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Sample records for liquids condensed disordered

  1. Vapor condensation on a turbulent liquid interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, M. R.; Khoo, B. C.; Sonin, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation which seeks the fundamental relationship between the interfacial condensation rate and the parameters which control it when the liquid side is turbulent is discussed. The scaling laws for free-surface condensation are discussed for this case. It is argued that the condensation of cryogenic liquids can, in principle, be simulated in experiments using steam and water. Data are presented for the condensation rate in terms of the dimensionless scaling parameters which involve the fluid properties and the liquid-side turbulence velocity and length scales.

  2. Boson condensation in topologically ordered quantum liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupert, Titus; He, Huan; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Sierra, Germán; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Boson condensation in topological quantum field theories (TQFT) has been previously investigated through the formalism of Frobenius algebras and the use of vertex lifting coefficients. While general, this formalism is physically opaque and computationally arduous: analyses of TQFT condensation are practically performed on a case by case basis and for very simple theories only, mostly not using the Frobenius algebra formalism. In this paper, we provide a way of treating boson condensation that is computationally efficient. With a minimal set of physical assumptions, such as commutativity of lifting and the definition of confined particles, we can prove a number of theorems linking Boson condensation in TQFT with chiral algebra extensions, and with the factorization of completely positive matrices over Z+. We present numerically efficient ways of obtaining a condensed theory fusion algebra and S matrices; and we then use our formalism to prove several theorems for the S and T matrices of simple current condensation and of theories which upon condensation result in a low number of confined particles. We also show that our formalism easily reproduces results existent in the mathematical literature such as the noncondensability of five and ten layers of the Fibonacci TQFT.

  3. Interfacial condensation induced by sub-cooled liquid jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rame, Enrique; Balasubramaniam, R.

    2016-11-01

    When a sub-cooled liquid jet impinges on the free surface between a liquid and its vapor, vapor will condense at a rate dependent on the sub-cooling, the jet strength and fluid properties. In 1966 and during the examination of a different type of condensation flow, Shekriladeze found an approximate result, valid at large condensation rates, that decouples the flow in the liquid phase from that of the vapor, without putting it in the context of a formal asymptotic approximation. In this talk we will develop an asymptotic approximation that contains Shekriladze's result, and extend the calculations to the case when a non-condensable gas is present in the vapor phase.

  4. Molecular dynamics study on condensation/evaporation coefficients of chain molecules at liquid-vapor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Gyoko; Takematsu, Masaki; Mizuguchi, Hirotaka; Tsuruta, Takaharu

    2015-07-01

    The structure and thermodynamic properties of the liquid-vapor interface are of fundamental interest for numerous technological implications. For simple molecules, e.g., argon and water, the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior depends strongly on their translational motion and the system temperature. Existing molecular dynamics (MD) results are consistent with the theoretical predictions based on the assumption that the liquid and vapor states in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor interface are isotropic. Additionally, similar molecular condensation/evaporation characteristics have been found for long-chain molecules, e.g., dodecane. It is unclear, however, whether the isotropic assumption is valid and whether the molecular orientation or the chain length of the molecules affects the condensation/evaporation behavior at the liquid-vapor interface. In this study, MD simulations were performed to study the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior of the straight-chain alkanes, i.e., butane, octane, and dodecane, at the liquid-vapor interface, and the effects of the molecular orientation and chain length were investigated in equilibrium systems. The results showed that the condensation/evaporation behavior of chain molecules primarily depends on the molecular translational energy and the surface temperature and is independent of the molecular chain length. Furthermore, the orientation at the liquid-vapor interface was disordered when the surface temperature was sufficiently higher than the triple point and had no significant effect on the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior. The validity of the isotropic assumption was confirmed, and we conclude that the condensation/evaporation coefficients can be predicted by the liquid-to-vapor translational length ratio, even for chain molecules.

  5. Molecular dynamics study on condensation/evaporation coefficients of chain molecules at liquid-vapor interface.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Gyoko; Takematsu, Masaki; Mizuguchi, Hirotaka; Tsuruta, Takaharu

    2015-07-07

    The structure and thermodynamic properties of the liquid-vapor interface are of fundamental interest for numerous technological implications. For simple molecules, e.g., argon and water, the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior depends strongly on their translational motion and the system temperature. Existing molecular dynamics (MD) results are consistent with the theoretical predictions based on the assumption that the liquid and vapor states in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor interface are isotropic. Additionally, similar molecular condensation/evaporation characteristics have been found for long-chain molecules, e.g., dodecane. It is unclear, however, whether the isotropic assumption is valid and whether the molecular orientation or the chain length of the molecules affects the condensation/evaporation behavior at the liquid-vapor interface. In this study, MD simulations were performed to study the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior of the straight-chain alkanes, i.e., butane, octane, and dodecane, at the liquid-vapor interface, and the effects of the molecular orientation and chain length were investigated in equilibrium systems. The results showed that the condensation/evaporation behavior of chain molecules primarily depends on the molecular translational energy and the surface temperature and is independent of the molecular chain length. Furthermore, the orientation at the liquid-vapor interface was disordered when the surface temperature was sufficiently higher than the triple point and had no significant effect on the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior. The validity of the isotropic assumption was confirmed, and we conclude that the condensation/evaporation coefficients can be predicted by the liquid-to-vapor translational length ratio, even for chain molecules.

  6. Condensation on a noncollapsing vapor bubble in a subcooled liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental procedure is presented by which an estimate can be made of the condensation coefficient on a noncollapsing stationary vapor bubble in subcooled liquid nitrogen. Film boiling from a thin wire was used to generate vapor bubbles which remain fixed to the wire at their base. A balance was established between the evaporation in the thin annular region along the wire and the condensation in the vapor bubbles.

  7. Boundary conditions on the vapor liquid interface at strong condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, A. P.; Levashov, V. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of the formulation of boundary conditions on the vapor-liquid interface is considered. The different approaches to this problem and their difficulties are discussed. Usually, a quasi-equilibrium scheme is used. At sufficiently large deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium, a molecular kinetics approach should be used for the description of the vapor flow at condensation. The formulation of the boundary conditions at the vapor liquid interface to solve the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the distribution of molecules by velocity is a sophisticated problem. It appears that molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) can be used to provide this solution at the interface. The specific problems occur in the realization of MDS on large time and space scales. Some of these problems, and a hierarchy of continuum, kinetic and molecular dynamic time scales, are discussed in the paper. A description of strong condensation at the kinetic level is presented for the steady one-dimensional problem. A formula is provided for the calculation of the limiting condensation coefficient. It is shown that as the condensation coefficient approaches the limiting value, the vapor pressure rises significantly. The results of the corresponding calculations for the Mach number and temperature at different vapor flows are demonstrated. As a result of the application of the molecular kinetics method and molecular dynamics simulation to the problem of the determination of argon condensation coefficients in the range of temperatures of vapor and liquid ratio 1.0-4.0, it is concluded that the condensation coefficient is close to unity.

  8. Are Liquids Molten Solids or Condensed Gases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaeta, F. S.; Peluso, F.; Albanese, C.; Mita, D. G.

    Introduction The Radiant Vector R Thermal Radiation Forces ƒth Heat Propagation in Liquids The Experimental Situation Measurements of TRFs and Microgravity Relevance of the Problem Thermal Diffusion Direct Measurement of TRFs

  9. Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

  10. Bose-Einstein condensation in liquid 4He under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Glyde, Henry R; Omar Diallo, Souleymane; Azuah, Richard T; Kirichek, Oleg; Taylor, Jon W.

    2011-01-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements of Bose-Einstein condensation, the atomic momen- tum distribution and Final State effects in liquid 4He under pressure. The condensate fraction at low temperature is found to decrease from n0 = 7.25 0.75% at SVP (p 0) to n0 = 3.2 0.75% at pressure p = 24 bar. This indicates an n0 = 3.0% in the liquid at the liquid/solid co-existence line (p = 25.3 bar). The atomic momentum distribution n(k) has high occupation of low k states and differs significantly from a Gaussian (e.g. a classical n(k)). Both n(k) and the Final state function broaden with increasing pressure, reflecting the increased localization of the 4He in space under increased pressure.

  11. Mixing and transient interface condensation of a liquid hydrogen tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Nyland, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of axial jet-induced mixing on the pressure reduction of a thermally stratified liquid hydrogen tank. The tank was nearly cylindrical, having a volume of about 0.144 cu m with 0.559 m in diameter and 0.711 m length. A mixer/pump unit, which had a jet nozzle outlet of 0.0221 m in diameter was located 0.178 m from the tank bottom and was installed inside the tank to generate the axial jet mixing and tank fluid circulation. Mixing tests began with the tank pressures at which the thermal stratification results in 4.9-6.2 K liquid subcooling. The mixing time and transient vapor condensation rate at the liquid-vapor interface are determined. Two mixing time correlations, based on the thermal equilibrium and pressure equilibrium, are developed and expressed as functions of system and buoyancy parameters. The limited liquid hydrogen data of the present study shows that the modified steady state condensation rate correlation may be used to predict the transient condensation rate in a mixing process if the instantaneous values of jet sub cooling and turbulence intensity at the interface are employed.

  12. Mixing and transient interface condensation of a liquid hydrogen tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Nyland, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of axial jet-induced mixing on the pressure reduction of a thermally stratified liquid hydrogen tank. The tank was nearly cylindrical, having a volume of about 0.144 cu m with 0.559 m in diameter and 0.711 m long. A mixer/pump unit, which had a jet nozzle outlet of 0.0221 m in diameter was located 0.178 m from the tank bottom and was installed inside the tank to generate the axial jet mixing and tank fluid circulation. The liquid fill and jet flow rate ranged from 42 to 85 percent (by volume) and 0.409 to 2.43 cu m/hr, respectively. Mixing tests began with the tank pressure ranging from 187.5 to 238.5 kPa at which the thermal stratification results in 4.9 to 6.2 K liquid sub cooling. The mixing time and transient vapor condensation rate at the liquid-vapor interface are determined. Two mixing time correlations, based on the thermal equilibrium and pressure equilibrium, are developed. Both mixing time correlations are expressed as functions of system and buoyancy parameters and compared well with other experimental data. The steady state condensation rate correlation of Sonin et al. based on steam-water data is modified and expressed as a function of jet subcooling. The limited liquid hydrogen data of the present study shows that the modified steady state condensation rate correlation may be used to predict the transient condensation rate in a mixing process if the instantaneous values of jet sub cooling and turbulence intensity at the interface are employed.

  13. Harvesting liquid from unsaturated vapor - nanoflows induced by capillary condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Olivier; Marguet, Bastien; Stroock, Abraham

    2016-11-01

    A vapor, even subsaturated, can spontaneously form liquid in nanoscale spaces. This process, known as capillary condensation, plays a fundamental role in various contexts, such as the formation of clouds or the dynamics of hydrocarbons in the geological subsurface. However, large uncertainties remain on the thermodynamics and fluid mechanics of the phenomenon, due to experimental challenges as well as outstanding questions about the validity of macroscale physics at the nanometer scale. We studied experimentally the spatio-temporal dynamics of water condensation in a model nanoporous medium (pore radius 2 nm), taking advantage of the color change of the material upon hydration. We found that at low relative humidities (< 60 % RH), capillary condensation progressed in a diffusive fashion, while it occurred through a well-defined capillary-viscous imbibition front at > 60 % RH, driven by a balance between the pore capillary pressure and the condensation stress given by Kelvin equation. Further analyzing the imbibition dynamics as a function of saturation allowed us to extract detailed information about the physics of nano-confined fluids. Our results suggest excellent extension of macroscale fluid dynamics and thermodynamics even in pores 10 molecules in diameter.

  14. Vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inci, Levent; Bowles, Richard K.

    2013-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of miscible and partially miscible binary Lennard-Jones mixtures are used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop in the canonical ensemble. When the system volume is large, the driving force for condensation is low and only a submonolayer of the solvent is adsorbed onto the liquid drop. A small degree of mixing of the solvent phase into the core of the particles occurs for the miscible system. At smaller volumes, complete film formation is observed and the dynamics of film growth are dominated by cluster-cluster coalescence. Mixing into the core of the droplet is also observed for partially miscible systems below an onset volume suggesting the presence of a solubility transition. We also develop a non-volatile liquid drop model, based on the capillarity approximations, that exhibits a solubility transition between small and large drops for partially miscible mixtures and has a hysteresis loop similar to the one observed in the deliquescence of small soluble salt particles. The properties of the model are compared to our simulation results and the model is used to study the formulation of classical nucleation theory for systems with low free energy barriers.

  15. Vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop

    SciTech Connect

    Inci, Levent; Bowles, Richard K.

    2013-12-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of miscible and partially miscible binary Lennard–Jones mixtures are used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop in the canonical ensemble. When the system volume is large, the driving force for condensation is low and only a submonolayer of the solvent is adsorbed onto the liquid drop. A small degree of mixing of the solvent phase into the core of the particles occurs for the miscible system. At smaller volumes, complete film formation is observed and the dynamics of film growth are dominated by cluster-cluster coalescence. Mixing into the core of the droplet is also observed for partially miscible systems below an onset volume suggesting the presence of a solubility transition. We also develop a non-volatile liquid drop model, based on the capillarity approximations, that exhibits a solubility transition between small and large drops for partially miscible mixtures and has a hysteresis loop similar to the one observed in the deliquescence of small soluble salt particles. The properties of the model are compared to our simulation results and the model is used to study the formulation of classical nucleation theory for systems with low free energy barriers.

  16. Liquid helium in disorder and boson localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albergamo, Francesco; Pearce, Jonathan; Glyde, Henry; Daughton, David; Mulders, Norbert; Bossy, Jacques; Schober, Helmut

    2005-03-01

    Neutron scattering measurements of the excitations of liquid ^4He confined in three porous media focusing on temperatures around the superfluid-normal fluid critical temperature Tc are presented and discussed. The three porous media are Vycor (Tc= 2.05 K at SVP), 44 å pore diameter gelsil (Tc= 1.92 K at SVP) and 25 å pore diameter gelsil (Tc 1.0 K at SVP) ^[1,2]. In all these media, liquid ^4He supports well-defined phonon-roton excitations above Tc, in the "normal" phase (up Tλ= 2.17 K at SVP). Since well-defined excitations are associated with Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), this suggests that there is BEC in the "normal" phase. Also, since there is no superflow, this BEC is apparently localized in the media separated by regions of normal fluid. In this picture, the superfluid-normal transition in disorder is associated with an extended-localized BEC crossover with localized BEC remaining above Tc ^[3]. ^[1]F. Albergamo et al., Phys. Rev. B 69, 014514 (2004) ^[2]J. V. Pearce et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 145303 (2004)) ^[3]H. R. Glyde et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2646 (2000)

  17. Vapor condensation process produces slurry of magnesium particles in liquid hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, G. M.; Walsh, T. J.; Witzke, W. R.

    1966-01-01

    Vapor condensation apparatus produces a physically stable, homogeneous slurry of finely divided magnesium and liquid hydrocarbons. The magnesium is vaporized and the resultant vapor is cooled rapidly with a liquid hydrocarbon spray, which also serves as the dispersing medium for the condensed magnesium particles.

  18. The Influence of Disorder on Thermotropic Nematic Liquid Crystals Phase Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Popa-Nita, Vlad; Gerlič, Ivan; Kralj, Samo

    2009-01-01

    We review the theoretical research on the influence of disorder on structure and phase behavior of condensed matter system exhibiting continuous symmetry breaking focusing on liquid crystal phase transitions. We discuss the main properties of liquid crystals as adequate systems in which several open questions with respect to the impact of disorder on universal phase and structural behavior could be explored. Main advantages of liquid crystalline materials and different experimental realizations of random field-type disorder imposed on liquid crystal phases are described. PMID:19865529

  19. Condensation coefficient of methanol vapor near vapor-liquid equilibrium states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, S.; Yano, T.; Ichijo, M.; Iwanami, K.

    This paper is concerned with the nonequilibrium condensation from a vapor to a liquid phase on the plate endwall of a shock tube behind a reflected shock wave. The growth of a liquid film on the endwall is measured by an optical interferometer using a laser beam. The experiment is carefully conducted on the precisely designed apparatus, and thereby the condensation coefficient of methanol vapor is determined in a wide range of vapor-liquid conditions from near to far from equilibrium states. The result shows that the condensation coefficient increases with the increase of the ratio of number densities of vapor and saturated vapor at the interface.

  20. Analysis of Vapour Liquid Equilibria in Unconventional Rich Liquid Gas Condensate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczyński, Szymon

    2014-12-01

    At the beginning of 21st century, natural gas from conventional and unconventional reservoirs has become important fossil energy resource and its role as energy fuel has increased. The exploration of unconventional gas reservoirs has been discussed recently in many conferences and journals. The paper presents considerations which will be used to build the thermodynamic model that will describe the phenomenon of vapour - liquid equilibrium (VLE) in the retrograde condensation in rocks of ultra-low permeability and in the nanopores. The research will be limited to "tight gas" reservoirs (TGR) and "shale gas" reservoirs (SGR). Constructed models will take into account the phenomenon of capillary condensation and adsorption. These studies will be the base for modifications of existing compositional simulators

  1. Rate correlation for condensation of pure vapor on turbulent, subcooled liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. Steven; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Sonin, Ain A.

    1990-01-01

    An empirical correlation is presented for the condensation of pure vapor on a subcooled, turbulent liquid with a shear-free interface. The correlation expresses the dependence of the condensation rate on fluid properties, on the liquid-side turbulence (which is imposed from below), and on the effects of buoyancy in the interfacial thermal layer. The correlation is derived from experiments with steam and water, but under conditions which simulate typical cryogenic fluids.

  2. Non-equilibrium disordered Bose gases: condensation, superfluidity and dynamical Bose glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Liang, Zhaoxin; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    In an equilibrium three-dimensional (3D) disordered condensate, it is well established that disorder can generate an amount of normal fluid ρ n equaling to 4/3 of ρ ex , where ρ ex is a sum of interaction-induced quantum depletion and disorder-induced condensate deformation. The concept that the superfluid is more volatile to the existence of disorder than the condensate is crucial to the understanding of the Bose glass phase. In this work, we show that, by bringing a weakly disordered 3D condensate to non-equilibrium regime via a quantum quench in the interaction, disorder can destroy superfluid significantly more, leading to a steady state of Hamiltonian H f in which the ρ n far exceeds 4/3 of the ρ ex . This suggests the possibility of engineering Bose glass in the dynamic regime. Here, we refer to the dynamical Bose glass as the case where in the steady state of quenched condensate, the superfluid density goes to zero while the condensate density remains finite. As both the ρ n and ρ ex are measurable quantities, our results allow an experimental demonstration of the dramatized interplay between the disorder and interaction in the non-equilibrium scenario.

  3. Self-Transport of Condensed Liquid in Micro Cooling Device Using Distributed Meniscus Pumping.

    PubMed

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P

    2015-06-16

    This paper reports a reliable passive micro pump system combining the physical properties of a tapered microchannel and sharp microstructures. This tailored microchannel with triple-spike microstructures was created to transport condensed liquid into the reservoir chamber in a micro cooling device and in the case of chip off-mode prepare the next cooling cycle before chip on-mode, allowing the reliable and continuous circulation of coolant without liquid being trapped in the vapor channel causing dryout limitation. At the tapered channel end, the pinned liquid meniscus was distributed by a middle spike and then continued to overflow into the condenser chamber due to extended capillary action.

  4. Simulations of condensation flows induced by reflection of weak shocks from liquid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbante, Paolo; Frezzotti, Aldo

    2016-11-01

    The condensation of a vapor onto a planar liquid surface, caused by the reflection of a weak shock wave, is studied by three different simulation method. The first one is based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the Lennard-Jones fluid which are supposed to provide reference solutions. The second method is based on a Diffuse Interface Model (DIM), consistent with the thermodynamic properties of the Lennard-Jones fluid as well as with its transport properties. The third method is based on a hybrid model (HM) in which the liquid is described by a purely hydrodynamic approach, whereas the vapor is described by the Boltzmann equation. The two phases are connected by kinetic boundary conditions. The results show that DIM fails to accurately predict the condensation rate when the vapor is dilute but becomes more accurate when the vapor phase gets denser. HM reproduces MD simulations of nearly ideal vapor condensations with good accuracy, assuming unit condensation coefficient.

  5. Superhydrophobic coated apparatus for liquid purification by evaporative condensation

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T; McNeany, Steve R; Dinsmore, Thomas V; Hunter, Scott R; Ivanov, Ilia N

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.

  6. Protein disorder prediction by condensed PSSM considering propensity for order or disorder

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chung-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Yu; Ou, Yu-Yen

    2006-01-01

    Background More and more disordered regions have been discovered in protein sequences, and many of them are found to be functionally significant. Previous studies reveal that disordered regions of a protein can be predicted by its primary structure, the amino acid sequence. One observation that has been widely accepted is that ordered regions usually have compositional bias toward hydrophobic amino acids, and disordered regions are toward charged amino acids. Recent studies further show that employing evolutionary information such as position specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) improves the prediction accuracy of protein disorder. As more and more machine learning techniques have been introduced to protein disorder detection, extracting more useful features with biological insights attracts more attention. Results This paper first studies the effect of a condensed position specific scoring matrix with respect to physicochemical properties (PSSMP) on the prediction accuracy, where the PSSMP is derived by merging several amino acid columns of a PSSM belonging to a certain property into a single column. Next, we decompose each conventional physicochemical property of amino acids into two disjoint groups which have a propensity for order and disorder respectively, and show by experiments that some of the new properties perform better than their parent properties in predicting protein disorder. In order to get an effective and compact feature set on this problem, we propose a hybrid feature selection method that inherits the efficiency of uni-variant analysis and the effectiveness of the stepwise feature selection that explores combinations of multiple features. The experimental results show that the selected feature set improves the performance of a classifier built with Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN) in comparison with the feature set constructed with PSSMs or PSSMPs that adopt simply the conventional physicochemical properties. Conclusion Distinguishing

  7. Method for analyzing the chemical composition of liquid effluent from a direct contact condenser

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan; Parent, Yves; Hassani, A. Vahab

    2001-01-01

    A computational modeling method for predicting the chemical, physical, and thermodynamic performance of a condenser using calculations based on equations of physics for heat, momentum and mass transfer and equations of equilibrium thermodynamics to determine steady state profiles of parameters throughout the condenser. The method includes providing a set of input values relating to a condenser including liquid loading, vapor loading, and geometric characteristics of the contact medium in the condenser. The geometric and packing characteristics of the contact medium include the dimensions and orientation of a channel in the contact medium. The method further includes simulating performance of the condenser using the set of input values to determine a related set of output values such as outlet liquid temperature, outlet flow rates, pressures, and the concentration(s) of one or more dissolved noncondensable gas species in the outlet liquid. The method may also include iteratively performing the above computation steps using a plurality of sets of input values and then determining whether each of the resulting output values and performance profiles satisfies acceptance criteria.

  8. Birefringence and DNA Condensation of Liquid Crystalline Chromosomes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Man H.; Yan, Kosmo T. H.; Bennett, Michael J.; Wong, Joseph T. Y.

    2010-01-01

    DNA can self-assemble in vitro into several liquid crystalline phases at high concentrations. The largest known genomes are encoded by the cholesteric liquid crystalline chromosomes (LCCs) of the dinoflagellates, a diverse group of protists related to the malarial parasites. Very little is known about how the liquid crystalline packaging strategy is employed to organize these genomes, the largest among living eukaryotes—up to 80 times the size of the human genome. Comparative measurements using a semiautomatic polarizing microscope demonstrated that there is a large variation in the birefringence, an optical property of anisotropic materials, of the chromosomes from different dinoflagellate species, despite their apparently similar ultrastructural patterns of bands and arches. There is a large variation in the chromosomal arrangements in the nuclei and individual karyotypes. Our data suggest that both macroscopic and ultrastructural arrangements affect the apparent birefringence of the liquid crystalline chromosomes. Positive correlations are demonstrated for the first time between the level of absolute retardance and both the DNA content and the observed helical pitch measured from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photomicrographs. Experiments that induced disassembly of the chromosomes revealed multiple orders of organization in the dinoflagellate chromosomes. With the low protein-to-DNA ratio, we propose that a highly regulated use of entropy-driven force must be involved in the assembly of these LCCs. Knowledge of the mechanism of packaging and arranging these largest known DNAs into different shapes and different formats in the nuclei would be of great value in the use of DNA as nanostructural material. PMID:20400466

  9. Liquid Condensation and Solidification Behavior of Hydrogen Isotopes in Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Kozioziemski, B.

    2016-10-21

    A foam shell, 1.2 mm outer diameter with a 35 μm thick foam layer is used to quickly form a solid deuterium layer for ICF. Figures show the visible light microscope image and a corresponding schematic representation. In each case, images show the empty foam shell, with the dark and light patches due to the foam imperfections; the foam shell with liquid deuterium filling the foam (in this case, the liquid level exceeds the foam level because the deuterium will shrink when it freezes); and an image of the shell taken 10 minutes after the center image, after the temperature was reduced by 2 K to freeze the deuterium. This image shows that the majority of the solid deuterium has no observable defects, with the exception of the isolated crystal that formed on the foam surface. The next step is to get the correct level of liquid and cooling rate to prevent the extra crystal on the surface. In contrast, typical ICF DT fuel layers require ~13 hours to solidify in order to be defect free with a success rate of approximately 20%.

  10. Interaction and Disorder in Novel Condensed Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonik, Yonah

    Despite almost a century of exploration, we continue to discover new systems where quantum mechanics, strong interactions and disorder combine in novel ways. These systems test the capabilities of our strongest theoretical tools. In this thesis I discuss work on three of these systems: bilayer graphene, disordered conductors and cold atom systems. In bilayer graphene I show that the large number of degenerate bands leads to a plethora of possible spontaneous symmetry breaking ground state. In disordered conductors I discuss how quantum interference can lead to arbitrarily long lived responses, so called memory effects. I also consider whether a novel spontaneous symmetry breaking state can be created in cold atomic gasses using nonequilibrium perturbations.

  11. The Stationary Condensation and Radial Outflow of a Liquid Film on a Horizontal Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshinskiy, Leonid; Frenkel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The application of capillary screen liquid acquisition devices to space-based cryogenic propulsion systems is expected to necessitate thermodynamic conditioning in order to stabilize surface tension retention characteristics. The present results have been obtained in the framework of the research of low gravity condensation-flow processes for conditioning cryogenic liquid acquisition devices. The following system is studied: On the top of a subcooled horizontal disk, a liquid film condenses from the ambient saturated vapor. The liquid is forcedly removed at the disk edge, and there is an outward radial flow of the film. Stationary regimes of the flow are uncovered such that (i) the gravity is negligible, being eclipsed by the capillary forces; (ii) the film thickness is everywhere much smaller than the disk radius; and (iii) the slow-flow lubrication approximation is valid. A nonlinear differential equation for the film thickness as a function of the radial coordinate is obtained. The (two-dimensional) fields of velocities, temperature and pressure in the film are explicitly determined by the radial profile of its thickness. The equilibrium is controlled by two parameters: (i) the vapor-disk difference of temperatures and (ii) the liquid exhaust rate. For the flow regimes with a nearly uniform film thickness, the governing equation linearizes, and the film interface is analytically predicted to have a concave-up quartic parabola profile. Thus, perhaps counter-intuitively, the liquid film is thicker at the edge and thinner at the center of the disk.

  12. Numerical studies of the effects of jet-induced mixing on liquid-vapor interface condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin-Shun

    1989-01-01

    Numerical solutions of jet-induced mixing in a partially full cryogenic tank are presented. An axisymmetric laminar jet is discharged from the central part of the tank bottom toward the liquid-vapor interface. Liquid is withdrawn at the same volume flow rate from the outer part of the tank. The jet is at a temperature lower than the interface, which is maintained at a certain saturation temperature. The interface is assumed to be flat and shear-free and the condensation-induced velocity is assumed to be negligibly small compared with radial interface velocity. Finite-difference method is used to solve the nondimensional form of steady state continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Calculations are conducted for jet Reynolds numbers ranging from 150 to 600 and Prandtl numbers ranging from 0.85 to 2.65. The effects of above stated parameters on the condensation Nusselt and Stanton numbers which characterize the steady-state interface condensation process are investigated. Detailed analysis to gain a better understanding of the fundamentals of fluid mixing and interface condensation is performed.

  13. Disorder-Induced Order in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Niederberger, A.; Schulte, T.; Wehr, J.; Lewenstein, M.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Sacha, K.

    2008-01-25

    We propose and analyze a general mechanism of disorder-induced order in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, analogous to corresponding effects established for XY spin models. We show that a random Raman coupling induces a relative phase of {pi}/2 between the two BECs and that the effect is robust. We demonstrate it in one, two, and three dimensions at T=0 and present evidence that it persists at small T>0. Applications to phase control in ultracold spinor condensates are discussed.

  14. Condensation on (002) graphite of liquid bismuth far below its bulk melting point

    SciTech Connect

    Zayed, M.K.; Elsayed-Ali, H.E.

    2005-11-15

    Condensation of thermally evaporated Bi on (002) graphite, at temperatures of 300-523 K, was studied using in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and room temperature ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). For deposition at temperatures below 415{+-}5 K, transmission RHEED patterns of Bi appeared at an average thickness of {approx}0.5 monolayer (ML). AFM images showed that the film consisted of crystallites in the shape of triangular step pyramids with step heights corresponding to single and double Bi layers in the [111] direction. This morphology indicates crystallization from the vapor. For deposition at higher temperatures, diffuse RHEED patterns appeared independent of the deposited thickness. When these films were cooled, clear transmission patterns of crystalline Bi appeared. After cooling to near room temperature, the melting and solidification behaviors of these films were investigated with RHEED. Upon subsequent heating, the topmost layers of the probed Bi crystallites started to lose long-range order at {approx}10-15 K below the Bi bulk melting point, T{sub 0}=544.52 K. When crystallized from the melt, supercooling by {approx}125 K below T{sub 0} was observed. These results indicate that Bi condensed on graphite in the form of supercooled liquid droplets when the graphite temperature was above 419 K (T{sub 0}-125). Below that temperature, Bi condensed in the solid phase. Bi films crystallized by cooling the liquid had crystal morphologies that depended on the degree of liquid supercooling.

  15. Superfluidity, Bose-Einstein condensation and dimensions of liquid 4He in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranješ Markić, Leandra; Glyde, Henry

    Path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) calculations of the superfluid fraction, ρS / ρ , and the one-body density matrix (OBDM) (Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)) of liquid 4He confined in nanopores are presented. The goal is to determine the effective dimensions of the liquid in the nanopore. We simulate a cylinder of liquid of diameter dL surrounded by 5 Åof inert solid 4He in a nanopore of diameter d; d = dL + 10 Å. The PIMC ρS (T) / ρ and OBDM scales as a 1D Luttinger Liquid at extremely small liquid pore diameters only, dL = 6 Åwhere the liquid atoms form a 1D line at the center of the pore. In the range 8 <=dL <= 22 Åthe PIMC ρS (T) / ρ scales as a 2D liquid. In this dL range the liquid fills the pores in cylindrical layers. There is a cross over from 2D to 3D scaling at larger dL ~= 22 Å. In the range 8 <=dL <= 22 Å, the TC predicted using the Kosterlitz-Thouless 2D scaling criterion of the OBDM agrees well with the TC obtained from ρS (T) / ρ . Superflow observed in pores of diameter (18 < d < 32 Å) is apparently standard static superflow with the low TC arising from its 2D character. Supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, USDOE, ER46680.

  16. Effect of disorder on condensation in the lattice gas model on a random graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handford, Thomas P.; Dear, Alexander; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Taraskin, Sergei N.

    2014-07-01

    The lattice gas model of condensation in a heterogeneous pore system, represented by a random graph of cells, is studied using an exact analytical solution. A binary mixture of pore cells with different coordination numbers is shown to exhibit two phase transitions as a function of chemical potential in a certain temperature range. Heterogeneity in interaction strengths is demonstrated to reduce the critical temperature and, for large-enough degreeS of disorder, divides the cells into ones which are either on average occupied or unoccupied. Despite treating the pore space loops in a simplified manner, the random-graph model provides a good description of condensation in porous structures containing loops. This is illustrated by considering capillary condensation in a structural model of mesoporous silica SBA-15.

  17. Determination of methadone in exhaled breath condensate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Eriksen, Paul; Franck, Johan; Palmskog, Göran

    2011-04-01

    Within the field of toxicology exhaled breath is used as specimen only for determination of alcohol. However, it was recently discovered that when using sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and methadone are detectable in exhaled breath following intake by drug addicts. We therefore undertook to develop a method for determination of methadone in exhaled breath condensate from patients undergoing methadonemaintenance treatment. Exhaled breath condensate was collected from 14 patients after intake of the daily methadone dose. The exhaled breath condensate was collected for 10 min using an Ecoscreen instrument. After extraction of any trapped methadone from the condensate by solid-phase extraction, the final extract was analyzed by a combined LC-MS-MS method. Recovery of methadone from breath condensate in the solid-phase extraction was 104%, no significant matrix effects were observed, and the quantification using methadone-d(3) as internal standard was accurate (10% bias) and precise (coefficient of variation 6.2%). Methadone was indisputably identified by means of the MS technique in exhaled breath condensate from all 14 patients. Identification was based on monitoring two product ions in selected reaction monitoring mode with correct relative ratio (± 20%) and correct retention time. Excretion rates ranged from 23.6 to 275 pg/min. No methadone was detected in five control subjects (< 2 pg/min). This finding confirms that methadone is present in exhaled breath from patients in methadone treatment. Collection of exhaled breath specimen is likely to be complementary to other matrices presently in use in testing for drugs-of-abuse.

  18. Vortex stability in Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Marisa; Sanpera, Anna

    2017-03-01

    We study the time evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate with a vortex on it when it is released from a trap and expands freely in a spatially uncorrelated disordered media. As customary in such cases, we perform the evolution over different disorder realizations and average over the disorder to obtain the quantities of interest. The propagation of noninteracting quantum systems in disordered media is strongly linked to Anderson localization which can be understood as formation of islands of constant phase due to coherent backscattering. We find that the vortex superfluid localizes in such media and, moreover, the vortex is resilient to disorder effects. This is a single-particle effect. In the presence of interactions, no matter how small they are, the vortex rapidly decays into phase discontinuities although localization is still present. The study of dispersion of a bosonic condensate with vorticity in a disordered media bears similarities with the stability of topological excitations in two-dimensional p -wave fermionic superfluids where the ground state is a Majorana mode that arises in the form of a vortex in the order parameter.

  19. Liquid film condensation along a vertical surface in a thin porous medium with large anisotropic permeability.

    PubMed

    Sanya, Arthur S O; Akowanou, Christian; Sanya, Emile A; Degan, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    The problems of steady film condensation on a vertical surface embedded in a thin porous medium with anisotropic permeability filled with pure saturated vapour are studied analytically by using the Brinkman-Darcy flow model. The principal axes of anisotropic permeability are oriented in a direction that non-coincident with the gravity force. On the basis of the flow permeability tensor due to the anisotropic properties and the Brinkman-Darcy flow model adopted by considering negligible macroscopic and microscopic inertial terms, boundary-layer approximations in the porous liquid film momentum equation is solved analytically. Scale analysis is applied to predict the order-of-magnitudes involved in the boundary layer regime. The first novel contribution in the mathematics consists in the use of the anisotropic permeability tensor inside the expression of the mathematical formulation of the film condensation problem along a vertical surface embedded in a porous medium. The present analytical study reveals that the anisotropic permeability properties have a strong influence on the liquid film thickness, condensate mass flow rate and surface heat transfer rate. The comparison between thin and thick porous media is also presented.

  20. Dipole oscillations of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of defects and disorder.

    PubMed

    Albert, M; Paul, T; Pavloff, N; Leboeuf, P

    2008-06-27

    We consider dipole oscillations of a trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of a scattering potential consisting either in a localized defect or in an extended disordered potential. In both cases the breaking of superfluidity and the damping of the oscillations are shown to be related to the appearance of a nonlinear dissipative flow. At supersonic velocities the flow becomes asymptotically dissipationless.

  1. WARM-LIQUID DEFROST FOR COMMERCIAL FOOD DISPLAY CASES: EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AT 32.2 DEGREES C CONDENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an experimental investigation at 32.2 C condensing of warm-liquid defrost for commercial food display cases. A refrigeration test rig with two open cases and two reach-in cases was tested using warm-liquid defrost (WLD) at -34.4 C evaporating, 32.2 C co...

  2. Linear Spatial Evolution Formulation of Two-Dimensional Waves on Liquid Films Under Evaporating/Isothermal/Condensing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Xuemin Ye; Chunxi Li; Weiping Yan

    2002-07-01

    The linear spatial evolution formulation of the two-dimensional waves of the evaporating or isothermal or condensing liquid films falling down an inclined wall is established for the film thickness with the collocation method based on the boundary layer theory and complete boundary conditions. The evolution equation indicates that there are two different modes of waves in spatial evolution. And the flow stability is highly dependent on the evaporation or condensation, thermo-capillarity, surface tension, inclination angle and Reynolds number. (authors)

  3. Colloidal gas-liquid condensation of polystyrene latex particles with intermediate kappa a values (5 to 160, a > kappa(-1)).

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masamichi; Kitano, Ryota

    2010-02-16

    Polystyrene latex particles showed gas-liquid condensation under the conditions of large particle radius (a > kappa(-1)) and intermediate kappa a, where kappa is the Debye-Hückel parameter and a is the particle radius. The particles were dissolved in deionized water containing ethanol from 0 to 77 vol %, settled to the bottom of the glass plate within 1 h, and then laterally moved toward the center of a cell over a 20 h period in reaching a state of equilibrium condensation. All of the suspensions that were 1 and 3 microm in diameter and 0.01-0.20 vol % in concentration realized similar gas-liquid condensation with clear gas-liquid boundaries. In 50 vol % ethanol solvent, additional ethanol was added to enhance the sedimentation force so as to restrict the particles in a monoparticle layer thickness. The coexistence of gas-liquid-solid (crystalline solid) was microscopically recognized from the periphery to the center of the condensates. A phase diagram of the gas-liquid condensation was created as a function of KCl concentration at a particle diameter of 3 microm, 0.10 vol % concentration, and 50:50 water/ethanol solvent at room temperature. The miscibility gap was observed in the concentration range from 1 to 250 microM. There was an upper limit of salt concentration where the phase separation disappeared, showing nearly critical behavior of macroscopic density fluctuation from 250 microM to 1 mM. These results add new experimental evidence to the existence of colloidal gas-liquid condensation and specify conditions of like-charge attraction between particles.

  4. Controlling Gaussian and mean curvatures at microscale by sublimation and condensation of smectic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Seok; Cha, Yun Jeong; Kim, Mun Ho; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2016-01-01

    Soft materials with layered structure such as membranes, block copolymers and smectics exhibit intriguing morphologies with nontrivial curvatures. Here, we report restructuring the Gaussian and mean curvatures of smectic A films with free surface in the process of sintering, that is, reshaping at elevated temperatures. The pattern of alternating patches of negative, zero and positive mean curvature of the air-smectic interface has a profound effect on the rate of sublimation. As a result of sublimation, condensation and restructuring, initially equilibrium smectic films with negative and zero Gaussian curvature are transformed into structures with pronounced positive Gaussian curvature of layers packing, which are rare in the samples obtained by cooling from the isotropic melt. The observed relationship between the curvatures, bulk elastic behaviour and interfacial geometries in sintering of smectic liquid crystals might pave the way for new approaches to control soft morphologies at micron and submicron scales.

  5. Phase diagram of a spinor exciton-polariton condensate in a disordered microcavity in the presence of a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2009-10-15

    We establish a phase diagram of a spinor exciton-polariton condensate in a disordered microcavity in the presence of an external magnetic field. We find that the combination of the full paramagnetic screening and Anderson localization leads to the formation of a condensed phase having both localized and superfluid components. This is reflected by different dispersions of elementary excitations for the two polarization components.

  6. Vapor condensation on liquid surface due to laminar jet-induced mixing: The effects of system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin-Shun; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of system parameters on the interface condensation rate in a laminar jet induced mixing tank are numerically studied. The physical system consists of a partially filled cylindrical tank with a slightly subcooled jet discharged from the center of the tank bottom toward the liquid-vapor interface which is at a saturation temperature corresponding to the constant tank pressure. Liquid is also withdrawn from the outer part of the tank bottom to maintain the constant liquid level. The jet velocity is selected to be low enough such that the free surface is approximately flat. The effect of vapor superheat is assumed to be negligible. Therefore, the interface condensation rate can be determined from the resulting temperature field in the liquid region alone. The nondimensional form of the steady state conservation equations are solved by a finite difference method for various system parameters including liquid height to tank diameter ratio, tank to jet diameter ratio, liquid inflow to outflow area ratio, and a heat leak parameter which characterizes the uniform wall heat flux. Detailed analyses based on the numerical solutions are performed and simplified equations are suggested for the prediction of condensation rate.

  7. Melting of Vortex Lattice in Bose-Einstein Condensate in Presence of Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Bishwajyoti

    We study the vortex lattice dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in presence of single impurity as well as random impurities or disorder. The single impurity is modeled by a Gaussian function while disorder is introduced in the system by a uniform random potential. Such potentials can be created experimentally by lasers. We solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensions using split-step Crank-Nicolson method. We first show that a single vortex can be pinned by an impurity. We then show that even a single impurity can distort the vortex lattice. For sufficiently strong impurity potential, the vortex lattice gets pinned to the impurity. We also show that a new type of giant hole with hidden vortices inside it can be created in the vortex lattice by a cluster of impurities. In presence of random impurity potential or disorder, the vortices get pinned at random positions leading to melting of the vortex lattice. We further show that the vortex lattice melting can also be induced by the pseudorandom potential generated by the superposition of two optical lattices. The absence of long-range order in the melted vortex lattice is demonstrated from the structure factor profile and the histogram of the distance between each pair of vortices. I would like to thank DST, India and BCUD SPPU, for financial assisance through research grants.

  8. Molecular dynamics study on evaporation and condensation of n-dodecane at liquid-vapor phase equilibria.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bing-Yang; Xie, Jian-Fei; Sazhin, Sergei S

    2011-04-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the evaporation and condensation of n-dodecane (C(12)H(26)) at temperatures in the range 400-600 K. A modified optimized potential for liquid simulation model is applied to take into account the Lennard-Jones, bond bending and torsion potentials with the bond length constrained. The equilibrium liquid-vapor n-dodecane interface thickness is predicted to be ~1.2-2.0 nm. It is shown that the molecular chains lie preferentially parallel to the interface in the liquid-vapor transition region. The predicted evaporation/condensation coefficient decreased from 0.9 to 0.3 when temperature increased from 400 to 600 K. These values can be used for the formulation of boundary conditions in the kinetic modeling of droplet heating and evaporation processes; they are noticeably different from those predicted by the transition state theory. We also present the typical molecular behaviors in the evaporation and condensation processes. The molecular exchange in condensation, typical for simple molecules, has never been observed for n-dodecane molecular chains.

  9. An order-by-disorder process in the cyclic phase of spin-2 condensate with a weak magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Gong-Ping; Xu, Lei-Kuan; Qin, Shuai-Feng; Jian, Wen-Tian; Liang, J.-Q.

    2013-07-15

    We present in this paper a model study on the “order-by-disorder” process in the cyclic phase of spin-2 condensate, which forms a family of incommensurable, spiral degenerate ground states. On the basis of the ordering mechanism of entropic splitting, it is demonstrated that the energy corrections resulting from quantum fluctuations of disorder lift the accidental degeneracy of the cyclic configurations and thus lead to an eventual spiral order called the cyclic order. The order-by-disorder phenomenon is then realized even if the magnetic field exists. Finally, we show that our theoretic observations can be verified experimentally by direct detection of the cyclic order in the {sup 87}Rb condensate of a spin-2 manifold with a weak magnetic field. -- Highlights: •A model for the order-by-disorder process in the cyclic phase of spin-2 condensate is presented. •The second-order quantum fluctuations of the mean-field states are studied. •The energy corrections lift the accidental degeneracy of the cyclic configurations. •The order-by-disorder phenomenon is realized even if a magnetic field exists. •The theoretic observations can be verified experimentally for {sup 87}Rb condensate.

  10. Disorder-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid in Spin Ice Pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savary, Lucile; Balents, Leon

    2017-02-01

    We propose that in a certain class of magnetic materials, known as non-Kramers "spin ice," disorder induces quantum entanglement. Instead of driving glassy behavior, disorder provokes quantum superpositions of spins throughout the system and engenders an associated emergent gauge structure and set of fractional excitations. More precisely, disorder transforms a classical phase governed by a large entropy, classical spin ice, into a quantum spin liquid governed by entanglement. As the degree of disorder is increased, the system transitions between (i) a "regular" Coulombic spin liquid, (ii) a phase known as "Mott glass," which contains rare gapless regions in real space, but whose behavior on long length scales is only modified quantitatively, and (iii) a true glassy phase for random distributions with large width or large mean amplitude.

  11. Scalar quanta in Fermi liquids: Zero sounds, instabilities, Bose condensation, and a metastable state in dilute nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The spectrum of bosonic scalar-mode excitations in a normal Fermi liquid with local scalar interaction is investigated for various values and momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter f0 in the particle-hole channel. For f0 > 0 the conditions are found when the phase velocity on the spectrum of zero sound acquires a minimum at non-zero momentum. For -1 < f0 < 0 there are only damped excitations, and for f0 < -1 the spectrum becomes unstable against the growth of scalar-mode excitations. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar excitation modes is derived after performing a bosonization procedure. We demonstrate that the instability may be tamed by the formation of a static Bose condensate of the scalar modes. The condensation may occur in a homogeneous or inhomogeneous state relying on the momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter. We show that in the isospin-symmetric nuclear matter there may appear a metastable state at subsaturation nuclear density owing to the condensate. Then we consider a possibility of the condensation of the zero-sound-like excitations in a state with a non-zero momentum in Fermi liquids moving with overcritical velocities, provided an appropriate momentum dependence of the Landau parameter f0(k) > 0. We also argue that in peripheral heavy-ion collisions the Pomeranchuk instability may occur already for f0 > -1.

  12. Condensed-matter ab initio approach for strongly correlated electrons: Application to a quantum spin liquid candidate

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaji, Youhei

    2015-12-31

    Recently, condensed-matter ab initio approaches to strongly correlated electrons confined in crystalline solids have been developed and applied to transition-metal oxides and molecular conductors. In this paper, an ab initio scheme based on constrained random phase approximations and localized Wannier orbitals is applied to a spin liquid candidate Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} and is shown to reproduce experimentally observed specific heat.

  13. Disordered Fermi liquid in epitaxial graphene from quantum transport measurements.

    PubMed

    Lara-Avila, Samuel; Tzalenchuk, Alexander; Kubatkin, Sergey; Yakimova, Rositza; Janssen, T J B M; Cedergren, Karin; Bergsten, Tobias; Fal'ko, Vladimir

    2011-10-14

    We have performed magnetotransport measurements on monolayer epitaxial graphene and analyzed them in the framework of the disordered Fermi liquid theory. We have separated the electron-electron and weak-localization contributions to resistivity and demonstrated the phase coherence over a micrometer length scale, setting the limit of at least 50 ps on the spin relaxation time in this material.

  14. Topological defects as relics of emergent continuous symmetry and Higgs condensation of disorder in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Wang, Xueyun; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Chern, Gia-Wei; Fan, Fei; Fan, David; Casas, Brian; Liu, Yue; Kiryukhin, Valery; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Batista, Cristian D.; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2014-12-01

    Lars Onsager and Richard Feynman envisaged that the three-dimensional (3D) superfluid-to-normal λ transition in 4He occurs through the proliferation of vortices. This process should hold for every phase transition in the same universality class. The role of topological defects in symmetry-breaking phase transitions has become a prime topic in cosmology and high-temperature superconductivity, even though direct imaging of these defects is challenging. Here we show that the U(1) continuous symmetry that emerges at the ferroelectric critical point of multiferroic hexagonal manganites leads to a similar proliferation of vortices. Moreover, the disorder field (vortices) is coupled to an emergent U(1) gauge field, which becomes massive by means of the Higgs mechanism when vortices condense (span the whole system) on heating above the ferroelectric transition temperature. Direct imaging of the vortex network in hexagonal manganites offers unique experimental access to this dual description of the ferroelectric transition, while enabling tests of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  15. Order by disorder in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Ryan; Powell, Stephen; Graß, Tobias; Lewenstein, Maciej; Das Sarma, S.

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we investigate the system of isotropically interacting bosons with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. At the noninteracting level, there is a macroscopic ground-state degeneracy due to the many ways bosons can occupy the Rashba spectrum. Interactions treated at the mean-field level restrict the possible ground-state configurations, but there remains an accidental degeneracy not corresponding to any symmetry of the Hamiltonian, indicating the importance of fluctuations. By finding analytical expressions for the collective excitations in the long-wavelength limit and through numerical solution of the full Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we show that the system condenses into a single-momentum state of the Rashba spectrum via the mechanism of order by disorder. We show that in three dimensions the quantum depletion for this system is small, while the thermal depletion has an infrared logarithmic divergence, which is removed for finite-size systems. In two dimensions, on the other hand, thermal fluctuations destabilize the system.

  16. Order by Disorder in Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Ryan; Powell, Stephen; Grass, Tobias; Lewenstein, Maciej; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we investigate the system of isotropically-interacting bosons with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. At the non-interacting level, there is a macroscopic ground-state degeneracy due to the many ways bosons can occupy the Rashba spectrum. Interactions treated at the mean-field level restrict the possible ground-state configurations, but there remains an accidental degeneracy not corresponding to any symmetry of the Hamiltonian, indicating the importance of fluctuations. By finding analytical expressions for the collective excitations in the long-wavelength limit and through numerical solution of the full Bogoliubov- de Gennes equations, we show that the system condenses into a single momentum state of the Rashba spectrum via the mechanism of order by disorder. We show that in 3D the quantum depletion for this system is small, while the thermal depletion has an infrared logarithmic divergence, which is removed for finite-size systems. In 2D, on the other hand, thermal fluctuations destabilize the system. This work is supported in part by JQI-PFC.

  17. No-go theorem for boson condensation in topologically ordered quantum liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupert, Titus; He, Huan; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Sierra, Germán; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2016-12-01

    Certain phase transitions between topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) are driven by the condensation of bosonic anyons. However, as bosons in a TQFT are themselves nontrivial collective excitations, there can be topological obstructions that prevent them from condensing. Here we formulate such an obstruction in the form of a no-go theorem. We use it to show that no condensation is possible in SO(3) k TQFTs with odd k. We further show that a ‘layered’ theory obtained by tensoring SO(3) k TQFT with itself any integer number of times does not admit condensation transitions either. This includes (as the case k = 3) the noncondensability of any number of layers of the Fibonacci TQFT.

  18. Electret processes in disordered systems based on liquid dispersion media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbachenko, L. A.; Maksimova, N. T.; Komarov, E. S.; Ruzhnikov, L. I.; Karnakov, V. A.; Baryshnikov, E. S.; Krasnov, D. A.; Troshev, A. A.; Baryshnikov, D. S.; Ezhova, L. I.

    2012-10-01

    Electret-thermal analysis (ETA) of disordered systems based on dispersed media is carried out. It is shown that the method of thermally stimulated currents makes it possible to estimate the structural changes occurring in a liquid dispersion medium. It is found that liquid water in a free state exhibits the electret properties. The observed multiple peaks on the thermally stimulated current curve are the evidence of the multicomponent nature of the "free water" system. The mechanisms of processes leading to the formation of the electret state in such systems are considered.

  19. Theory of fermion condensation as an analog of the liquid-drop theory of atomic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Khodel, V. A.

    2015-01-15

    We discuss problems of theory of systems with a fermion condensate or, in different words, systems with flat bands pinned to the Fermi surface, employing the duality of the momentum distribution n(p) and the density distribution ρ(r). We propose that the Lifshitz topological phase transition associated with the formation of additional pockets of the Fermi surface is the precursor of fermion condensation.

  20. Short-pulse laser interactions with disordered materials and liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Phinney, L.M.; Goldman, C.H.; Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    High-power, short-pulse lasers in the picosecond and subpicosecond range are utilized in an increasing number of technologies, including materials processing and diagnostics, micro-electronics and devices, and medicine. In these applications, the short-pulse radiation interacts with a wide range of media encompassing disordered materials and liquids. Examples of disordered materials include porous media, polymers, organic tissues, and amorphous forms of silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide. In order to accurately model, efficiently control, and optimize short-pulse, laser-material interactions, a thorough understanding of the energy transport mechanisms is necessary. Thus, fractals and percolation theory are used to analyze the anomalous diffusion regime in random media. In liquids, the thermal aspects of saturable and multiphoton absorption are examined. Finally, a novel application of short-pulse laser radiation to reduce surface adhesion forces in microstructures through short-pulse laser-induced water desorption is presented.

  1. Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry (II): Applications to formation and combustion reactions of liquid organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Hiromi

    2015-03-01

    The harmonic solvation model (HSM), which was recently developed for evaluating condensed-phase thermodynamics by quantum chemical calculations (Nakai and Ishikawa, 2014), was applied to formation and combustion reactions of simple organic molecules. The conventional ideal gas model (IGM) considerably overestimated the entropies of the liquid molecules. The HSM could significantly improve this overestimation; mean absolute deviations for the Gibbs energies of the formation and combustion reactions were (49.6, 26.7) for the IGM and (9.7, 5.4) for the HSM in kJ/mol.

  2. Effects of Evaporation/Condensation on Spreading and Contact Angle of a Volatile Liquid Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Effects of evaporation/condensation on spreading and contact angle were experimentally studied. A sessile drop of R-113 was tested at different vapor environments to determine the effects of evaporation/condensation on the evolution of contact diameter and contact angle of the drop. Condensation on the drop surface occurs at both the saturated and a nonsaturated vapor environments and promotes the spreading. When the drop is placed in the saturated vapor environment it tends to completely wetting and spreads rapidly. In a nonsaturated vapor environment, the evolution of the sessile drop is divided three stages: condensation-spreading stage, evaporation-retracting stage and rapid contracting stage. In the first stage the drop behaves as in the saturated environment. In the evaporation -retracting stage, the competition between spreading and evaporation of the drop determines the evolution characteristics of the contact diameter and the contact angle. A lower evaporation rate struggles against the spreading power to turn the drop from spreading to retracting with a continuous increase of the contact angle. The drop placed in open air has a much higher evaporation rate. The strong evaporation suppresses the spreading and accelerates the retraction of the drop with a linear decrease of the contact diameter. The contraction of the evaporating drops is gradually accelerated when the contact diameter decreases to 3 min and less till drying up, though the evaporation rate is gradually slowing down.

  3. Experimental investigation of evaporation and condensation in the contact line region of a thin liquid film experiencing small thermal perturbations.

    PubMed

    Argade, Rajendra; Ghosh, Sombuddha; De, Sirshendu; DasGupta, Sunando

    2007-01-30

    Image-analyzing interferometry technique is successfully used to study microscale transport processes related to a curved microfilm on a solid substrate. Digital image processing is used to analyze the images of interference fringes, leading to the evaluation of liquid (heptane) film thickness and curvature profiles at different inclinations on a high refractive index glass surface. The curvature profiles obtained at different inclinations clearly demonstrate that there is a maximum in curvature near the junction of the adsorbed film (of uniform thickness) and the curved film, and then it becomes constant in the thicker portions of the film. The adsorbed film thickness is measured for horizontal as well as inclined positions. Experimentally obtained values of the dispersion constants are compared to those predicted from the Dzyaloshinskii-Lifshitz-Pitaevskii (DLP) theory, and reasonable agreements were obtained. A parameter alpha is defined and experimentally evaluated to quantify the closeness of the system to equilibrium. The nonequilibrium behavior of this parameter alpha is also observed with certain heat input at a particular inclination. A small thermal perturbation is used to force the liquid meniscus to undergo a cycle of alternating condensation and evaporation. High-speed video-microscopy and subsequent image analysis are used for data analysis. The numerical solution of a model that takes into account the balance between the suction and the capillary force is compared with the data to elicit new insights into the evaporation/condensation phenomena and to estimate the interfacial temperature differences for near-equilibrium situations.

  4. Theory of thermal conductivity in the disordered electron liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiete, G.; Finkel'stein, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    We study thermal conductivity in the disordered two-dimensional electron liquid in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. We describe a microscopic analysis of the problem using the partition function defined on the Keldysh contour as a starting point. We extend the renormalization group (RG) analysis developed for thermal transport in the disordered Fermi liquid and include scattering processes induced by the long-range Coulomb interaction in the sub-temperature energy range. For the thermal conductivity, unlike for the electrical conductivity, these scattering processes yield a logarithmic correction that may compete with the RG corrections. The interest in this correction arises from the fact that it violates the Wiedemann-Franz law. We checked that the sub-temperature correction to the thermal conductivity is not modified either by the inclusion of Fermi liquid interaction amplitudes or as a result of the RG flow. We therefore expect that the answer obtained for this correction is final. We use the theory to describe thermal transport on the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition in Si MOSFETs.

  5. Thermocapillary flow with evaporation and condensation and its effect on liquid retention in low-G fluid acquisition devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George R.

    1994-01-01

    The steady motion, thermal and free surface behavior of a volatile, wetting liquid in microgravity are studied using scaling and numerical techniques. The objective is to determine whether the thermocapillary and two-phase convection arising from thermodynamic nonequilibrium along the porous surfaces of spacecraft liquid acquisition devices could cause the retention failures observed with liquid hydrogen and heated vapor pressurant. Why these devices seem immune to retention loss when pressurized with heated helium or heated directly through the porous structure was also examined. Results show that highly wetting fluids exhibit large negative and positive dynamic pressure gradients towards the meniscus interline when superheated and subcooled, respectively. With superheating, the pressure variation and recoil force arising from liquid/vapor phase change exert the same influence on surface morphology and promote retention. With subcooling, however, the pressure distribution produces a suction that degrades mechanical equilibrium of the surface. This result indicates that thermocapillary-induced deformation arising from subcooling and condensation is the likely cause for retention loss. In addition, increasing the level of nonequilibrium by reducing accommodation coefficient suppresses deformation and explains why this failure mode does not occur in instances of direct screen heating or pressurization with a heated inert gas.

  6. Simulation of water vapor condensation on LOX droplet surface using liquid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Eugene A.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of ice or water layers on liquid oxygen (LOX) droplets in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) environment was investigated. Formulation of such ice/water layers is indicated by phase-equilibrium considerations under conditions of high partial pressure of water vapor (steam) and low LOX droplet temperature prevailing in the SSME preburner or main chamber. An experimental investigation was begun using liquid nitrogen as a LOX simulant. A monodisperse liquid nitrogen droplet generator was developed which uses an acoustic driver to force the stream of liquid emerging from a capillary tube to break up into a stream of regularly space uniformly sized spherical droplets. The atmospheric pressure liquid nitrogen in the droplet generator reservoir was cooled below its boiling point to prevent two phase flow from occurring in the capillary tube. An existing steam chamber was modified for injection of liquid nitrogen droplets into atmospheric pressure superheated steam. The droplets were imaged using a stroboscopic video system and a laser shadowgraphy system. Several tests were conducted in which liquid nitrogen droplets were injected into the steam chamber. Under conditions of periodic droplet formation, images of 600 micron diameter liquid nitrogen droplets were obtained with the stroboscopic video systems.

  7. Successive disorder to disorder phase transitions in ionic liquid [HMIM][BF4] under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiang; Yuan, Chaosheng; Li, Haining; Zhu, Pinwen; Su, Lei; Yang, Kun; Wu, Jie; Yang, Guoqiang; Liu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    In situ high-pressure Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction have been employed to investigate the phase behavior of ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([HMIM][BF4]) under high pressure up to 20 GPa at room temperature. With increasing pressure, some characteristic bands of [HMIM][BF4] disappear, and some characteristic bands of [HMIM][BF4] display non-monotonic pressure-induced frequency shift and non-monotonic variation of full width at half-maximum. Two successive phase transitions at ˜1.7 GPa and 7.3 GPa have been corroborated by the results above. The glass transition pressure (Pg) of [HMIM][BF4] at ˜7.3 GPa has been obtained by ruby R1 line broadening measurements and analysis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns, and its glass transition mechanism is also analyzed in detail. These facts are suggestive of two successive disorder to disorder phase transitions induced by compression, that is, [HMIM][BF4] serves as a superpressurized glass under the pressure above 7.3 GPa, which is similar to the glassy state at low temperature, and a compression-induced liquid to liquid phase transition in [HMIM][BF4] occurs at ˜1.7 GPa. Besides, the conformational equilibrium of the GAAA conformer and AAAA conformer was converted easily in liquid [HMIM][BF4], while it was difficult to be influenced in glassy state.

  8. Gramicidin Alters the Lipid Compositions of Liquid-Ordered and Liquid-Disordered Membrane Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Huang, Juyang

    2012-10-01

    The effects of adding 1 mol % of gramicidin A to the well-known DOPC/DSPC/cholesterol lipid mixtures were investigated. 4-component giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) were prepared using our recently developed Wet-Film method. The phase boundary of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered (Lo-Ld) coexisting region was determined using video fluorescence microscopy. We found that if cares were not taken, light-induced domain artifacts could significantly distort the measured phase boundary. After testing several fluorescence dyes, we found that the emission spectrum of Nile Red is quite sensitive to membrane composition. By fitting the Nile Red emission spectra at the phase boundary to the spectra in the Lo-Ld coexisting region, the thermodynamic tie-lines were determined. As an active component of lipid membranes, gramicidin not only partitions favorably into the liquid-disordered (Ld) phase, it also alters the phase boundary and thermodynamic tie-lines. Even at as low as 1 mol %, gramicidin decreases the cholesterol mole fraction of Ld phase and increases the area of Lo phase.

  9. Benzoin Condensation: Monitoring a Chemical Reaction by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Apurba; Purohit, Vikram C.; Bellar, Nicholas R.

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the preferred method of separating a variety of materials in complex mixtures such as pharmaceuticals, polymers, soils, food products and biological fluids and is also considered to be a powerful analytical tool in both academia and industry. The use of HPLC analysis as a means of monitoring and…

  10. Zero point energy leakage in condensed phase dynamics: an assessment of quantum simulation methods for liquid water.

    PubMed

    Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E

    2009-12-28

    The approximate quantum mechanical ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR) methods are compared and contrasted in a study of the dynamics of the flexible q-TIP4P/F water model at room temperature. For this water model, a RPMD simulation gives a diffusion coefficient that is only a few percent larger than the classical diffusion coefficient, whereas a LSC-IVR simulation gives a diffusion coefficient that is three times larger. We attribute this discrepancy to the unphysical leakage of initially quantized zero point energy (ZPE) from the intramolecular to the intermolecular modes of the liquid as the LSC-IVR simulation progresses. In spite of this problem, which is avoided by construction in RPMD, the LSC-IVR may still provide a useful approximation to certain short-time dynamical properties which are not so strongly affected by the ZPE leakage. We illustrate this with an application to the liquid water dipole absorption spectrum, for which the RPMD approximation breaks down at frequencies in the O-H stretching region owing to contamination from the internal modes of the ring polymer. The LSC-IVR does not suffer from this difficulty and it appears to provide quite a promising way to calculate condensed phase vibrational spectra.

  11. Pattern formation arising from condensation of a homogeneous gas into a binary, phase-separating liquid.

    PubMed

    Pooley, C M; Balazs, Anna C; Yeomans, J M

    2005-08-01

    We examine the nucleated growth of a binary, immiscible liquid drop within a homogeneous gas. The system couples the growth of the liquid drop with the phase separation of the immiscible components and, thus, can potentially reveal novel pattern formation. To carry out this study, we first characterize the thermodynamic properties of the system in terms of an appropriate Ginzburg-Landau free energy density. By minimizing this free energy, we construct the equilibrium phase diagram for the system. We then use a lattice Boltzmann algorithm to solve the hydrodynamic equations describing the dynamical evolution of the fluid. We observe intriguing tentaclelike structures within the nucleation and growth regime and explore how the formation of these structures depends on the thermodynamic and transport properties of the system. We give scaling laws describing domain growth in both the diffusion- and flow-limited regimes. The results highlight the novel physics that can emerge when there is interplay between the ordering of a density and a concentration field.

  12. Measurements of mass and heat transfer at a liquid water surface during condensation or evaporation of a subnanometer thickness layer of water.

    PubMed

    Miles, Rachael E H; Knox, Kerry J; Reid, Jonathan P; Laurain, Adèle M C; Mitchem, Laura

    2010-09-10

    A novel approach for exploring the molecular dynamics during condensation or evaporation at a liquid water surface is reported at pressures between 2 and 100 kPa. By introducing or removing a heating laser illuminating an optically tweezed aqueous aerosol droplet, the temperature of the droplet can be controlled with sub-mK accuracy and the change in size to reequilibrate with the surroundings monitored with subnanometer accuracy. The time constant for equilibration is shown to provide important insight into the coupling of heat and mass transfer during condensation or evaporation.

  13. Condensate Mixtures and Tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Timmermans, E.

    1998-09-14

    The experimental study of condensate mixtures is a particularly exciting application of the recently developed atomic-trap Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) technology: such multiple condensates represent the first laboratory systems of distinguishable boson superfluid mixtures. In addition, as the authors point out in this paper, the possibility of inter-condensate tunneling greatly enhances the richness of the condensate mixture physics. Not only does tunneling give rise to the oscillating particle currents between condensates of different chemical potentials, such as those studied extensively in the condensed matter Josephson junction experiments, it also affects the near-equilibrium dynamics and stability of the condensate mixtures. In particular, the stabilizing influence of tunneling with respect to spatial separation (phase separation) could be of considerable practical importance to the atomic trap systems. Furthermore, the creation of mixtures of atomic and molecular condensates could introduce a novel type of tunneling process, involving the conversion of a pair of atomic condensate bosons into a single molecular condensate boson. The static description of condensate mixtures with such type of pair tunneling suggests the possibility of observing dilute condensates with the liquid-like property of a self-determined density.

  14. Lattice bosons in a quasi-disordered environment: The effects of next-nearest-neighbor hopping on localization and Bose-Einstein condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakumar, R.; Das, A. N.; Sil, S.

    2014-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the effects of the next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) hopping (t2) on the properties of non-interacting bosons in optical lattices in the presence of an Aubry-André quasi-disorder. First we investigate, employing exact diagonalization, the effects of t2 on the localization properties of a single boson. The localization is monitored using an entanglement measure as well as with inverse participation ratio. We find that the sign of t2 has a significant influence on the localization effects. We also provide analytical results in support of the trends found in the localization behavior. Further, we extend these results including the effects of a harmonic potential which obtains in experiments. Next, we study the effects of t2 on Bose-Einstein condensation. We find that, a positive t2 strongly enhances the low temperature thermal depletion of the condensate while a negative t2 reduces it. It is also found that, for a fixed temperature, increasing the quasi-disorder strength reduces the condensate fraction in the extended regime while enhancing it in the localized regime. We also investigate the effects of boundary conditions and that of the phase of the AA potential on the condensate. These are found to have significant effects on the condensate fraction in the localization transition region.

  15. Theoretical and Computational Studies of Condensed-Phase Phenomena: The Origin of Biological Homochirality, and the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Network-Forming Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Francesco

    This dissertation describes theoretical and computational studies of the origin of biological homochirality, and the existence of a liquid-liquid phase transition in pure-component network-forming fluids. A common theme throughout these studies is the use of sophisticated computer simulation and statistical mechanics techniques to study complex condensed-phase phenomena. In the first part of this dissertation, we use an elementary lattice model with molecular degrees of freedom, and satisfying microscopic reversibility, to investigate the effect of reaction reversibility on the evolution of stochastic symmetry breaking via autocatalysis and mutual inhibition in a closed system. We identify conditions under which the system's evolution towards racemic equilibrium becomes extremely slow, allowing for long-time persistence of a symmetry-broken state. We also identify a "monomer purification" mechanism, due to which a nearly homochiral state can persist for long times, even in the presence of significant reverse reaction rates. Order of magnitude estimates show that with reasonable physical parameters a symmetry broken state could persist over geologically-relevant time scales. In the second part of this dissertation, we study a chiral-symmetry breaking mechanism known as Viedma ripening. We develop a Monte Carlo model to gain further insights into the mechanisms capable of reproducing key experimental signatures associated with this phenomenon. We also provide a comprehensive investigation of how the model parameters impact the system's overall behavior. It is shown that size-dependent crystal solubility alone is insufficient to reproduce most experimental signatures, and that some form of a solid-phase chiral feedback mechanism (e.g., agglomeration) must be invoked in our model. In the third part of this dissertation, we perform rigorous free energy calculations to investigate the possibility of a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in the Stillinger-Weber (SW

  16. Duality methods in networks, computer science models, and disordered condensed matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Joseph Dan

    In this thesis, I explore lattice independent duality and systems to which it can be applied. I first demonstrate classical duality on models in an external field, including the Ising, Potts, and x -- y models, showing in particular how this modifies duality to be lattice independent and applicable to networks. I then present a novel application of duality on the boolean satsifiability problem, one of the most important problems in computational complexity, through mapping to a low temperature Ising model. This establishes the equivalence between boolean satisfiability and a problem of enumerating the positive solutions to a Diophantine system of equations. I continue by combining duality with a prominent tool for models on networks, belief propagation, deriving a new message passing procedure, dual belief propagation. In the final part of my thesis, I shift to propose and examine a semiclassical model, the two-component Coulomb glass model, which can explain the giant magnetoresistance peak present in disordered films near a superconductor-insulator transition as the effect of competition between single particle and localized pair transport. I numerically analyze the density of states and transport properties of this model.

  17. Liquid disordered-liquid ordered phase coexistence in bicelles containing unsaturated lipids and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Miranda L; Davis, James H

    2016-04-01

    Magnetically orienting bicelles are often made by combining the long chain phospholipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) with the short chain phospholipid 1,2-dicaproyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC) in buffer. These bicelles orient with their bilayer normals perpendicular to the external magnetic field. We have examined the phase behaviour of DMPC/DCPC bicelles and the effects of cholesterol and the unsaturated phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPoPC) as a function of temperature using static solid state (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As expected, cholesterol has an ordering effect on the long phospholipid chains and this is reflected in the phase behaviour of the bicelle mixtures. Liquid disordered-liquid ordered, fluid-fluid phase coexistence is observed in DMPC/cholesterol/DCPC bicelles with cholesterol mole fractions of 0.13 and higher. DPoPC/DMPC/cholesterol/DCPC bicelles also exhibit two fluid phase coexistence over a broad range of temperatures and compositions. Bicelles can provide a useful medium in which to study membrane bound peptides and proteins. The orientation parallel to the magnetic field is favourable for studying membrane peptides/proteins because information about the orientation of relevant molecular bonds or internuclear vectors can be obtained directly from the resulting (2)H spectra. Lanthanide ions can be used to flip the bicelles to have their bilayer normals parallel to the external magnetic field. Yb(3+) was used to flip the DPoPC/DMPC/cholesterol/DCPC bicelles while Eu(3+) was found to be ineffective at flipping bicelles containing cholesterol in the present work.

  18. Antibody-Induced Acetylcholine Receptor Clusters Inhabit Liquid-Ordered and Liquid-Disordered Domains

    PubMed Central

    Kamerbeek, Constanza B.; Borroni, Virginia; Pediconi, María F.; Sato, Satoshi B.; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Barrantes, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters at the cell membrane was studied in CHO-K1/A5 cells using fluorescence microscopy. Di-4-ANEPPDHQ, a fluorescent probe that differentiates between liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases in model membranes, was used in combination with monoclonal anti-AChR antibody labeling of live cells, which induces AChR clustering. The so-called generalized polarization (GP) of di-4-ANEPPDHQ was measured in regions of the cell-surface membrane associated with or devoid of antibody-induced AChR clusters, respectively. AChR clusters were almost equally distributed between Lo and Ld domains, independently of receptor surface levels and agonist (carbamoylcholine and nicotine) or antagonist (α-bungarotoxin) binding. Cholesterol depletion diminished the cell membrane mean di-4-ANEPPDHQ GP and the number of AChR clusters associated with Ld membrane domains increased concomitantly. Depolymerization of the filamentous actin cytoskeleton by Latrunculin A had the opposite effect, with more AChR clusters associated with Lo domains. AChR internalized via small vesicles having lower GP and lower cholesterol content than the surface membrane. Upon cholesterol depletion, only 12% of the AChR-containing vesicles costained with the fluorescent cholesterol analog fPEG-cholesterol, i.e., AChR endocytosis was essentially dissociated from that of cholesterol. In conclusion, the distribution of AChR submicron-sized clusters at the cell membrane appears to be regulated by cholesterol content and cytoskeleton integrity. PMID:24094401

  19. Electron-Hole Condensation in Semiconductors: Electrons and holes condense into freely moving liquid metallic droplets, a plasma phase with novel properties.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, C D

    1975-09-19

    In Ge and Si, and also in Ge-Si alloys (74), there is extensive evidence for the stable binding of electrons and holes into a cold plasma of constant density, which undergoes a phase separation. Liquid metallic drops 1 to 300 microm in size are formed, with lifetimes ranging from 0.1 to 600 microsec. For Ge a surprising amount is known: the phase diagram, the surface energy, the work function, the decay kinetics. Much less is known for Si. There is good agreement between theoretical and experimental values of the liquid density, the critical density, the critical temperature, and the binding energy. The stability of the liquid phase is strikingly dependent on band structure. The multivalley structure and mass anisotropy of Si, Ge, and Ge-Si, together with their indirect band gap, are no doubt responsible for the observed stability in these crystals. In the similar semiconductor gallium phosphide, drops have not yet been observed, most likely because the high impurity content traps the excitons. In gallium arsenide the existence of drops is controversial (75). Undoubtedly drops will be found to exist in other semiconductors, perhaps at even higher temperatures. This is an exciting field for the experimentalist; new phenomena are being rapidly discovered, usually before they are predicted. For the theorist, the electron-hole drop is of high intrinsic interest. It represents the first example of a quantum liquid of constant density in a periodic crystal lattice. A number of challenging experimental and theoretical problems remain.

  20. Single Lipid Extraction: The Anchoring Strength of Cholesterol in Liquid-Ordered and Liquid-Disordered Phases

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Frank W.S.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jungwirth, Pavel; Hugel, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is important for the formation of microdomains in supported lipid bilayers and is enriched in the liquid-ordered phase. To understand the interactions leading to this enrichment, we developed an AFM-based single-lipid-extraction (SLX) approach that enables us to determine the anchoring strength of cholesterol in the two phases of a phase-separated lipid membrane. As expected, the forces necessary for extracting a single cholesterol molecule from liquid-ordered phases are significantly higher than for extracting it from the liquid-disordered phases. Interestingly, application of the Bell model shows two energy barriers that correlate with the head and full length of the cholesterol molecule. The resulting lifetimes for complete extraction are 90 s and 11 s in the liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations of the very same experiment show similar force profiles and indicate that the stabilization of cholesterol in the liquid-ordered phase is mainly due to nonpolar contacts. PMID:25185552

  1. Dispersion of a Nonwetting Liquid in a Disordered Nanoporous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borman, V. D.; Belogorlov, A. A.; Grekhov, A. M.; Tronin, V. N.; Alexeev, K. P.

    A dispersion transition in the Fluka 100 C8 and Fluka 100 C18 hydrophobic silica gels close in the structural characteristics has been studied. Nonlinear dependences of the volume of the trapped liquid on the degree of filling, which have not yet been observed at the interaction of nonwetting liquids with nanoporous media, have been revealed. Two critical temperatures Tc1 ≈ 330 K and Tc2 ≈ 340 K have been found for the Fluka 100 C18/water system. At a temperature above Tc1, a transition occurs at a degree of filling of 0.5 from the state of the system with a linear increase in the volume of the trapped liquid with the degree of filling to the state in which the dispersion transition occurs at a degree of filling of 0.5. At temperatures above Tc2, the fraction of the trapped liquid is small and independent of the temperature and degree of filling. When Fluka 100 C8 is filled with water, no abrupt change in the volume of the trapped liquid with an increase in the degree of filling has been detected in the temperature range under study T = 300-360 K. In this case, a linear increase in the volume of the trapped liquid with the degree of filling has been observed.

  2. Confirmation of sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and sulfadimethoxine residues in condensed milk and soft-cheese products by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clark, Susan B; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Madson, Mark R; Hurlbut, Jeffrey A; Kuck, Laura R; Sofos, John N

    2005-01-01

    A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method (LC/MS/MS) is described for the simultaneous detection of 3 sulfonamide drug residues at 1.25 ppb in condensed milk and soft-cheese products. The 3 sulfonamide drugs of interest are sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamethazine (SMZ), and sulfadimethoxine (SDM). The method includes extraction of the product with phosphate buffer, centrifugation of the diluted product, and application of a portion of the extract onto a polymeric solid-phase extraction cartridge. The cartridge is washed with water, and the sulfonamides are eluted with methanol. After evaporation, the residue is dissolved in 0.1% formic acid solution, and the solution is filtered before analysis by LC/MS/MS. The LC/MS/MS program involved a series of time-scheduled selected-reaction monitoring transitions. The transitions of MH+ to the common product ions at m/z 156, 108, and 92 were monitored for each residue. In addition, SMZ and SDM had a fourth significant and unique product ion transition that could be measured. Validation was performed with control and fortified-control condensed bovine milk with 2.5, 5, and 10 ppb sulfonamides. This method was applied to imported flavored and unflavored condensed milk and cream cheese bars. The presence of STZ and SMZ residues was confirmed in 3 out of 6 products.

  3. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of trace level condensation products formed between lactose and the amine-containing diuretic hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Harmon, P A; Yin, W; Bowen, W E; Tyrrell, R J; Reed, R A

    2000-07-01

    Trace levels of condensation products between lactose and the amine-containing diuretic hydrochlorothiazide are formed when a mixture of the two solids containing 30% weight water is heated at 60 degrees C for 2 weeks. The two most abundant condensation products were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy. Under these relatively mild conditions of formation, the amine-lactose reaction products are limited to those involving the elimination of only a single molecule of water, rather than the multiple-water eliminations associated with later stages of the Maillard reaction. The spectroscopic data clearly show that the primary condensation products are cyclic N-substituted glycosylamines rather than Schiff base, 1,2-enolic forms, or Amadori rearrangement products of identical mass. In solution, the two most abundant N-substituted glycosylamines are shown to be in a kinetically slow equilibrium with each other, most likely through a mutarotation involving the intermediate formation of the acyclic Schiff base.

  4. Analysis of the Pressure Rise in a Partially Filled Liquid Tank in Microgravity with Low Wall Heat Flux and Simultaneous Boiling and Condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments performed with Freon 113 in the space shuttle have shown that in a pro- cess of very slow heating, high liquid superheats can be sustained for a long period in microgravity. In a closed system explosive vaporization of superheated liquid resulted in pressure spikes of varying magnitudes. In this paper, we analyze the pressure rise in a partially lled closed tank in which a large vapor bubble (i.e., ullage) is initially present, and the liquid is subjected to a low wall heat ux. The liquid layer adjacent to the wall becomes superheated until the temperature for nucleation of the bubbles (or the incipience of boiling) is achieved. In the absence of the gravity-induced convection large quantities of superheated liquid can accumulate over time near the heated surface. Once the incipience temperature is attained, explosive boiling occurs and the vapor bubbles that are produced on the heater surface tend to quickly raise the tank pressure. The liquid-vapor saturation temperature increases as well. These two e ects tend to induce condensation of the large ullage bubble that is initially present, and tends to mitigate the tank pressure rise. As a result, the tank pressure is predicted to rise sharply, attain a maximum, and subsequently decay slowly. The predicted pressure rise is compared with experimental results obtained in the microgravity environments of the space shuttle for Freon 113. The analysis is appli- cable, in general to heating of liquid in closed containers in microgravity and to cryogenic fuel tanks, in particular where small heat leaks into the tank are unavoidable.

  5. Quantification of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography with atmospheric-pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Hou, Hongwei; Chen, Huan; Liu, Yong; Wang, An; Hu, Qingyuan

    2015-09-17

    A stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate was developed and validated. Compared with previously reported methods, this method has lower limits of detection (0.04-1.35 ng/cig). Additionally, the proposed method saves time, reduces the number of separation steps, and reduces the quantity of solvent needed. The new method was applied to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in 213 commercially available cigarettes in China, under the International Standardization Organization smoking regime and the Health Canadian intense smoking regime. The results showed that the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content was more than two times higher in samples from the Health Canadian intense smoking regime than in samples from the International Standardization Organization smoking regime (1189.23 vs. 2859.50 ng/cig, p<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) increased with labeled tar content in both of the tested smoking regimes. There was a positive correlation between total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under the International Standardization Organization smoking regime with that under the Health Canadian intense smoking regime. The proposed liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method is satisfactory for the rapid, sensitive, and accurately quantitative evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in cigarette smoke condensate, and it can be applied to assess potential health risks from smoking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: A Thin Liquid Film and Its Effects in an Atomic Force Microscopy Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing; Zheng, Zhi-Jun; Yu, Ji-Lin; Bai, Yi-Long

    2009-08-01

    Recently, it has been observed that a liquid film spreading on a sample surface will significantly distort atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. In order to elaborate on the effect, we establish an equation governing the deformation of liquid film under its interaction with the AFM tip and substrate. A key issue is the critical liquid bump height y0c, at which the liquid film jumps to contact the AFM tip. It is found that there are three distinct regimes in the variation of y0c with film thickness H, depending on Hamaker constants of tip, sample and liquid. Noticeably, there is a characteristic thickness H* physically defining what a thin film is; namely, once the film thickness H is the same order as H*, the effect of film thickness should be taken into account. The value of H* is dependent on Hamaker constants and liquid surface tension as well as tip radius.

  7. Glassy Dynamics in Geometrically Frustrated Coulomb Liquids without Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, Samiyeh; Rademaker, Louk; Ralko, Arnaud; Fratini, Simone; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    We show that introducing long-range Coulomb interactions immediately lifts the massive ground state degeneracy induced by geometric frustration for electrons on quarter-filled triangular lattices in the classical limit. Important consequences include the stabilization of a stripe-ordered crystalline (global) ground state, but also the emergence of very many low-lying metastable states with amorphous "stripe-glass" spatial structures. Melting of the stripe order thus leads to a frustrated Coulomb liquid at intermediate temperatures, showing remarkably slow (viscous) dynamics, with very long relaxation times growing in Arrhenius fashion upon cooling, as typical of strong glass formers. On shorter time scales, the system falls out of equilibrium and displays the aging phenomena characteristic of supercooled liquids above the glass transition. Our results show remarkable similarity with the recent observations of charge-glass behavior in ultraclean triangular organic materials of the θ -(BEDT -TTF )2 family.

  8. Condensation of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blander, M.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of current experimental results concerned with the kinetic constraints on chondrule formation showed that the major physical properties of chondrules could have been produced by direct condensation of metastable liquid silicates droplets from a hot gas in the primordial nebula. It is argued that such a condensation process would have to be followed by crystallization, accretion, and partial comminution of the droplets. The chemical mechanisms driving this process are described, including: nucleation constraints on comminution and crystallization; slow transformations and chemical reactions in chain silicates; and the slow diffusion of ions. It is shown that the physical mechanisms for chondrule condensation are applicable to a broad spectrum of chondrule sources.

  9. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Reverse Monte Carlo study on structural order in liquid and glassy AlFe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing-Xiang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Song, Xi-Gui; Bian, Xiu-Fang

    2009-11-01

    This paper reports that anomalous local order in liquid and glassy AlFeCe alloy has been detected by x-ray diffraction measurements. The addition of the element Ce has a great effect on this local structural order. The element Ce favours interpenetration of the icosahedra by sharing a common face and edges. It argues that frustration between this short-range order and the long-range crystalline order controls the glass-forming ability of these liquids. The obtained results suggest that a system having a stronger tendency to show local icosahedral order should be a better glass-former. This scenario also naturally explains the close relationship between the local icosahedral order in a liquid, glass-forming ability, and the nucleation barrier. Such topological local order has also been analysed directly using the reverse Monte Carlo method. It also estimated the fraction of local ordered and disordered structural units in a glassy AlFeCe alloy.

  10. Annealing, lattice disorder and non-Fermi liquid behavior in UCu4Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, C.H.; Scheidt, E.-W.; Killer, U.; Weber, A.; Kehrein, S.

    2002-07-30

    The magnetic and electronic properties of non-Fermi liquid UCu{sub 4Pd} depend on annealing conditions. Local structural changes due to this annealing are reported from UL{sub III}- and Pd K-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure measurements. In particular, annealing decreases the fraction of Pd atoms on nominally Cu 16e sites and the U-Cu pair-distance distribution width. This study provides quantitative information on the amount of disorder in UCu{sub 4Pd} and allows an assessment of its possible importance to the observed non-Fermi liquid behavior.

  11. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment is another investigation that examines the flow of a mixture of liquids and the vapors they produce when in contact with hot space system equipment. Coo...

  12. CONDENSATION CAN

    DOEpatents

    Booth, E.T. Jr.; Pontius, R.B.; Jacobsohn, B.A.; Slade, C.B.

    1962-03-01

    An apparatus is designed for condensing a vapor to a solid at relatively low back pressures. The apparatus comprises a closed condensing chamber, a vapor inlet tube extending to the central region of the chamber, a co-axial tubular shield surrounding the inlet tube, means for heating the inlet tube at a point outside the condensing chamber, and means for refrigeratirg the said chamber. (AEC)

  13. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Electron Dispersion in Liquid Alkali and Their Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2010-07-01

    Ashcroft's local empty core (EMC) model pseudopotential in the second-order perturbation theory is used to study the electron dispersion relation, the Fermi energy, and deviation in the Fermi energy from free electron value for the liquid alkali metals and their equiatomic binary alloys for the first time. In the present computation, the use of pseudo-alloy-atom model (PAA) is proposed and found successful. The influence of the six different forms of the local field correction functions proposed by Hartree (H), Vashishta-Singwi (VS), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F), and Sarkar et al. (S) on the aforesaid electronic properties is examined explicitly, which reflects the varying effects of screening. The depth of the negative hump in the electron dispersion of liquid alkalis decreases in the order Li → K, except for Rb and Cs, it increases. The results of alloys are in predictive nature.

  14. Heat diffusion in the disordered Fermi and electron liquids: the role of inelastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiete, Georg; Finkel'Stein, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We study thermal transport in the disordered Fermi and electron liquids at low temperatures. Gravitational potentials are used as sources for finding the heat density and its correlation function. For a comprehensive study, we extend the renormalization group (RG) analysis developed for electric transport by including the gravitational potentials into the RG scheme. The analysis reveals that for the disordered Fermi liquid the Wiedemann-Franz law remains valid even in the presence of quantum corrections caused by the interplay of diffusion modes and the electron-electron interaction. In the present scheme this fundamental relation is closely connected with a fixed point in the multi-parametric RG flow of the gravitational potentials. For the disordered electron liquid we additionally analyze inelastic processes induced by the Coulomb interaction at sub-temperature energies. While the general form of the correlation function has to be compatible with energy conservation, these inelastic processes are at the origin of logarithmic corrections violating the Wiedemann-Franz law. The interplay of various terms in the heat density-heat density correlation function therefore differs from that for densities of other conserved quantities, such as total number of particles or spin. A. F. and G. S. acknowledge support by the Alexander von Humboldt foundation. A.F. is supported by the National Science Foundation Grant NSF-DMR-1006752.

  15. Steam condensation and liquid hold-up in steam generator U-tubes during oscillatory natural circulation

    SciTech Connect

    De Santi, G.F.; Mayinger, F.

    1990-01-01

    In many accident scenarios, natural circulation is an important heat transport mechanism for long-term cooling of light water reactors. In the event of a small pipe break, with subsequent loss of primary cooling fluid loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), or under abnormal operating conditions, early tripping of the main coolant pumps can be actuated. Primary fluid flow will then progress from forced to natural convection. Understanding of the flow regimes and heat-removal mechanisms in the steam generators during the entire transient is of primary importance to safety analysis. Flow oscillations during two-phase natural circulation experiments for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) with inverted U-tube steam generators occur at high pressure and at a primary inventory range between two-phase circulation and reflex heat removal. This paper deals with the oscillatory flow behavior that was observed in the LOBI-MOD2 facility during the transition period between two-phase natural circulation and reflex condensation.

  16. Spin liquid and infinitesimal-disorder-driven cluster spin glass in the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Zimmer, F. M.; Magalhaes, S. G.

    2017-04-01

    The interplay between geometric frustration (GF) and bond disorder is studied in the Ising kagome lattice within a cluster approach. The model considers antiferromagnetic short-range couplings and long-range intercluster disordered interactions. The replica formalism is used to obtain an effective single cluster model from where the thermodynamics is analyzed by exact diagonalization. We found that the presence of GF can introduce cluster freezing at very low levels of disorder. The system exhibits an entropy plateau followed by a large entropy drop close to the freezing temperature. In this scenario, a spin-liquid (SL) behavior prevents conventional long-range order, but an infinitesimal disorder picks out uncompensated cluster states from the multi-degenerate SL regime, potentializing the intercluster-disordered coupling and bringing the cluster spin-glass state. To summarize, our results suggest that the SL state combined with low levels of disorder can activate small clusters, providing hypersensitivity to the freezing process in geometrically frustrated materials and playing a key role in the glassy stabilization. We propose that this physical mechanism could be present in several geometrically frustrated materials. In particular, we discuss our results in connection with the recent experimental investigations of the Ising kagome compound Co3Mg(OH)6Cl2.

  17. Spin liquid and infinitesimal-disorder-driven cluster spin glass in the kagome lattice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Zimmer, F M; Magalhaes, S G

    2017-04-26

    The interplay between geometric frustration (GF) and bond disorder is studied in the Ising kagome lattice within a cluster approach. The model considers antiferromagnetic short-range couplings and long-range intercluster disordered interactions. The replica formalism is used to obtain an effective single cluster model from where the thermodynamics is analyzed by exact diagonalization. We found that the presence of GF can introduce cluster freezing at very low levels of disorder. The system exhibits an entropy plateau followed by a large entropy drop close to the freezing temperature. In this scenario, a spin-liquid (SL) behavior prevents conventional long-range order, but an infinitesimal disorder picks out uncompensated cluster states from the multi-degenerate SL regime, potentializing the intercluster-disordered coupling and bringing the cluster spin-glass state. To summarize, our results suggest that the SL state combined with low levels of disorder can activate small clusters, providing hypersensitivity to the freezing process in geometrically frustrated materials and playing a key role in the glassy stabilization. We propose that this physical mechanism could be present in several geometrically frustrated materials. In particular, we discuss our results in connection with the recent experimental investigations of the Ising kagome compound Co3Mg(OH)6Cl2.

  18. Approaching many-body localization from disordered Luttinger liquids via the functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrasch, C.; Moore, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    We study the interplay of interactions and disorder in a one-dimensional fermion lattice coupled adiabatically to infinite reservoirs. We employ both the functional renormalization group (FRG) as well as matrix product state techniques, which serve as an accurate benchmark for small systems. Using the FRG, we compute the length- and temperature-dependence of the conductance averaged over 104 samples for lattices as large as 105 sites. We identify regimes in which non-Ohmic power law behavior can be observed and demonstrate that the corresponding exponents can be understood by adapting earlier predictions obtained perturbatively for disordered Luttinger liquids. In the presence of both disorder and isolated impurities, the conductance has a universal single-parameter scaling form. This lays the groundwork for an application of the functional renormalization group to the realm of many-body localization.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Rotational viscosity of a liquid crystal mixture: a fully atomistic molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ran; Peng, Zeng-Hui; Liu, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Xuan, Li

    2009-10-01

    Fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 293, 303 and 313 K have been performed for the four-component liquid crystal mixture, E7, using the software package Material Studio. Order parameters and orientational time correlation functions (TCFs) were calculated from MD trajectories. The rotational viscosity coefficients (RVCs) of the mixture were calculated using the Nemtsov-Zakharov and Fialkowski methods based on statistical-mechanical approaches. Temperature dependences of RVC and density were discussed in detail. Reasonable agreement between the simulated and experimental values was found.

  20. Immune globulin (human) 10 % liquid: a review of its use in primary immunodeficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2013-08-01

    Human immune globulin (IG) 10 % liquid (Gammagard Liquid®) is a ready-to-use, highly purified, and concentrated immunoglobulin (Ig)G solution approved in the US for both intravenous and subcutaneous antibody replacement therapy in patients aged ≥ 2 years with primary humoral immunodeficiency. Intravenous IG 10 % liquid every 3-4 weeks for ≥ 12 months, at median serum IgG trough levels of 9.6-11.2 g/L, completely prevented acute serious bacterial infections (SBIs) in a phase III clinical trial. Weekly subcutaneous IG 10 % liquid at a dose equal to 137 % of the equivalent weekly intravenous dose, which was earlier determined to produce the same IgG exposure, produced higher serum trough IgG levels and lower peak IgG levels than intravenous administration, and also effectively reduced SBIs; the infection rate was 0.067 SBIs/subject/year, which met the US FDA efficacy criterion of < 1 SBI/subject/year. The rates for non-serious infections of any kind were low for both intravenous and subcutaneous therapy. Both intravenous and subcutaneous IG 10 % liquid were safe and generally well tolerated. Systemic adverse reactions were more frequent with intravenous therapy and local infusion-site reactions were more frequent with subcutaneous therapy, but the latter reduced over time. Most adverse reactions were of mild or moderate intensity. Thus, IG 10 % liquid is an effective and generally well-tolerated preparation for both intravenous and subcutaneous IgG replacement therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders involving antibody deficiency. It offers the benefits of a ready-to-use, liquid preparation and the convenience of home-based therapy in appropriate patients.

  1. Liquid Disordered-Liquid Ordered Phase Coexistence in Lipid/Cholesterol Mixtures: A Deuterium 2D NMR Exchange Study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Miranda L; Davis, James H

    2017-02-28

    Model membranes composed of two types of long chain phospholipids, one unsaturated and one saturated, along with cholesterol can exhibit two coexisting fluid phases (liquid disordered ([Formula: see text]) and liquid ordered ([Formula: see text])) at various temperatures and compositions. Here we used 1D and 2D (2)H NMR to compare the behavior of multilamellar dispersions, magnetically oriented bicelles, and mechanically aligned bilayers on glass plates, all of which contain the same proportions of dipalmitoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DPoPC), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), and cholesterol. We found that multilamellar dispersions and bilayers aligned on glass plates behave very similarly. These samples were close to a critical composition and exhibit exchange of the lipids between the two fluid phases at temperatures near the [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] phase boundary. On the other hand, when a short chain lipid is added to the ternary long chain lipid/cholesterol mixture to form bicelles, the phase behavior is changed significantly and the [Formula: see text] phase occurs at a higher than expected temperature. In addition, there was no evidence of exchange of lipids between the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] phases or critical fluctuations at the temperature where the bulk of the sample enters the two-phase region for these bicelles. It appears that the addition of the short chain lipid results in these samples no longer being near a critical composition.

  2. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Transient Reorientation of a Doped Liquid Crystal System under a Short Laser Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Xiang, Ying; Liu, Yi-Kun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Shun-Lin

    2009-08-01

    The transient optical nonlinearity of a nematic liquid crystal doped with azo-dye DR19 is examined. The optical reorientation threshold of a 25-μm-thick planar-aligned sample of 5CB using a 50 ns pulse duration 532 nm YAG laser pulse is observed to decrease from 800 mJ/mm2 to 0.6 mJ/mm2 after the addition of 1 vol% azo dopant, a reduction of three orders of magnitude. When using a laser pulse duration of 10 ns, no such effect is observed. Experimental results indicate that the azo dopant molecules undergo photoisomerization from trans-isomer to cis-isomer under exposure to light, and this conformation change reorients the 5CB molecules via intermolecular coupling between guest and host. This guest-host coupling also affects the azo photoisomerization process.

  3. Disorder-Induced Revival of the Bose-Einstein Condensation in Ni (Cl1 -xBrx )2-4 SC (NH2 )2 at High Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Maxime; Capponi, Sylvain; Laflorencie, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Building on recent NMR experiments [A. Orlova et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 067203 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.067203], we theoretically investigate the high magnetic field regime of the disordered quasi-one-dimensional S =1 antiferromagnetic material Ni (Cl1 -xBrx )2-4 SC (NH2 )2 . The interplay between disorder, chemically controlled by Br-doping, interactions, and the external magnetic field, leads to a very rich phase diagram. Beyond the well-known antiferromagnetically ordered regime, an analog of a Bose condensate of magnons, which disappears when H ≥12.3 T , we unveil a resurgence of phase coherence at a higher field H ˜13.6 T , induced by the doping. Interchain couplings stabilize the finite temperature long-range order whose extension in the field—temperature space is governed by the concentration of impurities x . Such a "minicondensation" contrasts with previously reported Bose-glass physics in the same regime and should be accessible to experiments.

  4. Super-Potts glass: A disordered model for glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a disordered system, the super-Potts model, which is a more frustrated version of the Potts glass. Its elementary degrees of freedom are variables that can take M values and are coupled via pairwise interactions. Its exact solution on a completely connected lattice demonstrates that, for large enough M , it belongs to the class of mean-field systems solved by a one-step replica symmetry breaking ansatz. Numerical simulations by the parallel tempering technique show that in three dimensions it displays a phenomenological behavior similar to the one of glass-forming liquids. The super-Potts glass is therefore a disordered model allowing one to perform extensive and detailed studies of the random first-order transition in finite dimensions. We also discuss its behavior for small values of M , which is similar to the one of spin glasses in a field.

  5. Fast and Slow Dynamics in a Discotic Liquid Crystal with Regions of Columnar Order and Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, M. R.; Feng, X.; Macho, V.; Müllen, K.; Spiess, H. W.; Floudas, G.

    2011-12-01

    Aromatic disk-shaped molecules tend to self-organize into a herringbone packing where the disks are inclined at angles ±θ with respect to the axis of the column. In discotic liquid crystals this can introduce defects between stacks of limited length. In a C3-symmetric hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene, solid-state NMR, x-ray scattering, and rheology identifies such a packing with θ=43° and stacks of about seven disks. Disordered regions containing defects fill the space in between the ordered stacks. Biaxial intra- and intercolumnar dynamics differing by eight decades are identified.

  6. Fast and slow dynamics in a discotic liquid crystal with regions of columnar order and disorder.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M R; Feng, X; Macho, V; Müllen, K; Spiess, H W; Floudas, G

    2011-12-16

    Aromatic disk-shaped molecules tend to self-organize into a herringbone packing where the disks are inclined at angles ±θ with respect to the axis of the column. In discotic liquid crystals this can introduce defects between stacks of limited length. In a C(3)-symmetric hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene, solid-state NMR, x-ray scattering, and rheology identifies such a packing with θ=43° and stacks of about seven disks. Disordered regions containing defects fill the space in between the ordered stacks. Biaxial intra- and intercolumnar dynamics differing by eight decades are identified.

  7. Gramicidin Peptides Alter Global Lipid Compositions and Bilayer Thicknesses of Coexisting Liquid-Ordered and Liquid-Disordered Membrane Domains.

    PubMed

    Hassan-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2017-04-04

    Effects of adding 1 mol % of gramicidin-A on the biochemical properties of coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered (Lo + Ld) membrane domains were investigated. Quaternary giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) of di18:1PC(DOPC)/di18:0PC(DSPC)/cholesterol/gramicidin-A were prepared using our recently developed damp-film method. The phase boundary of Lo + Ld coexisting region was determined using video fluorescence microscopy. Through fitting Nile Red fluorescence emission spectra, the thermodynamic tie-lines in the Lo + Ld two-phase region were determined. We found that at 1 mol % (i.e., ∼7% of membrane area), gramicidin peptides alter the phase boundary and thermodynamic tie-lines. Gramicidin abolishes the coexisting phases at some lipid compositions but induces phase separation at others. Previous studies of gramicidin emphasize the local perturbation of bilayer thickness adjacent to the protein through the interaction of "hydrophobic mismatch". For the first time, it becomes clear that adding gramicidin produces significant long-range and global effects on the structure of membrane domains: it alters the overall lipid compositions and bilayer thicknesses of coexisting Lo and Ld domains. We also found that gramicidin partitions favorably into the Ld phase. Adding gramicidin decreases cholesterol in the Ld phase and increases cholesterol in the Lo phase. Those compositional changes broaden the bilayer thickness difference between Lo and Ld domains and facilitate preferential partition of gramicidin into thinner Ld domains. Our results demonstrate that membrane proteins play significant roles in determining lipid compositions and bilayer thicknesses of biomembrane domains.

  8. Solidification fronts in supercooled liquids: how rapid fronts can lead to disordered glassy solids.

    PubMed

    Archer, A J; Robbins, M J; Thiele, U; Knobloch, E

    2012-09-01

    We determine the speed of a crystallization (or, more generally, a solidification) front as it advances into the uniform liquid phase after the system has been quenched into the crystalline region of the phase diagram. We calculate the front speed by assuming a dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) model for the system and applying a marginal stability criterion. Our results also apply to phase field crystal (PFC) models of solidification. As the solidification front advances into the unstable liquid phase, the density profile behind the advancing front develops density modulations and the wavelength of these modulations is a dynamically chosen quantity. For shallow quenches, the selected wavelength is precisely that of the crystalline phase and so well-ordered crystalline states are formed. However, when the system is deeply quenched, we find that this wavelength can be quite different from that of the crystal, so the solidification front naturally generates disorder in the system. Significant rearrangement and aging must subsequently occur for the system to form the regular well-ordered crystal that corresponds to the free energy minimum. Additional disorder is introduced whenever a front develops from random initial conditions. We illustrate these findings with simulation results obtained using the PFC model.

  9. Anomalously slow relaxation of a nonwetting liquid in the disordered confinement of a nanoporous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, V. D.; Belogorlov, A. A.; Zhuromskii, V. M.; Tronin, V. N.

    2015-12-15

    The time evolution of the water–disordered nanoporous medium Libersorb 23 (L23) system has been studied after complete filling at elevated pressure followed by full release of overpressure. It is established that relaxation of the L23 rapidly flows out during the overpressure relief time, following the variation in pressure. At a temperature below that of the dispersion transition (T < T{sub d} = 284 K), e.g., at T = 277 K, the degree of filling θ decreases from 1 to 0.8 within 10 s. The degree of filling varies with time according to the power law θ ∼ t{sup –α} with the exponent α < 0.1 over a period of t ∼ 10{sup 5} s. This process corresponds to slow relaxation of a metastable state of a nonwetting liquid in a porous medium. At times t > 10{sup 5} s, the metastable state exhibits decay, manifested as the transition to a power dependence of θ(t) with a larger exponent. The relaxation of the metastable state of nonwetting liquid in a disordered porous medium is described in the mean field approximation as a continuous sequence of metastable states with a barrier decreasing upon a decrease in the degree of filling. Using this approach, it is possible to qualitatively explain the observed relaxation process and crossover transition to the stage described by θ(t) with a larger exponent.

  10. Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, M. V.; Odinokov, A. V.; Titov, S. V.; Mitina, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode/medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems.

  11. Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: the microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices.

    PubMed

    Basilevsky, M V; Odinokov, A V; Titov, S V; Mitina, E A

    2013-12-21

    postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode∕medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems.

  12. Condensation polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Polyimides belong to a class of polymers known as polyheterocyclics. Unlike most other high temperature polymers, polyimides can be prepared from a variety of inexpensive monomers by several synthetic routes. The glass transition and crystalline melt temperature, thermooxidative stability, toughness, dielectric constant, coefficient of thermal expansion, chemical stability, mechanical performance, etc. of polyimides can be controlled within certain boundaries. This versatility has permitted the development of various forms of polyimides. These include adhesives, composite matrices, coatings, films, moldings, fibers, foams and membranes. Polyimides are synthesized through both condensation (step-polymerization) and addition (chain growth polymerization) routes. The precursor materials used in addition polyimides or imide oligomers are prepared by condensation method. High molecular weight polyimide made via polycondensation or step-growth polymerization is studied. The various synthetic routes to condensation polyimides, structure/property relationships of condensation polyimides and composite properties of condensation polyimides are all studied. The focus is on the synthesis and chemical structure/property relationships of polyimides with particular emphasis on materials for composite application.

  13. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  14. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  15. Determination of patterns of biologically relevant aldehydes in exhaled breath condensate of healthy subjects by liquid chromatography/atmospheric chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Roberta; Manini, Paola; Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of several classes of aldehydes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was developed using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS). EBC is a biological matrix obtained by a relatively new, simple and noninvasive technique and provides an indirect assessment of pulmonary status. The measurement of aldehydes in EBC represents a biomarker of the effect of oxidative stress caused by smoke, disease, or strong oxidants like ozone. Malondialdehyde (MDA), acrolein, α,β-unsaturated hydroxylated aldehydes [namely 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)], and saturated aldehydes (n-hexanal, n-heptanal and n-nonanal) were measured in EBC after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes was obtained in positiveion mode for MDA, and in negativeion mode for acrolein, 4-HHE, 4-HNE, and saturated aldehydes. DNPH derivatives were separated on a C18 column using variable proportions of 20 mM aqueous acetic acid and methanol. Linearity was established over 4–5 orders of magnitude and limits of detection were in the 0.3–1.0 nM range. Intra-day and inter-day precision were in the 1.3–9.9% range for all the compounds. MDA, acrolein and n-alkanals were detectable in all EBC samples, whereas the highly reactive 4-HHE and 4-HNE were found in only a few samples. Statistically significant higher concentrations of MDA, acrolein and n-hexanal were found in EBC from smokers. PMID:12661015

  16. Condensed Matter Theories - Volume 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Röpke, Gerd; de Llano, Manuel

    2007-09-01

    pt. A. Fermi liquids. Pressure comparison between the spherical cellular model and the Thomas-Fermi model / G.A. Baker, Jr. Pair excitations and vertex corrections in Fermi fluids and the dynamic structure function of two-dimension 3He / H.M. Böhm, H. Godfrin, E. Krotscheck, H.J. Lauter, M. Meschke and M. Panholzer. Condensation of helium in wedges / E.S. Hernádez ... [et al.]. Non-Fermi liquid behavior from the Fermi-liquid approach / V.A. Khodel ... [et al.]. Theory of third sound and stability of thin 3He-4He superfluid films / E. Krotscheck and M.D. Miller. Pairing in asymmetrical Fermi systems / K.F. Quader and R. Liao. Ground-state properties of small 3He drops from quantum Monte Carlo simulations / E. Sola, J. Casulleras and J. Boronat. Ground-state energy and compressibility of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas / Tanatar ... [et al.]. Quasiexcitons in photoluminescence of incompressible quantum liquids / A. Wójs, A.G ladysiewicz and J.J. Quinn -- pt. B. Bose liquids. Quantum Boltzmann liquids / K.A. Gernoth, M L. Ristig and T. Lindenau. Condensate fraction in the dynamic structure function of Bose fluids / M. Saarela, F. Mazzanti and V. Apaja -- pt. C. Strongly-correlated electronic systems. Electron gas in high-field nanoscopic transport: metallic carbon nanotubes / F. Green and D. Neilson. Evolution and destruction of the Kondo effect in a capacitively coupled double dot system / D.E. Logan and M.R. Galpin. The method of increments-a wavefunction-based Ab-Initio correlation method for solids / B. Paulus. Fractionally charged excitations on frustrated lattices / E. Runge, F. Pollmann and P. Fulde. 5f Electrons in actinides: dual nature and photoemission spectra / G. Zwicknagl -- pt. D. Magnetism. Magnetism in disordered two-dimensional Kondo-Necklace / W. Brenig. On the de Haas-can Alphen oscillation in 2D / S. Fujita and D.L. Morabito. Dynamics in one-dimensional spin systems-density matrix reformalization group study / S. Nishimoto and M

  17. Effect of nonmagnetic disorder on criticality in the dirty U(1) spin liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki-Seok

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the effect of nonmagnetic disorder on the stability of the algebraic spin liquid (ASL) by deriving an effective field theory, nonlinear {sigma} model (NL{sigma}M). We find that the anomalous critical exponent characterizing the criticality of the ASL causes an anomalous gradient in the NL{sigma}M. We show that the sign of the anomalous gradient exponent or the critical exponent of the ASL determines the stability of the 'dirty' ASL. A positive exponent results in an unstable fixed point separating delocalized and localized phases, which is consistent with our previous study [Phys. Rev. B 70, 140405 (2004)]. We find power-law suppression for the density of spinon states in contrast to the logarithmic correction in the free Dirac theory. On the other hand, a negative exponent destabilizes the ASL, causing the Anderson localization. We discuss the implication of our study in the pseudogap phase of high T{sub c} cuprates.

  18. Effects of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles on precipitation processes and supercooled liquid in mixed-phase orographic clouds

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; ...

    2017-01-23

    How orographic mixed-phase clouds respond to the change in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INPs) are highly uncertain. The main snow production mechanism in warm and cold mixed-phase orographic clouds (referred to as WMOCs and CMOCs, respectively, distinguished here as those having cloud tops warmer and colder than −20 °C) could be very different. We quantify the CCN and INP impacts on supercooled water content, cloud phases, and precipitation for a WMOC case and a CMOC case, with sensitivity tests using the same CCN and INP concentrations between the WMOC and CMOC cases. It was found that depositionmore » plays a more important role than riming for forming snow in the CMOC case, while the role of riming is dominant in the WMOC case. As expected, adding CCN suppresses precipitation, especially in WMOCs and low INPs. However, this reverses strongly for CCN of 1000 cm−3 and larger. We found a new mechanism through which CCN can invigorate mixed-phase clouds over the Sierra Nevada and drastically intensify snow precipitation when CCN concentrations are high (1000 cm−3 or higher). In this situation, more widespread shallow clouds with a greater amount of cloud water form in the Central Valley and foothills west of the mountain range. The increased latent heat release associated with the formation of these clouds strengthens the local transport of moisture to the windward slope, invigorating mixed-phase clouds over the mountains, and thereby producing higher amounts of snow precipitation. Under all CCN conditions, increasing the INPs leads to decreased riming and mixed-phase fraction in the CMOC as a result of liquid-limited conditions, but has the opposite effects in the WMOC as a result of ice-limited conditions. However, precipitation in both cases is increased by increasing INPs due to an increase in deposition for the CMOC but enhanced riming and deposition in the WMOC. Increasing the INPs dramatically reduces

  19. Endogenous Levels of Five Fatty Acid Metabolites in Exhaled Breath Condensate to Monitor Asthma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nording, Malin L.; Yang, Jun; Hegedus, Christine M.; Bhushan, Abhinav; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Davis, Cristina E.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Airway inflammation characterizing asthma and other airway diseases may be monitored through biomarker analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). In an attempt to discover novel EBC biomarkers, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used to analyze EBC from ten control non-asthmatics and one asthmatic individual for five fatty acid metabolites: 9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (9,12,13-TriHOME), 9,10,13-TriHOME, 12,13-dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (12,13-DiHOME), 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), and 12(13)-epoxyoctadecenoic acid (12(13)-EpOME). The method was shown to be sensitive, with an on-column limit of quatitation (LOQ) in the pg range (corresponding to pM concentrations in EBC), and linear over several orders of magnitude for each analyte in the calibrated range. Analysis of EBC spiked with the five fatty acid metabolites was within 81%–119% with only a few exceptions. Endogenous levels in EBC exhibited intra- and inter-assay precision of 10%–22%, and 12%–36%, respectively. EBC from the healthy subjects contained average analyte levels between 15 and 180 pM with 12-HETE present above the LOQ in only one of the subjects at a concentration of 240 pM. Exposure of the asthmatic subject to allergen led to increased EBC concentrations of 9,12,13-TriHOME, 9,10,13-TriHOME, 12,13-DiHOME, and 12(13)-EpOME when compared to levels in EBC collected prior to allergen exposure (range =40–510 pM). 12,13-DiHOME was significantly increased (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). In conclusion, we have developed a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the analysis of five fatty acid metabolites in EBC, which are potential biomarkers for asthma monitoring and diagnosis. PMID:21103452

  20. Effects of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles on precipitation processes and supercooled liquid in mixed-phase orographic clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; DeMott, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    How orographic mixed-phase clouds respond to the change in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INPs) are highly uncertain. The main snow production mechanism in warm and cold mixed-phase orographic clouds (referred to as WMOCs and CMOCs, respectively, distinguished here as those having cloud tops warmer and colder than -20°C) could be very different. We quantify the CCN and INP impacts on supercooled water content, cloud phases, and precipitation for a WMOC case and a CMOC case, with sensitivity tests using the same CCN and INP concentrations between the WMOC and CMOC cases. It was found that deposition plays a more important role than riming for forming snow in the CMOC case, while the role of riming is dominant in the WMOC case. As expected, adding CCN suppresses precipitation, especially in WMOCs and low INPs. However, this reverses strongly for CCN of 1000 cm-3 and larger. We found a new mechanism through which CCN can invigorate mixed-phase clouds over the Sierra Nevada and drastically intensify snow precipitation when CCN concentrations are high (1000 cm-3 or higher). In this situation, more widespread shallow clouds with a greater amount of cloud water form in the Central Valley and foothills west of the mountain range. The increased latent heat release associated with the formation of these clouds strengthens the local transport of moisture to the windward slope, invigorating mixed-phase clouds over the mountains, and thereby producing higher amounts of snow precipitation. Under all CCN conditions, increasing the INPs leads to decreased riming and mixed-phase fraction in the CMOC as a result of liquid-limited conditions, but has the opposite effects in the WMOC as a result of ice-limited conditions. However, precipitation in both cases is increased by increasing INPs due to an increase in deposition for the CMOC but enhanced riming and deposition in the WMOC. Increasing the INPs dramatically reduces

  1. Effects of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles on precipitation processes and supercooled liquid in mixed-phase orographic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; DeMott, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    How orographic mixed-phase clouds respond to the change in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INPs) are highly uncertain. The main snow production mechanism in warm and cold mixed-phase orographic clouds (referred to as WMOCs and CMOCs, respectively, distinguished here as those having cloud tops warmer and colder than -20 °C) could be very different. We quantify the CCN and INP impacts on supercooled water content, cloud phases, and precipitation for a WMOC case and a CMOC case, with sensitivity tests using the same CCN and INP concentrations between the WMOC and CMOC cases. It was found that deposition plays a more important role than riming for forming snow in the CMOC case, while the role of riming is dominant in the WMOC case. As expected, adding CCN suppresses precipitation, especially in WMOCs and low INPs. However, this reverses strongly for CCN of 1000 cm-3 and larger. We found a new mechanism through which CCN can invigorate mixed-phase clouds over the Sierra Nevada and drastically intensify snow precipitation when CCN concentrations are high (1000 cm-3 or higher). In this situation, more widespread shallow clouds with a greater amount of cloud water form in the Central Valley and foothills west of the mountain range. The increased latent heat release associated with the formation of these clouds strengthens the local transport of moisture to the windward slope, invigorating mixed-phase clouds over the mountains, and thereby producing higher amounts of snow precipitation. Under all CCN conditions, increasing the INPs leads to decreased riming and mixed-phase fraction in the CMOC as a result of liquid-limited conditions, but has the opposite effects in the WMOC as a result of ice-limited conditions. However, precipitation in both cases is increased by increasing INPs due to an increase in deposition for the CMOC but enhanced riming and deposition in the WMOC. Increasing the INPs dramatically reduces supercooled water content and

  2. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    PubMed

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  3. Film condensation in a horizontal rectangular duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Qing; Suryanarayana, N. V.

    1992-01-01

    Condensation heat transfer in an annular flow regime with and without interfacial waves was experimentally investigated. The study included measurements of heat transfer rate with condensation of vapor flowing inside a horizontal rectangular duct and experiments on the initiation of interfacial waves in condensation, and adiabatic air-liquid flow. An analytical model for the condensation was developed to predict condensate film thickness and heat transfer coefficients. Some conclusions drawn from the study are that the condensate film thickness was very thin (less than 0.6 mm). The average heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing the inlet vapor velocity. The local heat transfer coefficient decreased with the axial distance of the condensing surface, with the largest change at the leading edge of the test section. The interfacial shear stress, which consisted of the momentum shear stress and the adiabatic shear stress, appeared to have a significant effect on the heat transfer coefficients. In the experiment, the condensate flow along the condensing surface experienced a smooth flow, a two-dimensional wavy flow, and a three-dimensional wavy flow. In the condensation experiment, the local wave length decreased with the axial distance of the condensing surface and the average wave length decreased with increasing inlet vapor velocity, while the wave speed increased with increasing vapor velocity. The heat transfer measurements are reliable. And, the ultrasonic technique was effective for measuring the condensate film thickness when the surface was smooth or had waves of small amplitude.

  4. Condensed Plasmas under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Konopka, U.; Rothermel, H.; Zuzic, M.; Ivlev, A.; Goree, J.; Rogers, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Experiments under microgravity conditions were carried out to study 'condensed' (liquid and crystalline) states of a colloidal plasma (ions, electrons, and charged microspheres). Systems with approximately 10(exp 6) microspheres were produced. The observed systems represent new forms of matter--quasineutral, self-organized plasmas--the properties of which are largely unexplored. In contrast to laboratory measurements, the systems under microgravity are clearly three dimensional (as expected); they exhibit stable vortex flows, sometimes adjacent to crystalline regions, and a central 'void,' free of microspheres.

  5. Demonstration of Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, RIchard; Tang, Linh; Wambolt, Spencer; Golliher, Eric; Agui, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a proof of concept effort for development of a Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser (NCCC or NC3) used for microgravity compatible water recovery from moist air with integral passive phase separation. Removal of liquid condensate from the air stream exiting a condenser is readily performed here on Earth. In order to perform this function in space however, without gravity or mechanical action, other tactics including utilization of inertial, drag and capillary forces are required. Within the NC3, liquid water forms via condensation on cold condenser surfaces as humid air passes along multiple spiral channels, each in its own plane, all together forming a stacked plate assembly. Non-mechanical inertial forces are employed to transfer condensate, as it forms, via centripetal action to the outer perimeter of each channel. A V-shaped groove, constructed on this outer edge of the spiral channel, increases local capillary forces thereby retaining the liquid. Air drag then pulls the liquid along to a collection region near the center of the device. Dry air produced by each parallel spiral channel is combined in a common orthogonal, out-of-plane conduit passing down the axial center of the stacked device. Similarly, the parallel condensate streams are combined and removed from the condenser/separator through yet another out-of-plane axial conduit. NC3 is an integration of conventional finned condenser operation, combined with static phase separation and capillary transport phenomena. A Mars' transit mission would be a logical application for this technology where gravity is absent and the use of vibrating, energy-intensive, motor-driven centrifugal separators is undesired. Here a vapor stream from either the Heat Melt Compactor or the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly, for example, would be dried to a dew point of 10 deg using a passive NC3 condenser/separator with the precious water condensate recycled to the water bus.

  6. Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation

    DOEpatents

    Blume, Ingo; Baker, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

  7. Tilt orientationally disordered hexagonal columnar phase of phthalocyanine discotic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneya, Makoto; Makabe, Takayoshi; Miyamoto, Ayano; Shimizu, Yo; Miyake, Yasuo; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2014-06-01

    The structures of the discotic liquid crystalline (LC) phase of metal-free octa-substituted phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives were investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Special attention was paid to the LC phase structure of the non-peripheral octa-hexyl substituted Pc-derivatives that were recently found to show very high carrier mobilities for the discotic LCs. We obtained spontaneous transition to the columnar hexagonal (Colh) LC phase in a melting simulation from the crystal structure obtained using an x-ray diffraction study. In this simulated Colh structure, the Pc-core normal vectors were tilted 47∘ from the column axis in parallel within each column, but the tilting directions are disordered between columns. We also found that the inter-core distance was not as large as previously suggested (0.4-0.5 nm) but similar to the common value (0.36 nm). This may resolve the contradiction between the high carrier mobility of the non-peripheral substituted Pcs, because larger inter-core separations degrade the mobilities.

  8. Ordered and Disordered Polymerized Ionic Liquid Block Copolymers: Morphology and Ionic Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sharon; Ye, Yuesheng; Elabd, Yossef; Winey, Karen

    2013-03-01

    We systematically studied the influence of temperature and relative humidity on morphology and ionic conductivity in polymerized ionic liquid block copolymers (PIL BCP). Poly(methyl methacrylate- b-1-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-3-butylimidazolium-X-) block copolymers (X- = OH-, Br-) were characterized by SAXS, dynamical mechanical analysis, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. At 25 °C, weak microphase separation was observed for the PIL BCP with ϕPIL = 0.38 and X- = OH-. Upon increasing the relative humidity to 90%, this polymer exhibited an order-disorder transition (ODT). The ODT was further studied in the PIL BCPs with X- = OH- and 0.11 <ϕPIL <0.38 over a range of temperatures and %RH. In contrast, the PIL BCP with ϕPIL = 0.38 and X- = Br- formed strongly microphase separated lamellae at all investigated T and %RH. At elevated temperature and 90 %RH, ionic conductivities of 30 and 6 mS/cm were observed for ϕPIL = 0.38 and X- = OH- and Br-, respectively, surpassing the conductivities of the corresponding PIL homopolymer. By selecting the counterion and relative humidity, we significantly impact the morphology and ionic conductivity of these PIL block copolymers.

  9. Segregation by Complementarity of nanoDNA based on Liquid Crystal Ordering and Centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory; Tsai, Ethan; Robins, T.; Khodaghulyan, Armond; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Fraccia, Tommaso; Bellini, Tommaso; Walba, David; Clark, Noel

    2012-02-01

    Nanometer length DNA segments ( <20 base pair long) that are complementary can duplex and condense to make liquid crystal phases at concentrations >˜500 mg/mL This nanoDNA duplexing combined with order-disorder phase separation offers a means of sequestering molecules in mixtures of different DNA sequences based on their degree of complementarity. Here we show that isotropic and liquid crystalline phases, comprising respectively single strands and duplexes in multi-component nanoDNA solutions, can be physically separated by liquid crystal condensation followed by centrifugation.

  10. Polarization (ellipsometric) measurements of liquid condensate deposition and evaporation rates and dew points in flowing salt/ash-containing combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, K.; Rosner, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    An application of an optical polarization technique in a combustion environment is demonstrated by following, in real-time, growth rates of boric oxide condensate on heated platinum ribbons exposed to seeded propane-air combustion gases. The results obtained agree with the results of earlier interference measurements and also with theoretical chemical vapor deposition predictions. In comparison with the interference method, the polarization technique places less stringent requirements on surface quality, which may justify the added optical components needed for such measurements.

  11. Evaluation of Efficacy of Herbal Intrauterine Infusion Uterofix Liquid in Treatment of Various Reproductive Disorders in Cows: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Satinder; Choudhary, Adarsh; Maini, Shivi; Ravikanth, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Materials and Methods: Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat breeder cows, Group T2 (n = 5) endometritis effected cows, Group T3 (n = 5) anoestrus cows, and Group T4 (n = 5) metritis suffered cows were treated with Uterofix liquid (25 ml as intrauterine infusion once a day for 3–5 days). Total observational period was 60 days. Number of treatments needed, nature of discharge in first posttreatment estrus (physical examination), after treatment number of animal showing heat/estrus out of total treated, and posttreatment conception rate were used as criteria to judge the success or failure of treatment. Results: Results revealed that 18 out of 20 animals (90%) showed signs of heat with clear discharge, recovered completely without causing any irritation, or severe irritation/sloughing of genital mucous membrane after Uterofix liquid treatment. Conclusion: Herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid significantly treated the uterine infections in cows. SUMMARY Uterine infection is a major problem in reproductive management. A wide variety of genital tract diseases of female domestic animals are known to produce significant losses and responsible for poor fertility. Amongst these highly prevalent are metritis and repeat breeding in high-producing dairy cows which if remains untreated are associated with low conception rate per artificial insemination (AI), extended interval to pregnancy, increased culling, and economic losses. As herbal remedy the Uterofix liquid (Ayurvet Limited, India) was highly efficacious as an intrauterine infusion

  12. Molecular dynamics study on condensation/evaporation coefficients of chain molecules at liquid–vapor interface

    SciTech Connect

    Nagayama, Gyoko Takematsu, Masaki; Mizuguchi, Hirotaka; Tsuruta, Takaharu

    2015-07-07

    The structure and thermodynamic properties of the liquid–vapor interface are of fundamental interest for numerous technological implications. For simple molecules, e.g., argon and water, the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior depends strongly on their translational motion and the system temperature. Existing molecular dynamics (MD) results are consistent with the theoretical predictions based on the assumption that the liquid and vapor states in the vicinity of the liquid–vapor interface are isotropic. Additionally, similar molecular condensation/evaporation characteristics have been found for long-chain molecules, e.g., dodecane. It is unclear, however, whether the isotropic assumption is valid and whether the molecular orientation or the chain length of the molecules affects the condensation/evaporation behavior at the liquid–vapor interface. In this study, MD simulations were performed to study the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior of the straight-chain alkanes, i.e., butane, octane, and dodecane, at the liquid–vapor interface, and the effects of the molecular orientation and chain length were investigated in equilibrium systems. The results showed that the condensation/evaporation behavior of chain molecules primarily depends on the molecular translational energy and the surface temperature and is independent of the molecular chain length. Furthermore, the orientation at the liquid–vapor interface was disordered when the surface temperature was sufficiently higher than the triple point and had no significant effect on the molecular condensation/evaporation behavior. The validity of the isotropic assumption was confirmed, and we conclude that the condensation/evaporation coefficients can be predicted by the liquid-to-vapor translational length ratio, even for chain molecules.

  13. Anomalously slow relaxation of the system of strongly interacting liquid clusters in a disordered nanoporous medium: Self-organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borman, V. D.; Tronin, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that changes in the energy of a system of nonwetting liquid clusters confined in a random nanoporous medium in the process of relaxation can be written in the quasiparticle approximation in the form of the sum of the energies of local (metastable) configurations of liquid clusters interacting with clusters in the connected nearest pores. The energy spectrum and density of states of the local configuration have been calculated. It has been shown that the relaxation of the state of the system occurs through the scenario of self-organized criticality (SOC). The process is characterized by the expectation of a fluctuation necessary for overcoming a local energy barrier of the metastable state with the subsequent rapid hydrodynamic extrusion of the liquid under the action of the surface buoyancy forces of the nonwetting framework. In this case, the dependence of the interaction between local configurations on the number of filled pores belonging to the infinite percolation cluster of filled pores serves as an internal feedback initiating the SOC process. The calculations give a power-law time dependence of the relative volume of the confined liquid θ ∼t-α(α ∼ 0.1) . The developed model of the relaxation of the porous medium with the nonwetting liquid demonstrates possible mechanisms and scenarios of SOC for disordered atomic systems.

  14. The effect of dependence between vapor heat capacity, specific heat of evaporation-condensation of irrigating liquid and temperature on thermodynamic parameters of processes gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khromova, Helen; Oparina, Irene

    2014-08-01

    The results of parameters calculations of the vapor-gas flow and droplets of irrigating liquid in application to the conditions of flue gas cooling in the reactors of the soda ash workshop at "Azot" limited company, Kemerovo, are compared.

  15. Condensation model for the ESBWR passive condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Revankar, S. T.; Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Oh, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the General Electric's Economic simplified boiling water reactor (GE-ESBWR) the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) plays a major role in containment pressure control in case of an loss of coolant accident. The PCCS condenser must be able to remove sufficient energy from the reactor containment to prevent containment from exceeding its design pressure following a design basis accident. There are three PCCS condensation modes depending on the containment pressurization due to coolant discharge; complete condensation, cyclic venting and flow through mode. The present work reviews the models and presents model predictive capability along with comparison with existing data from separate effects test. The condensation models in thermal hydraulics code RELAP5 are also assessed to examine its application to various flow modes of condensation. The default model in the code predicts complete condensation well, and basically is Nusselt solution. The UCB model predicts through flow well. None of condensation model in RELAP5 predict complete condensation, cyclic venting, and through flow condensation consistently. New condensation correlations are given that accurately predict all three modes of PCCS condensation. (authors)

  16. On the early and developed stages of surface condensation: competition mechanism between interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-10-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the early and developed stages of surface condensation. We find that the liquid-vapor and solid-liquid interfacial thermal resistances depend on the properties of solid and fluid, which are time-independent, while the condensate bulk thermal resistance depends on the condensate thickness, which is time-dependent. There exists intrinsic competition between the interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances in timeline and the resultant total thermal resistance determines the condensation intensity for a given vapor-solid temperature difference. We reveal the competition mechanism that the interfacial thermal resistance dominates at the onset of condensation and holds afterwards while the condensate bulk thermal resistance gradually takes over with condensate thickness growing. The weaker the solid-liquid bonding, the later the takeover occurs. This competition mechanism suggests that only when the condensate bulk thermal resistance is reduced after it takes over the domination can the condensation be effectively intensified. We propose a unified theoretical model for the thermal resistance analysis by making dropwise condensation equivalent to filmwise condensation. We further find that near a critical point (contact angle being ca. 153°) the bulk thermal resistance has the least opportunity to take over the domination while away from it the probability increases.

  17. On the early and developed stages of surface condensation: competition mechanism between interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-10-10

    We use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the early and developed stages of surface condensation. We find that the liquid-vapor and solid-liquid interfacial thermal resistances depend on the properties of solid and fluid, which are time-independent, while the condensate bulk thermal resistance depends on the condensate thickness, which is time-dependent. There exists intrinsic competition between the interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances in timeline and the resultant total thermal resistance determines the condensation intensity for a given vapor-solid temperature difference. We reveal the competition mechanism that the interfacial thermal resistance dominates at the onset of condensation and holds afterwards while the condensate bulk thermal resistance gradually takes over with condensate thickness growing. The weaker the solid-liquid bonding, the later the takeover occurs. This competition mechanism suggests that only when the condensate bulk thermal resistance is reduced after it takes over the domination can the condensation be effectively intensified. We propose a unified theoretical model for the thermal resistance analysis by making dropwise condensation equivalent to filmwise condensation. We further find that near a critical point (contact angle being ca. 153°) the bulk thermal resistance has the least opportunity to take over the domination while away from it the probability increases.

  18. On the early and developed stages of surface condensation: competition mechanism between interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the early and developed stages of surface condensation. We find that the liquid-vapor and solid-liquid interfacial thermal resistances depend on the properties of solid and fluid, which are time-independent, while the condensate bulk thermal resistance depends on the condensate thickness, which is time-dependent. There exists intrinsic competition between the interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances in timeline and the resultant total thermal resistance determines the condensation intensity for a given vapor-solid temperature difference. We reveal the competition mechanism that the interfacial thermal resistance dominates at the onset of condensation and holds afterwards while the condensate bulk thermal resistance gradually takes over with condensate thickness growing. The weaker the solid-liquid bonding, the later the takeover occurs. This competition mechanism suggests that only when the condensate bulk thermal resistance is reduced after it takes over the domination can the condensation be effectively intensified. We propose a unified theoretical model for the thermal resistance analysis by making dropwise condensation equivalent to filmwise condensation. We further find that near a critical point (contact angle being ca. 153°) the bulk thermal resistance has the least opportunity to take over the domination while away from it the probability increases. PMID:27721397

  19. Film condensation in a horizontal rectangular duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Qing; Suryanarayana, N. V.

    1993-01-01

    Condensation heat transfer in a horizontal rectangular duct was experimentally and analytically investigated. To prevent the dripping of condensate on the film, the experiment was conducted inside a horizontal rectangular duct with vapor condensing only on the bottom cooled plate of the duct. R-113 and FC-72 (Fluorinert Electronic Fluid developed by the 3M Company) were used as the condensing fluids. The experimental program included measurements of film thickness, local and average heat transfer coefficients, wave length, wave speed, and a study of wave initiation. The measured film thickness was used to obtain the local heat transfer coefficient. The wave initiation was studied both with condensation and with an adiabatic air-liquid flow. The test sections used in both experiments were identical.

  20. Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, D.; Parent, Y.; Hassani, A.V.

    1999-07-20

    A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions, and the geometric properties of the contact medium. 39 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan; Parent, Yves; Hassani, A. Vahab

    1999-01-01

    A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions. and the geometric properties of the contact medium.

  2. Loss of superhydrophobicity of hydrophobic micro/nano structures during condensation.

    PubMed

    Jo, HangJin; Hwang, Kyung Won; Kim, DongHyun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan; Ahn, Ho Seon

    2015-04-23

    Condensed liquid behavior on hydrophobic micro/nano-structured surfaces is a subject with multiple practical applications, but remains poorly understood. In particular, the loss of superhydrophobicity of hydrophobic micro/nanostructures during condensation, even when the same surface shows water-repellant characteristics when exposed to air, requires intensive investigation to improve and apply our understanding of the fundamental physics of condensation. Here, we postulate the criterion required for condensation to form from inside the surface structures by examining the grand potentials of a condensation system, including the properties of the condensed liquid and the conditions required for condensation. The results imply that the same hydrophobic micro/nano-structured surface could exhibit different liquid droplet behavior depending on the conditions. Our findings are supported by the observed phenomena: the initiation of a condensed droplet from inside a hydrophobic cavity, the apparent wetted state changes, and the presence of sticky condensed droplets on the hydrophobic micro/nano-structured surface.

  3. PERVAPORATION SEPARATION IMPROVEMENTS VIA FRACTIONAL CONDENSATION (DEPHLEGMATION): IMPACT OF DEPHLEGMATOR DESIGN ON PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, pervaporation systems have been operated using a total condenser to deliver the final permeate liquid product. Over the past two years, we have investigated the use of a condensation process called "dephlegmation" to enhance the separation performance of pervapora...

  4. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    into characteristics of X-ray emission laser beams from solidstate cathode medium of high-current glow discharge / A. B. Karabut. Charged particles from Ti and Pd foils / L. Kowalski ... [et al.]. Cr-39 track detectors in cold fusion experiments: review and perspectives / A. S. Roussetski. Energetic particle shower in the vapor from electrolysis / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Nuclear reactions produced in an operating electrolysis cell / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Evidence of microscopic ball lightning in cold fusion experiments / E. H. Lewis. Neutron emission from D[symbol] gas in magnetic fields under low temperature / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation / A. G. Lipson ... [et al.]. H-D permeation. Observation of nuclear transmutation reactions induced by D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Deuterium (hydrogen) flux permeating through palladium and condensed matter nuclear science / Q. M. Wei ... [et al.]. Triggering. Precursors and the fusion reactions in polarized Pd/D-D[symbol]O system: effect of an external electric field / S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, and F. E. Gordon. Calorimetric and neutron diagnostics of liquids during laser irradiation / Yu. N. Bazhutov ... [et al.]. Anomalous neutron capture and plastic deformation of Cu and Pd cathodes during electrolysis in a weak thermalized neutron field: evidence of nuclei-lattice exchange / A. G. Lipson and G. H. Miley. H-D loading. An overview of experimental studies on H/Pd over-loading with thin Pd wires and different electrolytic solutions / A. Spallone ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutations. Photon and particle emission, heat production, and surface transformation in Ni-H system / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Surface analysis of hydrogen-loaded nickel alloys / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole / G. Lochak and L. Urutskoev. Results

  5. Dynamic condensation blocking in cryogenic refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Muratov, C. B.

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate that a negative feedback between vapor pressure and condensation rate may be established in two-phase systems during vapor compression with rates of practical importance. As a result, dynamic condensation blocking occurs. The effect is studied numerically in the case of filling a no-vent insulated tank by liquid hydrogen. It is shown that the filling dynamics quite sensitively depends on the filling rate, and for sufficiently fast filling rates consist of a fast stage dominated by gas compression and a slow stage governed by heat conduction in the liquid.

  6. Theoretical analysis of condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases as applied to open cycle OTEC condensers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, C. B.; Bell, K. J.

    The open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion condenser was analyzed from a theoretical standpoint. Interfacial temperature profiles and gas concentrations in the axial direction were determined, and their effects on the rate of condensation studied. For the analysis, the vapor phase was modeled using diffusion equations for simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes, while the liquid phase was modeled using a falling film analysis. This analysis was then applied to a plate fin condenser, and the effect of varying the fin density along the condenser lengths was investigated. General engineering aspects of heat exchanger design are discussed for condensation of vapor mixtures in the presence of noncondensable gases.

  7. Condensates in Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermochemical equilibrium theory which starts with temperature/pressure profiles, compositional information and thermodynamic data for condensable species in the jovian planet atmospheres predicts layers of condensate clouds in the upper troposphere.

  8. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  9. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Parametrization of Transfer Matrix: for One-Dimensional Anderson Model with Diagonal Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kai; Qin, Shao-Jing; Wang, Chui-Lin

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we developed a new parametrization method to calculate the localization length in one-dimensional Anderson model with diagonal disorder. This method can avoid the divergence difficulty encountered in the conventional methods, and significantly save computing time as well.

  10. NMR chemical shifts as a tool to analyze first principles molecular dynamics simulations in condensed phases: the case of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Banyai, Douglas R; Murakhtina, Tatiana; Sebastiani, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    We present (1)H NMR chemical shift calculations of liquid water based on first principles molecular dynamics simulations under periodic boundary conditions. We focus on the impact of computational parameters on the structural and spectroscopic data, which is an important question for understanding how sensitive the computed (1)H NMR resonances are upon variation of the simulation setup. In particular, we discuss the influence of the exchange-correlation functional and the size of the basis set, the choice for the fictitious electronic mass and the use of pseudopotentials for the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) calculation on one hand and the underlying Car-Parrinello-type molecular dynamics simulations on the other hand. Our findings show that the direct effect of these parameters on (1)H shifts is not big, whereas the indirect dependence via the structural data is more important. The (1)H NMR chemical shifts clearly reflect the induced structural changes, illustrating once again the sensitivity of (1)H NMR observables on small changes in the local chemical structure of complex hydrogen-bonded liquids.

  11. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Study of Thermodynamics of Liquid Noble-Metals Alloys Through a Pseudopotential Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2010-09-01

    The Gibbs-Bogoliubov (GB) inequality is applied to investigate the thermodynamic properties of some equiatomic noble metal alloys in liquid phase such as Au-Cu, Ag-Cu, and Ag-Au using well recognized pseudopotential formalism. For description of the structure, well known Percus-Yevick (PY) hard sphere model is used as a reference system. By applying a variation method the best hard core diameters have been found which correspond to minimum free energy. With this procedure the thermodynamic properties such as entropy and heat of mixing have been computed. The influence of local field correction function viz; Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F), and Sarkar et al. (S) is also investigated. The computed results of the excess entropy compares favourably in the case of liquid alloys while the agreement with experiment is poor in the case of heats of mixing. This may be due to the sensitivity of the heats of mixing with the potential parameters and the dielectric function.

  12. CFD simulation of water vapour condensation in the presence of non-condensable gas in vertical cylindrical condensers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-De

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation of the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable gas using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for turbulent flows in a vertical cylindrical condenser tube. The simulation accounts for the turbulent flow of the gas mixture, the condenser wall and the turbulent flow of the coolant in the annular channel with no assumptions of constant wall temperature or heat flux. The condensate film is assumed to occupy a negligible volume and its effect on the condensation of the water vapour has been taken into account by imposing a set of boundary conditions. A new strategy is used to overcome the limitation of the currently available commercial CFD package to solve the simultaneous simulation of flows involving multispecies and fluids of gas and liquid in separate channels. The results from the CFD simulations are compared with the experimental results from the literature for the condensation of water vapour with air as the non-condensable gas and for inlet mass fraction of the water vapour from 0.66 to 0.98. The CFD simulation results in general agree well with the directly measured quantities and it is found that the variation of heat flux in the condenser tube is more complex than a simple polynomial curve fit. The CFD results also show that, at least for flows involving high water vapour content, the axial velocity of the gas mixture at the interface between the gas mixture and the condensate film is in general not small and cannot be neglected. PMID:24850953

  13. Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2014-11-25

    Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems.

  14. Experimental evidence supporting the insensitivity of cloud droplet formation to the mass accommodation coefficient for condensation of water vapor to liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, Justin M.; Richardson, Mathews S.; Lack, Daniel A.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2016-06-01

    The mass accommodation coefficient for uptake of water vapor to liquid water, αM, has been constrained using photoacoustic measurements of aqueous absorbing aerosol. Measurements performed over a range of relative humidities and pressures were compared to detailed model calculations treating coupled heat and mass transfer occurring during photoacoustic laser heating cycles. The strengths and weaknesses of this technique are very different to those for droplet growth/evaporation experiments that have typically been applied to these measurements, making this a useful complement to existing studies. Our measurements provide robust evidence that αM is greater than 0.1 for all humidities tested and greater than 0.3 for data obtained at relative humidities greater than 88% where the aerosol surface was most like pure water. These values of αM are above the threshold at which kinetic limitations are expected to impact the activation and growth of aerosol particles in warm cloud formation.

  15. Screening for DNA adducts in ovarian follicles exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and cigarette smoke condensate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chunhe; Foster, Warren G; Sadeu, Jean C; Siddique, Shabana; Zhu, Jiping; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2017-01-01

    A rapid mass spectrometric method was applied to non-targeted screening of DNA adducts in follicular cells (granulosa cells and theca cells) from isolated ovarian follicles that were exposed in-vitro to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) for 13days of culture. The method employed a constant neutral loss (CNL) scan to identify chromatographic peaks associated to a neutral loss of deoxyribose moiety of DNA nucleosides. These peaks were subsequently analyzed by a product ion scan in tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate structures of DNA adducts. The identification was further confirmed through synthesis of proposed DNA adducts where possible. Three DNA adducts, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-dG (BPDE-dG), phenanthrene 1,2-quinone-dG (PheQ-dG) and B[a]P-7,8-quinone-dG (BPQ-dG) were identified in the follicular cells from isolated ovarian follicles exposed to B[a]P. Along with these three, an additional DNA adduct, 4-aminobiphenyl-dG, was identified in the follicular cells from isolated ovarian follicles exposed to CSC. The amounts of the identified DNA adducts in follicular cells increased in a dose-dependent manner for both B[a]P (0, 1.5, 5, 15 and 45ng/mL) and CSC (0, 30, 60, 90 and 130μg/mL). The results revealed that B[a]P-related DNA adducts were the major adducts in the ovarian follicular cells exposed to CSC. The results also revealed that two oxidative biomarkers, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine (8-OH-dG) and 8-isoprostane (8-IsoP), in both B[a]P-exposed and CSC-exposed ovarian follicles had strong correlations with the three DNA adducts, BPDE-dG, BPQ-dG and PheQ-dG. A pathway to describe formation of DNA adducts was proposed based on the DNA adducts observed.

  16. Mode specific elastic constants for the gel, liquid-ordered, and liquid-disordered phases of DPPC/DOPC/cholesterol model lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Uline, Mark J; Szleifer, Igal

    2013-01-01

    Using microscopic molecular theory, we determine the bending and saddle-splay constants of three-component lipid bilayers. The membrane contains cholesterol, dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and the predictions of the theory have been shown to qualitatively reproduce phase diagrams of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) of the same three components. The bending and saddle-splay constants were calculated for the gel, liquid-ordered (lo) and liquid-disordered (ld) phases. By proper expansion of the free energy, the molecular theory enables us to determine the effects of the mode of membrane bending deformation on the value of the elastic constants for different phases. In particular, we refer to the ability of the molecules to arrange the composition between the two monolayers upon deformation. The bending and saddle-splay constants obtained from the free energy expansion can be expressed in terms of moments of the local lateral pressures and their derivatives, all evaluated for a symmetric planar bilayer. The effect of blocked vs. free exchange of lipids across the two monolayers on the values of the bending constant is as high as 50 k(B)Tin the ld phase to as high as 200 k(B)T in the lo phase. These results show that one must strongly consider the mode of deformation in determining the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers. We discuss how the different contributions to the lateral pressures affect the values of the elastic constants, including the effects of the cholesterol concentration and temperature on the membrane elastic constants. We also calculate the equilibrium binding concentrations of lipid tail anchors as a function of membrane curvature by explicitly determining the chemical potential difference of species across a curved bilayer. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent experimental results.

  17. Condenser design for AMTEC power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    The condenser and the electrodes are the two elements of an alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cell which most greatly affect the energy conversion performance. A condenser is described which accomplishes two critical functions in an AMTEC cell: management of the fluid under microgravity conditions and optimization of conversion efficiency. The first function is achieved via the use of a controlled surface shape, along with drainage grooves and arteries to collect the fluid. Capillary forces manage the fluid in microgravity and dominate hydrostatic effects on the ground so the device is ground-testable. The second function is achieved via a smooth film of highly reflective liquid sodium on the condensing surface, resulting in minimization of parasitic heat losses due to radiation heat transfer. Power conversion efficiencies of 25 percent to 30 percent are estimated with this condenser using present technology for the electrodes.

  18. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES Klein Paradox and Disorder-Induced Delocalization of Dirac Quasiparticles in One-Dimensional Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jian-Hui; Cheng, Ze; Yin, Miao; Zeng, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Jun-Pei

    2010-12-01

    Dirac particle penetration is studied theoretically with Dirac equation in one-dimensional systems. We investigate a one-dimensional system with N barriers where both barrier height and well width are constants randomly distributed in certain range. The one-parameter scaling theory for nonrelativistic particles is still valid for massive Dirac particles. In the same disorder sample, we find that the localization length of relativistic particles is always larger than that of nonrelativistic particles and the transmission coefficient related to incident particle in both cases fits the form T ~ exp(- αL). More interesting, massless relativistic particles are entirely delocalized no matter how big the energy of incident particles is.

  19. Kondo spin liquid in the Kondo necklace model: Classical disordered phase versus symmetry-protected topological state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yin; Wang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Han-Tao; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2014-08-01

    We have studied Kondo spin liquid phase of Kondo necklace models from the perspective of quantum O(N) non-linear sigma model (NLSM) field theory, particularly we focus on its possible topologically nontrivial phases. In the one-dimensional case, the Kondo spin liquid phase is a usual quantum disordered phase in contrast to the well-known topologically nontrivial Haldane phase due to destructive interference effect of topological θ term. In the two-dimensional case, the system can be mapped onto an O(4)-like NLSM with some O(3) anisotropy. Interestingly, if hedgehog-like point defects are included together with the restoration of the full O(4) symmetry, our model is identical to a kind of SU(2) symmetry-protected topological (SPT) state, which highlights a possible link between the extended Kondo necklace models and the desirable SPT states. Additionally, if the system has the expanded O(5) symmetry instead, the effective NLSM with the Wess-Zumino-Witten term is just a description of the surface modes of a three-dimensional SPT state. The deviations from fully symmetrical cases are discussed. We expect that the results might provide useful threads to identify certain microscopic bilayer antiferromagnet models (and related materials), which can support the SPT states.

  20. Vapor-liquid transitions of dipolar fluids in disordered porous media: Performance of angle-averaged potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spöler, C.; Klapp, S. H. L.

    2004-11-01

    Using replica integral equations in the reference hypernetted-chain (RHNC) approximation we calculate vapor-liquid spinodals, chemical potentials, and compressibilities of fluids with angle-averaged dipolar interactions adsorbed to various disordered porous media. Comparison with previous RHNC results for systems with true angle-dependent Stockmayer (dipolar plus Lennard-Jones) interactions [C. Spöler and S. H. L. Klapp, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3628 (2003); ibid.120, 6734 (2004)] indicate that, for a dilute hard sphere matrix, the angle-averaged fluid-fluid (ff) potential is a reasonable alternative for reduced fluid dipole moments m*2=μ2/(ɛ0σ3)⩽2.0. This range is comparable to that estimated in bulk fluids, for which RHNC results are presented as well. Finally, results for weakly polar matrices suggest that angle-averaged fluid-matrix (fm) interactions can reproduce main features observed for true dipolar (fm) interactions such as the shift of the vapor-liquid spinodals towards lower temperatures and higher densities. However, the effective attraction induced by dipolar (fm) interaction is underestimated rather than overestimated as in the case of angle-averaged ff interactions.

  1. Spin liquid state in the disordered triangular lattice Sc2Ga2CuO7 revealed by NMR

    DOE PAGES

    Khuntia, P.; Kumar, R.; Mahajan, A. V.; ...

    2016-04-18

    We present microscopic magnetic properties of a two-dimensional triangular lattice Sc2Ga2CuO7, consisting of single and double triangular Cu planes. An antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange interaction J/kB ≈ 35 K between Cu2+ (S = 1/2) spins in the triangular biplane is obtained from the analysis of intrinsic magnetic susceptibility data. The intrinsic magnetic susceptibility, extracted from 71Ga NMR shift data, displays the presence of AFM short range spin correlations and remains finite down to 50 mK, suggesting a nonsinglet ground state. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) reveals a slowing down of Cu2+ spin fluctuations with decreasing T down to 100 mK.more » Magnetic specific heat (Cm) and 1/T1 exhibit power law behavior at low temperatures, implying the gapless nature of the spin excitation spectrum. The absence of long range magnetic ordering down to ~J/700, nonzero spin susceptibility at low T, and the power law behavior of Cm and 1/T1 suggest a gapless quantum spin liquid (QSL) state. Our results demonstrate that persistent spin dynamics induced by frustration maintain a quantum-disordered state at T → 0 in this triangular lattice antiferromagnet. Furthermore, this suggests that the low energy modes are dominated by spinon excitations in the QSL state due to randomness engendered by disorder and frustration.« less

  2. Evidence for a Disordered Critical Point in a Glass-Forming Liquid.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Ludovic; Jack, Robert L

    2015-05-22

    Using computer simulations of an atomistic glass-forming liquid, we investigate the fluctuations of the overlap between a fluid configuration and a quenched reference system. We find that large fluctuations of the overlap develop as temperature decreases, consistent with the existence of the random critical point that is predicted by effective field theories. We discuss the scaling of fluctuations near the presumed critical point, comparing the observed behavior with that of the random-field Ising model. We argue that this critical point directly reveals the existence of an interfacial tension between amorphous metastable states, a quantity relevant both for equilibrium relaxation and for nonequilibrium melting of stable glass configurations.

  3. EPRI condensate polisher guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, B.A.; Webb, L.C.; Sawochka, S.G.; Crits, G.J.; Pocock, F.J.; Wirth, L.

    1995-01-01

    Cycle chemistry is one of the most important contributors to the loss of availability of generating units. Condensate polishing can significantly improve cycle chemistry by improving cycle water quality and minimizing the transport of contaminants in the power cycle. The EPRI-funded project described in this paper developed comprehensive guidelines for condensate polishing based upon information gathered from utility surveys, equipment vendors, and resin suppliers. Existing literature was also surveyed for pertinent input. Comprehensive guidelines which outline guidance for design, operation, maintenance, surveillance, management, and retrofitting of condensate polishing systems were developed. Economics of condensate polishing were evaluated and a roadmap for economic evaluation for utilities to follow was produced.

  4. BES-HEP Connections: Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics, Round Table Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Maldacena, Juan; Chatterjee, Lali; Davenport, James W

    2015-02-02

    On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.

  5. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B. ); Hughes, E.D. )

    1991-01-01

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases.

  6. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1991-12-31

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases.

  7. On the condensating species in terrestrial extrasolar planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzer, A. B. C.; von Paris, P.; Kitzmann, D.; Rauer, H.; Grenfell, J. L.

    2008-09-01

    ABSTRACT The formation of liquid droplets and/or solid particles has a significant impact on the thermal, dynamic, and chemical structure of the planetary environments, in which they are formed. For example, the character and distribution of the atmospheric condensates determine the appearance of such objects. It is therefore important to know, which chemical species might condense under the atmospheric conditions of extrasolar planets and how the condensate, solid or maybe liquid, nucleate in detail to finally form cloudy structures in such planetary atmospheres. In this contribution the presence of particles of likely condensates under atmospheric conditions of extrasolar terrestrial planets is discussed. Consequences regarding the condensation of major gaseous constituents of the planetary atmospheres are considered in particular. Selected applications, especially in view of the recently discovered low mass planets - so called Super-Earths -, are presented and compared. Acknowledgement: This work has been partly supported by the Forschungsallianz Planetary Evolution and Life of the Helmholtz Gemeinschaft (HGF).

  8. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  9. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  10. Cholesterol Displaces Palmitoylceramide from Its Tight Packing with Palmitoylsphingomyelin in the Absence of a Liquid-Disordered Phase

    PubMed Central

    Busto, Jon V.; Sot, Jesús; Requejo-Isidro, José; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    A set of different biophysical approaches has been used to explore the phase behavior of palmitoylsphingomyelin (pSM)/cholesterol (Chol) model membranes in the presence and absence of palmitoylceramide (pCer). Fluorescence spectroscopy of di-4-ANEPPDHQ-stained pSM/Chol vesicles and atomic force microscopy of supported planar bilayers show gel Lβ/liquid-ordered (Lo) phase coexistence within the range XChol = 0–0.25 at 22°C. At the latter compositional point and beyond, a single Lo pSM/Chol phase is detected. In ternary pSM/Chol/pCer mixtures, differential scanning calorimetry of multilamellar vesicles and confocal fluorescence microscopy of giant unilamellar vesicles concur in showing immiscibility, but no displacement, between Lo cholesterol-enriched (pSM/Chol) and gel-like ceramide-enriched (pSM/pCer) phases at high pSM/(Chol + pCer) ratios. At higher cholesterol content, pCer is unable to displace cholesterol at any extent, even at XChol < 0.25. It is interesting that an opposite strong cholesterol-mediated pCer displacement from its tight packing with pSM is clearly detected, completely abolishing the pCer ability to generate large microdomains and giving rise instead to a single ternary phase. These observations in model membranes in the absence of the lipids commonly used to form a liquid-disordered phase support the role of cholesterol as the key determinant in controlling its own displacement from Lo domains by ceramide upon sphingomyelinase activity. PMID:20712995

  11. 7C2, the new neutron diffractometer for liquids and disordered materials at LLB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuello, G. J.; Darpentigny, J.; Hennet, L.; Cormier, L.; Dupont, J.; Homatter, B.; Beuneu, B.

    2016-09-01

    The disordered-materials diffractometer 7C2 at the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB), Saclay, France has been upgraded through the replacement of its detector. The old one, a banana like BF3 detector, has been replaced by a new ensemble of 3He tubes arranged on a cylindrical surface concentric with the sample position, covering an angular range of 133°, with an angular step of 0.52°. At the shortest wavelength, 0.57 Å, this represents a maximum momentum transfer of 20 Å-1. The gas pressure in the 3He tubes is 30 bars, which increases the efficiency to 80% for 0.72 Å neutrons, compared to 17% for the previous detector. A larger solid angle of detection and an improved efficiency have increased the total counting rate by a factor of 22, thereby reducing random error in the diffraction measurements. The banana-like multidetector gives to 7C2 the possibility of registering a complete diffractogram over the whole angular range in one shot, which is a comparative advantage with respect to other hot-neutrons two-axis diffractometers.

  12. Modeling the Phase Composition of Gas Condensate in Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudin, S. M.; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shabarov, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    Gas condensate fields demonstrate a number of thermodynamic characteristics to be considered when they are developed, as well as when gas condensate is transported and processed. A complicated phase behavior of the gas condensate system, as well as the dependence of the extracted raw materials on the phase state of the deposit other conditions being equal, is a key aspect. Therefore, when designing gas condensate lines the crucial task is to select the most appropriate methods of calculating thermophysical properties and phase equilibrium of the transported gas condensate. The paper describes a physical-mathematical model of a gas-liquid flow in the gas condensate line. It was developed based on balance equations of conservation of mass, impulse and energy of the transported medium within the framework of a quasi-1D approach. Constitutive relationships are given separately, and practical recommendations on how to apply the research results are provided as well.

  13. Dissipative transport of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Dries, D.; Pollack, S. E.; Hitchcock, J. M.; Hulet, R. G.

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the effects of impurities, either correlated disorder or a single Gaussian defect, on the collective dipole motion of a Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 7}Li in an optical trap. We find that this motion is damped at a rate dependent on the impurity strength, condensate center-of-mass velocity, and interatomic interactions. Damping in the Thomas-Fermi regime depends universally on the disordered potential strength scaled to the condensate chemical potential and the condensate velocity scaled to the speed of sound. The damping rate is comparatively small in the weakly interacting regime, and, in this case, is accompanied by strong condensate fragmentation. In situ and time-of-flight images of the atomic cloud provide evidence that this fragmentation is driven by dark soliton formation.

  14. Cavity Exciton-Polaritons, Bose Einstein Condensation and Spin Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Malpuech, Guillaume; Solnyshkov, Dmitry; Shelykh, Ivan

    2009-10-07

    An introduction giving elementary properties of cavity exciton-polariton will be given. The condition of occurrence of the polariton lasing effect and of the polariton Bose Eintein condensation will be discussed. The impact of the structural disorder on the superfluid behavior of polariton condensates will be analysed. The spin properties of polariton condensates will be discussed. I will show how the anisotropy of the polariton-polariton interaction leads to the suppression of zeeman splitting for polariton condensates (spin Meissner effects). I will show how the combined impact of disorder and spin Meissner effect can lead to the formation of a new condense phase. I will show how these phenomena can allow for the realization of a polaritonic Datta Das spin transistor.

  15. Discovery and validation of plasma biomarkers for major depressive disorder classification based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyu; Zheng, Peng; Zhao, Xinjie; Zhang, Yuqing; Hu, Chunxiu; Li, Jia; Zhao, Jieyu; Zhou, Jingjing; Xie, Peng; Xu, Guowang

    2015-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating mental disease with a pronounced impact on the quality of life of many people; however, it is still difficult to diagnose MDD accurately. In this study, a nontargeted metabolomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was used to find the differential metabolites in plasma samples from patients with MDD and healthy controls. Furthermore, a validation analysis focusing on the differential metabolites was performed in another batch of samples using a targeted approach based on the dynamic multiple reactions monitoring method. Levels of acyl carnitines, ether lipids, and tryptophan pronouncedly decreased, whereas LPCs, LPEs, and PEs markedly increased in MDD subjects as compared with the healthy controls. Disturbed pathways, mainly located in acyl carnitine metabolism, lipid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism, were clearly brought to light in MDD subjects. The binary logistic regression result showed that carnitine C10:1, PE-O 36:5, LPE 18:1 sn-2, and tryptophan can be used as a combinational biomarker to distinguish not only moderate but also severe MDD from healthy control with good sensitivity and specificity. Our findings, on one hand, provide critical insight into the pathological mechanism of MDD and, on the other hand, supply a combinational biomarker to aid the diagnosis of MDD in clinical usage.

  16. Sedimentary condensation and authigenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föllmi, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Most marine authigenic minerals form in sediments, which are subjected to condensation. Condensation processes lead to the formation of well individualized, extremely thin (< 1m) beds, which were accumulated during extremely long time periods (> 100ky), and which experienced authigenesis and the precipitation of glaucony, verdine, phosphate, iron and manganese oxyhydroxides, iron sulfide, carbonate and/or silica. They usually show complex internal stratigraphies, which result from an interplay of sediment accumulation, halts in sedimentation, sediment winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass. They may include amalgamated faunas of different origin and age. Hardgrounds may be part of condensed beds and may embody strongly condensed beds by themselves. Sedimentary condensation is the result of a hydrodynamically active depositional regime, in which sediment accumulation, winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass are processes, which alternate as a function of changes in the location and intensity of currents, and/or as the result of episodic high-energy events engendered by storms and gravity flow. Sedimentary condensation has been and still is a widespread phenomenon in past and present-day oceans. The present-day distribution of glaucony and verdine-rich sediments on shelves and upper slopes, phosphate-rich sediments and phosphorite on outer shelves and upper slopes, ferromanganese crusts on slopes, seamounts and submarine plateaus, and ferromanganese nodules on abyssal seafloors is a good indication of the importance of condensation processes today. In the past, we may add the occurrence of oolitic ironstone, carbonate hardgrounds, and eventually also silica layers in banded iron formations as indicators of the importance of condensation processes. Besides their economic value, condensed sediments are useful both as a carrier of geochemical proxies of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change, as well as the product of episodes of paleoceanographic and

  17. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  18. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  19. DROPWISE CONDENSATION ON MICRO- AND NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Enright, R; Miljkovic, N; Alvarado, JL; Kim, K; Rose, JW

    2014-07-23

    In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface-enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro-and nanoscale using both bottom-up and top-down approaches has led to increased study of complex interfacial phenomena. In the heat transfer community, researchers have been extensively exploring the use of advanced surface structuring techniques to enhance phase-change heat transfer processes. In particular, the field of vapor-to-liquid condensation and especially that of water condensation has experienced a renaissance due to the promise of further optimizing this process at the micro-and nanoscale by exploiting advances in surface engineering developed over the last several decades.

  20. Key condenser failure mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.

    2009-04-15

    Eight practical lessons highlight many of the factors that can influence condenser tube corrosion at coal-fired utilities and the effects contaminant in-leakage can have on steam generating units. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  1. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  2. Molecular equilibrium with condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, C. M.; Huebner, W. F.

    1990-02-01

    Minimization of the Gibbs energy of formation for species of chemical elements and compounds in their gas and condensed phases determines their relative abundances in a mixture in chemical equilibrium. The procedure is more general and more powerful than previous abundance determinations in multiphase astrophysical mixtures. Some results for astrophysical equations of state are presented, and the effects of condensation on opacity are briefly indicated.

  3. Condensate dark matter stars

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Harko, T.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the structure and stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed from the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the critical temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Therefore we model the dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In the condensate dark matter star model, the dark matter equation of state can be described by a polytropic equation of state, with polytropic index equal to one. We derive the basic general relativistic equations describing the equilibrium structure of the condensate dark matter star with spherically symmetric static geometry. The structure equations of the condensate dark matter stars are studied numerically. The critical mass and radius of the dark matter star are given by M{sub crit} ≈ 2(l{sub a}/1fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2}M{sub s}un and R{sub crit} ≈ 1.1 × 10{sup 6}(l{sub a}/1 fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2} cm respectively, where l{sub a} and m{sub χ} are the scattering length and the mass of dark matter particle, respectively.

  4. Formation of Protein Condensed Phases: Nucleation Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vekilov, Peter G

    2012-04-04

    Proteins in solution form a number of condensed phases. Even omitting the amyloid structures formed after partial protein unfolding, these phases include crystals, polymers, and other solid aggregates, as well as dense liquids and gels. Some of these condensed phases underlie pathological conditions, others play a crucial role in the biological function of the respective protein or are an essential part of its laboratory or industrial processing. In this review, we summarize the fundamentals and recent findings on the kinetics of nucleation of dense liquid droplets and crystals. We define the transition from nucleation to spinodal decomposition for these two phase transitions. We review the two-step mechanism of protein crystal nucleation, in which mesoscopic metastable protein clusters serve as precursors to the ordered crystal nuclei. The concepts and mechanisms reviewed here provide powerful tools for control of the nucleation process by varying the solution thermodynamic parameters.

  5. The NSF Condensed Matter Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Paul

    The Condensed Matter Physics (CMP) program in the NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) supports experimental, as well as combined experiment and theory projects investigating the fundamental physics behind phenomena exhibited by condensed matter systems. CMP is the largest Individual Investigator Award program in DMR and supports a broad portfolio of research spanning both hard and soft condensed matter. Representative research areas include: 1) phenomena at the nano- to macro-scale including: transport, magnetic, and optical phenomena; classical and quantum phase transitions; localization; electronic, magnetic, and lattice structure or excitations; superconductivity; topological insulators; and nonlinear dynamics. 2) low-temperature physics: quantum fluids and solids; 1D & 2D electron systems. 3) soft condensed matter: partially ordered fluids, granular and colloid physics, liquid crystals, and 4) understanding the fundamental physics of new states of matter as well as the physical behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions e.g., low temperatures, high pressures, and high magnetic fields. In this talk I will review the current CMP portfolio and discuss future funding trends for the program. I will also describe recent activities in the program aimed at addressing the challenges facing current and future principal investigators.

  6. Topological framework for local structure analysis in condensed matter

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Emanuel A.; Han, Jian; Srolovitz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Physical systems are frequently modeled as sets of points in space, each representing the position of an atom, molecule, or mesoscale particle. As many properties of such systems depend on the underlying ordering of their constituent particles, understanding that structure is a primary objective of condensed matter research. Although perfect crystals are fully described by a set of translation and basis vectors, real-world materials are never perfect, as thermal vibrations and defects introduce significant deviation from ideal order. Meanwhile, liquids and glasses present yet more complexity. A complete understanding of structure thus remains a central, open problem. Here we propose a unified mathematical framework, based on the topology of the Voronoi cell of a particle, for classifying local structure in ordered and disordered systems that is powerful and practical. We explain the underlying reason why this topological description of local structure is better suited for structural analysis than continuous descriptions. We demonstrate the connection of this approach to the behavior of physical systems and explore how crystalline structure is compromised at elevated temperatures. We also illustrate potential applications to identifying defects in plastically deformed polycrystals at high temperatures, automating analysis of complex structures, and characterizing general disordered systems. PMID:26460045

  7. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.L.

    1993-10-19

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank. 3 figures.

  8. Spark gap switch system with condensable dielectric gas

    DOEpatents

    Thayer, III, William J.

    1991-01-01

    A spark gap switch system is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate comprising an insulated switch housing having a purging gas entrance port and a gas exit port, a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween, an easily condensable and preferably low molecular weight insulating gas flowing through the switch housing from the housing, a heat exchanger/condenser for condensing the insulating gas after it exits from the housing, a pump for recirculating the condensed insulating gas as a liquid back to the housing, and a heater exchanger/evaporator to vaporize at least a portion of the condensed insulating gas back into a vapor prior to flowing the insulating gas back into the housing.

  9. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank.

  10. Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Richter, F. M.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that the materials making up the solar system were derived from a nebular gas and dust cloud that went through an early high-temperature stage during which virtually all of the material was in the gas phase. At one time, it was thought that the entire inner solar nebula was hot, but it is now believed that most material was processed through regions where high temperatures were achieved. Certainly some material, such as presolar grains (cf., Mendybaev et al., 2002a), has never been exposed to high temperatures. As the system cooled, solids and perhaps liquids began to condense, but at some point the partially condensed materials became isolated from the remaining gas. Various lines of evidence support this view. At the largest scale, there is the observation that the Earth, Moon, Mars, and all chondritic meteorites except for the CI chondrites are depleted to varying degrees in the abundances of moderately volatile elements relative to bulk solar system composition. The CI chondrites reflect the bulk composition of the solar system for all but hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and the rare gases, the most volatile elements (see Chapter 1.03; Palme et al., 1988; McDonough and Sun, 1995; Humayun and Cassen, 2000). The depletions in moderately volatile elements are, to a significant degree, correlated with condensation temperature, suggesting progressive removal of gas as condensation proceeded ( Cassen, 1996). Additional observations that can be explained by partial condensation are that various particularly primitive components of meteorites (e.g., calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions, and certain metal grains) have mineralogy and/or details of their chemical composition that are remarkably similar to what is calculated for equilibrium condensates from a solar composition gas. For example, the calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites have compositions very similar to that calculated for the first 5% of total

  11. Keeping condensers clean

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  12. Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations.

  13. Capillary Condensation in Polymer Blends: an Analysis of Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Carolina C.; Jira, Nicholas C.; Evans, Ian R.; Cohen, Matthew; D'Rozario, Julia R.; Romano, Marie T.; Sabirianov, Ildar

    We explore herein the capillary condensation for various geometries. Capillary condensation is studied in the presence of van der Waals forces. We derive the grand free energy, and we analyze the phase transitions, the absorption isotherms and the triple point. Phase transitions between full, empty and two films are investigated and the shape of the liquid is calculated. We also analyze an important application of wetting phenomena and capillary condensation in binary polymer blends and investigate the type of wetting transitions presented and the phase diagram. SUNY Oswego SCAC Grant, NSF Noyce Grant.

  14. Extraction of condensed tannins from Mexican plant sources.

    PubMed

    Garcíaa, Ramiro; Aguilera, Antonio; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2008-01-01

    Contents of total polyphenols, condensed tannins and proanthocyanidins, and their stability to various pH values and temperatures were studied in Mexican blueberry, cuautecomate fruit, garambullo fruit, aubergine, coffee pulp and residues of black grapes. Several aqueous extracts, obtained through a one-pass-extraction process, were analyzed using liquid chromatography in order to quantify the condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) content responsible for their antioxidant activity and colour. All tested samples included high proanthocyanidin contents demonstrating that these Mexican fruits and vegetables are good sources of natural antioxidants, and they all could be considered as excellent functional foods due to their bioactivity measured as the condensed tannin level.

  15. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  16. Simple simulations of DNA condensation.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, M J

    2001-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored coulombic structure is a charge-ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomenon and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong. PMID:11159388

  17. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  18. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  19. Condensate removal device

    DOEpatents

    Maddox, James W.; Berger, David D.

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  20. Mars: occurrence of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, A P

    1970-05-22

    In the absence of juvenile liquid water, condensation of water vapor to ice and subsequent melting of ice are the only means of producing liquid water on the martian surface. However, the evaporation rate is so high that the available heat sources cannot melt pure ice. Liquid water is therefore limited to concentrated solutions of strongly deliquescent salts.

  1. Capillary condensation as a morphological transition.

    PubMed

    Kornev, Konstantin G; Shingareva, Inna K; Neimark, Alexander V

    2002-02-25

    The process of capillary condensation/evaporation in cylindrical pores is considered within the idea of symmetry breaking. Capillary condensation/evaporation is treated as a morphological transition between the wetting film configurations of different symmetry. We considered two models: (i) the classical Laplace theory of capillarity and (ii) the Derjaguin model which takes into account the surface forces expressed in terms of the disjoining pressure. Following the idea of Everett and Haynes, the problem of condensation/evaporation is considered as a transition from bumps/undulations to lenses. Using the method of phase portraits, we discuss the mathematical mechanisms of this transition hidden in the Laplace and Derjaguin equations. Analyzing the energetic barriers of the bump and lens formation, it is shown that the bump formation is a prerogative of capillary condensation: for the vapor-liquid transition in a pore, the bump plays the same role as the spherical nucleus in a bulk fluid. We show also that the Derjaguin model admits a variety of interfacial configurations responsible for film patterning at specific conditions.

  2. Tunable Vapor-Condensed Nanolenses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured optical components, such as nanolenses, direct light at subwavelength scales to enable, among others, high-resolution lithography, miniaturization of photonic circuits, and nanoscopic imaging of biostructures. A major challenge in fabricating nanolenses is the appropriate positioning of the lens with respect to the sample while simultaneously ensuring it adopts the optimal size and shape for the intended use. One application of particular interest is the enhancement of contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in the imaging of nanoscale objects, especially over wide fields-of-view (FOVs), which typically come with limited resolution and sensitivity for imaging nano-objects. Here we present a self-assembly method for fabricating time- and temperature-tunable nanolenses based on the condensation of a polymeric liquid around a nanoparticle, which we apply to the high-throughput on-chip detection of spheroids smaller than 40 nm, rod-shaped particles with diameter smaller than 20 nm, and biofunctionalized nanoparticles, all across an ultralarge FOV of >20 mm2. Previous nanoparticle imaging efforts across similar FOVs have detected spheroids no smaller than 100 nm, and therefore our results demonstrate the detection of particles >15-fold smaller in volume, which in free space have >240 times weaker Rayleigh scattering compared to the particle sizes detected in earlier wide-field imaging work. This entire platform, with its tunable nanolens condensation and wide-field imaging functions, is also miniaturized into a cost-effective and portable device, which might be especially important for field use, mobile sensing, and diagnostics applications, including, for example, the measurement of viral load in bodily fluids. PMID:24979060

  3. Determination of AJ-3941, a possible agent for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, in plasma and brain by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kurono, M; Yoshida, K; Naruto, S

    1992-07-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection is described for the determination of AJ-3941 (I), a possible agent for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, in plasma and brain tissue. A simple hexane extraction was used for plasma, and for brain homogenate the hexane extract was further purified by solid-phase extraction. The determination limit was ca. 3 ng/ml for both plasma (0.5 ml) and 10% (w/v) brain homogenate (1 ml). The method was applied to the determination of I in plasma and brain samples of experimental animals.

  4. Clustering effects of GM1 and formation mechanisms of interdigitated liquid disordered domains in GM1/SM/CHOL-supported planar bilayers on mica surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhiguo; Mao, Yanli; Tero, Ryugo; Liu, Xinli; Hoshino, Tyuji; Tanaka, Motohiko; Urisu, Tsuneo

    2010-09-01

    We have observed by atomic force microscopy that an interdigitated liquid disordered domain (ILDD) is formed in the ganglioside (GM1)/sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (CHOL) bilayers on a mica surface and accelerates the formation of fibriller Aβ agglomerates. By studies of the mechanisms using molecular dynamics simulations, we conclude that the ILDD structure is formed as a result of the phase separation to SM- and GM1-rich domains on the mica surface induced by the effects of GM1 clustering and the interaction between the GM1 head group and the water layer adsorbed in the ditrigonal cavity on the mica surface.

  5. Condensation of Forced Convection Two-Phase Flow in a Miniature Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begg, E.; Faghri, A.; Krustalev, D.

    1999-01-01

    A physical/mathematical model of annular film condensation at the inlet of a miniature tube has been developed. In the model, the liquid flow is coupled with the vapor flow along the liquid-vapor interface through the interfacial temperature, heat flux, shear stress, and pressure jump conditions due to surface tension effects. The model predicts the shape of the liquid-vapor interface along the condenser and leads to the conclusion that there is complete condensation at a certain distance from the condenser inlet. The numerical results show that complete condensation of the incoming vapor is possible at comparatively low heat loads and that this is a special case of a more general condensation regime with two-phase bubbly flow downstream of the initial annular film condensation region. Observations from the flow visualization experiment confirm the existence and qualitative features of annular film condensation leading to the complete condensation phenomenon in a small diameter (3.25 mm) circular tube condenser.

  6. Tianfoshen oral liquid: a CFDA approved clinical traditional Chinese medicine, normalizes major cellular pathways disordered during colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siliang; Wang, Hengbin; Lu, Yin

    2017-01-16

    Colorectal cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide, suggesting exploration of novel therapeutic avenues may be useful. In this study, therefore, we determined whether Tianfoshen oral liquid, a Chinese traditional medicine that has been used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, would be therapeutically beneficial for colorectal cancer patients. Our data show that Tianfoshen oral liquid effectively inhibits growth of colorectal cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. We further employed a comprehensive strategy that included chemoinformatics, bioinformatics and network biology methods to unravel novel insights into the active compounds of Tianfoshen oral liquid and to identify the common therapeutic targets and processes for colorectal cancer treatment. We identified 276 major candidate targets for Tianfoshen oral liquid that are central to colorectal cancer progression. Gene enrichment analysis showed that these targets were associated with cell cycle, apoptosis, cancer-related angiogenesis, and chronic inflammation and related signaling pathways. We also validated experimentally the inhibitory effects of Tianfoshen oral liquid on these pathological processes, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we demonstrated that Tianfoshen oral liquid suppressed multiple relevant key players that sustain and promote colorectal cancer, which is suggests the potential therapeutic efficacy of Tianfoshen oral liquid in future colorectal cancer treatments.

  7. Hard sphere study of condensation entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2008-06-01

    A simple procedure is devised to calculate the Ben-Naim standard condensation entropy by treating neat liquids as hard sphere fluids. The calculated values are close to the experimental ones for nonpolar liquids, but not for polar aprotic ones and for H-bonded liquids. For the latter the calculated entropy values become close to the experimental ones if the molecular van der Waals diameters are used instead of the effective ones. This implies that the magnitude of the orientational entropy loss due to H-bond formation is quantitatively similar to that of the configurational entropy gain for the decrease in excluded volume due to the bunching up effect caused by H-bonds.

  8. Nanostructure-induced DNA condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ting; Llizo, Axel; Wang, Chen; Xu, Guiying; Yang, Yanlian

    2013-08-01

    The control of the DNA condensation process is essential for compaction of DNA in chromatin, as well as for biological applications such as nonviral gene therapy. This review endeavours to reflect the progress of investigations on DNA condensation effects of nanostructure-based condensing agents (such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, cationic polymer and peptide agents) observed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other techniques. The environmental effects on structural characteristics of nanostructure-induced DNA condensates are also discussed.

  9. A Local Condensation Analysis Representing Two-phase Annular Flow in Condenser/radiator Capillary Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimi, Amir

    1991-01-01

    NASA's effort for the thermal environmental control of the Space Station Freedom is directed towards the design, analysis, and development of an Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). A two phase, flow through condenser/radiator concept was baselined, as a part of the ATCS, for the radiation of space station thermal load into space. The proposed condenser rejects heat through direct condensation of ATCS working fluid (ammonia) in the small diameter radiator tubes. Analysis of the condensation process and design of condenser tubes are based on the available two phase flow models for the prediction of flow regimes, heat transfer, and pressure drops. The prediction formulas use the existing empirical relationships of friction factor at gas-liquid interface. An attempt is made to study the stability of interfacial waves in two phase annular flow. The formulation is presented of a stability problem in cylindrical coordinates. The contribution of fluid viscosity, surface tension, and transverse radius of curvature to the interfacial surface is included. A solution is obtained for Kelvin-Helmholtz instability problem which can be used to determine the critical and most dangerous wavelengths for interfacial waves.

  10. Recovery of condensate water quality in power generator's surface condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, Lilik Adib

    2017-03-01

    In PT Badak NGL Plant, steam turbines are used to drive major power generators, compressors, and pumps. Steam exiting the turbines is condensed in surface condensers to be returned to boilers. Therefore, surface condenser performance and quality of condensate water are very important. One of the recent problem was caused by the leak of a surface condenser of Steam Turbine Power Generator. Thesteam turbine was overhauled, leaving the surface condenser idle and exposed to air for more than 1.5 years. Sea water ingress due to tube leaks worsens the corrosionof the condenser shell. The combination of mineral scale and corrosion product resulting high conductivity condensate at outlet condenser when we restarted up, beyond the acceptable limit. After assessing several options, chemical cleaning was the best way to overcome the problem according to condenser configuration. An 8 hour circulation of 5%wt citric acid had succeed reducing water conductivity from 50 μmhos/cm to below 5 μmhos/cm. The condensate water, then meets the required quality, i.e. pH 8.3 - 9.0; conductivity ≤ 5 μmhos/cm, therefore the power generator can be operated normally without any concern until now.

  11. Condensation induced water hammer driven sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Kullberg, Craig M.

    2004-05-11

    A method and apparatus (10) for treating a fluid or materials therein with acoustic energy has a vessel (14) for receiving the fluid with inner walls shaped to focus acoustic energy to a target zone within the vessel. One or more nozzles (26) are directed into the vessel (14) for injecting a condensable vapor, such as steam, into the vessel (14). The system may include a steam source (18) for providing steam as the condensable vapor from an industrial waste heat source. Steam drums (88) are disposed between the steam source (18) and nozzles (26) to equalize and distribute the vapor pressure. A cooling source (30) provides a secondary fluid for maintaining the liquid in the vessel (14) in subcooled conditions. A heating jacket (32) surrounds the vessel (14) to heat the walls of the vessel (14) and prevent biological growth thereon. A pressurizer (33) may operate the system at elevated pressures.

  12. Feshbach-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, V. G.; Denteneer, P. J. H.

    2009-01-09

    We investigate the phase diagram of a two-species Bose-Hubbard model describing atoms and molecules on a lattice, interacting via a Feshbach resonance. We identify a region where the system exhibits an exotic super-Mott phase and regions with phases characterized by atomic and/or molecular condensates. Our approach is based on a recently developed exact quantum Monte Carlo algorithm: the stochastic Green function algorithm with tunable directionality. We confirm some of the results predicted by mean-field studies, but we also find disagreement with these studies. In particular, we find a phase with an atomic but no molecular condensate, which is missing in all mean-field phase diagrams.

  13. Gravity triggered neutrino condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela

    2010-11-01

    In this work we use the Schwinger-Dyson equations to study the possibility that an enhanced gravitational attraction triggers the formation of a right-handed neutrino condensate, inducing dynamical symmetry breaking and generating a Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrino at a scale appropriate for the seesaw mechanism. The composite field formed by the condensate phase could drive an early epoch of inflation. We find that to the lowest order, the theory does not allow dynamical symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, thanks to the large number of matter fields in the model, the suppression by additional powers in G of higher order terms can be compensated, boosting them up to their lowest order counterparts. This way chiral symmetry can be broken dynamically and the infrared mass generated turns out to be in the expected range for a successful seesaw scenario.

  14. Gravitational vacuum condensate stars

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Pawel O.; Mottola, Emil

    2004-01-01

    A new final state of gravitational collapse is proposed. By extending the concept of Bose–Einstein condensation to gravitational systems, a cold, dark, compact object with an interior de Sitter condensate pv = -ρv and an exterior Schwarzschild geometry of arbitrary total mass M is constructed. These regions are separated by a shell with a small but finite proper thickness ℓ of fluid with equation of state p = +ρ, replacing both the Schwarzschild and de Sitter classical horizons. The new solution has no singularities, no event horizons, and a global time. Its entropy is maximized under small fluctuations and is given by the standard hydrodynamic entropy of the thin shell, which is of the order kBℓMc/, instead of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula, SBH = 4πkBGM2/c. Hence, unlike black holes, the new solution is thermodynamically stable and has no information paradox. PMID:15210982

  15. Sidestream condensate polishing for PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, S.W.W.; Yim, S.L.; Rios, J.; Liu, J.

    1986-06-01

    Condensate polishers are used in power plant condensate system to remove both particulate matter and ionized corrodents. Their conventional location is just downstream of the hotwell pumps (condensate pumps). Most polisher installations have enough flow capacity to polish 100% of the condensate. This inline configuration has some disadvantage, including a flow that varies with unit load and tends to disturb the polisher beds and reduce their effectiveness, and a potential for interrupting flow to the feedwater pumps. An alternate arrangement where water is extracted from either the condenser or the condensate system, polished and returned to the system, has been used in a few plants. Three different ways of doing this have been used: divide the condenser hotwell into two parts, one of which receives condensate from the tube bundles and the other of which is sheltered. Take unpolished condensate from the first part, purify it and return it to the other part from which the condensate pumps take suction; take unpolished condensate from one end of a divided header on the suction side of the hotwell pumps and after polishing it return it to the other end; and take unpolished condensate from a header on the discharge side of the condensate pumps, purify it and return it to the condensate system a short distance downstream. The three variants are analyzed in this report. It is concluded that the variant where the connections are on the discharge side of the condensate pumps is the most desirable for retrofitting, in all cases being far easier to retrofit than an inline polisher. In many cases it will be most desirable for new construction.

  16. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2005-03-17

    This article gives a brief review of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995. It exhibits a new state of matter in which a group of atoms behaves as a single particle. Experiments on this form of matter are relevant to many different areas of physics- from atomic clocks and quantum computing to super fluidity, superconductivity and quantum phase transition.

  17. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  18. Condensation in One-Dimensional Dead-End Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Junjie; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Li, Huawei; Bao, Bo; Persad, Aaron H; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David

    2017-01-24

    Phase change at the nanoscale is at the heart of many biological and geological phenomena. The recent emergence and global implications of unconventional oil and gas production from nanoporous shale further necessitate a higher understanding of phase behavior at these scales. Here, we directly observe condensation and condensate growth of a light hydrocarbon (propane) in discrete sub-100 nm (∼70 nm) channels. Two different condensation mechanisms at this nanoscale are distinguished, continuous growth and discontinuous growth due to liquid bridging ahead of the meniscus, both leading to similar net growth rates. The growth rates agree well with those predicted by a suitably defined thermofluid resistance model. In contrast to phase change at larger scales (∼220 and ∼1000 nm cases), the rate of liquid condensate growth in channels of sub-100 nm size is found to be limited mainly by vapor flow resistance (∼70% of the total resistance here), with interface resistance making up the difference. The condensation-induced vapor flow is in the transitional flow regime (Knudsen flow accounting for up to 13% of total resistance here). Collectively, these results demonstrate that with confinement at sub-100 nm scales, such as is commonly found in porous shale and other applications, condensation conditions deviate from the microscale and larger bulk conditions chiefly due to vapor flow and interface resistances.

  19. Capillary condenser/evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A heat transfer device is disclosed for transferring heat to or from a fluid that is undergoing a phase change. The heat transfer device includes a liquid-vapor manifold in fluid communication with a capillary structure thermally connected to a heat transfer interface, all of which are disposed in a housing to contain the vapor. The liquid-vapor manifold transports liquid in a first direction and conducts vapor in a second, opposite direction. The manifold provides a distributed supply of fluid (vapor or liquid) over the surface of the capillary structure. In one embodiment, the manifold has a fractal structure including one or more layers, each layer having one or more conduits for transporting liquid and one or more openings for conducting vapor. Adjacent layers have an increasing number of openings with decreasing area, and an increasing number of conduits with decreasing cross-sectional area, moving in a direction toward the capillary structure.

  20. Drag force on a moving impurity in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pei-Song; Zhu, Yao-Hui; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the drag force on a moving impurity in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. We prove rigorously that the superfluid critical velocity is zero when the impurity moves in all directions but one, in contrast to the case of liquid helium and superconductor, where it is finite in all directions. We also find that when the impurity moves in all directions except the two special ones, the drag force has nonzero transverse component with a small velocity. When the velocity becomes large and the states of the upper band are also excited, the transverse force becomes very small due to opposite contributions of the two bands. The characteristics of the superfluid critical velocity and the transverse force are results of the order-by-disorder mechanism in spin-orbit-coupled boson systems.

  1. Nematic order-disorder state transition in a liquid crystal analogue formed by oriented and migrating amoeboid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemkemer, R.; Teichgräber, V.; Schrank-Kaufmann, S.; Kaufmann, D.; Gruler, H.

    2000-10-01

    In cell culture, liquid crystal analogues are formed by elongated, migrating, and interacting amoeboid cells. An apolar nematic liquid crystal analogue is formed by different cell types like human melanocytes (=pigment cells of the skin), human fibroblasts (=connective tissue cells), human osteoblasts (=bone cells), human adipocytes (=fat cells), etc. The nematic analogue is quite well described by i) a stochastic machine equation responsible for cell orientation and ii) a self-organized extracellular guiding signal, E_2, which is proportional to the orientational order parameter as well as to the cell density. The investigations were mainly made with melanocytes. The transition to an isotropic state analogue can be accomplished either by changing the strength of interaction (e.g. variation of the cell density) or by influencing the cellular machinery by an externally applied signal: i) An isotropic gaseous state analogue is observed at low cell density (ρ < 110melanocytes/mm^2) and a nematic liquid crystal state analogue at higher cell density. ii) The nematic state analogue disappears if the bipolar shaped melanocytes are forced to become a star-like shape (induced by colchicine or staurosporine). The analogy between nematic liquid crystal state analogue formed by elongated, migrating and interacting cells and the nematic liquid crystal phase formed by interacting elongated molecules is discussed.

  2. Enhanced condensation on lubricant-impregnated nanotextured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sushant; Paxson, Adam T; Dhiman, Rajeev; Smith, J David; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2012-11-27

    Nanotextured superhydrophobic surfaces have received significant attention due to their ability to easily shed liquid drops. However, water droplets have been shown to condense within the textures of superhydrophobic surfaces, impale the vapor pockets, and strongly pin to the surface. This results in poor droplet mobility and degrades condensation performance. In this paper, we show that pinning of condensate droplets can be drastically reduced by designing a hierarchical micro-nanoscale texture on a surface and impregnating it with an appropriate lubricant. The choice of lubricant must take into account the surface energies of all phases present. A lubricant will cloak the condensate and inhibit growth if the spreading coefficient is positive. If the lubricant does not fully wet the solid, we show how condensate-solid pinning can be reduced by proper implementation of nanotexture. On such a surface, condensate droplets as small as 100 μm become highly mobile and move continuously at speeds that are several orders of magnitude higher than those on identically textured superhydrophobic surfaces. This remarkable mobility produces a continuous sweeping effect that clears the surface for fresh nucleation and results in enhanced condensation.

  3. Dropwise Condensation of Low Surface Tension Fluids on Omniphobic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Paxson, Adam T.; Staymates, Matthew; Walker, Marlon L.; Sun, Xiaoda; Anand, Sushant; Srinivasan, Siddarth; McKinley, Gareth H.; Chinn, Jeff; Scott, John Henry J.; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to the significant body of work devoted to surface engineering for promoting dropwise condensation heat transfer of steam, much less attention has been dedicated to fluids with lower interfacial tension. A vast array of low-surface tension fluids such as hydrocarbons, cryogens, and fluorinated refrigerants are used in a number of industrial applications, and the development of passive means for increasing their condensation heat transfer coefficients has potential for significant efficiency enhancements. Here we investigate condensation behavior of a variety of liquids with surface tensions in the range of 12 to 28 mN/m on three types of omniphobic surfaces: smooth oleophobic, re-entrant superomniphobic, and lubricant-impregnated surfaces. We demonstrate that although smooth oleophobic and lubricant-impregnated surfaces can promote dropwise condensation of the majority of these fluids, re-entrant omniphobic surfaces became flooded and reverted to filmwise condensation. We also demonstrate that on the lubricant-impregnated surfaces, the choice of lubricant and underlying surface texture play a crucial role in stabilizing the lubricant and reducing pinning of the condensate. With properly engineered surfaces to promote dropwise condensation of low-surface tension fluids, we demonstrate a four to eight-fold improvement in the heat transfer coefficient. PMID:24595171

  4. Dropwise condensation of low surface tension fluids on omniphobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Paxson, Adam T; Staymates, Matthew; Walker, Marlon L; Sun, Xiaoda; Anand, Sushant; Srinivasan, Siddarth; McKinley, Gareth H; Chinn, Jeff; Scott, John Henry J; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2014-03-05

    Compared to the significant body of work devoted to surface engineering for promoting dropwise condensation heat transfer of steam, much less attention has been dedicated to fluids with lower interfacial tension. A vast array of low-surface tension fluids such as hydrocarbons, cryogens, and fluorinated refrigerants are used in a number of industrial applications, and the development of passive means for increasing their condensation heat transfer coefficients has potential for significant efficiency enhancements. Here we investigate condensation behavior of a variety of liquids with surface tensions in the range of 12 to 28 mN/m on three types of omniphobic surfaces: smooth oleophobic, re-entrant superomniphobic, and lubricant-impregnated surfaces. We demonstrate that although smooth oleophobic and lubricant-impregnated surfaces can promote dropwise condensation of the majority of these fluids, re-entrant omniphobic surfaces became flooded and reverted to filmwise condensation. We also demonstrate that on the lubricant-impregnated surfaces, the choice of lubricant and underlying surface texture play a crucial role in stabilizing the lubricant and reducing pinning of the condensate. With properly engineered surfaces to promote dropwise condensation of low-surface tension fluids, we demonstrate a four to eight-fold improvement in the heat transfer coefficient.

  5. Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rong; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where water droplets nucleate immersed within the oil. The combination of surface energy heterogeneity, reduced oil-water interfacial energy, and surface structuring enabled drastically increased nucleation densities while maintaining easy condensate removal and low contact angles. Accordingly, on oil-infused heterogeneous nanostructured copper oxide surfaces, we demonstrated approximately 100% increase in heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensation surfaces in the presence of non-condensable gases. This work offers a distinct approach utilizing surface chemistry and structuring together with liquid-infusion for enhanced condensation heat transfer. PMID:23759735

  6. Effect of spontaneous condensation on condensation heat transfer in the presence of non-condensable gases

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, J.; Hein, D.

    1999-07-01

    The presence of non condensable gases like nitrogen or air reduces the condensation heat transfer during condensation of binary steam mixtures. The non condensable gas accumulates in the vapor phase boundary layer and causes a high heat transfer resistance. Especially with high pressures and low water temperatures spontaneous condensation reduces heat transfer additionally. Fog forms within the steam-nitrogen boundary layer and the steam condenses on the water droplets of the fog layer. The convective mass transfer to the cooling water interface diminishes. Raman spectroscopy and film theory are used to quantify this effect locally. The calculation of overall condensation rates in large steam nitrogen systems requires to use three dimensional CFD codes. The paper presents equations to predict fog formation in the boundary layer which can be implemented in CFD codes.

  7. W-007H B Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Rippy, G.L.

    1995-01-20

    B Plant Process Condensate (BCP) liquid effluent stream is the condensed vapors originating from the operation of the B Plant low-level liquid waste concentration system. In the past, the BCP stream was discharged into the soil column under a compliance plan which expired January 1, 1987. Currently, the BCP stream is inactive, awaiting restart of the E-23-3 Concentrator. B Plant Steam Condensate (BCS) liquid effluent stream is the spent steam condensate used to supply heat to the E-23-3 Concentrator. The tube bundles in the E-23-3 Concentrator discharge to the BCS. In the past, the BCS stream was discharged into the soil column. Currently, the BCS stream is inactive. This project shall provide liquid effluent systems (BCP/BCS/BCE) capable of operating for a minimum of 20 years, which does not include the anticipated decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) period.

  8. Nanocarbon condensation in detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastea, Sorin

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the definition of the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle in a reactive fluid environment, and propose an approach for predicting the size of carbon nanoparticles produced by the detonation of carbon-rich explosives that regards their condensation as a nucleation process and takes into account absolute entropy effects of the cluster population. The results are consistent with experimental observations and indicate that such entropy considerations are important for determining chemical equilibrium states in energetic materials that contain an excess of carbon. The analysis may be useful for other applications that deal with the nucleation of nanoparticles under reactive conditions.

  9. Nanocarbon condensation in detonation

    PubMed Central

    Bastea, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the definition of the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle in a reactive fluid environment, and propose an approach for predicting the size of carbon nanoparticles produced by the detonation of carbon-rich explosives that regards their condensation as a nucleation process and takes into account absolute entropy effects of the cluster population. The results are consistent with experimental observations and indicate that such entropy considerations are important for determining chemical equilibrium states in energetic materials that contain an excess of carbon. The analysis may be useful for other applications that deal with the nucleation of nanoparticles under reactive conditions. PMID:28176827

  10. Confinement Contains Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  11. Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Random Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Lye, J.E.; Fallani, L.; Fort, C.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, M.; Wiersma, D.S.

    2005-08-12

    An optical speckle potential is used to investigate the static and dynamic properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of disorder. With small levels of disorder, stripes are observed in the expanded density profile and strong damping of dipole and quadrupole oscillations is seen. Uncorrelated frequency shifts of the two modes are measured and are explained using a sum-rules approach and by the numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  12. Bose-Einstein condensate in a random potential.

    PubMed

    Lye, J E; Fallani, L; Modugno, M; Wiersma, D S; Fort, C; Inguscio, M

    2005-08-12

    An optical speckle potential is used to investigate the static and dynamic properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of disorder. With small levels of disorder, stripes are observed in the expanded density profile and strong damping of dipole and quadrupole oscillations is seen. Uncorrelated frequency shifts of the two modes are measured and are explained using a sum-rules approach and by the numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  13. Cosmic curvature and condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the universe may consist of a patchwork of domains with different Riemann curvature constants k = 0, +/-1. Features of a phase transition in which flat space breaks up in a transition 2k0 - k(-) + k(+) with initial scale factors R(-) = R(+) are postulated and explored. It is shown that such a transition is energetically permitted, has the equivalent of a Curie temperature, and can lead in a natural way to the formation of voids and galaxies. It is predicted that, if the ambient universe on average is well fitted by a purely k(-) space, with only occasional domains of k(+) containing galaxies, a density parameter of (A(z sub c + 1)) super -1 should be expected, where z sub c represents the redshift of the earliest objects to have condensed, and A takes on values ranging from about 5 to 3. Present observations of quasars would suggest a density of about 0.03 or 0.05, respectively, but it could be lower if earlier condensation took place.

  14. Modeling of Bulk Evaporation and Condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, S.; Ding, Z.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the modeling and mathematical formulation of the bulk evaporation and condensation involved in liquid-vapor phase change processes. An internal energy formulation, for these phase change processes that occur under the constraint of constant volume, was studied. Compared to the enthalpy formulation, the internal energy formulation has a more concise and compact form. The velocity and time scales of the interface movement were obtained through scaling analysis and verified by performing detailed numerical experiments. The convection effect induced by the density change was analyzed and found to be negligible compared to the conduction effect. Two iterative methods for updating the value of the vapor phase fraction, the energy based (E-based) and temperature based (T-based) methods, were investigated. Numerical experiments revealed that for the evaporation and condensation problems the E-based method is superior to the T-based method in terms of computational efficiency. The internal energy formulation and the E-based method were used to compute the bulk evaporation and condensation processes under different conditions. The evolution of the phase change processes was investigated. This work provided a basis for the modeling of thermal performance of multi-phase nuclear fuel elements under variable gravity conditions, in which the buoyancy convection due to gravity effects and internal heating are involved.

  15. Pion condensation in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Dylan; Erlich, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We study pion condensation at zero temperature in a hard-wall holographic model of hadrons with isospin chemical potential. We find that the transition from the hadronic phase to the pion condensate phase is first order except in a certain limit of model parameters. Our analysis suggests that immediately across the phase boundary the condensate acts as a stiff medium approaching the Zel'dovich limit of equal energy density and pressure.

  16. Condensation heat transfer in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, L. C.; Parish, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    In the present treatment of the condensation heat transfer process in a microgravity environment, two mechanisms for condensate removal are analyzed in light of two problems: (1) film condensation on a flat, porous plate, with condensate being removed by wall suction; and (2) the analytical prediction of the heat transfer coefficient of condensing annular flows, where the condensate film is driven by vapor shear. Both suction and vapor shear can effectively drain the condensate, ensuring continuous operation in microgravity.

  17. Condensing osteitis of the clavicle in children

    PubMed Central

    Andreacchio, Antonio; Marengo, Lorenza; Canavese, Federico

    2016-01-01

    AIM To confirm the rarity of this disorder and then to evaluate the effects of antibiotic treatment alone and assess whether this could produce a complete remission of symptoms in children and adolescents. METHODS We made a retrospective review of all cases of condensing osteitis of the clavicle in children and adolescents between January 2007 and January 2016. Outpatient and inpatient medical records, with radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, triphasic bone scan and computed tomography scans were retrospectively reviewed. All the patients underwent biopsy of the affected clavicle and were treated with intra venous (IV) antibiotics followed by oral antibiotics. RESULTS Seven cases of condensing osteitis of the clavicle were identified. All the patients presented with swelling of the medial end of the clavicle, and 5 out of 7 reported persisting pain. The patients’ mean age at presentation was 11.5 years (range 10.5-13). Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis in all cases. All the patients completed the treatment with IV and oral antibiotics. At last follow-up visit none of the patients complained of residual pain; all had a clinically evident reduction in the swelling of the medial end of the affected clavicle. The mean follow-up was 4 years (range 2-7). CONCLUSION Our findings show that condensing osteitis of the clavicle is a rare condition. Biopsy is needed to confirm diagnosis. The condition should be managed with IV and oral antibiotics. Aggressive surgery should be avoided. PMID:27622150

  18. Condensed matter physics and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.

    1995-10-01

    The proposed Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) upgrade is ideally suited for science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) because LANSCE is a highly-intensity pulsed neutron source located at a nuclear weapons design laboratory. The attributes of a high-intensity pulsed source are essential for performing experiments on Pu and other materials important for SBSS. Neutrons can accurately probe thick bulk specimens, probe thin layers both freestanding and embedded in thicker specimens, and provide time-resolution for some phenomena. Both ordered structures and disorder in solids, liquids, and amorphous materials can be characterized, as well as phase transition. Because LANSCE is at a nuclear design laboratory, specimens important for SBSS issues are available. Los Alamos National Laboratory is an appropriate place to develop the requisite hardware to accommodate SBSS specimens, such as Pu.

  19. Disordered Route to the Coulomb Quantum Spin Liquid: Random Transverse Fields on Spin Ice in Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7}.

    PubMed

    Wen, J-J; Koohpayeh, S M; Ross, K A; Trump, B A; McQueen, T M; Kimura, K; Nakatsuji, S; Qiu, Y; Pajerowski, D M; Copley, J R D; Broholm, C L

    2017-03-10

    Inelastic neutron scattering reveals a broad continuum of excitations in Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7}, the temperature and magnetic field dependence of which indicate a continuous distribution of quenched transverse fields (Δ) acting on the non-Kramers Pr^{3+} crystal field ground state doublets. Spin-ice correlations are apparent within 0.2 meV of the Zeeman energy. A random phase approximation provides an excellent account of the data with a transverse field distribution ρ(Δ)∝(Δ^{2}+Γ^{2})^{-1}, where Γ=0.27(1)  meV. Established during high temperature synthesis due to an underlying structural instability, it appears disorder in Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7} actually induces a quantum spin liquid.

  20. Disordered Route to the Coulomb Quantum Spin Liquid: Random Transverse Fields on Spin Ice in Pr2Zr2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.-J.; Koohpayeh, S. M.; Ross, K. A.; Trump, B. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Kimura, K.; Nakatsuji, S.; Qiu, Y.; Pajerowski, D. M.; Copley, J. R. D.; Broholm, C. L.

    2017-03-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering reveals a broad continuum of excitations in Pr2Zr2O7, the temperature and magnetic field dependence of which indicate a continuous distribution of quenched transverse fields (Δ ) acting on the non-Kramers Pr3 + crystal field ground state doublets. Spin-ice correlations are apparent within 0.2 meV of the Zeeman energy. A random phase approximation provides an excellent account of the data with a transverse field distribution ρ (Δ )∝(Δ2+Γ2)-1 , where Γ =0.27 (1 ) meV . Established during high temperature synthesis due to an underlying structural instability, it appears disorder in Pr2Zr2O7 actually induces a quantum spin liquid.

  1. Experimental investigation of CO2 condensation process using cryogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheonkyu; Yoo, Junghyun; Lee, Jisung; Park, Hana; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the dominant gas molecules that causes greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming. Numerous studies have been carried out to regulate the emission of CO2 to reduce greenhouse gas. The liquid CO2 is a convenient form of transportation compared to high-pressurized gaseous CO2. Therefore, the direct liquefaction mechanism of CO2 at low temperature draws technical attention recently. In particular, cold thermal energy of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) could be a candidate to condense gaseous CO2, especially in the LNG powered ship. In this paper, the detailed direct condensation process of CO2 using LN2 with intermittent solidification is investigated. Pressurized CO2 at 600 kPa is directly liquefied in a vessel by liquid nitrogen which is supplied into the coiled tube heat exchanger inside the CO2 vessel. The heat exchanger temperature is controlled from 130 K to 205 K to regulate the solidification and sublimation of CO2 by duty control with cryogenic solenoid valve. The characteristics of CO2 condensation process with cryogen are analyzed from the measurement results. The results show that the solidification causes the significant degradation of CO2 condensation heat transfer. Finally, the condensation rate with and without solidification is compared.

  2. Calorimetry of a Bose–Einstein-condensed photon gas

    PubMed Central

    Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level. PMID:27090978

  3. Condenser for photolithography system

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    2004-03-02

    A condenser for a photolithography system, in which a mask image from a mask is projected onto a wafer through a camera having an entrance pupil, includes a source of propagating radiation, a first mirror illuminated by the radiation, a mirror array illuminated by the radiation reflected from said first mirror, and a second mirror illuminated by the radiation reflected from the array. The mirror array includes a plurality of micromirrors. Each of the micromirrors is selectively actuatable independently of each other. The first mirror and the second mirror are disposed such that the source is imaged onto a plane of the mask and the mirror array is imaged into the entrance pupil of the camera.

  4. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  5. Treatment of Mild Gastrointestinal Disorders with a Herbal Combination: Results of a Non-interventional Study with Gastritol® Liquid.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Tankred; Heimueller, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    A combination of extracts from chamomile, silverweed, licorice, angelica, blessed thistle and wormwood, Gastritol(®) Liquid, is registered for the use of indigestion and gastrointestinal spasmodic complaints. To gain data on the experience in practice, a non-interventional open study was conducted in ambulatory patients including diabetics which were treated for 2 weeks. The efficacy of treatment was assessed by medical examination and evaluation of typical symptoms by patients. A total of 149 patients was enrolled, 90 without and 59 with diabetes. The treatment led to relevant improvements in all symptoms in both study groups. The most notable improvements were seen for the symptoms vomiting (-66.7%; diabetics: -63.9%) and retching (-52.2%; diabetics: -53.6%). An overall improvement was rated by about 90% in both study groups. In seven patients adverse events had been reported (5 times temporary nausea after intake, one time gastric spasm and one time oral burning sensation), all of them of mild nature. The global tolerability was assessed as good or very good in more than 80% by practitioners and patients. Under the conditions of this open study method Gastritol(®) Liquid had been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of mild gastrointestinal disorders, including diabetic patients.

  6. Sequential elution liquid chromatography can significantly increase the probability of a successful separation by simultaneously increasing the peak capacity and reducing the separation disorder.

    PubMed

    Socia, Adam; Foley, Joe P

    2014-01-10

    This paper demonstrates that sequential elution liquid chromatography (SE-LC), an approach in which two or more elution modes are employed in series for the separation of two or more groups of compounds, can be used to separate not only weak acids (or weak bases) from neutral compounds, but weak acids and weak bases from neutral compounds (and each other) by the sequential application of either of two types of an extended pH gradient prior to a solvent gradient. It also details a comparison, based on peak capacity and separation disorder, of the probability of success of this approach with the unimodal elution approach taken by conventional column liquid chromatography. For an HPLC peak capacity of 120 and samples of moderate complexity (e.g., 12 components), the probability of success (Rs≥1) increases from 37.9% (HPLC) to 85.8% (SE-LC). Different columns were evaluated for their utility for SE-LC using the following criteria: (1) the prediction of the elution order of the groups based on the degree of ionization of the compounds; and (2) the closeness of the peak shape to the ideal Gaussian distribution. The best columns overall were the Zorbax SB-AQ and Waters XBridge Shield columns, as they provided both between-class and within-class separations of all compounds, as well as the lowest degree of tailing of 4-ethylaniline using the pH 2 to pH 8 gradient.

  7. Ferroelectricity by Bose–Einstein condensation in a quantum magnet

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, S.; Kakihata, K.; Sawada, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Matsumoto, M.; Hagiwara, M.; Tanaka, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Bose–Einstein condensation is a fascinating phenomenon, which results from quantum statistics for identical particles with an integer spin. Surprising properties, such as superfluidity, vortex quantization or Josephson effect, appear owing to the macroscopic quantum coherence, which spontaneously develops in Bose–Einstein condensates. Realization of Bose–Einstein condensation is not restricted in fluids like liquid helium, a superconducting phase of paired electrons in a metal and laser-cooled dilute alkali atoms. Bosonic quasi-particles like exciton-polariton and magnon in solids-state systems can also undergo Bose–Einstein condensation in certain conditions. Here, we report that the quantum coherence in Bose–Einstein condensate of the magnon quasi particles yields spontaneous electric polarization in the quantum magnet TlCuCl3, leading to remarkable magnetoelectric effect. Very soft ferroelectricity is realized as a consequence of the O(2) symmetry breaking by magnon Bose–Einstein condensation. The finding of this ferroelectricity will open a new window to explore multi-functionality of quantum magnets. PMID:27666875

  8. Ferroelectricity by Bose-Einstein condensation in a quantum magnet.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Kakihata, K; Sawada, Y; Watanabe, K; Matsumoto, M; Hagiwara, M; Tanaka, H

    2016-09-26

    The Bose-Einstein condensation is a fascinating phenomenon, which results from quantum statistics for identical particles with an integer spin. Surprising properties, such as superfluidity, vortex quantization or Josephson effect, appear owing to the macroscopic quantum coherence, which spontaneously develops in Bose-Einstein condensates. Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation is not restricted in fluids like liquid helium, a superconducting phase of paired electrons in a metal and laser-cooled dilute alkali atoms. Bosonic quasi-particles like exciton-polariton and magnon in solids-state systems can also undergo Bose-Einstein condensation in certain conditions. Here, we report that the quantum coherence in Bose-Einstein condensate of the magnon quasi particles yields spontaneous electric polarization in the quantum magnet TlCuCl3, leading to remarkable magnetoelectric effect. Very soft ferroelectricity is realized as a consequence of the O(2) symmetry breaking by magnon Bose-Einstein condensation. The finding of this ferroelectricity will open a new window to explore multi-functionality of quantum magnets.

  9. Density functional study of condensation in capped capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Savva, N.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2015-07-01

    We study liquid adsorption in narrow rectangular capped capillaries formed by capping two parallel planar walls (a slit pore) with a third wall orthogonal to the two planar walls. The most important transition in confined fluids is arguably condensation, where the pore becomes filled with the liquid phase which is metastable in the bulk. Depending on the temperature T, the condensation in capped capillaries can be first-order (at T≤slant {{T}\\text{cw}} ) or continuous (at T\\gt {{T}\\text{cw}} ), where {{T}\\text{cw}} is the capillary wetting temperature. At T \\gt {{T}\\text{cw}} , the capping wall can adsorb mesoscopic amounts of metastable under-condensed liquid. The onset of condensation is then manifested by the continuous unbinding of the interface between the liquid adsorbed on the capping wall and the gas filling the rest of the capillary volume. In wide capped capillaries there may be a remnant of wedge filling transition, which is manifested by the adsorption of liquid drops in the corners. Our classical statistical mechanical treatment predicts a possibility of three-phase coexistence between gas, corner drops and liquid slabs adsorbed on the capping wall. In sufficiently wide capillaries we find that thick prewetting films of finite length may be nucleated at the capping wall below the boundary of the prewetting transition. Prewetting then proceeds in a continuous manner manifested by the unbinding interface between the thick and thin films adsorbed on the side walls. Our analysis is based on a detailed numerical investigation of the density functional theory for the fluid equilibria for a number of illustrative case studies.

  10. Screening of lysosomal storage disorders: application of the online trapping-and-cleanup liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    PubMed

    Ombrone, Daniela; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Giocaliere, Elisa; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Forni, Giulia; De Luca, Alessio; Villanelli, Fabio; Casetta, Bruno; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, new treatments have become available to treat some lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and many studies suggest that there is a benefit with starting therapy early. Newborn screening should detect diseases early enough for prompt treatment. Some countries include additional conditions, such as some LSDs, into their newborn screening panels. Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) activity. Currently, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) or bone marrow transplantation is available and this has raised a growing interest for the development of a newborn screening test. In 2009, we reported a new fast and simplified tandem mass spectrometry-based method for quantifying five enzyme activities on dried blood spots. Here, we describe the inclusion of IDUA activity determination for the simultaneous detection of six lysosomal storage diseases. We have defined reference normal ranges by testing 680 healthy newborns and 240 adults. The assay was checked through three confirmed MPS I patients whose IDUA activity was below the normal range. Reproducibility of the assays has been established by assessing the intra-day and inter-day assay imprecisions. This quick assay has been devised to be implemented in newborn screening by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

  11. Amine catalyzed condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S.

    2001-01-01

    The catalysis of the condensation of hydrolyzed metal alkoxides by amines has been mentioned in the literature, but there has been no systematic study of their influence on the rate of the condensation reaction of the alkoxide and the microstructure of the resultant gel.

  12. Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Vivien; Jaime, Marcelo; Batista, C. D.

    2014-04-01

    This article reviews experimental and theoretical work on Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum magnets. These magnets are natural realizations of gases of interacting bosons whose relevant parameters such as dimensionality, lattice geometry, amount of disorder, nature of the interactions, and particle concentration can vary widely between different compounds. The particle concentration can be easily tuned by applying an external magnetic field which plays the role of a chemical potential. This rich spectrum of realizations offers a unique possibility for studying the different physical behaviors that emerge in interacting Bose gases from the interplay between their relevant parameters. The plethora of other bosonic phases that can emerge in quantum magnets, of which the Bose-Einstein condensate is the most basic ground state, is reviewed. The compounds discussed in this review have been intensively studied in the last two decades and have led to important contributions in the area of quantum magnetism. In spite of their apparent simplicity, these systems often exhibit surprising behaviors. The possibility of using controlled theoretical approaches has triggered the discovery of unusual effects induced by frustration, dimensionality, or disorder.

  13. Chromatin condensation during terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baobing; Yang, Jing; Ji, Peng

    2016-09-02

    Mammalian terminal erythropoiesis involves gradual but dramatic chromatin condensation steps that are essential for cell differentiation. Chromatin and nuclear condensation is followed by a unique enucleation process, which is believed to liberate more spaces for hemoglobin enrichment and enable the generation of a physically flexible mature red blood cell. Although these processes have been known for decades, the mechanisms are still unclear. Our recent study reveals an unexpected nuclear opening formation during mouse terminal erythropoiesis that requires caspase-3 activity. Major histones, except H2AZ, are partially released from the opening, which is important for chromatin condensation. Block of the nuclear opening through caspase inhibitor or knockdown of caspase-3 inhibits chromatin condensation and enucleation. We also demonstrate that nuclear opening and histone release are cell cycle regulated. These studies reveal a novel mechanism for chromatin condensation in mammalia terminal erythropoiesis.

  14. Characterization of spacecraft humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckle, Susan; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    When construction of Space Station Freedom reaches the Permanent Manned Capability (PMC) stage, the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem will be fully operational such that (distilled) urine, spent hygiene water, and humidity condensate will be reclaimed to provide water of potable quality. The reclamation technologies currently baselined to process these waste waters include adsorption, ion exchange, catalytic oxidation, and disinfection. To ensure that the baseline technologies will be able to effectively remove those compounds presenting a health risk to the crew, the National Research Council has recommended that additional information be gathered on specific contaminants in waste waters representative of those to be encountered on the Space Station. With the application of new analytical methods and the analysis of waste water samples more representative of the Space Station environment, advances in the identification of the specific contaminants continue to be made. Efforts by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory at JSC were successful in enlarging the database of contaminants in humidity condensate. These efforts have not only included the chemical characterization of condensate generated during ground-based studies, but most significantly the characterization of cabin and Spacelab condensate generated during Shuttle missions. The analytical results presented in this paper will be used to show how the composition of condensate varies amongst enclosed environments and thus the importance of collecting condensate from an environment close to that of the proposed Space Station. Although advances were made in the characterization of space condensate, complete characterization, particularly of the organics, requires further development of analytical methods.

  15. Epimerization in peptide thioester condensation.

    PubMed

    Teruya, Kenta; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Kawakami, Toru; Akaji, Kenichi; Aimoto, Saburo

    2012-11-01

    Peptide segment couplings are now widely utilized in protein chemical synthesis. One of the key structures for the strategy is the peptide thioester. Peptide thioester condensation, in which a C-terminal peptide thioester is selectively activated by silver ions then condensed with an amino component, is a powerful tool. But the amino acid adjacent to the thioester is at risk of epimerization. During the preparation of peptide thioesters by the Boc solid-phase method, no substantial epimerization of the C-terminal amino acid was detected. Epimerization was, however, observed during a thioester-thiol exchange reaction and segment condensation in DMSO in the presence of a base. In contrast, thioester-thiol exchange reactions in aqueous solutions gave no epimerization. The epimerization during segment condensation was significantly suppressed with a less polar solvent that is applicable to segments in thioester peptide condensation. These results were applied to a longer peptide thioester condensation. The epimer content of the coupling product of 89 residues was reduced from 27% to 6% in a condensation between segments of 45 and 44 residues for the thioester and the amino component, respectively.

  16. Water condensation: a multiscale phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-02-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address the shortcomings of the thermodynamic theory in describing the nucleation and emphasize the importance of nanoscale effects. This leads to the description of condensation from a molecular viewpoint. Also presented is how the nucleation can be simulated by use of molecular models, and how the condensation process is simulated on the macroscale using computational fluid dynamics. Finally, examples of hybrid models combining molecular and macroscale models for the simulation of condensation on a surface are presented.

  17. Dynamics of Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Random Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardonov, Sh.; Modugno, M.; Sherman, E. Ya.

    2015-10-01

    Disorder plays a crucial role in spin dynamics in solids and condensed matter systems. We demonstrate that for a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a random potential two mechanisms of spin evolution that can be characterized as "precessional" and "anomalous" are at work simultaneously. The precessional mechanism, typical for solids, is due to the condensate displacement. The unconventional anomalous mechanism is due to the spin-dependent velocity producing the distribution of the condensate spin polarization. The condensate expansion is accompanied by a random displacement and fragmentation, where it becomes sparse, as clearly revealed in the spin dynamics. Thus, different stages of the evolution can be characterized by looking at the condensate spin.

  18. Local Condensation Curve from Dropwise to Glacial Region on Large Vertical Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, Tadao; Shimada, Ryohachi; Takeyama, Toshiro

    The existence of several regimes of condensation heat transfer is well known. Regimes are given academic names as dropwise, transition, film and glacial condensation along the condensation curve showing the relationship between heat flux and surface subcooling. In case of comparatively large vertical surface, the lower part on the gravitational direction is affected by condensate from the upper part, and will be covered by water stream like a rivulet. It has no longer an existence as dropwise condition, and it is absolutely impossible that heat transfer problems under constant temperature or constant heat flux take place. The reason is why as follows, heat transfer of film condensation is some orders of magnitude less than dropwise condensation, and various regimes exist together simultaneously. In the present paper we shall try to observe the coexisting appearance of regimes in steam condensation at atmospheric pressure and make researches in the local condensation curve from top to bottom on the same surface, that is divided into eight parts in the rear side. The main results are shown as follows (1) Enhancement of heat transfer by wiping of drops appears toward somewhat lower position from top. (2) Frazil ice is observed in the supercooled liquid film flowing down on glacial condensation. (3) The regime of glacial condensation describes a thermal hysteresis loop.

  19. Feasibility of a new method to collect exhaled breath condensate in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Rosias, Philippe P R; Robroeks, Charlotte M; van de Kant, Kim D; Rijkers, Ger T; Zimmermann, Luc J; van Schayck, Constant P; Heynens, Jan W; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2010-02-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising non-invasive method to assess respiratory inflammation in adults and children with lung disease. Especially in pre-school children, condensate collection is hampered by long sampling times because of open-ended collection systems. We aimed to assess the feasibility of condensate collection in pre-school children using a closed glass condenser with breath recirculation system, which also collects the residual non-condensed exhaled breath, and subsequently recirculates it back into the condenser. Condensate was collected before and after breath recirculation in 70 non-sedated pre-school children with and without recurrent wheeze. Cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α) were measured in 50 μl samples using ultrasensitive multiplexed liquid bead array. The success rate of condensate collection increased from 64% (without recirculation) to 83% (after breath recirculation), and mean condensate volume from 214 to 465 μl respectively. Detection of cytokines was successful in 95-100% of samples. Cytokine concentrations before and after breath recirculation were not different (p > 0.232). In asthmatic children, only TNF-α concentrations were significantly decreased, compared to non-asthmatics. In pre-school children, the collection of EBC is feasible using a new closed glass condenser with breath recirculation system. This new method may help to assess - non-invasively - cytokine profiles in asthmatic and non-asthmatic pre-school children.

  20. Degree of disorder in cubic mesophases in thermotropics: thermodynamic study of a liquid crystal showing two cubic mesophases.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Shinhara, Takashi; Nakamoto, Tadahiro; Kutsumizu, Shoichi; Yano, S; Sorai, Michio

    2002-03-01

    Heat capacity of a thermotropic mesogen ANBC(22) (4(')-alkoxy-3(')-nitrobiphenyl-4-carboxylic acid with 22 carbon atoms in alkyl chain) showing two cubic mesophases was measured by adiabatic calorimetry between 13 and 480 K. Excess enthalpies and entropies due to phase transitions were determined. A small thermal anomaly due to the cubic Im3m-->cubic Ia3d phase transition was successfully detected. Through an analysis of chain-length dependence of the entropy of transition, the sequence of two cubic mesophases (with space groups Ia3d and Im3m) is deduced for thermotropic mesogens ANBC(n). It is shown that the disorder of the core arrangement decreases in the order of Sm-C-->cubic (Im3m)-->cubic (Ia3d) while that of the chain in the reverse order cubic (Ia3d)-->cubic (Im3m)-->Sm C.

  1. Macromolecular liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Safinya, C.R.; Safran, S.A. ); Pincus, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Liquids include a broad range of material systems which are of high scientific and technological interest. Generally speaking, these are partially ordered or disordered phases where the individual molecular species have organized themselves on length scales which are larger than simple fluids, typically between 10 Angstroms and several microns. The specific systems reported on in this book include membranes, microemulsions, micelles, liquid crystals, colloidal suspensions, and polymers. They have a major impact on a broad spectrum of technological industries such as displays, plastics, soap and detergents, chemicals and petroleum, and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Steam condenser thermal design theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, B. J.

    Test data and prediction methods for condensation in steam condenser tube banks are reviewed. Standards for thermal rating; effect of vapor velocity; vapor shear and inundation in tube banks; correction factors to the Nusselt equation; and equations for the combined effect of vapor shear and inundation are discussed. Effects of noncondensible gases; tube side heat transfer; and expressions for combined tube side and shell side heat transfer are considered. Frictional, gravitational, momentum, and pressure drop trends; and the role of access lanes to reduce pressure drop are outlined. Computer models of condensers, including algebraic representations of the field equations, are summarized.

  3. Controlling condensation and frost growth with chemical micropatterns

    PubMed Central

    Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Hansen, Ryan R.; Murphy, Kevin R.; Nath, Saurabh; Retterer, Scott T.; Collier, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In-plane frost growth on chilled hydrophobic surfaces is an inter-droplet phenomenon, where frozen droplets harvest water from neighboring supercooled liquid droplets to grow ice bridges that propagate across the surface in a chain reaction. To date, no surface has been able to passively prevent the in-plane growth of ice bridges across the population of supercooled condensate. Here, we demonstrate that when the separation between adjacent nucleation sites for supercooled condensate is properly controlled with chemical micropatterns prior to freezing, inter-droplet ice bridging can be slowed and even halted entirely. Since the edge-to-edge separation between adjacent supercooled droplets decreases with growth time, deliberately triggering an early freezing event to minimize the size of nascent condensation was also necessary. These findings reveal that inter-droplet frost growth can be passively suppressed by designing surfaces to spatially control nucleation sites and by temporally controlling the onset of freezing events. PMID:26796663

  4. Controlling condensation and frost growth with chemical micropatterns

    DOE PAGES

    Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Hansen, Ryan R.; Murphy, Kevin R.; ...

    2016-01-22

    Frost growth on chilled hydrophobic surfaces is an inter-droplet phenomenon, where frozen droplets harvest water from supercooled liquid droplets to grow ice bridges that propagate across the surface in a chain reaction. To date, no surface has been able to passively prevent the in-plane growth of frost across the population of supercooled condensate. Here, we demonstrate that when the nucleation sites for supercooled condensate are properly controlled with chemical micropatterns, the speed of frost growth can be slowed and even halted entirely. This stoppage of frost growth is attributed to the large interdroplet separation between condensate upon the onset ofmore » freezing, which was controlled by the pitch of the chemical patterns and by deliberately triggering an early freezing event. Lastly, these findings reveal that frost growth can be passively suppressed by designing surfaces to spatially control nucleation sites and/or temporally control the onset of freezing events.« less

  5. Controlling condensation and frost growth with chemical micropatterns

    SciTech Connect

    Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Hansen, Ryan R.; Murphy, Kevin R.; Nath, Saurabh; Retterer, Scott T.; Collier, C. Patrick

    2016-01-22

    Frost growth on chilled hydrophobic surfaces is an inter-droplet phenomenon, where frozen droplets harvest water from supercooled liquid droplets to grow ice bridges that propagate across the surface in a chain reaction. To date, no surface has been able to passively prevent the in-plane growth of frost across the population of supercooled condensate. Here, we demonstrate that when the nucleation sites for supercooled condensate are properly controlled with chemical micropatterns, the speed of frost growth can be slowed and even halted entirely. This stoppage of frost growth is attributed to the large interdroplet separation between condensate upon the onset of freezing, which was controlled by the pitch of the chemical patterns and by deliberately triggering an early freezing event. Lastly, these findings reveal that frost growth can be passively suppressed by designing surfaces to spatially control nucleation sites and/or temporally control the onset of freezing events.

  6. Polariton condensation in a strain-compensated planar microcavity with InGaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Cilibrizzi, Pasquale; Askitopoulos, Alexis Silva, Matteo; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G.; Bastiman, Faebian; Clarke, Edmund; Zajac, Joanna M.; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2014-11-10

    The investigation of intrinsic interactions in polariton condensates is currently limited by the photonic disorder of semiconductor microcavity structures. Here, we use a strain compensated planar GaAs/AlAs{sub 0.98}P{sub 0.02} microcavity with embedded InGaAs quantum wells having a reduced cross-hatch disorder to overcome this issue. Using real and reciprocal space spectroscopic imaging under non-resonant optical excitation, we observe polariton condensation and a second threshold marking the onset of photon lasing, i.e., the transition from the strong to the weak-coupling regime. Condensation in a structure with suppressed photonic disorder is a necessary step towards the implementation of periodic lattices of interacting condensates, providing a platform for on chip quantum simulations.

  7. SEPARATION OF VAPOR-PHASE ALCOHOL/WATER MIXTURES VIA FRACTIONAL CONDENSATION USING A PILOT-SCALE DEPHLEGMATOR: ENHANCEMENT OF THE PREVAPORATION PROCESS SEPARATION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    In prevaporation, a liquid mixture contacts a membrane surface that preferentially permeates one of the liquid components as a vapor. Our approach to improving pervaporation performance is to replace the one-stage condenser traditionally used to condense the permeate with a frac...

  8. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Ott, Ryan T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disorder transitions in condensed matter systems. PMID:27030071

  9. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Ott, Ryan T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-03-31

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disorder transitions in condensed matter systems.

  10. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Ott, Ryan T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disorder transitions in condensed matter systems.

  11. Condensation heat transfer under a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    A description of the condensation heat transfer process in microgravity is given. A review of the literature is also reported. The most essential element of condensation heat transfer in microgravity is the condensate removal mechanism. Two mechanisms for condensate removal are analyzed by looking into two problems. The first problem is concerned with film condensation on a flat porous plate with the condensate being removed by suction at the wall. The second problem is an analytical prediction of the heat transfer coefficient for condensing annular flows with the condensate film driven by the vapor shear. It is concluded that both suction and vapor shear can effectively drain the condensate to ensure continuous operation of the condensers operated under a microgravity environment. It is recommended that zero-g flight experiments be carried out to verify the prediction made in the present report. The results contained in this report should also aid in the design of future space condensers.

  12. Monitoring by Control Technique - Condensers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about condenser control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  13. Spin liquid state in the disordered triangular lattice Sc2Ga2CuO7 revealed by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Khuntia, P.; Kumar, R.; Mahajan, A. V.; Baenitz, M.; Furukawa, Y.

    2016-04-18

    We present microscopic magnetic properties of a two-dimensional triangular lattice Sc2Ga2CuO7, consisting of single and double triangular Cu planes. An antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange interaction J/kB ≈ 35 K between Cu2+ (S = 1/2) spins in the triangular biplane is obtained from the analysis of intrinsic magnetic susceptibility data. The intrinsic magnetic susceptibility, extracted from 71Ga NMR shift data, displays the presence of AFM short range spin correlations and remains finite down to 50 mK, suggesting a nonsinglet ground state. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) reveals a slowing down of Cu2+ spin fluctuations with decreasing T down to 100 mK. Magnetic specific heat (Cm) and 1/T1 exhibit power law behavior at low temperatures, implying the gapless nature of the spin excitation spectrum. The absence of long range magnetic ordering down to ~J/700, nonzero spin susceptibility at low T, and the power law behavior of Cm and 1/T1 suggest a gapless quantum spin liquid (QSL) state. Our results demonstrate that persistent spin dynamics induced by frustration maintain a quantum-disordered state at T → 0 in this triangular lattice antiferromagnet. Furthermore, this suggests that the low energy modes are dominated by spinon excitations in the QSL state due to randomness engendered by disorder and frustration.

  14. Capillary condensation of water between mica surfaces above and below zero-effect of surface ions.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dominika; Christenson, Hugo K

    2009-09-01

    We have studied the capillary condensation of water from saturated vapor below 0 degrees C in the annular wedge-pore formed around two mica surfaces in contact in a surface force apparatus. The condensed water remains liquid down to at least -9 degrees C, and the measured condensate size is close to the predictions of a recent model for the dependence of the interfacial curvature of supercooled capillary condensates on temperature and surface tension. The small deviation observed may be accounted for by assuming that solute as K(2)CO(3) from the mica-condensate interface dissolves in the condensates and gives rise to an additional depression of the freezing point apart from that caused by the interface curvature. By contrast, measurements of the interface curvature at relative vapor pressures of 0.95-0.99 at 20 degrees C confirm a significantly larger deviation from the Kelvin equation. The magnitude of the deviation is in remarkable agreement with that calculated from the results of an earlier study of capillary condensation of water from a nonpolar liquid, also at T = 20 degrees C. Evidently, additional solute from the surrounding mica surface migrates into the condensates at room temperature. We conclude that the surface diffusion of ions on mica is much slower at subzero temperatures than at room temperature.

  15. Description of Liquid Nitrogen Experimental Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; Jacobs, Richard E.; Saiyed, Naseem H.

    1991-01-01

    The Liquid Nitrogen Test Facility is a unique test facility for ground-based liquid nitrogen experimentation. The test rig consists of an insulated tank of approximately 12.5 cubic ft in volume, which is supplied with liquid nitrogen from a 300 gal dewar via a vacuum jacketed piping system. The test tank is fitted with pressure and temperature measuring instrumentation, and with two view ports which allow visual observation of test conditions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility, the initial test program is briefly described. The objective of the test program is to measure the condensation rate by injecting liquid nitrogen as a subcooled spray into the ullage of a tank 50 percent full of liquid nitrogen at saturated conditions. The condensation rate of the nitrogen vapor on the subcooled spray can be analytically modeled, and results validated and corrected by experimentally measuring the vapor condensation on liquid sprays.

  16. Optical Imaging of Water Condensation on Lubricant Impregnated Micropillar Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    We explored the condensation of water drops on a lubricant-impregnated surface, i.e., a micropillar patterned surface impregnated with a ionic liquid. Growing drops were imaged in 3D using a laser scanning confocal microscope equipped with a temperature and humidity control. On a lubricant-impregnated hydrophobic micropillar array, different stages of condensation can be discriminated: - Nucleation on a lubricant surface. - Regular alignement between micropillars and formation of a three-phase contact line on a bottom of the substrate. - Deformation and bridging by coalescence, leading to a detachment of the drops from the bottom substrate to pillars'top faces. However, on a lubricant-impregnated hydrophilic micropillar array, the condensed water covers the micropillars by dewetting the lubricant. As a result, the surface loses its slippery property. Our results provide fundamental concepts how these solid/liquid hybrid surfaces can be applied for facile removal of condensed water, as well as necessity of the appropriate surface treatment. Financial support from ERC for the advanced grant 340391-SUPRO is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Heat and mass transfer with condensation in capillary porous bodies.

    PubMed

    Larbi, Salah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this present work is related to wetting process analysis caused by condensation phenomena in capillary porous material by using a numerical simulation. Special emphasis is given to the study of the mechanism involved and the evaluation of classical theoretical models used as a predictive tool. A further discussion will be given for the distribution of the liquid phase for both its pendular and its funicular state and its consequence on diffusion coefficients of the mathematical model used. Beyond the complexity of the interaction effects between vaporisation-condensation processes on the gas-liquid interfaces, the comparison between experimental and numerical simulations permits to identify the specific contribution and the relative part of mass and energy transport parameters. This analysis allows us to understand the contribution of each part of the mathematical model used and to simplify the study.

  18. Refrigerant pressurization system with a two-phase condensing ejector

    DOEpatents

    Bergander, Mark

    2009-07-14

    A refrigerant pressurization system including an ejector having a first conduit for flowing a liquid refrigerant therethrough and a nozzle for accelerating a vapor refrigerant therethrough. The first conduit is positioned such that the liquid refrigerant is discharged from the first conduit into the nozzle. The ejector includes a mixing chamber for condensing the vapor refrigerant. The mixing chamber comprises at least a portion of the nozzle and transitions into a second conduit having a substantially constant cross sectional area. The condensation of the vapor refrigerant in the mixing chamber causes the refrigerant mixture in at least a portion of the mixing chamber to be at a pressure greater than that of the refrigerant entering the nozzle and greater than that entering the first conduit.

  19. Utilization of Porous Media for Condensing Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, George C.

    2006-01-01

    The use of porous media as a mean of separating liquid condensate from the air stream in condensing heat exchangers has been explored in the past inside small plant growth chambers and in the Apollo Command Module. Both applications used a cooled porous media made of sintered stainless steel to cool and separate condensation from the air stream. However, the main issues with the utilization of porous media in the past have been the deterioration of the porous media over long duration, such as clogging and changes in surface wetting characteristics. In addition, for long duration usage, biofilm growth from microorganisms on the porous medial would also be an issue. In developing Porous Media Condensing Heat Exchangers (PMCHX) for future space applications, different porous materials and microbial growth control methods will need to be explored. This paper explores the work performed at JSC and GRC to evaluate different porous materials and microbial control methods to support the development of a Porous Media Condensing Heat Exchanger. It outlines the basic principles for designing a PMCHX and issues that were encountered and ways to resolve those issues. The PMCHX has potential of mass, volume, and power savings over current CHX and water separator technology and would be beneficial for long duration space missions.

  20. Sliding Luttinger liquid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan; Kane, C. L.; Lubensky, T. C.

    2001-07-01

    We study systems of coupled spin-gapped and gapless Luttinger liquids. First, we establish the existence of a sliding Luttinger liquid phase for a system of weakly coupled parallel quantum wires, with and without disorder. It is shown that the coupling can stabilize a Luttinger liquid phase in the presence of disorder. We then extend our analysis to a system of crossed Luttinger liquids and establish the stability of a non-Fermi-liquid state: the crossed sliding Luttinger liquid phase. In this phase the system exhibits a finite-temperature, long-wavelength, isotropic electric conductivity that diverges as a power law in temperature T as T-->0. This two-dimensional system has many properties of a true isotropic Luttinger liquid, though at zero temperature it becomes anisotropic. An extension of this model to a three-dimensional stack exhibits a much higher in-plane conductivity than the conductivity in a perpendicular direction.

  1. The order of condensation in capillary grooves.

    PubMed

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-05-15

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p(co)(L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p(sat) - p(co)(L) = 2σ cosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θcap; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σ sinθcap/L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θcap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented.

  2. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    optical study. Film formation goes a step beyond adsorption; some surfactants form monolayers or multilayers at the interface. A polymer microfilm or a polymer-particle matrix can be synthesized at the liquid-liquid boundary. Such films exhibit unique adsorption and ion-intercalation properties of their own. Electrowetting refers broadly to the phenomenon in which an applied voltage modulates the shape of a liquid-liquid interface, essentially by altering the surface tension. Electric fields can be used to induce droplets on solid substrates to change shape, or to affect the structure of liquid-liquid emulsions. Various chemical reactions can be performed at the liquid-liquid boundary. Liquid-liquid microelectrodes allow detailed study of ion-transfer kinetics at the interface. Photochemical processes can also be used to control the conformations of molecules adsorbed at the interface. But how much precise control do we actually have on the state of the interfacial region? Several contributions to this issue address a system which has been studied for decades in electrochemistry, but remains essentially unfamilar to physicists. This is the interface between two immiscible electrolytic solutions (ITIES), a progressing interdisciplinary field in which condensed-matter physics and physical chemistry meet molecular electrochemistry. Why is it so exciting? The reason is simple. The ITIES is chargeable: when positioned between two electrodes it can be polarized, and back- to-back electrical double layers form on both sides of the liquid-liquid interface. Importantly, the term immiscible refers not only to oil and water but also to the electrolytes. Inorganic electrolytes, such as alkali halides, tend to stay in water, whereas organic electrolytes, such as tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate, stay in oil. This behaviour arises because energies of the order of 0.2-0.3 eV are needed to drive ions across the interface. As long as these free energies of transfer are not exceeded by

  3. Quantum entanglement in condensed matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflorencie, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This review focuses on the field of quantum entanglement applied to condensed matter physics systems with strong correlations, a domain which has rapidly grown over the last decade. By tracing out part of the degrees of freedom of correlated quantum systems, useful and non-trivial information can be obtained through the study of the reduced density matrix, whose eigenvalue spectrum (the entanglement spectrum) and the associated Rényi entropies are now well recognized to contain key features. In particular, the celebrated area law for the entanglement entropy of ground-states will be discussed from the perspective of its subleading corrections which encode universal details of various quantum states of matter, e.g. symmetry breaking states or topological order. Going beyond entropies, the study of the low-lying part of the entanglement spectrum also allows to diagnose topological properties or give a direct access to the excitation spectrum of the edges, and may also raise significant questions about the underlying entanglement Hamiltonian. All these powerful tools can be further applied to shed some light on disordered quantum systems where impurity/disorder can conspire with quantum fluctuations to induce non-trivial effects. Disordered quantum spin systems, the Kondo effect, or the many-body localization problem, which have all been successfully (re)visited through the prism of quantum entanglement, will be discussed in detail. Finally, the issue of experimental access to entanglement measurement will be addressed, together with its most recent developments.

  4. Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    The 1970's and 1980's can be considered the third stage in the explosive development of condensed matter physics. After the very intensive research of the 1930's and 1940's, which followed the formulation of quantum mechanics, and the path-breaking activity of the 1950's and 1960's, the problems being faced now are much more complex and not always susceptible to simple modelling. The (subjectively) open problems discussed here are: high temperature superconductivity, its properties and the possible new mechanisms which lead to it; the integral and fractional quantum Hall effects; new forms of order in condensed-matter systems; the physics of disorder, especially the problem of spin glasses; the physics of complex anisotropic systems; the theoretical prediction of stable and metastable states of matter; the physics of highly correlated states (heavy fermions); the physics of artificially made structures, in particular heterostructures and highly metastable states of matter; the determination of the microscopic structure of surfaces; and chaos and highly nonlinear phnomena. 82 refs.

  5. Liquid methane gelled with methanol and water reduces rate of nitrogen absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwall, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Dilution of gelant vapor with inert carrier gas accomplishes gelation. Mixture is injected through heated tube and orifice into liquid methane for immediate condensation within bulk of liquid. Direct dispersion of particles in liquid avoids condensation on walls of vessel and eliminates additional mixing.

  6. Continuous droplet removal upon dropwise condensation of humid air on a hydrophobic micropatterned surface.

    PubMed

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Bardaweel, Hamzeh K; Carron, Christopher J; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Brand, Oliver; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-08-26

    Combination of two physical phenomena, capillary pressure gradient and wettability gradient, allows a simple two-step fabrication process that yields a reliable hydrophobic self-cleaning condenser surface. The surface is fabricated with specific microscopic topography and further treatment with a chemically inert low-surface-energy material. This process does not require growth of nanofeatures (nanotubes) or hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterning of the surface. Trapezoidal geometry of the microfeatures facilitates droplet transfer from the Wenzel to the Cassie state and reduces droplet critical diameter. The geometry of the micropatterns enhances local coalescence and directional movement for droplets with diameter much smaller than the radial length of the micropatterns. The hydrophobic self-cleaning micropatterned condenser surface prevents liquid film formation and promotes continuous dropwise condensation cycle. Upon dropwise condensation, droplets follow a designed wettability gradient created with micropatterns from the most hydrophobic to the least hydrophobic end of the surface. The surface has higher condensation efficiency, due to its directional self-cleaning property, than a plain hydrophobic surface. We explain the self-actuated droplet collection mechanism on the condenser surface and demonstrate experimentally the creation of an effective wettability gradient over a 6 mm radial distance. In spite of its fabrication simplicity, the fabricated surface demonstrates self-cleaning property, enhanced condensation performance, and reliability over time. Our work enables creation of a hydrophobic condenser surface with the directional self-cleaning property that can be used for collection of biological (chemical, environmental) aerosol samples or for condensation enhancement.

  7. Condensed Tannins from Ficus virens as Tyrosinase Inhibitors: Structure, Inhibitory Activity and Molecular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Feng, Hui-Ling; Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Condensed tannins from Ficus virens leaves, fruit, and stem bark were isolated and their structures characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results showed that the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins were complex mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers of B-type procyanidins and prodelphinidins with degrees of polymerization up to hexamer, dodecamer, and pentadecamer, respectively. Antityrosinase activities of the condensed tannins were studied. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were potent tyrosinase inhibitors. The concentrations for the leaves, fruit, and stem bark condensed tannins leading to 50% enzyme activity were determined to be 131.67, 99.89, and 106.22 μg/ml on monophenolase activity, and 128.42, 43.07, and 74.27 μg/ml on diphenolase activity. The inhibition mechanism, type, and constants of the condensed tannins on the diphenolase activity were further investigated. The results indicated that the condensed tannins were reversible and mixed type inhibitors. Fluorescence quenching, copper interacting, and molecular docking techniques were utilized to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition. The results showed that the hydroxyl group on the B ring of the condensed tannins could chelate the dicopper irons of the enzyme. Moreover, the condensed tannins could reduce the enzyme product o-quinones into colourless compounds. These results would contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents. PMID:24637701

  8. Frustration in Condensed Matter and Protein Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Tanner, S.; Conroy, B.; Owens, F.; Tran, M. M.; Boekema, C.

    2014-03-01

    By means of computer modeling, we are studying frustration in condensed matter and protein folding, including the influence of temperature and Thomson-figure formation. Frustration is due to competing interactions in a disordered state. The key issue is how the particles interact to reach the lowest frustration. The relaxation for frustration is mostly a power function (randomly assigned pattern) or an exponential function (regular patterns like Thomson figures). For the atomic Thomson model, frustration is predicted to decrease with the formation of Thomson figures at zero kelvin. We attempt to apply our frustration modeling to protein folding and dynamics. We investigate the homogeneous protein frustration that would cause the speed of the protein folding to increase. Increase of protein frustration (where frustration and hydrophobicity interplay with protein folding) may lead to a protein mutation. Research is supported by WiSE@SJSU and AFC San Jose.

  9. Advances in shell side condensation for refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Ralph L.

    The design of shell and tube condensers used in air conditioning and refrigeration applications is discussed. The geometry of interest involves condensation on the shell side of a horizontal tube bundle. Enhanced heat transfer geometries are typically used for condensation on the shell side. The heat transfer is removed by water on the tube side, which typically have tube side enhancement. Single tube and row effect condensation data are presented. Thermal design methods for sizing of the condenser are outlined.

  10. Aerodynamically-driven condensate layer thickness distributions on isothermal cylindrical surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.; Gunes, D.; Nazih-Anous, N.

    1983-01-01

    A simple yet rather general mathematical model is presented for predicting the distribution of condensate layer thickness when aerodynamic shear is the dominant mechanism of liquid flow along the surface. The Newtonian condensate film is treated using well-known thin-layer (lubrication theory) approximations, and condensate supply is taken to be the result of either convective diffusion or inertial impaction. Illustrative calculations for a circular cylinder in a crossflow at Re = 100,000 reveal the consequences of alternate condensate arrival mechanisms and the existence of thicker reverse-flow films behind the position of gas boundary-layer separation. The present formulation is readily generalized to include transient liquid layer flows on noncircular objects of variable surface temperature, as encountered in turbine-blade materials testing or operation.

  11. Aerodynamically-driven condensate layer thickness distributions on isothermal cylindrical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, D. E.; Gunes, D.; Nazih-Anous, N.

    A simple yet rather general mathematical model is presented for predicting the distribution of condensate layer thickness when aerodynamic shear is the dominant mechanism of liquid flow along the surface. The Newtonian condensate film is treated using well-known thin-layer (lubrication theory) approximations, and condensate supply is taken to be the result of either convective diffusion or inertial impaction. Illustrative calculations for a circular cylinder in a crossflow at Re = 100,000 reveal the consequences of alternate condensate arrival mechanisms and the existence of thicker reverse-flow films behind the position of gas boundary-layer separation. The present formulation is readily generalized to include transient liquid layer flows on noncircular objects of variable surface temperature, as encountered in turbine-blade materials testing or operation.

  12. Bose-Einstein condensate strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.

    2015-02-01

    We consider the possible existence of gravitationally bound general relativistic strings consisting of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) matter which is described, in the Newtonian limit, by the zero temperature time-dependent nonlinear Schrödinger equation (the Gross-Pitaevskii equation), with repulsive interparticle interactions. In the Madelung representation of the wave function, the quantum dynamics of the condensate can be formulated in terms of the classical continuity equation and the hydrodynamic Euler equations. In the case of a condensate with quartic nonlinearity, the condensates can be described as a gas with two pressure terms, the interaction pressure, which is proportional to the square of the matter density, and the quantum pressure, which is without any classical analogue, though, when the number of particles in the system is high enough, the latter may be neglected. Assuming cylindrical symmetry, we analyze the physical properties of the BEC strings in both the interaction pressure and quantum pressure dominated limits, by numerically integrating the gravitational field equations. In this way we obtain a large class of stable stringlike astrophysical objects, whose basic parameters (mass density and radius) depend sensitively on the mass and scattering length of the condensate particle, as well as on the quantum pressure of the Bose-Einstein gas.

  13. Polariton condensates at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, Thierry; Brimont, Christelle

    2016-10-01

    We review the recent developments of the polariton physics in microcavities featuring the exciton-photon strong coupling at room temperature, and leading to the achievement of room-temperature polariton condensates. Such cavities embed active layers with robust excitons that present a large binding energy and a large oscillator strength, i.e. wide bandgap inorganic or organic semiconductors, or organic molecules. These various systems are compared, in terms of figures of merit and of common features related to their strong oscillator strength. The various demonstrations of polariton laser are compared, as well as their condensation phase diagrams. The room-temperature operation indeed allows a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic and out-of-equilibrium regimes of the condensation process. The crucial role of the spatial dynamics of the condensate formation is discussed, as well as the debated issue of the mechanism of stimulated relaxation from the reservoir to the condensate under non-resonant excitation. Finally the prospects of polariton devices are presented.

  14. Statistical Mechanics and Applications in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Castro, Carlo; Raimondi, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Preface; 1. Thermodynamics: a brief overview; 2. Kinetics; 3. From Boltzmann to Gibbs; 4. More ensembles; 5. The thermodynamic limit and its thermodynamic stability; 6. Density matrix and quantum statistical mechanics; 7. The quantum gases; 8. Mean-field theories and critical phenomena; 9. Second quantization and Hartree-Fock approximation; 10. Linear response and fluctuation-dissipation theorem in quantum systems: equilibrium and small deviations; 11. Brownian motion and transport in disordered systems; 12. Fermi liquids; 13. The Landau theory of the second order phase transitions; 14. The Landau-Wilson model for critical phenomena; 15. Superfluidity and superconductivity; 16. The scaling theory; 17. The renormalization group approach; 18. Thermal Green functions; 19. The microscopic foundations of Fermi liquids; 20. The Luttinger liquid; 21. Quantum interference effects in disordered electron systems; Appendix A. The central limit theorem; Appendix B. Some useful properties of the Euler Gamma function; Appendix C. Proof of the second theorem of Yang and Lee; Appendix D. The most probable distribution for the quantum gases; Appendix E. Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals; Appendix F. The Fermi gas in a uniform magnetic field: Landau diamagnetism; Appendix G. Ising and gas-lattice models; Appendix H. Sum over discrete Matsubara frequencies; Appendix I. Hydrodynamics of the two-fluid model of superfluidity; Appendix J. The Cooper problem in the theory of superconductivity; Appendix K. Superconductive fluctuations phenomena; Appendix L. Diagrammatic aspects of the exact solution of the Tomonaga Luttinger model; Appendix M. Details on the theory of the disordered Fermi liquid; References; Author index; Index.

  15. A numerical study of the direct contact condensation on a horizontal surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a numerical study of the direct contact condensation on a slowly moving horizontal liquid surface are presented. The geometrical configuration and the input conditions used to obtain numerical solutions are representative to those of experiments of Celata et al. The effects of Prandtl number (Pr), inflow Reynolds number, and Richardson number on the condensation rate are investigated. Numerical predictions of condensation rate for laminar flow are in good agreement with experimental data. The effect of buoyancy on the condensation rate is characterized by Richardson number. A correlation based on the numerical solutions is developed to predict the average condensation Nusselt number in terms of Richardson number, Peclet number, and inflow Reynolds number.

  16. Wettability modified nanoporous ceramic membrane for simultaneous residual heat and condensate recovery.

    PubMed

    Hu, H W; Tang, G H; Niu, D

    2016-06-07

    Recovery of both latent heat and condensate from boiler flue gas is significant for improving boiler efficiency and water conservation. The condensation experiments are carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and mass transfer across the nanoporous ceramic membranes (NPCMs) which are treated to be hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the semicontinuous supercritical reactions. The effects of typical parameters including coolant flow rate, vapor/nitrogen gas mixture temperature, water vapor volume fraction and transmembrane pressure on heat and mass transfer performance are studied. The experimental results show that the hydrophilic NPCM exhibits higher performances of condensation heat transfer and condensate recovery. However, the hydrophobic modification results in remarkable degradation of heat and condensate recovery from the mixture. Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to establish a hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore/water liquid system, and the infiltration characteristics of the single hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore is revealed.

  17. Dropwise Condensation of Low Surface Tension Fluids on iCVD Grafted Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Karim; Gleason, Karen; Varanasi, Kripa

    2016-11-01

    A large majority of the work devoted to surface engineering for promoting dropwise condensation heat transfer has focused on steam. Much less attention has been dedicated to the condensation of low surface tension fluids such as hydrocarbons, cryogens, and fluorinated refrigerants, which are used in several industrial applications, including LNG storage and organic Rankine cycles used for heat recovery from low temperature sources such as biomass combustion, industrial waste, or geothermal heat sources. Most hydrophobic modifiers used previously to promote dropwise condensation are silane-based monolayers that have been shown to rapidly degrade under industrial conditions. Here we investigate condensation behavior of a variety of low surface tension liquids on durable covalently-grafted polymer films deposited using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) on metals such as titanium. We observe a four to seven-fold improvement in the vapor-side heat transfer coefficient by promoting dropwise condensation of low surface tension fluids on these stable films.

  18. Wettability modified nanoporous ceramic membrane for simultaneous residual heat and condensate recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H. W.; Tang, G. H.; Niu, D.

    2016-06-01

    Recovery of both latent heat and condensate from boiler flue gas is significant for improving boiler efficiency and water conservation. The condensation experiments are carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and mass transfer across the nanoporous ceramic membranes (NPCMs) which are treated to be hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the semicontinuous supercritical reactions. The effects of typical parameters including coolant flow rate, vapor/nitrogen gas mixture temperature, water vapor volume fraction and transmembrane pressure on heat and mass transfer performance are studied. The experimental results show that the hydrophilic NPCM exhibits higher performances of condensation heat transfer and condensate recovery. However, the hydrophobic modification results in remarkable degradation of heat and condensate recovery from the mixture. Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to establish a hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore/water liquid system, and the infiltration characteristics of the single hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore is revealed.

  19. Wettability modified nanoporous ceramic membrane for simultaneous residual heat and condensate recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hu, H. W.; Tang, G. H.; Niu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of both latent heat and condensate from boiler flue gas is significant for improving boiler efficiency and water conservation. The condensation experiments are carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and mass transfer across the nanoporous ceramic membranes (NPCMs) which are treated to be hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the semicontinuous supercritical reactions. The effects of typical parameters including coolant flow rate, vapor/nitrogen gas mixture temperature, water vapor volume fraction and transmembrane pressure on heat and mass transfer performance are studied. The experimental results show that the hydrophilic NPCM exhibits higher performances of condensation heat transfer and condensate recovery. However, the hydrophobic modification results in remarkable degradation of heat and condensate recovery from the mixture. Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to establish a hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore/water liquid system, and the infiltration characteristics of the single hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore is revealed. PMID:27270997

  20. Experimental study of steam condensation on water in countercurrent flow in presence of inert gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, D.; Althof, J.

    1984-08-01

    Experimental results of investigating steam condensation on water in the presence of (noncondensable) inert gases at low temperatures and pressures relevant to open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems are reported. Seven different condenser configurations were tested. The experimental data are correlated using a liquid flow fraction and a vent fraction to yield simple relationships of condenser performance over a wide range of test conditions. Performance maps and envelopes are provided for evaluating the relative merits of tested configurations. The height of transfer unit (HTU) for condensation ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m among the various condenser geometries. Also reported are the pressure-loss coefficients for all the tested geometries.

  1. Spacecraft Crew Cabin Condensation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, Laurie Y.; Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    A report discusses a new technique to prevent condensation on the cabin walls of manned spacecraft exposed to the cold environment of space, as such condensation could lead to free water in the cabin. This could facilitate the growth of mold and bacteria, and could lead to oxidation and weakening of the cabin wall. This condensation control technique employs a passive method that uses spacecraft waste heat as the primary wallheating mechanism. A network of heat pipes is bonded to the crew cabin pressure vessel, as well as the pipes to each other, in order to provide for efficient heat transfer to the cabin walls and from one heat pipe to another. When properly sized, the heat-pipe network can maintain the crew cabin walls at a nearly uniform temperature. It can also accept and distribute spacecraft waste heat to maintain the pressure vessel above dew point.

  2. Condensed Astatine: Monatomic and Metallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2013-09-01

    The condensed matter properties of the nominal terminating element of the halogen group with atomic number 85, astatine, are as yet unknown. In the intervening more than 70 years since its discovery significant advances have been made in substrate cooling and the other techniques necessary for the production of the element to the point where we might now enquire about the key properties astatine might have if it attained a condensed phase. This subject is addressed here using density functional theory and structural selection methods, with an accounting for relativistic physics that is essential. Condensed astatine is predicted to be quite different in fascinating ways from iodine, being already at 1 atm a metal, and monatomic at that, and possibly a superconductor (as is dense iodine).

  3. Condensed astatine: monatomic and metallic.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N W

    2013-09-13

    The condensed matter properties of the nominal terminating element of the halogen group with atomic number 85, astatine, are as yet unknown. In the intervening more than 70 years since its discovery significant advances have been made in substrate cooling and the other techniques necessary for the production of the element to the point where we might now enquire about the key properties astatine might have if it attained a condensed phase. This subject is addressed here using density functional theory and structural selection methods, with an accounting for relativistic physics that is essential. Condensed astatine is predicted to be quite different in fascinating ways from iodine, being already at 1 atm a metal, and monatomic at that, and possibly a superconductor (as is dense iodine).

  4. Neuroamine condensations in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Collins, M A

    1980-01-01

    Non-enzymatic products of neuroamines and endogenous carbonyl compounds are apparent "normal" products in human metabolism, and their levels become increased during pathological conditions. DA condensation products--salsolinol, its O-methylated derivative, and methylated derivatives of 1-carboxyl-THP--are found normally in human urine, and the last TIQ is in human brain. Potential beta-carboline condensation products also occur in (aging) human lens tissue. Chronic drinking in alcoholics causes significant increases in urinary salsolinol and O-methyl-salsolinol, presumably due to the increased AcH which is made available. L-DOPA therapy (in Parkinson's disease) elevates urinary and tissue levels of the carboxylated THP derivatives, as well as of salsolinol and THP itself; hyperphenylalaninemia during PKU also increases tissue levels of a DA/phenylpyruvate-derived TIQ and an imine condensate of phenylethylamine and vitamin B6. These unusual products may interfere with neural dynamic processes, and produce cytotoxic metabolites.

  5. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    PubMed

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  6. Scrutinizing the pion condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignano, Stefano; Lepori, Luca; Mammarella, Andrea; Mannarelli, Massimo; Pagliaroli, Giulia

    2017-02-01

    When the isospin chemical potential exceeds the pion mass, charged pions condense in the zero-momentum state forming a superfluid. Chiral perturbation theory provides a very powerful tool for studying this phase. However, the formalism that is usually employed in this context does not clarify various aspects of the condensation mechanism and makes the identification of the soft modes problematic. We re-examine the pion condensed phase using different approaches within the chiral perturbation theory framework. As a first step, we perform a low-density expansion of the chiral Lagrangian valid close to the onset of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We obtain an effective theory that can be mapped to a Gross-Pitaevskii Lagrangian in which, remarkably, all the coefficients depend on the isospin chemical potential. The low-density expansion becomes unreliable deep in the pion condensed phase. For this reason, we develop an alternative field expansion deriving a low-energy Lagrangian analog to that of quantum magnets. By integrating out the "radial" fluctuations we obtain a soft Lagrangian in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons arising from the breaking of the pion number symmetry. Finally, we test the robustness of the second-order transition between the normal and the pion condensed phase when next-to-leading-order chiral corrections are included. We determine the range of parameters for turning the second-order phase transition into a first-order one, finding that the currently accepted values of these corrections are unlikely to change the order of the phase transition.

  7. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the ‘classical hypotheses’ of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation. PMID:27481071

  8. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-08-02

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the 'classical hypotheses' of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation.

  9. Condensed Matter Physics - Biology Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    The field of condensed matter physics had its genesis this century and it has had a remarkable evolution. A closer look at its growth reveals a hidden aim in the collective consciousness of the field - a part of the development this century is a kind of warm up exercise to understand the nature of living condensed matter, namely the field of biology, by a growing new breed of scientists in the coming century. Through some examples the vitality of this interaction will be pointed out.

  10. Tripol condensate polishing - operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Swainsbury, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a brief outline of the Mission Energy Management Australia Company who operate and maintain the Loy Yang B Power Station in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia. Details of the plant configuration, the water/steam circuit and cycle chemistry are discussed. The arrangement of the TRIPOL Condensate Polishing Plant and it`s operational modes are examined. Results of the first twelve months operation of the TRIPOL plant are detailed. Levels of crud removal during early commissioning phases employing the pre-filter are presented. Typical parameters achieved during a simulated condenser leak and an operational run beyond the ammonia break point are also documented.

  11. Andreev Reflection in Bosonic Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, I.; Sols, F.

    2009-05-08

    We study the bosonic analog of Andreev reflection at a normal-superfluid interface where the superfluid is a boson condensate. We model the normal region as a zone where nonlinear effects can be neglected. Against the background of a decaying condensate, we identify a novel contribution to the current of reflected atoms. The group velocity of this Andreev reflected component differs from that of the normally reflected one. For a three-dimensional planar or two-dimensional linear interface Andreev reflection is neither specular nor conjugate.

  12. Experimental Study of Film Condensation of FC-72 Vapour on Disk-Shaped Fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushchuk, Andrey; Marchuk, Igor V.; Kabov, Oleg A.

    2011-09-01

    The results of activity made in the framework of preparation of the experiment SAFIR (Single fin condensAtion: FIlm local measuRements) of European Space Agency are presented. First prototype of the test cell has been developed and tested. Confocal technique has been adopted for condensate film thickness measurements. Experiments on condensation of the liquid FC-72 have been carried out. Average heat transfer coefficient has been measured in the range of 880-1440 W/m2 K and compared to the Nusselt theory.

  13. Infrared spectroscopy of homogeneously nucleated hydrazine aerosols - Disordered and crystalline phases. [in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunder, T.; Clapp, M. L.; Miller, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that aerosols generated at low temperatures and high condensation rate spontaneously form in a highly crystalline state. The resonant absorption bands in the IR spectra of these highly crystalline particles are much sharper than any reported previously in the bulk, and reveal details in the N-H vibrational bands that have not been previously observed. A disordered phase is also observed at somewhat higher temperatures. These results are consistent with this being a supercooled liquid. The fact that the spectra associated with these two aerosol phases are quite different is important to any future attempts at detecting hydrazine aerosols in planetary atmospheres by remote sensing techniques.

  14. Condensation of Helium in Aerogel and Athermal Dynamics of the Random-Field Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Geoffroy J.; Bonnet, Fabien; Melich, Mathieu; Guyon, Laurent; Spathis, Panayotis; Despetis, Florence; Wolf, Pierre-Etienne

    2014-08-01

    High resolution measurements reveal that condensation isotherms of He4 in high porosity silica aerogel become discontinuous below a critical temperature. We show that this behavior does not correspond to an equilibrium phase transition modified by the disorder induced by the aerogel structure, but to the disorder-driven critical point predicted for the athermal out-of-equilibrium dynamics of the random-field Ising model. Our results evidence the key role of nonequilibrium effects in the phase transitions of disordered systems.

  15. Experimental study on the condensation of a thermosyphon by electrical capacitance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhenxing; Mu, Huaiping; Lei, Jing; Zhang, Jingyin; Li, Zhihong; Liu, Shi

    2016-04-01

    The study on the condensation and the two-phase flow pattern in the condensation section is important to understand the operating mechanisms in a thermosyphon. In this paper, a new electric capacitance tomography (ECT) sensor was designed for the visualization measurement in a liquid by removing the shielding case and sealing with insulating hydrophobic material. It was successfully used to measure the condensation process in a thermosyphon under different operating temperatures. The thermosyphon was made of silica glass, and alcohol was used as a working fluid. The alcohol vapor was cooled to condense through the heat convection with the cooling water. The operating temperature was controlled by a heater with different power outputs. The experimental results show that the alcohol vapor condensed in stripes and unevenly on the wall surface at a low operating temperature. The liquid bridge will be formed periodically at the operating temperature of 90°C, and the time interval between two liquid bridges will be shorter with the increase of the operating temperature. At 117°C or even higher operating temperatures, the complete liquid bridge cannot be formed sometimes due to the difference of the growth rate of the surface wave around the circumference.

  16. Visualization of early chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Kireeva, Natashe; Lakonishok, Margot; Kireev, Igor; Hirano, Tatsuya; Belmont, Andrew S.

    2004-01-01

    Current models of mitotic chromosome structure are based largely on the examination of maximally condensed metaphase chromosomes. Here, we test these models by correlating the distribution of two scaffold components with the appearance of prophase chromosome folding intermediates. We confirm an axial distribution of topoisomerase IIα and the condensin subunit, structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2), in unextracted metaphase chromosomes, with SMC2 localizing to a 150–200-nm-diameter central core. In contrast to predictions of radial loop/scaffold models, this axial distribution does not appear until late prophase, after formation of uniformly condensed middle prophase chromosomes. Instead, SMC2 associates throughout early and middle prophase chromatids, frequently forming foci over the chromosome exterior. Early prophase condensation occurs through folding of large-scale chromatin fibers into condensed masses. These resolve into linear, 200–300-nm-diameter middle prophase chromatids that double in diameter by late prophase. We propose a unified model of chromosome structure in which hierarchical levels of chromatin folding are stabilized late in mitosis by an axial “glue.” PMID:15353545

  17. Magnetofermionic condensate in two dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, L. V.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Dickmann, S.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Schmult, S.

    2016-01-01

    Coherent condensate states of particles obeying either Bose or Fermi statistics are in the focus of interest in modern physics. Here we report on condensation of collective excitations with Bose statistics, cyclotron magnetoexcitons, in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the dense non-equilibrium ensemble of long-lived triplet magnetoexcitons exhibits both a drastic reduction in the viscosity and a steep enhancement in the response to the external electromagnetic field. The observed effects are related to formation of a super-absorbing state interacting coherently with the electromagnetic field. Simultaneously, the electrons below the Fermi level form a super-emitting state. The effects are explicable from the viewpoint of a coherent condensate phase in a non-equilibrium system of two-dimensional fermions with a fully quantized energy spectrum. The condensation occurs in the space of vectors of magnetic translations, a property providing a completely new landscape for future physical investigations. PMID:27848969

  18. Linker DNA destabilizes condensed chromatin.

    PubMed

    Green, G R; Ferlita, R R; Walkenhorst, W F; Poccia, D L

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of the linker region to maintenance of condensed chromatin was examined in two model systems, namely sea urchin sperm nuclei and chicken red blood cell nuclei. Linkerless nuclei, prepared by extensive digestion with micrococcal nuclease, were compared with Native nuclei using several assays, including microscopic appearance, nuclear turbidity, salt stability, and trypsin resistance. Chromatin in the Linkerless nuclei was highly condensed, resembling pyknotic chromatin in apoptotic cells. Linkerless nuclei were more stable in low ionic strength buffers and more resistant to trypsin than Native nuclei. Analysis of histones from the trypsinized nuclei by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that specific histone H1, H2B, and H3 tail regions stabilized linker DNA in condensed nuclei. Thermal denaturation of soluble chromatin preparations from differentially trypsinized sperm nuclei demonstrated that the N-terminal regions of histones Sp H1, Sp H2B, and H3 bind tightly to linker DNA, causing it to denature at a high temperature. We conclude that linker DNA exerts a disruptive force on condensed chromatin structure which is counteracted by binding of specific histone tail regions to the linker DNA. The inherent instability of the linker region may be significant in all eukaryotic chromatins and may promote gene activation in living cells.

  19. Magnetofermionic condensate in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Kulik, L V; Zhuravlev, A S; Dickmann, S; Gorbunov, A V; Timofeev, V B; Kukushkin, I V; Schmult, S

    2016-11-16

    Coherent condensate states of particles obeying either Bose or Fermi statistics are in the focus of interest in modern physics. Here we report on condensation of collective excitations with Bose statistics, cyclotron magnetoexcitons, in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the dense non-equilibrium ensemble of long-lived triplet magnetoexcitons exhibits both a drastic reduction in the viscosity and a steep enhancement in the response to the external electromagnetic field. The observed effects are related to formation of a super-absorbing state interacting coherently with the electromagnetic field. Simultaneously, the electrons below the Fermi level form a super-emitting state. The effects are explicable from the viewpoint of a coherent condensate phase in a non-equilibrium system of two-dimensional fermions with a fully quantized energy spectrum. The condensation occurs in the space of vectors of magnetic translations, a property providing a completely new landscape for future physical investigations.

  20. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  1. Magnetofermionic condensate in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulik, L. V.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Dickmann, S.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Schmult, S.

    2016-11-01

    Coherent condensate states of particles obeying either Bose or Fermi statistics are in the focus of interest in modern physics. Here we report on condensation of collective excitations with Bose statistics, cyclotron magnetoexcitons, in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the dense non-equilibrium ensemble of long-lived triplet magnetoexcitons exhibits both a drastic reduction in the viscosity and a steep enhancement in the response to the external electromagnetic field. The observed effects are related to formation of a super-absorbing state interacting coherently with the electromagnetic field. Simultaneously, the electrons below the Fermi level form a super-emitting state. The effects are explicable from the viewpoint of a coherent condensate phase in a non-equilibrium system of two-dimensional fermions with a fully quantized energy spectrum. The condensation occurs in the space of vectors of magnetic translations, a property providing a completely new landscape for future physical investigations.

  2. Integral Reactor Containment Condensation Model and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Qiao; Corradini, Michael

    2016-05-02

    gas mass fraction. (4) The average condensation heat transfer coefficients measured from the water condensation rates through energy balance analysis are appropriate, however, with considerable uncertainties due to the heat loss and temperature distribution on the containment wall. With the consideration of the side wall conduction effects, the results indicate that the measured heat transfer coefficients in the tests is about 20% lower than the prediction of Dehbi’s correlation, mainly due to the side wall conduction effects. The investigation also indicates an increase in the condensation heat transfer coefficient at high containment pressure conditions, but the uncertainties invoked with this method appear to be substantial. (5) Non-condensable gas in the tests has little effects on the condensation heat transfer at high elevation measurement ports. It does affect the bottom measurements near the water level position. The results suggest that the heavier non-condensable gas is accumulated in the lower portion of the containment due to stratification in the narrow containment space. The overall effects of the non-condensable gas on the heat transfer process should thus be negligible for tall containments of narrow condensation spaces in most SMR designs. Therefore, the previous correlations with noncondensable gas effects are not appropriate to those small SMR containments due to the very poor mixing of steam and non-condensable gas. The MELCOR simulation results agree with the experimental data reasonably well. However, it is observed that the MELCOR overpredicts the heat flux for all analyzed tests. The MELCOR predicts that the heat fluxes for CCT’s approximately range from 30 to 45 kW/m2 whereas the experimental data (averaged) ranges from about 25 to 40 kW/m2. This may be due to the limited availability of liquid film models included in MELCOR. Also, it is believed that due to complex test geometry, measured temperature gradients across the heat transfer

  3. Quantum spin liquid ground states of the Heisenberg-Kitaev model on the triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, Pavel; Punk, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We study quantum disordered ground states of the two-dimensional Heisenberg-Kitaev model on the triangular lattice using a Schwinger boson approach. Our aim is to identify and characterize potential gapped quantum spin liquid phases that are stabilized by anisotropic Kitaev interactions. For antiferromagnetic Heisenberg and Kitaev couplings and sufficiently small spin S , we find three different symmetric Z2 spin liquid phases, separated by two continuous quantum phase transitions. Interestingly, the gap of elementary excitations remains finite throughout the transitions. The first spin liquid phase corresponds to the well-known zero-flux state in the Heisenberg limit, which is stable with respect to small Kitaev couplings and develops 120∘ order in the semiclassical limit at large S . In the opposite Kitaev limit, we find a different spin liquid ground state, which is a quantum disordered version of a magnetically ordered state with antiferromagnetic chains, in accordance with results in the classical limit. Finally, at intermediate couplings, we find a spin liquid state with unusual spin correlations. Upon spinon condensation, this state develops Bragg peaks at incommensurate momenta in close analogy to the magnetically ordered Z2 vortex crystal phase, which has been analyzed in recent theoretical works.

  4. Conceptual Design of a Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems Using Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Khan, Lutful I.; Nayagam, Vedha; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy

    2006-01-01

    Condensing heat exchangers are used in many space applications in the thermal and humidity control systems. In the International Space Station (ISS), humidity control is achieved by using a water cooled fin surface over which the moist air condenses, followed by "slurper bars" that take in both the condensate and air into a rotary separator and separates the water from air. The use of a cooled porous substrate as the condensing surface provides and attractive alternative that combines both heat removal as well as liquid/gas separation into a single unit. By selecting the pore sizes of the porous substrate a gravity independent operation may also be possible with this concept. Condensation of vapor into and on the porous surface from the flowing air and the removal of condensate from the porous substrate are the critical processes involved in the proposed concept. This paper describes some preliminary results of the proposed condensate withdrawal process and discusses the on-going design and development work of a porous media based condensing heat exchanger at the NASA Glenn Research Center in collaboration with NASA Johnson Space Center.

  5. Isolation and purification of condensed tannins from flamboyant tree and their antioxidant and antityrosinase activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui-Ling; Tian, Ling; Chai, Wei-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Xin; Shi, Yan; Gao, Yu-Sen; Yan, Chong-Ling; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-05-01

    Flamboyant tree, a kind of medicinal plant, was studied as a source of condensed tannins. The antioxidant activities of the condensed tannins from the leaf, fruit, and stem bark of flamboyant tree were screened by ABTS radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity methods. The results indicated that these compounds possessed potent antioxidant activity. Their structures were then characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) after thiolytic degradation. The results showed that the leaf condensed tannins were composed of afzelechin/epiafzelechin, catechin/epicatechin, and gallocatechin/epigallocatechin, while the fruit and stem bark condensed tannins had afzelechin/epiafzelechin and catechin/epicatechin. In addition, the condensed tannins were evaluated for their antityrosinase ability. They were found to have significant antityrosinase activity. The IC50 values were 35 ± 2.0 and 40 ± 0.5 μg/ml for the condensed tannins of fruit and stem bark, respectively. Further, fluorescence quenching and copper interacting techniques were utilized to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition. The results showed that the hydroxyl group of the condensed tannins could chelate the dicopper center of the enzyme and interact with tryptophan residues. Our studies revealed that condensed tannins might be suitable for use in food, agriculture, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications.

  6. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fins, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fins are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized material then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal.

  7. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1984-08-16

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

  8. Basic Mean-Field Theory for Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Carretero-González, R.

    The phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation, initially predicted by Bose [1] and Einstein [2, 3] in 1924, refers to systems of particles obeying the Bose statistics. In particular, when a gas of bosonic particles is cooled below a critical transition temperature T c , the particles merge into the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), in which a macroscopic number of particles (typically 103 to 106) share the same quantum state. Bose-Einstein condensation is in fact a quantum phase transition, which is connected to the manifestation of fundamental physical phenomena, such as superfluidity in liquid helium and superconductivity in metals (see, e.g., [4] for a relevant discussion and references). Dilute weakly-interacting BECs were first realized experimentally in 1995 in atomic gases, and specifically in vapors of rubidium [5] and sodium [6]. In the same year, first signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation in vapors of lithium were also reported [7] and were later more systematically confirmed [8]. The significance and importance of the emergence of BECs has been recognized through the 2001 Nobel prize in Physics [9, 10]. During the last years there has been an explosion of interest in the physics of BECs. Today, over fifty experimental groups around the world can routinely produce BECs, while an enormous amount of theoretical work has ensued.

  9. Spreading with evaporation and condensation in one-component fluids.

    PubMed

    Teshigawara, Ryohei; Onuki, Akira

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the dynamics of spreading of a small liquid droplet in gas in a one-component simple fluid, where the temperature is inhomogeneous around 0.9T{c} and latent heat is released or generated at the interface upon evaporation or condensation (with T{c} being the critical temperature). In the scheme of the dynamic van der Waals theory, the hydrodynamic equations containing the gradient stress are solved in the axisymmetric geometry. We assume that the substrate has a finite thickness and its temperature obeys the thermal diffusion equation. A precursor film then spreads ahead of the bulk droplet itself in the complete wetting condition. Cooling the substrate enhances condensation of gas onto the advancing film, which mostly takes place near the film edge and can be the dominant mechanism of the film growth in a late stage. The generated latent heat produces a temperature peak or a hot spot in the gas region near the film edge. On the other hand, heating the substrate induces evaporation all over the interface. For weak heating, a steady-state circular thin film can be formed on the substrate. For stronger heating, evaporation dominates over condensation, leading to eventual disappearance of the liquid region.

  10. Characterisation of aerosol combustible mixtures generated using condensation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saat, Aminuddin; Dutta, Nilabza; Wahid, Mazlan A.

    2012-06-01

    An accidental release of a liquid flammable substance might be formed as an aerosol (droplet and vapour mixture). This phenomenon might be due to high pressure sprays, pressurised liquid leaks and through condensation when hot vapour is rapidly cooled. Such phenomena require a fundamental investigation of mixture characterisation prior to any subsequent process such as evaporation and combustion. This paper describes characterisation study of droplet and vapour mixtures generated in a fan stirred vessel using condensation technique. Aerosol of isooctane mixtures were generated by expansion from initially a premixed gaseous fuel-air mixture. The distribution of droplets within the mixture was characterised using laser diagnostics. Nearly monosized droplet clouds were generated and the droplet diameter was defined as a function of expansion time. The effect of changes in pressure, temperature, fuel-air fraction and expansion ratio on droplet diameter was evaluated. It is shown that aerosol generation by expansion was influenced by the initial pressure and temperature, equivalence ratio and expansion rates. All these parameters affected the onset of condensation which in turn affected the variation in droplet diameter.

  11. The Liquid Nitrogen Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Robin; Rahn, Jeffrey A.; Beamer, Timothy W.; Lebret, Norm

    2002-10-01

    Details of a demonstration using liquid nitrogen are presented. The demonstration is based on a 500-mL transparent polyethylene soft-drink bottle with a screw-on pop-up drink top. Prior to the demonstration, a balloon is placed over the popped-up spout of the bottle top. The bottle is filled with liquid nitrogen and the top, with the balloon affixed, is quickly put in place and screwed on tightly. As the liquid nitrogen in the bottle boils, the balloon inflates. When the balloon bursts the noise produced is far greater than would ordinarily be expected, and a fountain of liquid nitrogen and condensing water vapor shoots into the air above the bottle.

  12. Internally drained condenser for spacecraft thermal management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Drew, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux condenser for use in two-phase spacecraft thermal management loops. The objective is to obtain a several fold increase in condensation heat transfer coefficient over those which can be achieved with shear-controlled or capillary-wick condensers. The internally drained condenser relies on shaped fins to develop a capillary pressure gradient over the surface of the fins and drive the condensate toward narrow drainage grooves separating the fins. The condensate then flows through a drainage network embedded in the condenser walls. Heat transfer coefficients of up to 8 W/sq cm C were measured in steam, providing a heat transfer enhancement ratio greater than a factor of 8. In the paper the proof-of-concept experiments are described and simplified models to predict the performance of the internally drained condenser are presented.

  13. Electrical conductivity of condensed molecular hydrogen in the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoluchowski, R.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical interpretation of several phenomena concerning Jupiter and Saturn depends upon the electrical conductivity of molecular hydrogen which, according to present models, forms the outermost layer of both planets. The layer starts at the transition pressure between the metallic and the molecular form of hydrogen, that is around 1 Mbar, and extends to the outside limits of the atmosphere. Whether at the highest pressures (and temperatures) this layer is a solid or a dense fluid is not certain. In any case, the fluid is in supercritical condition so that there is only a gradual transition from dense liquid to a gaseous form. The two theories which require specific values of the conductivity of the condensed molecular hydrogen are those pertaining to the generation of a magnetic field in the liquid hydrogen rather than in the deep metallic interior (HIDE, 1967), and those concerned with the electromagnetic coupling and exchange of angular momentum between the liquid core and the solid molecular hydrogen mantle.

  14. Dielectric properties of condensed fluoromethanes and fluoromethane mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhmer, R.; Loidl, A.

    1988-10-01

    Dielectric measurements were performed on liquid and solid (CF4)1-x (CMF3)x with M=H, Cl, and Br. The dielectric behavior of the polar molecules in the liquid state is well described by an Onsager equation. At the melting point, pure hydrogenated and brominated fluoromethanes condense into dipolar rigid phases, while pure tetrafluoromethane forms a plastic crystal. CClF3 exhibits dipolar relaxational phenomena in the solid state. The data indicate that near the melting point this compound is close to a transition into a plastic phase. Mixtures of CF4 with CHF3 and CBrF3 exhibit monotectic phase diagrams with a limited solubility in the liquid state and complete immiscibility in the solid state. However, formation of mixed crystals is found in (CF4)1-x (CClF3)x which exhibits a eutectic phase diagram.

  15. Destroying a topological quantum bit by condensing Ising vortices.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhihao; Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger

    2014-12-09

    The imminent realization of topologically protected qubits in fabricated systems will provide not only an elementary implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computing architecture, but also an experimental vehicle for the general study of topological order. The simplest topological qubit harbours what is known as a Z2 liquid phase, which encodes information via a degeneracy depending on the system's topology. Elementary excitations of the phase are fractionally charged objects called spinons, or Ising flux vortices called visons. At zero temperature, a Z2 liquid is stable under deformations of the Hamiltonian until spinon or vison condensation induces a quantum-phase transition destroying the topological order. Here we use quantum Monte Carlo to study a vison-induced transition from a Z2 liquid to a valence-bond solid in a quantum dimer model on the kagome lattice. Our results indicate that this critical point is beyond the description of the standard Landau paradigm.

  16. Producing Liquid Oxygen in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David; Warden, Nicole; Wharton, Barry

    2016-01-01

    A number of organisations have provided instructions on how to produce small quantities of liquid oxygen in the classroom using liquid nitrogen and a copper condensation coil (Lister 1995 "Classic Chemistry Demonstrations" (London: Royal Society of Chemistry) pp 61-2, French and Hibbert 2010 "Phys. Educ." 45 221-2). The method…

  17. Proceedings: 2000 Workshop on Condensate Polishing

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    Condensate polishing maintains control of impurities in the nuclear power plant and allows the unit to operate more reliably. This report presents proceedings of EPRI's 2000 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 30 papers were presented on current issues and utility experience involving condensate polishing at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) plants.

  18. Exciton-polaritons condensate in a microwire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoun, O.; Jaziri, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, polariton condensation has been claimed in microwires. Numerical solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation that describes the behavior of the condensate in a trap and exciton-polariton interaction, have been obtained. In this work we study theoretically exciton-polariton one dimensional condensation in several quantized states.

  19. Elementary Excitations in Quantum Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, David

    1981-01-01

    Discusses elementary excitations and their role in condensed matter physics, focusing on quantum plasma, helium liquids, and superconductors. Considers research primarily conducted in the 1950s and concludes with a brief survey of some closely related further developments. (Author/JN)

  20. Gas-Liquid Processing in Microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; Twitchell, Alvin

    2005-09-01

    Processing gases and liquids together in microchannels having at least one dimension <1 mm has unique advantages for rapid heat and mass transfer. One approach for managing the two phases is to use porous structures as wicks within microchannels to segregate the liquid phase from the gas phase. Gas-liquid processing is accomplished by providing a gas flow path and inducing flow of the liquid phase through or along the wick under an induced pressure gradient. A variety of unit operations are enabled, including phase separation, partial condensation, absorption, desorption, and distillation. Results are reported of an investigation of microchannel phase separation in a transparent, single-channel device. Next, heat exchange is integrated with the microchannel wick approach to create a partial condenser that also separates the condensate. Finally, the scale-up to a multi-channel phase separator is described.

  1. Polymer Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, E.; Chacón-Acosta, G.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we analyze a non-interacting one-dimensional polymer Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose-Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for λ2 up to ≲10-16 m2. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

  2. Clinical efficacy of a centric relation occlusal splint and intra-articular liquid phase concentrated growth factor injection for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung-Wu; Huang, Yi-Chia; Wu, Shang-Liang; Ko, Shun-Yao; Tsai, Chiang-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The agony that accompanies the incidence and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) is an important concern in the oral and maxillofacial region. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical findings after centric relation occlusal splint (CROS) treatment and intra-articular injection treatment with liquid phase concentrated growth factors (LPCGFs) in patients with disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR). The group under investigation of this retrospective cohort study included patients with DDWOR who received treatment from April 2014 until March 2016. The predictor variable was the therapeutic method. The outcome variables included joint crepitus sound, visual analog scale (VAS) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia, TMD-associated headache, myofascial pain with referral, deviation of the mandible during opening (DoM), and maximal interincisal opening (MIO). At the stage of CROS treatment, evaluation of all variables adopted the individual as the unit; at the stage after LPCGF injection, the evaluation of joint sound adopted the joint as the unit, whereas the other variables adopted the individual as the unit. Among the 29 patients, 6 (20.68%) were males and 23 (79.31%) were females. Distribution by age ranged from 15 to 84 years (mean age 39.55 ± 15.49 years). After CROS treatment, except for the joint crepitus sound, which failed to achieve significant improvement (P > 0.05), other symptoms, such as DOM, TMD-associated headache, myofascial pain with referral, TMJ arthralgia, and MIO, all achieved statistically significant improvements (P < 0.05). After 2 mL of LPCGF was injected once after CROS treatment, 26 joint crepitus sound symptoms were relieved (P < 0.001) after an average of 48.5 ± 64.1 days. CROS alone can alleviate TMD clinical symptoms, except for the joint crepitus sound. Approximately 72.2% of joint crepitus sounds could be improved within 48 days, on average, once 2 mL of LPCGF was

  3. Extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Shafer, David; McGuire, James

    2001-01-01

    Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

  4. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  5. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  6. Innovative use of membrane contactor as condenser for heat recovery in carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuiping; Zhao, Shuaifei; Wardhaugh, Leigh; Feron, Paul H M

    2015-02-17

    The gas-liquid membrane contactor generally used as a nonselective gas absorption enhancement device is innovatively proposed as a condenser for heat recovery in liquid-absorbent-based carbon capture. The membrane condenser is used as a heat exchanger to recover the latent heat of the exiting vapor from the desorber, and it can help achieve significant energy savings when proper membranes with high heat-transfer coefficients are used. Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of mass and heat transfer in the membrane condensation system shows that heat recovery increases dramatically as inlet gas temperature rises and outlet gas temperature falls. The optimal split mass flow rate is determined by the inlet gas temperature and the overall heat-transfer coefficient in the condensation system. The required membrane area is also strongly dependent on the overall heat-transfer coefficient, particularly at higher inlet gas temperatures. Mass transfer across the membrane has an insignificant effect on heat transfer and heat recovery, suggesting that membrane wetting may not be an issue when a membrane condenser is used for heat recovery. Our analysis provides important insights into the energy recovery performance of the membrane condensation system as well as selection of operational parameters, such as split mass flow rate and membrane area, thickness, and thermal conductivity.

  7. Condensation on Highly Superheated Surfaces: Unstable Thin Films in a Wickless Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundan, Akshay; Nguyen, Thao T. T.; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C.; Chao, David F.; Sicker, Ronald J.

    2017-03-01

    A wickless heat pipe was operated on the International Space Station to provide a better understanding of how the microgravity environment might alter the physical and interfacial forces driving evaporation and condensation. Traditional heat pipes are divided into three zones: evaporation at the heated end, condensation at the cooled end, and intermediate or adiabatic in between. The microgravity experiments reported herein show that the situation may be dramatically more complicated. Beyond a threshold heat input, there was a transition from evaporation at the heated end to large-scale condensation, even as surface temperatures exceeded the boiling point by 160 K. The hotter the surface, the more vapor was condensed onto it. The condensation process at the heated end is initiated by thickness and temperature disturbances in the thin liquid film that wet the solid surface. Those disturbances effectively leave the vapor "superheated" in that region. Condensation is amplified and sustained by the high Marangoni stresses that exist near the heater and that drive liquid to cooler regions of the device.

  8. Condensation on Highly Superheated Surfaces: Unstable Thin Films in a Wickless Heat Pipe.

    PubMed

    Kundan, Akshay; Nguyen, Thao T T; Plawsky, Joel L; Wayner, Peter C; Chao, David F; Sicker, Ronald J

    2017-03-03

    A wickless heat pipe was operated on the International Space Station to provide a better understanding of how the microgravity environment might alter the physical and interfacial forces driving evaporation and condensation. Traditional heat pipes are divided into three zones: evaporation at the heated end, condensation at the cooled end, and intermediate or adiabatic in between. The microgravity experiments reported herein show that the situation may be dramatically more complicated. Beyond a threshold heat input, there was a transition from evaporation at the heated end to large-scale condensation, even as surface temperatures exceeded the boiling point by 160 K. The hotter the surface, the more vapor was condensed onto it. The condensation process at the heated end is initiated by thickness and temperature disturbances in the thin liquid film that wet the solid surface. Those disturbances effectively leave the vapor "superheated" in that region. Condensation is amplified and sustained by the high Marangoni stresses that exist near the heater and that drive liquid to cooler regions of the device.

  9. Capillary condensation in one-dimensional irregular confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handford, Thomas P.; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Taraskin, Sergei N.

    2013-07-01

    A lattice-gas model with heterogeneity is developed for the description of fluid condensation in finite sized one-dimensional pores of arbitrary shape. Mapping to the random-field Ising model allows an exact solution of the model to be obtained at zero-temperature, reproducing the experimentally observed dependence of the amount of fluid adsorbed in the pore on external pressure. It is demonstrated that the disorder controls the sorption for long pores and can result in H2-type hysteresis. Finite-temperature Metropolis dynamics simulations support analytical findings in the limit of low temperatures. The proposed framework is viewed as a fundamental building block of the theory of capillary condensation necessary for reliable structural analysis of complex porous media from adsorption-desorption data.

  10. Design and Fabrication of a Hybrid Superhydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surface That Exhibits Stable Dropwise Condensation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Bikash; Mac Giolla Eain, Marc; Xu, QianFeng; Egan, Vanessa M; Punch, Jeff; Lyons, Alan M

    2015-10-28

    Condensation of water vapor is an essential process in power generation, water collection, and thermal management. Dropwise condensation, where condensed droplets are removed from the surface before coalescing into a film, has been shown to increase the heat transfer efficiency and water collection ability of many surfaces. Numerous efforts have been made to create surfaces which can promote dropwise condensation, including superhydrophobic surfaces on which water droplets are highly mobile. However, the challenge with using such surfaces in condensing environments is that hydrophobic coatings can degrade and/or water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces transition from the mobile Cassie to the wetted Wenzel state over time and condensation shifts to a less-effective filmwise mechanism. To meet the need for a heat-transfer surface that can maintain stable dropwise condensation, we designed and fabricated a hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface. An array of hydrophilic needles, thermally connected to a heat sink, was forced through a robust superhydrophobic polymer film. Condensation occurs preferentially on the needle surface due to differences in wettability and temperature. As the droplet grows, the liquid drop on the needle remains in the Cassie state and does not wet the underlying superhydrophobic surface. The water collection rate on this surface was studied using different surface tilt angles, needle array pitch values, and needle heights. Water condensation rates on the hybrid surface were shown to be 4 times greater than for a planar copper surface and twice as large for silanized silicon or superhydrophobic surfaces without hydrophilic features. A convection-conduction heat transfer model was developed; predicted water condensation rates were in good agreement with experimental observations. This type of hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface with a larger array of needles is low-cost, robust, and scalable and so could be used for heat

  11. Microscopic droplet formation and energy transport analysis of condensation on scalable superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, GuanQiu; Alhosani, Mohamed H; Yuan, ShaoJun; Liu, HaoRan; Ghaferi, Amal Al; Zhang, TieJun

    2014-12-09

    Utilization of nanotechnologies in condensation has been recognized as one opportunity to improve the efficiency of large-scale thermal power and desalination systems. High-performance and stable dropwise condensation in widely-used copper heat exchangers is appealing for energy and water industries. In this work, a scalable and low-cost nanofabrication approach was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) nanoneedle surfaces to promote dropwise condensation and even jumping-droplet condensation. By conducting systematic surface characterization and in situ environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) condensation experiments, we were able to probe the microscopic formation physics of droplets on irregular nanostructured surfaces. At the early stages of condensation process, the interfacial surface tensions at the edge of CuO nanoneedles were found to influence both the local energy barriers for microdroplet growth and the advancing contact angles when droplets undergo depinning. Local surface roughness also has a significant impact on the volume of the condensate within the nanostructures and overall heat transfer from the vapor to substrate. Both our theoretical analysis and in situ ESEM experiments have revealed that the liquid condensate within the nanostructures determines the amount of the work of adhesion and kinetic energy associated with droplet coalescence and jumping. Local and global droplet growth models were also proposed to predict how the microdroplet morphology within nanostructures affects the heat transfer performance of early-stage condensation. Our quantitative analysis of microdroplet formation and growth within irregular nanostructures provides the insight to guide the anodization-based nanofabrication for enhancing dropwise and jumping-droplet condensation performance.

  12. Pore-scale evaporation-condensation dynamics resolved by synchrotron x-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Or, Dani

    2012-01-01

    Capillary processes greatly influence vapor mediated transport dynamics and associated changes in liquid phase content of porous media. Rapid x-ray synchrotron tomography measurements were used to resolve liquid-vapor interfacial dynamics during evaporation and condensation within submillimetric pores forming between sintered glass bead samples subjected to controlled ambient temperature and relative humidity. Evolution of gas-liquid interfacial shapes were in agreement with predictions based on our analytical model for interfacial dynamics in confined wedge-shaped pores. We also compared literature experimental data at the nanoscale to illustrate the capability of our model to describe early stages of condensation giving rise to the onset of capillary forces between rough surfaces. The study provides high resolution, synchrotron-based observations of capillary evaporation-condensation dynamics at the pore scale as the confirmation of the pore scale analytical model for capillary condensation in a pore and enables direct links with evolution of macroscopic vapor gradients within a sintered glass bead sample through their effect on configuration and evolution of the local interfaces. Rapid condensation processes play a critical role in the onset of capillary-induced friction affecting mechanical behavior of physical systems and industrial applications.

  13. Condensation shocks in hypersonic nitrogen tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Griffith, Wayland C.; Lederer, Melissa; Ragsdale, William C.; Yanta, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental observations and a theoretical model for the onset and disappearance of condensation are provided for hypersonic flows of pure nitrogen at M = 10, 14, and 18. A method for analyzing the thermodynamic and flow properties of a partially condensed mixture from known supply conditions and measured Pitot pressure yields the local static pressure and temperature, mass fraction of the nitrogen condensed, and the Mach number of the partially condensed flow based on frozen sound speed. The transition between partially condensed-supercooled flow is found to occur at 22-25 K isobaric supercooling with the corresponding mass fraction condensed being 12-14 percent over a range of two orders of magnitude in local static pressure. The heat released and vapor mass removed during condensation ultimately raise the local pressure and temperature and reduce the flow Mach number.

  14. Delocalization in two-dimensional disordered Bose systems and depinning transition in the vortex state in superconductors.

    PubMed

    Lopatin, A V; Vinokur, V M

    2004-02-13

    We investigate a two-dimensional (2D) Bose system with the long range interactions in the presence of disorder. Formation of the bound states at strong impurity sites gives rise to a depletion of the superfluid density. We predict the intermediate superfluid state where the condensate and localized bosons are present simultaneously. We find that interactions suppress localization and that with the increase of the boson density the system experiences a sharp delocalization crossover into a state where all bosons are delocalized. We map our results onto a 3D system of vortices in type II superconductors in the presence of columnar defects; the intermediate superfluid state maps to an intermediate vortex liquid where vortex liquid neighbors pinned vortices. We predict the depinning crossover within the vortex liquid and depinning induced vortex lattice-Bose glass melting.

  15. Self-cleaning of superhydrophobic surfaces by self-propelled jumping condensate

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Katrina M.; Qu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Fangjie; Watson, Gregory S.; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The self-cleaning function of superhydrophobic surfaces is conventionally attributed to the removal of contaminating particles by impacting or rolling water droplets, which implies the action of external forces such as gravity. Here, we demonstrate a unique self-cleaning mechanism whereby the contaminated superhydrophobic surface is exposed to condensing water vapor, and the contaminants are autonomously removed by the self-propelled jumping motion of the resulting liquid condensate, which partially covers or fully encloses the contaminating particles. The jumping motion off the superhydrophobic surface is powered by the surface energy released upon coalescence of the condensed water phase around the contaminants. The jumping-condensate mechanism is shown to spontaneously clean superhydrophobic cicada wings, where the contaminating particles cannot be removed by gravity, wing vibration, or wind flow. Our findings offer insights for the development of self-cleaning materials. PMID:23630277

  16. Condensation of Methane in the Metal-Organic Framework IRMOF-1: Evidence for Two Critical Points.

    PubMed

    Höft, Nicolas; Horbach, Jürgen

    2015-08-19

    Extensive grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations in combination with successive umbrella sampling are used to investigate the condensation of methane in the nanoporous crystalline material IRMOF-1. Two different types of novel condensation transitions are found, each of them ending in a critical point: (i) a fluid-fluid transition at higher densities (the analog of the liquid-gas transition in the bulk) and (ii) a phase transition at low densities on the surface of the IRMOF-1 structure. The nature of these transitions is different from the usual capillary condensation in thin films and cylindrical pores where the coexisting phases are confined in one or two of the three spatial dimensions. In contrast to that, in IRMOF-1 the different phases can be described as bulk phases that are inhomogeneous due to the presence of the metal-organic framework. As a consequence, the condensation transitions in IRMOF-1 belong to the three-dimensional (3D) Ising universality class.

  17. [Determination of proteomic and metabolic composition of exhaled breath condensate of newborns].

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Chagovets, V V; Starodubtseva, N L; Ryndin, A Y; Bugrova, A E; Kostyukevich, Y I; Popov, I A; Frankevich, V E; Ionov, O V; Sukhikh, G T; Nikolaev, E N

    2016-01-01

    Here, the possibility of proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the composition of exhaled breath condensate of neonates with respiratory support. The developed method allows non-invasive collecting sufficient amount of the material for identification of disease-specific biomarkers. Samples were collected by using a condensing device that was incorporated into the ventilation system. The collected condensate was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The isolated substances were identified with a use of databases for proteins and metabolites. As a result, a number of compounds that compose the exhaled breath condensate was determined and can be considered as possible biomarkers of newborn diseases or stage of development.

  18. Plagioclase-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites - Liquid condensates?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wark, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics and formation of coarse-grained, plagioclase-rich inclusions are investigated. The textures, mineralogical compositions, and initial Al-26/Al-27 ratios for the plagioclase-rich inclusions are described. It is observed that plagioclase-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites are either Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) composed of 30-60 vol pct anorthite, and less than 35 vol pct Ti-Al-pyroxene and melilite, or CA chondrites composed of plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine, spinel, and melilite. It is observed that CA chondrules are chemically and mineralogically the most similar components shared by carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. The textural changes observed in the inclusions are examined. The data reveal that the CAIs have three textural groups: coarse anorthite laths, equigranular anorthite and Ti-Al-pyroxene, and lacy Ti-Al-pyroxene and fine-grained anorthite.

  19. Cloud Condensation Nuclei in FIRE III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, James G.; Delnore, Victor E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Yum and Hudson showed that the springtime Arctic aerosol is probably a result of long-range transport at high altitudes. Scavenging of particles by clouds reduces the low level concentrations by a factor of 3. This produces a vertical gradient in particle concentrations when low-level clouds are present. Concentrations are uniform with height when clouds are not present. Low-level CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) spectra are similar to those in other maritime areas as found by previous projects including FIRE 1 and ASTEX, which were also supported on earlier NASA-FIRE grants. Wylie and Hudson carried this work much further by comparing the CCN spectra observed during ACE with back trajectories of air masses and satellite photographs. This showed that cloud scavenging reduces CCN concentrations at all altitudes over the springtime Arctic, with liquid clouds being more efficient scavengers than frozen clouds. The small size of the Arctic Ocean seems to make it more susceptible to continental and thus anthropogenic aerosol influences than any of the other larger oceans.

  20. Marathon North Brae development will emphasize condensate yield

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    Marathon Oil UK Ltd. is developing the North Brae field at an estimated cost of $2.5 billion in what will be the first exploitation of a gas condensate dense phase reservoir in the UK sector of the North Sea. The project will feature gas recycling to maximize recovery of liquids and ultimately dry gas. The planned Brae B platform will be the largest gas processing facility ever to be installed offshore. The design, cost, and construction of the offshore platforms are described.

  1. ENHANCED PERVAPORATION SEPARATION EFFICIENCY VIA STAGED FRACTIONAL CONDENSATION (DEPHLEGMATION) OF PERMEATE VAPOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    In traditional pervaporation systems, the permeate vapor is completely condensed to obtain a liquid permeate stream. For example, in the recovery of ethanol from a 5-wt% aqueous stream (such as a biomass fermentation broth), the permeate from a silicone rubber pervaporation membr...

  2. Reactive shock phenomena in condensed materials: Formulation of the problem and method of solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirguis, R.; Oran, E. S.

    1983-12-01

    A reactive shock simulation model used to study the formation and propagation of shocks and detonations in condensed phase materials is described. Two test cases are given: (1) laser initiation of a shock wave propagating through water, and (2) the development of a detonation front from a hot spot in liquid nitromethane.

  3. Condensing efficiency of the truncated cone condenser and its comparison with the Winston cone condenser in terahertz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Makoto; Hiromoto, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    The angle-dependent condensing efficiency of a truncated cone condenser (TCC) in the terahertz (THz) region has been examined by 2D ray tracing and 3D electromagnetic simulation. The condensing efficiency in the THz region is transferred to that in the optical region by theoretical dispersive reflection from a rough surface, and it is confirmed that the latter is consistent with the measured condensing efficiency in the optical region. Although the TCC has a gradual field of view (FOV) compared with the Winston cone condenser (WCC), we improved the steepness of the FOV by adding a baffle before the input aperture of the TCC. We also proved that the TCC has a high condensing efficiency at around normal incidence in comparison with the WCC in the THz region.

  4. Thermally activated defects in a two-dimensional lattice of Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweikhard, Volker; Tung, Shihkuang; Cornell, Eric

    2007-06-01

    We present a study of thermally activated phase defects in a two-dimensional (2d) Josephson junction array of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), created by adiabatically loading a pre-formed BEC into a 2d optical lattice. Each lattice site contains thousands of condensed atoms, so that the phase of each condensate is well-defined. Nearest-neighbor tunneling provides a Josephson coupling J which acts to keep the condensates' relative phases locked. A cloud of uncondensed atoms, in thermal equilibrium with the condensate array at a temperature T, on the other hand induces thermal fluctuations of the condensate phases. By varying the optical lattice depth we tune the Josephson coupling in the vicinity of the thermal energy, and thus induce a crossover between a phase-locked array for J>T and a disordered array for Jcondensate. The physics of this system is closely related to the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition observed in 2d superfluids and superconducting Josephson junction arrays.

  5. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-03

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach--based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants--that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  6. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach—based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants—that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle’s bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  7. Marine Steam Condenser Design Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Rerf . 61. !kS 2XLI: Those parametars which the opti heztion proqran ms--faitted to change in order to improre’the esign. Pesin variablis appear oely on...subroutine SEC& LC is called. 5. jZ.~ This subroutine determines all the parameters of each of the sectors in the condenser by row. The first...force the pressure losses to converge to a single value. Once steam flow to the sectors has been adjusted, the sector and row analysis in SEC& LC is

  8. Direct condensation by humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, S.; Schiebelsberger, B.

    1980-12-01

    The practicability of direct condensation with humid air (DKFL) for waste heat removal from thermal power plants was investigated with regard to technical, economical and environmental aspects. The adjustment of a uniform trickling-water film was examined. A vertical test tube was erected to study the phenomenon of a trickling-water film. A pilot plant with a vertical tube-bundle was installed to evaluate the main process parameters. The applicability of the cooling system is judged. A theoretical model was derived for the design of a DKFL apparatus. A vertical geometry for the test tube has essential operational and economical advantages in comparison with a horizontal one.

  9. Turbulent Distortion of Condensate Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazoume, R.; Orou Chabi, J.; Johnson, J. A., III

    1997-01-01

    When a simple model for the relationship between the density-temperature fluctuation correlation and mean values is used, we determine that the rate of change of turbulent intensity can influence directly the accretion rate of droplets. Considerable interest exists in the accretion rate for condensates in nonequilibrium flow with icing and the potential role which reactant accretion can play in nonequilibrium exothermic reactant processes. Turbulence is thought to play an important role in such flows. It has already been experimentally determined that turbulence influences the sizes of droplets in the heterogeneous nucleation of supersaturated vapors. This paper addresses the issue of the possible influence of turbulence on the accretion rate of droplets.

  10. Hydrophobic liquid/gas separator for heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Perforated nonwetting plug of material such as polytetrafluoroethylene is mounted in gas reservoir feed tube, preferably at end which extends into heat pipe condenser section, to prevent liquid from entering gas reservoir of passively controlled heat pipe.

  11. Methods of forming and using porous structures for energy efficient separation of light gases by capillary condensation

    DOEpatents

    Calamur, Narasimhan; Carrera, Martin E.; Devlin, David J.; Archuleta, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for separating one or more condensable compounds from a mixture of two or more gases of differing volatilities by capillary fractionation in a membrane-type apparatus, and a method of forming porous structures therefor. More particularly, the invention includes methods of forming and using an apparatus consisting, at least in part, of a porous structure having capillary-type passages extending between a plurality of small openings on the first side and larger openings on a second side of the structure, the passages being adapted to permit a condensed liquid to flow therethrough substantially by capillary forces, whereby vapors from the mixture are condensed, at least in part, and substantially in and adjacent to the openings on the first side, and are caused to flow in a condensed liquid state, substantially in the absence of vapor, from the openings on the first side to the openings on the second side.

  12. Tilted disordered Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trescher, Maximilian; Sbierski, Björn; Brouwer, Piet W.; Bergholtz, Emil J.

    2017-01-01

    Although Lorentz invariance forbids the presence of a term that tilts the energy-momentum relation in the Weyl Hamiltonian, a tilted dispersion is not forbidden and, in fact, generic for condensed matter realizations of Weyl semimetals. We here investigate the combined effect of such a tilted Weyl dispersion and the presence of potential disorder. In particular, we address the influence of a tilt on the disorder-induced phase transition between a quasiballistic phase at weak disorder, in which the disorder is an irrelevant perturbation, and a diffusive phase at strong disorder. Our main result is that the presence of a tilt leads to a reduction of the critical disorder strength for this transition or, equivalently, that increasing the tilt at fixed disorder strength drives the system through the phase transition to the diffusive strong-disorder phase. Notably this obscures the tilt-induced Lifshitz transition to an overtilted type II Weyl phase at any finite disorder strength. Our results are supported by analytical calculations using the self-consistent Born approximation and numerical calculations of the density of states and of transport properties.

  13. DNA condensation in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardatscher, Günther; Bracha, Dan; Daube, Shirley S.; Vonshak, Ohad; Simmel, Friedrich C.; Bar-Ziv, Roy H.

    2016-12-01

    DNA can be programmed to assemble into a variety of shapes and patterns on the nanoscale and can act as a template for hybrid nanostructures such as conducting wires, protein arrays and field-effect transistors. Current DNA nanostructures are typically in the sub-micrometre range, limited by the sequence space and length of the assembled strands. Here we show that on a patterned biochip, DNA chains collapse into one-dimensional (1D) fibres that are 20 nm wide and around 70 µm long, each comprising approximately 35 co-aligned chains at its cross-section. Electron beam writing on a photocleavable monolayer was used to immobilize and pattern the DNA molecules, which condense into 1D bundles in the presence of spermidine. DNA condensation can propagate and split at junctions, cross gaps and create domain walls between counterpropagating fronts. This system is inherently adept at solving probabilistic problems and was used to find the possible paths through a maze and to evaluate stochastic switching circuits. This technique could be used to propagate biological or ionic signals in combination with sequence-specific DNA nanotechnology or for gene expression in cell-free DNA compartments.

  14. Condensation heat transfer of actual flue gas on horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Itoh, Tugue; Yagi, Kiyoyuki

    1999-07-01

    In order to improve the boiler efficiency, latent heat recovery from an exhaust flue gas is a very important concept. Condensation heat transfer on horizontal stainless steel tubes was investigated experimentally using an actual flue gas from a natural gas boiler. The experiment was conducted at different air ratios and steam mass concentrations of the flue gas, and in a wide range of tube wall temperature. The condensation pattern was similar to the dropwise condensation near the dew point. As the wall temperature was decreased, the wall region covered with a thin liquid film increased. The heat and mass transfer behavior were well predicted with the simple analogy correlation in the high wall temperature region. But in the low wall temperature region, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. At a high steam mass concentration artificially generated with steam injection, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. The analogy correlation using the modified Sherwood number taking account of the mass absorption effect was proposed. The modified correlation gave a good prediction of the heat flux at the high steam mass concentration.

  15. Diffusion with condensation and evaporation in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, L.; Plumb, O.A.; Ho, C.K.; Webb, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    Vapor phase transport in porous media is important in a number of environmental and industrial processes: soil moisture transport, vapor phase transport in the vadose zone, transport in the vicinity of buried nuclear waste, and industrial processes such as drying. The diffusion of water vapor in a packed bed containing residual liquid is examined experimentally. The objective is to quantify the effect of enhanced vapor diffusion resulting from evaporation/condensation in porous media subjected to a temperature gradient. Isothermal diffusion experiments in free-space were conducted to qualify the experimental apparatus and techniques. For these experiments measured diffusion coefficients are within 3.6% of those reported in the literature for the temperature range from 25 C to 40 C. Isothermal experiments in packed beds of glass beads were used to determine the tortuosity coefficient resulting in {tau} = 0.78 {+-} 0.028, which is also consistent with previously reported results. Nonisothermal experiments in packed beds in which condensation occurs were conducted to examine enhanced vapor diffusion. The interpretation of the results for these experiments is complicated by a gradual, but continuous, build-up of condensate in the packed beds during the course of the experiment. Results indicate diffusion coefficients which increase as a function of saturation resulting in enhancement of the vapor-phase transport by a factor of approximately four compared to a dry porous medium.

  16. Investigation of Condensing Ice Heat Exchangers for MTSA Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Sebastian; Powers, Aaron; Ball, Tyler; Lacomini, Christie; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal, carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control for a Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). Metabolically-produced CO2 present in the ventilation gas of a PLSS is collected using a CO2-selective adsorbent via temperature swing adsorption. The temperature swing is initiated through cooling to well below metabolic temperatures. Cooling is achieved with a sublimation heat exchanger using water or liquid carbon dioxide (L CO2) expanded below sublimation temperature when exposed to low pressure or vacuum. Subsequent super heated vapor, as well as additional coolant, is used to further cool the astronaut. The temperature swing on the adsorbent is then completed by warming the adsorbent with a separate condensing ice heat exchanger (CIHX) using metabolic heat from moist ventilation gas. The condensed humidity in the ventilation gas is recycled at the habitat. The water condensation from the ventilation gas represents a significant source of potential energy for the warming of the adsorbent bed as it represents as much as half of the energy potential in the moist ventilation gas. Designing a heat exchanger to efficiently transfer this energy to the adsorbent bed and allow the collection of the water is a challenge since the CIHX will operate in a temperature range from 210K to 280K. The ventilation gas moisture will first freeze and then thaw, sometimes existing in three phases simultaneously.

  17. Probability Density Function Analysis of Turbulent Condensation Using GPU Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keedy, Ryan; Riley, James; Aliseda, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Growth of liquid droplets by condensation is an important phenomenon in many environmental and industrial applications. In a homogenous, supersaturated environment, condensation will tend to narrow the diameter distribution of a poly-disperse collection of droplets. However, free shear turbulence can broaden the diameter distribution due to intermittency in the mixing and by subjecting droplets to non-Gaussian supersaturation statistics. In order to understand the condensation behavior of water droplets in a turbulent flow, it is necessary to understand the dispersion of the droplets and transported scalars. We describe a hybrid approach for predicting droplet growth and dispersion in a turbulent mixing layer and compare our computational predictions to experimental data. The approach utilizes a finite-volume code to calculate the fluid velocity field and a particle-mesh Monte Carlo method to track the locations and thermodynamics of the large number of stochastic particles throughout the domain required to resolve the Probability Density Function of the water vapor and droplets. The particle tracking algorithm is designed to take advantage of the computational power of a large number of GPU cores, with significant speed-up when compared against a baseline CPU configuration.

  18. Ultra-low threshold polariton condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Mark; Fluegel, Brian; Alberi, Kirstin; Snoke, David W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate condensation of microcavity polaritons with a very sharp threshold occuring at two orders of magnitude lower pump intensity than previous demonstrations of condensation. The long cavity-lifetime and trapping and pumping geometries are crucial to the realization of this low threshold. Polariton condensation, or "polariton lasing" has long been proposed as a promising source of coherent light at lower threshold than traditional lasing, and these results suggest methods to bring this threshold even lower.

  19. High-temperature condensates in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, L.

    1977-01-01

    Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations of the sequence of condensation of minerals from a cooling gas of solar composition play an important role in explaining the mineralogy and trace element content of different types of inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites. Group IV B iron meteorites and enstatite chondrites may also be direct condensates from the solar nebula. Condensation theory provides a framework within which chemical fractionations between different classes of chondrites may be understood.

  20. Ultra-low threshold polariton condensation.

    PubMed

    Steger, Mark; Fluegel, Brian; Alberi, Kirstin; Snoke, David W; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2017-03-15

    We demonstrate the condensation of microcavity polaritons with a very sharp threshold occurring at a two orders of magnitude pump intensity lower than previous demonstrations of condensation. The long cavity lifetime and trapping and pumping geometries are crucial to the realization of this low threshold. Polariton condensation, or "polariton lasing" has long been proposed as a promising source of coherent light at a lower threshold than traditional lasing, and these results indicate some considerations for optimizing designs for lower thresholds.

  1. A new experiment for investigating evaporation and condensation of cryogenic propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellur, K.; Médici, E. F.; Kulshreshtha, M.; Konduru, V.; Tyrewala, D.; Tamilarasan, A.; McQuillen, J.; Leão, J. B.; Hussey, D. S.; Jacobson, D. L.; Scherschligt, J.; Hermanson, J. C.; Choi, C. K.; Allen, J. S.

    2016-03-01

    Passive and active technologies have been used to control propellant boil-off, but the current state of understanding of cryogenic evaporation and condensation in microgravity is insufficient for designing large cryogenic depots critical to the long-term space exploration missions. One of the key factors limiting the ability to design such systems is the uncertainty in the accommodation coefficients (evaporation and condensation), which are inputs for kinetic modeling of phase change. A novel, combined experimental and computational approach is being used to determine the accommodation coefficients for liquid hydrogen and liquid methane. The experimental effort utilizes the Neutron Imaging Facility located at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland to image evaporation and condensation of hydrogenated propellants inside of metallic containers. The computational effort includes numerical solution of a model for phase change in the contact line and thin film regions as well as an CFD effort for determining the appropriate thermal boundary conditions for the numerical solution of the evaporating and condensing liquid. Using all three methods, there is the possibility of extracting the accommodation coefficients from the experimental observations. The experiments are the first known observation of a liquid hydrogen menisci condensing and evaporating inside aluminum and stainless steel cylinders. The experimental technique, complimentary computational thermal model and meniscus shape determination are reported. The computational thermal model has been shown to accurately track the transient thermal response of the test cells. The meniscus shape determination suggests the presence of a finite contact angle, albeit very small, between liquid hydrogen and aluminum oxide.

  2. A New Experiment for Investigating Evaporation and Condensation of Cryogenic Propellants

    PubMed Central

    Bellur, K.; Médici, E. F.; Kulshreshtha, M.; Konduru, V.; Tyrewala, D.; Tamilarasan, A.; McQuillen, J.; Leao, J.; Hussey, D. S.; Jacobson, D. L.; Scherschligt, J.; Hermanson, J. C.; Choi, C. K.; Allen, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Passive and active technologies have been used to control propellant boil-off, but the current state of understanding of cryogenic evaporation and condensation in microgravity is insufficient for designing large cryogenic depots critical to the long-term space exploration missions. One of the key factors limiting the ability to design such systems is the uncertainty in the accommodation coefficients (evaporation and condensation), which are inputs for kinetic modeling of phase change. A novel, combined experimental and computational approach is being used to determine the accommodation coefficients for liquid hydrogen and liquid methane. The experimental effort utilizes the Neutron Imaging Facility located at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland to image evaporation and condensation of hydrogenated propellants inside of metallic containers. The computational effort includes numerical solution of a model for phase change in the contact line and thin film regions as well as an CFD effort for determining the appropriate thermal boundary conditions for the numerical solution of the evaporating and condensing liquid. Using all three methods, there is the possibility of extracting the accommodation coefficients from the experimental observations. The experiments are the first known observation of a liquid hydrogen menisci condensing and evaporating inside aluminum and stainless steel cylinders. The experimental technique, complimentary computational thermal model and meniscus shape determination are reported. The computational thermal model has been shown to accurately track the transient thermal response of the test cells. The meniscus shape determination suggests the presence of a finite contact angle, albeit very small, between liquid hydrogen and aluminum oxide. PMID:28154426

  3. A New Experiment for Investigating Evaporation and Condensation of Cryogenic Propellants.

    PubMed

    Bellur, K; Médici, E F; Kulshreshtha, M; Konduru, V; Tyrewala, D; Tamilarasan, A; McQuillen, J; Leao, J; Hussey, D S; Jacobson, D L; Scherschligt, J; Hermanson, J C; Choi, C K; Allen, J S

    2016-03-01

    Passive and active technologies have been used to control propellant boil-off, but the current state of understanding of cryogenic evaporation and condensation in microgravity is insufficient for designing large cryogenic depots critical to the long-term space exploration missions. One of the key factors limiting the ability to design such systems is the uncertainty in the accommodation coefficients (evaporation and condensation), which are inputs for kinetic modeling of phase change. A novel, combined experimental and computational approach is being used to determine the accommodation coefficients for liquid hydrogen and liquid methane. The experimental effort utilizes the Neutron Imaging Facility located at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland to image evaporation and condensation of hydrogenated propellants inside of metallic containers. The computational effort includes numerical solution of a model for phase change in the contact line and thin film regions as well as an CFD effort for determining the appropriate thermal boundary conditions for the numerical solution of the evaporating and condensing liquid. Using all three methods, there is the possibility of extracting the accommodation coefficients from the experimental observations. The experiments are the first known observation of a liquid hydrogen menisci condensing and evaporating inside aluminum and stainless steel cylinders. The experimental technique, complimentary computational thermal model and meniscus shape determination are reported. The computational thermal model has been shown to accurately track the transient thermal response of the test cells. The meniscus shape determination suggests the presence of a finite contact angle, albeit very small, between liquid hydrogen and aluminum oxide.

  4. Extension of JAGUAR Procedures for New Gaseous and Condensed Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Murphy, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    JAGUAR is a highly efficient and accurate thermochemical equilibrium program for the detonation properties of explosives. In previous studies equation of state EXP-6 parameters for H-CN-O gaseous explosives product species have been optimized with available individual species Hugoniot data. The Jaguar library also includes solid and liquid properties for carbon and aluminum, silicon, and boron compounds. In this study the Jaguar property library has been expanded to include additional gaseous, liquid, and solid detonation products. New EXP-6 parameters for gaseous fluorine and chlorine compounds have been established through theoretical procedures, and by analyses of Hugoniot data for the actual species or for reactants which decompose into these compounds. Properties for additional condensed species have also been analyzed and added to the library. Extensive tests have beeb performed to determine the accuracy of calculated detonation properties in comparison to experimental data. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Institute for Multi Scale Reactive Modeling.

  5. Water Evaporation and Condensation by a Phase-Field Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizio, Mauro; Grandi, Diego; Molari, Luisa

    2016-10-01

    We develop a phase-field model for the liquid-vapor phase transition. The model aims to describe in a thermodynamically consistent way the phase change phenomenon coupled with the macroscopic motion of the fluid. The phase field φ in [0, 1] describes the liquid fraction at any point and the overall water density is a function of the phase field and the pressure. An extra gaseous substance (e.g. air) is allowed in the system and contributes to the mechanical pressure. The phase transition is described by a Ginzburg-Landau equation. The parameter that drives the transition is the partial vapor pressure, which is the relevant quantity for condensation and evaporation phenomena. Moreover, a velocity-dependent term contributes to the phase change in the transition layers where a vapor pressure gradient exists.

  6. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  7. Evaporative condensing minimizes system power requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Knebel, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    Evaporative condensing is a heat-rejection technology widely applied with industrial refrigeration. When employed with HVAC systems it can reduce electrical energy and demand consumption of an HVAC system by 20 to 40%, depending on location, compared to air-cooled condensing. Evaporative condensing allows direct-expansion (DX) systems to achieve energy and demand consumption comparable to the most efficient chilled water central plant systems. As the industry focuses its attention on solving the problems of energy conservation, demand reduction, and global warming, high-efficiency air conditioning systems utilizing evaporative condensing provide a reliable and cost-effective solution today. This article addresses the advantages of evaporative condensing over air-cooled and water-cooled condensing in DX packaged systems as well as chiller/cooling tower systems. A review of condensing methods and standard system operating characteristics will be used as examples to illustrate the thermodynamic benefits of evaporative condensing. Requirements for successful operation of evaporative condensers will be discussed.

  8. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E.; Hanna, B.

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  9. Combined boiler feed and condensate pump

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Cooper, Titusville, N.J.

    1993-06-01

    A pump for drawing the condensate from a condenser and feeding it to a steam boiler is described, the combination comprising: an elongate casing adapted to be connected in a pipeline having an inlet for receiving the condensate from a steam condenser and an outlet for feeding the condensate to a steam boiler; a pump shaft mounted in said casing rotating in a pair of bearings spaced along said shaft and fixed in said casing; an electric motor mounted in said casing connected to one end of said shaft for driving it; control means for operating said electric motor; an inducer pump mounted at the other end of said shaft, driven by said shaft; a multiple stage centrifugal feed pump located in said casing driven by said shaft and receiving condensate from the inducer pump, pumping said condensate to a higher pressure suitable for feeding a steam boiler and delivering said condensate to the outlet of said pump, the multiple stage centrifugal feed pump being located adjacent said inducer pump; and said inducer pump being of the type to produce sufficient positive pressure for properly feeding condensate to said feed pump.

  10. Grand-canonical simulation of DNA condensation with two salts, effect of divalent counterion size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Toan T.

    2016-02-01

    The problem of DNA- DNA interaction mediated by divalent counterions is studied using a generalized grand-canonical Monte-Carlo simulation for a system of two salts. The effect of the divalent counterion size on the condensation behavior of the DNA bundle is investigated. Experimentally, it is known that multivalent counterions have strong effect on the DNA condensation phenomenon. While tri- and tetra-valent counterions are shown to easily condense free DNA molecules in solution into toroidal bundles, the situation with divalent counterions is not as clear cut. Some divalent counterions like Mg+2 are not able to condense free DNA molecules in solution, while some like Mn+2 can condense them into disorder bundles. In restricted environment such as in two dimensional system or inside viral capsid, Mg+2 can have strong effect and able to condense them, but the condensation varies qualitatively with different system, different coions. It has been suggested that divalent counterions can induce attraction between DNA molecules but the strength of the attraction is not strong enough to condense free DNA in solution. However, if the configuration entropy of DNA is restricted, these attractions are enough to cause appreciable effects. The variations among different divalent salts might be due to the hydration effect of the divalent counterions. In this paper, we try to understand this variation using a very simple parameter, the size of the divalent counterions. We investigate how divalent counterions with different sizes can lead to varying qualitative behavior of DNA condensation in restricted environments. Additionally, a grand canonical Monte-Carlo method for simulation of systems with two different salts is presented in detail.

  11. Grand-canonical simulation of DNA condensation with two salts, effect of divalent counterion size.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Toan T

    2016-02-14

    The problem of DNA- DNA interaction mediated by divalent counterions is studied using a generalized grand-canonical Monte-Carlo simulation for a system of two salts. The effect of the divalent counterion size on the condensation behavior of the DNA bundle is investigated. Experimentally, it is known that multivalent counterions have strong effect on the DNA condensation phenomenon. While tri- and tetra-valent counterions are shown to easily condense free DNA molecules in solution into toroidal bundles, the situation with divalent counterions is not as clear cut. Some divalent counterions like Mg(+2) are not able to condense free DNA molecules in solution, while some like Mn(+2) can condense them into disorder bundles. In restricted environment such as in two dimensional system or inside viral capsid, Mg(+2) can have strong effect and able to condense them, but the condensation varies qualitatively with different system, different coions. It has been suggested that divalent counterions can induce attraction between DNA molecules but the strength of the attraction is not strong enough to condense free DNA in solution. However, if the configuration entropy of DNA is restricted, these attractions are enough to cause appreciable effects. The variations among different divalent salts might be due to the hydration effect of the divalent counterions. In this paper, we try to understand this variation using a very simple parameter, the size of the divalent counterions. We investigate how divalent counterions with different sizes can lead to varying qualitative behavior of DNA condensation in restricted environments. Additionally, a grand canonical Monte-Carlo method for simulation of systems with two different salts is presented in detail.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  13. Hybrid Boltzmann-Gross-Pitaevskii theory of Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in open driven-dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solnyshkov, D. D.; Terças, H.; Dini, K.; Malpuech, G.

    2014-03-01

    We derive a theoretical model which describes Bose-Einstein condensation in an open driven-dissipative system. It includes external pumping of a thermal reservoir, finite lifetime of the condensed particles, and energy relaxation. The coupling between the reservoir and the condensate is described with semiclassical Boltzmann rates. This results in a dissipative term in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate, which is proportional to the energy of the elementary excitations of the system. We analyze the main properties of a condensate described by this hybrid Boltzmann-Gross-Pitaevskii model, namely, dispersion of the elementary excitations, bogolon distribution function, first-order coherence, dynamic and energetic stability, and drag force created by a disorder potential. We find that the dispersion of the elementary excitations of a condensed state fulfills the Landau criterion of superfluidity. The condensate is dynamically and energetically stable as longs as it moves at a velocity smaller than the speed of excitations. First-order spatial coherence of the condensate is found to decay exponentially in one dimension and with a power law in two dimensions, similarly with the case of conservative systems. The coherence lengths are found to be longer due to the finite lifetime of the condensate excitations. We compare these properties with those of a condensate described by the popular "diffusive" models in which the dissipative term is proportional to the local condensate density. In the latter, the dispersion of excitations is diffusive which as soon as the condensate is put into motion implies finite mechanical friction and can lead to an energetic instability.

  14. Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry: proposal of a harmonic solvation model.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2014-11-07

    We propose a novel quantum chemical method, called the harmonic solvation model (HSM), for calculating thermochemical parameters in the condensed phase, particularly in the liquid phase. The HSM represents translational and rotational motions of a solute as vibrations interacting with a cavity wall of solvent molecules. As examples, the HSM and the ideal-gas model (IGM) were used for the standard formation reaction of liquid water, combustion reactions of liquid formic acid, methanol, and ethanol, vapor-liquid equilibration of water and ethanol, and dissolution of gaseous CO2 in water. The numerical results confirmed the reliability and applicability of the HSM. In particular, the temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy of liquid molecules was accurately reproduced by the HSM; for example, the boiling point of water was reasonably determined using the HSM, whereas the conventional IGM treatment failed to obtain a crossing of the two Gibbs energy curves for gaseous and liquid water.

  15. Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry: Proposal of a harmonic solvation model

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2014-11-07

    We propose a novel quantum chemical method, called the harmonic solvation model (HSM), for calculating thermochemical parameters in the condensed phase, particularly in the liquid phase. The HSM represents translational and rotational motions of a solute as vibrations interacting with a cavity wall of solvent molecules. As examples, the HSM and the ideal-gas model (IGM) were used for the standard formation reaction of liquid water, combustion reactions of liquid formic acid, methanol, and ethanol, vapor–liquid equilibration of water and ethanol, and dissolution of gaseous CO{sub 2} in water. The numerical results confirmed the reliability and applicability of the HSM. In particular, the temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy of liquid molecules was accurately reproduced by the HSM; for example, the boiling point of water was reasonably determined using the HSM, whereas the conventional IGM treatment failed to obtain a crossing of the two Gibbs energy curves for gaseous and liquid water.

  16. Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry: Proposal of a harmonic solvation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel quantum chemical method, called the harmonic solvation model (HSM), for calculating thermochemical parameters in the condensed phase, particularly in the liquid phase. The HSM represents translational and rotational motions of a solute as vibrations interacting with a cavity wall of solvent molecules. As examples, the HSM and the ideal-gas model (IGM) were used for the standard formation reaction of liquid water, combustion reactions of liquid formic acid, methanol, and ethanol, vapor-liquid equilibration of water and ethanol, and dissolution of gaseous CO2 in water. The numerical results confirmed the reliability and applicability of the HSM. In particular, the temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy of liquid molecules was accurately reproduced by the HSM; for example, the boiling point of water was reasonably determined using the HSM, whereas the conventional IGM treatment failed to obtain a crossing of the two Gibbs energy curves for gaseous and liquid water.

  17. Strongly interacting bosons in a disordered optical lattice.

    PubMed

    White, M; Pasienski, M; McKay, D; Zhou, S Q; Ceperley, D; Demarco, B

    2009-02-06

    We experimentally probe the properties of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model using an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a 3D disordered optical lattice. Controllable disorder is introduced using a fine-grained optical speckle field with features comparable in size to the lattice spacing along every lattice direction. A precision measurement of the disordering potential is used to compute the single-particle parameters of the system. To constrain theories of the disordered Bose Hubbard model, we have measured the change in condensate fraction as a function of disorder strength for several different ratios of tunneling to interaction energy. We observe disorder-induced, reversible suppression of condensate fraction for superfluid and coexisting superfluid-Mott-insulator phases.

  18. Varying duty operation of air-cooled condenser units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milman, O. O.; Kondratev, A. V.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Dunaev, S. N.; Kirjukhin, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Results of experimental investigations of operation modes of air-cooled condensers (ACC) under design and varying duty conditions are presented. ACCs with varying cooling airflow rates under constant heat load and with constant cooling airflow under varying heat load are examined. Diagrams of heat transfer coefficients and condensation pressures on the heat load and cooling airflow are obtained. It is found that, if the relative heat load is in the range from 0.6 to 1.0 of the nominal value, the ACC heat transfer coefficient varies insignificantly, unlike that of the water-cooled surface condensers. The results of the determination of "zero points" are given, i.e., the attainable pressure in air-cooled condensing units (ACCU), if there is no heat load for several values of working water temperature at the input of water-jet ejectors and liquid ring vacuum pump. The results of the experimental determination of atmospheric air suction into the ACC vacuum system. The effect of additional air suctions in the steam pipe on ACCU characteristics is analyzed. The thermal mapping of ACC heat exchange surfaces from the cooling air inlet is carried out. The dependence of the inefficient heat exchange zone on the additional air suction into the ACC vacuum system is given. It is shown that, if there is no additional air suction into the ACC vacuum system, the inefficient heat exchange zone is not located at the bottom of the first pass tubes, and their portion adjacent to the bottom steam pipe works efficiently. Design procedures for the ACC varying duty of capacitors are presented, and their adequacy for the ACCU varying duty estimation is analyzed.

  19. On Localized Vapor Pressure Gradients Governing Condensation and Frost Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan B

    2016-08-23

    Interdroplet vapor pressure gradients are the driving mechanism for several phase-change phenomena such as condensation dry zones, interdroplet ice bridging, dry zones around ice, and frost halos. Despite the fundamental nature of the underlying pressure gradients, the majority of studies on these emerging phenomena have been primarily empirical. Using classical nucleation theory and Becker-Döring embryo formation kinetics, here we calculate the pressure field for all possible modes of condensation and desublimation in order to gain fundamental insight into how pressure gradients govern the behavior of dry zones, condensation frosting, and frost halos. Our findings reveal that in a variety of phase-change systems the thermodynamically favorable mode of nucleation can switch between condensation and desublimation depending upon the temperature and wettability of the surface. The calculated pressure field is used to model the length of a dry zone around liquid or ice droplets over a broad parameter space. The long-standing question of whether the vapor pressure at the interface of growing frost is saturated or supersaturated is resolved by considering the kinetics of interdroplet ice bridging. Finally, on the basis of theoretical calculations, we propose that there exists a new mode of frost halo that is yet to be experimentally observed; a bimodal phase map is developed, demonstrating its dependence on the temperature and wettability of the underlying substrate. We hope that the model and predictions contained herein will assist future efforts to exploit localized vapor pressure gradients for the design of spatially controlled or antifrosting phase-change systems.

  20. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  1. Experimental investigation of CO{sub 2} condensation process using cryogen

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheonkyu; Yoo, Junghyun; Lee, Jisung; Park, Hana; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-01-29

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is one of the dominant gas molecules that causes greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming. Numerous studies have been carried out to regulate the emission of CO{sub 2} to reduce greenhouse gas. The liquid CO{sub 2} is a convenient form of transportation compared to high-pressurized gaseous CO{sub 2}. Therefore, the direct liquefaction mechanism of CO{sub 2} at low temperature draws technical attention recently. In particular, cold thermal energy of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) could be a candidate to condense gaseous CO{sub 2}, especially in the LNG powered ship. In this paper, the detailed direct condensation process of CO{sub 2} using LN{sub 2} with intermittent solidification is investigated. Pressurized CO{sub 2} at 600 kPa is directly liquefied in a vessel by liquid nitrogen which is supplied into the coiled tube heat exchanger inside the CO{sub 2} vessel. The heat exchanger temperature is controlled from 130 K to 205 K to regulate the solidification and sublimation of CO{sub 2} by duty control with cryogenic solenoid valve. The characteristics of CO{sub 2} condensation process with cryogen are analyzed from the measurement results. The results show that the solidification causes the significant degradation of CO{sub 2} condensation heat transfer. Finally, the condensation rate with and without solidification is compared.

  2. Convection, evaporation, and condensation of binary fluids in confined geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Roman; Qin, Tongran; Li, Yaofa; Chan, Benjamin; Yoda, Minami

    2011-11-01

    Phase change has a major effect on convection in liquid layers with a free surface. Significant latent heat generated at the free surface as a result of phase change can dramatically alter the interfacial temperature, inducing thermocapillary stresses. For binary fluids, differential evaporation leads to a variation in the concentration, and hence, induces solutocapillary stresses. This talk describes numerical and experimental studies of convection in alcohol-water mixtures due to a horizontal temperature gradient in the presence of phase change. Evaporation and condensation is known to be a notoriously difficult problem to model due to a poorly defined vapor transport problem which is strongly influenced by the presence/absence and flows of non-condensable gases (e.g., air). This issue is addressed by using a sealed cuvette heated at one end and cooled at the other. Both numerics and experiments show that, by adding or removing air from the cuvette, the direction of flow in a liquid layer covering the bottom of the cell can be reversed by emphasizing either thermocapillary or solutocapillary stresses. Supported by ONR.

  3. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  4. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  5. Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Ficklin, W.H.; Thompson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.

  6. Inhibition of Condensation Frosting by Arrays of Hygroscopic Antifreeze Drops.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoda; Damle, Viraj G; Uppal, Aastha; Linder, Rubin; Chandrashekar, Sriram; Mohan, Ajay R; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2015-12-29

    The formation of frost and ice can have negative impacts on travel and a variety of industrial processes and is typically addressed by dispensing antifreeze substances such as salts and glycols. Despite the popularity of this anti-icing approach, some of the intricate underlying physical mechanisms are just being unraveled. For example, recent studies have shown that in addition to suppressing ice formation within its own volume, an individual salt saturated water microdroplet forms a region of inhibited condensation and condensation frosting (RIC) in its surrounding area. This occurs because salt saturated water, like most antifreeze substances, is hygroscopic and has water vapor pressure at its surface lower than water saturation pressure at the substrate. Here, we demonstrate that for macroscopic drops of propylene glycol and salt saturated water, the absolute RIC size can remain essentially unchanged for several hours. Utilizing this observation, we demonstrate that frost formation can be completely inhibited in-between microscopic and macroscopic arrays of propylene glycol and salt saturated water drops with spacing (S) smaller than twice the radius of the RIC (δ). Furthermore, by characterizing condensation frosting dynamics around various hygroscopic drop arrays, we demonstrate that they can delay complete frosting over of the samples 1.6 to 10 times longer than films of the liquids with equivalent volume. The significant delay in onset of ice nucleation achieved by dispensing propylene glycol in drops rather than in films is likely due to uniform dilution of the drops driven by thermocapillary flow. This transport mode is absent in the films, leading to faster dilution, and with that facilitated homogeneous nucleation, near the liquid-air interface.

  7. An Experimental Study of Filmwise Condensation on Horizontal Enhanced Condenser Tubing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    with a 51 mm thick sheet of Johns - Manville Aerotube insulation. 22 D. CONDENSATE AND FEEDWATER SYSTEMS The condensate and feedwater systems are shown...desuperheater. The condensate and feedwater lines are insulated with 25.4 mm thick Johns - Manville Aerotube insulation. E. COOLING WATER SYSTEM The cooling

  8. Counterion condensation on heparin oligomers.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Atmuri, Anand; Kaltashov, Igor A; Dubin, Paul L

    2013-04-08

    The electropherogram of native heparin shows a broad distribution of mobilities μ, which truncates abruptly at a notably high μ = 4.7 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This highly skewed mobility distribution is also found for the 20-saccharide chain, which shows from mass spectrometry a more uniform (symmetrical) with respect to sulfation level. Since a partially degraded heparin exhibits oligomer peaks with μ> 5 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (appearing to escape the limitation of the mobility value for native heparin), we examined the electrophoretic behavior of chain-length monodisperse heparin oligomers. Their mobilities varied inversely with the logarithm of the contour length, L, for L from 3 to 10 nm and reached an asymptotic limit for L > 20 nm. The generality of this effect was indicated by similar behavior for oligomers of poly(styrene sulfonate). A recent theory of polyelectrolyte end effects (Manning, G. S. Macromolecules2008, 41, 6217-6227), in which chain termini exhibit reduced counterion condensation was found to quantitatively account for these results. A qualitative explanation for the anomalously high value of μ of native heparin, 10-20% higher than those seen for synthetic polyelectrolytes of higher linear charge density, is suggested on the basis of similar junction effects (Manning, G. S. Macromolecules2008, 41, 6217-6227), which reduce counterion condensation at the interfaces of regions of high and low sulfation. We suggest that these effects should be considered in models for the biofunctionality of the regulated high and low sulfation (NS/NA) domains of heparan sulfate.

  9. Molecular attraction of condensed bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Abrikosova, I. I.; Lifshitz, E. M.

    2015-09-01

    From the Editorial Board. As a contribution to commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz, it was found appropriate by the Editorial Board of Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (UFN) [Physics-Uspekhi] journal that the materials of the jubilee-associated Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences published in this issue (pp. 877-905) be augmented by the review paper "Molecular attraction of condensed bodies" reproduced from a 1958 UFN issue. Included in this review, in addition to an account by Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz of his theory of molecular attractive forces between condensed bodies (first published in Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (ZhETF) in 1955 and in its English translation Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics (JETP) in 1956), is a summary of a series of experimental studies beginning in 1949 by Irina Igorevna Abrikosova at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in a laboratory led by Boris Vladimirovich Derjaguin (1902-1994), a Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1958, however, UFN was not yet available in English translation, so the material of the review is insufficiently accessible to the present-day English-speaking reader. This is the reason why the UFN Editorial Board decided to contribute to celebrating the 100th anniversary of E M Lifshitz's birthday by reproducing on the journal's pages a 1958 review paper which contains both E M Lifshitz's theory itself and the experimental data that underpinned it (for an account of how Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz was enlisted to explain the experimental results of I I Abrikosova and B V Derjaguin, see the letter to the editors N P Danilova on page 925 of this jubilee collection of publications).

  10. New technology in condensate polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Kunin, R.; Salem, E.; Libutti, B. . Water Div.)

    1992-08-01

    Sulfonic acid ion exchange resins. when carried into a boiler or steam generator, thermally decompose releasing large amounts of corrosive, sulfates. Replacement of the sulfonic acid resin with a carboxylic acid resin would eliminate this source of contamination. The sulfonic acid resin is a strong acid: the carboxylic acid resin is a weak acid. The carboxylic acid resin alone is not capable of splitting salts which limits its use to mixed resin beds or to its use in single or individual beds with feeds of high alkalinity or high pH values. Laboratory, pilot plant and full scale plant tests compared the two resins in precoat filters. When the resins in mixed beds were in the acid form, the weakly acid resin was almost as effective in removing sodium ion as the strongly acid resin. In the ammonium form. the weakly acid resin was generally more effective in removing sodium than the strongly acid resin. Condensate polishing reduced the sodium ion to a few parts per billion (ppB). Complete resin separation before regeneration is more important for the weakly acid resin than for the strongly acid resin. Another development found that the hydrazine reaction with oxygen could be catalyzed by powdered activated carbon combined with microfibers on a Powdex substrate. The carbon should be thoroughly washed to reduce its residual sodium content. In plant tests, the carbon reduced the oxygen concentration in condensate about 50% during startup. In preliminary tests believed to be typical, carbon lowered the oxygen concentration below 10 ppB in about 6 hours compared to 18 hours without the carbon. Oxygen is also reduced during normal operation.

  11. Magnetic levitation of condensed hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, C. G.; Seidel, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid and solid molecular hydrogen has been levitated using a pair of small superconducting solenoids. The hydrogen samples, up to 3 mm in dimension, were trapped in a magnetic potential having either a discrete minimum or a minimum in the form of a ring 1 cm in diameter. The hydrogen could be moved about in the magnetic trap by applying an electric field.

  12. Condensation, demixing, and orientational ordering of magnetic colloidal suspensions.

    PubMed

    Cattes, Stefanie M; Klapp, Sabine H L; Schoen, Martin

    2015-05-01

    In this work we study the phase behavior of magnetic particles suspended in a simple nonmagnetic solvent. Magnetic particles are modelled as spherical particles carrying a three-dimensional, classical Heisenberg spin, whereas solvent molecules are treated as spherically symmetric Lennard-Jones particles. The binary mixture of magnetic particles and solvent is studied within the framework of classical density functional theory (DFT). Within DFT pair correlations are treated at the modified mean-field level at which they are approximated by orientation dependent Mayer f functions. In the absence of an external magnetic field four generic types of phase diagrams are observed depending on the concentration of magnetic particles. In this case we observe liquid-liquid phase coexistence between an orientationally ordered (polarized) and a disordered phase characterized by slightly different concentrations of magnetic particles. Liquid-liquid phase coexistence is suppressed by an external field and vanishes completely if the strength of the field is sufficiently large.

  13. Competing interactions in population-imbalanced two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galteland, Peder Notto; Sudbø, Asle

    2016-08-01

    We consider a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with and without synthetic "spin-orbit" interactions in two dimensions. Density and phase fluctuations of the condensate are included, allowing us to study the impact of thermal fluctuations and density-density interactions on the physics originating with spin-orbit interactions. In the absence of spin-orbit interactions, we find that intercomponent density interactions deplete the minority condensate. The thermally driven phase transition is driven by coupled density and phase-fluctuations, but is nevertheless shown to be a phase-transition in the Kosterlitz-Thouless universality class with close to universal amplitude ratios irrespective of whether both the minority- and majority condensates exist in the ground state, or only one condensate exists. In the presence of spin-orbit interactions we observe three separate phases, depending on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and intercomponent density-density interactions: a phase-modulated phase with uniform amplitudes for small intercomponent interactions, a completely imbalanced, effectively single-component condensate for intermediate spin-orbit coupling strength and sufficiently large intercomponent interactions, and a phase-modulated and amplitude-modulated phase for sufficiently large values of both the spin-orbit coupling and the intercomponent density-density interactions. The phase that is modulated by a single q -vector only is observed to transition into an isotropic liquid through a strong depinning transition with periodic boundary conditions, which weakens with open boundaries.

  14. Use of nuclear explosions to create gas condensate storage in the USSR. LLL Treaty Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-08-23

    The Soviet Union has described industrial use of nuclear explosions to produce underground hydrocarbon storage. To examples are in the giant Orenburg gas condensate field. There is good reason to believe that three additional cavities were created in bedded salt in the yet to be fully developed giant Astrakhan gas condensate field in the region of the lower Volga. Although contrary to usual western practice, the cavities are believed to be used to store H/sub 2/S-rich, unstable gas condensate prior to processing in the main gas plants located tens of kilometers from the producing fields. Detonations at Orenburg and Astrakhan preceded plant construction. The use of nuclear explosions at several sites to create underground storage of highly corrosive liquid hydrocarbons suggests that the Soviets consider this time and cost effective. The possible benefits from such a plan include degasification and stabilization of the condensate before final processing, providing storage of condensate during periods of abnormally high natural gas production or during periods when condensate but not gas processing facilities are undergoing maintenance. Judging from information provided by Soviet specialists, the individual cavities have a maximum capacity on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

  15. Evaluation of phase envelope on natural gas, condensate and gas hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promkotra, S.; Kangsadan, T.

    2015-03-01

    The experimentally gas hydrate are generated by condensate and natural gas. Natural gas and condensate samples are collected from a gas processing plant where is situated in the northeastern part of Thailand. Physical properties of the API gravity and density of condensate are presented in the range of 55-60° and 0.71-0.76 g/cm3. The chemical compositions of petroleum-field water are analyzed to evaluate the genesis of gas hydrate by experimental procedure. The hydrochemical compositions of petroleum-field waters are mostly the Na-Cl facies. This condition can estimate how the hydrate forms. Phase envelope of condensate is found only one phase which is liquid phase. The liquid fraction is 100% at 15°C and 101.327 kPa, with the critical pressure and temperature of 2,326 kPa and 611.5 K. However, natural gas can be separated in three phases which are vapor, liquid and solid phase with the pressure and temperature at 100 kPa and 274.2 K. The hydrate curves explicit both hydrate zone and nonhydrate zone. Phase envelope of gas hydrate from the phase diagram indicates the hydrate formation. The experimental results of hydrate form can correlate to the hydrate curve. Besides, the important factor of hydrate formation depends on impurity in the petroleum system.

  16. Dynamic Condensation of Mass and Stiffness Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.

    1995-12-01

    Details are given of a procedure for condensing the mass and stiffness matrices of a structure for dynamic analysis. The condensed model is based on choosing ncnatural frequencies and the corresponding modes of original model. The model is constructed so that (1) it has ncnatural frequencies equal to those of the original model, (2) the modes φ ifcless than i,j = 1, 2, . . . , ncare the same as those for the master co-ordinates in the corresponding modes of the original and (3) the responses of the condensed system at the co-ordinates Xcdue to forces at these co-ordinates, at one particular chosen frequency, are the same as those of the original system. The natural frequencies, the corresponding modes and the dynamic responses used for the condensation can be obtained from finite element analysis of the original structure. The method has been applied to the modelling of two common structures to examine its applicability. Comparisons between the performance of the condensed models obtained by means of the dynamic condensation method and that of the models obtained by the Guyan method have been conducted. The results of the example show that the condensed models determined by the dynamic condensation method retain the natural frequencies and modal shapes and perform better in describing the dynamic responses of the structures than do the corresponding models obtained by the Guyan method.

  17. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate acidity.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tamás; Barta, Imre; Antus, Balázs; Horváth, Ildikó

    2008-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate analysis is a developing method for investigating airway pathology. Impact of food and drink on breath condensate composition has not been systematically addressed. The aim of the study was to follow exhaled breath condensate pH after drinking an acidic and a neutral beverage. Breath condensate, capillary blood, and urine of 12 healthy volunteers were collected before and after drinking either 1 l of coke or 1 l of mineral water. The pH of each sample was determined with a blood gas analyzer. The mean difference between the pH of two breath condensate samples collected within 15 min before drinking was 0.13+/-0.03. Condensate pH decreased significantly from 6.29+/-0.02 to 6.24+/-0.02 (p<0.03) after drinking coke and from 6.37+/-0.03 to 6.22+/-0.04 (p<0.003) after drinking water. Drinking coke induced significant changes in blood and urine pH as well. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate composition and may contribute to the variability of exhaled breath condensate pH.

  18. Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.

    2002-01-01

    A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.

  19. Nephron induction revisited: from caps to condensates.

    PubMed

    Sariola, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Conversion of mesenchyme to epithelium in the metanephric kidney is clearly a multimolecular, multistep and partly redundant process. The present short review focuses on a neglected morphological aspect of kidney differentiation: the development of two transitory mesenchymal condensations that precede epithelial differentiation of nephrons. The first appearing condensate covers the tips of the collecting ducts and is termed a cap condensate. In the early kidney rudiment this structure has been referred to as a primary or early condensate. A few cells of the cap condensate (maybe only four to six cells), situated at the lateral edge of the cap, start proliferating rapidly and form a pretubular aggregate (or pretubular condensate), which converts to secretory nephron epithelia and finally segregates to different tubule segments. Throughout nephrogenesis, the cap condensates and pretubular aggregates are clearly distinguishable structures that show only partly overlapping gene expression profiles. Apart from being the source for the pretubular aggregates, the role of the cap condensate is unknown. It is now proposed that the cap regulates ureteric branching morphogenesis.

  20. Proceedings: 2002 Workshop on Condensate Polishing

    SciTech Connect

    2002-06-01

    Condensate polishing aims to control impurities in a nuclear power plant, thus allowing the unit to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2002 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 36 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) units.

  1. Fragmentation of Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Erich J.; Ho, Tin-Lun; Ueda, Masahito; Baym, Gordon

    2006-09-01

    We present the theory of bosonic systems with multiple condensates, providing a unified description of various model systems that are found in the literature. We discuss how degeneracies, interactions, and symmetries conspire to give rise to this unusual behavior. We show that as degeneracies multiply, so do the varieties of fragmentation, eventually leading to strongly correlated states with no trace of condensation.

  2. Enhancement of Condensation on a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Rencai; Hatanaka, Tsutomu; Nishio, Shigefumi

    In previous study, the characteristic of the condensation heat transfer on the dispersed vertical surface were investigated experimentally for the application of the finned surface to the thermoelectric generator utilizing boiling and condensation as the electrodes of the thermoelectric module. A prediction model for this diapered finned surface was proposed, based on Adamek-Webb model of the condensation on a finned tube. In this study, a condensation heat transfer experiment on a vertical dispersed finned surfaces using FC5312 was carried out, in order to enhance the condensation heat transfer coefficient by optimizing the fin size on a dispersed heat transfer surface. Experimental parameters were the fin width, thickness, height and the dispersed fin length. As the results, it was found from the experiment there was a dispersed fin length corresponding to the condensation at the maximum and its value was 1.75 mm. As the characteristic, the condensation changed from slowly increasing to rapidly increasing and then decreasing at a steep grade, with decreasing the dispersed fin length. In addition, the fin height did not affect this optimum dispersed fin length and the dispersed fin length affects the dependence of the condensation on different fin thickness. Further, the prediction values have a good agreement with the experimental data except the case of short dispersed fin length.

  3. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    DOEpatents

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  4. Collision of Bose Condensate Dark Matter structures

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, F. S.

    2008-12-04

    The status of the scalar field or Bose condensate dark matter model is presented. Results about the solitonic behavior in collision of structures is presented as a possible explanation to the recent-possibly-solitonic behavior in the bullet cluster merger. Some estimates about the possibility to simulate the bullet cluster under the Bose Condensate dark matter model are indicated.

  5. Fluorescent and Electroactive Low-Viscosity Tetrazine-Based Organic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Allain, Clémence; Piard, Jonathan; Brosseau, Arnaud; Han, Madeleine; Paquier, Julien; Marchandier, Thomas; Lequeux, Médéric; Boissière, Cédric; Audebert, Pierre

    2016-08-10

    New fluorescent molecular liquids with a tetrazine core have been prepared. These compounds remain liquid at least down to -60 °C and display very low viscosities (28 mPa.s for liquid 1, 58 mPa.s for liquid 2). Both compounds remain fluorescent in the condensed phase. For liquid 1, intermolecular quenching is observed to a certain extent, whereas liquid 2 displays similar photophysical properties in dilute solution and in neat film.

  6. Some effects of non-condensible gas in geothermal reservoirs with steam-water counterflow

    SciTech Connect

    McKibbin, Robert; Pruess, Karsten

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for fluid and heat flow in two-phase geothermal reservoirs containing non-condensible gas (CO{sub 2}). Vertical profiles of temperature, pressures and phase saturations in steady-state conditions are obtained by numerically integrating the coupled ordinary differential equations describing conservation of water, CO{sub 2}, and energy. Solutions including binary diffusion effects in the gas phase are generated for cases with net mass throughflow as well as for balanced liquid-vapor counterflow. Calculated examples illustrate some fundamental characteristics of two-phase heat transmission systems with non-condensible gas.

  7. Silicate impact-vapor condensate on the Moon: Theoretical estimates versus geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetsov, Vladimir V.; Shuvalov, Valery V.

    2016-01-01

    We numerically simulated the impacts of asteroids and comets on the Moon in order to calculate the amount of condensate that can be formed after the impacts and compare the results with data for lunar samples. Using available equations of state for quartz and dunite, we have determined pressure and density behind shock waves in these materials for particle velocities from 4 to 20 km/s and obtained release adiabats from various points on the Hugoniot curves to very low pressures. For shock waves with particle velocities behind the front below 8 km/s the release adiabats intersect the liquid branch of the two-phase curve and, during the following expansion, the liquid material vaporizes and does not condense, forming a two-phase mixture of melt and vapor. The condensate can appear during expansion of material compressed by a shock with higher (>8 km/s) velocities. Using our hydrocode SOVA, we have conducted numerical simulations of the impacts of spherical quartz, dunite, and water-ice projectiles into targets of the same materials. Impact velocities were 15-25 km/s for stony projectiles and 20-70 km/s for icy impactors, and impact angles were 45°and 90° to the target surface. Along with the masses of condensates we calculated the masses of vaporized and melted material. Upon the impact of a projectile consisting of dunite into a target of quartz at a speed of 20 km/s at an angle of 45°, vaporized and melted masses of the target are equal to 1.6 and 11 in units of projectile mass, respectively, and the mass of condensate is 0.19. Vaporized and condensed masses of the projectile are 0.16 and 0.02, more than 80% of the projectile mass is melted. The calculated ratio of vaporized to melted mass proved to be on the order of 0.1. However, we calculated that, at impact velocities below 20 km/s, the condensate mass is only a small fraction of the vaporized and melted masses and, consequently, the major part of vapor disperses in vacuum in the form of separate molecules

  8. The icephobicity comparison of polysiloxane modified hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces under condensing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyi; Liu, Jun; Li, Mingzhen; Wang, Qingjun; Chen, Qingmin

    2016-11-01

    Four polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings with different surface free energies have been prepared and applied to smooth and roughened aluminum plates to form hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. Their surface wettability in terms of water contact angle (CA), sliding angle (SA) and water droplet impact dynamics was studied under an ambient (50% relative humidity, RH at 25 °C) and three different condensing environments (low, highly and extremely condensing, i.e. 30%, 60% and 90% RH at -10 °C). In addition, the surface ice adhesion was investigated under the extremely condensing condition. Different PDMS coatings on either smooth or roughened surfaces displayed a very similar impact to static and dynamic wettability under the ambient environment. However, the water impact behavior and ice adhesion under the extremely condensing condition between the hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces are significantly different. One of the superhydrophobic surfaces (R2180) demonstrated an excellent water repelling capability to retard ice accumulation, and reduced ice adhesion strength even under the extremely condensing condition, and thus will be a good candidate for ice-phobic applications. This excellent ice-phobic property is attributed to the low surface free energy of the coating, which effectively prevents the water condensation inside the cavities of the hierarchical superhydrophobic structures and thus maintains "air cushion" on the solid/water interface, indicated by a very low solid-liquid contact area increase after surface is exposed to this condensing weather condition. This result demonstrates that the "air cushion" in a superhydrophobic surface could be maintained even under an extremely condensing condition by carefully selection of coating composition with a very low surface free energy.

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Probing of Molecular Dynamics at Catalytic and Ionic Liquid Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    of the anions and their nucleophilicity in the ionic liquid is critical. Both gas phase and condensed phase (polarizable continuum model) density...systems. One such example of a condensed phase system is protonated liquid water.8 In order to treat this type of system, the fragmentation equation...Phys. Chem. B, 2012, 116, 2917-2926.  G. Saielli, G. A. Voth, Y. Wang, Diffusion Mechanisms in Smectic Ionic Liquid Crystals : Insights from Coarse

  10. Unexpected manifestation of quark condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovjev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-05-15

    A comparative analysis of some quark ensembles governed by a four-fermion interaction is performed. Arguments in support of the statement that the presence of a gas-liquid phase transition is a feature peculiar to them are adduced. The instability of small quark droplets is discussed and is attributed to the formation of a chiral soliton. The stability of baryon matter is due to a mixed phase of the vacuum and baryon matter.

  11. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder; dysthymic disorder (a chronic, mild depression); and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). Major depressive disorder is, ... to the World Health Organization. YESTERDAY Depression and bipolar disorder weren’t considered distinct brain illnesses, and distinct ...

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS CONDENSER STACK, THE END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS CONDENSER STACK, THE END OF THE CONDENSING SYSTEM, REUSED BY VIVIANNA WORKS AS THE END OF THEIR CONDENSING SYSTEM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  13. 26. DETAIL VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS CONDENSER STACK, THE END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS CONDENSER STACK, THE END OF THE CONDENSING SYSTEM, REUSED BY VIVIANNA WORKS AS THE END OF THEIR CONDENSING SYSTEM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  14. Superfluidity of Bose—Einstein condensates in ultracold atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qi-Zhong; Wu, Biao

    2015-05-01

    Liquid helium 4 had been the only bosonic superfluid available in experiments for a long time. This situation was changed in 1995, when a new superfluid was born with the realization of the Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold atomic gases. The liquid helium 4 is strongly interacting and has no spin; there is almost no way to change its parameters, such as interaction strength and density. The new superfluid, Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), offers various advantages over liquid helium. On the one hand, BEC is weakly interacting and has spin degrees of freedom. On the other hand, it is convenient to tune almost all the parameters of a BEC, for example, the kinetic energy by spin-orbit coupling, the density by the external potential, and the interaction by Feshbach resonance. Great efforts have been devoted to studying these new aspects, and the results have greatly enriched our understanding of superfluidity. Here we review these developments by focusing on the stability and critical velocity of various superfluids. The BEC systems considered include a uniform superfluid in free space, a superfluid with its density periodically modulated, a superfluid with artificially engineered spin-orbit coupling, and a superfluid of pure spin current. Due to the weak interaction, these BEC systems can be well described by the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii theory and their superfluidity, in particular critical velocities, can be examined with the aid of Bogoliubov excitations. Experimental proposals to observe these new aspects of superfluidity are discussed. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB921903 and 2012CB921300) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274024, 11334001, and 11429402).

  15. Enhancing dropwise condensation through bioinspired wettability patterning.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aritra; Beaini, Sara; Zhang, Bong June; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2014-11-04

    Dropwise condensation (DWC) heat transfer depends strongly on the maximum diameter (Dmax) of condensate droplets departing from the condenser surface. This study presents a facile technique implemented to gain control of Dmax in DWC within vapor/air atmospheres. We demonstrate how this approach can enhance the corresponding heat transfer rate by harnessing the capillary forces in the removal of the condensate from the surface. We examine various hydrophilic-superhydrophilic patterns, which, respectively, sustain and combine DWC and filmwise condensation on the substrate. The material system uses laser-patterned masking and chemical etching to achieve the desired wettability contrast and does not employ any hydrophobizing agent. By applying alternating straight parallel strips of hydrophilic (contact angle ∼78°) mirror-finish aluminum and superhydrophilic regions (etched aluminum) on the condensing surface, we show that the average maximum droplet size on the less-wettable domains is nearly 42% of the width of the corresponding strips. An overall improvement in the condensate collection rate, up to 19% (as compared to the control case of DWC on mirror-finish aluminum) was achieved by using an interdigitated superhydrophilic track pattern (on the mirror-finish hydrophilic surface) inspired by the vein network of plant leaves. The bioinspired interdigitated pattern is found to outperform the straight hydrophilic-superhydrophilic pattern design, particularly under higher humidity conditions in the presence of noncondensable gases (NCG), a condition that is more challenging for maintaining sustained DWC.

  16. Diquark Bose-Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, K.; Nakano, E.; Yabu, H.

    2006-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of composite diquarks in quark matter (the color superconductor phase) is discussed using the quasichemical equilibrium theory at a relatively low-density region near the deconfinement phase transition, where dynamical quark-pair fluctuations are assumed to be described as bosonic degrees of freedom (diquarks). A general formulation is given for the diquark formation and particle-antiparticle pair-creation processes in the relativistic framework, and some interesting properties are shown, which are characteristic for the relativistic many-body system. Behaviors of transition temperature and phase diagram of the quark-diquark matter are generally presented in model parameter space, and their asymptotic behaviors are also discussed. As an application to the color superconductivity, the transition temperatures and the quark and diquark density profiles are calculated in case with constituent/current quarks, where the diquark is in the bound/resonant state. We obtained T{sub C}{approx}60-80 MeV for constituent quarks and T{sub C}{approx}130 MeV for current quarks at a moderate density ({rho}{sub b}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}). The method is also developed to include interdiquark interactions into the quasichemical equilibrium theory within a mean-field approximation, and it is found that a possible repulsive diquark-diquark interaction lowers the transition temperature by {approx}50%.

  17. Condensation Processes in Astrophysical Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Astrophysical systems present an intriguing set of challenges for laboratory chemists. Chemistry occurs in regions considered an excellent vacuum by laboratory standards and at temperatures that would vaporize laboratory equipment. Outflows around Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars have timescales ranging from seconds to weeks depending on the distance of the region of interest from the star and, on the way significant changes in the state variables are defined. The atmospheres in normal stars may only change significantly on several billion-year timescales. Most laboratory experiments carried out to understand astrophysical processes are not done at conditions that perfectly match the natural suite of state variables or timescales appropriate for natural conditions. Experimenters must make use of simple analog experiments that place limits on the behavior of natural systems, often extrapolating to lower-pressure and/or higher-temperature environments. Nevertheless, we argue that well-conceived experiments will often provide insights into astrophysical processes that are impossible to obtain through models or observations. This is especially true for complex chemical phenomena such as the formation and metamorphism of refractory grains under a range of astrophysical conditions. Data obtained in our laboratory has been surprising in numerous ways, ranging from the composition of the condensates to the thermal evolution of their spectral properties. None of this information could have been predicted from first principals and would not have been credible even if it had.

  18. Ice-condenser aerosol tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between {approximately}0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Neutron Radiography for Determining the Evaporation/Condensation Coefficients of Cryogenic Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellur, K.; Medici, E. F.; Kulshreshtha, M.; Konduru, V.; Tyrewala, D.; Choi, C.-K.; Allen, J. S.; Tamilarasan, A.; Hermanson, J. C.; McQuillen, J. B.; Leao, J.; Hussey, D. S.; Jacobson, D. L.; Scherschligt, J.

    2016-11-01

    A novel, combined experimental and computational approach was used to determine the accommodation coefficients for liquid hydrogen and liquid methane in aluminum and stainless steel containers. The experimental effort utilized the NIST Neutron Imaging Facility to image the evaporation and condensation of cryogenic, hydrogenated propellants inside metallic containers. The computational effort included a numerical solution of a model for phase change in the contact line and thin film regions as well as a CFD effort for determining the appropriate thermal boundary conditions for the numerical solution of the evaporating and condensing liquid. These three methods in combination allow for extracting the accommodation coefficients from the experimental observations. The condensation and evaporation were controlled by adjusting the system temperature and pressure. The computational thermal model was shown to accurately track the transient thermal response of the test cells. The meniscus shape determination suggests the presence of a finite contact angle, albeit very small, between liquid hydrogen and an aluminum oxide surface. Research supported by the NASA Space Technology Research Grants Program (Grant #NNX14AB05G).

  20. The impact of surface geometry, cavitation, and condensation on wetting transitions: posts and reentrant structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panter, J. R.; Kusumaatmaja, H.

    2017-03-01

    The fundamental impacts of surface geometry on the stability of wetting states, and the transitions between them are elucidated for square posts and reentrant structures in three dimensions. We identify three principal outcomes of particular importance for future surface design of liquid-repellent surfaces. Firstly, we demonstrate and quantify how capillary condensation and vapour cavitation affect wetting state stabilities. At high contact angles, cavitation is enhanced about wide, closely-spaced square posts, leading to the existence of suspended states without an associated collapsed state. At low contact angles, narrow reentrant pillars suppress condensation and enable the suspension of even highly wetting liquids. Secondly, two distinct collapse mechanisms are observed for 3D reentrant geometries, base contact and pillar contact, which are operative at different pillar heights. As well as morphological differences in the interface of the penetrating liquid, each mechanism is affected differently by changes in the contact angle with the solid. Finally, for highly-wetting liquids, condensates are shown to critically modify the transition pathways in both the base contact and pillar contact modes.

  1. Application of the string method to the study of critical nuclei in capillary condensation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunyin; Qian, Tiezheng; Ren, Weiqing

    2008-10-21

    We adopt a continuum description for liquid-vapor phase transition in the framework of mean-field theory and use the string method to numerically investigate the critical nuclei for capillary condensation in a slit pore. This numerical approach allows us to determine the critical nuclei corresponding to saddle points of the grand potential function in which the chemical potential is given in the beginning. The string method locates the minimal energy path (MEP), which is the most probable transition pathway connecting two metastable/stable states in configuration space. From the MEP, the saddle point is determined and the corresponding energy barrier also obtained (for grand potential). Moreover, the MEP shows how the new phase (liquid) grows out of the old phase (vapor) along the most probable transition pathway, from the birth of a critical nucleus to its consequent expansion. Our calculations run from partial wetting to complete wetting with a variable strength of attractive wall potential. In the latter case, the string method presents a unified way for computing the critical nuclei, from film formation at solid surface to bulk condensation via liquid bridge. The present application of the string method to the numerical study of capillary condensation shows the great power of this method in evaluating the critical nuclei in various liquid-vapor phase transitions.

  2. 12. ANGLED VIEW OF THE SCOTT FURNACE WITH PRIMARY CONDENSER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ANGLED VIEW OF THE SCOTT FURNACE WITH PRIMARY CONDENSER AND SOUTH SECONDARY CONDENSER IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  3. Dropwise condensation dynamics in humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo Chacon, Julian Eduardo

    Dropwise condensation of atmospheric water vapor is important in multiple practical engineering applications. The roles of environmental factors and surface morphology/chemistry on the condensation dynamics need to be better understood to enable efficient water-harvesting, dehumidication, and other psychrometric processes. Systems and surfaces that promote faster condensation rates and self-shedding of condensate droplets could lead to improved mass transfer rates and higher water yields in harvesting applications. The thesis presents the design and construction of an experimental facility that allows visualization of the condensation process as a function of relative humidity. Dropwise condensation experiments are performed on a vertically oriented, hydrophobic surface at a controlled relative humidity and surface subcooling temperature. The distribution and growth of water droplets are monitored across the surface at different relative humidities (45%, 50%, 55%, and 70%) at a constant surface subcooling temperature of 15 °C below the ambient temperature. The droplet growth dynamics exhibits a strong dependency on relative humidity in the early stages during which there is a large population of small droplets on the surface and single droplet growth dominates over coalescence effects. At later stages, the dynamics of droplet growth is insensitive to relative humidity due to the dominance of coalescence effects. The overall volumetric rate of condensation on the surface is also assessed as a function of time and ambient relative humidity. Low relative humidity conditions not only slow the absolute rate of condensation, but also prolong an initial transient regime over which the condensation rate remains significantly below the steady-state value. The current state-of-the-art in dropwise condensation research indicates the need for systematic experimental investigations as a function of relative humidity. The improved understanding of the relative humidity

  4. Vortices and turbulence in trapped atomic condensates

    PubMed Central

    White, Angela C.; Anderson, Brian P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than a decade of experiments generating and studying the physics of quantized vortices in atomic gas Bose–Einstein condensates, research is beginning to focus on the roles of vortices in quantum turbulence, as well as other measures of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. Such research directions have the potential to uncover new insights into quantum turbulence, vortices, and superfluidity and also explore the similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence in entirely new settings. Here we present a critical assessment of theoretical and experimental studies in this emerging field of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. PMID:24704880

  5. Heterogeneous Vapor Condensation in Boundary Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carpio, A.; Neu, J. C.

    2008-09-01

    We consider heterogeneous condensation of vapors mixed with a carrier gas in stagnation point boundary layer flow near a cold wall in the presence of solid particles much larger than the mean free path of vapor particles. The supersaturated vapor condenses on the particles by diffusion, particles and droplets are thermophoretically attracted to the wall. We sketch three asymptotic theories of the condensation process, calculate the flow-induced shift in the dew point interface, vapor density profile and deposition rates at the wall, and compare them to direct numerical simulation.

  6. Microscopic theory of equilibrium polariton condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Fei; Wu, Fengcheng; Xie, Ming; Su, Jung-Jung; MacDonald, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the equilibrium polariton condensate state of a semiconductor quantum well in a planar optical cavity. The theory accounts for the adjustment of matter excitations to the presence of a coherent photon field, predicts effective polariton-polariton interaction strengths that are weaker and condensate exciton fractions that are smaller than in the commonly employed exciton-photon model, and yields effective Rabi coupling strengths that depend on the detuning of the cavity-photon energy relative to the bare exciton energy. The dressed quasiparticle bands that appear naturally in the theory provide a mechanism for electrical manipulation of polariton condensates.

  7. Nebular condensation of Ga, Ge and Sb and the chemical classification of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wai, C. M.; Wasson, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    The quantization of the Ga and Ge contents in iron meteorites, which is used as a key parameter in the chemical classification of iron meteorites, is discussed in terms of nebular condensation. The calculation of nebular equilibrium condensation is examined, taking into account the dependence of the activity coefficient on temperature and composition, and recent calculations of the condensation temperatures of Ga, Ge, Sb, Au, As and Cu are presented, noting that Ge is the most volatile siderophile, followed by Ga and Sb. The narrow intragroup ranges of Ga and Ge are interpreted in terms of minimal fractionation during core crystallization, while the larger ranges of Sb are attributed to its significantly smaller solid/liquid distribution coefficient in IIIAB meteorites.

  8. Modelling the dynamics of condensation and evaporation of fluids in three-dimensional slit pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casselman, Joshua A.; Desouza, Anish; Monson, Peter A.

    2015-05-01

    We present an application of dynamic mean field theory (DMFT) for lattice gas models of confined fluids to the case of a fluid in a three-dimensional narrow slit between two plates. We consider a process where the slit is in contact with a subcritical bulk vapour and the bulk chemical potential is changed from a dilute gas value to a value close to that of the bulk saturated vapour so that capillary condensation occurs in the pore. DMFT predicts that the nucleation process during the condensation occurs by the formation of multiple liquid bridges spanning the pore walls, starting in the corners of the slit. These bridges eventually coalesce and the condensation transition terminates through the shrinkage and disappearance of a vapour bubble. We find that the density distribution is sensitive to the dimensions of the slit, with the number of bridges increasing with the slit area.

  9. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  10. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy is a new analytical tool that provides a simple nondestructive technique for obtaining information about the electronic absorption spectrum of samples such as powders, semisolids, gels, and liquids. It can also be applied to samples which cannot be examined by conventional optical methods. Numerous applications of this technique in the field of inorganic and organic semiconductors, biology, and catalysis have been described. Among the advantages of photoacoustic spectroscopy, the signal is almost insensitive to light scattering by the sample and information can be obtained about nonradiative deactivation processes. Signal saturation, which can modify the intensity of individual absorption bands in special cases, is a drawback of the method.

  11. Out-of-equilibrium processes in suspensions of oppositely charged colloids: liquid-to-crystal nucleation and gel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    We study the kinetics of the liquid-to-crystal transformation and of gel formation in colloidal suspensions of oppositely charged particles. We analyse, by means of both computer simulations and experiments, the evolution of a fluid quenched to a state point of the phase diagram where the most stable state is either a homogeneous crystalline solid or a solid phase in contact with a dilute gas. On the one hand, at high temperatures and high packing fractions, close to an ordered-solid/disordered-solid coexistence line, we find that the fluid-to-crystal pathway does not follow the minimum free energy route. On the other hand, a quench to a state point far from the ordered-crystal/disordered-crystal coexistence border is followed by a fluid-to-solid transition through the minimum free energy pathway. At low temperatures and packing fractions we observe that the system undergoes a gas-liquid spinodal decomposition that, at some point, arrests giving rise to a gel-like structure. Both our simulations and experiments suggest that increasing the interaction range favors crystallization over vitrification in gel-like structures. [4pt] In collaboration with Chantal Valeriani, Soft Condensed Matter, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands and SUPA, School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, JCMB King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, UK; Teun Vissers, Andrea Fortini, Mirjam E. Leunissen, and Alfons van Blaaderen, Soft Condensed Matter, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University; Daan Frenke, FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands and Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, CB2 1EW, Cambridge, UK; and Marjolein Dijkstra, Soft Condensed Matter, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University.

  12. Condensed Matter Theories: Volume 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludeña, Eduardo V.; Bishop, Raymond F.; Iza, Peter

    2011-03-01

    dynamics and density functional theory. Exchange-correlation functionals from the identical-particle Ornstein-Zernike equation: Basic formulation and numerical algorithms / R. Cuevas-Saavedra and P. W. Ayers. Features and catalytic properties of RhCu: A review / S. Gonzalez, C. Sousa and F. Illas. Kinetic energy functionals: Exact ones from analytic model wave functions and approximate ones in orbital-free molecular dynamics / V. V. Karasiev ... [et al.]. Numerical analysis of hydrogen storage in carbon nanopores / C. Wexler ... [et al.] -- pt. F. Superconductivity. Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in superconductivity / M. de Llano. Kohn anomaly energy in conventional superconductors equals twice the energy of the superconducting gap: How and why? / R. Chaudhury and M. P. Das. Collective excitations in superconductors and semiconductors in the presence of a condensed phase / Z. Koinov. Thermal expansion of ferromagnetic superconductors: Possible application to UGe[symbol] / N. Hatayama and R. Konno. Generalized superconducting gap in a Boson-Fermion model / T. A. Mamedov and M. de Llano. Influence of domain walls in the superconductor/ferromagnet proximity effect / E. J. Patino. Spin singlet and triplet superconductivity induced by correlated hopping interactions / L. A. Perez, J. S. Millan and C. Wang -- pt. G. Statistical mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics. Boltzmann's ergodic hypothesis: A meeting place for two cultures / M. H. Lee. Electron-electron interaction in the non-relativistic limit / F. B. Malik.

  13. The condensation of water on adsorbed viruses.

    PubMed

    Alonso, José María; Tatti, Francesco; Chuvilin, Andrey; Mam, Keriya; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-26

    The wetting and dewetting behavior of biological nanostructures and to a greater degree single molecules is not well-known even though their contact with water is the basis for all biology. Here, we show that environmental electron microscopy (EM) can be applied as a means of imaging the condensation of water onto viruses. We captured the formation of submicrometer water droplets and filaments on single viral particles by environmental EM and by environmental transmission EM. The condensate structures are compatible with capillary condensation between adsorbed virus particles and with known droplet shapes on patterned surfaces. Our results confirm that such droplets exist down to <50 nm. The viruses preserved their shape after a condensation/evaporation cycle as expected from their stability in air and water. Moreover we developed procedures that overcome problems of beam damage and of resolving structures with a low atomic number.

  14. Nonlinear interactions in an organic polariton condensate.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, K S; Maier, S A; Murray, R; Kéna-Cohen, S

    2014-03-01

    Under the right conditions, cavity polaritons form a macroscopic condensate in the ground state. The fascinating nonlinear behaviour of this condensate is largely dictated by the strength of polariton-polariton interactions. In inorganic semiconductors, these result principally from the Coulomb interaction between Wannier-Mott excitons. Such interactions are considerably weaker for the tightly bound Frenkel excitons characteristic of organic semiconductors and were notably absent in the first reported demonstration of organic polariton lasing. In this work, we demonstrate the realization of an organic polariton condensate, at room temperature, in a microcavity containing a thin film of 2,7-bis[9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)-fluoren-2-yl]-9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)fluorene. On reaching threshold, we observe the spontaneous formation of a linearly polarized condensate, which exhibits a superlinear power dependence, long-range order and a power-dependent blueshift: a clear signature of Frenkel polariton interactions.

  15. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of Phonon Condensate.

    PubMed

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Check, Michael H; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Robinson, Joshua A; Balatsky, Alexander V

    2017-02-22

    Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formation of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature.

  16. Ferromagnetic properties of charged vector boson condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, Alexander D.; Lepidi, Angela; Piccinelli, Gabriella E-mail: lepidi@fe.infn.it

    2010-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of W bosons in the early universe is studied. It is shown that, in the broken phase of the standard electroweak theory, the condensed W bosons form a ferromagnetic state with aligned spins. In this case the primeval plasma may be spontaneously magnetized inside macroscopically large domains and form magnetic fields which may be the seeds for the observed today galactic and intergalactic fields. However, in a modified theory, e.g. in a theory with stronger quartic self interactions of gauge bosons e.g. due to a smaller value of the weak mixing angle, antiferromagnetic condensation is possible. In the latter case W bosons form scalar condensate with macroscopically large electric charge density i.e. with a large average value of the bilinear product of W-vector fields but with microscopically small average value of the field itself.

  17. Kaon condensation in dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, M. |

    1995-03-01

    This article combines two talks given by the authors and is based on Works done in collaboration with G.E. Brown and D.P. Min on kaon condensation in dense baryonic medium treated in chiral perturbation theory using heavy-baryon formalism. It contains, in addition to what was recently published, astrophysical backgrounds for kaon condensation discussed by Brown and Bethe, a discussion on a renormalization-group analysis to meson condensation worked out together with H.K. Lee and S.J. Sin, and the recent results of K.M. Westerberg in the bound-state approach to the Skyrme model. Negatively charged kaons are predicted to condense at a critical density 2 {approx_lt} {rho}/{rho}o {approx_lt} 4, in the range to allow the intriguing new phenomena predicted by Brown and Bethe to take place in compact star matter.

  18. Ghost Condensation in N=1 Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Michael; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Ovrut, Burt

    We present the theory of an N=1 supersymmetric ghost condensate coupled to supergravity using a general formalism for constructing locally supersymmetric higher-derivative chiral superfield actions. The theory admits a ghost condensate vacuum in de Sitter spacetime. Expanded around this vacuum, the scalar sector is shown to be ghost-free with no spatial gradient instabilities. The fermion sector is found to consist of a massless chiral fermion and a massless gravitino. The ghost condensate vacuum spontaneously breaks local supersymmetry with the chiral field as the Goldstone fermion. Although potentially able to get a mass through the super-Higgs effect, the vanishing superpotential in the ghost condensate theory renders the gravitino massless.

  19. Condensation and Hydrolysis - An Optical Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, N. C.; Johnstone, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Recent surveys have shown that pupils find the topics of esterification and condensation difficult. Reasons for the difficulty are not clear. Described is research designed to determine where the difficulties were visual or conceptual in origin. (RH)

  20. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of Phonon Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Check, Michael H.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Robinson, Joshua A.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formation of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature. PMID:28225066

  1. Condensed-matter trio scoop Dirac prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2012-09-01

    Three condensed-matter physicists, who have advanced our understanding of a strange type of material known as a "topological insulator", have won this year's Dirac medal from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy.

  2. Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalman, G.

    1997-09-22

    This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.

  3. Passive control of unsteady condensation shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Matsuo, Shigeru; Shimamoto, Katsumi; Yasugi, Shinichi; Yu, Shen

    2000-12-01

    A rapid expansion of moist air or steam in a supersonic nozzle gives rise to nonequilibrium condensation phenomena. Thereby, if the heat released by condensation of water vapour exceeds a certain quantity, the flow will become unstable and periodic flow oscillations of the unsteady condensation shock wave will occur. For the passive control of shock-boundary layer interaction using the porous wall with a plenum underneath, many papers have been presented on the application of the technique to transonic airfoil flows. In this paper, the passive technique is applied to three types of oscillations of the unsteady condensation shock wave generated in a supersonic nozzle in order to suppress the unsteady behavior. As a result, the effects of number of slits and length of cavity on the aspect of flow field have been clarified numerically using a 3rd-order MUSCL type TVD finite-difference scheme with a second-order fractional-step for time integration.

  4. Condensation Front Migration in a Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.

    2004-01-01

    Condensation front dynamics are investigated in the mid-solar nebula region. A quasi-steady model of the evolving nebula is combined with equilibrium vapor pressure curves to determine evolutionary condensation fronts for selected species. These fronts are found to migrate inwards from the far-nebula to final positions during a period of 10(exp 7) years. The physical process governing this movement is a combination of local viscous heating and luminescent heating from the central star. Two luminescent heating models are used and their effects on the ultimate radial position of the condensation front are discussed. At first the fronts move much faster than the nebular accretion velocity, but after a time the accreting gas and dust overtakes the slowing condensation front.

  5. The analysis of diagnostic markers of genetic disorders in human blood and urine using tandem mass spectrometry with liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millington, David S.; Kodo, Naoki; Terada, Naoto; Roe, Diane; Chace, Donald H.

    1991-12-01

    A method has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of metabolic diseases based on the analysis of characteristic metabolites in body fluids by fast atom bombardment or liquid secondary ion tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS--MS or LSIMS--MS). Acylcarnitine profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l urine. 200 [mu]l plasma or 25 [mu]l whole blood spotted onto filter paper by simple solvent extraction, esterification and analysis using a precursor ion scan function on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Specificity and sensitivity were improved by adding a small percentage of sodium octyl sulfate to the liquid matrix, which forms ion pairs with acylcarnitine esters. Acylglycines in urine were specifically detected as a group using a different precursor ion scan function. By forming methyl esters, metabolic profiles of both acylcarnitines and acylglycines were achieved in the same sample loading by application of alternating scan functions. Quantitative analysis of selected metabolites was achieved by use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Amino acid profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l plasma and 25 [mu]l whole blood spots using butyl esters and a neutral loss scan function. The quantitative analysis of phenylalanine and tyrosine was achieved in these samples using stable isotope dilution. This capability will facilitate the diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other amino acidemias. These new methods have the requirements of speed, accuracy and capability for automation necessary for large-scale neonatal screening of inborn errors of matabolism.

  6. Slowing dynamics in supercooled liquids and other soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardimci, Hasan

    The slow structural dynamics displayed by supercooled liquids and the transition to an out-of-equilibrium glass state that they engender are among the most challenging issues in condensed matter physics. This thesis reports experimental studies designed to elucidate central aspects of these slow dynamics and the nature of the glass state. The subjects of these studies include glass forming molecular liquids and other soft materials that have been advanced as model glassy systems such as clay suspensions and block copolymer micelle solutions. The main experimental techniques employed in these investigations have been dielectric susceptibility and neutron scattering. In the first half of this thesis, we report frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility measurements characterizing the evolution in the dynamical properties, or aging, of two supercooled liquids, sorbitol and xylitol, quenched below their calorimetric glass transition temperatures, Tg. In addition to the alpha relaxation that tracks the structural dynamics, the susceptibilities of both liquids possess a secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation at higher frequencies. Following a quench below Tg, the susceptibility slowly approaches equilibrium behavior. For both liquids features of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation display a dependence on the time since the quench, or aging time, that is very similar to the age dependence of the alpha peak. Implications of these findings for aging in glasses and the nature of Johari-Goldstein relaxation are discussed. Further investigation of the aging in sorbitol reveals that it displays memory strikingly similar to that of a variety of glassy materials, particularly spin glasses. During a temporary stop in cooling, the susceptibility changes with time due to aging. The memory is revealed upon reheating as the susceptibility retraces these changes. To investigate the out-of-equilibrium state of the liquid as it displays this memory, we have employed a set of intricate

  7. Numerical investigations on unstable direct contact condensation of cryogenic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayachandran, K. N.; Arnab, Roy; Parthasarathi, Ghosh

    2017-02-01

    A typical problem of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) occurs at the liquid oxygen (LOX) booster turbopump exit of oxidiser rich staged combustion cycle based semi-cryogenic rocket engines, where the hot gas mixture (predominantly oxygen and small amounts of combustion products) that runs the turbine mixes with LOX from the pump exit. This complex multiphase phenomena leads to the formation of solid CO2 & H2O, which is undesirable for the functioning of the main LOX turbopump. As a starting point for solving this complex problem, in this study, the hot gas mixture is taken as pure oxygen and hence, DCC of pure oxygen vapour jets in subcooled liquid oxygen is simulated using the commercial CFD package ANSYS CFX®. A two fluid model along with the thermal phase change model is employed for capturing the heat and mass transfer effects. The study mainly focuses on the subsonic DCC bubbling regime, which is reported as unstable with bubble formation, elongation, necking and collapsing effects. The heat transfer coefficients over a period of time have been computed and the various stages of bubbling have been analysed with the help of vapour volume fraction and pressure profiles. The results obtained for DCC of oxygen vapour-liquid mixtures is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results on DCC of steam-water mixtures.

  8. Pressure loss, liquid-holdup calculations developed

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.; Nielson, K.; Gabb, A. )

    1988-03-14

    New correlations for pressure loss and liquid holdup in gas/condensate pipelines have shown consistently reliable predictions for both holdup and pressure loss when compared to operating data. This first of three articles presents the derivation for these new correlations which make maximum use of mechanistic models. The intermittent anomalous behavior of the Taitel-Dukler momentum balance equations is also discussed.

  9. Molecular equilibrium with condensation. [in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, C. M.; Huebner, W. F.

    1990-01-01

    Minimization of the Gibbs energy of formation for species of chemical elements and compounds in their gas and condensed phases determines their relative abundances in a mixture in chemical equilibrium. The procedure is more general and more powerful than previous abundance determinations in multiphase astrophysical mixtures. Some results for astrophysical equations of state are presented, and the effects of condensation on opacity are briefly indicated.

  10. Condensate polishers add operating reliability and flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, C.M.; Bennett, L.L.

    2008-08-15

    Many of today's advanced steam generators favour either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated treatment chemistry programme, both of which require strict maintenance of an ultra-pure boiler fedwater ro condensate system. Those requirements are many times at odds with the lower-quality water sources, such as greywater, available for plant makeup and cooling water. Adding a condensate polisher can be a simple, cost-effective solution. 4 figs.

  11. Dynamic simulation recalls condensate piping event

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, R.J.; Reneberg, K.O. ); Moy, H.C. )

    1994-05-01

    This article describes how experience gained from simulating and reconstructing a condensate piping event will be used by Consolidated Edison to analyze control system problems. A cooperative effort by Con Edison and the Chemical Engineering Department at Polytechnic University used modular modeling system to investigate the probable cause of a Con Edison condensate piping event. Con Edison commissioned the work to serve as a case study for the more general problem of control systems analysis using dynamic simulation and MMS.

  12. Enhancement of Condensation on a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Rencai; Hatanaka, Tsutomu; Nishio, Shigefumi

    In previous study, the characteristic of the condensation heat transfer on the dispersed vertical surface were investigated experimentally for the application of the finned surface to the thermoelectric generator utilizing boiling and condensation as the electrodes of the thermoelectric module. A prediction model for this diapered finned surface was proposed, based on Adamek-Webb model of the condensation on a finned tube. In this study, a condensation heat transfer experiment on a vertical dispersed finned surfaces using FC5312 was carried out, in order to enhance the condensation heat transfer coefficient by optimizing the fin size on a dispersed heat transfer surface. The object of the experiment was limited to the rectangular fin with the height of 3 mm. Experimental parameters were the temperature difference, the fin groove width, the fin thickness and the dispersing size on the vertical direction. As the results, it was found from the experiment that the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient on the dispersed size is controlled by the fin groove width. That is, the condensation heat transfer coefficient will increase for a smaller fin groove width and will decrease for a larger fin groove width, with decreasing of the dispersing size. Moreover, there is an optimum fin thickness at which the condensation heat transfer coefficient becomes the maximum in the case of constant fin groove width for both size of the fin groove width. This effect of the fin thickness is more significant for the smaller fin groove width. Further, the prediction values exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data in the present experiment.

  13. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression and low activity or energy (depression). The following ...

  14. Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Miao, Qing

    2016-02-01

    The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential μI in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for μI >mπ / 2 under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with T is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with T at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We also find that the dressed Polyakov-loop always rises most steeply at the chiral transition temperature, which is consistent with the previous results in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and its variants without considering the center symmetry. Since both quantities are strongly affected by the chiral symmetry and pion condensation, we conclude that it is difficult to clarify the deconfinement transition from the dual condensates in this situation within this model.

  15. Interstitial Condensation Risk at Thermal Rehabilitated Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, I.; Bliuc, I.; Iacob, A.; Dumitrescu, L.; Pescaru, R. A.; Helepciuc, C.

    2016-11-01

    The increasing thermal insulation degree of existing residential buildings, aiming to reduce the energy requirements for ensuring the indoor comfort, has as expected effect the elimination of condensation risk. However, in some cases this phenomenon occurs, both on the inner surface of the closing element and also in its structure. The surface condensation causes can be identified and can be easily removed. Instead, the causes and even the presence of interstitial condensation are more difficult to be observed. But the moistening of the insulation materials and the reduction of thermal insulation capacity or even its total degradation, contravene into a large extent or totally to the main purpose of the additional thermal protection. To avoid such situations, it is necessary to respect some principles concerning the structure, resulted from the knowledge of the water vapour diffusion behaviour of various materials. It is known that condensation vulnerability is higher for the additional thermal protection solutions by disposing the insulating material on the inside surface of the closing element. But practice has shown that the condensation phenomenon is not totally excluded neither in the case of outside thermal insulation - which is the current solution applied to the rehabilitation works - if the principles mentioned above are not known and respected. In this paper two models are compared on which the risk of interstitial condensation can be checked. The analysis made on two structures of exterior walls with thermal insulation demonstrates the need for additional verifications before proposing a solution for thermal rehabilitation of the envelope elements.

  16. Quantum Field Theory in Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvelik, Alexei M.

    2007-01-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introduction to Methods: 1. QFT: language and goals; 2. Connection between quantum and classical: path integrals; 3. Definitions of correlation functions: Wick's theorem; 4. Free bosonic field in an external field; 5. Perturbation theory: Feynman diagrams; 6. Calculation methods for diagram series: divergences and their elimination; 7. Renormalization group procedures; 8. O(N)-symmetric vector model below the transition point; 9. Nonlinear sigma models in two dimensions: renormalization group and 1/N-expansion; 10. O(3) nonlinear sigma model in the strong coupling limit; Part II. Fermions: 11. Path integral and Wick's theorem for fermions; 12. Interaction electrons: the Fermi liquid; 13. Electrodynamics in metals; 14. Relativistic fermions: aspects of quantum electrodynamics; 15. Aharonov-Bohm effect and transmutation of statistics; Part III. Strongly Fluctuating Spin Systems: Introduction; 16. Schwinger-Wigner quantization procedure: nonlinear sigma models; 17. O(3) nonlinear sigma model in (2+1) dimensions: the phase diagram; 18. Order from disorder; 19. Jordan-Wigner transformations for spin S=1/2 models in D=1, 2, 3; 20. Majorana representation for spin S=1/2 magnets: relationship to Z2 lattice gauge theories; 21. Path integral representations for a doped antiferromagnet; Part IV. Physics in the World of One Spatial Dimension: Introduction; 22. Model of the free bosonic massless scalar field; 23. Relevant and irrelevant fields; 24. Kosterlitz-Thouless transition; 25. Conformal symmetry; 26. Virasoro algebra; 27. Differential equations for the correlation functions; 28. Ising model; 29. One-dimensional spinless fermions: Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid; 30. One-dimensional fermions with spin: spin-charge separation; 31. Kac-Moody algebras: Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model; 32. Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model in the Lagrangian form: non-Abelian bosonization; 33. Semiclassical approach to Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models; 34

  17. Condensation of the air-steam mixture in a vertical tube condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlík, Jan; Dlouhý, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable air. Experimental and theoretical solutions of this problem are presented here. A heat exchanger for the condensation of industrial waste steam containing infiltrated air was designed. The condenser consists of a bundle of vertical tubes in which the steam condenses as it flows downwards with cooling water flowing outside the tubes in the opposite direction. Experiments with pure steam and with mixtures of steam with added air were carried out to find the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC) on the air concentration in the steam mixture. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical formulas describing the cases. The theoretical determination of the HTC is based on the Nusselt model of steam condensation on a vertical wall, where the analogy of heat and mass transfer is used to take into account the behaviour of air in a steam mixture during the condensation process. The resulting dependencies obtained from the experiments and obtained from the theoretical model have similar results. The significant decrease in the condensation HTC, which begins at very low air concentrations in a steam mixture, was confirmed.

  18. Investigation of Condensing Ice Heat Exchangers for MTSA Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Sebastian; Powers, Aaron; Ball, Tyler; Iacomini, Christie; Paul, Heather, L.

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal, carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control for a Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). Metabolically-produced CO2 present in the ventilation gas of a PLSS is collected using a CO2selective adsorbent via temperature swing adsorption. The temperature swing is initiated through cooling to well below metabolic temperatures. Cooling is achieved with a sublimation heat exchanger using water or liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) expanded below sublimation temperature when exposed to low pressure or vacuum. Subsequent super heated vapor, as well as additional coolant, is used to further cool the astronaut. The temperature swing on the adsorbent is then completed by warming the adsorbent with a separate condensing ice heat exchanger (CIHX) using metabolic heat from moist ventilation gas. The condensed humidity in the ventilation gas is recycled at the habitat. The water condensation from the ventilation gas is a significant heat transfer mechanism for the warming of the adsorbent bed because it represents as much as half of the energy potential in the moist ventilation gas. Designing a heat exchanger to efficiently transfer this energy to the adsorbent bed and allow the collection of the water is a challenge since the CIHX will operate in a temperature range from 210K to 280K. The ventilation gas moisture will first freeze and then thaw, sometimes existing in three phases simultaneously. A NASA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase 1 contract was performed to investigate condensing and icing as applied to MTSA to enable higher fidelity modeling and assess the impact of geometry variables on CIHX performance for future CIHX design optimization. Specifically, a design tool was created using analytical relations to explore the complex, interdependent design space of a condensing ice heat exchanger. Numerous variables were identified as having nontrivial contributions

  19. Heat-transfer enhancement of two-phase closed thermosyphon using a novel cross-flow condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghel, Babak; Rahimi, Masoud; Almasi, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    The present study reports the heat-transfer performance of a two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) equipped with a novel condenser. Distillated water was used as working fluid, with a volumetric liquid filling ratio of 75 %. An increase in heat flux was used to measure the response of the TPCT, including variations in temperature distribution, thermal resistance, average temperature of each section of TPCT and overall thermal difference. Results show that for various power inputs from 71 to 960 W, the TPCT with the novel condenser had a lower wall-temperature difference between the evaporator and condenser sections than did the unmodified TPCT. Given the experimental data for heat-transfer performance, it was found that the thermal resistance in the TPCT equipped with the proposed condenser was between 10 and 17 % lower than in the one without.

  20. Implementation of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, J.; Cao, L.; Ohkawa, K.; Frepoli, C.

    2012-07-01

    The non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is important for a realistic LOCA safety analysis code. A condensation suppression model for direct contact condensation was previously developed by Westinghouse using first principles. The model is believed to be an accurate description of the direct contact condensation process in the presence of non-condensable gases. The Westinghouse condensation suppression model is further revised by applying a more physical model. The revised condensation suppression model is thus implemented into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code for both 3-D module (COBRA-TF) and 1-D module (TRAC-PF1). Parametric study using the revised Westinghouse condensation suppression model is conducted. Additionally, the performance of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is examined in the ACHILLES (ISP-25) separate effects test and LOFT L2-5 (ISP-13) integral effects test. (authors)

  1. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  2. Time-resolved observation of thermally activated rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Wan; Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-01-05

    The capillary-condensed liquid bridge is one of the most ubiquitous forms of liquid in nature and contributes significantly to adhesion and friction of biological molecules as well as microscopic objects. Despite its important role in nanoscience and technology, the rupture process of the bridge is not well understood and needs more experimental works. Here, we report real-time observation of rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge in ambient condition. During slow and stepwise stretch of the nanobridge, we measured the activation time for rupture, or the latency time required for the bridge breakup. By statistical analysis of the time-resolved distribution of activation time, we show that rupture is a thermally activated stochastic process and follows the Poisson statistics. In particular, from the Arrhenius law that the rupture rate satisfies, we estimate the position-dependent activation energies for the capillary-bridge rupture.

  3. Polarizable molecular interactions in condensed phase and their equivalent nonpolarizable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontyev, Igor V.; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A.

    2014-07-01

    Earlier, using phenomenological approach, we showed that in some cases polarizable models of condensed phase systems can be reduced to nonpolarizable equivalent models with scaled charges. Examples of such systems include ionic liquids, TIPnP-type models of water, protein force fields, and others, where interactions and dynamics of inherently polarizable species can be accurately described by nonpolarizable models. To describe electrostatic interactions, the effective charges of simple ionic liquids are obtained by scaling the actual charges of ions by a factor of 1/√ {\\varepsilon _{el} }, which is due to electronic polarization screening effect; the scaling factor of neutral species is more complicated. Here, using several theoretical models, we examine how exactly the scaling factors appear in theory, and how, and under what conditions, polarizable Hamiltonians are reduced to nonpolarizable ones. These models allow one to trace the origin of the scaling factors, determine their values, and obtain important insights on the nature of polarizable interactions in condensed matter systems.

  4. Subcooled-Water Nonstickiness of Condensate Microdrop Self-Propelling Nanosurfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Luo, Yuting; Zhu, Jie; Li, Hong; Gao, Xuefeng

    2015-12-09

    We report perfect humidity-tolerant subcooled-water nonstickiness on condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) surfaces. As exemplified by a CMDSP nanoneedle surface, we find that impinged subcooled drops can instantly rebound and simultaneously take away surface condensate. Remarkably, continuously poured subcooled water can also shed off on the nanosample surface. In sharp contrast, they instantly freeze on the contrast flat hydrophobic surface. Such a superior performance may be ascribed to nanostructure-induced extremely low solid-liquid interface adhesion and prevention of phase transition from the liquid subcooled water to the solid ice. These findings help in the development of low-adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces suitable for a cold and humid environment.

  5. 3D Imaging of Water-Drop Condensation on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Lubricant-Impregnated Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Condensation of water from the atmosphere on a solid surface is an ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and has diverse technological applications, e.g. in heat and mass transfer. We investigated the condensation kinetics of water drops on a lubricant-impregnated surface, i.e., a micropillar array impregnated with a non-volatile ionic liquid. Growing and coalescing drops were imaged in 3D using a laser scanning confocal microscope equipped with a temperature and humidity control. Different stages of condensation can be discriminated. On a lubricant-impregnated hydrophobic micropillar array these are: (1) Nucleation on the lubricant surface. (2) Regular alignment of water drops between micropillars and formation of a three-phase contact line on a bottom of the substrate. (3) Deformation and bridging by coalescence which eventually leads to a detachment of the drops from the bottom substrate. The drop-substrate contact does not result in breakdown of the slippery behaviour. Contrary, on a lubricant-impregnated hydrophilic micropillar array, the condensed water drops replace the lubricant. Consequently, the surface loses its slippery property. Our results demonstrate that a Wenzel-like to Cassie transition, required to maintain the facile removal of condensed water drops, can be induced by well-chosen surface hydrophobicity. PMID:27040483

  6. 3D Imaging of Water-Drop Condensation on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Lubricant-Impregnated Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Condensation of water from the atmosphere on a solid surface is an ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and has diverse technological applications, e.g. in heat and mass transfer. We investigated the condensation kinetics of water drops on a lubricant-impregnated surface, i.e., a micropillar array impregnated with a non-volatile ionic liquid. Growing and coalescing drops were imaged in 3D using a laser scanning confocal microscope equipped with a temperature and humidity control. Different stages of condensation can be discriminated. On a lubricant-impregnated hydrophobic micropillar array these are: (1) Nucleation on the lubricant surface. (2) Regular alignment of water drops between micropillars and formation of a three-phase contact line on a bottom of the substrate. (3) Deformation and bridging by coalescence which eventually leads to a detachment of the drops from the bottom substrate. The drop-substrate contact does not result in breakdown of the slippery behaviour. Contrary, on a lubricant-impregnated hydrophilic micropillar array, the condensed water drops replace the lubricant. Consequently, the surface loses its slippery property. Our results demonstrate that a Wenzel-like to Cassie transition, required to maintain the facile removal of condensed water drops, can be induced by well-chosen surface hydrophobicity.

  7. Numerical modeling of condensation from vapor-gas mixtures for forced down flow inside a tube

    SciTech Connect

    Yuann, R Y; Schrock, V E; Chen, Xiang

    1995-09-01

    Laminar film condensation is the dominant heat transfer mode inside tubes. In the present paper direct numerical simulation of the detailed transport process within the steam-gas core flow and in the condensate film is carried out. The problem was posed as an axisymmetric two dimensional (r, z) gas phase inside an annular condensate film flow with an assumed smooth interface. The fundamental conservation equations were written for mass, momentum, species concentration and energy in the gaseous phase with effective diffusion parameters characterizing the turbulent region. The low Reynolds number two equation {kappa}-{epsilon} model was employed to determine the eddy diffusion coefficients. The liquid film was described by similar formulation without the gas species equation. An empirical correlation was employed to correct for the effect of film waviness on the interfacial shear. A computer code named COAPIT (Condensation Analysis Program Inside Tube) was developed to implement numerical solution of the fundamental equations. The equations were solved by a marching technique working downstream from the entrance of the condensing section. COAPIT was benchmarked against experimental data and overall reasonable agreement was found for the key parameters such as heat transfer coefficient and tube inner wall temperature. The predicted axial development of radial profiles of velocity, composition and temperature and occurrence of metastable vapor add insight to the physical phenomena.

  8. A Model of Gas Recycling Based on Condensed H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfenniger, D.

    2004-06-01

    To address, among other questions, puzzling observations about star forming in the extreme outer HI disk of M 31 (Cuillandre et al. 2001), a scenario of interstellar gas cycling between the visible and a very cold invisible phase is investigated. The key new element sketched here, allowing to maintain the bulk of the gas out of sight, is that molecular hydrogen becomes liquid or solid below 33 K at sufficiently high pressure, allowing AU-sized spheres of very cold gas to be stabilised by incompressible cores of condensed H2 (Pfenniger 2004). These predicted cold gas globules are relatively weakly bound (˜ 10-3 eV/nucleon), such that their lifetime depends directly on the ambient UV/CR excitation level. At galactic scale the globules behave as collisionless bodies, and evaporate and become the usual visible ISM gas through heating. Much of the ISM gas can thus spend a long time in this cold condensed phase in low excitation regions. N-body simulations of galactic disks modeling such effects have been run, and some of their features are described in more detail in this volume and elsewhere (Revaz & Pfenniger 2004).

  9. Nucleation Pathways of CO2 Condensation under Mesoporous Templated Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Byran, Matthew S.; Warren, Garfield T.; Sokol, Paul E.; Indiana University Team; NIST Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) are important elements in reducing greenhouse gas emission and combating global warming. The adsorption behavior of CO2 under mesoporous confinement at room temperature is particularly relevant. , Small Angle Scattering of X-ray (SAXS) and Neutron (SANS) were used to probe the adsorption process of CO2 under such mesoporous confinement MCM-41 and details of nucleation pathways were mapped out by fitting the scattering intensities with adsorption models. From both experiments, the nucleation of CO2 on the inner pore surface of MCM-41 is found to be a two-step process; high density liquid phase CO2 first forms uniform layers following the long range translational symmetry of the porous matrix, above one CO2 filling, determined by the pore size and temperature, capillary condensation initiates. The nucleation sites formed during capillary condensation start to separate the long range symmetry from the one at uniform layers. Finally, SAXS and SANS techniques are compared and they both showed their unique properties of probing the filling-dependent structures of adsorbed CO2 under such mesoporous system.

  10. Retardation effect of nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics on shale oil catalytic cracking processing and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Bin; Li, Shaojie; Yang, Chaohe; Chen, Xiaobo

    Untreated shale oil, shale oil treated with HCl aqueous solution and shale oil treated with HCl and furfural were used to do comparative experiments in fixed bed reactors. Nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics extracted by HCl and furfural were characterized by electrospray ionization Fourier transform cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, respectively. Compared with untreated shale oil, the conversion and yield of liquid products increased considerably after removing basic nitrogen compounds by HCl extraction. Furthermore, after removing nitrogen compounds and condensed aromatics by both HCl and furfural, the conversion and yield of liquid products further increased. In addition, N1 class species are predominant in both basic and non-basic nitrogen compounds, and they are probably indole, carbazole, cycloalkyl-carbazole, pyridine and cycloalkyl-pyridine. As for the condensed aromatics, most of them possess aromatic rings with two to three rings and zero to four carbon atom.

  11. Coherent quantum depletion of an interacting atom condensate.

    PubMed

    Kira, M

    2015-03-13

    Sufficiently strong interactions promote coherent quantum transitions in spite of thermalization and losses, which are the adversaries of delicate effects such as reversibility and correlations. In atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), strong atom-atom interactions can eject atoms from the BEC to the normal component, yielding quantum depletion instead of temperature depletion. A recent experiment has already been verified to overcome losses. Here I show that it also achieves coherent quantum-depletion dynamics in a BEC swept fast enough from weak to strong atom-atom interactions. The elementary coherent process first excites the normal component into a liquid state that evolves into a spherical shell state, where the atom occupation peaks at a finite momentum to shield 50% of the BEC atoms from annihilation. The identified coherent processes resemble ultrafast semiconductor excitations expanding the scope of BEC explorations to many-body non-equilibrium studies.

  12. The Sun is Condensed Matter and has a Real Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    The idea that the Sun was a gaseous in nature was born from 1858-65. At that time, a group of men, including Herbert Spencer, Father Angelo Secchi, Warren de la Rue, Balfour Stewart, and Benjamin Loewy, advanced that the Sun was a ball of gas. In 1865, Hervé Faye was the first to argue that the solar surface was merely an illusion. Dismissing all signs to the contrary, solar physics has promoted this idea to the present day, as manifested by the Standard Solar Model. In this work, overwhelming observational evidence will be presented that the Sun does indeed possess a distinct surface (see P.M. Robitaille, Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter -- The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block, Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 4, 90-143). Our telescopes and satellites are sampling real structures on the surface of the Sun.

  13. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of

  14. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  15. An HPLC-DAD and LC-MS study of condensation oscillations with S(+)-ketoprofen dissolved in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Gontarska, Monika; Kronenbach, Dorota; Berry, Etienne; Kowalska, Teresa

    2012-03-01

    In our earlier studies, a spontaneous chiral conversion of the selected low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids (i.e., amino acids, hydroxy acids, and profen drugs) dissolved in aqueous ethanol medium, running in vitro was described. Then it became clear that this spontaneous chiral conversion is accompanied by the spontaneous condensation of the discussed compounds. With several acids, it was established that this condensation is also oscillatory in nature. The theoretical models were developed aiming to give a rough explanation of the observed non-linear processes. In this paper, the results of these studies on the dynamics of condensation with S(+)-ketoprofen, a very popular profen drug, when stored for certain amount of time dissolved in a non-aqueous medium (i.e., acetonitrile) is presented. These investigations were carried out with the aid of two independent high-performance liquid chromatographic systems with the diode array detection and of a third high-performance liquid chromatographic system equipped with mass spectrometric detection. In one cycle of chromatographic measurements, it was possible to monitor condensation of S(+)-ketoprofen in 25-min intervals for 30 h, thus obtaining kinetic information on the progress of this process. Mass spectrometric detection confirmed the presence of new species in the stored solution with molecular weights much higher than that of S(+)-ketoprofen, which can be attributed to the condensation products. The obtained data show that condensation of S(+)-ketoprofen dissolved in acetonitrile progresses in a rapid manner, and that the observed oscillatory concentration changes with S(+)-ketoprofen and with the main condensation product characterize with an irregularity and shallow amplitudes. A theoretical model was referenced that jointly describes the oscillatory chiral conversion and the oscillatory condensation with the low-molecular-weight chiral carboxylic acids.

  16. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be...

  17. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be...

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be...

  19. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be...

  20. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condensate pumps. 56.50-35 Section 56.50-35 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be...