states are also calculated.

  11. Unidirectional edge states in topological honeycomb-lattice membrane photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P Duke; Subramania, Ganapathi

    2017-09-18

    Photonic analogs of electronic systems with topologically non-trivial behavior such as unidirectional scatter-free propagation has tremendous potential for transforming photonic systems. Like in electronics topological behavior can be observed in photonics for systems either preserving time-reversal (TR) symmetry or explicitly breaking it. TR symmetry breaking requires magneto-optic photonics crystals (PC) or generation of synthetic gauge fields. For on-chip photonics that operate at optical frequencies both are quite challenging because of poor magneto-optic response of materials or substantial nanofabrication challenges in generating synthetic gauge fields. A recent work by Ma, et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett.114, 223901 (2015)] based on preserving pseudo TR symmetry offers a promising design scheme for observing unidirectional edge states in a modified honeycomb photonic crystal (PC) lattice of circular rods that offers encouraging alternatives. Here we propose through bandstructure calculations the inverse system of modified honeycomb PC of circular holes in a dielectric membrane which is more attractive from fabrication standpoint for on-chip applications. We observe trivial and non-trivial bandgaps as well as unidirectional edge states of opposite helicity propagating in opposite directions at the interface of a trivial and non-trivial PC structures. Around 1550nm operating wavelength ~55nm of bandwidth is possible for practicable values of design parameters (lattice constant, hole radii, membrane thickness, scaling factor etc.) and robust to reasonable variations in those parameters.

  12. Topologically protected bound states in photonic parity-time-symmetric crystals.

    PubMed

    Weimann, S; Kremer, M; Plotnik, Y; Lumer, Y; Nolte, S; Makris, K G; Segev, M; Rechtsman, M C; Szameit, A

    2017-04-01

    Parity-time (PT)-symmetric crystals are a class of non-Hermitian systems that allow, for example, the existence of modes with real propagation constants, for self-orthogonality of propagating modes, and for uni-directional invisibility at defects. Photonic PT-symmetric systems that also support topological states could be useful for shaping and routing light waves. However, it is currently debated whether topological interface states can exist at all in PT-symmetric systems. Here, we show theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the existence of such states: states that are localized at the interface between two topologically distinct PT-symmetric photonic lattices. We find analytical closed form solutions of topological PT-symmetric interface states, and observe them through fluorescence microscopy in a passive PT-symmetric dimerized photonic lattice. Our results are relevant towards approaches to localize light on the interface between non-Hermitian crystals.

  13. Surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs with a flat dielectric margin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Tsia, Kevin K; Poon, Andrew W

    2006-08-07

    We report numerical simulations of surface modes in two-dimensional high-index-contrast photonic crystal slabs with a flat dielectric margin of width on the order of the photonic crystal periodicity. Our calculations using plane wave expansion method reveal multiple surface guided modes within the photonic band gap, with some high-order modes exhibit relatively flat dispersion curves. We calculate the finite-length surface waveguide modes transmission and field patterns using two dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. We verify the surface mode dispersion curves by using spatial Fourier transform of the mode field patterns. Our study on surface modes under small ambient refractive index changes (5 x 10(-3)) shows that lower order modes exhibit larger wavelength shifts on the order of 1 nm. We also design a 4-port 3-channel bidirectional coupler using a conventional dielectric waveguide side coupled to the multimode surface waveguide.

  14. Geometric phase for a two-level system in photonic band gab crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrada, K.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the geometric phase (GP) for a qubit system coupled to its own anisotropic and isotropic photonic band gap (PBG) crystal environment without Born or Markovian approximation. The qubit frequency affects the GP of the qubit directly through the effect of the PBG environment. The results show the deviation of the GP depends on the detuning parameter and this deviation will be large for relatively large detuning of atom frequency inside the gap with respect to the photonic band edge. Whereas for detunings outside the gap, the GP of the qubit changes abruptly to zero, exhibiting collapse phenomenon of the GP. Moreover, we find that the GP in the isotropic PBG photonic crystal is more robust than that in the anisotropic PBG under the same condition. Finally, we explore the relationship between the variation of the GP and population in terms of the physical parameters.

  15. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    PubMed Central

    Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom–atom and atom–wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom–atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the 1S0−3P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time. PMID:24934478

  16. Electrically tunable robust edge states in graphene-based topological photonic crystal slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zidong; Liu, HongJun; Huang, Nan; Wang, ZhaoLu

    2018-03-01

    Topological photonic crystals are optical structures supporting topologically protected unidirectional edge states that exhibit robustness against defects. Here, we propose a graphene-based all-dielectric photonic crystal slab structure that supports two-dimensionally confined topological edge states. These topological edge states can be confined in the out-of-plane direction by two parallel graphene sheets. In the structure, the excitation frequency range of topological edge states can be dynamically and continuously tuned by varying bias voltage across the two parallel graphene sheets. Utilizing this kind of architecture, we construct Z-shaped channels to realize topological edge transmission with diffrerent frequencies. The proposal provides a new degree of freedom to dynamically control topological edge states and potential applications for robust integrated photonic devices and optical communication systems.

  17. Physical origin of the high energy optical response of three dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Luis A; Depine, Ricardo A; Lozano, Gabriel; Míguez, Hernán

    2007-12-24

    The physical origin of the optical response observed in three-dimensional photonic crystals when the photon wavelength is equal or lower than the lattice parameter still remains unsatisfactorily explained and is the subject of an intense and interesting debate. Herein we demonstrate for the first time that all optical spectra features in this high energy region of photonic crystals arise from electromagnetic resonances within the ordered array, modified by the interplay between these resonances with the opening of diffraction channels, the presence of imperfections and finite size effects. All these four phenomena are taken into account in our theoretical approach to the problem, which allows us to provide a full description of the observed optical response based on fundamental phenomena as well as to attain fair fittings of experimental results.

  18. Phase diagram for the transition from photonic crystals to dielectric metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Rybin, Mikhail V.; Filonov, Dmitry S.; Samusev, Kirill B.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Limonov, Mikhail F.

    2015-01-01

    Photonic crystals and dielectric metamaterials represent two different classes of artificial media but are often composed of similar structural elements. The question is how to distinguish these two types of periodic structures when their parameters, such as permittivity and lattice constant, vary continuously. Here we discuss transition between photonic crystals and dielectric metamaterials and introduce the concept of a phase diagram, based on the physics of Mie and Bragg resonances. We show that a periodic photonic structure transforms into a metamaterial when the Mie gap opens up below the lowest Bragg bandgap where the homogenization approach can be justified and the effective permeability becomes negative. Our theoretical approach is confirmed by microwave experiments for a metacrystal composed of tubes filled with heated water. This analysis yields deep insight into the properties of periodic structures, and provides a useful tool for designing different classes of electromagnetic materials with variable parameters. PMID:26626302

  19. Phase diagram for the transition from photonic crystals to dielectric metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Filonov, Dmitry S; Samusev, Kirill B; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Limonov, Mikhail F

    2015-12-02

    Photonic crystals and dielectric metamaterials represent two different classes of artificial media but are often composed of similar structural elements. The question is how to distinguish these two types of periodic structures when their parameters, such as permittivity and lattice constant, vary continuously. Here we discuss transition between photonic crystals and dielectric metamaterials and introduce the concept of a phase diagram, based on the physics of Mie and Bragg resonances. We show that a periodic photonic structure transforms into a metamaterial when the Mie gap opens up below the lowest Bragg bandgap where the homogenization approach can be justified and the effective permeability becomes negative. Our theoretical approach is confirmed by microwave experiments for a metacrystal composed of tubes filled with heated water. This analysis yields deep insight into the properties of periodic structures, and provides a useful tool for designing different classes of electromagnetic materials with variable parameters.

  20. Printed Large-Area Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Bandedge Surface-Emitting Lasers on Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Deyin; Liu, Shihchia; Yang, Hongjun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Carl; Hammar, Mattias; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    We report here an optically pumped hybrid III-V/Si photoic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL), consisting of a heterogeneously integrated III-V InGaAsP quantum well heterostructure gain medium, printed on a patterned defect-free Si photonic crystal (PC) bandedge cavity. Single mode lasing was achieved for a large area laser, with a side-mode suppression ratio of 28 dB, for lasing operation temperature ~200 K. Two types of lasers were demonstrated operating at different temperatures. Detailed modal analysis reveals the lasing mode matches with the estimated lasing gain threshold conditions. Our demonstration promises a hybrid laser sources on Si towards three-dimensional (3D) integrated Si photonics for on-chip wavelength-division multiplex (3D WDM) systems for a wide range of volume photonic/electronic applications in computing, communication, sensing, imaging, etc. PMID:26727551

  1. Ultracompact photonic-waveguide circuits in Si-pillar photonic-crystal structures for integrated nanophotonic switches.

    PubMed

    Tokushima, Masatoshi; Olmos, J J Vegas; Kitayama, Ken-Ichi

    2010-03-01

    Highly integrated optical device technology based on square-lattice Si-pillar photonic-crystal-(PC) waveguides is described. The Si-pillar PC waveguides are now ready to use, since efficient optical coupling structures to Si-wire waveguides have been devised. Nanophotonic switches using the Si-pillar-PC waveguides were experimentally demonstrated. The nanophotonic switches make use of two of the features of Si-pillar photonic crystal waveguides. One is the property of slow-light and the other is the usability of zero-radius 90 degrees bends, both of which enable waveguide-based optical devices to be greatly miniaturized. Even apart from the cut-off wavelength, the group index of the pillar-PC waveguides was about 7.8, which was about twice that of a Si-wire waveguide for the entire C-band of telecommunications wavelengths. The 3-dB couplers we fabricated were only 3.2-microm long thanks to the 90 degrees sharp bends, and they operated throughout the entire C-band. Waveguide-cross operation was also demonstrated in the entire C-band. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) were configured by using the 3-dB couplers in an area of 13.2 x 37.2 microm. An MZI with a Si-wire heater successfully operated with an extinction ratio of about 20 dB at a heating power of 17 mW. It is strongly suggested that Si-pillar PC photonic-waveguide technology should help us to achieve densely integrated optical-matrix switches demanded for future photonic-telecommunication systems.

  2. Numerical investigation of optical Tamm states in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Zi-Ming, E-mail: mengzm@gdut.edu.cn, E-mail: lizy@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Hu, Yi-Hua; Ju, Gui-Fang

    2014-07-28

    Optical Tamm states (OTSs) in analogy with its electronic counterpart confined at the surface of crystals are optical surface modes at the interfaces between uniform metallic films and distributed Bragg reflectors. In this paper, OTSs are numerically investigated in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams (HPPCN), which are constructed by inserting a metallic nanoparticle into a photonic crystal nanobeam formed by periodically etching square air holes into dielectric waveguides. The evidences of OTSs can be verified by transmission spectra and the field distribution at resonant frequency. Similar to OTSs in one-dimensional multilayer structures OTSs in HPPCN can be excited by bothmore » TE and TM polarization. The physical origin of OTSs in HPPCN is due to the combined contribution of strong reflection imposed by the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam and strong backward scattering exerted by the nanoparticle. For TE, incidence OTSs can be obtained at the frequency near the center of the photonic band gap. The transmissivity and the resonant frequency can be finely tuned by the dimension of nanoparticles. While for TM incidence OTSs are observed for relatively larger metallic nanoparticles compared with TE polarization. The differences between TE and TM polarization can be explained by two reasons. For one reason stronger backward scattering of nanoparticles for TE polarization can be achieved by the excitation of localized surface plasmon polariton of nanoparticles. This assumption has been proved by examining the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross section of the metallic nanoparticle. The other can be attributed to the deep and wide PBG available for TE polarization with less number of air holes compared with TM polarization. Our results show great promise in extending the application scope of OTSs from one-dimensional structures to practical integrated photonic devices and circuits.« less

  3. Numerical investigation of optical Tamm states in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zi-Ming; Hu, Yi-Hua; Ju, Gui-Fang; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Optical Tamm states (OTSs) in analogy with its electronic counterpart confined at the surface of crystals are optical surface modes at the interfaces between uniform metallic films and distributed Bragg reflectors. In this paper, OTSs are numerically investigated in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams (HPPCN), which are constructed by inserting a metallic nanoparticle into a photonic crystal nanobeam formed by periodically etching square air holes into dielectric waveguides. The evidences of OTSs can be verified by transmission spectra and the field distribution at resonant frequency. Similar to OTSs in one-dimensional multilayer structures OTSs in HPPCN can be excited by both TE and TM polarization. The physical origin of OTSs in HPPCN is due to the combined contribution of strong reflection imposed by the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam and strong backward scattering exerted by the nanoparticle. For TE, incidence OTSs can be obtained at the frequency near the center of the photonic band gap. The transmissivity and the resonant frequency can be finely tuned by the dimension of nanoparticles. While for TM incidence OTSs are observed for relatively larger metallic nanoparticles compared with TE polarization. The differences between TE and TM polarization can be explained by two reasons. For one reason stronger backward scattering of nanoparticles for TE polarization can be achieved by the excitation of localized surface plasmon polariton of nanoparticles. This assumption has been proved by examining the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross section of the metallic nanoparticle. The other can be attributed to the deep and wide PBG available for TE polarization with less number of air holes compared with TM polarization. Our results show great promise in extending the application scope of OTSs from one-dimensional structures to practical integrated photonic devices and circuits.

  4. Fabrication of 3-D Photonic Band Gap Crystals Via Colloidal Self-Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Girija; Blank, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of photons in a Photonic Crystals, PCs, is like that of electrons in a semiconductor in that, it prohibits light propagation over a band of frequencies, called Photonic Band Gap, PBG. Photons cannot exist in these band gaps like the forbidden bands of electrons. Thus, PCs lend themselves as potential candidates for devices based on the gap phenomenon. The popular research on PCs stem from their ability to confine light with minimal losses. Large scale 3-D PCs with a PBG in the visible or near infra red region will make optical transistors and sharp bent optical fibers. Efforts are directed to use PCs for information processing and it is not long before we can have optical integrated circuits in the place of electronic ones.

  5. Trapped Atoms in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-09

    2002 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19 2052 [39] Koenderink A F, Kafesaki M, Soukoulis C M and Sandoghdar V 2006 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23 1196 [40] Manga Rao V S C...032509 [55] Hwang J K, Ryu H Y and Lee Y H 1999 Phys. Rev. B 60 4688–95 [56] Yao P, Manga Rao V S C and Hughes S 2010 Laser Photon. Rev. 4 499–516 New Journal of Physics 15 (2013) 083026 (http://www.njp.org/)

  6. Single photon triggered dianion formation in TCNQ and F4TCNQ crystals

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin; Hu, Peng; Jiang, Hui; Kloc, Christian; Sun, Handong; Soci, Cesare; Voityuk, Alexander A.; Michel-Beyerle, Maria E.; Gurzadyan, Gagik G.

    2016-01-01

    Excited state dynamics in two strong organic electron acceptor systems, TCNQ and F4TCNQ single crystals, was studied. After absorption of a single photon, dianions are formed in both crystals on ultrashort timescale: TCNQ τ < 50 fs, F4TCNQ τ = 4 ps. By use of transient absorption spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the dianion formation in F4TCNQ is mediated by the radical anion precursor which is described by a two-step model. Our measurements show the phenomenon that in this quinoid acceptor crystals in the absence of additional donor molecule, it is possible to resolve the two step formation of a doubly charged anion upon absorption of a single low energy photon (2.6 eV). PMID:27346797

  7. Ethanol vapor-induced fabrication of colloidal crystals with controllable layers and photonic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanqiang; Gong, Xiangxiang; Han, Jie; Guo, Rong

    2015-04-07

    A novel fabrication method for colloidal crystals has been proposed for the first time in this research. In this method, a suspension droplet containing colloidal particles was first spread onto a glass substrate placed in an ethanol vapor environment, and then the droplet was extracted from its center. In that case, the contact angle of the droplet reduced and the contact line receded toward the center, during which the colloidal particles self-assembled and immobilized forming a 2D colloidal crystal film on the substrate upon drying the liquid film. Alternately spreading and drying of suspension films could construct fine multi-layers of colloidal crystals, while the ethanol fraction in the suspension would be used to control roughly but rapidly the layer numbers of colloidal crystals. It was also found that the photonic properties of resultant colloidal crystal films were elevated by increasing their thickness.

  8. Hollow-Core Photonic-Crystal Fibres for Laser Dentistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Health 1 1472–80 1368 S O Konorov et al Serafetinides A A, Khabbaz M, Makropoulou M I and Kar A K 1999 Picosecond laser ablation of dentine in endodontics ...crystal fibres for laser dentistry Stanislav O Konorov1, Vladimir P Mitrokhin1, Andrei B Fedotov1, Dmitrii A Sidorov-Biryukov1, Valentin I Beloglazov2...Nina B Skibina2, Ernst Wintner3, Michael Scalora4 and Aleksei M Zheltikov1 1 Physics Department, International Laser Center, M V Lomonosov Moscow

  9. A comparative study of inverted-opal titania photonic crystals made from polymer and silica colloidal crystal templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuai, Su-Lan; Truong, Vo-Van; Haché, Alain; Hu, Xing-Fang

    2004-12-01

    Photonic crystals with an inverted-opal structure using polymer and silica colloidal crystal templates were prepared and compared. We show that the behaviors of the template during the removal process and heat treatment are determinant factors on the crystal formation. While both templates result in ordered macroporous structures, the optical quality in each case is quite different. The removal of the polymer template by sintering causes a large shrinkage of the inverted framework and produces a high density of cracks in the sample. With a silica template, sintering actually improves the quality of the inverted structure by enhancing the template's mechanical stability, helping increase the filling fraction, and consolidating the titania framework. The role of the other important factors such as preheating and multiple infiltrations is also investigated.

  10. Widened photonic functionality of asymmetric high-index contrast/photonic crystal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hai Son; Dubois, Florian; Letartre, Xavier; Leclercq, Jean-Louis; Seassal, Christian; Viktorovitch, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    In this presentation we emphasize that, within the variety of parameters usable for the design of HCGs, the transverse (vertical) symmetry properties of HCGs provide a power-full joystick for the dispersion engineering of guided mode resonances. We concentrate on asymmetric HCGs designed to accommodate guided mode resonances with ultra-flat zero-curvature dispersion characteristics (or photons with ultra-heavy effective mass), as well as with Dirac cone shaped linear dispersion characteristics. Examples of the great potential of this family of asymmetric HCGs will include the development of a platform for polaritonic devices and the production of micro-lasers particularly suited for hybrid III-V / silicon heterogeneous photonic integration, along CMOS compatible technological schemes.

  11. Diatomite Photonic Crystals for Facile On-Chip Chromatography and Sensing of Harmful Ingredients from Food.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xianming; Yu, Qian; Li, Erwen; Wang, Rui; Liu, Qing; Wang, Alan X

    2018-03-31

    Diatomaceous earth-otherwise called diatomite-is essentially composed of hydrated biosilica with periodic nanopores. Diatomite is derived from fossilized remains of diatom frustules and possesses photonic-crystal features. In this paper, diatomite simultaneously functions as the matrix of the chromatography plate and the substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), by which the photonic crystal-features could enhance the optical field intensity. The on-chip separation performance of the device was confirmed by separating and detecting industrial dye (Sudan I) in an artificial aqueous mixture containing 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA), where concentrated plasmonic Au colloid was casted onto the analyte spot for SERS measurement. The plasmonic-photonic hybrid mode between the Au nanoparticles (NP) and the diatomite layer could supply nearly 10 times the increment of SERS signal (MBA) intensity compared to the common silica gel chromatography plate. Furthermore, this lab-on-a-chip photonic crystal device was employed for food safety sensing in real samples and successfully monitored histamine in salmon and tuna. This on-chip food sensor can be used as a cheap, robust, and portable sensing platform for monitoring for histamine or other harmful ingredients at trace levels in food products.

  12. Fluorescence Enhancement on Large Area Self-Assembled Plasmonic-3D Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guojian; Wang, Dongzhu; Hong, Wei; Sun, Lu; Zhu, Yongxiang; Chen, Xudong

    2017-03-01

    Discontinuous plasmonic-3D photonic crystal hybrid structures are fabricated in order to evaluate the coupling effect of surface plasmon resonance and the photonic stop band. The nanostructures are prepared by silver sputtering deposition on top of hydrophobic 3D photonic crystals. The localized surface plasmon resonance of the nanostructure has a symbiotic relationship with the 3D photonic stop band, leading to highly tunable characteristics. Fluorescence enhancements of conjugated polymer and quantum dot based on these hybrid structures are studied. The maximum fluorescence enhancement for the conjugated polymer of poly(5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopropoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) potassium salt by a factor of 87 is achieved as compared with that on a glass substrate due to the enhanced near-field from the discontinuous plasmonic structures, strong scattering effects from rough metal surface with photonic stop band, and accelerated decay rates from metal-coupled excited state of the fluorophore. It is demonstrated that the enhancement induced by the hybrid structures has a larger effective distance (optimum thickness ≈130 nm) than conventional plasmonic systems. It is expected that this approach has tremendous potential in the field of sensors, fluorescence-imaging, and optoelectronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Photonic quantum state transfer between a cold atomic gas and a crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maring, Nicolas; Farrera, Pau; Kutluer, Kutlu; Mazzera, Margherita; Heinze, Georg; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2017-11-01

    Interfacing fundamentally different quantum systems is key to building future hybrid quantum networks. Such heterogeneous networks offer capabilities superior to those of their homogeneous counterparts, as they merge the individual advantages of disparate quantum nodes in a single network architecture. However, few investigations of optical hybrid interconnections have been carried out, owing to fundamental and technological challenges such as wavelength and bandwidth matching of the interfacing photons. Here we report optical quantum interconnection of two disparate matter quantum systems with photon storage capabilities. We show that a quantum state can be transferred faithfully between a cold atomic ensemble and a rare-earth-doped crystal by means of a single photon at 1,552  nanometre telecommunication wavelength, using cascaded quantum frequency conversion. We demonstrate that quantum correlations between a photon and a single collective spin excitation in the cold atomic ensemble can be transferred to the solid-state system. We also show that single-photon time-bin qubits generated in the cold atomic ensemble can be converted, stored and retrieved from the crystal with a conditional qubit fidelity of more than 85 per cent. Our results open up the prospect of optically connecting quantum nodes with different capabilities and represent an important step towards the realization of large-scale hybrid quantum networks.

  14. Multimode and Long-Lived Quantum Correlations Between Photons and Spins in a Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplane, Cyril; Jobez, Pierre; Etesse, Jean; Gisin, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael

    2017-05-01

    The realization of quantum networks and quantum repeaters remains an outstanding challenge in quantum communication. These rely on the entanglement of remote matter systems, which in turn requires the creation of quantum correlations between a single photon and a matter system. A practical way to establish such correlations is via spontaneous Raman scattering in atomic ensembles, known as the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller (DLCZ) scheme. However, time multiplexing is inherently difficult using this method, which leads to low communication rates even in theory. Moreover, it is desirable to find solid-state ensembles where such matter-photon correlations could be generated. Here we demonstrate quantum correlations between a single photon and a spin excitation in up to 12 temporal modes, in a 151Eu3+ -doped Y2 SiO5 crystal, using a novel DLCZ approach that is inherently multimode. After a storage time of 1 ms, the spin excitation is converted into a second photon. The quantum correlation of the generated photon pair is verified by violating a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Our results show that solid-state rare-earth-ion-doped crystals could be used to generate remote multimode entanglement, an important resource for future quantum networks.

  15. Photonic quantum state transfer between a cold atomic gas and a crystal.

    PubMed

    Maring, Nicolas; Farrera, Pau; Kutluer, Kutlu; Mazzera, Margherita; Heinze, Georg; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2017-11-22

    Interfacing fundamentally different quantum systems is key to building future hybrid quantum networks. Such heterogeneous networks offer capabilities superior to those of their homogeneous counterparts, as they merge the individual advantages of disparate quantum nodes in a single network architecture. However, few investigations of optical hybrid interconnections have been carried out, owing to fundamental and technological challenges such as wavelength and bandwidth matching of the interfacing photons. Here we report optical quantum interconnection of two disparate matter quantum systems with photon storage capabilities. We show that a quantum state can be transferred faithfully between a cold atomic ensemble and a rare-earth-doped crystal by means of a single photon at 1,552  nanometre telecommunication wavelength, using cascaded quantum frequency conversion. We demonstrate that quantum correlations between a photon and a single collective spin excitation in the cold atomic ensemble can be transferred to the solid-state system. We also show that single-photon time-bin qubits generated in the cold atomic ensemble can be converted, stored and retrieved from the crystal with a conditional qubit fidelity of more than 85 per cent. Our results open up the prospect of optically connecting quantum nodes with different capabilities and represent an important step towards the realization of large-scale hybrid quantum networks.

  16. Coherent control of a three-level atom in a photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Chiranjeeb

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate coherent control of the population and polarization of a two-level subsystem consisting of the two upper levels of a three-level atom in the V-configuration placed inside the structured reservoir of a photonic crystal. One of the excited state transition frequencies is located deep within the photonic band gap and the other transition is near the photonic band edge. Using the method of generalized-Laplace transforms, we study the population and polarization of the two-level subsystem of the three-level atom in the Born approximation without making the Markov approximation. The generalized-Laplace transform technique allows us to solve the Langevin equation for the operators and the correlation function of operators rather than the Schrodinger equations of motion. Coherent control of the population and the polarization dynamics of the two-level subsystem is demonstrated in the structured electromagnetic density of states of a photonic crystal. We demonstrate the tunability of the fractionalized steady-state population and the residual coherence in the photon-atom bound state by varying the Rabi frequency and the phase of the driving laser field.

  17. Photonic Crystals: Tunable Design of Structural Colors Produced by Pseudo-1D Photonic Crystals of Graphene Oxide (Small 25/2016).

    PubMed

    Tong, Liping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-07-01

    The production of structural colors based on graphene oxide (GO) pseudo-one-dimensional photonic crystals (p1D-PhCs) in the visible spectrum is reported on page 3433 by W. Qi and co-workers. The structural colors could be tuned by simply changing either the volume or concentration of the aqueous GO dispersion. Moreover, GO p1D-PhCs exhibit visible and rapid responsiveness to humidity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nematic and blue phase liquid crystals for temperature stabilization and active optical tuning of silicon photonic devices (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptasinski, Joanna N.; Khoo, Iam Choon; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-10-01

    We describe the underlying theories and experimental demonstrations of passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic devices clad in nematic liquid crystal mixtures, and active optical tuning of silicon photonic resonant structures combined with dye-doped nematic and blue phase liquid crystals. We show how modifications to the resonator device geometry allow for not only enhanced tuning of the resonator response, but also aid in achieving complete athermal operations of silicon photonic circuits. [Ref.: I.C. Khoo, "DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 40, 60-63 (2015); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Enhanced optical tuning of modified-geometry resonators clad in blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 39, 5435-5438 (2014); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals," Materials 7(3), 2229-2241 (2014)].

  19. Thermoluminescence Response of Ge-Doped Cylindrical-, Flat- and Photonic Crystal Silica-Fibres to Electron and Photon Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Entezam, A.; Khandaker, M. U.; Amin, Y. M.; Ung, N. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Maah, J.; Safari, M. J.; Moradi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Study has been made of the thermoluminescence (TL) response of silica-based Ge-doped cylindrical, flat and photonic crystal fibres (referred to herein as PCF-collapsed) to electron (6, 12 and 20 MeV) and photon (6, 10 MV) irradiation and 1.25 MeV γ-rays, for doses from 0.1 Gy to 100 Gy. The electron and photon irradiations were delivered through use of a Varian Model 2100C linear accelerator located at the University of Malaya Medical Centre and γ-rays delivered from a 60Co irradiator located at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Tailor-made to be of various dimensions and dopant concentrations (6–10% Ge), the fibres were observed to provide TL yield linear with radiation dose, reproducibility being within 1–5%, with insensitivity to energy and angular variation. The sensitivity dependency of both detectors with respect to field size follows the dependency of the output factors. For flat fibres exposed to 6 MV X-rays, the 6% Ge-doped fibre provided the greatest TL yield while PCF-collapsed showed a response 2.4 times greater than that of the 6% Ge-doped flat fibres. The response of cylindrical fibres increased with core size. The fibres offer uniform response, high spatial resolution and sensitivity, providing the basis of promising TL systems for radiotherapy applications. PMID:27149115

  20. Nonlinear Frequency Conversion in III-V Semiconductor Photonic Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    fantastic friend and roommate over my years at Stanford and MIT, and Yang Wang, who has made the last year even happier. I would also like to thank my...form of a tensor , in this case third-rank, resulting in a 27-element matrix that depends on the polar- izations of all three waves relative to the...crystal structure. The number of elements in this tensor can be reduced to 18 by intrinsic permutation symmetry (arbitrary swapping of j and k), allowing