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Sample records for listeriosis complicating pregnancy

  1. Listeriosis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Listeria Infection (Listeriosis) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... is listeriosis? Listeriosis is an infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes bacteria, often called just Listeria. Listeriosis is ...

  2. Listeriosis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Listeria Infection (Listeriosis) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... her background risk. This sheet talks about whether listeriosis may increase the risk for birth defects above ...

  3. Listeriosis in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Colleen; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the knowledge, counseling practices, and learning needs of practitioners in British Columbia regarding risk factors for listeriosis in pregnancy. DESIGN A 1-page, mailed, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. SETTING British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS A total of 827 practitioners (614 family physicians, 93 midwives, and 120 family practice residents) were sent the questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Awareness of listeriosis, knowledge of the risk factors for listeriosis, practices for counseling pregnant women, practitioners’ learning needs, and provider and practice characteristics. RESULTS A total of 340 practitioners (41%) completed the questionnaire. While most (88%) physicians and midwives had heard of listeriosis, few (18%) were aware that infection was more common during pregnancy. One-third (33%) of practitioners counseled pregnant women about the risk factors for listeriosis. The main reasons for not providing such counseling were lack of knowledge and the perception that listeriosis was rare and not an important concern for pregnant women. Rates of counseling were highest among midwives (84%) and lowest among physicians practising outside the Lower Mainland of British Columbia (12%). Of those practitioners providing prenatal care, 47% counseled pregnant women about the risks of unpasteurized milk and 41% counseled women about the risks of consuming soft cheese; few counseled about the risks of consuming deli meat or raw hot dogs (25%), unwashed fruit and vegetables (12%), or refrigerated smoked seafood (6%). CONCLUSION Most prenatal care providers in British Columbia are unaware of the risk factors for listeriosis or its propensity for pregnant women and do not counsel their pregnant patients about these risks. PMID:20393078

  4. [Listeriosis in pregnancy--case report].

    PubMed

    Barlik, Magdalena; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Drews, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    Listeriosis is a rather rare infectious disease but its incidence in pregnancy is over 20 times higher than in the general population. Pregnant women with listeriosis comprise one-third of all listeriosis cases. Listeriosis is a foodborne disease. Sporadic as well as epidemic cases of listeriosis are usually related to contaminated processed food, especially meat dishes served in fast-food restaurants and dairy products. Pregnant women are at an increased risk for listeriosis infection. Unfortunately the symptoms are not specific and the diagnosis presents a considerable challenge. Although the literature offers some case reports on a complicated course of listeriosis during pregnancy the infection usually runs a mild course in pregnant women. Regardless, fetal or neonatal infection is related to very high risk of lethal complications in the newborn, among others: sepsis, meningitis or pneumonia. In this paper we present a case of a 28-year-old gravida with listeriosis. We described the course of the infection, diagnostic process and treatment in both, the mother and the newborn.

  5. [Listeriosis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Charlier-Woerther, Caroline; Lecuit, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacillus widespread in nature. It is responsible for febrile abortion and encephalitis in cattle. It survives and multiplies at 4°C and does not alter the taste of food. Listeria monocytogenes is able to cross 3 host barriers: the intestinal, blood-brain and placental barriers. Maternal infection is rare but still severe in France, with 30 to 50 annual cases. Maternal infection is frequently asymptomatic, or manifests as isolated fever, whereas fetal and neonatal infection is severe and have a poor prognosis, with up to 25-35 % fetal/neonatal mortality. Amoxicillin is the reference antibiotic for listeriosis treatment and should be administered to every pregnant patient with unexplained fever, particularly in case of consumption of at risk food. Prevention in pregnant women relies on adherence to strict diet recommendations such as reheating of leftovers until steaming and avoidance of unpasteurized dairy products, cold delicatessen, meat spreads and pâtés. Listeriosis is a notifiable disease in France.

  6. Pathogenesis of listeriosis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Keith P; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2013-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes several clinical manifestations in humans and domestic animals. This bacterium is a saprophyte in soil and ensiled feeds, which are sources of infection for food producing animals (i.e. ruminants). The most common route of infection for people is via ingestion of contaminated ready-to-eat food products such as produce, soft cheeses and deli meats. In the United States, L. monocytogenes causes relatively few cases of clinical disease compared to other food-borne pathogens. However, clinical listeriosis is associated with high mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, neonates, and the elderly. Listeria is an intracellular pathogen, which has been widely used in basic research to elucidate mechanisms of molecular pathogenesis and protective cell-mediated immunity. Despite the sizeable knowledge on L. monocytogenes pathogenesis, key points regarding listeriosis during pregnancy and the perinatal period remain unknown. This review summarizes listeriosis in humans and domestic animals during pregnancy, and animal models used to study the pathogenesis and immune response to L. monocytogenes infection during these periods.

  7. Pregnancy related listeriosis: treatment and control.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, Franz; Huhulescu, Steliana

    2015-03-01

    Listeriosis during pregnancy usually presents as an unremarkable febrile illness in the mother but can be fatal for the fetus and newborn. Reliable laboratory testing for early diagnosis is lacking. Serological antibody tests and bacteriological stool tests are not helpful since Listeria-specific antibodies and stool cultures yielding the organism can be found in healthy pregnant women. Because early diagnosis is difficult, diagnosis is usually made by culturing the pathogen from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, placenta or meconium. The mortality rate for fetal and newborn listeriosis remains approximately 20%. Two to three cases of pregnancy-associated listeriosis are reported annually in Austria among approximately 79,000 births, 20-30 cases are reported annually in Germany among approximately 680,000 births and 50-100 cases are reported annually in the USA among approximately 4 million births. Although Listeria infections in pregnancy are rare, they should be considered as a cause of fever of unknown origin during pregnancy.

  8. Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy: Essentials for Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Nicole Franzen; Tillett, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis and toxoplasmosis are foodborne illnesses that can have long-term consequences when contracted during pregnancy. Listeriosis is implicated in stillbirth, preterm labor, newborn sepsis, and meningitis, among other complications. Toxoplasmosis is associated with blindness, cognitive delays, seizures, and hearing loss, among other significant disabilities. Healthcare providers who understand the fundamentals of Listeria and Toxoplasma infection will have the tools to identify symptoms and high-risk behaviors, educate women to make safer decisions, and provide anticipatory guidance if a pregnant woman would become infected with either of these foodborne illnesses.

  9. Pregnancy Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy complications Complications of pregnancy are health problems that ... pregnancy. Expand all | Collapse all Health problems before pregnancy Before pregnancy, make sure to talk to your ...

  10. Pregnancy-associated listeriosis in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Awofisayo, A; Amar, C; Ruggles, R; Elson, R; Adak, G K; Mook, P; Grant, K A

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare but severe foodborne disease with low morbidity and high case-fatality rates. Pregnant women, unborn and newborn babies are among the high-risk groups for listeriosis. We examined listeriosis cases reported to the enhanced surveillance system in England and Wales from 1990 to 2010 to identify risk factors influencing outcome. Cases were defined as pregnancy-associated if Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from a pregnant woman or newborn infants aged <28 days. Of the 3088 cases reported, pregnancy-associated listeriosis accounted for 462 (15%) cases and 315 cases resulted in a live birth. Several factors were identified as affecting the severity and outcome of listeriosis in pregnancy in both mother and child including: presence or absence of maternal symptoms, gestational age at onset of symptoms, and clinical presentation in the infant (meningitis or septicaemia). Deprivation, ethnicity and molecular serotype had no effect on outcome.

  11. Listeriosis

    MedlinePlus

    Listerial infection; Granulomatosis infantisepticum; Fetal listeriosis ... In infants, symptoms of listeriosis may be seen in the first few days of life and may include: Loss of appetite Lethargy Jaundice Respiratory distress ( ...

  12. Listeriosis in human pregnancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Ronald F; Sobel, Jack; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kim, Sun Kwon; Uldbjerg, Niels; Romero, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    Listeria is commonly found in processed and prepared foods and listeriosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Preventative measures are well prescribed and monitoring and voluntary recall of contaminated products has resulted in a 44% reduction in the prevalence of perinatal listeriosis in the USA. Pregnant women are at high risk for listeriosis, but symptoms are non-specific and diagnosis is difficult. The intracellular life-cycle of Listeria protects the bacterium from host innate and adaptive immune responses. Antibiotic treatment requires agents able to penetrate, distribute, and remain stable within host cells. Prolonged use of high-dose ampicillin can significantly improve neonatal outcome.

  13. Listeriosis during Pregnancy: A Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Teresa; Silva, Joana; Maia, Rui L.; Teixeira, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Listeria was first described in 1926 by Murray, Webb, and Swann, who discovered it while investigating an epidemic infection among laboratory rabbits and guinea pigs. The role of Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen was definitively recognized during the 1980s. This recognition was the consequence of a number of epidemic human outbreaks due to the consumption of contaminated foods, in Canada, in the USA and in Europe. Listeriosis is especially severe in immunocompromised individuals such as pregnant women. The disease has a low incidence of infection, although this is undeniably increasing, with a high fatality rate amongst those infected. In pregnant women listeriosis may cause abortion, fetal death, or neonatal morbidity in the form of septicemia and meningitis. Improved education concerning the disease, its transmission, and prevention measures for immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women has been identified as a pressing need. PMID:24191199

  14. [Cholestasis and listeriosis in the third trimester of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montero, I; Segura Ortega, V; Martínez Jiménez, L; García Jiménez, A; Unzetabarrenetxea Barrenetxea, O; Pérez Rodríguez, A F

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is an infection produced by Listeria monocytogenes. It is infrequent and affects people at extreme ages, pregnant women, immunocompromised people and, occasionally, healthy people. Its incidence has increased in recent years and shows a certain tendency to seasonality, increasing in summer. It can appear sporadically or as outbreaks. In pregnant women the infection is most frequently produced in the third trimester and the symptoms are usually light. Nonetheless, the infection of the fetus is severe, and can produce miscarriages, fetal deaths, corioamnionitis and premature births with the newborn infected, manifested in the form of granulomatosis infantiseptica with abscesses and scattered granulomas or at a later stage , as meningitis or sepsis. Intrahepatic cholestasis is a reversible form of cholestasis, its cause is unknown, it is specific to pregnancy and is more frequent in multiparous women, in the third trimester and rarely before the 26th week. It disappears following childbirth and is the second cause of jaundice in pregnancy, after hepatitis. The diagnosis of cholestasis is basically clinical. It appears as palmoplantar pruritus but can also produce nausea, vomiting and abdominal discomfort localized in the right hypochondrium. Given that listeriosis and cholestasis can have a shared symptomology, the possibility of listeriosis must be borne in mind in order for early implementation of the mechanisms of diagnostic confirmation (cultivation of sterile fluids or tissues: blood, neonatal CSF, amniotic liquid or placenta) and specific treatment. We present a case of cholestasis and listeriosis in the third trimester with a good maternofetal result.

  15. Systemic Bacillus species infection mimicking listeriosis of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Workowski, K A; Flaherty, J P

    1992-03-01

    Bacillus species are increasingly recognized as agents of infection in humans. These organisms are ubiquitous in nature and can cause clinical illness ranging from transient bacteremia to serious systemic infection. We describe a pregnant intravenous drug abuser with fever, constitutional symptoms, and premature labor. Her blood cultures yielded gram-positive bacilli, and her clinical course was consistent with systemic listeriosis of pregnancy. Pathological examination of the placenta revealed acute villitis, and Bacillus species grew from cultures of both placenta and blood. Through biochemical testing the isolate was identified as Bacillus pumilis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of premature labor induced by Bacillus species infection.

  16. Pregnancy Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Indian and Alaska Native Data Highlights in AI/AN Reproductive and Maternal and Child Health Formative Research Successful Culturally-Adapted AI/AN Interventions Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Infertility ...

  17. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Bacterial vaginosis (also called BV or vaginitis) is an infection ...

  18. Emergence of pregnancy-related listeriosis amongst ethnic minorities in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Mook, P; Grant, K A; Little, C L; Kafatos, G; Gillespie, I A

    2010-07-08

    Listeriosis is a rare but severe food-borne disease that predominantly affects pregnant women, the unborn, newborns, the elderly and immunocompromised people. Following a large outbreak in the 1980s, specific food safety advice was provided to pregnant women and the immunocompromised in the United Kingdom. Following two coincident yet unconnected cases of pregnancy-related listeriosis in eastern European women in 2008, a review of the role of ethnicity in pregnancy-related listeriosis in England and Wales was undertaken in 2009. Cases reported to the national listeriosis surveillance scheme were classified as 'ethnic', belonging to an ethnic minority, or 'non-ethnic' based on their name, and trends were examined. Between 2001 and 2008, 1,510 cases of listeriosis were reported in England and Wales and, of these, 12% were pregnancy-related cases. The proportion of pregnancy-related cases classified as ethnic increased significantly from 16.7% to 57.9% (chi-square test for trend p=0.002). The reported incidence among the ethnic population was higher than that among the non-ethnic population in 2006, 2007 and 2008 (Relative Risk: 2.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 5.29; 3.82, 1.82 to 8.03; 4.33, 1.74 to 10.77, respectively). This effect was also shown when analysing data from January to September 2009, using extrapolated live births as denominator. Increased immigration and/or economic migration in recent years appear to have altered the population at risk of pregnancy-related listeriosis in England and Wales. These changes need to be taken into account in order to target risk communication strategies appropriately.

  19. Inadequate management of pregnancy-associated listeriosis: lessons from four case reports.

    PubMed

    Charlier, C; Goffinet, F; Azria, E; Leclercq, A; Lecuit, M

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection during pregnancy can lead to dramatic fetal or neonatal outcomes. No clinical trial has evaluated treatment options, and retrospective studies of cases are therefore important to define optimal regimens. We report four cases of materno-neonatal listeriosis illustrating inadequate antimicrobial therapy management and discuss recommended treatment options.

  20. [Fibroids and pregnancy: complications].

    PubMed

    Zeghal, Dorra; Ayachi, Amira; Mahjoub, Sami; Boulahya, Ghassen; Zakraoui, Aymen; Ben Hmid, Rim; Zouari, Faouzia

    2012-04-01

    To study the maternal and fetal morbidity in the association fibroid and pregnancy and the management in this case. A retrospective study of 80 cases of fibroids associated to pregnancy. These cases were taken from the department "C" of gynecology and obstetrics in the center of maternity and neonatology of Tunis. We studied 80 cases of fibroid associated to pregnancy in our study. The mean age of the patients was 32 years old. 45 % of the patients were primipares. The interstitial fibroids (68 %) are the most frequent. The average number of fibroid is 1, 7 in each pregnancy. The aseptic necrobiosis is the most frequent complication of the fibroid whereas for the mother the main complications are the premature delivery, the premature rupture of membranes and the placenta praevia during the third term of pregnancy. The dystocic presentations are more frequent than in the general population, responsible of a higher rate of caesarian sections. The delivery hemorrhage constitutes the most frequent complication of the post partum. The fetal prognosis is globally good with a morbidity dominated by growth restrictions but with no superior mortality rate. The myomectomy was practiced during the caesarian section in 3 cases, the abstention being the rule for the other patients. The association fibroid and pregnancy is not rare, the complications are frequent that is why it is considered as a high risk pregnancy. An early detection of the complications and a prevention of delivery hemorrhage would reduce the maternal and fetal morbidity.

  1. Listeriosis in pregnancy: a secular trend in a tertiary referral hospital in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Sisó, C; Goncé, A; Bosch, J; Salvia, M D; Hernández, S; Figueras, F

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the variation in listeriosis infection incidence during pregnancy over a 25-year period based on salient clinical and laboratory features compiled in a tertiary referral hospital and to depict the clinical characteristics of these cases. A cohort was created of all cases of listeriosis in pregnant women or their neonates (early-onset form) diagnosed between 1985 and 2010. Forty-three cases of perinatal listeriosis were diagnosed among the 82,320 hospitalised pregnant women (incidence 0.5‰). Whereas the incidence remained almost constant at 0.24‰ until 2000, an increasing incidence was observed from then on, reaching 0.86‰ during the last years of the study period. A four-fold increase in listeriosis rate during pregnancy has occurred in recent years, with poorer outcome for those cases occurring before 28 weeks and for those in which early antibiotic treatment was not provided. These results should raise the awareness of the agencies and professionals involved in prenatal care.

  2. Pregnancy-related listeriosis in France, 1984 to 2011, with a focus on 606 cases from 1999 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Girard, D; Leclercq, A; Laurent, E; Lecuit, M; de Valk, H; Goulet, V

    2014-09-25

    This study describes trends in the incidence of pregnancy-related listeriosis in France between 1984 and 2011, and presents the major characteristics of 606 cases reported between 1999 and 2011 to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance through the mandatory notification system. The incidence of pregnancy-related listeriosis decreased by a factor of 12 from 1984 to 2011. This reduction was a result of progressive implementation of specific Listeria monocytogenes control measures in food production. A lower incidence of pregnancy-related listeriosis was observed in regions with a lower prevalence of toxoplasmosis. Given that dietary recommendations in pregnancy target both toxoplasmosis and listeriosis prevention, we suppose that recommendations may have been delivered and followed more frequently in these regions. Cases reported between 1999 and 2011 (n=606) were classified as maternal infections with ongoing pregnancy (n=89, 15%), fetal loss (n=166, 27%), or live-born neonatal listeriosis (n=351, 58%). The majority of live-born neonatal listeriosis cases (n=216, 64%) were preterm births (22–36 weeks of gestation), of whom 14% (n=30) were extremely preterm births (22–27 weeks of gestation). Eighty per cent of mothers reported having eaten high risk food during pregnancy. A better awareness of dietary recommendations in pregnant women is therefore necessary.

  3. Pregnancy complicated with agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Sun, Jiang-Li; Zhang, Zheng-Liang; Pei, Hong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Pregnancy is a complicated physiological process. Physiological leukocytosis often takes place and it is primarily related to the increased circulation of neutrophils, especially during the last trimester of pregnancy. Noncongenital agranulocytosis during pregnancy is rare and reported only occasionally, while in most of the cases, the agranulocytosis has already occurred prior to pregnancy or induced by identified factors such as antibiotics, antithyroid agents, or cytotoxic agents. Gestation-induced agranulocytosis has not been reported, so we present a case of gestation-induced agranulocytosis in this article. Patients concern: In this case, we present a Chinese woman (aged 25) in her 38th week of the first gestation who had the complication of agranulocytosis. No abnormality was detected in regular examinations before pregnancy and in the first trimester. Since the last trimester of pregnancy, the patient began to suffer from agranulocytosis and intermittent fever, the maximum being temperature 38.8°C. At admission, the neutrophil granulocytes were 0.17 × 109 L−1 and the bone marrow biopsy showed that agranulocytosis was detected, but the levels of red blood cell and megalokaryocyte were normal. In addition, antinuclear antibodies were detected at a dilution of 1:40, but anti-dsDNA, antiphospholipid antibody, and neutrophil granulocyte antibody were negative. Diagnoses: The patient was empirically treated as having pneumonia. Interventions: We tried to use granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, γ-globulin, glucocorticoids, antibiotics, and antifungi agents to treat the patient, but her symptoms were not alleviated until the patient had a cesarean section. Outcomes: After 24 hours of cesarean section, the temperature and neutrophil granulocyte returned to normal. After a year of follow-up, we found that the patient and the baby were healthy. Lessons: Agranulocytosis during pregnancy seems to be associated with immunosuppression

  4. Thrombophilia and Pregnancy Complications.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Louise E; Ormesher, Laura; Tower, Clare; Greer, Ian A

    2015-11-30

    There is a paucity of strong evidence associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia in pregnancy. These problems include both early (recurrent miscarriage) and late placental vascular-mediated problems (fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and intra-uterine growth restriction). Due to poor quality case-control and cohort study designs, there is often an increase in the relative risk of these complications associated with thrombophilia, particularly recurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal loss and pre-eclampsia, but the absolute risk remains very small. It appears that low-molecular weight heparin has other benefits on the placental vascular system besides its anticoagulant properties. Its use is in the context of antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss and also in women with implantation failure to improve live birth rates. There is currently no role for low-molecular weight heparin to prevent late placental-mediated complications in patients with inherited thrombophilia and this may be due to small patient numbers in the studies involved in summarising the evidence. There is potential for low-molecular weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with prior severe vascular complications of pregnancy such as early-onset intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia but further high quality randomised controlled trials are required to answer this question.

  5. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833

  6. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K

    2015-10-09

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman's physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.

  7. Hematologic Complications of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy induces a number of physiologic changes that affect the hematologic indices, either directly or indirectly. Recognizing and treating hematologic disorders that occur during pregnancy is difficult owing to the paucity of evidence available to guide consultants. This paper specifically reviews the diagnosis and management of benign hematologic disorders occurring during pregnancy. Anemia secondary to iron deficiency is the most frequent hematologic complication and is easily treated with oral iron formulations,; however care must be taken not to miss other causes of anemia, such as sickle cell disease. Thrombocytopenia is also a common reason for consulting the hematologist and distinguishing gestational thrombocytopenia from immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is essential since the treatment differs widely. Occasionally the management of mother and infant involves the expeditious recognition of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), a condition that is responsible for severe life-threatening bleeding of the newborn. Additionally, inherited and acquired bleeding disorders affect pregnant women disproportionately and often require careful monitoring of coagulation parameters in order to prevent bleeding in the puerperium. Finally, venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy is still largely responsible for mortality during pregnancy and the diagnosis, treatment options and guidelines for prevention of VTE during pregnancy are explored. PMID:23953339

  8. Pregnancy-associated listeriosis: clinical characteristics and geospatial analysis of a 10-year period in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elinav, Hila; Hershko-Klement, Anat; Valinsky, Lea; Jaffe, Josef; Wiseman, Anat; Shimon, Hila; Braun, Eyal; Paitan, Yossi; Block, Colin; Sorek, Rotem; Nir-Paz, Ran

    2014-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in elderly, immunocompromised, and pregnant women. In pregnancy it may cause fetal loss or a preterm delivery, and the neonate is prone to neonatal sepsis and death. We created a cohort of all L. monocytogenes cases during 10 years (1998-2007) in Israel, by a comprehensive review of cases in hospitals throughout the country and cases reported to the Ministry of Health. One hundred sixty-six pregnancy-related listeriosis cases were identified, resulting in a yearly incidence of 5-25 cases per 100 000 births. Presentation associated with fetal demise was more common in the second trimester (55.3%), and preterm labor (52.3%) and abnormal fetal heart rate monitoring (22.2%) were more common in the third trimester (P = .001). Fetal viability was low in the second trimester (29.2%) and much higher (95.3%) in the third trimester. Each additional week of pregnancy increased the survival chance by 33% (odds ratio, 1.331 [95% confidence interval, 1.189-1.489]). A single case of maternal mortality was identified. Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b was more common in pregnancy-related than in non-pregnancy-related cases (79.5% vs 61.3%, P = .011). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis suggested that 1 pulsotype is responsible for 35.7% of the pregnancy cases between 2001 and 2007. This clone is closely related to the Italian gastroenteritis-associated HPB2262 and the invasive US Scott A L. monocytogenes strains. Our survey emphasizes the high rate of pregnancy-related listeriosis in Israel and shows that specific clones might account for this. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  10. Pregnancy Complications: Syphilis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  11. Epidemiology and Molecular Typing of Pregnancy-Associated Listeriosis Cases in Lombardy, Italy, over a 10-Year Period (2005–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Filipello, Virginia; Amato, Ettore; Gori, Maria; Huedo, Pol; Ciceri, Giulia; Lomonaco, Sara

    2017-01-01

    In developed countries, pregnancy-related listeriosis accounts for 20–43% of total invasive listeriosis. This work describes the first pregnancy-related listeriosis survey in Italy based on two data sources, that is, mandatory notification system and regional laboratory-based network. Out of 610 listeriosis cases reported over a 10-year period, 40 were pregnancy-related (6.6%). Among these, 29 pregnancy-related isolates were available and have been analysed with serotyping, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Multi-Virulence-Locus Sequence Typing. No maternal fatality was recorded, but 11 (29.7%) pregnancies resulted in a foetal death, a miscarriage, or a birth of a foetus dying immediately after birth. The average incidence of pregnancy-related listeriosis was 4.3 cases per 100000 births, and the proportion of pregnancy-associated listeriosis among ethnic minorities was significantly higher compared to the general population (30.0% versus 3.5%, P < 0.01). L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b, with the latter significantly more prevalent among pregnancy-related isolates. Twenty different pulsotypes were distinguished and 16 out of the 29 isolates were classified into seven clusters. A total of 16 virulence types (VTs) were identified. Five VTs accounted for 45% of the total cases and coincided with those of previously described Epidemic Clones (ECs) of L. monocytogenes. PMID:28408795

  12. Infections complicating pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reilly, K; Clemenson, N

    1993-09-01

    Common infectious disease problems that occur in pregnancy are outlined, including implications for pregnancy, appropriate diagnostic techniques, treatments, and methods for prevention of disease in mother and infant. Also included is general information about the use of immunizations and antibiotics in pregnancy.

  13. Pregnancy Complications: Anemia

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    ... helps to create red blood cells. In pregnancy, iron deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of ... women need to take iron supplements to prevent iron deficiency. Which foods are high in iron? You can ...

  14. Pregnancy Complications: Preeclampsia

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    ... youth volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find ... serious health problem for pregnant women around the world. It affects 2 to 8 percent of pregnancies ...

  15. Pregnancy Complications: HELLP Syndrome

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    ... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and ... answers. Reach out to our health educators. GO Zika services near you Visit Zika Care Connect to ...

  16. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

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    ... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and ... answers. Reach out to our health educators. GO Zika services near you Visit Zika Care Connect to ...

  17. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... who help families affected by Zika GO Stay up-to-date! Get our emails about zika and all other pregnancy concerns. News Moms Need Blog Read about what moms and moms-to-be need to know GO donate sign-up sign-in Sign out account center dashboard Our ...

  18. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

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  20. Pregnancy Complications: Anemia

    MedlinePlus

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  1. Pregnancy Complications: HELLP Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

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  2. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePlus

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  3. Pregnancy Complications: Preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

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  4. Pregnancy Complications: Gonorrhea

    MedlinePlus

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  5. Pregnancy Complications: Shoulder Dystocia

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe cases, which are rare, this can cause brain damage and even death. Complications for the mother include: Heavy bleeding after ... severe cases, which are rare, this can cause brain damage and even death. Complications for the mother include: Heavy bleeding after ...

  6. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Baumfeld, Yael; Herskovitz, Reli; Niv, Zehavi Bar; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications (IUGR, preeclampsia, placental abruption and perinatal mortality). Our study included all deliveries that occurred at Soroka University Medical Center (Beer Sheva, Israel) between January 1998 and December 2013. Of them 1,249 were complicated by placenta previa and represented our study group. A composite outcome was created to include conditions associated with placental insufficiency. It included hypertensive disorders (i.e. gestational hypertension, mild and severe preeclampsia, HELLP and eclampsia), small for gestational age neonates and placental abruption. Patients with pregnancy complicated by placenta previa had significantly different obstetrical characteristics including bad obstetric history (8% vs. 4%, p < 0.001), recurrent abortions (11% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). Patients with placenta previa had higher rates of vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy (3% vs. 0%, p < 0.001), gestational diabetes (8% vs. 5.5%, p < 0.001), placental abruption (10% vs. 1%, p < 0.001), adherent placenta (4% vs. 0.5%, p < 0.001), preterm delivery (52% vs. 8%, p < 0.001), with a median gestational age of 36 vs. 39 weeks, p < 0.001. The composite outcome was significantly more prevalent in the placenta previa group (21% vs. 13%, p < 0,001). Our study demonstrated an increased rate of placental insufficiency associated complications in women with placenta previa. This is of clinical relevance and suggests that a careful surveillance for women with placenta previa may help in minimizing maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Selected neurologic complications of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fox, M W; Harms, R W; Davis, D H

    1990-12-01

    Many neurologic disorders, such as eclampsia, pseudotumor cerebri, stroke, obstetric nerve palsies, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumors, and choriocarcinoma, can develop in the pregnant patient. Maternal mortality from eclampsia, which ranges from 0 to 14%, can be due to intracerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, disseminated intravascular coagulation, abruptio placentae, or failure of the liver or kidneys. Associated fetal mortality ranges from 10 to 28% and is directly related to decreased placental perfusion. Pseudotumor cerebri can be associated with serious visual complications; thus, the therapeutic goal is to prevent loss of vision. The risk of stroke in the pregnant patient is 13 times the risk in the nonpregnant patient of the same age. The major causes of stroke in pregnant patients are arterial occlusion and cerebral venous thrombosis. Lumbar disk prolapse is common in pregnant patients, and lumbosacral plexus injuries can occur during labor or delivery. In addition, peripheral nerve compression or entrapment syndromes are thought to be caused by the retention of fluid during pregnancy. The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage during pregnancy is 1 in every 10,000 patients, a rate 5 times higher than in nonpregnant women. Because of a proliferation of prolactin-secreting cells, the pituitary gland can enlarge dramatically during pregnancy, a change that can disclose a previously unknown tumor or cause a known pituitary tumor to become symptomatic. The incidence of choriocarcinoma is 1 in 50,000 full-term pregnancies but 1 in 30 molar pregnancies. This malignant tumor has a high rate of cerebral metastatic lesions. In addition to these disorders that develop during pregnancy, the pregnant state can affect numerous preexisting neurologic conditions, including epilepsy, headaches, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, spinal cord injury, and brain tumors. We discuss advice for patients with such conditions who wish to become pregnant, recommendations

  8. Pregnancy Complication Costs U.S. Billions

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_167132.html Pregnancy Complication Costs U.S. Billions Preeclampsia rates have risen steadily since the 1980s To ... 11, 2017 TUESDAY, July 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Preeclampsia, a serious pregnancy complication, continues to increase in ...

  9. Pregnancy complications in Sioux Indians.

    PubMed

    Petersen, L P; Leonardson, G; Wingert, R I; Stanage, W; Gergen, J; Gilmore, H T

    1984-10-01

    The poor health status of Sioux Indians residing on reservations in South Dakota has been recognized for many years. The present report documents evidence of a high incidence of socioeconomic health-related disorders and pregnancy-related complications by comparing 342 pregnant white women and 405 pregnant Sioux Indian women. In collaboration with the Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service, beginning in 1976, a program was initiated to identify, assess risks, and provide patient management for pregnant Sioux Indians. This prenatal consultative program has proved effective in the reduction of fetal and infant mortality.

  10. Maternal physiology and complications of multiple pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Norwitz, Errol R; Edusa, Valentine; Park, Joong Shin

    2005-10-01

    Approximately 1% to 3% of all pregnancies in the United States are multiple gestations. The vast majority (97-98%) are twin pregnancies. Multiple pregnancies constitute significant risk to both mother and fetuses. Antepartum complications-including preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of the membranes, intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine fetal demise, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia-develop in over 80% of multiple pregnancies as compared with approximately 25% of singleton gestations. This article reviews in detail the maternal physiologic adaptations required to support a multiple pregnancy and the maternal complications that develop when these systems fail or are overwhelmed.

  11. Epidemiology of human listeriosis.

    PubMed Central

    Schuchat, A; Swaminathan, B; Broome, C V

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, investigation of several large epidemics of listeriosis confirmed that transmission of L. monocytogenes in food causes human disease. Progress in laboratory detection and subtyping of the organism has enhanced our ability to compare human and environmental isolates of L. monocytogenes. Transmission by foodborne organisms is now recognized as causing both epidemic and sporadic listeriosis. Continued study of dietary risk factors associated with listeriosis is needed in order to develop dietary recommendations for the expanding population at increased risk of disease. Current research application of new molecular methods to the study of L. monocytogenes may improve the ability to diagnose pregnancy-associated disease and permit the rapid detection and control of L. monocytogenes in the food supply. PMID:1906370

  12. Two Episodes of Listeriosis in Pregnancy and Newborns: Investigation, Problems and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Tolli, Rita; Bilei, Stefano; Ricci, Daniela; Rossi, Claudia; Bossù, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In January 2013, 3 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from one mother and her newborn and a second infant arrived at the Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Latium and Tuscany. At the same time the Local Health Unit Rome B sampled at retail a smoked salmon that was suspected to be involved in the transmission of the disease. The sample was tested for the presence of L. monocytogenes (UNI EN ISO 11290: 2005 part 1 and 2). Laboratory investigations have shown that all 3 strains isolated from patients belonged to serotype 4b of two different clusters (cluster B for the isolates from mother and child and cluster A to that obtained from another baby), so no epidemiological link was demonstrated in the human cases. The tests conducted on smoked salmon have shown the presence of L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a. Therefore, no correlation has been demonstrated between the reported cases of listeriosis and the food analyzed. PMID:27800391

  13. Two Episodes of Listeriosis in Pregnancy and Newborns: Investigation, Problems and Considerations.

    PubMed

    Marozzi, Selene; Tolli, Rita; Bilei, Stefano; Ricci, Daniela; Rossi, Claudia; Bossù, Teresa

    2015-05-28

    In January 2013, 3 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from one mother and her newborn and a second infant arrived at the Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Latium and Tuscany. At the same time the Local Health Unit Rome B sampled at retail a smoked salmon that was suspected to be involved in the transmission of the disease. The sample was tested for the presence of L. monocytogenes (UNI EN ISO 11290: 2005 part 1 and 2). Laboratory investigations have shown that all 3 strains isolated from patients belonged to serotype 4b of two different clusters (cluster B for the isolates from mother and child and cluster A to that obtained from another baby), so no epidemiological link was demonstrated in the human cases. The tests conducted on smoked salmon have shown the presence of L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a. Therefore, no correlation has been demonstrated between the reported cases of listeriosis and the food analyzed.

  14. Listeria (Listeriosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... en español Learn how CDC’s Listeria Whole Genome Sequencing Project is improving food safety Listeriosis is a ... Prevention People at Risk Outbreaks Surveillance Whole Genome Sequencing Publications Pregnant Women and Listeria Pregnant women are ...

  15. Sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk; Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Ozogul, Bunyami; Kantarci, Mecit; Disci, Esra; Bulut, O Hakan; Aksungur, Nurhak; Atamanalp, Refik Selim

    2015-02-01

    Sigmoid volvulus during pregnancy is a rare complication, and as of 2012, fewer than 100 cases had been reported. In this report, we present a 30 year-old pregnant woman with sigmoid volvulus, and we discuss this rare entity.

  16. Multicystic Benign Mesothelioma Complicating Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tamhankar, V A

    2015-01-01

    Multicystic benign mesothelioma (MBM) is a rare peritoneal pathology typically affecting women in reproductive age. Though MBM is considered benign, these lesions are prone to recurrence and their growth could be modulated by the presence of oestrogen receptors. Acute presentation of MBM is still very rare in pregnancy and management options are not established. We describe a case of MBM presenting in early pregnancy with acute pain. This was successfully treated with surgical resection. Pregnancy continued uneventfully to term and no evidence of recurrent MBM was found at Caesarean section.

  17. Multicystic Benign Mesothelioma Complicating Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Tamhankar, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Multicystic benign mesothelioma (MBM) is a rare peritoneal pathology typically affecting women in reproductive age. Though MBM is considered benign, these lesions are prone to recurrence and their growth could be modulated by the presence of oestrogen receptors. Acute presentation of MBM is still very rare in pregnancy and management options are not established. We describe a case of MBM presenting in early pregnancy with acute pain. This was successfully treated with surgical resection. Pregnancy continued uneventfully to term and no evidence of recurrent MBM was found at Caesarean section. PMID:26345310

  18. Anticoagulant prophylaxis for placenta mediated pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc A

    2011-02-01

    Thrombophilias are not yet established as a cause of the placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age and placental abruption). A thrombophilia may be only one of many factors that lead to development of these complications. Our recent large systematic review of prospective cohort studies highlight that the association between thrombophilia and placenta mediated pregnancy complications is far from proven. The small step of previously describing an association in case control studies has led a large number of clinicians and opinion leaders to take the large leap of accepting this relationship as being causal and potentially treatable with anticoagulant interventions. Furthermore, while data in women with prior severe pre-eclpamsia, abruption and small for gestational age births without thrombophilia suggests some promise for anticoagulant prophylaxis to prevent complications in subsequent pregnancies in these women, in the absence of large well done and generalisable "no intervention" controlled studies adopting anticoagulant prophylaxis to prevent these complications is premature. The absence of strong evidence, coupled with the small potential for harm from anticoagulant prophylaxis suggests that these drugs should be considered experimental in thrombophilic and non-thrombophilic women with prior placenta mediated pregnancy complications.

  19. Neurocritical care complications of pregnancy and puerperum.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Jennifer A; Ahmed, Wamda

    2014-12-01

    Neurocritical care complications of pregnancy and puerperum such as preeclampsia/eclampsia, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, seizures, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, postpartum angiopathy, cerebral sinus thrombosis, amniotic fluid emboli, choriocarcinoma, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are rare but can be devastating. These conditions can present a challenge to physicians because pregnancy is a unique physiologic state, most therapeutic options available in the intensive care unit were not studied in pregnant patients, and in many situations, physicians need to deliver care to both the mother and the fetus, simultaneously. Timely recognition and management of critical neurologic complications of pregnancy/puerperum can be life saving for both the mother and fetus.

  20. Third-trimester pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Newfield, Emily

    2012-03-01

    Complications arising in the third trimester often challenge the clinician to balance the concern for maternal well-being with the consequences of infant prematurity. The most serious and challenging antepartum issues relate to preterm labor and birth, hypertensive disorders, and bleeding events. This article guides the practitioner through decision-making and management of these problems.

  1. [Maternal instinct in women with complicated pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Reroń, A

    1995-01-01

    Maternal instinct was evaluated in women with complicated pregnancy by means of inquiry. Perception of the first fetal movements by pregnant women in as important moment in maternal instinct development. Pregnant women with bad obstetrical history show greater anxiety about unborn yet child. Intensity of maternal instinct is similar in multiparas and nulliparas.

  2. Risk Factors for Sporadic Non-Pregnancy Associated Listeriosis in Germany—Immunocompromised Patients and Frequently Consumed Ready-To-Eat Products

    PubMed Central

    Preußel, Karina; Milde-Busch, Astrid; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Stark, Klaus; Werber, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Non-pregnancy associated (N-PA) listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a rare but severe disease, and is predominantly food-borne. Most cases appear sporadic and their infection vehicle remains unknown. Incidence has increased since 2008 in Germany. We aimed to identify underlying conditions and foods associated with sporadic N-PA listeriosis in Germany. We performed a nationwide case-control study from March 2012-December 2013. Cases were sporadic N-PA listeriosis patients notified to public health. Control subjects were age (40–65 years, 66–75 years, ≥76 years) frequency-matched persons from a nationwide random telephone sample. A structured questionnaire collected information on underlying diseases, therapies and >60 food items. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for host factors identified by causal diagram theory, and calculated population attributable fractions. We enrolled 109 cases and 1982 controls. Cases’ median age was 69 years, 55% were male, 44% received immunosuppressive therapy within 3 months prior to illness onset; a further 28% had at least one immunocompromising disease. In multivariable analysis, immunosuppressive therapy (OR 8.8, 95%CI 4.9–15.6), immunocompromising disease (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.4–5.2), gastric acid suppression (OR 3.0; 95%CI 1.4–6.3), the consumption of cold cooked sausages (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.6–4.4), the preferred consumption of packaged cheese (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.3–3.5) and pre-sliced cheese (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.3–3.7) were significantly associated with N-PA listeriosis. These foods accounted for 59% of all cases. Typical high risk foods, e.g. cold seafood, certain types of cheeses, tended to be negatively associated with disease. In conclusion, immunosuppressive therapy and frequently consumed ready-to-eat foods are the main risk factors for sporadic N-PA listeriosis in Germany. To reduce their risk, immunocompromised persons should consume the identified foods well before the

  3. Risk Factors for Sporadic Non-Pregnancy Associated Listeriosis in Germany-Immunocompromised Patients and Frequently Consumed Ready-To-Eat Products.

    PubMed

    Preußel, Karina; Milde-Busch, Astrid; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Stark, Klaus; Werber, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Non-pregnancy associated (N-PA) listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a rare but severe disease, and is predominantly food-borne. Most cases appear sporadic and their infection vehicle remains unknown. Incidence has increased since 2008 in Germany. We aimed to identify underlying conditions and foods associated with sporadic N-PA listeriosis in Germany. We performed a nationwide case-control study from March 2012-December 2013. Cases were sporadic N-PA listeriosis patients notified to public health. Control subjects were age (40-65 years, 66-75 years, ≥ 76 years) frequency-matched persons from a nationwide random telephone sample. A structured questionnaire collected information on underlying diseases, therapies and >60 food items. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for host factors identified by causal diagram theory, and calculated population attributable fractions. We enrolled 109 cases and 1982 controls. Cases' median age was 69 years, 55% were male, 44% received immunosuppressive therapy within 3 months prior to illness onset; a further 28% had at least one immunocompromising disease. In multivariable analysis, immunosuppressive therapy (OR 8.8, 95%CI 4.9-15.6), immunocompromising disease (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.4-5.2), gastric acid suppression (OR 3.0; 95%CI 1.4-6.3), the consumption of cold cooked sausages (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.6-4.4), the preferred consumption of packaged cheese (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.3-3.5) and pre-sliced cheese (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.3-3.7) were significantly associated with N-PA listeriosis. These foods accounted for 59% of all cases. Typical high risk foods, e.g. cold seafood, certain types of cheeses, tended to be negatively associated with disease. In conclusion, immunosuppressive therapy and frequently consumed ready-to-eat foods are the main risk factors for sporadic N-PA listeriosis in Germany. To reduce their risk, immunocompromised persons should consume the identified foods well before the 'use-by' date

  4. Neonatal management of pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Fauzia; Khan, Shareen; Baki, Md Abdul; Zabeen, Bedowra; Azad, Kiswhar

    2016-09-01

    Women with diabetes in pregnancy, either pre-gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2) or Gestational Diabetes, are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm labour and increased foetal mortality rate. Adequate glycaemic control before and during pregnancy is crucial for improving foetal and perinatal outcomes in these babies. Perinatal and neonatal morbidities and mortality rates have declined since the development of specialized maternal, foetal, and neonatal care for women with diabetes and their offspring. However, infants of diabetic mothers are at risk for developing complications as macrosomia, hypoglycaemia, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac and respiratory problems, birth injuries and congenital malformations. In this review article we describe the neonatal management of the offspring of diabetic mothers.

  5. Periconceptional seafood intake and pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, April F; Siscovick, David S; Williams, Michelle A; Thompson, Mary Lou; Burbacher, Thomas M; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of maternal periconceptional shellfish, lean fish and fatty fish intake with risk of pregnancy complications. Design In this prospective cohort study, we collected information on intake of seafood subtypes using FFQ. We categorized seafood intake into frequencies of <0·2 servings/month, 0·2 servings/month– <0·5 servings/week, 0·5–1·0 servings/week and >1 servings/week. We ascertained gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth diagnoses from medical records. Using generalized linear models with a log link, the Poisson family and robust standard errors, we estimated risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals across seafood intake categories. Setting The Omega study, a study of risk factors for pregnancy complications among women recruited from prenatal clinics in Washington State, USA, 1996–2008. Subjects The current study included 3279 participants from the Omega study. Results Median (interquartile range) shellfish, lean fish and fatty fish intake was 0·3 (0–0·9), 0·5 (0–1·0) and 0·5 (0·1–1·0) servings/week, respectively. Lean fish intake of >1 servings/week (v. <0·2 servings/month) was associated with a 1·55-fold higher risk of preterm birth (95 % CI 1·04, 2·30) and was not associated with the other pregnancy complications. Higher intake of seafood (total or other subtypes) was not associated with pregnancy complications (separately or combined). Conclusions Higher intake of lean fish, but not fatty fish or shellfish, was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth; these findings may have significance for preterm birth prevention. Studies of mechanisms and potential contributing factors (including seafood preparation and nutrient/contaminant content) are warranted. PMID:26626702

  6. Placental exosomes in normal and complicated pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Murray D; Peiris, Hassendrini N; Kobayashi, Miharu; Koh, Yong Q; Duncombe, Gregory; Illanes, Sebastian E; Rice, Gregory E; Salomon, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    While there is considerable contemporary interest in elucidating the role of placenta-derived extracellular vesicles in normal and complicated pregnancies and their utility as biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, progress in the field is hindered by a lack of standardized extracellular vesicle taxonomy and isolation protocols. The term "extracellular vesicle" is nonspecific and refers to all membrane-bound vesicles from nanometer to micrometer diameters and of different biogenic origins. To meaningfully ascribe biological function and/or diagnostic and therapeutic utility to extracellular vesicles, and in particular exosomes, greater specificity and vesicle characterization is required. The current literature relating to exosome biology must be interpreted in this context. Exosomes are a subtype of extracellular vesicle that are specifically defined by an endosomal biogenesis and particle size (40-120 nm) and density (1.13-1.19 g/mL(-1)). Exosomes are specifically package with signaling molecules (including protein, messenger RNA, microRNA, and noncoding RNA) and are released by exocytosis into biofluid compartments. Exosomes regulate the activity of both proximal and distal target cells, including translational activity, angiogenesis, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. As such, exosomal signaling represents an integral pathway mediating intercellular communication. During pregnancy, the placenta releases exosomes into the maternal circulation from as early as 6 weeks of gestation. Release is regulated by factors that include both oxygen tension and glucose concentration and correlates with placental mass and perfusion. The concentration of placenta-derived exosomes in maternal plasma increases progressively during gestation. Exosomes isolated from maternal plasma are bioactive in vitro and are incorporated into target cells by endocytosis. While the functional significance of placental exosomes in pregnancy remains to be fully elucidated, available

  7. Telomerase activity in pregnancy complications (Review)

    PubMed Central

    FRAGKIADAKI, PERSEFONI; TSOUKALAS, DIMITRIOS; FRAGKIADOULAKI, IRINI; PSYCHARAKIS, CHRISTOS; NIKITOVIC, DRAGANA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDES M.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are specific DNA regions positioned at the ends of chromosomes and composed of functional non-coding repeats. Upon cell division, the telomeres decrease in length by a preordained amount. When the telomeres become critically short, cells lose the ability to divide and enter a specific functioning mode designated as 'cellular senescence'. However, human tissues express an enzyme that deters the shrinking of the telomeres, the telomerase. Due to its ability to maintain telomere length, the telomerase slows down and possibly suspends the aging of the cells. In regard to this, solid evidence demonstrates that female human fertility decreases with increased maternal age and that various adverse factors, including alterations in telomerase activity, can contribute to age-associated infertility in women. The fact that telomerase activity is regulated in a time- and location-dependent manner in both embryo and placental tissues, highlights it potential importance to the successful completion of pregnancy. Since maternal age is a crucial determining factor for the success of in vitro and in vivo fertilization, numerous studies have focused on telomerase activity and its correlation with mammalian fertilization, as well as the following cleavage and pre-implantation developmental processes. Associations between telomerase activity and pregnancy complications have been previously observed. Our aim in this review was to summarize and critically discuss evidence correlating telomerase activity with pregnancy complications. PMID:27175856

  8. Telomerase activity in pregnancy complications (Review).

    PubMed

    Fragkiadaki, Persefoni; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios; Fragkiadoulaki, Irini; Psycharakis, Christos; Nikitovic, Dragana; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are specific DNA regions positioned at the ends of chromosomes and composed of functional non-coding repeats. Upon cell division, the telomeres decrease in length by a preordained amount. When the telomeres become critically short, cells lose the ability to divide and enter a specific functioning mode designated as 'cellular senescence'. However, human tissues express an enzyme that deters the shrinking of the telomeres, the telomerase. Due to its ability to maintain telomere length, the telomerase slows down and possibly suspends the aging of the cells. In regard to this, solid evidence demonstrates that female human fertility decreases with increased maternal age and that various adverse factors, including alterations in telomerase activity, can contribute to age-associated infertility in women. The fact that telomerase activity is regulated in a time- and location-dependent manner in both embryo and placental tissues, highlights it potential importance to the successful completion of pregnancy. Since maternal age is a crucial determining factor for the success of in vitro and in vivo fertilization, numerous studies have focused on telomerase activity and its correlation with mammalian fertilization, as well as the following cleavage and pre-implantation developmental processes. Associations between telomerase activity and pregnancy complications have been previously observed. Our aim in this review was to summarize and critically discuss evidence correlating telomerase activity with pregnancy complications.

  9. Vascular complications in the diabetic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leguizamón, Gustavo; Trigubo, Denise; Pereira, Juan Ignacio; Vera, María Fernanda; Fernández, José Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Long-standing hyperglycemia frequently leads to vasculopathy. Microvascular disease is characterized by retinopathy and nephropathy, while macrovascular involvement can affect coronary arteries. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy, when present, is generally associated with retinal and/or renal involvement. Early identification of these diabetic complications allows appropriate counseling and early treatment. Among women with diabetic vasculopathy, nephropathy, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and fetal growth restriction are frequently observed. Furthermore, women with impaired renal function in early pregnancy have increased risk of long-term deterioration of glomerular filtration rate. Proliferative retinopathy can progress during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery, but long-term effects are not likely to occur. When coronary artery disease or gastroparesis diabeticorum are present, excessive maternal and fetal morbidity is observed. When modern management is synchronized with early medical care, favorable maternal and perinatal outcomes can be expected.

  10. Apelin in Normal Pregnancy and Pregnancies Complicated by Placental Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Van Mieghem, Tim; Doherty, Anne; Baczyk, Dora; Drewlo, Sascha; Baud, David; Carvalho, Jose; Kingdom, John

    2016-08-01

    Apelin is a potent inotropic agent and causes endothelium-mediated vasodilation. Its cardiovascular profile suggests a role in the regulation of gestational hemodynamics. We longitudinally assessed maternal serum apelin levels and hemodynamics (cardiac output and total peripheral resistance) between 20 and 34 weeks gestation in 18 women at high risk of placental dysfunction. Placental apelin staining was assessed by immunohistochemistry in placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 6), preterm deliveries (n = 6), preeclampsia (PET, n = 8), and isolated intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, n = 8). Placental apelin gene expression was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In the high-risk cohort, 4 fetuses developed isolated IUGR and 6 women developed PET. We obtained a median of 5 (range 2-9) hemodynamic and apelin measurements per woman. Apelin levels throughout gestation were best fitted by a quadratic curve. Apelin levels between 20 and 26 weeks gestation correlated with total peripheral resistance (r = .57, P = .01) and showed a trend toward an inverse correlation with stroke volume (r = -.42, P = .08). Apelin serum levels were 30% lower in pregnancies complicated by IUGR than in uncomplicated pregnancies or in women with preeclampsia (P = .009). Placental apelin gene expression was similar in IUGR, PET, preterm, and term normal placentas. Apelin staining was seen both in syncytiotrophoblast and stroma of the placental villi. In IUGR placentas, apelin staining was strongly decreased in both compartments compared to normals. Preeclamptic placentas showed an intermediate staining. Apelin levels mirror the cardiovascular changes seen in pregnancy. Serum and placental apelin levels are decreased in IUGR. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. GNP-GAPDH1-22 nanovaccines prevent neonatal listeriosis by blocking microglial apoptosis and bacterial dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Marimon, José María; Freire, Javier; Salcines-Cuevas, David; Carmen Fariñas, M.; onzalez-Rico, Claudia; Marradi, Marco; Garcia, Isabel; Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Mirian; San Nicolas-Gomez, Aida; Castañeda-Sampedro, Ana; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsoles; Penades, Soledad; Punzon, Carmen; Gomez-Roman, Javier; Rivera, Fernando; Fresno, Manuel; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013–2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios. Therefore, we developed a nanovaccine with gold glyco-nanoparticles conjugated to LM peptide 1-22 of GAPDH (Lmo2459), GNP-GAPDH1-22 nanovaccinesformulated with a pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2/4-targeted adjuvant. Neonates born to non-vaccinated pregnant mice with listeriosis, showed brain and vascular diseases and significant microglial dysfunction by induction of TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. This programmed TNF-mediated suicide explains LM dissemination in brains and livers and blocks production of early pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and interferon-α/β. In contrast, neonates born to GNP-GAPDH1–22-vaccinated mothers before LM infection, did not develop listeriosis or brain diseases and had functional microglia. In nanovaccinated mothers, immune responses shifted towards Th1/IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles and high production of anti-GAPDH1–22 antibodies, suggesting good induction of LM-specific memory. PMID:28903312

  12. GNP-GAPDH1-22 nanovaccines prevent neonatal listeriosis by blocking microglial apoptosis and bacterial dissemination.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Teran-Navarro, Hector; Marimon, José María; Freire, Javier; Salcines-Cuevas, David; Carmen Fariñas, M; Onzalez-Rico, Claudia; Marradi, Marco; Garcia, Isabel; Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Mirian; San Nicolas-Gomez, Aida; Castañeda-Sampedro, Ana; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsoles; Penades, Soledad; Punzon, Carmen; Gomez-Roman, Javier; Rivera, Fernando; Fresno, Manuel; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2017-08-15

    Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013-2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios. Therefore, we developed a nanovaccine with gold glyco-nanoparticles conjugated to LM peptide 1-22 of GAPDH (Lmo2459), GNP-GAPDH1-22 nanovaccinesformulated with a pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2/4-targeted adjuvant. Neonates born to non-vaccinated pregnant mice with listeriosis, showed brain and vascular diseases and significant microglial dysfunction by induction of TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. This programmed TNF-mediated suicide explains LM dissemination in brains and livers and blocks production of early pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and interferon-α/β. In contrast, neonates born to GNP-GAPDH1-22-vaccinated mothers before LM infection, did not develop listeriosis or brain diseases and had functional microglia. In nanovaccinated mothers, immune responses shifted towards Th1/IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles and high production of anti-GAPDH1-22 antibodies, suggesting good induction of LM-specific memory.

  13. Adolescent pregnancies: complications, birth outcomes and the possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Çift, Tayfur; Korkmazer, Engin; Temur, Muzaffer; Bulut, Berk; Korkmaz, Bariş; Ozdenoğlu, Onur; Akaltun, Cem; Üstünyurt, Emin

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aim to evaluate antenatal, perinatal and postnatal outcomes and complications of adolescent pregnancies, as well as to discuss the social and psychological consequences of these pregnancies. We compare a total of 243 pregnant women at age 14-18 years to a vast control group at age 19-36 who all delivered at Bursa Yüksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between years 2005-2014. Antenatal care (folic acid supplementation, pre-conception counseling) was significantly higher in adolescent pregnancy group. Unplanned pregnancy rate was significantly higher in in study group (p < 0.001). Preterm delivery (before 37th week) ratio was statistically higher in pregnancy complications. Adolescent pregnancy is a social entity which should be regulated and prevented by legal measures. Planned pregnancies should be promoted and the public should be educated and informed about the Hazards of adolescent pregnancies. Press institutions, public broadcasting services support the efforts to decrease adolescent pregnancies.

  14. LMWH to prevent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: an update.

    PubMed

    Duffett, Lisa; Rodger, Marc

    2015-03-01

    Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, placental abruption, intrauterine growth restriction/small for gestational age and recurrent or late pregnancy loss, affect over 5% of pregnancies and can result in significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These complications have been suggested to at least partly arise from placental insufficiency, possibly as a result of inappropriate coagulation activation. This association has led to the hypothesis that anticoagulant therapy, such as low molecular weight heparin, might reduce their occurrence. The following review will attempt to summarize the extensive research that has been performed to date exploring this hypothesis and provide guidance on the current and future role of low molecular weight heparin in women at risk for placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. A case will be made to question the widely adopted practice of prescribing low molecular weight heparin to women with prior placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and suggest possible areas for future research.

  15. What is the incubation period for listeriosis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Listeriosis is a foodborne infection with a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Unlike common foodborne diseases, the incubation period can be long. The first incubation periods were documented during a large listeriosis outbreak published in 1987 by Linnan and al. in the New England Journal of Medicine (range: 3 days to 70 days). Data on the incubation period of listeriosis are scarce. Our study aim was to estimate precisely the incubation period of listeriosis using available data since 1987. Methods We estimated the incubation period of listeriosis using available published data and data from outbreak investigations carried out by the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. We selected cases with an incubation period calculated when a patient had a single exposure to a confirmed food source contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. Results We identified 37 cases of invasive listeriosis (10 cases with central nervous system involvement (CNS cases), 15 bacteraemia cases and 12 pregnancy-associated cases) and 9 outbreaks with gastroenteritis. The overall median incubation period of invasive listeriosis was 8 days (range: 1–67 days) and differed significantly by clinical form of the disease (p<0.0001). A longer incubation period was observed for pregnancy-associated cases (median: 27.5 days; range: 17–67 days) than for CNS cases (median: 9 days; range: 1–14 days) and for bacteraemia cases (median: 2 days; range: 1–12 days). For gastroenteritis cases, the median incubation period was 24 hours with variation from 6 to 240 hours. Conclusions This information has implications for the investigation of food borne listeriosis outbreaks as the incubation period is used to determine the time period for which a food history is collected. We believe that, for listeriosis outbreaks, adapting the exposure window for documenting patients’ food histories in accordance with the clinical form of infection will facilitate the

  16. Can an Aspirin a Day Keep a Pregnancy Complication Away?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_166926.html Can an Aspirin a Day Keep a Pregnancy Complication Away? Odds of preeclampsia ... simple as taking a low-dose aspirin every day may protect pregnant women from the life-threatening ...

  17. Critical pneumonia complicating early-stage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mercieri, Marco; Di Rosa, Roberta; Pantosti, Annalisa; De Blasi, Roberto Alberto; Pinto, Giovanni; Arcioni, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia, Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, in a woman at 14 weeks of pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case reporting this critical lung infection occurring during an early phase of pregnancy. This case study alerts physicians to the increasing worldwide spread of these uncommon yet virulent and potentially lethal infections. In our patient, antibiotic therapy with linezolid plus rifampin started at 14 weeks of pregnancy had a successful outcome without inducing toxicity or teratogenesis in the fetus.

  18. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    DOE PAGES

    Ogunmodede, Folashade; Jones, Jeffery L.; Scheftel, Joni; ...

    2005-01-01

    Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care. Methods: Volunteer pregnant women were recruited to complete a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of listeriosis and its prevention, in two separate studies. One study was a nationalmore » survey of 403 women from throughout the USA, and the other survey was limited to 286 Minnesota residents. Results: In the multi-state survey, 74 of 403 respondents (18%) had some knowledge of listeriosis, compared with 43 of 286 (15%) respondents to the Minnesota survey. The majority of respondents reported hearing about listeriosis from a medical professional. In the multi-state survey, 33% of respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by not eating delicatessen meats, compared with 17% in the Minnesota survey ( p = 0.01). Similarly, 31% of respondents to the multi-state survey compared with 19% of Minnesota survey respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by avoiding unpasteurized dairy products (p = 0.05). As for preventive behaviors, 18% of US and 23% of Minnesota respondents reported avoiding delicatessen meats and ready-to-eat foods during pregnancy, whereas 86% and 88%, respectively, avoided unpasteurized dairy products. Conclusions: Most pregnant women have limited knowledge of listeriosis prevention. Even though most respondents avoided eating unpasteurized dairy products, they were unaware of the risk associated with ready-to-eat foods. Improved education of pregnant women regarding the risk and sources of listeriosis in pregnancy is needed.« less

  19. Complications in adolescent pregnancy: systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Walter Fernandes; Diniz, Michele Baffi; da Fonseca, Eduardo Sérgio Valério Borges; de Azevedo, Lícia Maria Ricarte; Evangelista, Carla Braz

    2015-01-01

    Sexual activity during adolescence can lead to unwanted pregnancy, which in turn can result in serious maternal and fetal complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the complications related to adolescent pregnancy, through a systematic review using the Medical Subject Headings: “pregnancy complication” AND “adolescent” OR “pregnancy in adolescence”. Only full original articles in English or Portuguese with a clearly described methodology, were included. No qualitative studies, reviews or meta-analyses, editorials, case series, or case reports were included. The sample consisted of 15 articles; in that 10 were cross-sectional and 5 were cohort studies. The overall prevalence of adolescent pregnancy was 10%, and among the Brazilian studies, the adolescent pregnancy rate was 26%. The cesarean delivery rate was lower than that reported in the general population. The main maternal and neonatal complications were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, prematurity and low birth weight, respectively. Adolescent pregnancy is related to increased frequency of neonatal and maternal complications and lower prevalence of cesarean delivery. PMID:26061075

  20. Aplastic anemia associated with pregnancy: maternal and fetal complications.

    PubMed

    Bo, Li; Mei-Ying, Liang; Yang, Zhang; Shan-Mi, Wang; Xiao-Hong, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze obstetric complications associated with aplastic anemia (AA) among pregnant women and analyze the underlying factors. A retrospective analysis of 60 pregnancies with AA. Thirty four of these patients were grouped as complicated group having obstetric complications and the rest 26 without complications as the control group. Comparative analysis was conducted to access the related risk factors, which may affect the maternal and fetal complications. The major maternal complications in this study were premature labor, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, acute heart failure, postpartum hemorrhage, and severe postpartum infection. Premature birth, fetal growth restriction and stillbirths accounted for 27.3%, 5.0% and 6.7% of prenatal mortality. Twenty six of patients had uncomplicated pregnancies. Patients without complications had higher mean hemoglobin concentration (75.38 ± 16.19 g/L) and platelet counts (23.92 ± 14.82 × 10(9) cells/L) than did women with complications (mean hemoglobin concentration, 61.47 ± 15.15 g/L, p = 0.001; mean platelet counts, 12.11 ± 7.87 × 10(9) cells/L, p < 0.001). Pregnancies associated with AA can carry the risk of multiple maternal and fetal complications. Low hemoglobin concentration and platelet counts may be the primary risk factors for obstetric complications in pregnancies associated with AA.

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and ... answers. Reach out to our health educators. GO Zika services near you Visit Zika Care Connect to ...

  2. Listeriosis in Man

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report is based on bacteriologically established cases of listeriosis personally examined or checked by the author, which in addition to 58...strains from animals include 247 human cases. All strains isolated from the cases of human listeriosis revealed the characteristics of List. monocytogenes.

  3. An update on thrombophilia and placenta mediated pregnancy complications: what should we tell our patients?

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    The placenta mediated pregnancy complications, including pre-eclampsia, birth of a small for gestational age child, placental abruption or late pregnancy loss, are common and often devastating pregnancy complications leading to important maternal/fetal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. In this narrative review I examine two common questions related to women with prior placenta mediated pregnancy complications. Do thrombophilias cause placenta mediated pregnancy complications? Does low molecular weight heparin prevent recurrent placenta mediated pregnancy complications?

  4. [Listeriosis in pregnant women and newborns in Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Smíšková, Dita; Karpíšková, Renata; Džupová, Olga; Marešová, Vilma

    2010-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is ubiquitous in nature, being commonly present in faecal flora of otherwise healthy human population or animals. Clinical manifestation of listeria infection may vary widely from mild to invasive, life-threatening disease. In an immunocompromised host, a rather serious course should be expected. Due to cell-mediated immune insufficiency associated with pregnancy even a short bacteraemia in pregnant women can result in transplacental infection. Most listeria infections are sporadic but outbreaks may occur. An outbreak of listeriosis in the Czech Republic in the autumn of 2006 and winter of 2007 was associated with an increased incidence of perinatal listeriosis. More information on listeriosis prevention in pregnancy should be given and each febrile episode during pregnancy should be carefully examined. Early treatment of listeriosis reduces the risk of vertical transmission.

  5. Concurrent conditions and human listeriosis, England, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Mook, Piers; O'Brien, Sarah J; Gillespie, Iain A

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiology of listeriosis in England and Wales changed during 2001-2008; more patients ≥60 years of age had bacteremia than in previous years. To investigate these changes, we calculated risk for listeriosis by concurrent condition for non-pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases reported to the national surveillance system in England during 1999-2009. Conditions occurring with L. monocytogenes infection were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, and compared with appropriate hospital episode statistics inpatient denominator data to calculate incidence rates/million consultations. Malignancies (especially of the blood), kidney disease, liver disease, diabetes, alcoholism, and age ≥60 years were associated with an increased risk for listeriosis. Physicians should consider a diagnosis of listeriosis when treating patients who have concurrent conditions. Providing cancer patients, who accounted for one third of cases, with food safety information might help limit additional cases.

  6. Intestinal dysbiosis: an emerging cause of pregnancy complications?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongxin; Huang, Yinping; Ye, Duyun

    2015-03-01

    The gut microbiota is intimately involved in numerous aspects of normal human physiology, including nutrition and metabolism, immunomodulation and behavior and stress response. Intestinal dysbiosis can be a contributing cause of many diseases, altering the function of both near and far organ systems. During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes dramatic physiological changes to support the growth of fetus-placenta, while intestinal dysbiosis may directly or indirectly disturb the remodeling of physiological balance, leading to maternal maladaptation. Thus, intestinal dysbiosis, i.e., altered composition or metabolism of microbiota may adversely affect pregnancy outcome and lead to pregnancy complications via disrupting maternal adaptation. Indeed, pregnant women with potential maladaptations are at high risk of developing pregnancy disorders, which is increasingly observed in clinical cases. Here we discuss the hypothesis that intestinal dysbiosis may induce pregnancy complications via affecting maternal adaptation and the possible mechanistic pathways.

  7. Environmental pollutants in relation to complications of pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Tabacova, S; Balabaeva, L

    1993-01-01

    Certain complications of pregnancy, e.g., threatened spontaneous abortion, toxemia, emesis, and anemia, were studied in pregnant women living in industrial areas contaminated by smelters and the petrochemical industry. Exposure to lead or aromatic hydrocarbons was assessed in parallel by the determination of these agents or their metabolites in blood and urine. Comparison of respective exposure levels was made between women with normal pregnancies and those with complications. Significantly higher levels of lead in blood and increased excretion of the metabolic products of organic solvents were found in women with complicated pregnancies compared to those with normal pregnancies. Threatened spontaneous abortion, toxemia, and anemia were associated with higher lead exposure in the vicinity of smelters. In these patients, evidence of disturbances of blood glutathione equilibrium and increased lipid peroxidation were found indicating a decreased ability to compensate for the effects of exposure. Styrene exposure in a petrochemical industrial area was associated mainly with late toxemia and nephropathy. Patients with these complications also had a tendency to elevated exposure to other aromatic hydrocarbons. It is suggested that complications of pregnancy may be induced by environmental agents at levels lower than those that result in pregnancy loss or preterm birth. PMID:8243397

  8. What Is New in Listeriosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Milian, Almudena; Payeras-Cifre, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Listeriosis is a disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). L. monocytogenes is bacteria that usually infects some determined inhabitants, especially high risk patients such as the elderly, immunosuppressed patients and pregnant women. However, it can also affect people who do not have these risk factors. L. monocytogenes is widespread in nature being part of the faecal flora of many mammals and it is a common foodborne source. It is acquired by humans primarily through consumption of contaminated food. Besides, between 1% and 10% of the population is a faecal carrier of L.monocytogenes. Listeriosis may occur sporadically or in outbreaks. Infection causes a spectrum of illness, ranging from febrile gastroenteritis to invasive disease, including bacteraemia, sepsis, and meningoencephalitis. This infection has a low incidence, although it is undeniably increasing, particularly due to the rise of population of over 60 years old or of under 60 years olds with a predisposing condition. The diagnosis is complicated because of its incubation period and the different clinical manifestations. Also listeriosis has a high mortality despite adequate and early treatment. The importance of bacteraemia for L. monocytogenes lies in the infrequency of this bacterium and the high mortality, even with appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:24822197

  9. What is new in listeriosis?

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Milian, Almudena; Payeras-Cifre, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Listeriosis is a disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). L. monocytogenes is bacteria that usually infects some determined inhabitants, especially high risk patients such as the elderly, immunosuppressed patients and pregnant women. However, it can also affect people who do not have these risk factors. L. monocytogenes is widespread in nature being part of the faecal flora of many mammals and it is a common foodborne source. It is acquired by humans primarily through consumption of contaminated food. Besides, between 1% and 10% of the population is a faecal carrier of L.monocytogenes. Listeriosis may occur sporadically or in outbreaks. Infection causes a spectrum of illness, ranging from febrile gastroenteritis to invasive disease, including bacteraemia, sepsis, and meningoencephalitis. This infection has a low incidence, although it is undeniably increasing, particularly due to the rise of population of over 60 years old or of under 60 years olds with a predisposing condition. The diagnosis is complicated because of its incubation period and the different clinical manifestations. Also listeriosis has a high mortality despite adequate and early treatment. The importance of bacteraemia for L. monocytogenes lies in the infrequency of this bacterium and the high mortality, even with appropriate antibiotic treatment.

  10. Pregnancy Complications: Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... who help families affected by Zika GO Stay up-to-date! Get our emails about zika and all other pregnancy concerns. News Moms Need Blog Read about what moms and moms-to-be need to know GO donate sign-up sign-in Sign out account center dashboard Our ...

  11. Pregnancy Complications: Cervical Insufficiency and Short Cervix

    MedlinePlus

    ... who help families affected by Zika GO Stay up-to-date! Get our emails about zika and all other pregnancy concerns. News Moms Need Blog Read about what moms and moms-to-be need to know GO donate sign-up sign-in Sign out account center dashboard Our ...

  12. Pregnancy Complications: Placental Accreta, Increta and Percreta

    MedlinePlus

    ... who help families affected by Zika GO Stay up-to-date! Get our emails about zika and all other pregnancy concerns. News Moms Need Blog Read about what moms and moms-to-be need to know GO donate sign-up sign-in Sign out account center dashboard Our ...

  13. Osteogenesis imperfecta as a complication of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Key, T C; Horger, E O

    1978-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a complex disorder that rarely complicates pregancy. The successful obstetric management of a patient with severe osteogensis imperfecta is presented along with a detailed review of maternal osteogenesis imperfecta in the recent English literature. A review of the disease process, its complications, and associated disorders is presented.

  14. Maternal and fetal complications of the hypothyroidism-related pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Tudosa, Rodica; Vartej, P; Horhoianu, Irina; Ghica, C.; Mateescu, Stela; Dumitrache, I

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thyroid pathology worsens during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism can be pre-existent or may begin during pregnancy period. Most of the patients who presented hypothyroidism during pregnancy have a history of thyroid disease for which they have undergone treatment (medical, surgical or radioisotopes). Hypothyroidism is difficult to be diagnosed during pregnancy as the signs can belong to pregnancy itself. Changes in thyroid function have a major negative impact on both mother and fetus. Complications that arise depend on the severity of hypothyroidism, on how appropriately and early the treatment will be initiated, on other obstetrical and extragenital pathologies associated with the present pregnancy. Clinical symptoms are polymorphic, often nonspecific, and are related mainly to the time of occurrence and to the severity of thyroid hormone deficiency. The appropriate, early administered treatment and maintenance of a normal level of thyroid hormones minimize the risk of maternal and fetal complications and make it possible that the pregnancy may be carried to term without severe complications. PMID:21977134

  15. Pregnancy complicated by psittacosis acquired from sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Beer, R J; Bradford, W P; Hart, R J

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of chlamydial infection in pregnant women are described, the first serologically proved and the second suspected. In both cases the infection was probably contracted from sheep suffering with enzootic abortion. Both patients were farmers' wives who had helped their husbands and lambing and developed a non-specific febrile illness in late pregnancy. In the first case as there was no clinical improvement after 26 hours the patient was delivered by caesarean section of a live infant in good condition; the patient recovered fully. The second patient had presented a year earlier, the fetus had died in the uterus, and the patient himself died after spontaneous labour and forceps delivery 14 hours after admission. Both patients developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. As the casual agent in enzootic abortion in ewes has a predilection for the placenta, early delivery may be the management of choice in late pregnancy if infection with this organism if suspected. PMID:6803874

  16. Varicella Pneumonia Complicating Pregnancy: A Report of Seven Cases

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Teresa J.; Rogers, Louise C.

    1996-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia is the most common complication of varicella-zoster infection in adults and has potentially devastating effects when complicating pregnancy. Due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this complication during pregnancy and the small number of reported cases in the literature, we present this report to help educate physicians who care for pregnant women. Cases: Seven patients are presented in this report. These patients presented at various stages in pregnancy, from 17 to 31 weeks of gestation. Three of the patients had unremarkable hospital courses. Three of the patients had hospital stays over 21 days in duration. One patient died from complications of varicella pneumonia after 31 days of hospitalization. The obstetric outcomes of the 7 patients described include 1 non-viable delivery at 20 weeks gestation, 3 term deliveries, 2 preterm deliveries, and 1 patient who has not yet delivered. All of the patients presented were treated with intravenous acyclovir therapy. Of the patients described, 3 required intubation and ventilatory support. Other complications encountered include disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), metabolic encephalopathy, pneumothorax, superimposed bacterial pneumonia, and sepsis. Conclusion: The course and treatment of varicella pneumonia complicating pregnancy are discussed. Current recommendations regarding the use of varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) are also reviewed. PMID:18476122

  17. The Serodiagnostic of Listeriosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    made to utilize the immunity reaction of the host as an auxiliary means in detecting the distribution and frequency of listeriosis , as well as for diagnosis of cases not perceptible by bacteriologic means.

  18. A National Study of the Complications of Lupus in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Clowse, Megan E. B.; Jamison, Margaret; Myers, Evan; James, Andra H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk of rare complications during pregnancy for women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Study Design Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000 to 2003, we compared maternal and pregnancy complications for all pregnancy-related admissions for women with and without SLE. Results Out of over 16.7 million admissions for childbirth over the 4 years, 13,555 were to women with SLE. Maternal mortality was 20-fold higher among women with SLE. The risks for thrombosis, infection, thrombocytopenia, and transfusion were each 3–7-fold higher for women with SLE. Lupus patients also had a higher risk for cesarean sections (OR 1.7), preterm labor (OR 2.4), and preeclampsia (OR 3.0) than other women. Women with SLE were more likely to have other medical conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and thrombophilia, that are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusions Women with SLE are at increased risk for serious medical and pregnancy complications during pregnancy. PMID:18456233

  19. Vascular ultrasound measures before pregnancy and pregnancy complications: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S A; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T

    2017-02-01

    To examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy indicators of cardiovascular risk and pregnancy complications and outcomes. Data from 359 female participants in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study were linked with the national birth registry. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD; maximum change in the left brachial artery diameter after rest and hyperemia); carotid intima-media thickness (IMT); Young's elastic modulus (YEM); and carotid artery distensibility (Cdist) at the visit prior to the pregnancy were examined as predictors of hypertensive disorders, birthweight, and gestational age using multivariable linear regression with adjustment for confounders (age, BMI, smoking, and socioeconomic status). No relations were seen between FMD, IMT, or the stiffness indices, and hypertensive disorders. Higher pre-pregnancy FMD was associated with lower gestational age, while increased Cdist was associated with reduced birthweight-for-gestational-age. Some cardiovascular ultrasound measures of pre-pregnancy may predict pregnancy complications, but the association is likely to be small.

  20. Pregnancy Vaccination with Gold Glyco-Nanoparticles Carrying Listeria monocytogenes Peptides Protects against Listeriosis and Brain- and Cutaneous-Associated Morbidities

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Terán-Navarro, Héctor; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Ferrández-Fernández, Eva; Freire, Javier; Penadés, Soledad; Marradi, Marco; García, Isabel; Gomez-Román, Javier; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Álvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis is a fatal infection for fetuses and newborns with two clinical main morbidities in the neonatal period, meningitis and diffused cutaneous lesions. In this study, we vaccinated pregnant females with two gold glyconanoparticles (GNP) loaded with two peptides, listeriolysin peptide 91–99 (LLO91–99) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1–22 peptide (GAPDH1–22). Neonates born to vaccinated mothers were free of bacteria and healthy, while non-vaccinated mice presented clear brain affections and cutaneous diminishment of melanocytes. Therefore, these nanoparticle vaccines are effective measures to offer pregnant mothers at high risk of listeriosis interesting therapies that cross the placenta. PMID:28335280

  1. Pregnancy Vaccination with Gold Glyco-Nanoparticles Carrying Listeria monocytogenes Peptides Protects against Listeriosis and Brain- and Cutaneous-Associated Morbidities.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Terán-Navarro, Héctor; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Ferrández-Fernández, Eva; Freire, Javier; Penadés, Soledad; Marradi, Marco; García, Isabel; Gomez-Román, Javier; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Álvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2016-08-19

    Listeriosis is a fatal infection for fetuses and newborns with two clinical main morbidities in the neonatal period, meningitis and diffused cutaneous lesions. In this study, we vaccinated pregnant females with two gold glyconanoparticles (GNP) loaded with two peptides, listeriolysin peptide 91-99 (LLO91-99) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-22 peptide (GAPDH1-22). Neonates born to vaccinated mothers were free of bacteria and healthy, while non-vaccinated mice presented clear brain affections and cutaneous diminishment of melanocytes. Therefore, these nanoparticle vaccines are effective measures to offer pregnant mothers at high risk of listeriosis interesting therapies that cross the placenta.

  2. Maternal postpartum complications according to delivery mode in twin pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Stach, Sonia Leme; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; de Lourdes Brizot, Maria; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine maternal postpartum complications of twin deliveries according to mode of delivery and investigate the associated risk factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort review of twin pregnancies with delivery after 26 weeks at a tertiary teaching hospital (1993-2008). The rates of maternal postpartum complications were compared among vaginal, elective cesarean and emergency cesarean deliveries. Significant predictors of complications were investigated with stepwise regression analysis and relative risks were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 90 complications were observed in 56/817 (6.9%) deliveries: 7/131 (5.3%) vaginal, 10/251 (4.0%) elective cesarean and 39/435 (9.0%) emergency cesarean deliveries. Significant predictors included high-risk pregnancy, gestational age at birth and delivery mode. The occurrence of complications was significantly increased in emergency compared to elective cesarean deliveries (RR = 2.34). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal postpartum complications in twin pregnancies are higher in emergency compared to elective cesarean deliveries and are also related to preexisting complications and earlier gestational age at delivery. PMID:25029574

  3. Inter-Pregnancy Weight Change and the Risk of Recurrent Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Jacqueline M.; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Campbell, Doris M.; Horgan, Graham W.

    2016-01-01

    Women with specific adverse pregnancy outcomes in their first pregnancy may be receptive to inter-pregnancy weight management guidance aimed at preventing these complications reoccurring in subsequent pregnancies. Thus the association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent pregnancy complications at the second pregnancy was investigated in a retrospective cohort study of 24,520 women with their first-ever and second consecutive deliveries in Aberdeen using logistic regression. Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>2BMI units) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of recurrent small for gestational age (SGA) birth and elective Cesarean-section, and was protective against recurrent pre-eclampsia, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth. Conversely weight gain (>2BMI units) between pregnancies increased the risk of recurrent gestational hypertension, placental oversize and LGA birth and was protective against recurrent low placental weight and SGA birth. The relationships between weight gain, and placental and birth weight extremes were evident only in women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI<25units), while that between weight gain and the increased risk of recurrent gestational hypertension was largely independent of first pregnancy BMI. No relationship was detected between inter-pregnancy weight change and the risk of recurrent spontaneous preterm delivery, labour induction, instrumental delivery, emergency Cesarean-section or postpartum hemorrhage. Therefor inter-pregnancy weight change impacts the risk of recurrent hypertensive disorders, SGA and LGA birth and women with a prior history of these specific conditions may benefit from targeted nutritional advice to either lose or gain weight after their first pregnancy. PMID:27145132

  4. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome complicating pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    González-Mesa, Ernesto; Blasco, Marta; Andérica, José; Herrera, José

    2012-01-01

    The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that affects one or more limbs. It is characterised by cutaneous vascular nevi, venous malformations and hypertrophy of soft tissues and bone. There are very few cases reported in pregnant women, so the level of uncertainty is high when it appears during gestation. It is a disease that increases obstetric risk and can exacerbate complications, mainly thromboembolic and haemorrhagic. We report below the case of a pregnant woman diagnosed with this syndrome and the multidisciplinary management held in our centre. PMID:22854239

  5. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome complicating pregnancy.

    PubMed

    González-Mesa, Ernesto; Blasco, Marta; Andérica, José; Herrera, José

    2012-08-01

    The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that affects one or more limbs. It is characterised by cutaneous vascular nevi, venous malformations and hypertrophy of soft tissues and bone. There are very few cases reported in pregnant women, so the level of uncertainty is high when it appears during gestation. It is a disease that increases obstetric risk and can exacerbate complications, mainly thromboembolic and haemorrhagic. We report below the case of a pregnant woman diagnosed with this syndrome and the multidisciplinary management held in our centre.

  6. Costs of Newborn Care Following Complications During Pregnancy and Delivery.

    PubMed

    Law, Amy; McCoy, Mark; Lynen, Richard; Curkendall, Suellen M; Gatwood, Justin; Juneau, Paul L; Landsman-Blumberg, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is examine the impact of pregnancy and delivery complications on the healthcare costs of newborns during the first 3 months of life. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of newborns born to women ages 15-49 using de-identified medical and pharmacy claims from the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database incurred between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011. Total healthcare costs and resource utilization were examined and compared for the first 3 months of life between cohorts of newborns either with or without evidence of categorized maternal complications. Incremental costs were also determined using multivariable analysis for the conditions found to be the most prevalent in the study population. A total of 137,040 infants were studied, 75.4% of which were born to mothers who had experienced at least one complication during pregnancy or delivery. Fetal abnormalities (26.2%), early or threatened labor (16.6%), and hemorrhage (10.8%) were the most frequently observed complications. Diabetes (8.0%) and hypertension (7.7%) were also common, with the majority of other conditions present in 1% or less of the study population. Adjusted analyses found significant differences for seven conditions where incremental costs ranged from $987 to $10,287. Complications are common during pregnancy and delivery and some complications may lead to increased healthcare costs for newborns immediately following birth.

  7. Erythema infectiosum and pregnancy-related complications.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, M; Read, S E

    1990-01-01

    Erythema infectiosum, an acute, communicable viral disease with a highly distinctive exanthem, follows the usual course of a self-limiting benign disease. In pregnant women, however, it may be associated with fetal death and nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Because of the association of human parvovirus (HPV) B19 infection with fetal damage we reviewed the current knowledge of the clinical aspects of erythema infectiosum, focusing on pregnancy and fetal outcome, to determine the magnitude of fetal risk and offer recommendations for management. Among 180 infected pregnant women 44 fetal deaths (24%) occurred, 1 to 12 weeks after the infection was noted. Pregnant women should be advised that (a) because of the high prevalence (up to 65%) of anti-HPV B19 IgG antibody among adults most of them are not at risk and (b) if maternal infection does occur therapeutic abortion is not indicated since intrauterine infection causes fetal death more often than abnormal development. Infection should be suspected in pregnant women who exhibit the symptoms of erythema infectiosum with or without arthropathy. They should be monitored for an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level (indicating fetal aplastic crisis) and undergo serial ultrasonography for the detection of hydrops fetalis. Although the incidence of congenital malformation is no higher than the expected rate in the general population (3% to 5%), the precise incidence of fetal adverse outcomes remains unknown and requires investigation in larger, prospective studies. PMID:2171743

  8. Maternal complications and the management of asthma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vanders, Rebecca L; Murphy, Vanessa E

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy is a unique state requiring alterations in maternal physiology to accommodate the growing fetus. Whilst the maternal immune system is normally well adept at performing this task, the presence of immune disorders, such as asthma, often lead to pregnancy-related complications affecting both mother and baby. Australia has a high prevalence of asthma; with approximately 12% of pregnant women reported to have current asthma. Poor control of asthma is of far greater risk than the use of asthma medications. Being able to identify complications associated with asthma during pregnancy is of great importance in providing appropriate asthma management and medical care to these pregnant women, which may have lifelong consequences for their offspring.

  9. Pregnancies complicated by diabetes--North Dakota, 1980-1992.

    PubMed

    1994-11-18

    Women with established diabetes mellitus (EDM) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for maternal complications during pregnancy; infants born to women with diabetes also are at increased risk for adverse outcomes, including infant death, congenital malformation, birth injury, and hyaline membrane disease/respiratory distress syndrome (1). These health problems may be prevented in women with diabetes through improved glycemic control and through preconception and prenatal care (2,3). Population-based surveillance of EDM and GDM can assist in measuring the burden of diabetes during pregnancy and in identifying target groups for interventions (4). To determine the prevalence of pregnancies complicated by diabetes in North Dakota, the North Dakota State Department of Health and Consolidated Laboratories (NDSDH) studied birth certificate data for 1980-1992. This report summarizes the results of that assessment.

  10. Wernicke's Encephalopathy Complicating Hyperemesis during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is caused by severe thiamine deficiency; it is mostly observed in alcoholic patients. We report the case of a 28-year-old woman, at 17 weeks of gestational age, with severe hyperemesis gravidarum. She presented with disturbance of consciousness, nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia, and ataxia. The resonance magnetic imagery showed bilaterally symmetrical hyperintensities of thalamus and periaqueductal area. The case was managed with very large doses of thiamine. The diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy was confirmed later by a low thiamine serum level. The patient was discharged home on day 46 with mild ataxia and persistent nystagmus. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a rare complication of hyperemesis gravidarum. It should be diagnosed as early as possible to prevent long-term neurological sequela or death. Thiamine supplementation in pregnant women with prolonged vomiting should be initiated, especially before parenteral dextrose infusion. Early thiamine replacement will reduce maternal morbidity and fetal loss rate. PMID:26989522

  11. Neonatal listeriosis in the UK 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Sapuan, Shari; Kortsalioudaki, Christina; Anthony, Mark; Chang, John; Embleton, Nicholas D; Geethanath, Ruppa M; Gray, Jim; Greenough, Anne; Lal, Mithilesh K; Luck, Suzanne; Pattnayak, Santosh; Reynolds, Peter; Russell, Allison B; Scorrer, Timothy; Turner, Mark; Heath, Paul T; Vergnano, Stefania

    2017-03-01

    To define the clinical features and outcomes of neonatal listeriosis, and identify the maternal risk factors to seek scope for improvement. Neonatal listeriosis was identified prospectively from a United Kingdom neonatal infection surveillance network (neonIN) between 2004 and 2014. The participating neonatal units completed a study-specific proforma. The incidence of neonatal listeriosis was 3.4 per 100,000 live births. Of the 21 cases identified, 19 were confirmed with a median gestational age of 33 weeks and a median birth weight of 1960 g. The majority had clinical features (95%, 18/19), presented within the first 24 h (95%, 18/19), and received penicillin empirically (94%, 18/19). The neonatal case-fatality rate was 21% (24% if probable cases were included). A proportion of mothers were investigated (60%, 12/18) and diagnosed with listeriosis (58%, 7/12); 32% (6/19) were treated with antibiotics but only 33% (6/12) included penicillin. Despite its rarity and the prompt and appropriate use of antibiotics neonatal listeriosis has a high case-fatality rate. There is room for improvement in the adherence to the empiric antibiotic choice for puerperal sepsis, according to the national guidelines as this, would target listeriosis. Strategies should be in place to prevent pregnancy-associated listeriosis in higher risk population. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of physiological urine dilution on pregnancy test results in complicated early pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Ikomi, A; Matthews, M; Kuan, A M; Henson, G

    1998-04-01

    This study addresses the likelihood of false negative urine pregnancy test results, due to physiological urine dilution as described in some anecdotal reports. In this prospective study 320 pregnancy tests were performed on urine samples of varying concentrations obtained from 40 women, with suspected complications of early pregnancy, who had presented for ultrasound scans. Four different pregnancy tests were used and serum betahCG levels were measured quantitatively. Despite a mean fivefold increase in urine dilution, the pregnancy tests with low betahCG detection limits maintained maximal sensitivity. The detection of betahCG in dilute urine was adversely affected by using pregnancy tests with higher betahCG detection limits and these tests should be used with caution when assessing gynaecological emergencies.

  13. [Natural history, complications, safety and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Chaparro, María

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies were presented in Digestive Disease Week 2015 (DDW 2015) on the natural history, complications, and safety of treatments in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as novel findings on fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. The present article reviews presentations on the natural history of IBD, the risk of complications and their prevention, treatment safety, aspects related to fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, as well as the risk of cancer and its association with IBD and with drugs used in its treatment. In the next few years, more data will become available on treatment safety and the possible complications that can develop in IBD patients due to the disease itself and the drugs employed in its treatment, which will allow measures to be adopted to improve prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Paternal influences on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Cleghorn de Rohrmoser, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of selected characteristics of the paternal work environment and occupational history to the incidence of complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and anomalies in birth outcomes. The literature suggested that male exposure to teratogenic hazards in the form of radiation and chemical compounds, primarily in the form of solvents, has been implicated in reproductive disorders and malformed offspring in animals. Similarly, some recent research suggests that the exposure of male workers to such hazards on their job may have consequences for their spouses and children. Based on these experimental research studies and analyses of persons working in high risk occupations, a broader study of the potential contribution of paternal work environment variables to the success of pregnancy and birth outcomes seemed warranted. Based upon the literature review, a model was proposed for predicting complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and birth outcome (normal birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations and fetal death). From the 1980 National Natality Survey and the 1980 National Fetal Mortality Survey, four sub-samples of married couples, with both husband and wife employed, were selected on the basis of one of the four birth outcomes. The model called for controlling a range of maternal intrinsic and extrinsic health and behavioral variables known to be related to birth outcomes. Multiple logistic regression procedures were used to analyze the effects of father's exposure to radiation and solvents on the job, to complications in pregnancy and labor, and to birth outcome, while controlling for maternal variables. The results indicated that none of the paternal variables were predictors of complications in labor. Further, there was no clear pattern of results, though father's degree of exposure to solvents, and exposures to radiation did reach significance in some analyses.

  15. Uterine prolapse in pregnancy: risk factors, complications and management.

    PubMed

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Dafopoulos, Alexandros; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Bouchlariotou, Sofia; Pinidis, Petros; Tsagias, Nikolaos; Liberis, Vasileios; Galazios, Georgios; Von Tempelhoff, Georg Friedrich

    2014-02-01

    Presentation of uterine prolapse is a rare event in a pregnant woman, which can be pre-existent or else manifest in the course of pregnancy. Complications resulting from prolapse of the uterus in pregnancy vary from minor cervical infection to spontaneous abortion, and include preterm labor and maternal and fetal mortality as well as acute urinary retention and urinary tract infection. Moreover, affected women may be at particular risk of dystocia during labor that could necessitate emergency intervention for delivery. Recommendations regarding the management of this infrequent but potentially harmful condition are scarce and outdated. This review will examine the causative factors of uterine prolapse and the antepartum, intrapartum and puerperal complications that may arise from this condition as well as therapeutic options available to the obstetrician. While early recognition and appropriate prenatal management of uterine prolapse during pregnancy is imperative, implementation of conservative treatment modalities throughout pregnancy, these applied in accordance with the severity of the uterus prolapse and the patient's preference, may be sufficient to achieve uneventful pregnancy and normal, spontaneous delivery.

  16. Thrombophilia in women with pregnancy-associated complications: fetal loss and pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Kovac, M; Mitic, G; Mikovic, Z; Djordjevic, V; Savic, O; Mandic, V; Rakicevic, L J; Antonijevic, N; Radojkovic, D

    2010-01-01

    Existing data regarding the prevalence of thrombophilia in women with pregnancy complications are conflicting. To investigate the relationship between pregnancy-associated complications and the presence of thrombophilia, we studied the records of 453 women with pregnancy-associated complications. In 55 women, intrauterine fetal death (fetus mortus in utero, FMU) after 20 weeks of gestation was recorded, in 231 two or more consecutive recurrent fetal losses (RFL) were recorded, while 167 had a venous thromboembolism (VTE) during one of their pregnancies. The control group consisted of 128 healthy women, with no previous history of thrombotic events or miscarriages. In the FMU group we found 54.5% of women had thrombophilia, in the RFL group 38%, and in the VTE group 52.7%. The most frequent thrombophilia in the VTE group was the FV Leiden (OR 17.9, 95% CI 4.2-75.9). The most frequent thrombophilia in the FMU group was the FII G20210A (OR 7.09, 95% CI 1.8-27.9). Statistical difference between RFL and the control group was observed only for FV Leiden (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.6-29.7). Thrombophilia was found to be considerably more common in women with pregnancy-associated complications in comparison with the women with normal pregnancies, most frequently in patients with VTE or FMU. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Use of anti-asthmatic drugs during pregnancy. 1. Maternal characteristics, pregnancy and delivery complications.

    PubMed

    Källén, Bengt; Otterblad Olausson, Petra

    2007-04-01

    To study, in a large cohort, the association between the use of anti-asthmatic drugs during pregnancy and pregnancy complications. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 24,369 women who reported the use of anti-asthmatic drugs in early pregnancy and 7778 women who were prescribed such drugs later during pregnancy by antenatal care system centres, during the period July 1, 1995 up to and including 2004. We studied maternal characteristics and pregnancy and delivery complications. Comparisons were made with all women having given birth to a child recorded in the register during this period. Women using anti-asthmatic drugs were characterized by a young maternal age, low parity, increased rate of smoking, low education, and high body mass index. An association with subfertility was also observed. Pre-existing diabetes did not occur in excess. A number of pregnancy and delivery complications occurred at an increased rate with the use of anti-asthmatic drugs, notably when three or more such drugs had been used: gestational diabetes [odds ratio (OR)=1.59], preeclampsia (OR=1.44), haemorrhage at delivery (OR=1.32) and premature rupture of membranes (OR=1.59); no excess of placenta abruption or previa was found. Primary weak contractions occurred more often than expected in women that used anti-asthmatic drugs (OR=1.15), and this was tentatively linked to the use of beta-2 adrenergic agonists. Most of the increased risk for caesarean section (OR=1.79) could be explained by these pregnancy complications. An increased risk for delivery induction (OR=1.74) was found among deliveries that did not start with a caesarean section. An increase risk of pregnancy complications occurs with the use of anti-asthmatic drugs by pregnant women, which results in an increased rate of caesarean sections.

  18. Pregnancy Complicated by Portal Hypertension Secondary to Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, O. E.; Crosby, D.; Byrne, B.; Regan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare idiopathic neonatal cholestatic disease characterized by the destruction of both the intra- and extrahepatic biliary ducts. As the disease is progressive all cases will develop portal fibrosis, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension with the sequelae of varices, jaundice, and eventually liver failure requiring a transplant. Survival rates have improved considerably with many females living well in to be childbearing age. Due to the complexity of the disease these pregnancies are considered, high risk. We report the antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum managements of a pregnancy complicated by biliary atresia. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in optimizing obstetric care for this high risk group. PMID:24459595

  19. A complicated multisystem flare of systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Webster, Philip; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Lightstone, Liz

    2017-02-08

    We report a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a young woman who became pregnant amid a severe flare. She continued to have active disease in the face of aggressive treatments complicated by several side effects of immunosuppressive drugs including recurrent sepsis and gestational diabetes. Her fetus was at risk for congenital heart block during the second and third trimesters. Despite an extremely guarded prognosis, she delivered a healthy baby girl. This case highlights the complexities of SLE management during pregnancy. We discuss the therapeutic options available in pregnancy, and highlight the importance of cross-specialty multidisciplinary care in these women.

  20. Canadian listeriosis reference service.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Franco; Ng, Lai-King; Clark, Clifford; Farber, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic organism capable of growing at refrigeration temperatures, is of major concern in extended shelf life, refrigerated foods. Considering that as much as 80-90% of human listeriosis cases are linked to the ingestion of contaminated food, human cases are predominantly seen in high-risk individuals, including organ-transplant recipients, patients with AIDS and HIV-infected individuals, pregnant women, cancer patients, and the elderly. In 2001, the Canadian Listeriosis Reference Service (LRS) was created by the Bureau of Microbial Hazards (Health Canada) and the National Microbiology Laboratory (now part of the Public Health Agency of Canada). Major goals of the LRS include investigation of listeriosis cases and maintenance of a national collection of isolates. The LRS intends to create a comprehensive molecular epidemiological database of all isolates in Canada for use as a resource for outbreak investigations, research and other microbiological investigations. The PFGE profiles are being established and stored for clinical, food, environmental, and possibly animal strains of L. monocytogenes. The LRS pursues research activities for investigation and implementation of other molecular methods for characterizing L. monocytogenes isolates. Ribotyping, Multi-locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR), Multi-locus virulence sequence typing (MLVA), microarray- based technologies and sequence-based typing schemes, are being investigated on selected diversity sets. The LRS has also used PFGE typing for outbreak investigations. The molecular epidemiological data, timely coordination and exchange of information should help to reduce the incidence of listeriosis in Canada. In Canada, listeriosis is not a national notifiable disease, except for the province of Quebec, where it has been since 1999. The LRS, Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network, and federal epidemiologists are currently working on making human

  1. The lived experience of pregnancy complications in single older women.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    To explore the lived experience of single older women (35 years or older at time of birth) who experienced complications in their planned pregnancy. Phenomenology, using semistructured interviews with 11 women between the ages of 35 to 48 years. Six themes emerged: (a) motherhood now or never, (b) the known and unknown, (c) importance of support, (d) the stigma of single motherhood, (e) changing priorities, and (f) long-term concerns for themselves and child/children. Nurses who work with pregnant women should understand as much as possible about the issues affecting older single women who choose pregnancy; this offers the best opportunity to provide comprehensive care. These women can be at increased risk for many pregnancy complications, and should receive counseling about their risks for both fetal and maternal complications. Nurses should also conduct a thorough psychosocial assessment to determine what support systems are in place and what resources are available if complications arise. In the intrapartum and postpartum settings, nurses can offer not only appropriate physical caregiving but also a supportive and caring attitude with women in this circumstance. Helping women maintain a sense of control by helping them to participate in their care planning is essential.

  2. Hypertension complicating diabetic pregnancies: pathophysiology, management, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Umans, Jason G; Ratner, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), including pre-existing hypertension, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia, further complicate already high-risk pregnancies in women with diabetes mellitus (DM). Women with both pre-existing and gestational diabetes are at increased risk for HDP, leading to higher maternal and fetal morbidity. Further, particularly in diabetic women and women with a history of gestational diabetes, HDP significantly increases the risk for future cardiovascular events. For clinicians, women with hypertension and diabetes during pregnancy pose a management challenge. Specifically, preconception management should stress strict control of glycemia, blood pressure, and prevention of diabetic complications, specifically nephropathy, which specifically increases the risk for preeclampsia. During gestation, clinicians must be aware of potential maternal and fetal complications associated with various anti-hypertensive therapies, including known fetotoxicity of ACE inhibitors and ARBs when given in the 2nd or 3rd trimester, and the risks and benefits of expectant management versus delivery in cases of severe gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. Indeed, diabetic women must be followed closely prior to conception and throughout gestation to minimize the risk of HDP and its associated complications. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pregnancy termination: techniques, risks, and complications and their management.

    PubMed

    Castadot, R G

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines the current modalities of pregnancy termination, as well as their risks and complications, in 3 phases of pregnancy: 1) up to 49 days past the last menstrual period, 2) 8-15 weeks, and 3) 16-24 weeks. Before 8 weeks of pregnancy, suction dilatation and curettage (D and C) is the preferred method. However, a medical approach, possibly self-administered, is viewed as more satisfactory and requires only an improvement in side effects. From 8-15 weeks' gestation, suction D and C and dilatation and evacuation (D and E) are the methods of choice. The use of laminaria tents improves both the facility and safety of these procedures in nulliparous patients and perhaps in multiparous patients. Priming of the cervix with prostaglandin could further decrease the difficulty and risks of these procedures. The use of a hydrogel compound is especially worthy of consideration. There is controversy about the preferred method between 16-20 weeks' gestation. D and E appears to have fewer complications and to be more cost-effective than hypertonic saline injection. Urea-prostaglandin has fewer and less severe complications than saline injection, and seems to be more cost-effective than saline injection in terms of duration of hospitalization. The high frequency of failure and side effects, combined with the possibility of expulsion of a live fetus, make prostaglandin-only injection less desirable. After 20 weeks' gestation, urea-prostaglandin injection is probably the safer method. Given the rapid increase in complications with passing weeks, any delay in providing late abortion services should be avoided. 2nd trimester pregnancy terminations, especially those after 18 weeks' gestation, are associated with increased mortality and morbidity and should be performed at specialized centers where providers are better equipped to manage complications.

  4. A rare case of dengue encephalopathy complicating a term pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rajagopala, Lavanya; Satharasinghe, Ravindra L; Karunarathna, Madhava

    2017-02-02

    Dengue fever has an expanded clinical spectrum ranging from an asymptomatic infection to life threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and refractory shock. Dengue infection in pregnancy can be a diagnostic dilemma, particularly considering the physiological changes in pregnancy and the obstetric complications encountered in clinical practice. Hence the knowledge of its diagnosis and management in its atypical presentations is of paramount importance. Here we report an unusual case of uncomplicated dengue encephalopathy in a term mother, probably the first to be reported from the Indian subcontinent. A 28 year old woman, 37 weeks of pregnancy presented with fever of four days duration. She eventually developed irritability, altered sensorium, somnolence, and unresponsiveness to commands by the 5th day of febrile illness without any circulatory compromise. Physical examination and investigations including serology confirmed dengue fever. After excluding all other possible causes, the transient neurological deterioration was finally attributed to dengue encephalopathy which is an uncommon manifestation of the disease, particularly in pregnancy. Her deteriorated neurological status which had lasted for 6 days improved spontaneously with the convalescence of dengue infection. Cautious fluid management was carried out in correlation to clinical and hematological parameters. The pregnancy was continued uncomplicated till the platelet count had risen to more than 50,000 cells/cumm. She delivered vaginally a healthy male baby. Dengue fever in pregnancy is increasingly being encountered due to its rising disease burden. Dengue encephalitis/encephalopathy must be suspected in the differential diagnosis of fever and altered sensorium, even in pregnancy, in the tropical countries where the infection is rampant. Management of dengue infection in term pregnancy is a challenge for both the clinician and obstetrician. Further discussion and research are mandatory to decide on

  5. Amniotic fluid secretory immunoglobulin A in normal pregnancy and in pregnancy complicated by rhesus isoimmunization.

    PubMed

    Briese, V; Straube, W; Brock, J; Stark, K H; Lorenz, U

    1982-01-01

    Amniotic fluid levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) were measured by simple radial immunodiffusion according to the method of Mancini using a monospecific antiserum against the human secretory component. We examined 256 samples from healthy pregnant women and 149 samples from mothers suffering from rhesus isoimmunization. During normal pregnancy amniotic fluid S-IgA increased significantly and showed a loose correlation with the phospholipid levels. This was not observed in pregnancies complicated by rhesus isoimmunization.

  6. Acardiac fetus complicating a triplet pregnancy: management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Waldo; Wong, Amy E; Bustos, Juan C; Flores, Ximena; Alcalde, Juan L

    2009-08-01

    To report our experience with the management of triplet pregnancies complicated by an acardiac fetus. During the 5-year period from 2003 to 2008, five cases were identified. The prenatal sonographic findings, antepartum course, antenatal intervention if performed, and perinatal outcome of each case were reviewed. Four pregnancies were spontaneously conceived and one was achieved by in vitro fertilization. Three pregnancies were dichorionic and two were monochorionic, and two acardiac fetuses were part of a monoamniotic set. All cases underwent an early sonographic examination, but the diagnosis was only made in the first trimester in only two cases, as the acardiac fetus was overlooked or inaccurately identified as a dead fetus in the remaining three cases. Early fetal demise before 12 weeks occurred in a case of monochorionic-triamniotic triplets. Percutaneous laser coagulation of the main intra-abdominal vessel was attempted at 17 weeks in two cases, with subsequent delivery after 34 weeks and perinatal survival of three of the four structurally normal fetuses. In the other two pregnancies which were managed expectantly, both were complicated by severe preterm delivery with perinatal survival of three of the four structurally normal fetuses. Overall, there were no survivors in one case, one twin survived in two cases, and two twins survived in the remaining two cases. None of the survivor had neurological sequelae. The presence of an acardiac fetus in a triplet pregnancy carries a high risk for poor pregnancy outcome, including fetal death and severe preterm labor. Prenatal intervention may be indicated in some cases, but does not prevent fetal death of the pump twin.

  7. Coagulation and Fibrinolytic System Protein Profiles in Women with Normal Pregnancies and Pregnancies Complicated by Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Sarah A.; Sobel, Burton; Benvenuto, Anna; Schonberg, Adrienne; Badger, Gary J.; Bernstein, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study longitudinally evaluated concentrations of fibrinogen (Fib), D-Dimer, plasminogen activator type-1 (PAI-1) and tissue type plasminogen activator (T-Pa) before pregnancy and in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy with a focus on the pregnancy transition. Study design Twenty healthy, nonsmoking, nulliparous women, aged 29.8 ± 3.0 years, BMI 23.3 ± 3.2 kg/m2 were studied during menstrual cycle day 8 ± 4 and again in early (11 – 15 wks) and late (31 – 34 wks) pregnancy. Seventeen women had singleton conceptions and delivered at term with uncomplicated pregnancies (CTL) and three women developed complicated hypertension (CH) during pregnancy after the third trimester (late pregnancy) evaluation. Data are means ± SEM, Significance was based on p < 0.05. Results Fib was the only protein evaluated that increased in early pregnancy relative to the prepregnancy assessment. D-dimer, PAI-1 and T-Pa increased in the third trimester compared with prepregnant and early pregnant values (p < .001). T-PA was significantly higher during late pregnancy in CH subjects compared with CTL (8.1 ± 0.7 ng/ml vs. 5.0 ± 0.2 ng/ml, p = .02). There were no other differences between groups. Conclusions Increases in fibrinogen are evident in early pregnancy whereas fibrinolysis, perhaps in response to the procoagulant environment of pregnancy, is increased during late pregnancy. Before development of clinically overt hypertension, T-Pa is increased without concomitant changes in other proteins assessed. This is consistent with altered endothelial function with preeclampsia that may contribute to, or reflect, the vasculopathy accompanying this disorder. PMID:22712057

  8. Coagulation and Fibrinolytic System Protein Profiles in Women with Normal Pregnancies and Pregnancies Complicated by Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sarah A; Sobel, Burton; Benvenuto, Anna; Schonberg, Adrienne; Badger, Gary J; Bernstein, Ira M

    2012-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study longitudinally evaluated concentrations of fibrinogen (Fib), D-Dimer, plasminogen activator type-1 (PAI-1) and tissue type plasminogen activator (T-Pa) before pregnancy and in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy with a focus on the pregnancy transition. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty healthy, nonsmoking, nulliparous women, aged 29.8 ± 3.0 years, BMI 23.3 ± 3.2 kg/m(2) were studied during menstrual cycle day 8 ± 4 and again in early (11 - 15 wks) and late (31 - 34 wks) pregnancy. Seventeen women had singleton conceptions and delivered at term with uncomplicated pregnancies (CTL) and three women developed complicated hypertension (CH) during pregnancy after the third trimester (late pregnancy) evaluation. Data are means ± SEM, Significance was based on p < 0.05. RESULTS: Fib was the only protein evaluated that increased in early pregnancy relative to the prepregnancy assessment. D-dimer, PAI-1 and T-Pa increased in the third trimester compared with prepregnant and early pregnant values (p < .001). T-PA was significantly higher during late pregnancy in CH subjects compared with CTL (8.1 ± 0.7 ng/ml vs. 5.0 ± 0.2 ng/ml, p = .02). There were no other differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in fibrinogen are evident in early pregnancy whereas fibrinolysis, perhaps in response to the procoagulant environment of pregnancy, is increased during late pregnancy. Before development of clinically overt hypertension, T-Pa is increased without concomitant changes in other proteins assessed. This is consistent with altered endothelial function with preeclampsia that may contribute to, or reflect, the vasculopathy accompanying this disorder.

  9. Pregnancy Complicated by Gorham–Stout Disease and Refractory Chylothorax

    PubMed Central

    Hellyer, Jessica; Oliver-Allen, Hunter; Shafiq, Majid; Tolani, Alisha; Druzin, Maurice; Jeng, Michael; Rockson, Stanley; Lowsky, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gorham–Stout Disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of bony destruction due to lymphangiomatosis, and is often triggered by hormones. One complication of GSD is the development of chylothorax, which carries a high mortality rate. Very little experience has been published to guide management in GSD during pregnancy to optimize both fetal and maternal health. Case Study A 20-year-old woman with known GSD presented with shortness of breath at 18 weeks of pregnancy, due to bilateral chylothoraces which required daily drainage. To minimize chylous fluid formation, she was placed on bowel rest with total parenteral nutrition (limiting lipid intake) and received octreotide to decrease splanchnic blood flow and chylous fluid drainage. Treatment options were limited due to her pregnancy. Twice daily home chest tube drainage of a single lung cavity, total parenteral nutrition, octreotide, and albumin infusions allowed successful delivery of a healthy 37 weeks' gestation infant by cesarean delivery. Discussion This case illustrates the management of a rare clinical disease of bone resorption and lymphangiomatosis complicated by bilateral, refractory chylothoraces, triggered by pregnancy, in whom treatment options are limited, and the need for a multidisciplinary health care team to ensure successful maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:27708981

  10. Pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Carolien M; Fauser, Bart C J M; Macklon, Nick S

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that PCOS may have significant implications for pregnancy outcomes and long-term health of a woman and her offspring. Whether or not PCOS itself or the symptoms that coincide with PCOS, like obesity and fertility treatment, are responsible for these increased risks is a continuing matter of debate. Miscarriage rates among women with PCOS are believed to be increased compared with normal fertile women, although supporting evidence is limited. Pregnant women with PCOS experience a higher incidence of perinatal morbidity from gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and preeclampsia. Their babies are at an increased risk of neonatal complications, such as preterm birth and admission at a neonatal intensive care unit. Pre-pregnancy, antenatal, and intrapartum care should be aimed at reducing these risks. The use of insulin sensitizing drugs to decrease hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance has been proposed during pregnancy to reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. Although metformin appears to be safe, there are too few data from prospective, randomized controlled trials to support treatment during pregnancy.

  11. Pancreatic Neoplasms in Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Complications, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Casey A.; Benarroch-Gampel, Jaime; Kilic, Gokhan; Kruse, Edward J.; Weber, Sharon M.; Riall, Taylor S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neoplasms of the pancreas during pregnancy are rare, with less than 25 cases of benign and malignant tumors reported in the literature. METHODS We present three unique cases of pancreatic tumors occurring during pregnancy—one mucinous cystic neoplasm and two adenocarcinomas. We review the literature regarding pancreatic neoplasms during pregnancy and discuss the diagnosis, complications, and management of these tumors. RESULTS MRI and ultrasound are the imaging modalities of choice in pregnancy. In patients with benign or premalignant tumors, surgical resection may be postponed until the second trimester. In symptomatic patients, or if there is a concern for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), urgent surgical intervention should be performed. With malignant tumors, the benefit of delaying surgery must be balanced with the risk of maternal disease progression. Termination of the pregnancy should be discussed when a malignant tumor is diagnosed during the first trimester. Pancreatic tumors diagnosed during the third trimester may be resected after delivery. If malignant, early delivery of the fetus and subsequent maternal operation can be considered at appropriate fetal maturity. CONCLUSION When these tumors occur during pregnancy, they present a diagnostic and treatment dilemma, with variation in treatment based on gestational age and patient preference. PMID:22160782

  12. Who is telling pregnant women about listeriosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Mary Anne E; MacLaurin, Tanya L

    2011-01-01

    During pregnancy, a woman's immune system is compromised and she is at an increased risk of infection and illness. In particular, the risk of contracting foodborne listeriosis is 20 times greater for pregnant women than for other women of reproductive age. Considering the negative effects of listeriosis on the developing fetus and that more than 380,000 babies were born in Canada in 2010, listeriosis is an important public health concern. And yet, in Canada, it is not clear who is responsible for educating pregnant women on the importance of safe food handling and the avoidance of high-risk foods. Not all women attend prenatal education classes and the circle of care during pregnancy is highly variable. Physicians, however, are very often included in the care circle and may represent a consistent, reliable and trustworthy source of food safety information. At present, only one province has prenatal records that prompt physicians to counsel pregnant women on food safety issues, though all include some assessment of nutrition, diet or supplement use. Improving provincial and territorial prenatal records may be one important way of helping to ensure that critical food safety information is reaching pregnant Canadians.

  13. [Listeria monocytogenes infection in pregnancy: experience of Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Larraín de la C, Demetrio; Abarzúa C, Fernando; Jourdan H, Francisca de; Merino O, Paulina; Belmar J, Cristián; García C, Patricia

    2008-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen often foodborne and found elsewhere. It is an uncommon cause of illness in the general population. However, it is an important cause of severe infection in neonates, pregnant women, elderly and immunosuppressed patients. Listeriosis has unique preference for pregnant women. Maternal listeriosis is a diagnostic challenge, and intrauterine infection can lead to severe complications such as amnionitis, preterm labor, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and neonatal sepsis. From 2001 to 2005, 16 patients with L. monocytogenes were identified in this hospital; four (25%) were pregnant women. Clinical and laboratory findings are described. There were 3 preterm deliveries and 1 spontaneous second trimester abortion. Three women with listeriosis had no predisposing factors other than pregnancy. One patient was on immunosupressive drugs for ulcerative colitis. Fever was the most common symptom. Infected neonates were most commonly diagnosed with early-onset listeriosis (two cases) or fetal demise (one case). Pregnancy can be the only risk factor for listeriosis. Listeriosis should be considered during the evaluation of febrile syndrome in pregnancy as this condition can be the only risk factor. Blood and amniotic fluid cultures are useful diagnostic tests. Perinatal complications remains high.

  14. Impaired delivery outcomes in pregnancies following myomectomy compared to myoma-complicated pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa-Taniguchi, Yukiko; Ueda, Yutaka; Hara-Ohyagi, Chifumi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    To compare obstetric and delivery outcomes between myoma-complicated pregnancies and pregnancies that follow myomectomy. Among the 7,589 deliveries performed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, Japan, from 1994 to 2007, women with a past history of myomectomy and those with myoma during their pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Their clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. The frequency of myomas detected during pregnancy significantly increased by 1.8-fold during the first 7-year period as compared with the latter 7-year period of the study (p < 0.001). The obstetric and delivery outcomes, including the rate of cesarean section, the rate of preterm delivery and the amount of blood loss at delivery, were better in pregnancies complicated with current myoma than those in pregnancies which had undergone previous myomectomy (p < 0.001, p = 0.002 and p = 0.005, respectively), with the exception of an increased need for analgesic medication. Myomectomy of large asymptomatic myomas does not improve future obstetric and delivery outcomes, indicating that most asymptomatic myomas should be managed conservatively in women still considering childbearing.

  15. Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hairdressers often come into contact with various chemical substances which can be found in hair care products for washing, dyeing, bleaching, styling, spraying and perming. This exposure can impair health and may be present as skin and respiratory diseases. Effects on reproduction have long been discussed in the literature. Method A systematic review has been prepared in which publications from 1990 to 2010 were considered in order to specifically investigate the effects on fertility and pregnancy. The results of the studies were summarised separately in accordance with the type of study and the examined events. Results A total of 2 reviews and 26 original studies on fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers were found in the relevant databases, as well as through hand searches of reference lists. Nineteen different outcomes concerning fertility and pregnancy are analysed in the 26 original studies. Most studies looked into malformation (n = 7), particularly orofacial cleft. Two of them found statistically significant increased risks compared to five that did not. Small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW) and spontaneous abortions were frequently investigated but found different results. Taken together the studies are inconsistent, so that no clear statements on an association between the exposure as a hairdresser and the effect on reproduction are possible. The different authors describe increased risks of infertility, congenital malformations, SGA, LBW, cancer in childhood, as well as effects from single substances. Conclusion On the basis of the identified epidemiological studies, fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers cannot be excluded. Although the evidence for these risks is low, further studies on reproductive risks in hairdressers should be performed as there is a high public health interest. PMID:20723211

  16. Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peters, Claudia; Harling, Melanie; Dulon, Madeleine; Schablon, Anja; Torres Costa, José; Nienhaus, Albert

    2010-08-19

    Hairdressers often come into contact with various chemical substances which can be found in hair care products for washing, dyeing, bleaching, styling, spraying and perming. This exposure can impair health and may be present as skin and respiratory diseases. Effects on reproduction have long been discussed in the literature. A systematic review has been prepared in which publications from 1990 to 2010 were considered in order to specifically investigate the effects on fertility and pregnancy. The results of the studies were summarised separately in accordance with the type of study and the examined events. A total of 2 reviews and 26 original studies on fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers were found in the relevant databases, as well as through hand searches of reference lists. Nineteen different outcomes concerning fertility and pregnancy are analysed in the 26 original studies. Most studies looked into malformation (n = 7), particularly orofacial cleft. Two of them found statistically significant increased risks compared to five that did not. Small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW) and spontaneous abortions were frequently investigated but found different results. Taken together the studies are inconsistent, so that no clear statements on an association between the exposure as a hairdresser and the effect on reproduction are possible. The different authors describe increased risks of infertility, congenital malformations, SGA, LBW, cancer in childhood, as well as effects from single substances. On the basis of the identified epidemiological studies, fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers cannot be excluded. Although the evidence for these risks is low, further studies on reproductive risks in hairdressers should be performed as there is a high public health interest.

  17. Fetal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated by Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy in a Northern California Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Michelle; Vargas, Juan; Caughey, Aaron; Bacchetti, Peter; Rosenthal, Philip; Bull, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) has important fetal implications. There is increased risk for poor fetal outcomes, including preterm delivery, meconium staining of amniotic fluid, respiratory distress, fetal distress and demise. Methods One hundred and one women diagnosed with ICP between January 2005 and March 2009 at San Francisco General Hospital were included in this study. Single predictor logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of maternal clinical and biochemical predictors with fetal complications. Clinical predictors analyzed included age, race/ethnicity, gravidity, parity, history of liver or biliary disease, history of ICP in previous pregnancies, and induction. Biochemical predictors analyzed included serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, albumin, total protein, and total bile acids (TBA). Results The prevalence of ICP was 1.9%. Most were Latina (90%). Labor was induced in the majority (87%) and most were delivered by normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (84%). Fetal complications occurred in 33% of the deliveries, with respiratory distress accounting for the majority of complications. There were no statistically significant clinical or biochemical predictors associated with an increased risk of fetal complications. Elevated TBA had little association with fetal complications until reaching greater than 100 µmoL/L, with 3 out of 5 having reported complications. ICP in previous pregnancies was associated with decreased risk of fetal complications (OR 0.21, p = 0.046). There were no cases of late term fetal demise. Conclusions Maternal clinical and laboratory features, including elevated TBA, did not appear to be substantial predictors of fetal complications in ICP. PMID:22403605

  18. Uterine disorders and pregnancy complications: insights from mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Wang, Haibin

    2010-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of human uterine physiology and pathology has been extrapolated from the study of diverse animal models, as there is no ideal system for studying human uterine biology in vitro. Although it remains debatable whether mouse models are the most suitable system for investigating human uterine function(s), gene-manipulated mice are considered by many the most useful tool for mechanistic analysis, and numerous studies have identified many similarities in female reproduction between the two species. This Review brings together information from studies using animal models, in particular mouse models, that shed light on normal and pathologic aspects of uterine biology and pregnancy complications. PMID:20364098

  19. Subhuman Primate Pregnancy Complicated by Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, Daniel H.; Chez, Ronald A.; Hutchinson, Donald L.

    1972-01-01

    streptozotocin-treated pregnancies. These data provide evidence that maternal glucose intolerance during pregnancy is associated with enhanced fetal and neonatal pancreatic islet cell responsiveness to glucose and mixed amino acids. Although the specific mechanism(s) that alters both the sensitivity and responsiveness of the normal pancreatic fetal islet to insulinogenic stimuli remains unclear, the data do indicate that insulin-dependent maternal hyperglycemia and hyperaminoacidemia, separately or in combination could contribute to the fetal hyperinsulinemia of pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Moreover, the overall experiences with these streptozotocin-treated animals suggest that a subhuman primate model may be available to examine directly the antenatal pathophysiology of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:4259254

  20. Pregnancy Complications: Bleeding and Spotting from the Vagina

    MedlinePlus

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  1. Silica and titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause pregnancy complications in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kohei; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Mimura, Kazuya; Morishita, Yuki; Nozaki, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Ogura, Toshinobu; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi; Aoshima, Hisae; Shishido, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Yuichi; Mayumi, Tadanori; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi; Itoh, Norio; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Yanagihara, Itaru; Saito, Shigeru; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2011-05-01

    The increasing use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about their potential risks to human health. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles can cross the placenta barrier in pregnant mice and cause neurotoxicity in their offspring, but a more detailed understanding of the effects of nanoparticles on pregnant animals remains elusive. Here, we show that silica and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with diameters of 70 nm and 35 nm, respectively, can cause pregnancy complications when injected intravenously into pregnant mice. The silica and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were found in the placenta, fetal liver and fetal brain. Mice treated with these nanoparticles had smaller uteri and smaller fetuses than untreated controls. Fullerene molecules and larger (300 and 1,000 nm) silica particles did not induce these complications. These detrimental effects are linked to structural and functional abnormalities in the placenta on the maternal side, and are abolished when the surfaces of the silica nanoparticles are modified with carboxyl and amine groups.

  2. Pregnancy outcome and placental findings in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction with and without preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kovo, Michal; Schreiber, Letizia; Elyashiv, Osnat; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Abraham, Golan; Bar, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    To compare pregnancy outcome and placental pathology in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) with and without preeclampsia. Labor, fetal/neonatal outcome, and placental pathology parameters from neonates with a birth weight below the 10 th percentile (FGR), born between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation, were reviewed. Results were compared between pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia (hypertensive FGR [H-FGR]) to those without preeclampsia (normotensive FGR [N-FGR]). Composite neonatal outcome, defined as 1 or more of early complication (respiratory distress, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, transfusion, ventilation, seizure, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, phototherapy, or death), Apgar score ≤ 7 at 5 minutes, and days of hospitalization, were compared between the groups. Placental lesions, classified as lesions related to maternal vascular supply, lesions consistent with fetal thrombo-occlusive disease and inflammatory lesions, maternal inflammatory response, and fetal inflammatory response, were also compared. Women in the H-FGR group (n = 72) were older, with higher body mass index (BMI) and higher rate of preterm labor (<34 weeks) than in the N-FGR group (n = 270), P < .001 for all. Composite neonatal outcome was worse in the H-FGR than in the N-FGR group, 50% versus 15.5%, P < .001. Higher rate of maternal placental vascular lesions was detected in H-FGR compared with N-FGR, 82% versus 57.7%, P < .001. Using a stepwise logistic regression model, maternal BMI (1.13 odds ratio [OR], confidence interval [CI] 1.035-1.227, P = .006) and neonatal birth weight (0.996 OR, CI 0.995-0.998, P < .001) were independently associated with worse neonatal outcome. Worse neonatal outcome and more maternal placental vascular lesions in pregnancy complicated by FGR with preeclampsia versus FGR without preeclampsia suggest different pathophysiology in these entities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Delivery outcomes of term pregnancy complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios.

    PubMed

    Zeino, S; Carbillon, L; Pharisien, I; Tigaizin, A; Benchimol, M; Murtada, R; Boujenah, J

    2017-04-01

    Polyhydramnios is associated with an increased risk of cesarean section. The aetiology of polyhydramnios and the characteristics of the labour may be confounding factors. The objective was to study the characteristics and mode of delivery in case of pregnancy complicated with idiopathic polyhydramnios. This retrospective matched and controlled study included all pregnant women with idiopathic polyhydramnios (amniotic index>25cm or single deepest pocket>8cm) diagnosed at the 2nd or 3rd trimester and persistent at term delivery (>37weeks of pregnancy) in our institution. We excluded pregnancies in which the polyhydramnios could be explained by infection, gestational diabetes, congenital malformation, abnormal karyotype, placental anomalies, alloimmunization as well as pregnancies in which an amniocentesis for the purpose of diagnosis had not been performed. Data were gathered from a tertiary care university hospital register from 1998-2015. Cases of polyhydramnios were matched with the following two women who presented for labour management with spontaneous cephalic presentation, matching for delivery date, maternal age, parity, body mass index. The main outcome measure was the risk of cesarean section. Univariate and multivariate adjusted analysis were performed. We identified 108 women with idiopathic polyhydramnios and compared them with 216 matched women. Among them, 94 and 188 attempted a trial of labour. Maternal age, mean term delivery and birthweight were 31 years, 39+5weeks gestation and 3550 g. We did not observe differences in maternal characteristics, epidural analgesia and rate of abnormal fetal heart tracing. Induced labour and non-vertex presentations (forehead, bregma, face) were more frequent in the polyhydramnios group (respectively 57.9% versus 27.8%, P<0.05 and 7.8% versus 1%, P<0.05). Cesarean section rate was higher in the case of polyhydramnios in the overall population (45.4% versus 8%, P<0.05) and remained higher after exclusion of cases of

  4. Placental lipases in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

    PubMed

    Barrett, Helen L; Kubala, Marta H; Scholz Romero, Katherin; Denny, Kerina J; Woodruff, Trent M; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Nitert, Marloes Dekker

    2014-01-01

    Infants of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are more likely to be born large for gestational age with a higher percentage body fat. Elevated maternal lipids may contribute to this. Placental lipases such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), endothelial lipase (EL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) are involved in transferring lipids from mother to fetus. Previous studies of expression of these lipases in placentae in women with diabetes in pregnancy have reported divergent results. Intracellular lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and HSL are central to lipid droplet metabolism. The activities of these lipases are both influenced by Perilipin 1, and ATGL is also activated by a co-factor comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and inhibited by G0/G1 switch gene 2 (GS02). None of these modifying factors or ATGL have been examined previously in placenta. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the expression of ATGL, HSL, LPL, EL, as well as Perilipin 1, GS02 and CGI-58 in term pregnancies complicated by GDM. mRNA and protein expression of the lipases were measured in placentae from 17 women with GDM and 17 normoglycaemic pregnancies, matched for maternal BMI and gestational age of delivery. ATGL mRNA expression was increased and HSL mRNA expression reduced in placentae from GDM although there was no differences in protein expression of any of the lipases. All lipases were localised to trophoblasts and endothelial cells. The expression of Perilipin 1 and CGI-58 mRNA was increased and GS02 not altered in GDM. These results suggest that there is no difference in expression in these four lipases between GDM and normoglycaemic placentae, and therefore altered lipid transfer via these lipases does not contribute to large for gestational age in infants of women with GDM.

  5. Burst abdomen: an unusual complication of silicosis in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sivabalasubramaniam, Gajatheepan; Sagili, Haritha; Dasari, Papa; Gowda, Mamatha

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of silicosis in a 37-year-old pregnant woman, a second gravida with previous caesarean section. She was referred to our hospital at 42 weeks of gestation with breathlessness and oligohydramnios. She had worked in a glass and talc powder factory for 11 years and was diagnosed as having silicosis 2 years prior; she was on treatment. Following admission, she was evaluated for dyspnoea and underwent emergency Caesarean section for poor cervical dilation. She developed a burst abdomen on the third postoperative day with loops of gangrenous bowel protruding outside the abdomen. Emergency laparotomy with ileal resection and ileostomy was carried out. She was discharged on day 14 and is on follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of silicosis in pregnancy presenting with an unusual complication. PMID:26109620

  6. Hydrogen inhibits cytotrophoblast cells apoptosis in hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Guan, Z; Li, H; Yang, X

    2016-05-30

    Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (HDCP) is one of the most serious medical disorders during pregnancy. Hydrogen is a therapeutic antioxidant and used to treat HDCP effectively. However, the molecular mechanism about the effect of hydrogen on HDCP still remains unclear. In this study, we found ROS content in HDCP group was significantly higher than that in the control and was reduced markedly in the presence of 100μmol/L hydrogen. IL6, Caspase3, Bax1, P-JAK2, P-Stat3 and P-p38 expression was much higher than the control, and was notably decreasedby the application of 100μmol/L hydrogen. Bcl2 expression in HDCP group was notably lower than the control and was increased by 100 μmol/L hydrogen. The apoptosis rate of cytotrophoblast cells was decreased, andratio of cytotrophoblast cells at G1 and G2 phase was increased and decreased by hydrogen, respectively. All those data indicated a potential molecular mechanism of hydrogen-mediated treatment in HDCP.

  7. Bowel complications of deep endometriosis during pregnancy or in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Setúbal, António; Sidiropoulou, Zacharoula; Torgal, Mariana; Casal, Ester; Lourenço, Carlos; Koninckx, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    To review bowel complications caused by deep endometriosis during pregnancy or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Three case reports and a systematic review. A tertiary referral center for deep endometriosis surgery. Three case reports of bowel perforation or occlusion during pregnancy caused by deep endometriosis. A PubMed search was conducted to identify complications of deep endometriosis during pregnancy or IVF. The literature search identified 13 articles. According to these, 12 articles described 12 bowel complications caused by progression of deep endometriosis during pregnancy, and 1 article described six cases of bowel occlusion during IVF. In 12 of 15 women, complications occurred during the third trimester of pregnancy, whereas 3 of 15 women presented with complications in the postpartum period. All complications during IVF occurred during stimulation. No specific factors that could predict these complications were identified, leading to the conclusion that endometriosis complications that occur in pregnancy or in IVF patients are probably underreported. Bowel complications during pregnancy or IVF stimulation may occur in women with deep endometriosis. This suggests that the endocrine environment of pregnancy does not prevent progression, at least in some women. These complications are rare, although probably underreported. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for neonatal thyroid dysfunction in pregnancies complicated by Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Uenaka, Mizuki; Tanimura, Kenji; Tairaku, Shinya; Morioka, Ichiro; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto

    2014-06-01

    To determine the factors related to adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal thyroid dysfunction in pregnancies complicated by Graves' disease. Thirty-five pregnancies complicated by Graves' disease were divided into two groups: adverse pregnancy outcome (n=15) and no adverse pregnancy outcome (n=20). Adverse pregnancy outcomes included spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, premature delivery, fetal growth restriction, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The 31 pregnancies resulting in live births were also divided into two groups: neonatal thyroid dysfunction (n=9) and normal neonatal thyroid function (n=22). Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), TSH-receptor antibody (TRAb), the duration of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, doses of antithyroid medication, and the duration of maternal antithyroid medication throughout pregnancy were compared. There were no significant differences in these factors between pregnancies with an adverse pregnancy outcome and those with no adverse pregnancy outcome. However, serum levels of FT4, TRAb, the duration of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, the maximum daily dose of antithyroid medication, and the total dose of antithyroid medication were significantly different between pregnancies with neonatal thyroid dysfunction and those with normal neonatal thyroid function. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the FT4 level in mothers was a significant factor related to the development of neonatal thyroid dysfunction (odds ratio 28.84, 95% confidence interval 1.65-503.62, p<0.05). Graves' disease activity in women of childbearing age should be well controlled prior to conception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Successful pregnancy following partial pancreatectomy after complications from a laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Rebecca A; King, Judy; Blackwelder, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Each year, increasing numbers of bariatric surgeries are being performed to reduce health risks related to obesity. The improvement in health for these patients has promoted an increase in the possibility of pregnancy for some woman. Because there are lifelong adjustments and the possibility of unique complications from bariatric surgery, pregnancy presents special nursing concerns. Very few cases have been identified in nursing literature discussing pregnancy after complications following a bariatric surgery. This article presents a successful pregnancy after a partial pancreatectomy was performed secondary to acute pancreatitis and ischemic enterocolitis as a complication of laparoscopic gastric banding.

  10. Pregnancy and Labor Complications in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer: The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Chloe J.; Winter, David L.; Fidler, Miranda M.; Wong, Kwok; Guha, Joyeeta; Kelly, Julie S.; Frobisher, Clare; Edgar, Angela B.; Skinner, Roderick; Wallace, W. Hamish B.; Hawkins, Mike M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Female survivors of childhood cancer treated with abdominal radiotherapy who manage to conceive are at risk of delivering premature and low-birthweight offspring, but little is known about whether abdominal radiotherapy may also be associated with additional complications during pregnancy and labor. We investigated the risk of developing pregnancy and labor complications among female survivors of childhood cancer in the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS). Methods: Pregnancy and labor complications were identified by linking the BCCSS cohort (n = 17 980) to the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for England. Relative risks (RRs) of pregnancy and labor complications were calculated by site of radiotherapy treatment (none/abdominal/cranial/other) and other cancer-related factors using log-binomial regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: A total of 2783 singleton pregnancies among 1712 female survivors of childhood cancer were identified in HES. Wilms tumor survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy were at threefold risk of hypertension complicating pregnancy (relative risk = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.29 to 4.71), while all survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy were at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.41 to 7.93) and anemia complicating pregnancy (RR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.27 to 3.46) compared with survivors treated without radiotherapy. Survivors treated without radiotherapy had similar risks of pregnancy and labor complications as the general population, except survivors were more likely to opt for an elective cesarean section (RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.70). Conclusions: Treatment with abdominal radiotherapy increases the risk of developing hypertension complicating pregnancy in Wilms tumor survivors, and diabetes mellitus and anemia complicating pregnancy in all survivors. These patients may require extra vigilance during pregnancy

  11. Gestational Age of Delivery in Pregnancies Complicated by Chronic Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lorie M; Biggio, Joseph R; Anderson, Sarah; Tita, Alan T N

    2016-06-01

    To identify the gestational age of planned delivery in pregnancies complicated by chronic hypertension that minimizes the risk of perinatal death and severe adverse events. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singletons complicated by hypertension. Detailed patient-level information was collected by chart review, including indication for delivery. Planned delivery at 36-36 6/7, 37-37 6/7, 38-38 6/7, and 39-39 6/7 weeks of gestation was compared with expectant management beyond each respective gestational age. Patients were excluded for fetal anomalies, inaccurate dating, and major medical problems other than hypertension, diabetes, or renal disease. The primary outcome was a composite of stillbirth, neonatal death, assisted ventilation, cord pH less than 7.0, 5-minute Apgar score of 3 or less, and neonatal seizures. Secondary outcomes were preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, primary cesarean delivery, and neonatal length of stay greater than 5 days. Groups were compared using Student's t test and χ tests. Six hundred eighty-three women with hypertension reached 36 weeks of gestation. Patients with planned delivery at less than 39 weeks of gestation were more likely to have baseline renal disease. Before 37 weeks of gestation, planned delivery was associated with a statistically significant increase in the primary composite adverse neonatal outcome (10.0% compared with 2.6%, P=.04); after 38 weeks of gestation, expectant management was associated with a nonstatistically significant increase in the primary composite outcome (0% compared with 2.3%, P=.40). Expectant management beyond 39 weeks of gestation was associated with a statistically significant increase in severe preeclampsia (0% compared with 10.3%, P=.001). Expectant management beyond 39 weeks of gestation was associated with increasing incidence of severe preeclampsia; planned delivery before 37 weeks of gestation was associated with an increase in adverse neonatal outcomes. Further well

  12. Gestational Age of Delivery in Pregnancies Complicated by Chronic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorie M.; Biggio, Joseph R.; Anderson, Sarah; Tita, Alan TN

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the gestational age of planned delivery in pregnancies complicated by chronic hypertension that minimizes the risk of perinatal death and severe adverse events. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of all singletons complicated by hypertension. Detailed patient-level information was collected by chart review, including indication for delivery. Planned delivery at 36–36.6, 37–37.6, 38–38.6, and 39–39.6 weeks was compared to expectant management beyond each respective gestational age. Patients were excluded for fetal anomalies, inaccurate dating, and major medical problems other than hypertension, diabetes or renal disease. The primary outcome was a composite of stillbirth, neonatal death, assisted ventilation, cord pH<7.0, 5-minute Apgar ≤3, and neonatal seizures. Secondary outcomes were preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, primary cesarean, and infant length of stay >5 days. Groups were compared using Student’s t-test and χ2 tests. Results Six hundred eighty three women with hypertension reached 36 weeks. Patients with planned delivery <39 weeks were more likely to have baseline renal disease. Prior to 37 weeks, planned delivery was associated with a statistically significant increase in the primary composite adverse neonatal outcome (10.0% versus 2.6%, p=0.04); after 38 weeks, expectant management was associated with a non-statistically significant increase in the primary composite outcome (0% versus 2.3%, p=0.40). Expectant management beyond 39 weeks was associated with a statistically significant increase in severe preeclampsia (0 versus 10.3%, p=0.001). Conclusion Expectant management beyond 39.0 weeks was associated with increasing incidence of severe preeclampsia; planned delivery prior to 37 weeks was associated with an increase in adverse neonatal outcomes. Further, well-powered studies are needed to delineate the optimal gestational age of delivery. PMID:27159754

  13. [Specific placental complications of monochorionic diamniotic twins born after 24 weeks of pregnancies - restrospective analysis].

    PubMed

    Vlašínová, I; Hruban, L; Janků, P; Gerychová, R; Ventruba, P; Ťápalová, V; Hodická, Z

    2015-06-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of occurence of specific complications of monochorionic diamniotic twins born after 24 weeks of pregnancies and the effect of these complications on perinatal morbidity and mortality. Restrospective analysis. Dpt. of Obstetrics and Gynecology Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno. A retrospective analysis of 175 monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies (mo-bi), which were terminated after the 24th week of pregnancy at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno between the years 2008-2013. The specific complications such as twin-to-twin syndrome (TTTs), twin anemia polycytemia sequens (TAPS), selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR), twin-arterial revers perfusion sequence (TRAP), single intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), placental insufficiency with both twins were identified using prenatal ultrasound examinations, perinatal results and the result of pathological anatomical examinations. Perinatal morbidity, neonatal mortality and neurological development were evaluated. The numbers of late detections of specific complications were observed. Specific complications in our group were identified in 50 pregnancies (28.6%). TTTs was diagnosed most often, by 18 pregnancies (10.3%), next most frequent diagnosis were sIUGR (9.7%) and TAPS (3.4%). The placental insufficiency with both twins complicated 2.6% pregnancies. 10 children had abnormal neurological development. Pregnancies with late detection had the worst perinatal results. No acute TTTs during delivery was detected. Specific placental complication reached 29.7% in our file. The most frequent complication was TTTs (10.3%) and selective growth restriction (9.7%). Pregnancies with late diagnosis of these complications had the worst results. The prenatal care by monochorial biamnial pregnancies should be at specialized centres from the 16th week of pregnancy every two weeks.

  14. Utilization of primary and obstetric care after medically complicated pregnancies: an analysis of medical claims data.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Wendy L; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Levine, David M; Wang, Lin; Neale, Donna; Werner, Erika F; Clark, Jeanne M

    2014-04-01

    Because pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, are risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, post-delivery follow-up is recommended. To determine predictors of post-delivery primary and obstetric care utilization in women with and without medical complications. Five-year retrospective cohort study using commercial and Medicaid insurance claims in Maryland. 7,741 women with a complicated pregnancy (GDM, hypertensive disorders and pregestational diabetes mellitus [DM]) and 23,599 women with a comparison pregnancy. We compared primary and postpartum obstetric care utilization rates in the 12 months after delivery between the complicated and comparison pregnancy groups. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between pregnancy complications, sociodemographic predictor variables and utilization of care, stratified by insurance type. Women with a complicated pregnancy were older at delivery (p < 0.001), with higher rates of cesarean delivery (p < 0.0001) and preterm labor or delivery (p < 0.0001). Among women with Medicaid, 56.6% in the complicated group and 51.7% in the comparison group attended a primary care visit. Statistically significant predictors of receiving a primary care visit included non-Black race, older age, preeclampsia or DM, and depression. Among women with commercial health insurance, 60.0% in the complicated group and 49.5% in the comparison group attended a primary care visit. Pregnancy complication did not predict a primary care visit among women with commercial insurance. Women with pregnancy complications were more likely to attend primary care visits post-delivery compared to the comparison group, but overall visit rates were low. Although Medicaid expansion has potential to increase coverage, innovative models for preventive health services after delivery are needed to target women at higher risk for chronic disease development.

  15. Outbreak of Nosocomial Listeriosis — Texas, 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Invasive listeriosis is a potentially fatal foodborne disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes. In February 2010, a listeriosis cluster was identified in Texas. We investigated to confirm the outbreak, identify the source, and prevent additional infections. Methods: All clinical isol...

  16. Management of listeriosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hof, H; Nichterlein, T; Kretschmar, M

    1997-01-01

    Determination of the MIC in vitro is often used as the basis for predicting the clinical efficacy of antibiotics. Listeriae are uniformly susceptible in vitro to most common antibiotics except cephalosporins and fosfomycin. However, the clinical outcome is poor. This is partially because listeriae are refractory to the bactericidal mechanisms of many antibiotics, especially to ampicillin-amoxicillin, which still is regarded as the drug of choice. A true synergism can be achieved by adding gentamicin. Another point is that listeriae are able to reside and multiply within host cells, e.g., macrophages, hepatocytes, and neurons, where they are protected from antibiotics in the extracellular fluid. Only a few agents penetrate, accumulate, and reach the cytosol of host cells, where the listeriae are found. Furthermore, certain host cells may exclude antibiotics from any intracellular compartment. Thus, determination of the antibacterial efficacy of a drug against listeriae in cell cultures may be a better approximation of potential therapeutic value. Certain host cells may have acquired the property of excluding certain antibiotics, for example macrolides, from intracellular spaces, which might explain therapeutic failures of antibiotic therapy in spite of low MICs. Animal models do not completely imitate human listeriosis, which is characterized by meningitis, encephalitis, soft tissue and parenchymal infections, and bacteremia. Meningitis produced in rabbits is a hyperacute disease, whereby most listeriae lie extracellularly, fairly accessible to antibiotics that can cross the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In the murine model of systemic infection, Listeria monocytogenes is located mainly within macrophages and parenchymal cells of the spleen and liver, hardly accessible to certain drugs, such as ampicillin and gentimicin. The therapeutic efficacy of drugs clearly depends on the model used. Thus, for example, the combination of ampicillin with gentamicin acts

  17. Listeriosis outbreaks and associated food vehicles, United States, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Emily J; Jackson, Kelly A; Johnson, Shacara D; Graves, Lewis M; Silk, Benjamin J; Mahon, Barbara E

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterial foodborne pathogen, can cause meningitis, bacteremia, and complications during pregnancy. This report summarizes listeriosis outbreaks reported to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 1998-2008. The study period includes the advent of PulseNet (a national molecular subtyping network for outbreak detection) in 1998 and the Listeria Initiative (enhanced surveillance for outbreak investigation) in 2004. Twenty-four confirmed listeriosis outbreaks were reported during 1998-2008, resulting in 359 illnesses, 215 hospitalizations, and 38 deaths. Outbreaks earlier in the study period were generally larger and longer. Serotype 4b caused the largest number of outbreaks and outbreak-associated cases. Ready-to-eat meats caused more early outbreaks, and novel vehicles (i.e., sprouts, taco/nacho salad) were associated with outbreaks later in the study period. These changes may reflect the effect of PulseNet and the Listeria Initiative and regulatory initiatives designed to prevent contamination in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

  18. Listeriosis Outbreaks and Associated Food Vehicles, United States, 1998–2008

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Emily J.; Jackson, Kelly A.; Johnson, Shacara D.; Graves, Lewis M.; Mahon, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterial foodborne pathogen, can cause meningitis, bacteremia, and complications during pregnancy. This report summarizes listeriosis outbreaks reported to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 1998–2008. The study period includes the advent of PulseNet (a national molecular subtyping network for outbreak detection) in 1998 and the Listeria Initiative (enhanced surveillance for outbreak investigation) in 2004. Twenty-four confirmed listeriosis outbreaks were reported during 1998–2008, resulting in 359 illnesses, 215 hospitalizations, and 38 deaths. Outbreaks earlier in the study period were generally larger and longer. Serotype 4b caused the largest number of outbreaks and outbreak-associated cases. Ready-to-eat meats caused more early outbreaks, and novel vehicles (i.e., sprouts, taco/nacho salad) were associated with outbreaks later in the study period. These changes may reflect the effect of PulseNet and the Listeria Initiative and regulatory initiatives designed to prevent contamination in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. PMID:23260661

  19. Endometriosis-associated Maternal Pregnancy Complications – Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Petresin, J.; Wolf, J.; Emir, S.; Müller, A.; Boosz, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of endometriosis is increasing. Particularly during pregnancy and labour, clinicians should be alert to possible endometriosis-associated complications or complications of previous endometriosis treatment, despite a low relative risk. In addition to an increased rate of early miscarriage, complications such as spontaneous bowel perforation, rupture of ovarian cysts, uterine rupture and intraabdominal bleeding from decidualised endometriosis lesions or previous surgery are described in the literature. Unfavourable neonatal outcomes have also been discussed. We report on an irreducible ovarian torsion in the 16th week of pregnancy following extensive endometriosis surgery, and an intraabdominal haemorrhage due to endometriosis of the bowel in the 29th week of pregnancy. PMID:27570252

  20. 9 CFR 311.33 - Listeriosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Listeriosis. 311.33 Section 311.33... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.33 Listeriosis. Carcasses of livestock identified as U.S. Suspects because of a history of listeriosis shall be passed...

  1. Atenolol and fetal growth in pregnancies complicated by hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lydakis, C; Lip, G Y; Beevers, M; Beevers, D G

    1999-06-01

    Atenolol use may be associated with growth retardation when given in pregnancy, although the relationship to trimester of initiation, duration of treatment, and its use as monotherapy is still uncertain. To compare the obstetric and fetal outcome between women receiving atenolol (as monotherapy) and other antihypertensive drug monotherapies, and also to investigate the effect of duration of treatment on fetal growth, we performed a retrospective cohort study of 312 pregnancies in 223 women attending an Antenatal Hypertension Clinic. Atenolol (as monotherapy) was given in 78 pregnancies (25.0%), other types of antihypertensive drugs as monotherapy were given in 53 pregnancies (17.0%), and multiple drug combinations were given in 90 pregnancies (28.8%). In 91 pregnancies (29.2%) no antihypertensive drugs were given. Atenolol was found to be associated with lower birth weight and ponderal index values, with a trend toward a higher prevalence of preterm (<37 weeks) delivery and small-for-gestational-age babies when compared to other antihypertensive drugs as monotherapy, or to no treatment. The adverse effect of atenolol was more pronounced in women receiving the drug earlier in their pregnancy, and continuing the drug for a longer duration. In conclusion, atenolol should be avoided in the early stages of pregnancy and given with caution at the later stages, as it is associated with fetal growth retardation, which is related to duration of treatment.

  2. From Pre-Clinical Studies to Clinical Trials: Generation of Novel Therapies for Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Elizabeth C.; Sibley, Colin P.

    2015-01-01

    Complications of pregnancy represent a significant disease burden, with both immediate and lasting consequences for mother and baby. Two key pregnancy complications, fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia (PE), together affect around 10%–15% of all pregnancies worldwide. Despite this high incidence, there are currently no therapies available to treat these pregnancy disorders. Early delivery remains the only intervention to reduce the risk of severe maternal complications and/or stillbirth of the baby; however early delivery itself is associated with increased risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity. As such, there is a pressing need to develop new and effective treatments that can prevent or treat FGR and PE. Animal models have been essential in identifying and screening potential new therapies in this field. In this review, we address recent progress that has been made in developing therapeutic strategies for pregnancy disorders, some of which are now entering clinical trials. PMID:26062129

  3. Novel nanoparticle vaccines for Listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Marradi, Marco; Garcia, Isabel; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, nanomedicine has transformed many areas of traditional medicine, and enabled fresh insights into the prevention of previously difficult to treat diseases. An example of the transformative power of nanomedicine is a recent nano-vaccine against listeriosis, a serious bacterial infection affecting not only pregnant women and their neonates, but also immune-compromised patients with neoplastic or chronic autoimmune diseases. There is a major unmet need for an effective and safe vaccine against listeriosis, with the challenge that an effective vaccine needs to generate protective T cell immunity, a hitherto difficult to achieve objective. Now utilizing a gold nanoparticle antigen delivery approach together with a novel polysaccharide nanoparticulate adjuvant, an effective T-cell vaccine has been developed that provides robust protection in animal models of listeriosis, raising the hope that one day this nanovaccine technology may protect immune-compromised humans against this serious opportunistic infection.

  4. Novel nanoparticle vaccines for Listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Marradi, Marco; Garcia, Isabel; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, nanomedicine has transformed many areas of traditional medicine, and enabled fresh insights into the prevention of previously difficult to treat diseases. An example of the transformative power of nanomedicine is a recent nano-vaccine against listeriosis, a serious bacterial infection affecting not only pregnant women and their neonates, but also immune-compromised patients with neoplastic or chronic autoimmune diseases. There is a major unmet need for an effective and safe vaccine against listeriosis, with the challenge that an effective vaccine needs to generate protective T cell immunity, a hitherto difficult to achieve objective. Now utilizing a gold nanoparticle antigen delivery approach together with a novel polysaccharide nanoparticulate adjuvant, an effective T-cell vaccine has been developed that provides robust protection in animal models of listeriosis, raising the hope that one day this nanovaccine technology may protect immune-compromised humans against this serious opportunistic infection. PMID:26252360

  5. [Necrotic uterine myomatosis--a rare complication following vaginal termination of pregnancy by suction (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gubisch, W; Sonnenburg, G

    1981-01-01

    Reported in this paper is the case history of a patient with necrotised uterine myomatoma, a rare complication following vaginal termination of pregnancy. Course and therapy are described and the problem discussed.

  6. Antepartum fetal surveillance and timing of delivery in the pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Graves, Cornelia R

    2007-12-01

    Pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus are associated with an increased risk of fetal and neonatal risks compared with pregnancies in the healthy gravida. Data suggest that stillbirth and perinatal mortality may be increased as much as 5 times for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes than in the general population. Pregnancies complicated by preexisting diabetes should undergo twice weekly surveillance with nonstress test or biophysical profile or a combination of both. Doppler studies should be reserved for those patients with vascular disease, intrauterine growth restriction, or hypertensive disorders.

  7. Outcome of children born out of pregnancies complicated by unexplained polyhydramnios.

    PubMed

    Touboul, C; Boileau, P; Picone, O; Foix-l'Hélias, L; Frydman, R; Senat, M V

    2007-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the long-term outcomes of infants born out of a pregnancy complicated by unexplained polyhydramnios. We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 173 singleton pregnancies with polyhydramnios. There were 24 singletons with unexplained polyhydramnios, defined as polyhydramnios where prenatal testing was negative. Infants were examined by a paediatrician at a median age of 12 months (range 12-64 months). Of the 24 infants, 19 (79%) had a normal outcome. West syndrome, polyuria and pulmonary stenosis were diagnosed in three children during follow up, while there were two perinatal deaths. Paediatric follow up of children born out of pregnancies complicated by unexplained polyhydramnios should be carried out systematically.

  8. Neurological Disorders Complicating Pregnancy - Focus on Obstetric Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Renukesh, Sandya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neurological disorders in pregnancy can be pregnancy related or can be caused by exacerbation of a pre-existing neurological condition or sometimes may even be detected for the first time during pregnancy in which it might be an incidental finding. The diagnosis and management of the neurological disorders in pregnancy is always a challenging task due to varied symptomatology and risks to the fetus. The evaluation and management should be performed in a stepwise fashion and requires multidisciplinary approach. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to study the influence of neurological disorders on outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods This was a prospective observational study conduted over a period of 1 year (2013-2014) including 54 pregnant women with neurological manifestations. The spectrum of neurological manifestations was divided into-pregnancy specific, incidental and pre-existing neurological disorders for analysis. Five unusual cases with varied manifestations were studied in detail. Any pregnant woman presenting with neurological manifestation, irrespective of gestational age were included in the present study. The neurological manifestation and the obstetric outcome were analysed in the present study. Results There were 54 women with varied neurological manifestations, majority (74%) of them being primigravida. Seizure was the most common (63%) manifestation. The incidence of pregnancy specific disorder (eclampsia), pre-existing disease (epilepsy) and incidental causes were 40.8%, 37% and 22.2% respectively. Of the 22 women with eclampsia, 15(68%) had seizure during antepartum period and 7(32%) in the postpartum period. Three patients out of 22 who had eclampsia had intrauterine fetal demise on arrival itself, whereas the perinatal outcome was good in the other 19 patients who had live born babies. The most common incidental cause in the present study was tubercular meningitis (44%). There was however a maternal and

  9. Pregnancy complicated by triploidy: a comparison of the three karyotypes.

    PubMed

    McWeeney, Dennis T; Munné, Santiago; Miller, Richard C; Cekleniak, Natalie A; Contag, Stephen A; Wax, Joseph R; Polzin, William J; Watson, William J

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated triploid pregnancy to determine whether there are clinically important differences between the three karyotypes: 69,XXX, 69,XXY, and 69,XYY. Prospectively maintained cytogenetic databases at five tertiary care centers were retrospectively reviewed over a 10-year period to identify all triploid pregnancies. Targeted ultrasounds were reviewed to identify fetal and placental findings. Sonographic findings were compared by karyotype. There was a total of 549 triploid gestations; preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) detected 413 triploid embryos, and the cytogenetic databases provided 136 clinical pregnancies with triploidy. In triploid embryos with PGD, the frequency of the 69,XYY karyotype was 8.7% (36/413), compared with 0.74% (1/136) during the first trimester of clinical pregnancies (p = 0.002). In clinical pregnancies, 60% (36/60) of 69,XXY fetuses survived the first trimester of development compared with 69% (52/75) of 69,XXX fetuses (p = NS). No clinically important differences were observed between 69,XXX and 69,XXY karyotypes in terms of type, number, or severity of fetal or placental anomalies. Gestations with a 69,XYY karyotype are found less frequently compared with gestations with a 69,XXX or 69,XXY karyotype. The decline in fetal survival of the 69,XYY triploid karyotype needs further investigation. There are significant abnormalities detected during prenatal sonography in most all clinically recognized cases of triploidy. Sonography cannot reliably distinguish between the 69,XXY and 69,XXX karyotypes.

  10. Diabetic complications in pregnancy: is resveratrol a solution?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chandra K; Kumar, Ambrish; LaVoie, Holly A; DiPette, Donald J; Singh, Ugra S

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that, during pregnancy, may affect fetal development. Fetal outcome depends on the type of diabetes present, the concentration of blood glucose and the extent of fetal exposure to elevated or frequently fluctuating glucose concentrations. The result of some diabetic pregnancies will be embryonic developmental abnormalities, a condition referred to as diabetic embryopathy. Tight glycemic control in type 1 diabetes during pregnancy using insulin therapy together with folic acid supplementation are partially able to prevent diabetic embryopathy; however, the protection is not complete and additional interventions are needed. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found largely in the skins of red grapes, is known to have antidiabetic action and is in clinical trials for the treatment of diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Studies of resveratrol in a rodent model of diabetic embryopathy reveal that it significantly improves the embryonic outcome in terms of diminishing developmental abnormalities. Improvements in maternal and embryonic outcomes observed in rodent models may arise from resveratrol’s antioxidative potential, antidiabetic action and antidyslipidemic nature. Whether resveratrol will have similar actions in human diabetic pregnancy is unknown. Here, we review the potential therapeutic use of resveratrol in diabetes and diabetic pregnancy. PMID:23436883

  11. Self-Reported Oil Spill Exposure and Pregnancy Complications: The GROWH Study

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Arti; Zilversmit, Leah; Buekens, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Adverse infant outcomes often rise in the aftermath of disaster, but few studies have assessed the effects of disaster on maternal health. 1091 southern Louisiana women were interviewed about their pregnancy history, including pregnancy complications. Associations between oil spill exposures and gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, and nausea/vomiting were assessed for all reported pregnancies. 631 women had a pregnancy both before and after the oil spill. Generalized estimating equations (logistic regression) with adjustment for confounders were used. To assess possible unmeasured confounding, instead of considering oil spill exposure as a time-varying exposure, women were defined as oil spill-exposed or not. If oil spill-exposed women were equally prone to complications in pregnancies that occurred prior to the oil spill as after it, it was considered that any associations were likely due to selection or reporting issues. Women who reported oil spill exposure, particularly loss of use of the coast, were more likely to report gestational diabetes; however, the level of association was similar for pregnancies before and after the spill (p for interaction >0.10 and odds ratios (ORs) for pregnancies prior to the spill > than those after the spill). No associations were found between oil spill exposure and hypertensive disorders. This analysis does not suggest an increased risk of pregnancy complications associated with exposure to the oil spill; however, future studies should assess exposure and outcomes prospectively and clinically instead of relying on self-report. PMID:28654004

  12. Self-Reported Oil Spill Exposure and Pregnancy Complications: The GROWH Study.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Shankar, Arti; Zilversmit, Leah; Buekens, Pierre

    2017-06-27

    Adverse infant outcomes often rise in the aftermath of disaster, but few studies have assessed the effects of disaster on maternal health. 1091 southern Louisiana women were interviewed about their pregnancy history, including pregnancy complications. Associations between oil spill exposures and gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, and nausea/vomiting were assessed for all reported pregnancies. 631 women had a pregnancy both before and after the oil spill. Generalized estimating equations (logistic regression) with adjustment for confounders were used. To assess possible unmeasured confounding, instead of considering oil spill exposure as a time-varying exposure, women were defined as oil spill-exposed or not. If oil spill-exposed women were equally prone to complications in pregnancies that occurred prior to the oil spill as after it, it was considered that any associations were likely due to selection or reporting issues. Women who reported oil spill exposure, particularly loss of use of the coast, were more likely to report gestational diabetes; however, the level of association was similar for pregnancies before and after the spill (p for interaction >0.10 and odds ratios (ORs) for pregnancies prior to the spill > than those after the spill). No associations were found between oil spill exposure and hypertensive disorders. This analysis does not suggest an increased risk of pregnancy complications associated with exposure to the oil spill; however, future studies should assess exposure and outcomes prospectively and clinically instead of relying on self-report.

  13. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods.

  14. Efficacy of metformin on pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Lin, Xiao-Fang; Wan, Zhi-Hua; Hu, Dan; Du, Yu-Kai

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of metformin administration throughout pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). MEDLINE and ScienceDirect were searched to retrieve relevant trials. The endpoint was the incidence of complications of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pre-eclampsia (PE), miscarriage and premature birth included. Five studies with 502 PCOS patients with metformin administration throughout pregnancy and 427 controls who used metformin just to get conception were included in our meta-analysis. In study group, a significantly lower change of emerging miscarriage and premature birth was observed, the pooled relative risk (RR) was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.56) for miscarriage and 0.40 (95%CI: 0.18-0.91) for premature birth. No significant difference was demonstrated in emerging GDM and PE. Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy can reduce the RR of miscarriage and premature birth incidence in PCOS patients with no serious side effects.

  15. New insights into pregnancy-related complications in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Doruk; Sammaritano, Lisa

    2003-10-01

    Pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presents an additional risk to an already complex clinical situation--overlap in symptoms between changes of pregnancy and SLE, presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, and need for potentially teratogenic medications can all complicate the management of pregnant patients with SLE. Studies demonstrate that, with careful planning, the majority of patients with lupus can complete pregnancy without serious complications. Recent developments are modified instruments to measure disease activity in pregnancy, increasingly common continuation of hydroxychloroquine during pregnancy, more frequent use of in vitro fertilization, and more aggressive fetal monitoring in patients positive for anti-Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-A/Ro or anti- SS-B/La antibody.

  16. Cerebral vascular adaptation to pregnancy and its role in the neurological complications of eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Julie G.; Chan, Siu-Lung

    2011-01-01

    The cerebral circulation has a central role in mediating the neurological complications of eclampsia, yet our understanding of how pregnancy and preeclampsia affect this circulation is severely limited. Here, we show that pregnancy causes outward remodeling of penetrating arterioles and increased capillary density in the brain due to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a transcription factor involved in cerebrovascular remodeling and highly activated in pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced PPARγ activation also significantly affected cerebral hemodynamics, decreasing vascular resistance and increasing cerebral blood flow by ∼40% in response to acute hypertension that caused breakthrough of autoregulation. These structural and hemodynamic changes in the brain during pregnancy were associated with substantially increased blood-brain barrier permeability, an effect that could promote passage of damaging proteins into the brain and cause the neurological complications of eclampsia, including seizure. PMID:21071591

  17. Complications during pregnancy and delivery in women with untreated rectovaginal deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Exacoustos, Caterina; Lauriola, Ilaria; Lazzeri, Lucia; De Felice, Giovanna; Zupi, Errico

    2016-10-01

    To study outcomes and complications during pregnancy and at delivery in women with a posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) nodule persisting after surgery and diagnosed at transvaginal sonography (TVS) in comparison with a control group of women without endometriosis. Multicenter observational and cohort study. University hospital. Women (n = 200) with a posterior DIE nodule equal or more than 2 cm centimeters in size who desired a pregnancy and a control group of women (n = 300) with no previous recorded diagnosis of endometriosis who delivered in our clinic during the same time period. Patient data collected from medical charts and by phone interviews. Evaluation of complications during pregnancy and delivery. Of the 101 women with a posterior DIE nodule, 52 become pregnant among whom 25 used assisted reproductive technology. Of these 52 pregnancies, 11 ended in an early abortion, and 41 delivered a baby; 13 (31.7%) had a premature delivery, 7 (17.8%) a placenta praevia, and 28 (68.2%) had a cesarean delivery. When compared with the control group, the women with endometriosis had a higher risk of pregnancy complicated by preterm birth, placenta previa, placental abruption, and hypertension. Cesarean delivery and complications during surgery (hysterectomy, hemoperitoneum, and bladder injuries) were statistically significantly more frequent in women with endometriosis than in controls. Women with an incomplete removal of posterior DIE have a high complications rate during pregnancy and delivery. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai-Feng; Chen, Hong-Su; Rao, Da-Pang; Gong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is inconsistently associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence regarding the strength of the association between pregnancy in women with PCOS and pregnancy complications. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library to identify observational studies up to January 2016. The primary focus was pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, oligohydramnios, and polyhydramnios. Effect estimates were pooled using the random-effects model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect these associations. Results: We included 40 observational studies that reported data on a total of 17,816 pregnancies with PCOS and 123,756 pregnancies without PCOS. Overall, PCOS in pregnancy was associated with greater risk of GDM, preeclampsia, PIH, preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, miscarriage, hypoglycemia, and perinatal death. However, PCOS in pregnancy had little or no effect on oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, large-for-gestational age (LGA), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), fetal growth restriction (FGR), preterm premature membrane rupture, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, total cholesterol, congenital malformation, macrosomia, and respiratory distress syndrome. Subgroup analysis suggested that these associations might be influenced by study design and pre-BMI. Conclusion: PCOS in pregnancy is associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. PMID:28002314

  19. Pregnancy Complications and Neonatal Outcomes in Multiple Pregnancies: A Comparison between Assisted Reproductive Techniques and Spontaneous Conception

    PubMed Central

    Kaveh, Mahbod; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Davari Tanha, Fatemeh; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Keramati, Zahra; Shariat, Mamak; Ghaheri, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compared neonatal outcome and maternal complications in multiple pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to spontaneous pregnancies. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed medical records of 190 multiple pregnancies and births conceived by ART or spontaneous conceptions between 2004 and 2009 in Women Hospital. Obstetric history and outcomes were recorded and compared between these two groups. SPSS version 13 was used for data analysis. The results were analyzed using student’s t test, chi square and logistic regression (p<0.05). Results There were 106 deliveries from spontaneous conceptions and 84 that resulted from ART. Parity history and mode of delivery significantly differed between the two groups (p<0.001). The ART group had significantly higher preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) whereas pregnanc-induced hypertension (PIH) was higher in the spontaneous group (p=0.01). Newborn intensive care unit (NICU) admission, duration of hospitalization, still birth and low gestational age were significantly higher in the ART group while neonatal jaundice was higher in the spontaneous group. Logistic regression analysis by considering neonatal complications as the dependent variable showed that respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), NICU admission and Apgar score were independent predictors for neonatal complications. Conclusion Obstetric and neonatal outcomes must be considered in multiple pregnancies conceived by ART. PMID:25780517

  20. The effects of yoga in prevention of pregnancy complications in high-risk pregnancies: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rakhshani, A; Nagarathna, R; Mhaskar, R; Mhaskar, A; Thomas, A; Gunasheela, S

    2012-10-01

    While previous studies have shown the potential effects of yoga in normal pregnancies, this randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of yoga in prevention of pregnancy complications in high-risk pregnancies for the first time. 68 high-risk pregnant women were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Bengaluru, India and were randomized into yoga and control groups. The yoga group (n=30) received standard care plus one-hour yoga sessions, three times a week, from the 12th to the 28th week of gestation. The control group (n=38) received standard care plus conventional antenatal exercises (walking) during the same period. Significantly fewer pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), preeclampsia, gestational diabetes (GDM) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) cases were observed in the yoga group (p=0.018, 0.042, 0.049, 0.05 respectively). Significantly fewer Small for Gestational Age (SGA) babies and newborns with low APGAR scores (p=0.006) were born in the yoga group (p=0.033). This first randomized study of yoga in high-risk pregnancy has shown that yoga can potentially be an effective therapy in reducing hypertensive related complications of pregnancy and improving fetal outcomes. Additional data is needed to confirm these results and better explain the mechanism of action of yoga in this important area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Invasive listeriosis in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2009: further targeted prevention needed for higher-risk groups.

    PubMed

    Silk, Benjamin J; Date, Kashmira A; Jackson, Kelly A; Pouillot, Régis; Holt, Kristin G; Graves, Lewis M; Ong, Kanyin L; Hurd, Sharon; Meyer, Rebecca; Marcus, Ruthanne; Shiferaw, Beletshachew; Norton, Dawn M; Medus, Carlota; Zansky, Shelley M; Cronquist, Alicia B; Henao, Olga L; Jones, Timothy F; Vugia, Duc J; Farley, Monica M; Mahon, Barbara E

    2012-06-01

    Listeriosis can cause severe disease, especially in fetuses, neonates, older adults, and persons with certain immunocompromising and chronic conditions. We summarize US population-based surveillance data for invasive listeriosis from 2004 through 2009. We analyzed Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) data for patients with Listeria monocytogenes isolated from normally sterile sites. We describe the epidemiology of listeriosis, estimate overall and specific incidence rates, and compare pregnancy-associated and nonpregnancy-associated listeriosis by age and ethnicity. A total of 762 listeriosis cases were identified during the 6-year reporting period, including 126 pregnancy-associated cases (17%), 234 nonpregnancy-associated cases(31%) in patients aged <65 years, and 400 nonpregnancy-associated cases (53%) in patients aged ≥ 65 years. Eighteen percent of all cases were fatal. Meningitis was diagnosed in 44% of neonates. For 2004-2009, the overall annual incidence of listeriosis varied from 0.25 to 0.32 cases per 100,000 population. Among Hispanic women, the crude incidence of pregnancy-associated listeriosis increased from 5.09 to 12.37 cases per 100,000 for the periods of 2004-2006 and 2007-2009, respectively; among non-Hispanic women, pregnancy-associated listeriosis increased from 1.74 to 2.80 cases per 100,000 for the same periods. Incidence rates of nonpregnancy-associated listeriosis in patients aged ≥ 65 years were 4-5 times greater than overall rates annually. Overall listeriosis incidence did not change significantly from 2004 through 2009. Further targeted prevention is needed, including food safety education and messaging (eg, avoiding Mexican-style cheese during pregnancy). Effective prevention among pregnant women, especially Hispanics, and older adults would substantially affect overall rates.

  2. Pregnancy Complications: Bleeding and Spotting from the Vagina

    MedlinePlus

    ... who help families affected by Zika GO Stay up-to-date! Get our emails about zika and all other pregnancy concerns. News Moms Need Blog Read about what moms and moms-to-be need to know GO donate sign-up sign-in Sign out account center dashboard Our ...

  3. Ultrasound Evaluation of First Trimester Complications of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Morin, Lucie; Cargill, Yvonne M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2016-10-01

    OUTCOMES:: EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search and review of bibliographies identified articles was conducted. The evidence collected was reviewed by the Diagnostic Imaging Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Women presenting with first trimester bleeding may be incorrectly diagnosed with a missed abortion, may have an ectopic pregnancy overlooked, or may be inappropriately reassured about viability. Improvement in the identification of the sonographic landmarks of normal embryonic development and awareness of the sonographic risk factors of pregnancy failure may lead to more case-specific management strategies. Diagnosis of suspected ectopic pregnancy often involves an assessment of both hormonal markers and sonographic features. Maternal morbidity and mortality can be reduced with an early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergency Room Utilization After Medically Complicated Pregnancies: A Medicaid Claims Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Wang, Lin; Sylvia, Martha; Neale, Donna; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women with pregnancy complications benefit from closer monitoring postpartum and beyond. Increased postpartum emergency room (ER) use may indicate unmet need for outpatient obstetrics and primary care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether women with pregnancy complications (gestational diabetes [GDM], gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia) have increased ER use in the first 6 months postpartum, compared with women without these complications. Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using a 2003–2010 Maryland Medicaid managed care claims data set, linked with U.S. Census data. Data included claims for outpatient and ER visits for women aged 12–45 years who were continuously enrolled in Medicaid for at least 100 days of pregnancy and 90 days postpartum. We used logistic regression to calculate the association between pregnancy complications and having ≥1 ER visit in the 6 months postpartum. Results: We identified 26,074 pregnancies, of which 20% were complicated by GDM, gestational hypertension, or preeclampsia. Of these complicated pregnancies, 42.1% had GDM, 35.4% had gestational hypertension, and 42.5% had preeclampsia (diagnoses were not mutually exclusive). In the 6 months postpartum, 25% of women had ≥1 ER visits. Of the complicated pregnancy group, 27.7% had ≥1 ER visit, versus 23.6% of the comparison group (p<0.0001). In adjusted analyses, women with a pregnancy complication were more likely to have ≥1 ER visit compared with women without these complications (odds ratio [OR]1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.23). The strength of association was highest in women under age 25 (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09–1.33). Preconception medical comorbidities (type 2 diabetes, chronic hypertension, obesity, asthma, mental health, and substance abuse diagnoses) were also strongly associated with postpartum ER use (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.51–1.73). Conclusions: Pregnancy complications increased ER

  5. PPAR-γ – a possible drug target for complicated pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Fergus P; Delany, Aoife C; Kenny, Louise C; Walsh, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in trophoblasts, which regulate both cell differentiation and proliferation. In recent years, evidence has linked PPARs to playing an integral role in pregnancy; specifically, PPAR-β and PPAR-γ have been shown to play an integral role in placentation, with PPAR-γ additionally serving to regulate trophoblast differentiation. Recent evidence has shown that PPAR-γ expression is altered in many complications of pregnancy such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm birth, pre-clampsia and gestational diabetes. Thus, at present, accumulating evidence from the literature suggests both a pivotal role for PPAR-γ in the progression of a healthy pregnancy and the possibility that PPAR-γ may act as a therapeutic target in complicated pregnancies. This review aims to provide a succinct and comprehensive assessment of the role of PPAR-γ in normal pregnancy and pregnancy complications, and finally its potential as a therapeutic target in the treatment and/or prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23186152

  6. [Digestive surgical complications during pregnancy following bariatric surgery: Experience of a center for perinatology and obesity].

    PubMed

    Chevrot, A; Lesage, N; Msika, S; Mandelbrot, L

    2016-04-01

    To describe severe complications during pregnancy requiring surgery in patients with a history of obesity surgery. A retrospective study in a hospital with tertiary care perinatology and an obesity reference center, on all pregnancies following bariatric surgery over a 10-year period, analyzing all cases of surgical complications. There were 8 major complications related to the procedure in 141 pregnancies with bariatric surgery. The 2 complications in women with gastric banding were band slippage resulting in severe dysphagia, one of which leading to intractable vomiting and serious hydrolectric disorders. Among the 6 complications after bypass surgery, 4 were occlusions: 3 on internal hernias of which 2 with volvulus and 1 associated with intestinal invagination, as well as one with intestinal invagination only. One patient had a laparotomy for a suspected invagination which was not confirmed. The other surgical complications after gastric bypass were a hernia and an exploratory laparotomy for suspected intussusception which was overturned. There was no case of maternal or perinatal death. Pregnancies in patients with a history of bariatric surgery are at high risk, in particular for complications related to the surgery and thus require careful interdisciplinary surveillance, and determination of predictive factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Course and delivery outcomes of 34 pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrom].

    PubMed

    Simetka, O; Michalec, I; Zewdiová, H; Kolárová, R; Procházková, J; Procházka, M

    2010-05-01

    To analyze the course and delivery outcomes of pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrom and compare them to previously published data. Retrospective cohort study. We analyzed pregnancy outcomes of 34 pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrom of women who delivered at our hospital between years 2004 and 2009. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Ostrava. There were 34 pregnancies and deliveries complicated by HELLP syndrom between the years 2004 and 2009 (64 months). The average age of mothers was 28.5 years, the average gestational age at delivery time was 33 weeks and 4 days. Only 2 women delivered vaginaly, the other 32 delivered by cesarean section and the average weight of the newborn was 1930 g. There were 3 twin pregnacies. Twenty two (65%) patients had laboratory abnormalities in coagulation parameters but clinical signs of coagulation disorder were noted in 8 patients only (23.5%). Six patients recevied blood transfusions (18 units in total) and 9 patients received plasma transfusions (20 units in total). The average length of stay of mothers at intensive care unit was 3.2 days. There was no maternal mortality. One fetus was stillborn and 12 newborns (33.3%) had their early postnatal period complicated by severe morbidity. Early diagnosis and active management is a major factor for the prevention of severe forms of HELLP syndrom which still remains one of the most severe complications of pregnancy.

  8. Pregnancy complications and cardiovascular disease death: 50-year follow-up of the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A

    2015-09-29

    Few studies have investigated the combination of pregnancy complications that predict risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) death and how risk changes with age. This report presents a comprehensive investigation of the relation of the occurrence of multiple pregnancy complications to CVD death over 5 decades in a large pregnancy cohort. We examined pregnancy events (1959-1967) and CVD death through 2011 in 14 062 women from the Child Health and Development Studies. CVD death was determined by linkage to California Vital Statistics and National Death Index. Women were a median age of 26 years at enrollment and 66 years in 2011. Preexisting hypertension (hazard ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-5.1); glycosuria (hazard ratio, 4.2; confidence interval, 1.3-13.1); late-onset preeclampsia (after week 34, hazard ratio, 2.0; confidence interval, 1.2-3.5); and hemoglobin decline over the second and third trimesters (hazard ratio, 1.7; confidence interval, 1.2-2.7) predicted CVD death. Delivery of a small-for-gestation or preterm infant and early-onset preeclampsia (by week 34) significantly predicted premature CVD death (P<0.05 for age dependence). Preterm birth combined with hemorrhage, gestational hypertension, or preexisting hypertension identified women with a 4- to 7-fold increased risk of CVD death. Preeclampsia in combination with preexisting hypertension conferred a significant nearly 6-fold risk in comparison with a 4-fold risk for preexisting hypertension alone. We observed combinations of pregnancy complications that predict high risk of death and 2 new risk markers, glycosuria and hemoglobin decline. Obstetricians serve as primary care physicians for many young women and can readily use these complications to identify high-risk women to implement early prevention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Assisted reproductive technology and pregnancy-related hypertensive complications: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thomopoulos, C; Tsioufis, C; Michalopoulou, H; Makris, T; Papademetriou, V; Stefanadis, C

    2013-03-01

    Hypertensive complications in pregnancy are the leading cause of maternal morbidity, at least in the developed countries. In recent years, infertility issues are managed with ever growing therapeutic options namely assisted reproductive technologies (ART), which improve the ratio of successful induction of pregnancy. It is still debated whether various ART modalities are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including hypertensive complications, particularly with higher incidence of preeclampsia. The main source of controversy stems from the diversity of effect modifiers modulating the association between ART-oriented pregnancy and hypertensive disorders. Indeed, women undergoing an ART procedure are affected by diverse causes of infertility, are frequently characterized by different genetic patterns with respect to their artificially conceived embryo and experienced multiple gestations. In order to investigate whether ART modalities are associated with increased incidence of hypertensive complications in pregnancy, we reviewed all published studies carried out before the end of 2010 and identified in the PubMed database. Among the 47 studies finally selected and by acknowledging the potential of shortcomings related to the different study design and populations, the overall evidence suggests that ART-oriented pregnancies-especially the in-vitro fertilization techniques-are accompanied by increased risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as compared with non-ART pregnancies, even after adjustment for confounders. Multiple gestations, advanced age and underlying polycystic ovary syndrome resulted in constant confounders of the questioned association. Reducing multiple gestations by implementing single embryo techniques might be the therapeutic limiting step to lower the rate of hypertensive complications in assisted pregnancies.

  10. Maternal obesity and labour complications following induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Arrowsmith, S; Wray, S; Quenby, S

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effect of maternal obesity on mode of delivery following induction of labour (IOL) for prolonged pregnancy and subsequent intrapartum and neonatal complications. Retrospective (historical) cohort study. Liverpool Women's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK. A total of 29, 224 women with singleton pregnancies between 2004 and 2008 of whom 3076 had a prolonged pregnancy (defined as ≥290 days or 41(+3) weeks of gestation) and received IOL. Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression. Mode of delivery and risk of delivery and neonatal complications in obese verses non-obese women following IOL. Obese women had a significantly higher rate of IOL ending in caesarean section compared with women of normal weight following IOL (38.7% versus 23.8% primiparous; 9.9% versus 7.9% multiparous women, respectively); however, length of labour, incidence of postpartum haemorrhage and third-degree tear, rate of low cord blood pH, low Apgar scores and shoulder dystocia were similar in all body mass index categories. Complications included a higher incidence of fetal macrosomia and second-degree, but not third-degree, tear in primiparous women. Higher maternal body mass index at booking is associated with an increased risk of prolonged pregnancy and increased rate of IOL. Despite this, more than 60% of obese primiparous and 90% of multiparous women with prolonged pregnancies who were induced achieved vaginal delivery and labour complications in the obese women with prolonged pregnancies were largely comparable to those of normal weight women with prolonged pregnancies. Our data suggest that IOL for prolonged pregnancy in obese women is a reasonable and safe management option. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2011 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  11. Maternal obesity and labour complications following induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Arrowsmith, S; Wray, S; Quenby, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of maternal obesity on mode of delivery following induction of labour (IOL) for prolonged pregnancy and subsequent intrapartum and neonatal complications. Design Retrospective (historical) cohort study. Setting Liverpool Women's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Population A total of 29 224 women with singleton pregnancies between 2004 and 2008 of whom 3076 had a prolonged pregnancy (defined as ≥290 days or 41+3 weeks of gestation) and received IOL. Methods Kruskal–Wallis test, chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression. Main outcome measures Mode of delivery and risk of delivery and neonatal complications in obese verses non-obese women following IOL. Results Obese women had a significantly higher rate of IOL ending in caesarean section compared with women of normal weight following IOL (38.7% versus 23.8% primiparous; 9.9% versus 7.9% multiparous women, respectively); however, length of labour, incidence of postpartum haemorrhage and third-degree tear, rate of low cord blood pH, low Apgar scores and shoulder dystocia were similar in all body mass index categories. Complications included a higher incidence of fetal macrosomia and second-degree, but not third-degree, tear in primiparous women. Conclusions Higher maternal body mass index at booking is associated with an increased risk of prolonged pregnancy and increased rate of IOL. Despite this, more than 60% of obese primiparous and 90% of multiparous women with prolonged pregnancies who were induced achieved vaginal delivery and labour complications in the obese women with prolonged pregnancies were largely comparable to those of normal weight women with prolonged pregnancies. Our data suggest that IOL for prolonged pregnancy in obese women is a reasonable and safe management option. PMID:21265999

  12. [Complications of multiple pregnancy in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters].

    PubMed

    Poniedziałek-Czajkowska, E; Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, B; Oleszczuk, J

    2000-11-01

    Multiple pregnancy contributes to higher maternal and fetal risks than a single one. Complications typical only for multiple pregnancy such as PROM with preterm delivery, intrauterine death or IUGR of one of twins can occur during 2nd and 3rd trimester. Treatment in such situations is usually difficult and often controversial because of simultaneous presence of an alive and/or healthy fetus and possible risk for mother. The paper presents such situations and possible ways of treatment.

  13. Cell-free fetal DNA and pregnancy-related complications (Review)

    PubMed Central

    SIFAKIS, STAVROS; KOUKOU, ZETA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) is a novel promising biomarker that has been applied in various aspects of obstetrical research, notably in prenatal diagnosis and complicated pregnancies. It is easily detected by semi-quantitative PCR for the SRY target gene. It is well recognized that the levels of circulating cff-DNA play a role in various complications of pregnancy. In this review, we explore the implications of the detection of cff-DNA in a range of pregnancy-related complications, such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm labor, placenta previa and hyperemesis gravidarum. cff-DNA is released due to apoptotic mechanisms occurring on trophoblastic cells, although recent in vivo studies support the existence of additional mechanisms. The increase in the levels of cff-DNA can be used to predict pregnancy-related complications and has great value in the field of prenatal diagnosis and in common pregnancy-related complications, as it precedes the clinical symptoms of the disease. Gestational age is a factor that determines the elevation in cff-DNA levels in response to pathological conditions. In conclusion, the detection of cff-DNA levels has a number of valuable applications in prenatal screening; however, the detection of cff-DNA levels has not yet been applied in clinical practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy-related disorders. Thus, studies are focusing on unraveling the etiology of alterations in its levels under pathological conditions during pregnancy, in order to determine the potenial predictive and diagnostic applications of this biomarker. PMID:25530428

  14. Complicated pregnancies in inherited distal renal tubular acidosis: importance of acid-base balance.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Harald; Salfeld, Peter; Eisel, Rüdiger; Wagner, Carsten A; Mohebbi, Nilufar

    2017-06-01

    Inherited distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is caused by impaired urinary acid excretion resulting in hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Although the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is usually preserved, and hypertension and overt proteinuria are absent, it has to be considered that patients with dRTA also suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an increased risk for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes. Typical complications of dRTA include severe hypokalemia leading to cardiac arrhythmias and paralysis, nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Several physiologic changes occur in normal pregnancy including alterations in acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis as well as in GFR. However, data on pregnancy in women with inherited dRTA are scarce. We report the course of pregnancy in three women with hereditary dRTA. Complications observed were severe metabolic acidosis, profound hypokalemia aggravated by hyperemesis gravidarum, recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and ureteric obstruction leading to renal failure. However, the outcome of all five pregnancies (1 pregnancy each for mothers n. 1 and 2; 3 pregnancies for mother n. 3) was excellent due to timely interventions. Our findings highlight the importance of close nephrologic monitoring of women with inherited dRTA during pregnancy. In addition to routine assessment of creatinine and proteinuria, caregivers should especially focus on acid-base status, plasma potassium and urinary tract infections. Patients should be screened for renal obstruction in the case of typical symptoms, UTI or renal failure. Furthermore, genetic identification of the underlying mutation may (a) support early nephrologic referral during pregnancy and a better management of the affected woman, and (b) help to avoid delayed diagnosis and reduce complications in affected newborns.

  15. Pregnancy complicated by recurrent brain abscess after extraction of an infected tooth.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Deslyn T G; Imudia, Anthony N; Soto, Eleazar; Awonuga, Awoniyi O

    2011-08-01

    Odontogenic infections are quite common and, in unusual cases, can extend beyond the oral cavity with potentially life-threatening complications. A 35-year-old woman, G3P0020, underwent extraction of an infected left maxillary third molar tooth at 19 3/7 weeks of gestation and later presented with mental status changes. Computed tomography revealed left pterygoid muscle abscess, which progressed to brain abscess. She underwent multiple partial lobectomies to drain her recurrent brain abscess. The pregnancy continued until term, and she underwent a cesarean delivery. Brain abscess is a rare but life-threatening complication of pregnancy. This case illustrates the potential complications after extraction of an infected tooth in pregnancy.

  16. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Pregnancy Managed by Resection and Primary Anastomosis: Case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Machado, Norman O; Machado, Lovina S M

    2009-04-01

    Sigmoid volvulus is an extremely rare cause of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy. The rarity of the condition and the fact that pregnancy itself clouds the clinical picture invariably leads to a delay in diagnosis with an increased risk of gangrene of the gut. The majority of these patients would then require resection and colostomy. However, an early diagnosis and intervention as in our patient, which would require a high index of clinical suspicion, could significantly improve the outcome of the foetus and the mother. A case of sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is reported which was managed by resection and primary anastomosis. A review of literature revealed no previous reports of sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy managed by primary anastomosis following resection of the sigmoid volvulus. The literature is also reviewed regarding predisposing factors, management options and the outcome of sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy.

  17. Management Considerations for Ongoing Pregnancies Complicated by Trisomy 13 and 18.

    PubMed

    Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Kuller, Jeffrey A; Grace, Matthew R; Laifer, Steven A; Strauss, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancies complicated by trisomy 13 (T13) or trisomy 18 (T18) present unique challenges for obstetric management. From the initial diagnosis, the task of counseling these women and families is difficult because fetal and neonatal outcomes vary depending on the phenotype and degree of intervention chosen by the family. A literature review was performed using PubMed to gather information regarding obstetric management and outcomes of pregnancies complicated by T13 and T18. Spontaneous abortion and in uterofetal demise occur at rates well above those seen in chromosomally normal pregnancies. In addition, infants with T13 or T18 frequently have structural anomalies, which lead to worse prognoses and long-term survival. In cases in which a woman and her family desire to continue the pregnancy, multidisciplinary consultation with obstetrics, social work, genetics, and pediatrics can optimize care of both the fetus and the mother. Most commonly, prenatal care does not differ from routine. A detailed delivery plan should be generated, specifically discussing interventions for the patient and her fetus. When managing pregnancies complicated by T13 and T18, active, open, and frequent communication between the patient, her family, and a multidisciplinary health care team throughout the pregnancy is crucial.

  18. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  19. Pregnancy and the Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Fertility, Treatment, Delivery, and Complications.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Ryan A; Mahadevan, Uma

    2016-06-01

    For many women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the illness coincides with their childbearing years. IBD increases the risk of pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The multidisciplinary care team should emphasize the importance of medication adherence to achieve preconception disease control and maintain corticosteroid-free remission throughout pregnancy. Medication adjustments to reduce fetal exposure may be considered on an individualized basis in quiescent disease; however, any benefits of such adjustments remain theoretic and there is risk of worsening disease activity. Mode of delivery is determined by obstetric indications, except for women with active perianal disease who should consider cesarean delivery.

  20. Endometriosis and pregnancy complications: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Glavind, Maria Tølbøll; Forman, Axel; Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Nielsen, Karsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2017-01-01

    To study the association between endometriosis and risk of pre-eclampsia, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, and small for gestational age (SGA), in a large Danish birth cohort, while taking fertility treatment into account. Population-based study. Not applicable. A total population of 82,793 singleton pregnancies from the Aarhus Birth Cohort (1989 through 2013); 1,213 women had a diagnosis of endometriosis, affecting 1,719 pregnancies. None. Pre-eclampsia, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, and SGA. Endometriosis was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-2.05), with the risk being highest for very preterm birth (AOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.16-3.15). Compared with unaffected women, women with endometriosis also had an increased risk of pre-eclampsia (AOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.77) and cesarean section (AOR 1.83, 95% CI 1.60-2.09). Assisted reproductive technology did not explain these findings. No association was found between endometriosis and postpartum hemorrhage or SGA. Women with endometriosis were at increased risk of pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, and cesarean section, irrespective of use of assisted reproductive technology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obstetrical complications associated with first-trimester screening markers in twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Iskender, Cantekin; Tarım, Ebru; Çok, Tayfun; Yalcınkaya, Cem; Kalaycı, Hakan; Yanık, Filiz Bilgin

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relation between perinatal complications in twin pregnancies and the combination of first-trimester maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) levels. The study was conducted at the Perinatology Department of Baskent University between January 2005 and December 2011. In total, 104 patients with twin pregnancies were recruited. The association of first-trimester maternal serum-screening markers with perinatal complications was investigated for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery (before 34 weeks of gestation), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and growth discordance between fetuses. Low serum PAPP-A (below 10th percentile) levels were not correlated with preterm labor, PIH, or IUGR in twin gestations. Elevated free β-hCG levels (>90th percentile) were linked to increased rates of PIH and small-for-gestational-age fetuses or IUGR. Elevated first-trimester free β-hCG was related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in twin pregnancies, whereas low PAPP-A levels were not linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated with Fetal Macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkahatim; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%), perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%), cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%), and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6%) that resulted in 4 cases of Erb's palsy (0.96%), and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%). The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199), while 52.4% (219) delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition. PMID:22754881

  3. Anticoagulants to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: Is it time to put the needles away?

    PubMed

    Skeith, Leslie; Rodger, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, birth of a small-for-gestational age infant and late pregnancy loss, are common and carry significant morbidity and mortality. The etiology of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications is likely multifactorial and may include abnormal coagulation activation of the maternal-fetal interface. The use of antepartum low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications has become common practice despite limited and conflicting evidence to support its use. This paper reviews the evidence, including recently published data from an individual patient level meta-analysis, which challenges the role of LMWH in preventing recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. Incorporating this recent evidence, we recommend against the use of LMWH to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in women with and without inherited thrombophilia.

  4. Prospective risk of stillbirth and neonatal complications in twin pregnancies: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheong-See, Fiona; Schuit, Ewoud; Arroyo-Manzano, David; Khalil, Asma; Barrett, Jon; Joseph, K S; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Hack, Karien; Lewi, Liesbeth; Lim, Arianne; Liem, Sophie; Norman, Jane E; Morrison, John; Combs, C Andrew; Garite, Thomas J; Maurel, Kimberly; Serra, Vicente; Perales, Alfredo; Rode, Line; Worda, Katharina; Nassar, Anwar; Aboulghar, Mona; Rouse, Dwight; Thom, Elizabeth; Breathnach, Fionnuala; Nakayama, Soichiro; Russo, Francesca Maria; Robinson, Julian N; Dodd, Jodie M; Newman, Roger B; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Tang, Selphee; Mol, Ben Willem J; Zamora, Javier; Thilaganathan, Basky; Thangaratinam, Shakila

    2016-09-06

    To determine the risks of stillbirth and neonatal complications by gestational age in uncomplicated monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (until December 2015). Databases were searched without language restrictions for studies of women with uncomplicated twin pregnancies that reported rates of stillbirth and neonatal outcomes at various gestational ages. Pregnancies with unclear chorionicity, monoamnionicity, and twin to twin transfusion syndrome were excluded. Meta-analyses of observational studies and cohorts nested within randomised studies were undertaken. Prospective risk of stillbirth was computed for each study at a given week of gestation and compared with the risk of neonatal death among deliveries in the same week. Gestational age specific differences in risk were estimated for stillbirths and neonatal deaths in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies after 34 weeks' gestation. 32 studies (29 685 dichorionic, 5486 monochorionic pregnancies) were included. In dichorionic twin pregnancies beyond 34 weeks (15 studies, 17 830 pregnancies), the prospective weekly risk of stillbirths from expectant management and the risk of neonatal death from delivery were balanced at 37 weeks' gestation (risk difference 1.2/1000, 95% confidence interval -1.3 to 3.6; I(2)=0%). Delay in delivery by a week (to 38 weeks) led to an additional 8.8 perinatal deaths per 1000 pregnancies (95% confidence interval 3.6 to 14.0/1000; I(2)=0%) compared with the previous week. In monochorionic pregnancies beyond 34 weeks (13 studies, 2149 pregnancies), there was a trend towards an increase in stillbirths compared with neonatal deaths after 36 weeks, with an additional 2.5 per 1000 perinatal deaths, which was not significant (-12.4 to 17.4/1000; I(2)=0%). The rates of neonatal morbidity showed a consistent reduction with increasing gestational age in monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies

  5. Prospective risk of stillbirth and neonatal complications in twin pregnancies: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheong-See, Fiona; Schuit, Ewoud; Arroyo-Manzano, David; Khalil, Asma; Barrett, Jon; Joseph, K S; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Hack, Karien; Lewi, Liesbeth; Lim, Arianne; Liem, Sophie; Norman, Jane E; Morrison, John; Combs, C Andrew; Garite, Thomas J; Maurel, Kimberly; Serra, Vicente; Perales, Alfredo; Rode, Line; Worda, Katharina; Nassar, Anwar; Aboulghar, Mona; Rouse, Dwight; Thom, Elizabeth; Breathnach, Fionnuala; Nakayama, Soichiro; Russo, Francesca Maria; Robinson, Julian N; Dodd, Jodie M; Newman, Roger B; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Tang, Selphee; Mol, Ben Willem J; Thilaganathan, Basky; Thangaratinam, Shakila

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the risks of stillbirth and neonatal complications by gestational age in uncomplicated monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (until December 2015). Review methods Databases were searched without language restrictions for studies of women with uncomplicated twin pregnancies that reported rates of stillbirth and neonatal outcomes at various gestational ages. Pregnancies with unclear chorionicity, monoamnionicity, and twin to twin transfusion syndrome were excluded. Meta-analyses of observational studies and cohorts nested within randomised studies were undertaken. Prospective risk of stillbirth was computed for each study at a given week of gestation and compared with the risk of neonatal death among deliveries in the same week. Gestational age specific differences in risk were estimated for stillbirths and neonatal deaths in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies after 34 weeks’ gestation. Results 32 studies (29 685 dichorionic, 5486 monochorionic pregnancies) were included. In dichorionic twin pregnancies beyond 34 weeks (15 studies, 17 830 pregnancies), the prospective weekly risk of stillbirths from expectant management and the risk of neonatal death from delivery were balanced at 37 weeks’ gestation (risk difference 1.2/1000, 95% confidence interval −1.3 to 3.6; I2=0%). Delay in delivery by a week (to 38 weeks) led to an additional 8.8 perinatal deaths per 1000 pregnancies (95% confidence interval 3.6 to 14.0/1000; I2=0%) compared with the previous week. In monochorionic pregnancies beyond 34 weeks (13 studies, 2149 pregnancies), there was a trend towards an increase in stillbirths compared with neonatal deaths after 36 weeks, with an additional 2.5 per 1000 perinatal deaths, which was not significant (−12.4 to 17.4/1000; I2=0%). The rates of neonatal morbidity showed a consistent reduction with increasing

  6. Risk factors for maternal and fetal outcome in pregnancy complicated by Ebstein anomaly.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Shinji; Kamiya, Chizuko; Yamanaka, Kaoru; Neki, Reiko; Miyoshi, Takekazu; Iwanaga, Naoko; Horiuchi, Chinami; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Niwa, Koichiro; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2013-11-01

    The goal of the study was to examine risks in pregnancy in patients with Ebstein anomaly. Data were examined retrospectively for 13 patients (27 pregnancies, 21 live births) with Ebstein anomaly during pregnancy who were treated at our institution from 1985 to 2011. The associated anomalies in these patients were atrial septal defect (ASD) (n = 4) and the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (n = 6). Before pregnancy, 2 patients underwent ASD closure and 1 received tricuspid valve replacement (TVR). In all patients, the cardiothoracic ratio increased from 55.1 at conception to 57.0 during pregnancy and 58.0 postpartum (P < .05). Cesarean sections were performed in 3 cases: 1 with ventricular tachycardia and orthopnea (New York Heart Association [NYHA] III) preterm; at full term, and the third in a patient with a mechanical tricuspid valve who developed maternal cerebellum hemorrhage at 27 weeks. The baby died of prematurity in the third case. In all other cases (20 of 21), neonatal prognoses were good without congenital heart diseases. There were 6 spontaneous abortions. Recurrent paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia occurred during pregnancy in 2 cases and was treated with adenosine triphosphate or verapamil. In 17 pregnancies, NYHA remained in class I and all had full-term vaginal delivery. Maternal and fetal outcomes are good in patients with Ebstein anomaly and NYHA class I. However, pregnancy in Ebstein anomaly can be complicated with tachyarrhythmia or cardiac failure. In post-TVR cases, meticulous care is required for these complications during pregnancy and delivery. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Fatal and Extremely Rare Obstetric Complication: Neglected Shoulder Presentation at Term Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Orkun; Yolli, Halise; Cim, Numan; Yıldızhan, Recep; Sahin, Hanım Guler

    2015-01-01

    Stillbirth is still an important problem for parents and healthcare providers worldwide. Nowadays, the neglected shoulder presentation is usually observed in developing countries and is associated with increased risk of fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. In recent years, there were limited reports about obstetric management of this serious complication in the literature. In this case report, we aimed at describing the neglected shoulder presentation at term pregnancy that caused fetal death and discussing management options for this rare obstetric complication during labor. PMID:26347294

  8. Atovaquone ameliorate gastrointestinal Toxoplasmosis complications in a pregnancy model

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.; Tobin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Toxoplasma is an important source of foodborne hospitalization with no safe and effective therapy against chronic or congenital Toxopalsmosis. Atovaquone is a drug of choice but not approved for use in congenital Toxoplasmosis. We hypothesized atovaquone to be safe and effective against feto-maternal Toxoplasmosis. Material/Methods Programmed pregnant mice were i.p. infected with 50–2400 Tachyzoites from Type II strain (clone PTG). Dams were treated daily with atovaquone or sham and monitored for pain, and complications. Results Dams developed pain related abdominal hypersensitivity (allodynia) to mechanical stimuli in a Tachyzoites dose dependent manner. Infected dams were anemic and exhibited ascities and severe hepatitis (score 3.6±0.01 on scale 0 – normal to 4 – severe) with influx of inflammatory and plasma cells, multinucleated dysplastic hepatocytes and necrosis. In addition, dams expressed mild to severe pancreatitis with mononuclear cell invasion, loss of islets and necrosis. This was consistent with splenomegaly (X3 Fold), and massive infiltration of epithelioid cells and loss of germinal structure. Colon became significantly shortened in length (p<0.01) with semi-normal content. Pathological manifestation included, shortening of crypts with numerous microabscess formations, infiltration of lymphocytes, and macrophages. The severe clinical complications led to abortion (50%), early birth (25%) or still birth (25%) consistent with the high dose of Tachyzoites inoculation. Atovaquone treatment partially but significantly protected the dams from the severity of hepatitis, splenomegaly, colitis, myocarditis, and pain related responses as well as fetal demise. Conclusions This is a valuable model for therapeutic evaluation of feto-maternal Toxoplasmosis and gastrointestinal complications. Atovaquone protects dams and their fetuses against some infectious/inflammatory aspects of the disease. PMID:22936182

  9. Effect of dietary factors in pregnancy on risk of pregnancy complications: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Nilsen, Roy M; Magnus, Per; Alexander, Jan; Haugen, Margareta

    2011-12-01

    There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.

  10. Acute pyelonephritis and associated complications during pregnancy in 2006 in US hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Jennifer A; Kim, Soojin; Wing, Deborah A

    2012-12-01

    To describe the occurrence of hospitalization for acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy and associated complications in 2006 in USA. Cases were defined as those with ICD-9-CM codes corresponding to the infections of the genitourinary tract in pregnancy and pyelonephritis in the 2006 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Additional analyses identified those cases also coupled with ICD-9-CM codes corresponding to obstetrical and medical complications. Calculations were weighted to produce national estimates and hospitalization rates were determined. Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred and twenty-three hospitalizations for pyelonephritis in pregnancy were identified. Women aged 8-19 had the highest hospitalization rate (175.06/10 000 cases) compared to other age groupings. Hispanic patients had the highest hospitalization rate of the recorded ethnicities (100.93/10 000 cases). Diabetes was a concomitant diagnosis in 3.7% of patients. Of the pregnant patients hospitalized with pyelonephritis, 3.77% had threatened preterm labor, 1.95% was diagnosed with sepsis, 0.77% had acute respiratory failure, and several deaths also occurred. The mean length of hospital stay was 2.8 days. The estimated annual cost of hospitalization for pyelonephritis in pregnancy was $263 million. Hospitalization for pyelonephritis in pregnancy is associated with recognizable characteristics including age and diabetes. Serious medical complications and even mortality can occur.

  11. Acid- and alkaline phosphatase in amniotic fluid in normal and complicated pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Beckman, G; Beckman, L; Löfstrand, T

    1978-01-01

    171 samples of amniotic fluid were obtained by abdominal amniocentesis from 67 women with complicated pregnancies (isoimmunization, diabetes mellitus or toxaemia). The levels of heat-labile alkaline phosphatase (HLAP), heat-stable alkaline phosphatase (HSAP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were determined and compared to the enzyme levels in 179 samples from women with normal pregnancies of corresponding gestational ages. HLAP showed two "peaks" of activity, one in the 5th-22nd week and the other at term. HSAP and AcP showed increased activity at term. HSAP was decreased (p less than 0.01) in isoimmunization between the 36th and 40th week. 11 cases of toxaemia with placental insufficiency showed no differences in the levels of HLAP and HSAP compared with normal pregnancy. AcP showed no differences between normal and complicated pregnancy. Samples contaminated by blood showed no significant increase in the acid- and alkaline phosphatase levels. Samples contaminated by meconium showed a complex pattern. Some samples had normal enzyme levels, some had high levels of HLAP only and some had high levels of HSAP and AcP. The origin of the enzymes is not known with certainty. HSAP in amniotic fluid is most likely not of placental but intestinal origin. Determinations of acid- and alkaline phosphatase in amniotic fluid seem to be of little values in the clinical management of complicated pregnancy.

  12. Spontaneous labor curves in women with pregnancies complicated by diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Timofeev, Julia; Huang, Chun-Chih; Singh, Jasbir; Driggers, Rita W.; Landy, Helain J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the first stage of labor will be longer in nulliparous and multiparous women with diabetes compared to non-diabetic counterparts. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed from 228,668 deliveries between 2002–2008 from the Consortium of Safe Labor (NICHD, NIH). Patients with spontaneous onset of labor from 37 0/7 – 41 6/7 weeks gestation were included (71,282) and classified as nulliparous or multiparous. Pregnancies were further subdivided regarding presence of preexisting diabetes (preDM) or gestational diabetes (GDM), and normal controls. Labor curves were created matching for body mass index (BMI) and neonatal birth weight. Statistical analysis was performed on descriptive variables using χ2 with significance designated as p<0.05. Results Among nulliparous patients, there were 118 women with preDM and 475 women with GDM; 25,771 patients served as normal controls. Among multiparous women, there were 311 with preDM and 1,079 with GDM and 43,528 in the control group. Although differences in dilatation rates were observed in nulliparous and multiparous women with and without diabetes, labor curves were similar between the subgroups when matched for maternal BMI and birth weight. Conclusions Labor curves of women with preDM and GDM approximate those of non-diabetics, regardless of BMI, birth weight, or parity. PMID:21955108

  13. Spontaneous labor curves in women with pregnancies complicated by diabetes.

    PubMed

    Timofeev, Julia; Huang, Chun-Chih; Singh, Jasbir; Driggers, Rita W; Landy, Helain J

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the first stage of labor will be longer in nulliparous and multiparous women with diabetes compared to non-diabetic counterparts. A retrospective analysis was performed from 228,668 deliveries between 2002-2008 from the Consortium of Safe Labor (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health). Patients with spontaneous onset of labor from 37 0/7-41 6/7 weeks gestation were included (71,282) and classified as nulliparous or multiparous. Pregnancies were further subdivided regarding presence of preexisting diabetes (preDM) or gestational diabetes (GDM) and normal controls. Labor curves were created matching for body mass index (BMI) and neonatal birth weight. Statistical analysis was performed on descriptive variables using χ(2) with significance designated as p < 0.05. Among nulliparous patients, there were 118 women with preDM and 475 women with GDM; 25,771 patients served as normal controls. Among multiparous women, there were 311 with preDM, 1,079 with GDM and 43,528 in the control group. Although differences in dilatation rates were observed in nulliparous and multiparous women with and without diabetes, labor progression was similar between the subgroups when matched for maternal BMI and birth weight. Labor curves of women with preDM and GDM approximate those of non-diabetics, regardless of BMI, birth weight, or parity.

  14. Impact of caesarean section on mode of delivery, pregnancy-induced and pregnancy-associated disorders, and complications in the subsequent pregnancy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Louis; Taskan, Sevil; Macharey, George; Sechet, Ingeborg; Ziller, Volker; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the impact of caesarean section (CS) on mode of delivery, pregnancy-induced and pregnancy-associated disorders, as well as complications in the subsequent pregnancy within German gynecological practices. Methods: 1,801 women with CS and 1,801 matched women with vaginal delivery (VD) from the IMS Disease Analyzer database were included. The impact of previous CS on the mode of delivery and pregnancy-associated disorders as well as complications prior to or during birth in the subsequent pregnancy were analyzed. Cox regressions were used to determine the influence of CS with regard to these outcomes. Results: Medical abortion and single spontaneous delivery were significantly less frequent in women with a history of CS compared to VD (OR equal to 0.52 and 0.04 respectively), whereas CS after CS was the significantly more common mode of delivery (79.0% versus 9.3%, OR=36.47). Gestational hypertension without significant proteinuria, gestational hypertension with significant proteinuria, and polyhydramnios were more frequent in women with CS than in women with VD (OR equal to 6.80, 1.71, and 2.29). Hemorrhage and maternal care for known or suspected disproportion were more common in the CS group than in the VD group (OR equal to 1.34 and 3.75). Prolonged pregnancy, preterm labor, abnormalities arising from forces of labor, and perineal laceration during delivery were significantly less frequent in women with CS than in women with VD (OR between 0.32 and 0.75), whereas long labor was more common (OR=2.09). Conclusion: Women with CS were more likely to undergo further CS and to develop major pregnancy-associated diseases in the following pregnancy compared to women with VD. PMID:27346991

  15. MR Imaging Measurements of Altered Placental Oxygenation in Pregnancies Complicated by Fetal Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Emma; Morris, David; Naish, Josephine; Myers, Jenny; Johnstone, Edward

    2017-07-14

    Purpose To evaluate oxygen-enhanced and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters in normal pregnancies and those complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). Materials and Methods This case-control study was approved by the local research ethics committee. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. From October 2010 to October 2015, 28 women with uncomplicated pregnancies (individualized birthweight ratio [IBR] >20th percentile and delivery >37 weeks) and 23 with pregnancies complicated by FGR (IBR <5th percentile and abnormal Doppler ultrasonography [US] studies) underwent MR imaging. Differences in placental longitudinal R1 (1/T1) and transverse R2* (1/T2*) were quantified, with subjects breathing either air or oxygen. The difference in R1 (ΔR1) after hyperoxia was converted to change in partial pressure of oxygen (ΔPo2). Data were acquired prospectively, with retrospective interpretation of group differences (unpaired t tests). Diagnostic models were developed by using logistic regression analysis with gestational age as a covariate. Results The mean baseline R1 and R2* for normal pregnancies (R1: 0.59 sec(-1), 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58 sec(-1), 0.60 sec(-1); R2*: 17 sec(-1), 95% CI: 14 sec(-1), 20 sec(-1)) were significantly different from those of pregnancies complicated by FGR (R1: 0.63 sec(-1), 95% CI: 0.62 sec(-1), 0.65 sec(-1); R2*: 26 sec(-1), 95% CI: 22 sec(-1), 32 sec(-1)) (P < .0001). The ΔR1 showed a significant negative association with gestational age (P < .0001) in the combined cohort, with the FGR group having a ΔR1 that was generally 61.5% lower than that in the normal pregnancy group (P = .003). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the differentiation between pregnancy complicated by FGR and normal pregnancy by using ΔPo2, baseline R1, and baseline R2* was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.99). Conclusion R1, R2*, and ΔPo2 were significantly different between normal

  16. [Pregnancy complications in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis].

    PubMed

    Bisgaard, Helene; Jacobsen, Søren; Tvede, Niels; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2014-07-14

    A woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis had two pregnancies which both resulted in complications known to be associated with SLE, i.e. late abortion, preterm delivery and pre-eclampsia. We conclude that disease quiescence is important for a successful outcome and that pregnant women with SLE should be followed in a multidisciplinary setting.

  17. Prenatal Pregnancy Complications and Psychiatric Symptoms: Children with ASD versus Clinic Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Megan E.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the association between prenatal pregnancy complications (PPC) and childhood psychiatric symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD children who were referred to a psychiatric clinic (Controls). Parents completed a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale and developmental history questionnaire.…

  18. Benign multiple diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis after a pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios and a placental chorioangioma.

    PubMed

    Witters, Ingrid; Van Damme, Marie Therèse; Ramaekers, Paul; Van Assche, Frans André; Fryns, Jean Pierre

    2003-01-10

    A male newborn with multiple cutaneous hemangiomatosis is described. Pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios and a large placental chorioangioma. After an initial outburst of the hemangiomas in the first two weeks of life, spontaneous and almost complete regression occurred before the age of 3 months. The relationship between hemangiomas and placental chorioangioma is briefly discussed.

  19. Prenatal Pregnancy Complications and Psychiatric Symptoms: Children with ASD versus Clinic Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Megan E.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the association between prenatal pregnancy complications (PPC) and childhood psychiatric symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD children who were referred to a psychiatric clinic (Controls). Parents completed a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale and developmental history questionnaire.…

  20. Obstetric complications and psychological well-being: experiences of Bangladeshi women during pregnancy and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Gausia, K; Ryder, D; Ali, M; Fisher, C; Moran, A; Koblinsky, M

    2012-06-01

    Women in developing countries experience postnatal depression at rates that are comparable with or higher than those in developed countries. However, their personal experiences during pregnancy and childbirth have received little attention in relation to postnatal depression. In particular, the contribution of obstetric complications to their emotional well-being during the postpartum period is still not clearly understood. This study aimed to (a) describe the pregnancy and childbirth experiences among women in Bangladesh during normal childbirth or obstetric complications and (b) examine the relationship between these experiences and their psychological well-being during the postpartum period. Two groups of women--one group with obstetric complications (n=173) and the other with no obstetric complications (n=373)--were selected from a sample of women enrolled in a community-based study in Matlab, Bangladesh. The experiences during pregnancy and childbirth were assessed in terms of a five-point rating scale from 'severely uncomfortable=1' to 'not uncomfortable at all=5'. The psychological status of the women was assessed using a validated local version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six weeks postpartum. Categorical data were analyzed using the chi-square test and continuous data by analysis of variance. Women with obstetric complications reported significantly more negative experiences during their recent childbirth [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-1.61, p<0.001] compared to those with normal childbirth. There was a significant main effect on emotional well-being due to experiences of pregnancy [F (4,536)=4.96, p=0.001] and experiences of childbirth [F (4,536)=3.29, p=0.01]. The EPDS mean scores for women reporting severe uncomfortable pregnancy and childbirth experiences were significantly higher than those reporting no such problems. After controlling for the background characteristics, postpartum depression was significantly associated

  1. [The complications of systemic sclerosis in pregnancy - diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties].

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    In the course of scleroderma numerous complications may occur caused by the endothelial vessel changes and organs' fibrosis. Pregnancy itself is associated with increased immunization caused by the microchimerism phenomenon. Pregnancy may be associated with increased dyspnea, hypertension, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), renal complications and mother pre-eclampsia. In turn, the most common disorders of the fetus include low birth weight, premature delivery and heart block. The occurrence of organ complications in the mother needs urgent gynecological and rheumatologic care, which often requires the consultation of pulmonologist, cardiologist, nephrologists and gastroenterologist. In case of the development of fetal abnormalities neonatal care is needed. Considering the possible complications of mother and child in the course of scleroderma, pregnancy should be planned in the most optimal time and its course should be monitor, what increases the safety and positive outcome for mother and fetus. In case of complications, early interdisciplinary intervention prevents their development and reduces the risk of serious and prolonged health consequences for both mother and child.

  2. Clinical features and pregnancy outcome in antiphospholipid syndrome patients with history of severe pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Yuko; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Koushi; Hisano, Michi; Arata, Naoko; Oku, Kenji; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Sago, Haruhiko; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Murashima, Atsuko

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Objective. To clarify the clinical significance of antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) profile in patients with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Methods. Clinical records of 13 pregnant patients (15 pregnancies) with obstetrical APS were reviewed over 10 years. Patients who met the Sapporo Criteria fully were studied, whereas those with only early pregnancy loss were excluded. In addition to classical aPL: lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibody (aCL), and anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI); phosphatidylserine-dependent anti-prothrombin antibody (aPS/PT) and kininogen-dependent anti-phosphatidylethanolamine antibody (aPE) were also examined in each case. Results. Cases were divided into two groups according to patient response to standard treatment: good and poor outcome groups. All cases with poor outcome presented LA, with IgG aβ2GPI and IgG aPS/PT were also frequently observed. IgG aPE did not correlate with pregnancy outcome. Conclusion. aPL profile may predict pregnancy outcome in patients with this subset of obstetric APS.

  3. A combined ultrasound and clinical scoring model for the prediction of peripartum complications in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Yoon, So-Yeon; You, Ji Yeon; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Roh, Cheong-Rae

    2014-09-01

    To generate a combined ultrasound and clinical model predictive for peripartum complications in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa. This study included 110 singleton pregnant women with placenta previa delivered by cesarean section (CS) from July 2011 to November 2013. We prospectively collected ultrasound and clinical data before CS and observed the occurrence of blood transfusion, uterine artery embolization and cesarean hysterectomy. We formulated a scoring model including type of previa (0: partials, 2: totalis), lacunae (0: none, 1: 1-3, 2: 4-6, 3: whole), uteroplacental hypervascularity (0: normal, 1: moderate, 2: severe), multiparity (0: no, 1: yes), history of CS (0: none, 1: once, 2: ≥ twice) and history of placenta previa (0: no, 1: yes) to predict the risk of peripartum complications. In our study population, the risk of perioperative transfusion, uterine artery embolization, and cesarean hysterectomy were 26.4, 1.8 and 6.4%, respectively. The type of previa, lacunae, uteroplacental hypervascularity, parity, history of CS, and history of placenta previa were associated with complications in univariable analysis. However, no factor was independently predictive for any complication in exact logistic regression analysis. Using the scoring model, we found that total score significantly correlated with perioperative transfusion, cesarean hysterectomy and composite complication (p<0.0001, Cochrane Armitage test). Notably, all patients with total score ≥7 needed cesarean hysterectomy. When total score was ≥6, three fourths of patients needed blood transfusion. This combined scoring model may provide useful information for prediction of peripartum complications in women with placenta previa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Case of twin pregnancy complicated by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura treated with intravenous immunoglobulin: Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W X; Yang, X F; Lin, J H

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired thrombocytopenia without other clear cause of thrombocytopenia. It is not common in a singleton pregnancy and less common in twin pregnancy. We report a 33-year-old ITP pluripara whose first pregnancy was uneventful. She carried twin pregnancy, complicated by recurrent very low platelets, and gave birth to preterm twins. This patient received multiple courses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and showed a significant platelet count improvement with IVIG therapy.

  5. The influence of maternal smoking habits before pregnancy and antioxidative supplementation during pregnancy on oxidative stress status in a non-complicated pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ardalić, Daniela; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Vujović, Ana; Spasić, Slavica; Spasojević-Kaliomanvska, Vesna; Jelić-Ivanović, Zorana; Mandić-Marković, Vesna; Miković, Zeljko; Cerović, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    As a physiological condition closely linked with increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, pregnancy can be further compromised by cigarette smoking. Inadequate nutrition and reduced intake of antioxidants can also disrupt the prooxidant/antioxidant relationship and contribute to oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress during pregnancy may be involved in several complications of pregnancy, such as preterm labor, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and miscarriage. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maternal smoking habits before pregnancy on the parameters of oxidative stress and the antioxidative defense system, lipid profile parameters and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity during the third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies. Healthy pregnant women (n = 86) were divided into non-smoking and smoking groups, and into groups taking vitamin supplements and not taking them. Oxidative damage was measured through the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and plasma antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC). TBARS concetration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) and PON1 activity was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the smokers' group. No significant differences were found in the investigated parameters in relation to vitamin supplement intake. Habitual smoking before pregnancy is associated with increased oxidative stress. Vitamin supplementation has no effect on the oxidative stress status of healthy pregnant women.

  6. Meta-analysis of low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc A; Carrier, Marc; Le Gal, Grégoire; Martinelli, Ida; Perna, Annalisa; Rey, Evelyne; de Vries, J I P; Gris, Jean-Christophe

    2014-02-06

    A 35-year-old woman with recurrent severe placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in her 2 pregnancies asks: Will low-molecular-weight heparin help prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in my next pregnancy? We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) vs no LMWH for the prevention of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. We identified six RCTs that included a total of 848 pregnant women with prior placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. The primary outcome was a composite of pre-eclampsia (PE), birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn (<10th percentile), placental abruption, or pregnancy loss >20 weeks. Overall, 67 (18.7%) of 358 of women being given prophylactic LMWH had recurrent severe placenta-mediated pregnancy complications compared with 127 (42.9%) of 296 women with no LMWH (relative risk reduction, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.86; P = .01; I(2), 69%, indicating moderate heterogeneity). We identified similar relative risk reductions with LMWH for individual outcomes, including any PE, severe PE, SGA <10th percentile, SGA <5th percentile, preterm delivery <37 weeks, and preterm delivery <34 weeks with minimal heterogeneity. LMWH may be a promising therapy for recurrent, especially severe, placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, but further research is required.

  7. Maternal characteristics, pregnancy complications and adverse birth outcomes among women with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Karen M.; Zhang, Jianying; Iezzoni, Lisa I.; Smeltzer, Suzanne C.; Long-Bellil, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to describe the maternal characteristics, pregnancy complications, and birth outcomes among a representative sample of Rhode Island women with disabilities who recently gave birth. Methods Data from the 2002–2011 Rhode Island Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey were analyzed. Results Approximately 7% of women in Rhode Island reported a disability. Women with disabilities reported significant disparities in their health care utilization, health behaviors and health status before and during pregnancy and during the postpartum period. Compared to nondisabled women, they were significantly more likely to report stressful life events and medical complications during their most recent pregnancy, were less likely to receive prenatal care in the first trimester, and more likely to have preterm births (13.4%; 95% CI, 11.6–15.6 compared to 8.9%; 95% CI, 8.5–9.3 for women without disabilities) and low birth weight babies (10.3%; 95% CI, 9.4–11.2 compared to 6.8%; 95% CI, 6.8–6.9). There was no difference in the rates of cesarean section between women with and without disabilities. Conclusion These findings support the need for clinicians providing care to pregnant women with disabilities to be aware of the increased risk for medical problems during pregnancy and factors that increase the risk for poor infant outcomes. PMID:26492209

  8. Awareness of danger signs and symptoms of pregnancy complication among women in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Okour, Abdelhakeem; Alkhateeb, Monadel; Amarin, Zouhair

    2012-07-01

    To assess the level and determinants of awareness of the danger signs and symptoms of pregnancy complication among pregnant Jordanian women aged 15 years and older. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 350 women attending prenatal care services was performed. Interviews were conducted at 4 public-health centers in Zarqa, Jordan, using a structured questionnaire. Awareness was defined as "knowing at least 4 danger signs and symptoms". Overall, 84.8% of the women interviewed were not aware of danger signs and symptoms of pregnancy complication. Sociodemographic factors-including duration of education and current employment; husband's duration of education; family size; and whether women were given information about danger signs and symptoms-were associated with awareness in a binary analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that education level of study participants, their husbands' education level, and receiving information about danger signs and symptoms were all associated with awareness (P=0.02 for all associations). Awareness of danger signs and symptoms of pregnancy complication among women in Jordan is low. A need exists to provide prenatal care that includes sufficient information about pregnancy-related danger signs and symptoms to meet the need for safe motherhood, as pointed out by the Millennium Development Goals. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal left ventricular dimension in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Veille, J C; Morton, M J; Paul, M S

    1991-08-01

    Previous studies using two-dimensional chest radiographs have found a significant correlation between prematurity, fetal growth retardation, and the size of the maternal heart. Accordingly, we evaluated maternal left ventricular size and function by M-mode echocardiography near the end of gestation in 42 women with suspected fetal growth retardation and in 79 women whose pregnancies were normal. No significant differences were found between the two groups, implying that maternal left ventricular size and function is adequate in pregnancies complicated by "idiopathic" fetal growth retardation.

  10. Web recruitment and internet use and preferences reported by women with postpartum depression after pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Maloni, Judith A; Przeworski, Amy; Damato, Elizabeth G

    2013-04-01

    Nearly one million women each year have pregnancy complications that cause antepartum and postpartum anxiety and depression. This exploratory study determined 1) feasibility of using social media to recruit women with depressive symptoms following high risk pregnancy, 2) women's barriers to treatment, 3) use of online resources for assistance with PPD, and 4) preferences for internet treatment. Among a national sample of 53 women, nearly 70% had major depression. Common barriers were lack of time and stigma. Over 90% of women would use the internet to learn coping strategies for PPD. Women expressed interest in web-based PPD treatment and identified desired characteristics of an intervention.

  11. Dichorionic triamniotic triplet pregnancy complicated by twin anemia polycythemia sequence: the place of fetal therapy.

    PubMed

    Griersmith, Thérèse H; Fung, Alison M; Walker, Susan P

    2014-12-01

    Monochorionic twins as part of a high order multiple pregnancy can be an unintended consequence of the increasingly common practice of blastocyst transfer for couples requiring in vitro fertilisation (IVF) for infertility. Dichorionic triamniotic (DCTA) triplets is the most common presentation, and these pregnancies are particularly high risk because of the additional risks associated with monochorionicity. Surveillance for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, including twin anemia polycythemia sequence, may be more difficult, and any intervention to treat the monochorionic pair needs to balance the proposed benefits against the risks posed to the unaffected singleton. Counseling of families with DCTA triplets is therefore complex. Here, we report a case of DCTA triplets, where the pregnancy was complicated by threatened preterm labour, and twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS) was later diagnosed at 28 weeks. The TAPS was managed with a single intraperitoneal transfusion, enabling safe prolongation of the pregnancy for over 2 weeks until recurrence of TAPS and preterm labour supervened. Postnatal TAPS was confirmed, and all three infants were later discharged home at term corrected age, and were normal at follow-up. This case highlights that in utero therapy has an important role in multiple pregnancies of mixed chorionicity, and can achieve safe prolongation of pregnancy at critical gestations.

  12. Pre-pregnancy and Early Prenatal Care are Associated with Lower Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy Complications in the Medicaid Population: 2004-08.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Debra B; Cain, Loretta; Hasham Dahlquist, Irma; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Complications are more common among women with Medicaid or no insurance compared to those with private insurance. It is unknown whether preventive care prior to pregnancy and prenatal care, which are covered by Medicaid, would decrease complications if they were more fully utilised. Medicaid claims were used to identify a clinical cohort of women who experienced an ectopic pregnancy during 2004-08 among all female Medicaid enrolees from a large 14-state population, ages 15-44. Diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify ectopic pregnancies and associated complications. The primary outcomes were complications associated with ectopic pregnancy: blood transfusion, sterilisation, or hospitalisation with length of stay greater than 2 days. Independent variables were documentation of preventive care within 1 year prior to the ectopic pregnancy and prenatal care within 4 months prior. Controlling for race, age, and state of residence, women's risks of any ectopic pregnancy complication were independently higher among those who did not receive any Medicaid-covered preventive care within 1 year before the ectopic pregnancy compared to those who did (RR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.16), and among those who did not receive any Medicaid-covered prenatal care within 4 months prior, compared to those who did (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.83, 1.96). Pre-pregnancy and prenatal care are independently associated with decreased risk of ectopic pregnancy complications among Medicaid beneficiaries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympics on the risk of pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Assibey-Mensah, Vanessa; Liu, Kaibo; Thurston, Sally W; Stevens, Timothy P; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Jinliang; Kane, Cathleen; Pan, Ying; Weinberger, Barry; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Woodruff, Tracey; Rich, David Q

    2016-07-03

    Taking advantage of the natural experiment of the 2008 Beijing Olympics (August 8 to September 24), when air pollution levels decreased by 13% to 60%, the authors assessed whether having ≥1 pregnancy month during the Olympics was associated with decreased risks of hypertensive disorders (HDs) and/or fetal-placental conditions (FPCs). Singleton births to mothers with ≥1 pregnancy month in 2008 or 2009 (N = 56,155) were included. Using generalized additive models, the authors estimated the risk of HDs and FPCs associated with (1) the 2008 Olympics compared with the same dates in 2009, and (2) increased mean ambient PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) concentrations during each trimester. However, no association between HDs or FPCs and having any trimester during the 2008 Olympic period was found. This may, in part, be due to a small number of pregnancy complications in this population.

  14. Relationships among stress coping styles and pregnancy complications among women exposed to Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Oni, Olurinde; Harville, Emily; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between maternal stress exposure, stress coping styles, and pregnancy complications. Quantitative, cross-sectional, and prospective study. Tulane-Lakeside Hospital, New Orleans, LA and Women's Hospital, Baton Rouge, LA. The study included 146 women (122 from New Orleans and 24 from Baton Rouge), who were pregnant during or immediately after Hurricane Katrina. Participants were interviewed regarding their hurricane experiences and perceived stress, and coping styles were assessed using the Brief COPE. Medical charts were also reviewed to obtain information about pregnancy outcomes. Logistic regression was performed to determine possible associations. Hurricane exposure was significantly associated with induction of labor (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03, 1.86], P = .03) and current perceived stress (aOR = 1.50, CI [1.34, 1.99], P < .01). Stress perception significantly predisposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (aOR = 1.16, CI [1.05, 1.30], P < .01) and gestational diabetes (aOR = 1.13, CI [1.02, 1.25], P = .03). Use of planning, acceptance, humor, instrumental support, and venting coping styles were associated with a significantly reduced occurrence of pregnancy complications (P < .05). Higher rates for gestational diabetes was found among women using the denial coping style (aOR = 2.25, CI [1.14, 4.45], P = .02). Exposure to disaster-related stress may complicate pregnancy, whereas some coping styles may mitigate its effects. Further research should explore how coping styles may mitigate or exacerbate the effect of major stressors and how positive coping styles can be encouraged or augmented. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  15. Relationship between Stress Coping Styles and Pregnancy Complications among Women Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Oni, Olurinde; Harville, Emily; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal stress exposure, stress coping styles, and pregnancy complications. Design Quantitative, cross-sectional, and prospective study. Setting Tulane-Lakeside Hospital, New Orleans, LA and Women's Hospital, Baton Rouge, LA. Participants The study included 146 women (122 from New Orleans and 24 from Baton Rouge), who were pregnant during or immediately after Hurricane Katrina. Methods Participants were interviewed regarding their hurricane experiences and perceived stress, and coping styles were assessed using the Brief COPE. Medical charts were also reviewed to obtain information about pregnancy outcomes. Logistic regression was performed to determine possible associations. Results Hurricane exposure was significantly associated with induction of labor (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.03, 1.86; P=0.03) and current perceived stress (aOR=1.50; CI=1.34, 1.99; P<0.01). Stress perception significantly predisposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (aOR=1.16; CI=1.05, 1.30; P<0.01) and gestational diabetes (aOR=1.13; CI=1.02, 1.25; P=0.03). Use of planning, acceptance, humor, instrumental support, and venting coping styles were associated with a significantly reduced occurrence of pregnancy complications (P<0.05). Higher rates for gestational diabetes was found among women using the denial coping style (aOR=2.25; CI=1.14, 4.45; P=0.02). Conclusion Exposure to disaster-related stress may complicate pregnancy, while some coping styles may mitigate its effects. Further research should explore how coping styles may mitigate or exacerbate the effect of major stressors and how positive coping styles can be encouraged or augmented. PMID:25712783

  16. Midkine and Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Jee, Youn Hee; Lebenthal, Yael; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Yan, Gai; Peran, Ivana; Wellstein, Anton; Romero, Roberto; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood. The potential roles of MDK and PTN in human growth and development are not completely elucidated. To delineate the role of MDK and PTN in human development, we developed high sensitivity assays to measure their concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) at various gestational ages in both healthy and complicated pregnancies. We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF. The concentration of MDK but not that of PTN declined with gestational age. Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection.

  17. Midkine and Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Chaemsaithong, Piya; Yan, Gai; Peran, Ivana; Wellstein, Anton; Romero, Roberto; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are heparin-binding growth factors that, in rodents, are highly expressed in early life and decrease to undetectable levels by adulthood. The potential roles of MDK and PTN in human growth and development are not completely elucidated. Method and Findings To delineate the role of MDK and PTN in human development, we developed high sensitivity assays to measure their concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) at various gestational ages in both healthy and complicated pregnancies. We found that both of these growth factors could be readily measured in AF and that the concentrations were higher than most cytokines previously reported in AF. Conclusion The concentration of MDK but not that of PTN declined with gestational age. Both MDK and PTN concentrations were found to be lower in pregnancies that were complicated by chorioamnionitis at term, raising the possibility that these growth factors might be useful as markers for infection. PMID:27089523

  18. Neuromyelitis Optica in Pregnancy Complicated by Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome, Eclampsia and Fetal Death

    PubMed Central

    Igel, Catherine; Garretto, Diana; Robbins, Matthew S; Swerdlow, Michael; Judge, Nancy; Dayal, Ashlesha

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and acute myelitis with poor recovery and a progressive course. We report a poor outcome complicated by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and eclampsia and review available literature and current evidence for anticipation of adverse fetal and maternal effects. After a pregnancy complicated by multiple admissions for painful NMO exacerbations, a primiparous patient with seropositive NMO presented at 31 + 3/7 weeks with eclampsia, HELLP and subsequent fetal death. MRI confirmed PRES. NMO may be associated with eclampsia and leads to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Posited mechanisms include antibody-mediated placental damage and a heightened risk of eclampsia-associated PRES. Further characterization of the course of NMO and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes in larger series would be invaluable. PMID:25584107

  19. Pregnancy, obesity, gestational weight gain, and parity as predictors of peripartum complications.

    PubMed

    Magann, Everett F; Doherty, Dorota A; Chauhan, Suneet P; Klimpel, Jennifer M; Huff, Shannon D; Morrison, John C

    2011-10-01

    To determine if the best predictor of pregnancy complications is pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) alone or in combination with other factors. BMI and peripartum outcomes of singleton pregnancies were evaluated. Recursive partitioning and logistic regression modeling was used. Of the 4,286 cohorts, 26% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) and, compared to cohorts with normal weight, at risk for wound infections (P < 0.001), and shoulder dystocia (P < 0.001). High-risk patients (15%; BMI >32.5, parity, pregnancy weight gain of 28 lb by 28 weeks) were at increased risk for wound infection (P < 0.001), endometritis (P < 0.001), shoulder dystocia (P = 0.001) and 5 min Apgar score <4 (P < 0.041) and at lower risk for pre-term delivery (P = 0.007). Since BMI, parity, and weight gain until 28 weeks together provide better prediction of peripartum complications than BMI alone, these characteristics can be used to triage and refer patients.

  20. Management of reproduction and pregnancy complications in maternal obesity: which role for dietary polyphenols?

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Carmela; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Filesi, Carmelina; Masella, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global and dramatic public health problem; maternal obesity represents one of the main risk factors of infertility and pregnancy complications as it is associated with adverse maternal and offspring outcomes. In the last few years, adipose tissue dysfunction associated with altered adipocytokine secretion has been suggested to play a critical role in all the phases of reproductive process. Obesity is a nutrition-related disorder. In this regard, dietary intervention strategies, such as high intake of fruit and vegetables, have shown significant effects in both preserving health and counteracting obesity-associated diseases. Evidence has been provided that polyphenols, important constituents of plant-derived food, can influence developmental program of oocyte and embryo, as well as pregnancy progression by modulating several cellular pathways. This review will examine the controversial results so far obtained on adipocytokine involvement in fertility impairment and pregnancy complications. Furthermore, the different effects exerted by polyphenols on oocyte, embryo, and pregnancy development will be also taken in account.

  1. [Subcapsular liver hematoma, severe complication of pregnancy toxemia. A case report].

    PubMed

    Chenoufi, Mohamed Badis; Ouerhani, Radhia; el Hitmi, Nadia; Tbatou, Adnane; Smaili, Lamia; Sfar, Ezzedine; Chelli, Hela

    2002-04-01

    Subcapsular liver hematoma is a rare and severe complication of pregnancy. This event is already known to have a poor maternal and foetal prognosis. The authors report a case of spontaneous rupture of subcapsular hematoma of the liver in 40 year old multiparous. Confirmation of diagnosis is obtained by abdominal echotomography or TOM. The surgical treatment of this hematoma joints the traumatic surgery of the liver. In every case foetal extraction by cesarean section constitutes the first therapeutic procedure.

  2. Lymphoma occurring during pregnancy: antenatal therapy, complications, and maternal survival in a multicenter analysis.

    PubMed

    Evens, Andrew M; Advani, Ranjana; Press, Oliver W; Lossos, Izidore S; Vose, Julie M; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J; Robinson, Barrett K; Otis, Stavroula; Nadav Dagan, Liat; Abdallah, Ramsey; Kroll-Desrosiers, Aimee; Yarber, Jessica L; Sandoval, Jose; Foyil, Kelley; Parker, Linda M; Gordon, Leo I; Blum, Kristie A; Flowers, Christopher R; Leonard, John P; Habermann, Thomas M; Bartlett, Nancy L

    2013-11-10

    Lymphoma is the fourth most frequent cancer in pregnancy; however, current clinical practice is based largely on small series and case reports. In a multicenter retrospective analysis, we examined treatment, complications, and outcomes for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occurring during pregnancy. Among 90 patients (NHL, n = 50; HL, n = 40), median age was 30 years (range, 18 to 44 years) and median diagnosis occurred at 24 weeks gestation. Of patients with NHL, 52% had advanced-stage versus 25% of patients with HL (P = .01). Pregnancy was terminated in six patients. Among the other 84 patients, 28 (33%) had therapy deferred to postpartum; these patients were diagnosed at a median 30 weeks gestation. This compared with 56 patients (67%) who received antenatal therapy with median lymphoma diagnosis at 21 weeks (P < .001); 89% of these patients received combination chemotherapy. The most common preterm complication was induction of labor (33%). Gestation went to full term in 56% of patients with delivery occurring at a median of 37 weeks. There were no differences in maternal complications, perinatal events, or median infant birth weight based on deferred versus antenatal therapy. At 41 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for NHL were 53% and 82%, respectively, and 85% and 97%, respectively, for HL. On univariate analysis for NHL, radiotherapy predicted inferior PFS, and increased lactate dehydrogenase and poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) portended worse OS. For HL patients, nulliparous status and "B" symptoms predicted inferior PFS. Standard (non-antimetabolite) combination chemotherapy administered past the first trimester, as early as 13 weeks gestation, was associated with few complications and expected maternal survival with lymphoma occurring during pregnancy.

  3. [Listeriosis in Mexico: Clinical and epidemiological importance].

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Ruelas, Gloria; Eslava-Campos, Carlos; Castro-Del Campo, Nohelia; León-Félix, Josefina; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    Listeriosis is caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne disease due to its clinical forms, high mortality rate, and the economic impact in both clinical and food production industries. In Mexico, the lack of epidemiological surveillance systems leads to the need of accurate data on the incidence of listeriosis and its association with food-borne disease. In this paper, we present data about the presence of this bacterium in food, reports related to clinical cases of listeriosis, and information of diseases in which L. monocytogenes may be involved. However, in most of these cases the etiology was not established. Given this, there's a need to inform and warn the appropriate entities, to define strategies for the mandatory search of L. monocytogenes through the whole food production chain and clinical suspects, for the epidemiological importance and control of listeriosis in Mexico.

  4. Obstetric practice patterns in pregnancies complicated by fetal trisomy 13 or 18.

    PubMed

    Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Smid, Marcela C; Mcelwain, Cora; Kuller, Jeffrey A; Schulkin, Jay

    2017-07-11

    Describe practice patterns among obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) when caring for women with pregnancy complicated by fetal trisomy 13 (T13) or 18 (T18) and compare these between maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) and non-MFM providers. We conducted an electronic survey using the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists database. Using simple statistics, we describe demographics and practice patterns among respondents and compare those of MFM practitioners with non-MFM providers. The survey was sent to 300 individuals, 161 individuals verified email receipt, and 105 had complete response and were included. The median age was 58 (IQR 53,62). Sixty percent were female, 69% were private practice, and 38% were MFM. All providers were more likely to offer than to recommend antenatal and intrapartum interventions. MFMs were more likely to offer growth ultrasounds and neonatal hospice consults (53% vs. 29%, p = .02; 88% vs. 60%, p < .01). During labor, MFMs were more likely offer no fetal heart rate monitoring, (90% vs. 52%, p < .01), 60% of all providers offer breech vaginal delivery; 32% offer cesarean delivery for fetal distress. Many providers offer antepartum and intrapartum interventions for pregnancies complicated by T13/18. We recommend that providers elicit each woman's goals for pregnancies complicated by T13/18 and tailor management options to meet these goals.

  5. The influence of social and political violence on the risk of pregnancy complications.

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, B C; Rebolledo, A; Atalah, E; Newman, B; King, M C

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Events in Chile provided an opportunity to evaluate health effects associated with exposure to high levels of social and political violence. METHODS. Neighborhoods in Santiago, Chile, were mapped for occurrences of sociopolitical violence during 1985-86, such as bomb threats, military presence, undercover surveillance, and political demonstrations. Six health centers providing prenatal care were then chosen at random: three from "high-violence" and three from "low-violence" neighborhoods. The 161 healthy, pregnant women due to deliver between August 1 and September 7, 1986, who attended these health centers were interviewed twice about their living conditions. Pregnancy complications and labor/delivery information were subsequently obtained from clinic and hospital records. RESULTS. Women living in the high-violence neighborhoods were significantly more likely to experience pregnancy complications than women living in lower violence neighborhoods (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.9-12.6; p less than 0.01). Residence in a high-violence neighborhood was the strongest risk factor observed; results persisted after controlling for several sets of potential confounders. CONCLUSION. Living in areas of high social and political violence increased the risk of pregnancy complications among otherwise healthy women. PMID:1566947

  6. Clinical and scientific results in perinatal care of pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Djelmis, J

    1998-01-01

    At the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perinatal Unit for Diabetes and Fetal Growth, School of Medicine, Zagreb, perinatal care of pregnancies complicated with insulin dependent diabetes melitus (IDDM), has been performed for more than 36 years. The intention of this review is to show our own results in the management of IDDM pregnancies and the latest clinical advances in perinatal care of such pregnancies. Pregnancy complicated with IDDM is at risk because of numerous maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Recent advances in medicine, especially in diabetology and perinatology, helps clinician avoid or lessen antenatal or perinatal complications in IDDM pregnancies. The main result of improved perinatal care is that today fetal and neonatal mortality in IDDM pregnancy is almost equal to that of healthy pregnant population. Intensive preconceptual care and optimal regulation of IDDM have resulted not only in decreased perinatal mortality but also in a decreased rate of congenital malformation. Tight glycemia control during pregnancy has a beneficial effect on fetal growth. Intensive control of fetal growth, verification of lung maturation at term by amniocenthesis, and control of fetal oxygenation will result in delivery of a mature eutrophic newborn with the lowest rate of neonatal complications possible. Perinatal mortality of less than 2% in IDDM pregnancy can be obtained by planned delivery between 38 and 39 weeks of gestation by either vaginal route or cesarean section, depending on indications. After delivery, intensive care of the newborn is necessary.

  7. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    PubMed

    Blum-Menezes, Dulcinéa; Deliberalli, Ivânia; Bittencourt, Najara Carneiro; Couto, Carlus Augustu Tavares do; Barbosa, Liana Nunes; Santos, Alessandro Marques dos; Pinto, Gabriel Godinho

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA), Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  8. [Clinical features of abnormal chromosome karyotypes in twin pregnancies complicated with structural abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shi-lin; Fang, Qun; Chen, Bao-jiang; Han, Zhen-yan; Luo, Yan-min; Chen, Jian-sheng; Xie, Ying-jun

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the clinical features of the abnormal chromosome karyotypes in twin pregnancies complicated with fetal malformations. Totally 181 twin pregnancies (362 fetuses) in which one or two fetuses had abnormalities diagnosed by ultrasound were referred to the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University from January, 2000 to September, 2010. They were divided into different groups according to (1) maternal age: the cases with maternal age ≥ 35 were divided into advanced pregnancy group (105 fetuses), and those with maternal age < 35 were divided into young pregnancy group (203 fetuses); (2) conceived method: those conceived by assisted reproductive technology were divided into assisted reproductive group (81 fetuses), and the natural conception pregnancies were divided into natural conception group (227 fetuses); (3) chorionicity: the monochorionic twin (MCT) pregnancies were divided into MCT group (123 fetuses), and the dichorionic twin (DCT) pregnancies were divided into DCT group (185 fetuses); (4) structural abnormalities: 205 fetuses with structural abnormalities were divided into the abnormal fetal group, and 103 fetuses without structural abnormalities were divided into the normal fetal group. All fetuses were examined by the ultrasound and chromosomes were examined in 308 fetuses. (1) The karyotype of fetuses: among 181 twin pregnancies, 23 cases had chromosomal abnormalities in 1 or 2 fetuses (12.7%, 23/181), and chromosomes were examined in both fetuses in 20 of 23 cases. Twenty-six of 308 fetuses were found with abnormal chromosomes (8.4%, 26/308), and the aneuploid was the most common type of abnormal karyotypes (53.8%, 14/26). Twenty-one of 205 fetuses with malformations were found with abnormal karyotypes (10.2%, 21/205). (2) Seven of 123 fetuses in MCT group were with abnormal karyotypes (5.7%, 7/123), and 19 of 185 fetuses in DCT group were with abnormal karyotypes (10.3%, 19/185). There was no statistical difference of abnormal

  9. Obstetric Complications and Psychological Well-being: Experiences of Bangladeshi Women during Pregnancy and Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, D.; Ali, M.; Fisher, C.; Moran, A.; Koblinsky, M.

    2012-01-01

    Women in developing countries experience postnatal depression at rates that are comparable with or higher than those in developed countries. However, their personal experiences during pregnancy and childbirth have received little attention in relation to postnatal depression. In particular, the contribution of obstetric complications to their emotional well-being during the postpartum period is still not clearly understood. This study aimed to (a) describe the pregnancy and childbirth experiences among women in Bangladesh during normal childbirth or obstetric complications and (b) examine the relationship between these experiences and their psychological well-being during the postpartum period. Two groups of women—one group with obstetric complications (n=173) and the other with no obstetric complications (n=373)—were selected from a sample of women enrolled in a community-based study in Matlab, Bangladesh. The experiences during pregnancy and childbirth were assessed in terms of a five-point rating scale from ‘severely uncomfortable=1’ to ‘not uncomfortable at all=5’. The psychological status of the women was assessed using a validated local version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six weeks postpartum. Categorical data were analyzed using the chi-square test and continuous data by analysis of variance. Women with obstetric complications reported significantly more negative experiences during their recent childbirth [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-1.61, p<0.001] compared to those with normal childbirth. There was a significant main effect on emotional well-being due to experiences of pregnancy [F (4,536)=4.96, p=0.001] and experiences of childbirth [F (4,536)=3.29, p=0.01]. The EPDS mean scores for women reporting severe uncomfortable pregnancy and childbirth experiences were significantly higher than those reporting no such problems. After controlling for the background characteristics, postpartum depression was significantly

  10. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery.

    PubMed

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J; Triche, Elizabeth W; Paidas, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    The combined effects of preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, placental abruption and stillbirth on early maternal death from cardiovascular causes have not previously been described in a large cohort. We investigated the effects of pregnancy complications on early maternal death in a registry-based retrospective cohort study of 782 287 women with a first singleton delivery in Denmark 1978-2007, followed for a median of 14.8 years (range 0.25-30.2) accruing 11.6 million person-years. We employed Cox proportional hazard models of early death from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes. Severe pre-eclampsia was associated with death from cardiovascular causes only. There was a less than additive effect on cardiovascular mortality hazard ratios with increasing number of pregnancy complications: preterm delivery 1.90 [95% confidence intervals 1.49, 2.43]; preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age offspring 3.30 [2.25, 4.84]; preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and pre-eclampsia 3.85 [2.07, 7.19]. Thus, we conclude that, separately and combined, preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age are strong markers of early maternal death from both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes, while hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are markers of early death of mothers from cardiovascular causes.

  11. Obstetric complications in women with IVF conceived pregnancies and polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tandulwadkar, Sunita R; Lodha, Pooja A; Mangeshikar, Nirzari T

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is often accompanied by infertility that necessitates ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins or even in vitro fertilization (IVF). These treatment methods are known to increase the incidence of multiple pregnancies as well as some negative consequences, including a rise in the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, etc., Furthermore, pregnancies established after IVF carry an increased risk for maternal complications. However, the increased risk of developing adverse obstetric complications has been suggested to occur independently of obesity as well as in populations without assisted reproductive techniques. Many studies have been performed to study the effect of PCOS on pregnancy and the effect of pregnancy on PCOS. The hormonal milieu that is exaggerated in PCOS women is quite well understood at the biochemical and genetic levels. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of PCOS women who have undergone in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) have not been widely studied till date. This review aims to evaluate the current evidence regarding adverse obstetric outcomes of PCOS women undergoing IVF-ET. The rationale of this review is to study whether the adverse obstetric outcomes are increased in PCOS women in general, or particularly in those PCOS women who are undergoing IVF-ET. It is also important to analyze via a literature review whether the increased adverse outcomes are due to infertility in general or PCOS per se. An attempt has been made to give evidence regarding preventive strategies for obstetric complications in PCOS women who have undergone IVF-ET.

  12. [Prognostic value of uteroplacental circulation impairment in 1st trimester of pregnancy in patients with complicated obstetric history].

    PubMed

    Savel'eva, G M; Bugerenko, E Iu; Panina, O B

    2013-01-01

    One of the urgent problems of modern obstetrics is the early detection of irregularities in the development of the uteroplacental vessels system in patients with severe disorders in the history. To evaluate the predictive value of re-development of obstetric pathology on the basis of the uterine artery Doppler on 11-14 weeks of pregnancy. 410 patients in I trimester of pregnancy were examined with fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and/or fetal death and/or a history of preterm delivery were. The influence of physical factors and obstetric history on the state of uterine blood flow in the I trimester of pregnancy was studied. The optimal Doppler indexes was calculated; a high predictive ability of the pulsation index in the uterine arteries with respect to pregnancy complications with early clinical manifestation, severe preeclampsia and combined obstetric complications was detected. Our data support the possibility of preclinical diagnosis of obstetrical complications in patients with complicated obstetric history.

  13. AMNIOTIC FLUID FETAL HEMOGLOBIN IN NORMAL PREGNANCIES AND PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED WITH PRETERM LABOR OR PRELABOR RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Vaisbuch, Edi; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Kim, Chong Jai; Kim, Jung-Sun; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Edwin, Sam; Than, Nandor Gabor; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Mazor, Moshe; Mittal, Pooja; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Objective Hemoglobin and its catabolic products have been associated with amniotic fluid (AF) discoloration and intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI). However, the origin of AF hemoglobin (maternal or fetal) has not been determined. The aims of this study were to determine if fetal hemoglobin can be detected in AF obtained from normal pregnancies, and whether there is an association between AF fetal hemoglobin concentrations and gestational age, spontaneous labor (term and preterm), preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and IAI. Study design This cross-sectional study included pregnant women in the following groups: 1) mid-trimester (n=60); 2) term not in labor (n=21); 3) term in labor (n=47); 4) spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes (PTL) without IAI who delivered at term (n=89); 5) PTL without IAI who delivered preterm (n=74); 6) PTL with IAI (n=78); 7) PPROM with (n=48) and 8) without IAI (n=48). AF fetal hemoglobin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) Fetal hemoglobin was detected in 80.4% of all AF samples; 2) women at term not in labor had a higher median AF fetal hemoglobin concentration than those at mid-trimester (p=0.008); 3) labor at term was not associated with a significant difference in the median AF fetal hemoglobin concentration; 4) the median AF fetal hemoglobin concentration was not significantly different among the 3 PTL groups, between the PPROM groups; 5) women with PTL and IAI had a lower AF fetal hemoglobin percentage of the total hemoglobin than those without IAI who delivered preterm (p=0.03) or at term (p<0.001); (6) the median AF fetal hemoglobin concentration was higher in pregnancies complicated with PTL or PPROM than in women at term (p<0.001 for all comparison). Conclusions 1) The concentration of immunoreactive AF fetal hemoglobin increases with gestational age; 2) the median AF fetal hemoglobin concentration is higher in pregnancies complicated

  14. Mechanisms Involved in the Association between Periodontitis and Complications in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Marcela Yang Hui; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves

    2015-01-01

    The association between periodontitis and some of the problems with pregnancy such as premature delivery, low weight at birth, and preeclampsia (PE) has been suggested. Nevertheless, epidemiological data have shown contradictory data, mainly due to differences in clinical parameters of periodontitis assessment. Furthermore, differences in microbial composition and immune response between aggressive and chronic periodontitis are not addressed by these epidemiological studies. We aimed to review the current data on the association between some of these problems with pregnancy and periodontitis, and the mechanisms underlying this association. Shifts in the microbial composition of the subgingival biofilm may occur during pregnancy, leading to a potentially more hazardous microbial community. Pregnancy is characterized by physiological immune tolerance. However, the infection leads to a shift in maternal immune response to a pathogenic pro-inflammatory response, with production of inflammatory cytokines and toxic products. In women with periodontitis, the infected periodontal tissues may act as reservoirs of bacteria and their products that can disseminate to the fetus-placenta unit. In severe periodontitis patients, the infection agents and their products are able to activate inflammatory signaling pathways locally and in extra-oral sites, including the placenta-fetal unit, which may not only induce preterm labor but also lead to PE and restrict intrauterine growth. Despite these evidences, the effectiveness of periodontal treatment in preventing gestational complications was still not established since it may be influenced by several factors such as severity of disease, composition of microbial community, treatment strategy, and period of treatment throughout pregnancy. This lack of scientific evidence does not exclude the need to control infection and inflammation in periodontitis patients during pregnancy, and treatment protocols should be validated. PMID:25688342

  15. Risk screening, emergency care, and lay concepts of complications during pregnancy in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Ojanguren, Rolando; Glantz, Namino M; Martinez-Hernandez, Imelda; Ovando-Meza, Ismael

    2008-03-01

    Maternal morbidity and mortality are widespread in Chiapas, Mexico's southernmost state, as in many developing regions. Globally, the utility of three approaches to addressing such problems has been debated: (a) obstetric risk screening (i.e. screening women for risk during pregnancy and channeling those at risk to preventive care); (b) emergency obstetric care (i.e. identifying complications during pregnancy or birth and providing prompt effective treatment); and (c) combined risk screening and emergency care. Unaddressed to date in peer-reviewed journals are the lay perceptions of complications and risk that precede and incite the quest for obstetric care in Mexico. High incidence of maternal mortality in Chiapas, exacerbated by the predominantly rural, highly indigenous, geographically dispersed, and economically marginalized nature of the state's southern Border Region, prompted us to conduct 45 open-ended interviews with a convenience sample of women and their close relative/s, including indigenous and non-indigenous informants in urban and rural areas of four municipalities in this region. Interviews suggest that none of the three approaches is effective in this context, and we detail reasons why each approach has fallen short. Specific obstacles identified include that (1) many women do not access adequate prenatal screening care on a regular basis; (2) emergency obstetric care in this region is severely circumscribed; and (3) lay notions of pregnancy-related risk and complications contrast with official clinical criteria, such that neither clinical nor extra-clinical prenatal monitoring encompasses the entire range of physical and social risk factors and danger signs. Findings reported here center on a rich description of the latter: lay versus clinical criteria for risk of antepartum complication.

  16. A possible role of polycystic ovary syndrome for pregnancy complications in women with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Clara; Caldarola, Giacomo; Corbeddu, Marialuisa; Moro, Francesca; Tropea, Anna; Moretta, Gaia; Apa, Rosanna

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, relapsing immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) of the skin. IMIDs are multifactorial diseases characterized by common molecular pathways leading to a systemic inflammation. Patients with an IMID are also at higher risk of developing co-morbidities, such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, than the general population. A higher rate of pregnancy complications have been seen in inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The data for psoriasis are inconsistent but it appears that women with moderate-to-severe psoriasis may also have an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. The cause of this association is unknown, although it may be related to elevated proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α, the high prevalence of comorbidities and other unhealthy behaviours, or the high prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a recent study, PCOS prevalence in a psoriatic cohort (n = 51) was higher than in non-psoriatic women (n = 102) (47% versus 11%), and women with PCOS and psoriasis had a greater probability of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, and dyslipidaemia as well as a more severe skin condition, than those with psoriasis alone. Further studies are necessary to clarify the impact of psoriasis on pregnancy and in particular if these effects are mediated by concomitant PCOS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Complications during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal stages and place of delivery in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Ataharul; Chowdhury, Rafiqul I; Akhter, Halida H

    2006-10-01

    The utilization of safe motherhood services including maternity care in Bangladesh is very poor. Only a very small proportion of deliveries takes place in a hospital/clinic. This study is based on data from a follow-up study on maternal morbidity in rural Bangladesh. Analysis is performed on the nature of complications by place of delivery. Most of the deliveries have taken place in the women's own or her mother's home. In addition, home deliveries are mostly assisted either by an untrained birth attendant or by relatives or others. Education, economic status, whether pregnancy was wanted or not, regular visits for antenatal care, past history of breathing problems and liver diseases, and palpitation during pregnancy appear to have significant association with place of delivery in rural Bangladesh. The utilization of a hospital/clinic instead of birth at home is higher among women with secondary or higher level of education, who desired the pregnancy, and who made regular visits for antenatal care. Delivery at a mother's home appears to be positively associated with higher economic status, desired pregnancy, gainful employment, and visits for antenatal care. If the respondents suffer from diseases/symptoms, then it is more likely that the delivery would take place in the mother's home.

  18. Complication of cesarean section: pregnancy on the cicatrix of a previous cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weimin; Long, Wenqing; Yu, Qunhuan

    2002-02-01

    To probe into the clinical manifestation, diagnosis, as well as treatment of pregnancy on the cicatrix of a previous cesarean section at the uterine isthmus in the first trimester. Analysis of 14 patients with pregnancy on the cicatrix of a previous cesarean section at the uterine isthmus in the first trimester was made after conservative treatment by drugs from January 1996 to December 1999. The 14 patients with a pregnancy on the cicatrix of a previous cesarean section at the uterine isthmus in the first trimester were painless, had slight vaginal bleeding, and concurrently had increased serum beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG). Doppler ultrasonic examination revealed an obvious enlargement of the previous cesarean section cicatrix in the uterine isthmus, and found a gestational sac or mixed mass attached to the cicatrice, with a very thin myometrium between the gestational sac and bladder walls. Among the 14 patients, 12 patients had crystalline trichosanthes injected into the cervix, mifepristone taken orally, or methotrexate in the form of intramuscular injection. Following this procedure, their serum beta-HCG dropped to normal. The other 2 patients had a total hysterectomy. Pregnancy on the cicatrix of a previous cesarean section at the uterine isthmus in the first trimester is a complication of cesarean section. Early diagnosis and effective conservative treatment by drugs are instrumental in decreasing the potential occurrence of uterine rupture, which is also conducive to preserving the patient's future fertility.

  19. Association between Maternal Zinc Status, Dietary Zinc Intake and Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca L; Grieger, Jessica A; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T

    2016-10-15

    Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and the associations with preeclampsia (PE); spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB); low birthweight (LBW); and gestational diabetes (GDM). Searches of MEDLINE; CINAHL and Scopus databases identified 639 articles and 64 studies were reviewed. In 10 out of 16 studies a difference was reported with respect to circulating zinc between women who gave birth to a LBW infant (≤2500 g) and those who gave birth to an infant of adequate weight (>2500 g), particularly in populations where inadequate zinc intake is prevalent. In 16 of our 33 studies an association was found between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and circulating zinc; particularly in women with severe PE (blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg). No association between maternal zinc status and sPTB or GDM was seen; however; direct comparisons between the studies was difficult. Furthermore; only a small number of studies were based on women from populations where there is a high risk of zinc deficiency. Therefore; the link between maternal zinc status and pregnancy success in these populations cannot be established. Future studies should focus on those vulnerable to zinc deficiency and include dietary zinc intake as a measure of zinc status.

  20. [Hyperemesis gravidarum: a rare but potentially severe complication of the first trimester of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Macle, Lucie; Varlet, Marie-Noëlle; Cathébras, Pascal

    2010-06-20

    Although nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in early pregnancy, hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a rare complication of the first trimester of pregnancy. This condition is defined as intractable vomiting occurring before 20 weeks of gestation, with fluid and electrolyte disturbance, significant weight loss, and ketonuria, leading to hospitalization in the absence of other cause than pregnancy. Some biological disturbances found in HG, such as hyperthyroidism and hepatic cytolysis, which are correlated with the importance of vomiting, are without severe clinical consequences, but may represent diagnostic pitfalls. The aetiology is unknown, but human chorionic gonadotropin hormones likely play the first role. Psychological disturbance is currently seen as the result of the burden and stress of HG rather than a causal factor. Maternal outcome may be severe in the absence of treatment, but pregnancy outcome seems good, as far as the condition has been adequately controlled. The management of HG includes IV rehydration, thiamine supplementation, antiemetic drugs (doxylamine, metoclopramide and chlorpromazine being the first-line choices), and in severe cases, nasogastric or parenteral nutrition. A psychological support is often necessary.

  1. Association between Maternal Zinc Status, Dietary Zinc Intake and Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rebecca L.; Grieger, Jessica A.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and the associations with preeclampsia (PE); spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB); low birthweight (LBW); and gestational diabetes (GDM). Searches of MEDLINE; CINAHL and Scopus databases identified 639 articles and 64 studies were reviewed. In 10 out of 16 studies a difference was reported with respect to circulating zinc between women who gave birth to a LBW infant (≤2500 g) and those who gave birth to an infant of adequate weight (>2500 g), particularly in populations where inadequate zinc intake is prevalent. In 16 of our 33 studies an association was found between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and circulating zinc; particularly in women with severe PE (blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg). No association between maternal zinc status and sPTB or GDM was seen; however; direct comparisons between the studies was difficult. Furthermore; only a small number of studies were based on women from populations where there is a high risk of zinc deficiency. Therefore; the link between maternal zinc status and pregnancy success in these populations cannot be established. Future studies should focus on those vulnerable to zinc deficiency and include dietary zinc intake as a measure of zinc status. PMID:27754451

  2. Average acceleration and deceleration capacity of fetal heart rate in normal pregnancy and in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Graatsma, E M; Mulder, E J H; Vasak, B; Lobmaier, S M; Pildner von Steinburg, S; Schneider, K T M; Schmidt, G; Visser, G H A

    2012-12-01

    To study fetal heart rate (FHR), its short term variability (STV), average acceleration capacity (AAC), and average deceleration capacity (ADC) throughout uncomplicated gestation, and to perform a preliminary comparison of these FHR parameters between small-for dates (SFD) and control fetuses. Prospective observational study of 7 h FHR-recordings obtained with a fetal-ECG monitor in the second half of uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 90) and pregnancies complicated by fetal SFD (n = 30). FHR and STV were calculated according to established analysis. True beat-to-beat FHR, recorded at 1 ms accuracy, was used to calculate AAC and ADC using Phase Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA). Mean values of FHR, STV, AAC, and ADC derived from recordings in SFD fetuses were compared with the reference curves. Compared with the control group the mean z-scores for STV, AAC, and ADC in SFD fetuses were lower by 1.0 SD, 1.5 SD, and 1.7 SD, respectively (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). In SFD fetuses, both the AAC and ADC z-scores were lower than the STV z-scores (p < 0.02 and p < 0.002, respectively). Analysis of the AAC and ADC as recorded with a high resolution fECG recorder may differentiate better between normal and SFD fetuses than STV.

  3. Multidisciplinary management of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency in pregnancy: essential to prevent hyperammonemic complications.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Stephanie; Aye, Christina Yi Ling; Murphy, Elaine; Mackillop, Lucy

    2013-01-02

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common inborn error in the metabolism of the urea cycle with an incidence of 1 in 14,000 live births. Pregnancy can trigger potentially fatal hyperammonemic crises. We report a successful pregnancy in a 29-year-old primiparous patient with a known diagnosis of OTC deficiency since infancy. Hyperammonemic complications were avoided due to careful multidisciplinary management which included a detailed antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal plan. Management principles include avoidance of triggers, a low-protein diet and medications which promote the removal of nitrogen by alternative pathways. Triggers include metabolic stress such as febrile illness, particularly gastroenteritis, fasting and any protein loading. In our case the patient, in addition to a restricted protein intake, was prescribed sodium benzoate 4 g four times a day, sodium phenylbutyrate 2 g four times a day and arginine 500 mg four times a day to aid excretion of ammonia and reduce flux through the urea cycle.

  4. Perinatal outcome in singleton pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and eclampsia in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Phoa, K Y N; Chedraui, P; Pérez-López, F R; Wendte, J F; Ghiabi, S; Vrijkotte, T; Pinto, P

    2016-07-01

    Preeclampsia in Ecuador is an understudied subject since available epidemiological data are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe perinatal outcomes among singleton pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and eclampsia in a sample of low-income Ecuadorian women. Pregnant women complicated with preeclampsia (mild and severe) and eclampsia (defined according to criteria of the ACOG) delivering at the Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, Ecuador were surveyed with a structured questionnaire containing maternal (socio-demographic) and neonatal data. Perinatal outcomes were compared according to severity of clinical presentation. A total of 163 women with preeclampsia [mild (23.9%), severe (68.7%) and eclampsia (7.4%)] were surveyed. Perinatal mortality and stillbirth rate was similar among studied groups (mild vs. severe preeclampsia/eclampsia cases). However, severe cases displayed higher rates of adverse perinatal outcomes: lower birth Apgar scores, more preterm births, and more low birth weight and small for gestational age infants. Caesarean-section rate and the number of admissions to intensive or intermediate neonatal care were higher in severe cases. A similar trend was found when analysis excluded preterm gestations. In conclusion, in this specific low-income Ecuadorian population perinatal outcome was adverse in pregnancies complicated with severe preeclampsia/eclampsia.

  5. Does fetal macrosomia affect umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes?

    PubMed

    Sirico, Angelo; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Aiello, Elisa; Morlando, Maddalena; Arduini, Domenico; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to establish whether macrosomic fetuses in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) show different Pulsatility Index (PI) values in umbilical artery (UA) than in non-macrosomic fetuses. We considered 106 pregnant women with GDM. Doppler recordings of UA-PI were performed at 34-41 weeks and related to neonatal birthweight. Pregnancies were divided in two groups according to birthweight, macrosomic group (>4000 g) and controls (<4000 g), and according to birthweight centile, >90th centile and <90th centile. Differences in UA-PI and maternal and fetal characteristics between groups were tested. Mean UA-PI was significantly lower in newborns with birthweight >4000 g than in controls (PI = 0.69; 95% CI 0.64-0.74 versus PI = 0.87; 95% CI 0.84-0.90, p < 000.1). Mean UA-PI was significantly lower in newborns with birthweight centile >90th centile than in controls (PI = 0.79; 95% CI 0.74-0.84 versus PI = 0.87; 95% CI 0.83-0.90; t = 2.653; p = 0.01). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between UA-PI and neonatal birthweight and between UA-PI and neonatal birthweight centile. Macrosomic fetuses of pregnancies complicated by GDM show lower values of UA-PI compared with controls. Despite UA-PI results, a variable related to macrosomia its role in the management of these pregnancies remains to be established.

  6. Prediction of pregnancy complication occurrence using fetal cardiac output assessments made by ultrasonography at 20 to 24 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Young Li; Jeong, Ji Eun; Ahn, Jun Woo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the importance of assessment of fetal cardiac output (CO) for the prediction of complications of pregnancy. We evaluated 65 fetuses and all of them had a fetal cardiac scan at 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy. To measure CO, diameters (d) of the left right ventricle outflow tract were measured just above the valves. Each left CO (LCO) and right CO (RCO) was derived using the following equation: CO = velocity time integral × π × d(2)/4 × heart rate. Pregnancy complications included gestational hypertensive disorders, fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth (PTB) caused from preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM). There were 23 cases with one more pregnancy complication (FGR, 9; gestational hypertensive disorders, 8; PTB caused from PTB or PPROM, 12). The LCO was lower in complication group than in normal group (88±53 vs. 117±48 mL/min, P=0.028). The RCO to the LCO ratio (RCO/LCO) was higher in complication group (2.43±1.69 vs. 1.48±0.81, P=0.001). Regression analysis demonstrated that RCO/LCO was a significant predictor of pregnancy complication; Odds ratio was 7.76 (95% CI, 1.15 to 52.21; P=0.029). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for prediction of pregnancy complications from LCO was 0.71. The diagnostic cut-off value of LCO was 80 mL/min. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve from RCO/LCO was 0.68 and cut-off value was 1.41. This study demonstrated that pregnancy complications can be suspected based on fetal CO assessments at a GA of 20 to 24 weeks.

  7. [Triplet pregnancy complicated by intrauterine death of two fetuses--case report].

    PubMed

    Teliga-Czajkowska, Justyna; Dadalska, Ewa; Sopliński, Aleksander

    2003-10-01

    Multiple pregnancy still constitutes a difficult therapeutic problem in perinatology. The incidence of this phenomenon describes Hellin's formula: the number of twin pregnancy is 1/n, triplet--1/n 2 etc. Among complications observed in multiple pregnancy intrauterine death of one or more foetuses is not rare. Due to progressive disturbances in haemostasis the risk for a mother and remaining live foetus increases with gestation. The aim of this paper was to present a case report of triplet pregnancy complicated by an intrauterine death of two foetuses. 33 years old patient was diagnosed by ultrasound in the 19th week of her second gestation (1 child) a triplet pregnancy. Three live foetuses were seen then with biometry of about 14/15 gestational week There was one joint placenta on the back uterine wall and two children were sharing an amniotic sac. On the consecutive ultrasound examination the three foetuses were alive, but only one had a biometry for 21st week, two--were slowing down having measurements adequate for 19/20th week. After four weeks on usg the death of two siblings was confirmed (age 19/20 gestational week). One remaining live foetus was according to usg 24 weeks old. The patient was transferred to the II Dept. Even though no disturbances in coagulation were observed, low molecule heparin prophylaxis was introduced. During hospital stay a gestational diabetes was diagnosed well corrected by diet only. Coagulation parameters as well as infection indexes were regularly monitored. The foetal well-being was established by non-stress test, biophysical profile and Doppler vascular flows. After 39 days of hospitalisation an elevation of fibrin degradation products (FDP) was noted so the dosage of low molecule heparin was immediately increased to the therapeutic values. In spite of that FDP still were growing. It was decided to introduce a steroids treatment to accelerate the maturity of foetal lungs. In the 31st week according to usg, after PROM, the

  8. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and pregnancy complications: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anna R; Barker, Fred G; Leffert, Lisa; Bateman, Brian T; Souter, Irene; Plotkin, Scott R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether vascular and other complications are more common in pregnant women with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study using the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1988-2009, defining a cohort of pregnancy-related hospitalizations with an associated diagnosis of NF1 and comparing it with the control group not associated with NF1. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for suspected confounders. Among 19 million pregnancy-related admissions between 1988 and 2009, we identified 1553 associated with NF1 (prevalence 0.008%). A diagnosis of NF1 in delivering mothers was associated with gestational hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0), preeclampsia (AOR, 2.8, 95% CI, 2.3-3.4), intrauterine growth restriction (AOR, 4.6, 95% CI, 3.7-5.6), cerebrovascular disease (OR, 8.1, 95% CI, 2.6-25.4), preterm labor (AOR, 1.6, 95% CI, 1.4-1.9), and cesarean delivery (AOR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.8-2.3). Women with NF1 were not significantly more likely to have deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, acute cardiac events, or stillbirth or to die during their hospitalizations compared with the general obstetric population. NF1 was associated with increased maternal morbidity in pregnancy (including hypertensive and cerebrovascular complications) but not increased maternal mortality. Obstetricians should be aware of the potential for increased antenatal and peripartum complications among women with NF1. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma homocysteine in late pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and in newborns.

    PubMed

    Baksu, Alparslan; Taskin, Mehtap; Goker, Nimet; Baksu, Basak; Uluocak, Aygul

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal serum homocysteine levels in preeclampsia and the severity of the disease, neonatal serum homocysteine levels, maternal complications, and fetal outcome. Fifty pregnant women were included in this prospective study, of which 25 were severe (group I) and 25 were non-severe preeclamptic (group II). Maternal and neonatal serum homocysteine levels were measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method. Maternal homocysteine levels in both groups were compared. The association of maternal and neonatal serum homocysteine levels with maternal complications and fetal outcome was investigated. When the maternal serum homocysteine cut-off value was accepted as 15 micromol/L, significant differences in relation to maternal (eclampsia; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome) and fetal (in utero mort fetalis, low birthweight) complications were observed between the group with maternal serum homocysteine level > 15 micromol/L and the group with maternal serum homocysteine level < or = 15 micromol/L ( p < 0.05). Hyperhomocysteinemia during pregnancy is a risk factor for both development of preeclampsia and its complications. Given that the diagnosis and treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia is possible, clinical trials to determine whether treatment to reduce homocysteine would be valuable in the prevention of both maternal and fetal complications in preeclampsia should be designed.

  10. Molecular Subtyping to Detect Human Listeriosis Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Sauders, Brian D.; Fortes, Esther D.; Morse, Dale L.; Dumas, Nellie; Kiehlbauch, Julia A.; Schukken, Ynte; Hibbs, Jonathan R.

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the diversity (Simpson’s Index, D) and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes in human listeriosis cases in New York State (excluding New York City) from November 1996 to June 2000 by using automated ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We applied a scan statistic (p<0.05) to detect listeriosis clusters caused by a specific Listeria monocytogenes subtype. Of 131 human isolates, 34 (D=0.923) ribotypes and 74 (D=0.975) PFGE types were found. Nine (31% of cases) clusters were identified by ribotype or PFGE; five (18% of cases) clusters were identified by using both methods. Two of the nine clusters (13% of cases) identified corresponded with investigated multistate listeriosis outbreaks. While most human listeriosis cases are considered sporadic, highly discriminatory molecular subtyping approaches thus indicated that 13% to 31% of cases reported in New York State may represent single-source clusters. Listeriosis control and reduction efforts should include broad-based subtyping of human isolates and consider that a large number of cases may represent outbreaks. PMID:12781006

  11. Epidemiology of human listeriosis and seafoods.

    PubMed

    Rocourt, J; Jacquet, C; Reilly, A

    2000-12-20

    While rarely diagnosed prior to 1960, more than 10,000 cases of listeriosis were recorded in the medical literature between 1960 and 1982, and thousands more have been reported annually world-wide [Rocourt J., 1991. Human listeriosis, 1989. WHO/HPP/FOS/91.3, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Rocourt, J., Brosch, R., 1992. Human listeriosis, 1990. WHO/HPP/FOS/92.3, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Rocourt, J., Jacquet, Ch., Bille, J., 1997. Human listeriosis, 1991/1992. WHO/FNU/FOS/97.1, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland]. This widespread increase in reporting is most likely due to demographic trends and changes in food production, processing and storage, especially the extended cold food chain and the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to grow at low temperatures: L. monocytogenes is a bacterium responsible for opportunistic infections, preferentially affecting individuals whose immune system is perturbed, including pregnant women, newborns, people over 65 years, immunocompromised patients, such as cancer victims, transplant recipients, people on hemodialysis and AIDS patients. Thus, the increasing lifespan and medical progress allowing immunodeficient individuals to survive, partially explains the increasing incidence of listeriosis. Moreover, L. monocytogenes is ubiquitous and can grow at temperatures as low as 0 degrees C. At this temperature growth is very slow. The expansion of the agro-food industry, the widespread use of systems of cold storage and changes in consumers demands have led to a large increase in the pool of Listeria that can cause foodborne infections.

  12. Placental histopathology lesions and pregnancy outcome in pregnancies complicated with symptomatic vs. non-symptomatic placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Eran; Miremberg, Hadas; Grinstein, Ehud; Schreiber, Letizia; Ginath, Shimon; Bar, Jacob; Kovo, Michal

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms involved in bleeding in cases of placenta previa (PP) and the effect on pregnancy outcome is unclear. We aimed to compare pregnancy outcome and placental histopathology in pregnancies complicated with symptomatic (bleeding) vs. non-symptomatic PP, and to study the effects of the co-existence of histopathological retro-placental hemorrhage (RPH) in cases of symptomatic PP on neonatal and maternal outcomes. Labor and maternal characteristics, neonatal outcome and placental histopathology lesions of pregnancies with PP, delivered between 24 and 42weeks, during 2009-2015, were reviewed. Results were compared between PP who had elective cesarean delivery (CD) (previa group) and PP with bleeding necessitating emergent CD (symptomatic previa group). Placental lesions were classified to lesions consistent with maternal malperfusion or fetal thrombo-occlusive disease (vascular and villous changes), and inflammatory lesions. Compared to the previa group (n=63), the symptomatic previa group (n=74) was characterized by older patients (p<0.001), higher rate of smokers (p=0.005), thrombophilia (p=0.038), and preterm deliveries (p<0.001). Placentas within the symptomatic previa group were smaller, with higher rates of weight<10th% (p=0.02), RPH (p<0.001) and villous changes related to maternal malperfusion (p=0.023). As compared to symptomatic PP without RPH, co-existence of RPH was associated with higher rate of adverse neonatal outcome (p<0.001) and maternal blood transfusion (p=0.02). On multivariate regression analysis, composite adverse neonatal outcome was found to be dependent on coexisting RPH (OR=2.8, 95%CI 1.2-11.7, p=0.03), and low gestational age (OR=3.1, 95%CI 1.6-4.9, p=0.02). Symptomatic placenta previa is associated with increased placental malperfusion lesions suggesting an association of maternal malperfusion with abnormal placental separation. The coexisting finding of RPH with symptomatic placenta previa can be seen as a marker for more

  13. Polyhydramnios, an unusual complication in pregnancy with hyperreactio luteinalis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hanprasertpong, Tharangrut; Hanpresertpong, Jitti

    2013-02-01

    Reports of hyperreactio luteinalis in a spontaneously conceived pregnancy are uncommon. Hyperreactio luteinalis complicated by polyhydramnios without an identifiable cause has never been reported. The authors report a case of a 25-year-old, gravida 4, para 2-0-1-2, 16-week pregnant woman who presented with bilateral ovarian enlargement. The beta-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone was at a normal level. An exploratory laparotomy with biopsy was performed at 17 weeks of gestation. Polyhydramnios without an identifiable cause was detected at 30 weeks of gestation. A full-term healthy baby was delivered. Intrapartum and postpartum were unremarkable and both ovaries spontaneously regressed.

  14. The role of telemedicine in the management of the pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S; Igwe, Elena; Homko, Carol J

    2013-02-01

    The use of technology to deliver health care over a distance has drawn considerable attention and shown dramatic growth over the last decade because of the possibility it has to reduce cost and improve access to modern medical care. Diabetes in pregnancy, which requires tight glycemic control in order to reduce perinatal complications, is a prime telemedicine intervention target. A review of the literature suggests that telemedicine, although not perfect, can potentially play a role in reducing patient visits and could improve quality of life without jeopardizing the outcome.

  15. Complications of pregnancy and labour in women with Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Horbach, S E; Lokhorst, M M; Oduber, C E; Middeldorp, S; van der Post, J A; van der Horst, C M

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate complications of pregnancy, including thromboembolism, in women with extensive vascular malformations associated with Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS). Nationwide cross-sectional study. Two tertiary expert centres and the Dutch Klippel-Trénaunay patient organisation. Adult women with KTS. Patients with KTS were invited to participate in a comprehensive online survey about their obstetric history. Reference data on pregnancy outcomes and complications of non-diseased women were collected from population-based cohorts from the literature. Prevalence of complications, specifically venous thromboembolism and postpartum haemorrhage. Sixty women completed the survey. Seventeen patients did not conceive, of whom three refrained from pregnancy because of KTS. A total of 97 pregnancies and 86 deliveries were reported in 43 patients. KTS-related symptoms were aggravated during pregnancy in 43% of patients. Deep vein thrombosis was present in 5.8% and pulmonary embolism was present in 2.3% of pregnancies, which was extremely high compared with the reference population (P < 0.0001), with a relative risk of 108.9 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 46.48-255.03) and 106.2 (95% CI 26.97-418.10), respectively. Severe postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) occurred in 11% of KTS pregnancies, compared with 5.8% of pregnancies in the reference population (relative risk, RR 1.81, 95% CI 0.97-3.37, P = 0.06). Our data suggest that women with KTS have a significant risk of venous thromboembolic events, severe postpartum haemorrhage, and aggravation of KTS symptoms during pregnancy, and in early postpartum period. Obstetricians should counsel patients about these risks in the preconception phase. Antithrombotic prophylaxis should be considered in the obstetric management of patients with KTS. High risk of complications during pregnancy and labour in women with Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Feto-maternal outcomes of pregnancy complicated by epithelial ovarian cancer: a systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Blake, Erin A; Kodama, Michiko; Yunokawa, Mayu; Ross, Malcolm S; Ueda, Yutaka; Grubbs, Brendan H; Matsuo, Koji

    2015-03-01

    Although cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is rare, epithelial cell type ovarian cancers (EOCs) comprise approximately one quarter to one half of cases of ovarian malignancy diagnosed during pregnancy. The behavior of EOC during pregnancy and its implications for maternal and fetal outcomes is not well understood. In order to better define these outcomes, a systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE using entry keywords "pregnancy" and "ovarian cancer" for the period from 1955 to 2013. The literature search identified 105 cases eligible for analysis. Clinical characteristics, pregnancy outcome, tumor characteristics, clinical management, and survival outcomes were all evaluated. Serious adverse events were defined as complications related to EOC that resulted in severe morbidity or mortality for the mother and/or fetus. The mean age of cases was 31.6 years. The most common histology was serous (47.6%), followed by mucinous (27.6%) and endometrioid types (10.5%). The most common presenting symptom was abdominal or pelvic pain (26.7%) while incidentally detected tumors accounted for one third of cases. The majority of cases were stage I at diagnosis (63.8%) followed by stage III disease (24.8%), and the median tumor size was 12cm. Live births occurred in 81.3% of cases, and of the remainder 72.2% were due to elective termination. Intrapartum surgery primarily took place in the second trimester (43%) with fetal conservation in 61.9% of operations. Over half of cases received chemotherapy (55.2%), approximately one third of which received it during the pregnancy (36.2%). Among the 21 cases treated with chemotherapy during pregnancy, there was no association with small for gestational age or fetal malformations. Serious adverse events occurred in 21.9% of cases, of which the most common was tumor rupture during pregnancy (10.5%). Three (2.9%) maternal death following surgery during pregnancy and five (6.4%) neonatal deaths were reported. Gestational

  17. Sickle cell disease in pregnancy: maternal complications in a Medicaid-enrolled population.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Sheree L; Okoroh, Ekwutosi M; Azonobi, Ijeoma; Grant, Althea; Craig Hooper, W

    2013-02-01

    Higher frequencies of pregnancy complications have been reported among women with sickle cell disease (SCD) compared with those without SCD; however, past studies are limited by small sample size, narrow geographic area, and use of hospital discharge data. We compared the prevalence of maternal complications among intrapartum and postpartum women with SCD to those without SCD in a large, geographically diverse sample. Data from the 2004-2010 Truven Health MarketScan(®) Multi-State Medicaid databases were used to assess the prevalence of maternal complications among intrapartum and postpartum women 15-44 years of age with and without SCD whose race was reported as black. The comparison group of women without SCD was further divided into those with chronic conditions associated with multi-organ failure and those without chronic conditions. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios for outcomes for women with SCD compared with women in the two comparison groups. Of the 335,348 black women with a delivery during 2004-2010, 1,526 had a diagnosis of SCD (0.5 %). Compared with women without SCD who had chronic conditions, women with SCD had higher prevalence of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, obstetric shock, pneumonia, sepsis, postpartum infection, and transfusions. SCD was also positively associated with acute renal failure, cerebrovascular disorder, respiratory distress syndrome, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, and ventilation when compared with women without SCD and chronic conditions. Overall, women with SCD have increased prevalence of pregnancy complications, even when compared with a group of women with similar risk for multi-organ failure.

  18. Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion During Pregnancy in Women with Complicated Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated with Better Glycemic Control but Not with Improvement in Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, Päivi; Juuti, Mari; Walle, Tiina; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes of women with type 1 diabetes managed on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) compared with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). Pregnancy outcomes were assessed retrospectively in women with type 1 diabetes who were patients of the Diabetes Clinic of North Karelia Hospital (Joensuu, Finland) between 2000 and 2012. The medical records of 72 women experiencing 135 pregnancies and data of their infants were retrospectively reviewed. In total, 48 pregnancies were treated with CSII and 87 with MDI. Women on CSII treatment were older and had more diabetes complications compared with women on MDI. No significant differences in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were observed between the CSII and MDI groups before or during pregnancy. Maternal or fetal outcomes did not differ between the treatment groups. However, among women with complicated diabetes, HbA1c levels were significantly lower in the CSII group until the second trimester (prepregnancy, 7.22% vs. 8.14%, respectively [P = 0.034]; first trimester, 6.85% vs. 7.87% [P < 0.001]; second trimester, 6.41% vs. 7.03% [P = 0.029]) without an increased rate of maternal hypoglycemia. Pregnancy outcomes were similar regardless of insulin treatment modality. Although using an insulin pump did not result in improvement of pregnancy outcomes, it allowed for better glycemic control in pregnancies of women with complicated diabetes. Therefore, it is worth considering in high-risk T1DM pregnancies, especially if good glycemic control is not achieved otherwise.

  19. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p <0,001) over the study period. This figure was higher than that reported in Spain (0,16) by the Microbiological Information System, which is voluntary, showing that underreporting exists. The inclusion of listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control.

  20. The Salivary Scavenger and Agglutinin (SALSA) in Healthy and Complicated Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reichhardt, Martin Parnov; Jarva, Hanna; Lokki, Anna Inkeri; Laivuori, Hannele; Vuorela, Piia; Loimaranta, Vuokko; Glasner, Andreas; Siwetz, Monika; Huppertz, Berthold; Meri, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The etiology is not clear, but an immune attack towards components of placenta or fetus has been indicated. This involves activation of the complement system in the placenta. We have previously described the presence of the complement-regulating protein salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA) in amniotic fluid. In this study we investigated the potential role of SALSA in pregnancy by analyzing its presence in amniotic fluid and placental tissue during healthy and complicated pregnancies. SALSA levels in amniotic fluid increased during pregnancy. Before 20 weeks of gestation the levels were slightly higher in patients who later developed pre-eclampsia than in gestation age-matched controls. In the placenta of pre-eclamptic patients syncytial damage is often followed by the formation of fibrinoid structures. SALSA was found clustered into these fibrinoid structures in partial co-localization with complement C1q and fibronectin. In vitro analysis showed direct protein binding of SALSA to fibronectin. SALSA binds also to fibrin/fibrinogen but did not interfere with the blood clotting process in vitro. Thus, in addition to antimicrobial defense and epithelial differentiation, the data presented here suggest that SALSA, together with fibronectin and C1q, may be involved in the containment of injured placental structures into fibrinoids.

  1. [Production and reception of growth factors in the placenta during physiological and gestosis complicated pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Krukier, I I; Pogorelova, T N; Orlov, V I

    2007-01-01

    30 women with physiological pregnancy and 28 women with gestosis were examined. In the early chorion obtained after abortion and on the full-term placenta the content of the epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and their receptors were studied by means of the ELISA method. In the process of normal gestation the increase of the placental production both of the EGF and VEGF was found. During the pregnancy complicated with gestosis and miscarriage in the first trimester the content of EGF and its receptor was lower compared to the physiological values. For VEGF and its receptor opposite changes were found: the increase of quantity of the growth factor and the decrease of its receptor. In the case of gestosis and term pregnancy the content of the both growth factors and their receptors was lower than in controls. The revealed changes in production of the angiogenic growth factors and their receptors in the placenta may have the pathogenic importance in the development of gestosis.

  2. Hyperbaric index in the primary prevention of hypertensive complications in high-risk pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Otero González, Alfonso; Uribe Moya, Silvia; Arenas Moncaleano, Ivan Gilberto; Borrajo Prol, María Paz; García García, María Jesús; López Sánchez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. In the Western World, PE affects 2-7% of pregnancies and is responsible for 50,000 deaths annually. Early detection is a priority as it can change the clinical course, but there are no biomarkers or instrumental methods with high sensitivity and specificity. Only the hyperbaric index has a sensitivity and specificity of 99% for early identification of pregnant women at risk of developing PE, but its use is not widespread. To assess the usefulness of the hyperbaric index in the primary prevention of hypertensive pregnancy complications in a public healthcare area. This is a retrospective study of pregnancies that occurred in our area during the period 2007-2012 (N=11,784). The diagnosis was established by the hyperbaric index and pregnant women at risk were treated with ASA at night. In pregnant patients referred to the nephrology clinic (38.2%), diagnosed as high-risk for PE, and treated with 100mg ASA/night (from week 17), the incidence of PE episodes was reduced by 96.94. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of fetal-derived hypermethylated RASSF1A concentration in placenta-mediated pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Kim, S Y; Park, S Y; Ahn, H K; Chung, J H; Ryu, H M

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether fetal-derived hypermethylated RASSF1A concentrations in maternal plasma during pregnancy are altered in pregnancies associated with placental dysfunction manifested by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preeclampsia (PE), or placental previa (PP) and whether this alteration can be detected in susceptible subjects before the onset of clinical disease. We performed a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to quantify RASSF1A concentrations before and after methylation-sensitive restriction digestion in maternal plasma at 7-41 gestational weeks of normal pregnancies (n = 161), IUGR (n = 43), PE (n = 22), PP (n = 14) and non-pregnant women (n = 20). A positive correlation was observed between fetal-derived hypermethylated RASSF1A concentration and gestational age for all study groups (r = 0.624, p < 0.001 for IUGR; r = 0.381, p = 0.042 for PE; r = 0.697, p < 0.001 for PP; r = 0.560, p < 0.001 for controls). The concentration of hypermethylated RASSF1A was relatively high at 7-14 gestational weeks in all patient groups. Hypermethylated RASSF1A concentration at 15-28 weeks was significantly higher in patients who subsequently developed IUGR (p = 0.002), PE (p < 0.001) or PP (p < 0.001) than in controls. We first demonstrated increased concentration of fetal-derived hypermethylated RASSF1A sequences according to advancing gestation and before the onset of the clinical manifestation of pregnancy complications secondary to placental dysfunction, such as IUGR, PE and PP. Hypermethylated RASSF1A in maternal plasma may be useful as a potential biomarker to detect placental-mediated pregnancy complications, regardless of fetal gender and polymorphism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Overweight in epilepsy as a risk factor for pregnancy and delivery complications.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Eivind; Veiby, Gyri; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Bjørk, Marte

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether prepregnancy overweight in women with epilepsy increases their risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery. This study is based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A diagnosis of epilepsy was reported in 706 pregnancies. Overweight was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 prepregnancy. Overweight women with epilepsy (n = 259) were compared to normal-weight women with epilepsy (n = 416), and to women without epilepsy with and without overweight (n = 30,516 and n = 67,977, respectively). The risks of pregnancy and delivery complications were calculated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for adverse socioeconomic factors, age, parity, and smoking. Women with epilepsy were more often overweight than women without epilepsy (38.4% vs. 31.3%, p < 0.001). The majority of pregnancy and delivery complications were more frequent in overweight women with epilepsy. Compared to overweight women without epilepsy, the risk was increased for cesarean section (OR 1.6, CI 1.2-2.2, p < 0.001), excessive bleeding (OR 1.4, CI 1.0-1.8, p = 0.04), peripartum anxiety and depressive symptoms (OR 1.9, CI 1.3-2.8, p < 0.001), small for gestational age children (OR 2.4, CI 1.2-4.8, p = 0.02), and transfer of the infant to a neonatal ward (OR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.2, p = 0.02). Compared to normal-weight women with epilepsy, the risk of cesarean section (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3, p < 0.05), gestational hypertension (OR 2.0, CI 1.1-3.5, p < 0.05), preeclampsia (OR 2.3, CI 1.2-4.5, p < 0.05), and transfer of the infant to a neonatal ward (OR 2.2, CI 1.3-3.6, p < 0.01) was increased. Prepregnancy overweight in combination with epilepsy entails a strong negative effect on risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery. In women with epilepsy and overweight referral to a nutritionist should be considered when an antiepileptic drug is started as well as

  5. Troponins, heat shock proteins and glycogen phosphorylase BB in umbilical cord blood of complicated pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Mrkaic, Ana; Rosenn, Barak; Stojanovic, Ivana; Tivari, Samir

    2017-12-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are evolutionary conserved molecules with a chaperone role in cell survival. We hypothesized that cord blood concentrations of molecules reflecting fetal cardiac muscle insult, including Hsp, troponins cTnI and cTnT, and glycol-phosphorylase BB (GP-BB) would be elevated in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) or preeclampsia (PIH) compared to healthy controls. Pregnant women admitted for delivery at >28 weeks were divided into four groups: healthy patients delivered vaginally (VAG), healthy patients delivered by c-section (CS), patients with PIH, and patients with GDM. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and cord blood concentrations of Hsp, troponins cTnI and cTnT, and GP-BB were compared between groups. Statistical analyses included t-test, Chi square, and Wilcoxon rank sum as appropriate. cTnI concentrations were significantly higher in the PIH group compared to the GDM and VAG groups and they were higher in the CS group compared to the VAG group. Concentrations of Hsp70 were higher in the GDM group compared to the VAG and CS groups. Concentration of GP-BB was higher in the PIH group compared to the VAG group. GP-BB and cTNI are the most sensitive markers for PIH-related fetal myocyte injury as is Hsp70 in pregnancies complicated by GDM.

  6. MRI findings in multifetal pregnancies complicated by twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP).

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Carolina V A; Kline-Fath, Beth M; Linam, Leann E; Garcia, Maria A Calvo; Rubio, Eva I; Lim, Foong-Yen

    2011-06-01

    Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP) is a rare complication in multifetal monochorionic pregnancies in which a normal "pump" twin provides circulation to an abnormal acardiac co-twin, resulting in high-output cardiac dysfunction in the pump twin. To define fetal MRI findings of TRAP sequence. Fetal MR images were retrospectively reviewed in 35 pregnancies complicated by TRAP sequence. Abnormalities of the pump twin, acardiac twin, umbilical cord, placenta and amniotic fluid were reviewed. Acardiac twins were classified as: acephalus (51%), anceps (40%), amorphus (9%), acormus (0%). Common findings in acardiac twins include subcutaneous edema (77%), absent cardiac structures (86%), absent or abnormal thoracic cavity (100%), abnormal abdominal organs (100%), superior limbs absent (46%) or abnormal (51%), and inferior limbs present but abnormal (83%). There were pump twin findings of cardiac dysfunction in 43% and intracranial ischemic changes in 3%. Umbilical cord anomalies were present in 97%. Acardiac twins present with a predictable pattern of malformation with poorly developed superior structures, more normally formed inferior structures and absent or rudimentary heart. Although usually absent, abnormal heart structures can be seen and do not exclude TRAP sequence. Pump twins are commonly normal with exception of findings of cardiac dysfunction and possible brain ischemia.

  7. Umbilical cord blood markers of oxidative stress in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Musilova, Ivana; Tothova, Lubomira; Menon, Ramkumar; Vlkova, Barbora; Celec, Peter; Hornychova, Helena; Kutova, Radka; Andrys, Ctirad; Stepan, Martin; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2016-01-01

    To determine umbilical cord blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and markers of oxidative stress in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and their associations with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or histological chorioamnionitis (HCA), funisitis and selected aspects of short-term neonatal morbidity. One hundred and sixty-five women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from the umbilical cord vein after the delivery of the newborn. The umbilical cord blood concentrations of TAC, FRAP, TBARS and AGEs were measured. The presence of MIAC, HCA and funisitis did not show differences in the umbilical cord blood TAC, FRAP, TBARS and AGEs concentrations. Positive correlations were found between the gestational age at sampling and umbilical cord blood TAC and AGEs concentrations (TAC: rho = 0.26; p = 0.001; AGEs: rho = 0.35; p < 0.0001). There was no association between umbilical cord blood TAC, FRAP, TBARS and AGEs concentrations and selected aspects of short-term neonatal morbidity. Oxidative stress is associated with PPROM, as indicated by the presence of markers tested in the umbilical cord blood; however, the evaluated oxidative stress markers are not influenced by the presence of MIAC and/or HCA, and funisitis or subsequent development of selected aspects of short-term neonatal morbidity.

  8. Birth outcomes and pregnancy complications in women with a history of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Ekéus, C; Lindberg, L; Lindblad, F; Hjern, A

    2006-08-01

    To examine birth outcomes and pregnancy complications in women with a history of anorexia nervosa. Prospective cohort study. Nationwide study in Sweden. All primiparous women--discharged from hospital with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa during 1973 to 1996--who gave birth during 1983 to 2002 (n = 1000) were compared with all non-anorexia nervosa primiparous women who gave birth during the same years (n = 827,582). Register study with data from Medical Birth Registry and National Patient Discharge Register. Pre-eclampsia, instrumental delivery, prematurity, small for gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score and perinatal mortality. Main birth outcome measures in women with a history of anorexia nervosa were very similar to the main population. The only observed differences were a slightly lower mean birthweight and lower adjusted odds ratios for instrumental delivery in the anorexia nervosa group compared with the main population. Neither severity of the disease nor a shorter recovery phase after first hospitalisation was related to pregnancy complications or birth outcomes. A history of anorexia nervosa was not associated with negative birth outcomes. Thus, special obstetric monitoring of pregnant women with history of anorexia nervosa does not seem to be warranted in a country with a satisfactory maternity surveillance.

  9. Vascular and cellular changes accompany altered expression of angiopoietins in placenta of non-complicated ART pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed A M; Firgany, Alaa El-Din L; Mesbah, Yaser; Soliman, Mona Fm

    2017-04-01

    ART is steadily performed for infertility cases and most of the previous researches have focused on complicated pregnancies. Nonetheless, few ones have concerned with placenta of ART in non-complicated pregnancies. To investigate the expression of angiopoietins (ANG) and their receptor, TIE-2, in placenta of full-term non-complicated pregnancies having ART (n=28) versus those with spontaneous conception (n=28) together with the histological as well as morphometric analysis. While no prominent changes were noticed in the histological structure of the placenta ART pregnancies, it showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the percentage of syncytial area and numbers of syncytial knots with insignificant reduction in the placental villous area. Vascular changes in the form of significant decrease (p<0.05) in the chorionic vessel diameter and significant increase (p<0.05) in percentage of vessel area were detected in the ART placenta. In addition, the levels ANG-1, ANG-2 and TIE-2 were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the ART placentas compared with those of SC. We demonstrated that there is an altered expression of angiopoietins accompanying the morphometric changes occurring in placenta of ART pregnancies. These changes may indicate vascular and cellular adaptation mechanism for a potential subclinical hypoxia in placenta of ART even in non-complicated pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum complications as determinants of postpartum depression: the Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Koutra, K; Vassilaki, M; Georgiou, V; Koutis, A; Bitsios, P; Kogevinas, M; Chatzi, L

    2016-12-22

    Few epidemiological studies evaluated associations between perinatal complications and maternal mood at the early postpartum period and the findings are inconsistent. We aimed at investigating a wide range of complications during pregnancy, at delivery, and at the early postpartum period as determinants of postpartum depression (PPD) at 8 weeks postpartum. A total of 1037 women who enrolled in the Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece participated in the present study. Information on pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum complications was obtained from clinical records or by questionnaires. Postpartum depressive symptoms were assessed at 8 weeks postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were fit to estimate the association between pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum complications and maternal depressive symptoms, adjusting also for potential confounders. The prevalence of women with probable depression (EPDS score ≥ 13) was 13.6% at 8 weeks postpartum. Gestational hypertension and/or preeclampsia (β coefficient 1.86, 95% CI: 0.32, 3.41) and breastfeeding difficulties (β coefficient 0.77, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.53) were significantly associated with higher PPD symptoms. Sleep patterns during pregnancy, such as sleep deprivation (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.91, 6.67) and snoring (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.93), and breastfeeding duration less than 2 months (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.64) were significantly associated with increase in the odds for PPD. Some other complications, such as unplanned pregnancy and hospitalisation during pregnancy were also associated with EPDS score, but these associations were explained by socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. We found that several pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum complications may have an adverse effect on maternal mood at the early postpartum period. These findings have considerable implications for developing effective prevention and

  11. Reduction in the incidence of invasive listeriosis in foodborne diseases active surveillance network sites, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Voetsch, Andrew C; Angulo, Frederick J; Jones, Timothy F; Moore, Matthew R; Nadon, Celine; McCarthy, Patrick; Shiferaw, Beletshachew; Megginson, Melanie B; Hurd, Sharon; Anderson, Bridget J; Cronquist, Alicia; Vugia, Duc J; Medus, Carlota; Segler, Suzanne; Graves, Lewis M; Hoekstra, Robert M; Griffin, Patricia M

    2007-02-15

    Listeriosis is a leading cause of death among patients with foodborne diseases in the United States. Monitoring disease incidence is an important element of listeriosis surveillance and control. We conducted population-based surveillance for Listeria monocytogenes isolates obtained from normally sterile sites at all clinical diagnostic laboratories in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network from 1996 through 2003. The incidence of laboratory-confirmed invasive listeriosis decreased by 24% from 1996 through 2003; pregnancy-associated disease decreased by 37%, compared with a decrease of 23% for patients > or =50 years old. The highest incidence was reported among Hispanic persons from 1997 through 2001. Differences in incidence by age group and ethnicity may be explained by dietary preferences. The marked decrease in the incidence of listeriosis may be related to the decrease in the prevalence of L. monocytogenes contamination of ready-to-eat foods since 1996. The crude incidence in 2003 of 3.1 cases per 1 million population approaches the government's Healthy People objective of 2.5 cases per 1 million population by 2005. Further decreases in listeriosis incidence will require continued efforts of industry and government to reduce contamination of food and continued efforts to educate consumers and clinicians.

  12. Color-dye injection of monochorionic placentas and correlation with pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Lanna, Mariano Matteo; Consonni, Dario; Faiola, Stefano; Schena, Vito; Ratti, Martina; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Rustico, Maria Angela

    2015-10-01

    Vascular anastomoses in monochorionic (MC) twin placenta can be easily identified with color-dye injection. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between different type of anastomoses and twin pregnancy complications. From January 2011 to October 2014, MC placentas were analyzed with color-dye injection and five group of pregnancies were identified: those that were not complicated (NC), those complicated with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR), twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), or twin anemia-polycitemia sequence (TAPS) and those with amniotic fluid discordance (AFD) between twins. Cases of TTTS treated with endoscopic laser coagulation of placenta anastomoses or cases with in utero death of one twin were excluded. A total of 118 MC placentas were observed, 58 (49%) NC, 35 (30%) sIUGR, 10 (8%) TTTS, 13 (11%) AFD and 2 (2%) TAPS. The median number of anastomoses was 7 (range 1-15), 8 (2-18), 4 (2-11), 7 (2-13) and 1 (1-1), respectively. At least one artero-venous anastomoses was found in the placenta observed, while the prevalence of artero-arterial anastomoses was 95% for NC, 91% for sIUGR, 60% for TTTS, and 77% for AFD; no TAPS placenta had this type of anastomoses. The diameter of arteroarterial anastomoses was greater in the AFD group (3.3 mm), compared to the NC, sIUGR and TTTS groups (2.3, 2.5 and 1.4 respectively, p 0.04). In this large serie of MC placenta analyzed with color-dye injection, a specific distribution of anastomoses emerged for twins with amniotic fluid discordance, which points to a need for intensive surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Amniotic fluid cathepsin-G in pregnancies complicated by the preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Musilova, Ivana; Andrys, Ctirad; Drahosova, Marcela; Soucek, Ondrej; Pliskova, Lenka; Stepan, Martin; Bestvina, Tomas; Maly, Jan; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) based on the presence of the microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI). A total of 154 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM were included in this study. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations were assessed by ELISA. MIAC was determined using a non-cultivation approach. IAI was defined as an amniotic fluid bedside interleukin-6 concentration ≥ 745 pg/mL. Women with MIAC had higher amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations than women without MIAC (with MIAC: median 82.7 ng/mL, versus without MIAC: median 64.7 ng/mL; p = 0.0003). Women with IAI had higher amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations than women without this complication (with IAI: median 103.0 ng/mL, versus without IAI: median 66.2 ng/mL; p < 0.0001). Women with microbial-associated (with both MIAC and IAI) IAI and sterile (IAI without MIAC) IAI had higher amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations than women with colonization (MIAC without IAI) and women without both MIAC and IAI (p < 0.0001). The presence of either microbial-associated or sterile IAI was associated with increased amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations in pregnancies complicated by PPROM. Amniotic fluid cathepsin-G appears to be a potential marker of IAI.

  14. Angiographic uterine artery chemoembolization followed by vacuum aspiration: an efficient and safe treatment for managing complicated cesarean scar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xianming; Su, Shili; Dong, Baihua; Ban, Yanli; Li, Chunhai; Sun, Bingcui

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate uterine artery chemoembolization (UAEC) followed by vacuum aspiration as a conservative treatment for complicated cesarean scar pregnancy. A retrospective review was performed of women presenting with cesarean scar pregnancy between January 2002 and December 2008. The medical record was evaluated to determine the method of treatment. During the time period studied, 13 women were identified who underwent UAEC followed by vacuum aspiration. 12 women successfully had bilateral UAEC followed by vacuum aspiration alone, one woman had unilateral UAEC followed by vacuum aspiration but subsequently required laparotomy. All 13 women were successfully cured and retained uterus, there was no case with severe complicating disease. With the follow-up period, two women who were planning future pregnancy conceived, and spontaneous abortion occurred in one of them during the first trimester, another had an elective cesarean delivery at term. UAEC combined with vacuum aspiration is technically feasible and may help avoid laparotomy in women with cesarean scar pregnancy.

  15. Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Vernini, Joice Monaliza; Moreli, Jusciele Brogin; Magalhães, Claudia Garcia; Costa, Roberto Antônio Araújo; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos

    2016-08-27

    Overweight and obesity are associated with pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes, posing short and long-term risks for maternal and child health. This study evaluated maternal, delivery and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by overweight and obesity. This prospective cross-sectional study included 258 pregnant women. According to prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (p < 0.05). Most women ≥ 35 years old were overweight (22.7 %) and obese (27.6 %). Prepregnancy diabetes was significantly associated with obesity (15.7 %, p < 0.000). Obese women showed the lowest weight gain (9.6 ± 7.5Kg). Overweight and obese women practiced physical exercise more frequently (p = 0.010) than normal weight women. A greater proportion of obese mothers (13.4 %) had large for gestational age babies (p = 0.021), with higher thoracic circumference (33.6 ± 2.0 cm) and abdominal circumference (31.6 ± 2.3 cm). Obesity increased the risk of developing hypertension (OR = 7.0; 3.1-15.9), hyperglycemic disturbances (OR = 5.5; 2.9-10.6) and HbA1c ≥ 6.5 % (OR = 3.7; 1.2-11.1). The infants born to obese mothers had longer hospital stay (3.9 ± 3.9 days) (p = 0.005). Our results confirm that obesity in pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes, and underscore the importance of identifying and treating inadequate weight status during pregnancy.

  16. [Analysis of risk factors for preeclampsia in pregnancies complicated with chronic aplastic anemia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Yin, Lu-yao; Liang, Mei-ying; Wang, Shan-mi; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Jian-liu

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the risk factors for preeclampsia(PE) in pregnancies complicated with chronic aplastic anemia (CAA) by analyzing the obstetric management and pregnancy outcome. Retrospectively review the clinical data including the obstetric management, the laboratory findings and the pregnancy outcome of 41 pregnant women complicated with CAA, all of whom were hospitalized in Peking University People's Hospital from May 2002 to February 2011. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors associated with PE. (1) Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed before conception while 13 were diagnosed during gestation. Eleven patients including all the 7 who were categorized as severe CAA presented with mild bleeding in the third trimester. (2) The medians of white blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentrations and platelet counts were 5.0×10⁹/L, 66.0 g/L and 12.0×10⁹/L respectively. (3) The obstetric management consisted of strict assessment, intensive surveillance and follow-up, appropriate supportive measures, timely recognition of complications, and delivery when necessary. Twenty-one patients received supportive transfusions. Ten patients developed PE, all of whom were diagnosed as severe PE (SPE). Twelve patients suffered postpartum hemorrhage, and 3 of them had blood loss more than 1000 ml. All were conservatively treated in success. (4) The median gestational age of delivery was 37 weeks. Sixteen cases delivered before 37 weeks and 5 delivered before 34 weeks. Two patients developed SPE at 29 weeks and 30 weeks respectively, and both of the neonates died for severe asphyxia. The birth weight of the live neonates ranged from 1500 to 3660 g. (5) The postpartum follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 7 years. Thirty-three patients got improvement without dependence on transfusions. Four achieved no remission and still needed intermittent transfusions. Four were lost in follow-up. (6) Significant differences were found in the bleeding tendency, the

  17. Normal adrenal function in an infant following a pregnancy complicated by maternal adrenal cortical carcinoma and mitotane exposure.

    PubMed

    Kojori, Fatemeh; Cronin, Catherine M G; Salamon, Elizabeth; Burym, Craig; Sellers, Elizabeth Ann Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Maternal adrenal cortical carcinoma in pregnancy is rare. We report a case of an infant born to a mother with a history of adrenal cortical carcinoma. The pregnancy was complicated by fetal exposure to mitotane and dexamethasone. Despite the potential teratogenic exposures, there was no evidence of adrenal dysfunction in the infant. Growth and development at 12 months of age are normal and prognosis appears favorable. The long-term impact of fetal exposure to mitotane and glucocorticoid requires further investigation.

  18. [Postnatal visit: Routine and particularity after complicated pregnancy--Guidelines for clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Doret, M

    2015-12-01

    To propose guidelines for clinical practice for routine postnatal visit and after pathological pregnancies. Bibliographic searches were performed with PubMed and Cochrane databases, and within international guidelines references. Postpartum visit should be planned 6 to 8 weeks after delivery and can be performed by an obstetrician, a gynecologist, a general practitioner or a midwife, when after normal pregnancy and delivery (Professional consensus). If any complication occurred, this visit should be handled by an obstetrician (Professional consensus). Physical examination should focus on patient symptoms and pregnancy complications (Professional consensus). Gynecological examination is not systematic (Professional consensus). Pap smear should be performed if previous exam was done more than 2years ago or when the previous exam was abnormal (Professional consensus). Weight should be measured to encourage weight loss (Professional consensus), with the aim to catch up preconceptional weight within 6 months after delivery (gradeC). Professional intervention may reduce weight retention (professional consensus). Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs cessation should be promoted (grade B) and supported by a professional (grade A). Obstetrical risks consecutive to short interval between pregnancies should be explained (evidence level [EL]: 3) and contraception discussed regarding family project (Professional consensus). Mother mood, mother to child relationship and breastfeeding troubles should be systematically evaluated (professional consensus). Pelvic-floor rehabilitation should be performed only when urinary of fecal incontinence persist 3 months after delivery (Professional consensus). Serological screening for toxoplamosis (grade B) and blood hemoglobin concentration should not be systematically performed (gradeC). After spontaneous preterm birth, women should be screened for uterine anomalies and treatment should be discussed (Professional consensus). Evidence is

  19. Birth-Weight, Pregnancy Term, Pre-Natal and Natal Complications Related to Child's Dental Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Prokocimer, T; Amir, E; Blumer, S; Peretz, B

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining whether certain pre-natal and natal conditions can predict specific dental anomalies. The conditions observed were: low birth-weight, preterm birth, pre-natal & natal complications. The dental anomalies observed were: enamel defects, total number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (total DMFT), disturbances in the tooth shape and disturbances in the number of teeth. Out of more than 2000 medical files of children aged 2-17 years old which were reviewed, 300 files met the selection criteria. Information recorded from the files included: age, gender, health status (the ASA physical status classification system by the American Society of Anesthesiologists), birth week, birth weight, total DMFT, hypomineralization, abnormal tooth shape, abnormal number of teeth and hypoplasia. Twenty one children out of 300 (7%) were born after a high-risk pregnancy, 25 children (8.3%) were born after high-risk birth, 20 children (6.7%) were born preterm - before week 37, and 29 children (9.7%) were born with a low birth weight (LBW) - 2500 grams or less. A relationship between a preterm birth and LBW to hypomineralization was found. And a relationship between a preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy to abnormal number of teeth was found. No relationship was found between birth (normal/high-risk) and the other parameters inspected. Preterm birth and LBW may predict hypomineralization in both primary and permanent dentitions. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy may predict abnormal number of teeth in both dentitions.

  20. First-Trimester Follistatin-Like-3 Levels in Pregnancies Complicated by Subsequent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Thadhani, Ravi; Powe, Camille E.; Tjoa, May Lee; Khankin, Eliyahu; Ye, Jun; Ecker, Jeffrey; Schneyer, Alan; Karumanchi, S. Ananth

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether maternal levels of follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3), an inhibitor of activin and myostatin involved in glucose homeostasis, are altered in the first trimester of pregnancies complicated by subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a nested case-control study of subjects enrolled in a prospective cohort of pregnant women with and without GDM (≥2 abnormal values on a 100-g glucose tolerance test at ∼28 weeks of gestation). We measured FSTL3 levels in serum collected during the first trimester of pregnancy. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk of GDM. RESULTS Women who developed GDM (n = 37) had lower first-trimester serum levels of FSTL3 compared with women who did not (n = 127) (median 10,789 [interquartile range 7,013–18,939] vs. 30,670 [18,370–55,484] pg/ml, P < 0.001). When subjects were divided into tertiles based on FSTL3 levels, women with the lowest levels demonstrated a marked increase in risk for developing GDM in univariate (odds ratio 11.2 [95% CI 3.6–35.3]) and multivariate (14.0 [4.1–47.9]) analyses. There was a significant negative correlation between first-trimester FSTL3 levels and ∼28-week nonfasting glucose levels (r = −0.30, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS First-trimester FSTL3 levels are associated with glucose intolerance and GDM later in pregnancy. PMID:20007937

  1. Lower Plasma Ghrelin Levels are Found in Women with Diabetes-Complicated Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Gómez-Medina, Monica P.; Ramírez-Soriano, Eleazar; López-Robles, Lucio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Saucedo, Renata; Zarate, Arturo; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Wacher, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of glycemic control and gestational age with ghrelin and proinsulin levels in cord blood and mothers’ peripheral blood during pregnancy. Methods: This is a cross-sectional comparative study of twenty-four pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GD), 18 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 36 without diabetes, as well as their neonates. Levels of proinsulin, ghrelin, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured from maternal blood during the last week before caesarian delivery and in neonatal umbilical cord blood samples. Results: Mothers with GD and T2DM had significantly lower ghrelin levels compared to the healthy mothers (p<0.001). Maternal proinsulin was lower in women with GD than in women without diabetes (p<0.001). Proinsulin was significantly elevated in the neonates of women with GD and in women with HbA1c ≥6.5% (p<0.001). However, maternal ghrelin levels were higher (p=0.031) and neonate proinsulin levels lower in the pre-term offspring of mothers with GD (p=0.033). There was a negative correlation between HbA1c levels and birth weight (r=–0.407, p<0.001). Conclusion: Ghrelin levels were lower in pregnant women with diabetes, although pre-term birth appeared to reverse this trend in GD. Proinsulin levels were also low in pregnant women with diabetes and even lower in pre-term vs. at-term births. Both ghrelin and proinsulin levels were lower in pregnant women with diabetes and HbA1c of <6.5%. Thus, ghrelin participates in the adaptation to the caloric imbalance of diabetic pregnancy and may play a similar role in pregnancy-related complications, since high ghrelin concentrations may be necessary for normal fetal development. PMID:27476441

  2. Lower Plasma Ghrelin Levels are Found in Women with Diabetes-Complicated Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Gómez-Medina, Monica P; Ramírez-Soriano, Eleazar; López-Robles, Lucio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Saucedo, Renata; Zarate, Arturo; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Wacher, Niels H

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the associations of glycemic control and gestational age with ghrelin and proinsulin levels in cord blood and mothers' peripheral blood during pregnancy. This is a cross-sectional comparative study of twenty-four pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GD), 18 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 36 without diabetes, as well as their neonates. Levels of proinsulin, ghrelin, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured from maternal blood during the last week before caesarian delivery and in neonatal umbilical cord blood samples. Mothers with GD and T2DM had significantly lower ghrelin levels compared to the healthy mothers (p<0.001). Maternal proinsulin was lower in women with GD than in women without diabetes (p<0.001). Proinsulin was significantly elevated in the neonates of women with GD and in women with HbA1c ≥6.5% (p<0.001). However, maternal ghrelin levels were higher (p=0.031) and neonate proinsulin levels lower in the pre-term offspring of mothers with GD (p=0.033). There was a negative correlation between HbA1c levels and birth weight (r=-0.407, p<0.001). Ghrelin levels were lower in pregnant women with diabetes, although pre-term birth appeared to reverse this trend in GD. Proinsulin levels were also low in pregnant women with diabetes and even lower in pre-term vs. at-term births. Both ghrelin and proinsulin levels were lower in pregnant women with diabetes and HbA1c of <6.5%. Thus, ghrelin participates in the adaptation to the caloric imbalance of diabetic pregnancy and may play a similar role in pregnancy-related complications, since high ghrelin concentrations may be necessary for normal fetal development.

  3. Rapid one step urine test for human chorionic gonadotrophin in evaluating suspected complications of early pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Kingdom, J C; Kelly, T; MacLean, A B; McAllister, E J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the ability of a sensitive one step urine test to detect human chorionic gonadotrophin in women with suspected complications of early pregnancy. DESIGN--Test on women presenting to accident and emergency department with gynaecological problems over six months. Results were validated using a quantitative assay for human chorionic gonadotrophin in serum and urine. SETTING--Accident and emergency department and gynaecology wards of a university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--130 unselected women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin by one step test, presence of ectopic pregnancy, and results of quantitative analysis of chorionic gonadotrophin in serum and urine. RESULTS--79 women had a positive urine test result and 51 a negative result. All 12 women with ectopic pregnancy had a positive test result, although urinary concentration varied from 191 IU/l to 47,800 IU/l. Only one woman, who had a faintly positive result, was found not to be pregnant on subsequent examination. The sensitivity and negative predictive values of the urine test were 100% respectively. 33 women were sent home from the accident and emergency department with normal clinical findings after a negative urine test result. All these women had undetectable concentrations of chorionic gonadotrophin in matched samples of urine and serum. CONCLUSIONS--A simple, rapid one step test for chorionic gonadotrophin should be available for the initial evaluation of emergency gynaecological problems. The additional cost of the test is offset by not admitting those patients whose clinical findings are normal and who have a negative urine test result and by reducing the number of women requiring quantitative assays of chorionic gonadotrophin. Images FIG 1 PMID:2059687

  4. Feto-maternal outcome in pregnancies complicated by isolated fetal congenital complete heart block.

    PubMed

    Roy, K K; Subbaiah, M; Kumar, S; Sharma, J B; Singh, N

    2014-08-01

    A retrospective analysis of eleven pregnancies complicated by isolated fetal congenital complete heart block (CCHB) in anti-SSA/Ro antibody positive women was carried out at a tertiary hospital in India to study the perinatal outcome. The mean gestational age at the time of detection of fetal CCHB was 24.5 ± 3.1weeks. Six mothers were asymptomatic; two had Sjögren's syndrome and three had systemic lupus erythematosus. Oral dexamethasone was given to all the patients after the diagnosis was made. There was one case of intrauterine death. Seven (63.6%) neonates needed a permanent pacemaker. There was no significant difference in the perinatal outcome in asymptomatic women with fetal CCHB and in women with connective tissue disorder and fetal CCHB. To conclude, fetal CCHB is associated with high morbidity but the presence of underlying connective disorder in the mother does not worsen the prognosis of the affected neonate.

  5. Mode of delivery in pregnancies complicated by major fetal congenital heart disease: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, C A; MacTiernan, A; Farrell, S; Mulcahy, C; McMahon, C J; Franklin, O; Coleman, D; Mahony, R; Higgins, S; Carroll, S; McParland, P; McAuliffe, F M

    2014-12-01

    To determine the mode of delivery in pregnancies complicated by complex fetal congenital heart disease (CHD). Five-year retrospective cohort study at a tertiary fetal medicine center (2007 to 2011). Cases of complex fetal CHD (n=126) were compared with 45 069 non-anomalous singleton infants ⩾500 g to determine rates of emergency intrapartum cesarean section (CS), preterm delivery and induction of labor. Intrapartum CS is significantly higher in fetal CHD than non-anomalous controls (21% vs 13.5%, odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0 to 2.7; P=0.035), predominantly related to CS for non-reassuring fetal status (OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.1; P=0.022). Although fetal CHD did not increase emergency CS rates in nulliparous women, CS was significantly increased in multiparous pregnancies (OR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.8 to 4.6; P=0.014). Rates of preterm delivery (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 2.0 to 5.4; P<0.0001) and induction of labor (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.9; P=0.001) were higher in the CHD cases. Emergency CS is increased in fetal CHD, attributed to a higher rate of CS for non-reassuring fetal status and seen mostly in multiparous women.

  6. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications.

  7. Uterine artery Doppler longitudinal changes in pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction without preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Contro, Elena; Cha, Dong Hyun; De Maggio, Irene; Ismail, Sara Yasmin; Falcone, Veronica; Gabrielli, Sandro; Farina, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the longitudinal changes in uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index (UtA-PI) in pregnancies complicated with early onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Case-control study comparing UtA-PI from 20 to 34 weeks gestation in pregnancies affected by IUGR at 20 to 28 weeks and confirmed at delivery (cases), matched with 1000 controls. Multivariable analyses were used to estimate the UtA-PI as a function of both gestational age and IUGR severity. Finally, bootstrapping technique was used to internally validate the models. We retrospectively retrieved 53 cases and 1000 controls. Regression line having log10 UtA-PI as dependent variable was a function of both gestational age and IUGR. UtA-PI decreased with gestational age in both groups. In IUGR group, UtA-PI was higher from 20 weeks onward and the difference with controls increased with gestational age. In fact, at 20 weeks, the UtA-PI ratio between cases and controls was 1.84, but at 30 weeks it rose to 2.05. Finally, the weight at delivery in the IUGR group was also inversely correlated with the UtA-PI values. We presented a reliable multivariable statistical model to evaluate the temporal changes of UtA-PI values as a function of both gestational age and IUGR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Hospital-based Perinatal Outcomes and Complications in Teenage Pregnancy in India

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, R.N.; Paul, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide problem bearing serious social and medical implications relating to maternal and child health. A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken to compare the different sociodemographic characteristics and perinatal outcomes of teenage primigravida mothers with those of adult primigravida mothers in a tertiary-care hospital in eastern India. A sample of 350 each in cases and comparison group comprised the study subjects. Data were collected through interviews and by observations using a pretested and predesigned schedule. Results revealed that the teenage mothers had a higher proportion (27.7%) of preterm deliveries compared to 13.1% in the adult mothers and had low-birth-weight babies (38.9% vs 30.4% respectively). Stillbirth rate was also significantly higher in teenage deliveries (5.1% vs 0.9% respectively). The teenage mothers developed more adverse perinatal complications, such as preterm births, stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and delivered low-birthweight babies, when compared with those of the adult primigravida mothers. Teenage pregnancy is still a rampant and important public-health problem in India with unfavourable perinatal outcomes and needs to be tackled on a priority basis. PMID:20941901

  9. Fetal cerebral and umbilical Doppler in pregnancies complicated by late-onset placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Morales-Roselló, José; Khalil, Asma; Akhoundova, Farida; Salvi, Silvia; Morlando, Maddalena; Sivanathan, Janani; Alberola-Rubio, José; Hervas-Marín, David; Fornés-Ferrer, Victoria; Perales-Marín, Alfredo; Thilaganathan, Basky

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate whether changes in the cerebroplacental Doppler and birth weight (BW) suggestive of chronic fetal hypoxemia, precede the development of late-onset placental abruption (PA) after 32 weeks. In a multicenter retrospective study, the Doppler examinations of the fetal umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) recorded after 32 weeks were collected in pregnancies subsequently developing PA. The BW centiles were calculated and the MCA pulsatility indices (PI), and UA PI were converted into multiples of the median (MoM). Afterwards, a comparison was made with a group of fetuses, which did not develop PA. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders and evaluate the feasibility of the prediction model. Pregnancies complicated by late-onset PA (n = 31) presented lower MCA PI (p = 0.015) and were smaller (p < 0.001) than those who did not (n = 1294). Logistic regression analysis indicated that cerebral vasodilation was more important than umbilical flow in the explanation of PA (MCA PI OR = 0.106, p = 0.014 and UA PI OR 1.901, p = 0.32). In addition, the influence of BW exerted was residual (BW centile OR = 0.989, p = 0.15). Fetuses developing late-onset PA demonstrate significant cerebral vasodilation with scarce placental dysfunction, suggesting the existence of some kind of chronic hypoxemia that follows the late-onset pattern.

  10. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications. PMID:27177402

  11. Sudden cardiac arrest during pregnancy: a rare complication of acquired maternal diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R; Honore, P M; Hosseinpour, N; Nieboer, K; Spapen, H D

    2012-01-01

    Acute cardiac arrest during pregnancy is a rare but devastating event. Major causes are haemorrhagic, septic or anaphylactic shock, trauma, pulmonary or amniotic fluid embolism, and congenital or acquired cardiac disease. We present a case of massive intrathoracic migration of viscera through a left diaphragmatic hernia in a pregnant multipara, causing acute obstructive shock and cardiac arrest. Complications of intrathoracic herniation occur when the intruding viscera cause left lung and cardiac compression or mediastinal "tamponade" with decreased venous return. Intrathoracic strangulation of viscera is also common and may cause ischaemia, gangrene and eventual perforation. Sudden cardiac arrest as first sign of left diaphragmatic rupture during pregnancy, however, has rarely been described. In contrast with our patient, this catastrophic event is mostly seen in nulli- and primipara with a known congenital left diaphragmatic defect. Management of a diaphragmatic hernia depends on the clinical presentation and the period of gestation during which it is detected. Despite prolonged resuscitation with more than 1 hour of chest compressions, our patient recovered completely.

  12. Hospital-based perinatal outcomes and complications in teenage pregnancy in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Prianka; Chaudhuri, R N; Paul, Bhaskar

    2010-10-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide problem bearing serious social and medical implications relating to maternal and child health. A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken to compare the different sociodemographic characteristics and perinatal outcomes of teenage primigravida mothers with those of adult primigravida mothers in a tertiary-care hospital in eastern India. A sample of 350 each in cases and comparison group comprised the study subjects. Data were collected through interviews and by observations using a pretested and predesigned schedule. Results revealed that the teenage mothers had a higher proportion (27.7%) of preterm deliveries compared to 13.1% in the adult mothers and had low-birthweight babies (38.9% vs 30.4% respectively). Stillbirth rate was also significantly higher in teenage deliveries (5.1% vs 0.9% respectively). The teenage mothers developed more adverse perinatal complications, such as preterm births, stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and delivered low-birthweight babies, when compared with those of the adult primigravida mothers. Teenage pregnancy is still a rampant and important public-health problem in India with unfavourable perinatal outcomes and needs to be tackled on a priority basis.

  13. Placental microRNA expression in pregnancies complicated by superimposed pre-eclampsia on chronic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    VASHUKOVA, ELENA S.; GLOTOV, ANDREY S.; FEDOTOV, PAVEL V.; EFIMOVA, OLGA A.; PAKIN, VLADIMIR S.; MOZGOVAYA, ELENA V.; PENDINA, ANNA A.; TIKHONOV, ANDREI V.; KOLTSOVA, ALLA S.; BARANOV, VLADISLAV S.

    2016-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a complication of pregnancy that affects 5–8% of women after 20 weeks of gestation. It is usually diagnosed based on the de novo onset of hypertension and proteinuria. Preexisting hypertension in women developing PE, also known as superimposed PE on chronic hypertension (SPE), leads to elevated risk of maternal and fetal mortality. PE is associated with an altered microRNA (miRNA) expression pattern in the placenta, suggesting that miRNA deregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of PE. Whether and how the miRNA expression pattern is changed in the SPE placenta remains unclear. The present study analyzed the placental miRNA expression profile in pregnancies complicated by SPE. miRNA expression profiles in SPE and normal placentas were investigated using an Ion Torrent sequencing system. Sequencing data were processed using a comprehensive analysis pipeline for deep miRNA sequencing (CAP-miRSeq). A total of 22 miRNAs were identified to be deregulated in placentas from patients with SPE. They included 16 miRNAs previously known to be associated with PE and 6 novel miRNAs. Among the 6 novel miRNAs, 4 were upregulated (miR-518a, miR-527, miR-518e and miR-4532) and 2 downregulated (miR-98 and miR-135b) in SPE placentas compared with controls. The present results suggest that SPE is associated with specific alterations in the placental miRNA expression pattern, which differ from alterations detected in PE placentas, and therefore, provide novel targets for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying SPE pathogenesis. PMID:27176897

  14. Helicobacter pylori colonization and pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, spontaneous prematurity, and small for gestational age birth.

    PubMed

    den Hollander, Wouter J; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Holster, I Lisanne; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Moll, Henriëtte A; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Blaser, Martin J; Steegers, Eric A P; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), small for gestational age (SGA), and spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) each may be complications of impaired placental function in pregnancy. Although their exact pathogenesis is still unknown, certain infectious agents seem to play a role. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization has been associated with increased risk for PE. Our aim was to assess the association between H. pylori colonization and PE, SGA, and PTB. We measured IgG anti-H. pylori and CagA antibodies in serum of pregnant women (median 20.5 weeks, range 16.5-29.4) who participated in a population-based prospective cohort study. Delivery and medical records were assessed. Information on demographics, education, and maternal risk factors was collected by questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess associations between H. pylori colonization and PE, SGA, and PTB. In total, 6348 pregnant women were assessed. H. pylori positivity was found in 2915 (46%) women, of whom 1023 (35%) also were CagA-positive. Pregnancy was complicated by PE, SGA, or PTB in 927 (15%) women. H. pylori colonization was associated with PE (aOR 1.51; 95%CI 1.03-2.25). Differentiation according to CagA status revealed the same risk. H. pylori was positively related with SGA, mainly explained by CagA-positive strains (aOR 1.34; 1.04-1.71). No association was observed between H. pylori and PTB. Our data suggest that H. pylori colonization may be a risk factor for PE and SGA. If these associations are confirmed by future studies and shown to be causal, H. pylori eradication may reduce related perinatal morbidity and mortality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Aspirin: The Mechanism of Action Revisited in the Context of Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid, Angela P.

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most frequently used and cheapest drugs in medicine. It belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with a wide range of pharmacological activities, including analgesic, antipyretic, and antiplatelet properties. Currently, it is accepted to prescribe a low dose of aspirin to pregnant women who are at high risk of preeclampsia (PE) because it reduces the onset of this complication. Another pregnancy alteration in which a low dose of aspirin is recommended is the obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The most recognized mechanism of action of aspirin is to inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins but this by itself does not explain the repertoire of anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin. Later, another mechanism was described: the induction of the production of aspirin-triggered lipoxins (ATLs) from arachidonic acid by acetylation of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2. The availability of a stable analog of ATL has stimulated investigations on the use of this analog and it has been found that, similar to endogenously produced lipoxins, ATL resolves inflammation and acts as antioxidant and immunomodulator. If we consider that in PE and in the obstetric APS, there is an underlying inflammatory process, aspirin might be used based on the induction of ATL. The objective of this review is to revisit the old and new mechanisms of action of aspirin. In particular, it intends to show other potential uses of this drug to prevent certain pregnancy complications in the light of its ability to induce anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid-derived mediators. PMID:28360907

  16. A novel epsilon gamma delta beta thalassemia presenting with pregnancy complications and severe neonatal anemia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Hanna; Landau, Daniela; Pissard, Serge; Krasnov, Tanya; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Gilad, Oded; Broides, Arnon; Dgany, Orly; Tamary, Hannah

    2013-02-01

    The epsilon gamma delta beta (εγδβ)-thalassemias are rare sporadic disorders caused by deletion of the β-globin gene cluster. The main clinical feature is marked prenatal and neonatal anemia that resolves spontaneously within a few months. Reports originating mainly from Europe have so far identified 30 such deletions The aim of the present work was to describe a novel 1.78-Mb deletion, the longest ever reported, and to detail the clinical features in 12 members of an extended Bedouin family. The deletion was identified by globin gene multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) of the β-globin cluster and further characterized by comparative genomic hybridization. Past and present clinical and laboratory data of ten symptomatic and two asymptomatic patients were collected. A 1.78-Mb εγδβ-deletion, the largest ever described, was identified in all patients. Although other genes were included in the deletion, no other symptoms were observed. Of the ten symptomatic fetuses and neonates, three died of the disease. The remainder required packed cell transfusions during the first months of life. Pregnancy complications included intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios, as well as additional neonatal complications including prematurity and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate. We suggest that εγδβ-thalassemia be added to the list of hemoglobinopathies that can cause neonatal anemia and that MLPA of the β-globin cluster be used to confirm its diagnosis. Careful surveillance during pregnancy is important to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially given the dramatic improvement that occurs later. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Identification of a Monoclonal Antibody That Attenuates Antiphospholipid Syndrome-Related Pregnancy Complications and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mineo, Chieko; Lanier, Lane; Jung, Eunjeong; Sengupta, Samarpita; Ulrich, Victoria; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Tarango, Cristina; Osunbunmi, Olutoye; Shen, Yu-Min; Salmon, Jane E.; Brekken, Rolf A.; Huang, Xianming; Shaul, Philip W.

    2016-01-01

    In the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), patients produce antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) that promote thrombosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Current therapy with anticoagulation is only partially effective and associated with multiple complications. We previously discovered that aPL recognition of cell surface β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI) initiates apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2)-dependent signaling in endothelial cells and in placental trophoblasts that ultimately promotes thrombosis and fetal loss, respectively. Here we sought to identify a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to β2-GPI that negates aPL-induced processes in cell culture and APS disease endpoints in mice. In a screen measuring endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity in cultured endothelial cells, we found that whereas aPL inhibit eNOS, the mAb 1N11 does not, and instead 1N11 prevents aPL action. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that 1N11 decreases pathogenic antibody binding to β2-GPI, and it blocks aPL-induced complex formation between β2-GPI and apoER2. 1N11 also prevents aPL antagonism of endothelial cell migration, and in mice it reverses the impairment in reendothelialization caused by aPL, which underlies the non-thrombotic vascular occlusion provoked by disease-causing antibodies. In addition, aPL inhibition of trophoblast proliferation and migration is negated by 1N11, and the more than 6-fold increase in fetal resorption caused by aPL in pregnant mice is prevented by 1N11. Furthermore, the promotion of thrombosis by aPL is negated by 1N11. Thus, 1N11 has been identified as an mAb that attenuates APS-related pregnancy complications and thrombosis in mice. 1N11 may provide an efficacious, mechanism-based therapy to combat the often devastating conditions suffered by APS patients. PMID:27463336

  18. [Detecting high risk pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal

    2009-12-20

    Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.

  19. Association between primary Sjögren's syndrome and pregnancy complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Upala, Sikarin; Yong, Wai Chung; Sanguankeo, Anawin

    2016-08-01

    Systemic autoimmune disorders may interfere with normal reproductive function resulting in negative outcome of pregnancy. Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a common rheumatic disease that mostly affects females. There are many reports that this condition may increase risk of pregnancy complications and fetal loss. However, data regarding these adverse outcomes are scarce and inconclusive. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available articles that assess the association between pSS and adverse pregnancy outcome. We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE and EMBASE from their dates of inception to March 2016 and reviewed papers with validity criteria. A random-effects model was used to evaluate pregnancy complications in patients with pSS and healthy controls. From 20 full-text articles, 7 studies involving 544 patients and 1586 pregnancies were included in the meta-analysis. Fetal complications included spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal deaths, and intrauterine growth retardation. Compared with healthy pregnancy, patients with pSS had significantly higher chance of neonatal deaths (pooled odds ratio (OR) = 1.77, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.28 to 1.46, p = 0.01). However, there were no significant associations between pSS and premature birth (OR = 2.10, 95 % CI 0.59-7.46, p = 0.25), spontaneous abortion (OR = 1.46, 95 % CI 0.72-2.93, p = 0.29), artificial abortion (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 0.52-2.61, p = 0.71), or stillbirth (OR = 1.05, 95 % CI 0.38-2.97, p = 0.92). There is an increased risk of fetal loss in pregnant patients with pSS. The presented evidence further supports multidisciplinary care for these patients to prevent complications during pregnancy.

  20. Feto-maternal outcomes of pregnancy complicated by Krukenberg tumor: a systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Michiko; Moeini, Aida; Machida, Hiroko; Blake, Erin A; Grubbs, Brendan H; Matsuo, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Krukenberg tumor is a rare type of ovarian cancer with a poor prognosis, and little is known about its behavior during pregnancy. A systematic review was conducted to identify pregnancies complicated by Krukenberg tumor, correlated to oncologic and neonatal outcomes (n = 35). Mean age of cases was 30.4 years, and the most common origin of primary cancer was the stomach (68.6 %) followed by the colon (14.3 %). The two most common presenting symptoms were abdominal/pelvic pain (51.4 %) and nausea/vomiting (48.6 %). Two-thirds of tumors were bilateral (65.7 %) and the average size was 16.7 cm. Ascites (45.7 %), carcinomatosis (25.7 %) and non-ovarian distant metastases (14.3 %) were found at the time of surgery. Chemotherapy was administered in 20 cases, with fetal exposure in two of these. The ovarian tumor was identified prior to the primary cancer diagnosis in all 28 cases. The overall number of live births was 27 (81.8 %). The median survival was 6 months after Krukenberg tumor diagnosis. In univariate analysis, decreased overall survival was associated with dyspnea, ascites, carcinomatosis, non-radical surgery for the primary cancer, and residual disease at surgery (all, p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, dyspnea and carcinomatosis remained independent prognostic factors for decreased overall survival after Krukenberg tumor diagnosis (2-year overall survival rates, dyspnea 0 vs. 56.6 %, adjusted-hazard ratio [HR] 9.74, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.04-46.2, p < 0.01; and carcinomatosis, 0 vs. 58.1 %, adjusted-HR 7.95, 95 % CI 1.76-36.0, p < 0.01). Our results showed that prognosis of Krukenberg tumor complicated pregnancies is extremely poor, however it may be improved if radical surgery is achievable.

  1. Low expression of soluble human leukocyte antigen G in early gestation and subsequent placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marozio, Luca; Garofalo, Anna; Berchialla, Paola; Tavella, Anna Maria; Salton, Loredana; Cavallo, Franco; Benedetto, Chiara

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal placentation is a common pathogenic mechanism of many placenta-mediated complications of late pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, and placental abruption. During successful placentation, the trophoblast (which is a semi-allograft) is not rejected by decidual immune cells because of maternal immune tolerance, mainly induced by human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G). Deficient HLA-G expression seems to be associated with the development of complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine whether low soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels in maternal blood at the beginning of pregnancy may be associated with subsequent placenta-mediated complications. For this retrospective case-control study, 117 cases of placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy and 234 controls with uneventful pregnancy were selected. Plasma sHLA-G levels were measured at 11-13 weeks' gestation by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in blood samples previously obtained at first-trimester prenatal screening for chromosomal fetal abnormalities. Women who subsequently developed placenta-mediated complications had significantly lower sHLA-G levels at the beginning of pregnancy (median, 43.08 IU/mL) than controls (median, 49.10 IU/mL; P = 0.008). An sHLA-G level lower than 43.50 IU/mL at the end of the first trimester was associated with a twofold increased risk of developing a pregnancy complication (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.73). The strongest association, although only moderately strong, was observed with severe pre-eclampsia (odds ratio, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.56). Placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy may be associated with low sHLA-G levels in the first trimester, suggesting a potential role of sHLA-G in the early stages of placentation. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Pregnancy and delivery complications and treatment approach in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Aktepe, Evrim; Ozkorumak, Evrim; Tanriöver-Kandil, Sema

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy, delivery complications and treatment approach were evaluated in 153 cases diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the State Hospital of Antalya in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Polyclinic. Most of the cases had been delivered vaginally (74.5%). The most frequent delivery complication was asphyxia/hypoxia (15.6%). The agent most frequently preferred in the treatment regimen was methylphenidate (82.4%), which is a psychostimulant. The other drugs used were risperidone (29.4%), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (16.4%) and imipramine (4.6%). The most frequent side effect resulting from methylphenidate use was a decrease in appetite (34.9%). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder often presents with comorbid disorders; in these cases, nonstimulant agents had to be added to methylphenidate for better treatment outcomes. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in combined treatment and in cases with comorbidities is in agreement with the literature. Further studies of combined treatment regimens in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are needed.

  3. [Prediction of complications of I trimester of pregnancy in women with distressed reproductive history by detection of transcervical trophoblastic cells].

    PubMed

    Grabar', V V

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possibility of using trophoblastic (fetal) cells in cervical mucus of pregnant women with complicated reproductive history to predict the course of early I trimester of pregnancy. We examined 86 women at 5-6 weeks of gestation, 56 of them with normal pregnancy, 12 with missed abortion, 18 with tubal pregnancy. As a control we used 21 non-pregnant womеn with primary infertility. Trophoblastic cells we detected by immunohistochemical method and then counted. It was revealed that in the normal course of early I trimester transcervical trophoblastic cells were detected in 4 times more likely than in missed abortion and 5 times more often than in women with tubal pregnancy. In women of the control group, who never had pregnancies, trophoblastic cells were not detected. Thus, the determination of the number of transcervical trophoblastic cells can be used in the complex diagnosis of pathological course of I trimester of pregnancy in women with complicated reproductive history.

  4. Mid-trimester maternal ADAM12 levels differ according to fetal gender in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jenny E; Thomas, Grégoire; Tuytten, Robin; Van Herrewege, Yven; Djiokep, Raoul O; Roberts, Claire T; Kenny, Louise C; Simpson, Nigel A B; North, Robyn A; Baker, Philip N

    2015-02-01

    An overrepresentation of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been observed in pregnancies associated with a male fetus. We investigated the association between fetal gender and candidate biomarkers for preeclampsia. Proteins were quantified in samples taken at 20 weeks from women recruited to the SCreening fOr Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study (preeclampsia n = 150; no preeclampsia n = 450). In contrast to placental growth factor, soluble endoglin, and insulin-like growth factor acid labile subunit, levels of metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12) at 20 weeks were dependent on fetal gender in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, for male (n = 73) fetuses the multiples of the median (MoM; interquartile range [IQR] 1.1-1.5) was 1.3, whereas for female fetuses (n = 75) MoM was 1.1 (1.0-1.3); P < .01. Prediction of preeclampsia using ADAM12 levels was improved for pregnancies associated with a male fetus (area under receiver-operator curve [AUC] 0.73 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.80]) than that of a female fetus (AUC 0.62 [0.55-0.70]); P = .03. The data presented here fit a contemporary hypothesis that there is a difference between the genders in response to an adverse maternal environment and suggest that an alteration in ADAM12 may reflect an altered placental response in pregnancies subsequently complicated by preeclampsia.

  5. Pregnancy complicated by maternal heart disease: a review of 281 women.

    PubMed

    Konar, Hiralal; Chaudhuri, Snehamay

    2012-06-01

    To study maternal heart disease in an Indian setting for: (1) different etiological factors, (2) different types of lesions, and (3) maternal and perinatal outcome. 281 women with heart disease who delivered ≥28 weeks of gestation at different teaching institutions (tertiary care centres) in India were studied. Rheumatic heart disease (n = 195; 69.4 %) with isolated mitral stenosis (n = 75; 26.7 %) were the commonest. Septal defect (n = 27; 9.6 %) was the predominant lesion among the congenital heart disease (n = 60; 21.3 %) patients, whereas in the miscellaneous group (n = 26; 9.2 %), ischemic heart disease (n = 10; 3.6 %) was the leading cause. Multiple cardiac lesions were also diagnosed in 100 (35.58 %) women. In 87 (31 %) women, diagnosis was made first time in labor. Majority n = 131, (46.6 %) had spontaneous vaginal delivery and few (n = 9; 3.3 %) required induction of labor. Cardiac complications were noted in 72 women (25.6 %). There were three (1.06 %) maternal deaths and perinatal mortality was 4 % (n = 11). In this study, rheumatic heart disease in pregnancy is still predominant though acquired cardiac lesions are rising. In rheumatic heart disease, mitral valve involvement was the commonest and multiple valve lesions were a major observation. Most common obstetric complication was small for gestation baby. Maternal morbidities in the unbooked women are high and congestive cardiac failure was the major cardiac complication.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification of Epigenetic Hotspots Potentially Related to Cardiovascular Risk in Adult Women after a Complicated Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Oudejans, Cees; Poutsma, Ankie; Michel, Omar; Mulders, Joyce; Visser, Allerdien; van Dijk, Marie; Nauta, Tessa; Bokslag, Anouk; Paulus, Walter; de Haas, Andreas; Koolwijk, Pieter; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The physiological demands of pregnancy on the maternal cardiovascular system can catapult women into a metabolic syndrome that predisposes to atherosclerosis in later life. We sought to identify the nature of the epigenomic changes associated with the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adult women following pre-eclampsia. Findings We assessed the genome wide epigenetic profile by methyl-C sequencing of monozygotic parous twin sister pairs discordant for a severe variant of pre-eclampsia. In the adult twin sisters at risk for CVD as a consequence of a complicated pregnancy, a set of 12 differentially methylated regions with at least 50% difference in methylation percentage and the same directional change was found to be shared between the affected twin sisters and significantly different compared to their unaffected monozygous sisters. Conclusion The current epigenetic marker set will permit targeted analysis of differentially methylated regions potentially related to CVD risk in large cohorts of adult women following complicated pregnancies. PMID:26870946

  7. Genome-Wide Identification of Epigenetic Hotspots Potentially Related to Cardiovascular Risk in Adult Women after a Complicated Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Cees; Poutsma, Ankie; Michel, Omar; Mulders, Joyce; Visser, Allerdien; van Dijk, Marie; Nauta, Tessa; Bokslag, Anouk; Paulus, Walter; de Haas, Andreas; Koolwijk, Pieter; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2016-01-01

    The physiological demands of pregnancy on the maternal cardiovascular system can catapult women into a metabolic syndrome that predisposes to atherosclerosis in later life. We sought to identify the nature of the epigenomic changes associated with the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adult women following pre-eclampsia. We assessed the genome wide epigenetic profile by methyl-C sequencing of monozygotic parous twin sister pairs discordant for a severe variant of pre-eclampsia. In the adult twin sisters at risk for CVD as a consequence of a complicated pregnancy, a set of 12 differentially methylated regions with at least 50% difference in methylation percentage and the same directional change was found to be shared between the affected twin sisters and significantly different compared to their unaffected monozygous sisters. The current epigenetic marker set will permit targeted analysis of differentially methylated regions potentially related to CVD risk in large cohorts of adult women following complicated pregnancies.

  8. Heparin in pregnant women with previous placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Ida; Ruggenenti, Piero; Cetin, Irene; Pardi, Giorgio; Perna, Annalisa; Vergani, Patrizia; Acaia, Barbara; Facchinetti, Fabio; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Bozzo, Maddalena; Rampello, Stefania; Marozio, Luca; Diadei, Olimpia; Gherardi, Giulia; Carminati, Sergio; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2012-04-05

    To assess whether antithrombotic prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin effectively prevents recurrence of late pregnancy complications, 135 women with previous history of preeclampsia, hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count syndrome, intrauterine fetal death, fetal growth restriction, or placental abruption who had been referred within the 12th gestational week were randomized to medical surveillance alone (n = 68) or combined to open-label nadroparin (3800 IU daily subcutaneous injections) treatment (n = 67) in the setting of a randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial, run in Italy from April 2007 to April 2010. Primary outcome was a composite end point of late-pregnancy complications. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study was stopped for futility at the time of the first planned interim analysis. Among the 128 women eventually available for final analyses, 13 of the 63 (21%) randomized to nadroparin compared with 12 of the 65 (18%) on medical surveillance alone progressed to the primary end point. The absolute event risk difference between treatment arms (2.2; -1.6 to 16.0) was not statistically significant (P = .76). Thus, nadroparin did not prevent late-pregnancy complications in women at risk of recurrence. This finding challenges the role of antithrombotic prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in the prevention of recurrent late pregnancy complications The trial was registered at http://ricerca-clinica.agenziafarmaco.it as EudraCT 2006-004205-26.

  9. Extreme Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase in a Pregnancy Complicated by Gestational Diabetes and Infant with Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There have been few case reports of isolated elevation of alkaline phosphatase beyond the normal physiologic amount with subsequent return to baseline after delivery. Here we present a similar case of extreme elevation of alkaline phosphatase in a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes and subsequently by neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT). PMID:27610256

  10. Morphological Characteristics of Placental Complex in Pregnant Women without Complications in Pregnancy and in the Presence of Severe Preeclampsia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbetov, Turakbai Zh.; Berdalinova, Akzhenis K.; Tusupkalieyv, Akylbek B.; Koishybayev, Arip K.; Zharilkasynov, Karaman Ye.

    2016-01-01

    According to the WHO data, preeclampsia develops during late pregnancy in 2-8% of women. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, therefore, the study of the morphological features of placental complex, taking into account gestational complications in postpartum women with severe preeclampsia is an important…

  11. Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels in Polish Women during Pregnancies Complicated by Hypertensive Disorders and Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Domaracki, Piotr; Sadlecki, Pawel; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Grazyna; Dzikowska, Ewa; Walentowicz, Pawel; Siodmiak, Joanna; Grabiec, Marek; Walentowicz-Sadlecka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background: An association between the level of vitamin D and the risk of pregnancy-related complications remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine concentrations of 25(OH) vitamin D in Polish women with normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational hypertension, preeclampsia or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Moreover, we analyzed an association between maternal serum 25(OH)D and the risk of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and GDM. Material and Methods: The study included 207 pregnant women, among them 171 with pregnancy-related complications: gestational hypertension (n = 45), preeclampsia (n = 23) or GDM (n = 103). The control group consisted of 36 women with normal pregnancies. Concentrations of serum 25(OH)D were measured at admission to the hospital prior to delivery Results: Patients with hypertension did not differ significantly from the controls in terms of their serum 25(OH)D concentrations (18.20 vs. 22.10 ng/mL, p = 0.15). Highly significant differences were found in 25(OH)D concentrations of women with preeclampsia and the controls (14.75 vs. 22.10 ng/mL, p = 0.0021). GDM was not associated with significant differences in 25(OH)D concentration. A low level of 25(OH)D turned out to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy on both univariate and multivariate regression analysis, and was a significant predictor of this condition on ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis (AUC = 0.70, p < 0.01). Conclusions: 25(OH)D deficiency is common among pregnant Polish women. Low concentrations of 25(OH)D may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia. Routine assessment of the 25(OH)D level during pregnancy may be crucial for the identification of women at increased risk of preeclampsia. PMID:27690002

  12. Household food insecurity is associated with self-reported pregravid weight status, gestational weight gain and pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gundersen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Background Household food insecurity is positively associated with weight among women. The association between household food insecurity and pregnancy related weight gain and complications is not well understood. Objective To identify if an independent association exists between household food insecurity and pregnancy related complications. Design Data from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition prospective cohort study were used to assess household food insecurity retrospectively using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 18-item Core Food Security Module (CFSM) among 810 pregnant women with incomes ≤ 400% of the income/poverty ratio, recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 and followed through pregnancy. Main outcome measures Self-reported pregravid body mass index, gestational weight gain, second trimester anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Statistical analyses performed: Multivariate linear, multinomial logistic and logistic regression analyses. Results Among 810 pregnant women, 76% were from fully food secure, 14% were from marginally food secure, and 10% were from food insecure households. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household was significantly associated with severe pregravid obesity [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.44, 6.14], higher gestational weight gain [adjusted β coefficient 1.87, 95% CI 0.13, 3.62] and with a higher adequacy of weight gain ratio [adjusted β 0.27, CI 0.07, 0.50]. Marginal food security was significantly associated with gestational diabetes mellitus [AOR 2.76, 95% CI 1.00, 7.66]. Conclusions This study highlights the possibility that living in a food insecure household during pregnancy may increase risk of greater weight gain and pregnancy complications. PMID:20430130

  13. Assessment of M2/ANXA5 haplotype as a risk factor in couples with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Rogenhofer, Nina; Nienaber, Lara R M; Amshoff, Lea C; Bogdanova, Nadia; Petroff, David; Wieacker, Peter; Thaler, Christian J; Markoff, Arseni

    2017-09-13

    The aim of this study was to confirm the associated M2/ANXA5 carrier risk in women with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPC) and to test their male partners for such association. Further analysis evaluated the influence of maternal vs. paternal M2 alleles on miscarriage. Two hundred eighty-eight couples with preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), or premature birth (PB) were recruited (n = 96 of each phenotype). The prevalence of the M2 haplotype was compared to two control cohorts. They included a group of women with a history of normal pregnancy without gestational pathology (Munich controls, n = 94) and a random population sample (PopGen controls, n = 533). Significant association of M2 haplotype and pregnancy complications was confirmed for women and for couples, where prevalence was elevated from 15.4 to 23.8% (p < 0.001). Post hoc analyses demonstrated an association for IUGR and PB individually. A strong link between previous miscarriages and M2 carrier status was identified which may explain the predisposition to placental pregnancy complication. M2/ANXA5 appears to be a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes related, but not limited to miscarriages, with similar prevalence in women and their male partners. These findings support the proposed physiological function of ANXA5 as an embryonic anticoagulant that appears deficient in contiguous specter of thrombophilia-related pregnancy complications culminating more frequently in miscarriage in a maternal M2 carrier background.

  14. Is the ratio of maternal serum to amniotic fluid AFP superior to serum levels as a predictor of pregnancy complications?

    PubMed

    Sharony, Reuven; Dayan, Dikla; Kidron, Debora; Manor, Mira; Berkovitz, Arie; Biron-Shental, Tal; Maymon, Ron

    2016-04-01

    The use of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels as a predictor of pregnancy complications (PC) is well established. We hypothesized that the ratio between the MSAFP/AFAFP levels (RATIO) will more accurately predict PC than MSAFP levels alone. Women who had a MSAFP test followed by amniocentesis were divided into two groups: those who had PC comprised the study group and those who had an uneventful pregnancy served as the control group. Data regarding pregnancy and delivery course were collected. The RATIO between the study and the control groups was compared. 166 women were included in the study, of which 24 had PC. A significant correlation was found between the RATIO and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and week of delivery. Six pregnancies had elevated MSAFP levels; two with RATIO below 2 had uneventful pregnancies. Among the other four pregnancies with RATIO above two, one had IUGR and the other, placental abruption. Our data suggest that the RATIO might serve as a predictor of IUGR and week of delivery. Although the number of patients in the current study was relatively small, the novelty of the proposed simple marker implies that a larger scale study is warranted. Such studies may confirm this finding and a possible advantage of using this RATIO instead of or in addition to MSAFP values for better prediction of pregnancies at risk for PC.

  15. Validity of a selection of pregnancy complications in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway.

    PubMed

    Moth, Fredrikke N; Sebastian, Tharani R; Horn, Julie; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Romundstad, Pål R; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2016-05-01

    The validity of information on pregnancy complications in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) is insufficiently studied. The objective was to examine the validity of information on gestational age, birthweight, medically initiated delivery, and gestational hypertension in the MBRN. We randomly sampled MBRN records among women who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Nord-Trøndelag county and who gave birth during 1967-2012. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value of information in the MBRN, using hospital records as the reference standard. Hospital records were available for 786 out of 797 sampled MBRN records. The PPVs of preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) and early preterm birth (<34 weeks of gestation) were approximately 90%, and the PPVs of low (<2500 g) and high (>4500 g) birthweight were 100%. For medically initiated delivery, the PPV was 28% during 1967-85, but 80% during 1986-2012 and higher among preterm (76%) than among term (51%) births. For gestational hypertension, the PPV was 68%, but 88% of women labeled with gestational hypertension in the MBRN had evidence of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia in hospital records. The validity of information on gestational age and birthweight in the MBRN was very good. For medically initiated delivery, the validity was poor before 1985 and satisfactory thereafter. For gestational hypertension, lack of information in hospital records made the evaluation difficult, but our results suggest that most women labeled with gestational hypertension in the MBRN did have a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Risk factors and perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated with cephalopelvic disproportion: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tsvieli, Oren; Sergienko, Ruslan; Sheiner, Eyal

    2012-04-01

    To characterize risk factors and perinatal outcome following cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD). A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton deliveries of women with and without CPD, between 1988 and 2010, was conducted. A multiple logistic regression model was used to control for confounders. Out of 242,520 patients, 0.3% (n = 673) were diagnosed with CPD. Using a multivariable analysis, the following obstetric risk factors were significantly associated with CPD: fetal macrosomia (birth weight above 4 kg, OR = 3.3, 95% CI 2.7-4.1, P < 0.001), infertility treatment (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.8-3.8, P < 0.001), previous caesarean delivery (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.7, P < 0.001), maternal obesity (OR = 2.1, 95% 1.3-3.4, P < 0.001), and polyhydramnios (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3, P < 0.001). Deliveries complicated by CPD resulted in Caesarean delivery in 99%, and were more likely to have laceration of the cervix (1.2 vs. 0.3%, P < 0.001), rupture of uterus (0.4 vs. 0.1%, P < 0.001), intrapartum mortality (0.6 vs. 0.1% in control, P < 0.001), and low 1-min Apgar scores (<7; 27.2 vs. 6.5%, P < 0.001). In our population, independent risk factors for CPD include fetal macrosomia, infertility treatment, previous caesarean delivery, maternal obesity and polyhydramnion. These pregnancies had higher rates of adverse perinatal outcomes and accordingly high index of suspicion should be pursued when commencing trial of labor of such pregnancies.

  17. Impact of Scotland's Smoke-Free Legislation on Pregnancy Complications: Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Daniel F.; Nelson, Scott M.; Haw, Sally J.; Pell, Jill P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Both active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure are associated with pregnancy complications. In March 2006, Scotland implemented legislation prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of this legislation on preterm delivery and small for gestational age. Methods and Findings We conducted logistic regression analyses using national administrative pregnancy data covering the whole of Scotland. Of the two breakpoints tested, 1 January 2006 produced a better fit than the date when the legislation came into force (26 March 2006), suggesting an anticipatory effect. Among the 716,941 eligible women who conceived between August 1995 and February 2009 and subsequently delivered a live-born, singleton infant between 24 and 44 wk gestation, the prevalence of current smoking fell from 25.4% before legislation to 18.8% after legislation (p<0.001). Three months prior to the legislation, there were significant decreases in small for gestational age (−4.52%, 95% CI −8.28, −0.60, p = 0.024), overall preterm delivery (−11.72%, 95% CI −15.87, −7.35, p<0.001), and spontaneous preterm labour (−11.35%, 95% CI −17.20, −5.09, p = 0.001). In sub-group analyses, significant reductions were observed among both current and never smokers. Conclusions Reductions were observed in the risk of preterm delivery and small for gestational age 3 mo prior to the introduction of legislation, although the former reversed partially following the legislation. There is growing evidence of the potential for tobacco control legislation to have a positive impact on health. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:22412353

  18. Analysis of the Placental Tissue Transcriptome of Normal and Preeclampsia Complicated Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Trifonova, E. A.; Gabidulina, T. V.; Ershov, N. I.; Serebrova, V. N.; Vorozhishcheva, A. Yu.; Stepanov, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most severe gestational complications which is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. A growth in the incidence of severe and combined forms of the pathology has been observed in recent years. According to modern concepts, inadequate cytotrophoblast invasion into the spiral arteries of the uterus and development of the ischemia-reperfusion syndrome in the placental tissue play the leading role in the development of preeclampsia, which is characterized by multipleorgan failure. In this regard, our work was aimed at studying the patterns of placental tissue transcriptome that are specific to females with PE and with physiological pregnancy, as well as identifying the potential promising biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of this pathology. We have identified 63 genes whose expression proved to differ significantly in the placental tissue of females with PE and with physiological pregnancy. A cluster of differentially expressed genes (DEG) whose expression level is increased in patients with preeclampsia includes not only the known candidate genes that have been identified in many other genome-wide studies (e.g., LEP, BHLHB2, SIGLEC6, RDH13, BCL6), but also new genes (ANKRD37, SYDE1, CYBA, ITGB2, etc.), which can be considered as new biological markers of preeclampsia and are of further interest. The results of a functional annotation of DEG show that the development of preeclampsia may be related to a stress response, immune processes, the regulation of cell-cell interactions, intracellular signaling cascades, etc. In addition, the features of the differential gene expression depending on preeclampsia severity were revealed. We have found evidence of the important role of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the failure of immunological tolerance and initiation of the pro-inflammatory cascade in the development of severe preeclampsia. The results obtained elaborate the concept of the

  19. Multistate outbreak of listeriosis associated with cantaloupe.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Jeffrey T; Cronquist, Alicia B; Silk, Benjamin J; Jackson, Kelly A; O'Connor, Katherine A; Cosgrove, Shaun; Gossack, Joe P; Parachini, Susan S; Jain, Neena S; Ettestad, Paul; Ibraheem, Mam; Cantu, Venessa; Joshi, Manjiri; DuVernoy, Tracy; Fogg, Norman W; Gorny, James R; Mogen, Kathryn M; Spires, Charlotte; Teitell, Paul; Joseph, Lavin A; Tarr, Cheryl L; Imanishi, Maho; Neil, Karen P; Tauxe, Robert V; Mahon, Barbara E

    2013-09-05

    Although new pathogen-vehicle combinations are increasingly being identified in produce-related disease outbreaks, fresh produce is a rarely recognized vehicle for listeriosis. We investigated a nationwide listeriosis outbreak that occurred in the United States during 2011. We defined an outbreak-related case as a laboratory-confirmed infection with any of five outbreak-related subtypes of Listeria monocytogenes isolated during the period from August 1 through October 31, 2011. Multistate epidemiologic, trace-back, and environmental investigations were conducted, and outbreak-related cases were compared with sporadic cases reported previously to the Listeria Initiative, an enhanced surveillance system that routinely collects detailed information about U.S. cases of listeriosis. We identified 147 outbreak-related cases in 28 states. The majority of patients (127 of 147, 86%) were 60 years of age or older. Seven infections among pregnant women and newborns and one related miscarriage were reported. Of 145 patients for whom information about hospitalization was available, 143 (99%) were hospitalized. Thirty-three of the 147 patients (22%) died. Patients with outbreak-related illness were significantly more likely to have eaten cantaloupe than were patients 60 years of age or older with sporadic illness (odds ratio, 8.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to ∞). Cantaloupe and environmental samples collected during the investigation yielded isolates matching all five outbreak-related subtypes, confirming that whole cantaloupe produced by a single Colorado farm was the outbreak source. Unsanitary conditions identified in the processing facility operated by the farm probably resulted in contamination of cantaloupes with L. monocytogenes. Raw produce, including cantaloupe, can serve as a vehicle for listeriosis. This outbreak highlights the importance of preventing produce contamination within farm and processing environments.

  20. Listeriosis in patients receiving biologic therapies.

    PubMed

    Bodro, M; Paterson, D L

    2013-09-01

    The evolution of inflammatory diseases has radically changed since the introduction of biologic therapies, such as tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (anti-TNFα). They, therefore, represent a widely used therapeutic modality. Nevertheless, post-marketing studies reveal an increased risk of infection in patients taking these drugs, especially granulomatous infections such as listeriosis. We aimed to evaluate the reported cases of listeriosis in patients treated with biologic treatments. We used the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) from 2004 to 2011. We also perform a literature review of previously reported cases of listeriosis in patients taking biologic therapies. We identified 266 cases of Listeria monocytogenes infection associated with biologic therapies. The majority of patients were receiving infliximab (77.1 %), followed by etanercept (11.7 %), adalimumab (9.8 %), rituximab (4.1 %), abatacept (0.4 %) and golimumab (0.4 %). Indications for the use of biologics were as follows: 47.7 % for rheumatologic diseases, 38 % for inflammatory bowel diseases, 3.4 % for haematological diseases and 10.5 % for other indications. Seventy-three percent of the patients were receiving concomitant immunosuppressant drugs, especially steroids (56 %) and methotrexate (31.6 %). The median time to the onset of infection was 184 days. Mortality rates range from 11.1 % in adalimumab-treated patients to 27.3 % in rituximab-treated patients (p = 0.7). Listeriosis is common in biologics-treated patients, especially related to infliximab use given concomitantly with other immunosuppressive therapies. Infections after treatment with biologics mostly occurred in the first year after initiating treatment.

  1. [The comparative evaluation of information value of traditionally analyzed indicators of total blood test and leucocytes index of intoxication in women with physiological and complicated course of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Skriabina, V V

    2013-12-01

    The article demonstrates that on the basis of retrospective analysis of 34 cases of physiological and 218 cases of complicated course of pregnancy the evaluation of leucocytes index of intoxication is more informative than the standard analysis of leukogram. The increase of leucocytes index of intoxication and tendency of increase of percentage of concentration of leucocytes at early stage of pregnancy are detected mainly in women with complicated course of pregnancy.

  2. Severe invasive listeriosis--case report.

    PubMed

    Teodor, Andra; Teodor, D; Miftode, Egidia; Prisăcaru, D; Leca, Daniela; Petrovici, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Dorobăt, Carmen-Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare food borne infection which, in the invasive form, presents as bloodstream infection, central nervous system infection, materno-fetal infection, or focal infection. Certain immunosuppressive conditions have been identified as risk factors for severe invasive disease. The invasive forms of listeriosis are associated with a high case fatality rate. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with an unremarkable medical history admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital for fever. headache, ataxia, and diplopia. Physical examination revealed high temperature, confusion, relative bradycardia, and signs of meningeal irritation. Laboratory test showed leukocyt osis with neutrophilia. pathological CSF findings (high WBC count with predominance of neutrophils, low glucose and high protein levels), increased liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT, AP, gammaGT), and important renal impairment (normal levels at presentation). No abnormalities at chest x-ray, cranial CT and abdominal ultrasound. CSF and blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Under antibiotics (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin), the course was marked by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, coma, hypotension, tachycardia. and death 12 days after admission. The particularity of this case consists in the association of the two classical forms of invasive listeriosis, meningitis and bacteriemia, with a focal infection. acute hepatitis, and a course marked by multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and exitus in a previously apparently healthy individual.

  3. Pattern of secretion of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) during pregnancies complicated by fetal aneuploidy, in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leguy, Marie Clémence; Brun, Stephanie; Pidoux, Guillaume; Salhi, Houria; Choiset, Agnes; Menet, Marie Claude; Gil, Sophie; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Guibourdenche, Jean

    2014-12-28

    Pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloprotease which circulates as an hetero-tetramer in maternal blood. Its maternal serum concentration in fetal trisomy 21 is decreased during the first trimester, so that PAPP-A is a useful screening biomarker. However, the regulation of PAPP-A placental secretion is unclear. We therefore investigated the secretion of PAPP-A in pregnancies complicated by fetal aneuploidies, both in vivo and in vitro. Maternal serum collected between 10 WG and 33 WG during 7014 normal pregnancies and 96 pregnancies complicated by fetal trisomy 21, 18, and 13 were assayed for PAPP-A using the Immulite 2000xpi system®. The pregnancies were monitored using ultrasound scanning, fetal karyotyping and placental analysis. Villous cytotrophoblasts were isolated from normal and trisomic placenta and cultured to investigate PAPP-A secretion in vitro (n=6). An increased nuchal translucency during the first trimester is a common feature of many chromosomal defect but each aneuploidy has its own syndromic pattern of abnormalities detectable at the prenatal ultrasound scanning and confirmed at the fetal examination thereafter. PAPP-A levels rise throughout normal pregnancy whereas in trisomy 21, PAPP-A levels were significantly decreased, but only during the first trimester. PAPP-A levels were decreased in trisomy 13 and sharply in trisomy 18, whatever the gestational age. In vitro, PAPP-A secretion was decreased in aneuploidy, and associated with decreased hCG secretion in Trisomy 21 and 18. These biochemical profiles did not appear to be linked to any specific histological lesions affecting the placenta. These profiles may reflect different quantitative and qualitative placental dysfunctions in the context of these aneuploidies.

  4. Impaired Vasodilatory Responses of Omental Arteries to CGRP Family Peptides in Pregnancies Complicated by Fetal Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Madhu; Betancourt, Ancizar; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Uma; Dong, Yuanlin; Fox, Karin; Belfort, Michael; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (ADM), and adrenomedullin2 (ADM2)/intermedin are potent vasorelaxant peptides considered to play a role in the adaptive mechanisms in rat pregnancy through increased vasodilation in mesenteric and uterine artery. This study was designed to demonstrate the response of omental arteries (OA) to vasoactive peptides CGRP, ADM, and ADM2 in pregnancy complications such as fetal growth restriction (FGR), and assess the changes in the expression of their receptor components in segments of OA from FGR pregnancy compared to the control. The findings for this study are: 1) relaxation responses of OA were higher for bradykinin (78.55 ± 3.91 vs 52.67 ± 2.19; P < .05) in pregnancy with FGR compared to the normal, 2) relaxation response of OA segments to CGRP was similar with no change in the expression of G-protein couple receptor-calcitonin receptor-like receptor complex in normal healthy pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by FGR, 3) maximal relaxation response of OA were significantly (P < .05) lower for both ADM (18.2 ± 6.7 vs 38 ± 2.5) and ADM2 (26.9 ± 6.7 vs 48 ± 2.6) along with decreases in their respective ligand-receptor complex in FGR compared to the normal pregnancies, 4) expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor mRNA was higher but its immunoreactivity was lower in OA from FGR pregnancy compared to the normal, and 5) mRNA and protein levels of RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3 were lower in OA isolated from FGR pregnancies compared to the normal. The current study demonstrates that FGR is associated with an increase in the sensitivity of OA to bradykinin and decreased sensitivity for ADM and ADM2 ligand-receptor system with no change in the response for CGRP compared to the normal healthy pregnancy, and suggests a potential role for ADM and ADM2 in the pathophysiology of maternal vasculature in FGR pregnancy.

  5. Signs, symptoms and complications of complete and partial uterine ruptures during pregnancy and delivery.

    PubMed

    Guiliano, M; Closset, E; Therby, D; LeGoueff, F; Deruelle, P; Subtil, D

    2014-08-01

    Uterine rupture is a rare but potentially catastrophic complication of pregnancy that requires rapid diagnosis. Classically, its signs and symptoms combine pain, fetal heart rate (FHR) abnormalities, and vaginal bleeding. The purpose of this study is to identify these signs and symptoms as well as the immediate complications of complete and incomplete (partial) ruptures of the uterine wall, whether or not they follow a previous cesarean delivery. Retrospective study of case records from two university hospital maternity units, from 1987 to 2008. In a total of 97,028 births during the study period, we identified 52 uterine ruptures (0.05%): 25 complete and 27 partial. Most (89%) occurred in women with a previous cesarean delivery. In complete ruptures, FHR abnormalities were the most frequent sign (82%), while the complete triad of FHR abnormalities-pain-vaginal bleeding was present in only 9%. The signs and symptoms of partial ruptures were very different; these were asymptomatic in half the cases (48%). Neonatal mortality reached 13.6% among the complete ruptures; 27 and 40% of these newborns had pH<6.80 and pH<7.0, respectively. Among the incomplete ruptures, only 7.7% of the newborns had a pH<7.0 and there were no deaths. Although complete rupture of the uterus has a severe neonatal prognosis, the complete set of standard symptoms is present in less than 10% of cases. FHR abnormalities are by far the most frequent sign. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in first trimester screening test parameters in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa and association with hyperemesis gravidarum

    PubMed Central

    Tülek, Fırat; Kahraman, Alper; Taşkın, Salih; Özkavukçu, Esra; Söylemez, Feride

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the possible changes in first trimester screening test parameters in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa and to determine whether there is an association between hyperemesis gravidarum and placenta previa. Material and Methods A total of 131 singleton spontaneously conceived pregnancies that were complicated by placenta previa and delivered between May 2006 and May 2013 were evaluated from birth charts. Ninety patients without placenta previa were selected amongst patients who delivered within the same period of time as the control group. Cases of low lying placenta (n=52) within the study group were assessed as a separate group. The rest of the cases was considered to be in a different group. Results Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (BhCG) multiples of medians (MoMs) and nuchal translucency (NT) MoMs were significantly higher in the placenta previa group in comparison with the low lying placenta and control groups. Apgar scores at both the 1st and 5th minutes were significantly lower in the placenta previa group. Hyperemesis gravidarum was found to be significantly more frequent in the placenta previa group. Conclusion The prevalence of hyperemesis gravidarum in the first trimester is higher in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa. Paying more attention to the development of placenta previa in the routine pregnancy follow-up of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum could be considered. PMID:25584028

  7. Changes in first trimester screening test parameters in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa and association with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Tülek, Fırat; Kahraman, Alper; Taşkın, Salih; Özkavukçu, Esra; Söylemez, Feride

    2014-01-01

    To assess the possible changes in first trimester screening test parameters in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa and to determine whether there is an association between hyperemesis gravidarum and placenta previa. A total of 131 singleton spontaneously conceived pregnancies that were complicated by placenta previa and delivered between May 2006 and May 2013 were evaluated from birth charts. Ninety patients without placenta previa were selected amongst patients who delivered within the same period of time as the control group. Cases of low lying placenta (n=52) within the study group were assessed as a separate group. The rest of the cases was considered to be in a different group. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (BhCG) multiples of medians (MoMs) and nuchal translucency (NT) MoMs were significantly higher in the placenta previa group in comparison with the low lying placenta and control groups. Apgar scores at both the 1st and 5th minutes were significantly lower in the placenta previa group. Hyperemesis gravidarum was found to be significantly more frequent in the placenta previa group. The prevalence of hyperemesis gravidarum in the first trimester is higher in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa. Paying more attention to the development of placenta previa in the routine pregnancy follow-up of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum could be considered.

  8. Effect of dietary factors in pregnancy on risk of pregnancy complications: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Nilsen, Roy M; Magnus, Per; Alexander, Jan; Haugen, Margareta

    2011-01-01

    There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life. PMID:21543541

  9. Symptoms associated with pregnancy complications along the Thai-Burma border: the role of conflict violence and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Falb, Kathryn L; McCormick, Marie C; Hemenway, David; Anfinson, Katherine; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-01-01

    To assess the association between lifetime violence victimization and self-reported symptoms associated with pregnancy complications among women living in refugee camps along the Thai-Burma border. Cross-sectional survey of partnered women aged 15-49 years living in three refugee camps who reported a pregnancy that resulted in a live birth within the past 2 years with complete data (n = 337). Variables included the lifetime prevalence of any violence victimization, conflict victimization, intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, self-reported symptoms of pregnancy complications, and demographic covariates. Logistic generalized estimating equations, accounting for camp-level clustering, were used to assess the relationships of interest. Approximately one in six women (16.0 %) reported symptoms related to pregnancy complications for their most recent birth within the last 2 years and 15 % experienced violence victimization. In multivariable analyses, any form of lifetime violence victimization was associated with 3.1 times heightened odds of reporting symptoms (95 % CI 1.8-5.2). In the final adjusted model, conflict victimization was associated with a 3.0 increase in odds of symptoms (95 % CI 2.4-3.7). However, lifetime IPV victimization was not associated with symptoms, after accounting for conflict victimization (aOR: 1.8; 95 % CI 0.4-9.0). Conflict victimization was strongly linked with heightened risk of self-reported symptoms associated with pregnancy complications among women in refugee camps along the Thai-Burma border. Future research and programs should consider the long-term impacts of conflict victimization in relation to maternal health to better meet the needs of refugee women.

  10. Trial of labor after cesarean delivery for pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ganer Herman, Hadas; Kogan, Zviya; Bar, Jacob; Kovo, Michal

    2017-07-01

    To assess rates of, and factors associated with, trial of labor and vaginal delivery among pregnancies complicated by both gestational diabetes (GDM) and a previous cesarean delivery. In a retrospective study of singleton deliveries at a university hospital in Israel between 2009 and 2015, women with one previous cesarean delivery and GDM were matched to those without GDM by past cesarean delivery indication: non-favorable (non-progressive labor or failed induction) or favorable (all other indications). Computerized files were reviewed, and maternal, obstetric, and neonatal outcomes were compared. In total, 109 women with GDM were matched to 109 control women. Trial of labor was attempted by 55 (50.5%) women in the control group and 11 (10.1%) in the GDM group (P<0.001). Overall, 42 (38.5%) control women and 5 (4.6%) women with GDM delivered vaginally (P<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression identified lack of GDM as the most significant factor associated with trial of vaginal delivery, followed by a prior vaginal delivery. Among women attempting a trial of labor, past vaginal delivery, but not GDM status, was associated with successful vaginal delivery. GDM significantly diminished the likelihood of a trial of vaginal delivery after cesarean delivery and its subsequent success. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  11. Perinatal outcomes of Southeast Asians with pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus or preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Cripe, Swee May; O'Brien, William; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-10-01

    To examine risks for adverse perinatal outcomes among Southeast Asian women with pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or preeclampsia. Perinatal outcomes of singleton births of Cambodian (3,489), Laotian (2,038), Vietnamese (11,605), Japanese (3,083) and non-Hispanic White women (33,088) were analyzed using Washington state linked birth certificate and hospitalization discharge records (1993-2006). Both Cambodian (aOR = 1.68) and Laotian (aOR = 1.71) women with GDM had increased odds of macrosomia when compared with Japanese women with GDM. Southeast Asian women with GDM had reduced odds of macrosomia when compared with White women. Southeast Asian women with preeclampsia had increased odds for preterm delivery when compared with Japanese and White women with preeclampsia. Research is needed to understand why Southeast Asian women with GDM are more likely to have better perinatal outcomes when compared with White women. Vigilant monitoring and culturally sensitive care for Southeast Asian women with preeclampsia is needed.

  12. Clinical Significance of Pregnancies Complicated by Velamentous Umbilical Cord Insertion Associated With Other Umbilical Cord/Placental Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunji; Kato, Masahiko

    2015-11-01

    We examined the clinical significance of pregnancies complicated by velamentous cord insertion (VCI) associated with other umbilical cord/placental abnormalities. Data were collected from 168 deliveries complicated by VCI and from 16,797 unaffected controls. All placentae were screened identically by trained staff. In this study, we examined the presence of excessively long umbilical cord (longer than 70 cm), vasa previa, single umbilical artery, circumvallate placenta, succenturiate placenta, lobed placenta, placenta previa, low lying placenta and placenta accrete as the other umbilical cord/placental abnormalities. Using a multivariate analysis, the pregnancies complicated by VCI were independently associated with in vitro fertilization use (P < 0.01), maternal smoking (P = 0.03), preterm delivery (P = 0.03), fetal asphyxia (P = 0.01) and small-for-gestational-age infants (P = 0.02). It was also independently associated with vasa previa (P < 0.01), single umbilical artery (P = 0.04), lobed placenta (P = 0.01) and placenta previa (P = 0.03). However, these umbilical cord/placental abnormalities were not associated with the further adverse outcomes of the pregnancies complicated by VCI. VCI is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes irrespective of the presence of other umbilical cord/placental abnormalities. Routine identification of the placental cord insertion site should be considered.

  13. Oral cancer, fever of unknown origin, and listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Morritt, A N; Mclean, N R; Snow, M H

    2002-10-01

    Listeriosis is a rare cause of fever of unknown origin in patients with oral cancer. We report two patients who, because of pain and discomfort, ate large quantities of soft cheeses; this caused listeriosis and fever. Both cases responded to high doses of amoxycillin.

  14. The utility of transvaginal ultrasound in the ED evaluation of complications of first trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Nova L; Shofer, Frances; Fields, J Matthew; Anderson, Kenton; Mangili, Alessandro; Matsuura, Asako C; Dean, Anthony J

    2015-06-01

    For patients with early intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), the sonographic signs of the gestation may be below the resolution of transabdominal ultrasound (TAU); however, it may be identified by transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). We sought to determine how often TVU performed in the emergency department (ED) reveals a viable IUP after a nondiagnostic ED TAU and the impact of ED TVU on patient length of stay (LOS). This was a retrospective cohort study of women presenting to our ED with complications of early pregnancy from January 1, 2007 to February 28, 2009 in a single urban adult ED. Abstractors recorded clinical and imaging data in a database. Patient imaging modality and results were recorded and compared with respect to ultrasound (US) findings and LOS. Of 2429 subjects identified, 795 required TVU as part of their care. Emergency department TVU was performed in 528 patients, and 267 went to radiology (RAD). Emergency department TVU identified a viable IUP in 261 patients (49.6%). Patients having initial ED US had shorter LOS than patients with initial RAD US (median 4.0 vs 6.0 hours; P < .001). Emergency department LOS was shorter for women who had ED TVU performed compared with those sent for RAD TVU regardless of the findings of the US (median 4.9 vs 6.7 hours; P < .001). There was no increased LOS for patients who needed further RAD US after an indeterminate ED TVU (7.0 vs 7.1 hours; P = .43). There was no difference in LOS for those who had a viable IUP confirmed on ED TAU vs ED (median 3.1 vs 3.2 hours, respectively; P < .32). When an ED TVU was performed, a viable IUP was detected 49.6% of the time. Emergency department LOS was significantly shorter for women who received ED TVU after indeterminate ED TAU compared with those sent to RAD for TVU, with more marked time savings among those with live IUP diagnosed on ED TVU. For patients who do not receive a definitive diagnosis of IUP on ED TVU, this approach does not result in increased LOS. Copyright © 2015

  15. Feto-maternal outcomes of pregnancy complicated by ovarian malignant germ cell tumor: a systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Michiko; Grubbs, Brendan H; Blake, Erin A; Cahoon, Sigita S; Murakami, Ryusuke; Kimura, Tadashi; Matsuo, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) are a rare type of ovarian cancer with poorly understood behavior during pregnancy. This systematic review evaluated feto-maternal outcomes and management patterns of 102 ovarian MGCT-complicated pregnancies identified in PubMed/MEDLINE. Mean age was 25.8. The most common histology type was dysgerminoma (38.2%) followed by yolk sac tumor (30.4%). Abdomino-pelvic pain (35.3%) was the most common symptom. The majority were stage I disease (76.4%) with a mean tumor size of 17.9cm. Most cases had live births (77.5%) at term (56.6%). Tumor surgery without fetal conservation took place in 22 (21.6%) cases (Group 1). This group was characterized by the first trimester tumor detection and intervention, non-viable pregnancy, and frequent concurrent hysterectomy. There were 59 (57.8%) cases which underwent expectant management of pregnancy: mean delay 16.4 weeks for 46 (45.1%) cases with tumor surgery and fetal conservation (Group 2); and 7.8 weeks for 13 (12.7%) cases with tumor surgery after delivery (Group 3). The live birth rate in Groups 2 and 3 was 98.3%. There were 21 (20.6%) cases in which the tumor was incidentally found intra/postpartum (Group 4). Group 2 showed the highest 5-year overall survival rate (92.8%) followed by Group 4 (79.5%), Group 3 (71.4%), and Group 1 (56.2%, p=0.028). Group 1 had more advanced-stage disease when compared to Group 2 (proportion of stages II-IV disease, 36.4% versus 11.4%, p=0.023). In multivariate analysis, age ≤20 (p=0.032) and stages II-IV (p=0.02) remained independent prognosticators for decreased overall survival in all cases. Expectant management of pregnancy was not associated with poor survival outcome in multivariate analysis (p=0.43). In conclusion, our analysis demonstrated that timing of tumor intervention and delivery significantly impacted feto-maternal outcome of ovarian MGCT-complicated pregnancies. It is suggested that early detection and tumor intervention with expectant

  16. The Anti-aging Factor α-klotho during Human Pregnancy and its Expression in Pregnancies Complicated by Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates and/or Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Jezid; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Schwartz, Alyse G.; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Stampalija, Tamara; Yeo, Lami; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chrousos, George P.; Gold, Philip; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2014-01-01

    Objective α-klotho, a protein with anti-aging properties, has been involved in important biological processes, such as calcium/phosphate metabolism, resistance to oxidative stress, and nitric oxide production in the endothelium. Recent studies have suggested a role of α-klotho in endocrine regulation of mineral metabolism and postnatal growth in infants. Yet, the role of α-klotho during pregnancy remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentration of α-klotho changes during pregnancy and evaluate its expression in pregnancies complicated by small-for-gestational age (SGA) and/or preeclampsia (PE). Study design This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: (1) non pregnant women (n=37); (2) uncomplicated pregnancy (n=130); (3) PE without an SGA (PE; n=58); (4) preeclampsia with an SGA neonate (PE and SGA; n=52); and (5) SGA neonate without preeclampsia (SGA; n=52). Plasma concentrations of α-klotho were determined by ELISA. Results The median plasma α-klotho concentration was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Among women with an uncomplicated pregnancy, the median plasma concentration of α-klotho increased as a function of gestational age (Spearman Rho=0.2; p=0.006). The median (interquartile range) plasma concentration of α-klotho in women with PE and SGA [947.6 (762 – 2013) pg/mL] and SGA without PE [1000 (585 – 1567) pg/mL] were 21% and 17% lower than that observed in women with an uncomplicated pregnancy [1206.6 (894 – 2012) pg/mL], (p=0.005 and p=0.02), respectively. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the median plasma concentration of α-klotho between uncomplicated pregnancies and women with PE without an SGA neonate (P=0.5). Conclusion Maternal plasma concentration of α-klotho was higher during pregnancy than in a non-pregnant state. Moreover, the median maternal plasma concentration of α-klotho was lower in mothers who delivered an SGA

  17. The maternal thiol/disulfide homeostasis does not change in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Orkun; Karaman, Erbil; Boza, Baris; Cim, Numan; Erel, Ozcan; Alisik, Murat; Kolusarı, Ali; Yildizhan, Recep; Sahin, Hanım Guler

    2017-03-06

    To evaluate the maternal thiol/disulfide homeostasis in pregnant women complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and to compare the results with healthy pregnancies. This cohort study consisted of thirty-nine pregnancies complicated by PPROM and 44 gestational age-matched healthy pregnancies in the third trimester of gestation. Maternal serum samples were obtained at the day of diagnosis, and thiol/disulfide profiles were measured by using an automated assay method. The patients were followed till delivery, and perinatal outcomes were noted. The maternal native thiol (319.9 ± 30.5 μmol/L versus 305.1 ± 49.2 μmol/L, p: .100), total thiol (379.2 ± 38.8 μmol/L versus 363.6 ± 56.4 μmol/L, p: .142) and disulfide (29.7 ± 11.7 μmol/L versus 29.3 ± 10.1 μmol/L, p: .864) levels were similar between the groups. Maternal disulfide/native thiol, disulfide/total thiol and native thiol/total thiol ratios were similar between the groups (p: .610, p: .565 and .562, respectively). The maternal serum thiol/disulfide profiles were not significantly correlated with maternal serum C-reactive protein, white blood cell count values and ongoing pregnancy outcomes (p > .05). The current study demonstrated that there was not any disturbance in maternal thiol/disulfide homeostasis in pregnancies complicated by PPROM at the time of initial diagnosis. Follow-up studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm our results.

  18. [Deficient intake of nutrients and the resulting health complications in vegetarians in the course of pregnancy and lactation].

    PubMed

    Hronek, M; Kudlácková, Z

    2005-03-01

    A survey of present results about deficient intake of nutrients and resulting health complications in vegetarians in the course of pregnancy and lactation. A review of literature. Charles University, Pharmaceutical Faculty, Hradec Králové. Review of literature and publications from medical data bases. Deficient intake of nutrients and associated development of pathological conditions were described in vegetarians in the course of pregnancy and lactation. Deficient intake of certain amino acids, vitamin B12, calcium, iron, zinc and iodine, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and restriction of energy intake were demonstrated. The health complications included hypoproteinemia, edemas, abortion, the delivery of children of lower birth weight, megablastic and sideropenic anemia, spastic conditions, weak labor, atonic bleeding, mental retardation of the conceptus.

  19. Effect of parity on first-trimester uterine artery Doppler indices and their predictive value for pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Dane, Banu; Batmaz, Gonca; Ozkal, Fulya; Bakar, Zehra; Dane, Cem

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between parity and first-trimester uterine artery Doppler indices and determine their predictive value for pregnancy complications. In 679 singleton pregnancies (388 parous and 291 nulliparous) attending for routine care at 11-14 weeks of gestation, we recorded maternal characteristics, medical and obstetric history, the presence of protodiastolic notching and measured uterine artery resistance index (RI). Parous women had a lower prevalence of bilateral notches (64 vs. 77.6%; p = 0.0002), median level of RI did not show any significant difference. In parous cases complicated with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (0.78 vs. 0.70; p = 0.0003) or miscarriage (0.86 vs. 0.71; p = 0.0003) mean levels of RI were significantly higher than in the nulliparous cases. By using mean RI we could predict the cases with PIH (area under curve (AUC) 0.63; p = 0.012), early PIH (AUC 0.84; p < 0.0001) and miscarriage (AUC 0.87; p < 0.0001) in the group of parous women. Parity has a significant effect on uterine artery Doppler findings in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the group of parous women the mean level of RI had a higher predictive value for miscarriage, early PIH and PIH.

  20. [A case of Edwards' syndrome in pregnancy complicated by serologic incompatibility and preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Murawski, Marek; Gryboś, Marian; Zalewska, Dominika; Symonowicz, Krzysztof

    2006-12-01

    A case of Edwards' syndrome (trisomy 18) diagnosed in the third pregnancy trimester is described. The diagnosis was based on sonographic examination and cytogenetic amniocentesis. Lethal genetic fetal malformation determined the medical indication to preterm delivery. Additionally, serologic incompatibility during pregnancy was observed, as well as pregnancy induced hypertension turning into preeclampsia after the labour action was evoked. A caesarean section due to obstetric indications was done. Phenotype and lethal congenital malformations in the newborn have confirmed of the chromosome aberration prenatally diagnosed.

  1. [Pregnancy and possible complications in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome--a case report].

    PubMed

    Poziemski, Paweł; Koneczny, Jarosław; Borowski, Dariusz; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Florczak, Marek

    2011-04-01

    This article presents a case of a 29-year-old pregnant woman with Sjögren's syndrome, regardless of her first pregnancy loss, conceived and delivered a healthy baby. The authors have also reviewed available medical literature and have indicated problems that typically occur in such patients. Diagnostic methods, therapeutic possibilities, and common complications that obstetrician have to deal with while taking care of pregnant women with Sjögren's syndrome have been shown.

  2. [Multidisciplinary monitoring and psychosocial support reduce complications of opiate dependence in pregnant women: 114 pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Brulet, Charlotte; Chanal, Corinne; Ravel, Patrice; Mazurier, Evelyne; Boulot, Pierre; Faucherre, Vincent

    2007-11-01

    Drug abuse during pregnancy is an important public health problem. Montpellier University Hospital established a center for addiction and pregnancy in 1997 to provide multidisciplinary prenatal care aimed at reducing maternal and fetal risks during pregnancy and afterwards. This study assesses the trends in drug-taking behavior and pregnancy outcome among women receiving this prenatal care. This exploratory prospective study examined participants in this program during its first 5 years (1997-2002). Women were included if they had been: pregnant, addicted to opiates, enrolled in the program for at least 15 days, and if their delivery took place at Montpellier Hospital. We recorded how often they came to prenatal care, drug-taking behavior, social and economic level, and obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. The study included 114 women. Those receiving drug substitution at the onset of pregnancy mainly saw general practitioners (64/89 at the beginning of pregnancy), who most often prescribed buprenorphine (70/105 at the end of pregnancy). More than two thirds of patients (n=78) abused several substances. Heroine abuse decreased (p<0.01) over pregnancy, and social and economic level rose (p<0.001). Mean gestational age at delivery was 38.5 weeks. Neonatal withdrawal syndrome remained an important problem and required treatment in 89 infants (78%). No mothers abandoned their infant. Multidisciplinary prenatal care with medical, social, and psychological support can decrease opiate abusers' risks during pregnancy even when the drug treatment program is essentially unsupervised.

  3. The prevalence and incidence of perinatal anxiety disorders among women experiencing a medically complicated pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Young, Allan H; Zhang, Areiyu; Janssen, Patricia; Antony, Martin M

    2017-04-01

    Over 20% of pregnancies involve medical difficulties that pose some threat to the health and well-being of the mother, her developing infant, or both. We report on the first comparison of the prevalence and incidence of maternal anxiety disorders (AD) in pregnancy and the postpartum, across levels of medical risk in pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 310) completed postnatal screening measures for anxiety. Women who scored at or above cutoff on one or more of the screening measures were administered a diagnostic interview (n = 115) for AD. Pregnancies were classified into low, moderate, or high risk based on self-report and contact with high-risk maternity clinics. The incidence of AD in pregnancy was higher among women classified as experiencing a medically moderate or high-risk pregnancy, compared with women classified as experiencing a medically low-risk pregnancy. Across risk groups, there were no differences in AD prevalence or in the incidence of AD in the postpartum. Demographic characteristics and parity did not contribute meaningfully to outcomes. Pregnancies characterized by medical risks are associated with an increased likelihood of new onset AD. Women experiencing medically complex pregnancies should be screened for anxiety and offered appropriate treatment.

  4. [Listeriosis in Tunis: seven cases reports].

    PubMed

    Elbeldi, A; Smaoui, H; Hamouda, S; Helel, S; Hmaied, F; Ben Mustapha, I; Barsaoui, S; Bousnina, S; Marrakchi, Z; Barbouche, M R; Kechrid, A

    2011-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenesis a Gram positive facultative intracellular bacterium that can be responsible for severe infections, affecting essentially pregnant women, immunocompromised patients at the early and later stages of life. In Tunisia, invasive L. monocytogenes infections are thought to be exceptional and limited data are available about listeriosis. We reported seven cases (five newborn children and two infants) of human listeriosis that occurred in Tunis from 2000 to 2008. The newborn children were hospitalized for suspicion of maternofoetal infections. The two infants were hospitalized for fever associated with digestive signs in one case and neurological signs in the other. L. monocytogenes-was isolated from culture of cerebrospinal fluid in four cases, peripheral samples in two cases and from blood culture in one case. Isolates identification was based on conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was realized according to the recommendation of the "Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société française de microbiologie". All L. monocytogenes isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin and aminoside but resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins. Investigations of the immune system were realized for the two infants including phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood cells by flow cytometry, lymphocyte proliferation assays, phagocytic cell functions and measurement of immunoglobulins as well as complement. All these explorations were normal for both infants. The outcome was fatal in only one case (a newborn child), and all the other patients recovered after adapted antibiotic treatment. In conclusion, our study shows that listeriosis is not exceptional in Tunis. Thus, it is necessary to know how to evoke this diagnosis, at any age, in order to establish an early and adapted antibiotic treatment and to avoid fatal outcome.

  5. Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in cervical fluid of pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Musilova, Ivana; Pliskova, Lenka; Kutova, Radka; Hornychova, Helena; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid and their association with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). A prospective study of 68 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM between 24(0/7) and 36(6/7) weeks was conducted. Cervical fluid and amniotic fluid were collected from all women at the time of admission. The Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid were identified using specific real-time PCR. Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA were identified in 59% (40/69) of the cervical fluid samples. Women with the presence of Ureaplasma species DNA with and without Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid had a higher rate of MIAC alone [35% (14/40) versus 11% (3/28); p = 0.02] and a higher rate of the presence of both MIAC and HCA [30% (12/40) versus 4% (1/28); p = 0.01] than women without Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid. The presence of Ureaplasma species DNA with and without Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid is associated with a higher risk of MIAC or MIAC and HCA together in pregnancies complicated by PPROM.

  6. [Medical termination of pregnancy by mifepristone and misoprostol - evaluation of succes rate, complications and satisfaction of patients].

    PubMed

    Frank, K; Gerychová, R; Janků, P; Huser, M; Ventruba, P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success rate and complications of medical termination of pregnancy up to 49 days of amenorrhea and present the outcome of our phone questionaire of satisfaction of patients. Retrospective analysis. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno. The analysis of 111 patients, who underwent medical termination of pregnancy at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno from 1. 6. 2014 to 30. 6. 2015 using 600 mg of mifepristone (Mifegyne) and 400 µg of misoprostol (Mispregnol). In our set of patients we monitored subjective perception of medical termination of pregnancy (pain, nausea, vomiting, satisfaction with this method) and objective process (hospitalisation, surgical intervention). The view of patients was found out by the phone questionnaire Complete abortion without a surgical intervention underwent 103 patients. Nausea, pelvic pain, and intensity of bleeding were evaluated as suitable. Only 1 patient (0.9%) was hospitalised for nausea and 1 patient (0.9%) was hospitalised in case of need for an emergency curretage and transfusions. Some kind of contraception after the medical termination of pregnancy started using 98.0% of women. The satisfaction rate of this method was high - 101 patients declared themselves satisfied - 66.7% very satisfied, 24.3% rather satisfied. Medical termination of pregnancy has good efficiency, we consider it safe with minimum side-effects and is well evaluated by patients.

  7. Fetal surveillance and timing of delivery in pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Thung, Stephen F; Landon, Mark B

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes concurrent with pregnancy is a high-risk condition associated with risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Historically, these risks were unacceptably high and a policy of late preterm delivery induction was the rule. With the advent of improved glycemic management and the introduction of antenatal fetal testing and surveillance, the perinatal risks have dropped significantly such that a healthy pregnancy is expected. Managing stable women with diabetes mellitus to 39 and 40 weeks is now commonplace as fetal surveillance tools such as nonstress testing and biophysical profiles have sufficiently low false-negative rates that providers can feel assured that expectantly managing these pregnancies close to term can be done with minimal risk. However, providers cannot become complacent, and the results of fetal surveillance, clinical characteristics of the pregnancy, and expected neonatal outcomes all need to be accounted when deciding the optimal gestational age to deliver a child.

  8. M1/M2 Macrophage Polarity in Normal and Complicated Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mary B.; von Chamier, Maria; Allam, Ayman B.; Reyes, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Tissue macrophages play an important role in all stages of pregnancy, including uterine stromal remodeling (decidualization) before embryo implantation, parturition, and post-partum uterine involution. The activation state and function of utero-placental macrophages are largely dependent on the local tissue microenvironment. Thus, macrophages are involved in a variety of activities such as regulation of immune cell activities, placental cell invasion, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. Disruption of the uterine microenvironment, particularly during the early stages of pregnancy (decidualization, implantation, and placentation) can have profound effects on macrophage activity and subsequently impact pregnancy outcome. In this review, we will provide an overview of the temporal and spatial regulation of utero-placental macrophage activation during normal pregnancy in human beings and rodents with a focus on more recent findings. We will also discuss the role of M1/M2 dysregulation within the intrauterine environment during adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25505471

  9. Fetal outcome and amniocentesis results in pregnancies complicated by varicella infection.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Boaz; Book, Mazal; Lipitz, Shlomo; Katorza, Eldad; Achiron, Reuven; Grossman, Zehava; Shrim, Alon

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the outcome of infants born to mothers with varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in pregnancy who had second trimester amniocentesis for detection of placental transfer. We interviewed women who had had VZV infection in pregnancy and who underwent diagnostic amniocentesis to detect transplacental infection using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cell culture methods to characterize their children's clinical and psychomotor development. Twenty women who had a diagnosis of primary VZV during pregnancy were available for interview. The mean gestational age at which primary VZV was acquired was 11±3.5 weeks. One infant had hypospadias and developmental delay. He was born to an epileptic mother who had been treated during pregnancy with sodium valproate and clonazepam. Another infant had abnormal brainstem auditory-evoked potentials. All other infants were reported to have normal clinical and psychomotor development. In cases of varicella infection during pregnancy, negative studies of amniotic fluid using PCR may contribute to decision making.

  10. Differences in pregnancy outcomes, prenatal care utilization, and maternal complications between teenagers and adult women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Seung Mi; Lim, Nam Gu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Sung-Hee; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Un-Na; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Teenage mothers are at high risk for maternal and neonatal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic circumstances of teenage pregnancy, and determine whether these increased risks remained after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Corporation database, we selected women who terminated pregnancy, by delivery or abortion, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Abortion, delivery type, and maternal complications were defined based on the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. We compared teenagers (13–19 years at the time of pregnancy termination) with other age groups and investigated differences based on socioeconomic status, reflected by Medical Aid (MA) and National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. We used multivariate analysis to define the factors associated with preterm delivery. Among 463,847 pregnancies, 2267 (0.49%) involved teenagers. Teenage mothers were more likely to have an abortion (33.4%) than deliver a baby when compared with other age groups (20.8%; P < 0.001). About 14.4% of teenage mothers had never received prenatal care throughout pregnancy. Among teenage mothers, 61.7% of MA recipients made fewer than 4 prenatal care visits (vs 38.8% of NHI beneficiaries) (P < 0.001). Teenage mothers more often experienced preterm delivery and perineal laceration (P < 0.001). Teenage mothers (<20 years) were 2.47 times more likely to have preterm delivery than older mothers (20–34 years; P < 0.001). Teenage mothers had higher risk of inadequate prenatal care and subsequently of preterm delivery, which remained significantly higher after adjusting for socioeconomic confounding variables and adequacy of prenatal care in Korean teenagers (P < 0.001). PMID:27559960

  11. Making pregnancy safer-birth preparedness and complication readiness study among antenatal women attendees of a primary health center, delhi.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Anita Shankar; Kaur, Ravneet; Prasuna, Josyula Gnana; Rasheed, Nazish

    2015-01-01

    Every pregnancy is a joyful moment for all mothers who dream of a safe pregnancy and a healthy baby. However, every pregnant woman faces the risk of sudden, unpredictable complications that could end in death or injury to herself or to her infant. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPACR) is a strategy that encourages pregnant women, their families, and communities to effectively plan for births and deal with emergencies, if they occur. It is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs. The objective of our study was to assess the status of BPACR among pregnant women and to study the socio-demographic factors affecting BPACR. We conducted a facility-based cross-sectional study among 417 antenatal attendees at a primary health center, Palam, New Delhi from January to April 2012. Knowledge about danger signs, planning for transport, place, and delivery by skilled birth attendant, financial management, and outcome were assessed. BPACR index was calculated. Our study revealed that the BPACR index was very low (41%) although the preparedness level was high. Majority (81.1%) had identified a skilled attendant at birth for delivery. Nearly half of the women (48.9%) had saved money for delivery and 44.1% women had also identified a mode of transportation for the delivery. However, only 179 (42.9%) women were aware about early registration of pregnancy. Only one-third (33.1%) of women knew about four or more antenatal visits during pregnancy. Overall, only 27.8% women knew about any one danger sign of pregnancy. The level of awareness regarding BPACR was very low (41%). Efforts should be targeted to increase the awareness regarding components of BPACR among pregnant women and their families at the Primary Health Center (PHC) as well as at the community level. This will indeed go a long way in reducing morbidity as well as mortality in pregnant women, thus enabling us to reach the millennium development goal.

  12. High-risk pregnancy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a case of ectopic, abdominal pregnancy with birth of a live, term infant, and a case of gestational diabetes complicated by pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Luck, Melissa; Hartley, Deborah; Crispen, Heather M.; Lubach, Gabriele R.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    Several cases of abdominal pregnancy have been described in nonhuman primates. These previous occurrences have been mummified fetuses found in the abdominal cavity. This report describes a case of abdominal pregnancy in a timed-bred rhesus monkey with delivery of a live term infant. The mother died 14 days later from complications of septic peritonitis. At necropsy, the monkey had an intestinal adenocarcinoma that may have allowed leakage of intestinal contents into the abdomen. The second case of pregnancy complication was a rhesus monkey found to have gestational diabetes that later developed pre-eclampsia. She was treated for 5 days with a regimen similar to that used in women, and a live infant was delivered at day 157 of gestation by Caesarian section. These cases of high-risk pregnancy underscore the value of timed-breeding and careful monitoring of pregnant monkeys and the similarities between pregnancy complications in women and in nonhuman primates. PMID:19490364

  13. Increased psychological trauma and decreased desire to have children after a complicated pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Pınar; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Soydinç, Hatice Ender; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Özler, Ali; Turgut, Abdulkadir; Bez, Yasin; Gül, Talip

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Information about fertility desire and psychological sequelae after high-risk pregnancies are scarce in the literature. The aim of the present study is to investigate the psychological effects of high-risk pregnancies. Material and Methods: The patients who had a history of severe preeclampsia, eclampsia or major hemorrhage during the peripartum period were enrolled as the study group and compared with the control subjects with respect to fear about new pregnancy, anxiety/ depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores. The study was carried out by submitting a questionnaire form to the participants. Numbers of planned children before and after the last delivery were evaluated in both groups. Results: Fear about a new pregnancy was found to be significantly higher in the study group compared with the controls. There were no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of anxiety and depression. In terms of re-experience and avoidance in PTSD was significantly higher in the study group, however no significant difference was found for hyper-arousal. Conclusion: Fear regarding new pregnancy is high and planning more children is decreased after high-risk pregnancies and PTSD symptom scores were higher after high-risk pregnancies. PMID:24592063

  14. The Assessment of Diet Quality and Its Effects on Health Outcomes Pre-pregnancy and during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julie C; Zhou, Shao J; Flynn, Angela C; Malek, Lenka; Greco, Rebecca; Moran, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Overweight and obesity pre pregnancy or during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal obstetric and fetal complications. Diet is one modifiable risk factor that women may be motivated to improve. General healthy eating guidelines, micronutrient sufficiency and macronutrient quantity and quality are important nutrition considerations pre and during pregnancy. With regards to specific nutrients, health authorities have recommendations for folate and/or iodine supplementation; but not consistently for iron and omega-3 despite evidence for their association with health outcomes. There are modest additional requirements for energy and protein, but not fat or carbohydrate, in mid-late pregnancy. Diet indices and dietary pattern analysis are additional tools or methodologies used to assess diet quality. These tools have been used to determine dietary intakes and patterns and their association with pregnancy complications and birth outcomes pre or during pregnancy. Women who may unnecessarily resist foods due to fear of food contamination from listeriosis and methylmercury may limit their diet quality and a balanced approached is required. Dietary intake may also vary according to certain population characteristics. Additional support for women who are younger, less educated, overweight and obese, from socially disadvantaged areas, smokers and those who unnecessarily avoid healthy foods, is required to achieve a higher quality diet and optimal lifestyle peri conception.

  15. Conception, complicated pregnancy, and labour of gods and heroes in Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Sardi, Thalia; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy and labour are holy moments in a woman's life. Even in Greek mythology we can find descriptions of them. We searched in the Greek myths to find descriptions of labours of ancient heroes and gods. We identified descriptions of extracorporeal fertilization, superfecundation, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labour, prolonged pregnancy and Caesarean section. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities in present or future developments in the field of obstetrics. It could be concluded that various aspects of modern obstetrical practice are described in Greek mythology.

  16. Maternal caffeine intake, blood pressure, and the risk of hypertensive complications during pregnancy. The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Rachel; Steegers, Eric A P; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-04-01

    Caffeine intake has been suggested to be associated with the risk of hypertension. Less is known about the associations of caffeine intake on maternal cardiovascular adaptations during pregnancy. We examined the associations of caffeine intake in different trimesters of pregnancy with repeatedly measured blood pressure and the risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia in a population-based cohort of 7,890 pregnant women. In each trimester caffeine intake and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were assessed by questionnaires and physical examinations, respectively. Information about hypertensive complications was obtained from medical records. Our longitudinal analyses revealed no significant differences for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The cross-sectional analyses showed that higher caffeine intake tended to be associated with higher systolic blood pressure in first and third trimester (P trend <0.05), but not in second trimester. Caffeine intake was not consistently associated with diastolic blood pressure levels, or the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension. As compared to women with caffeine intake of <2 units/day, those using 2-3.9 units/day had a lower risk of pre-eclampsia (odds ratio 0.63 (95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.96)). Higher caffeine intake during pregnancy seems to be associated with elevated systolic blood pressure levels in first and third trimester, but not with diastolic blood pressure levels. We did not find evidence of significant adverse associations of caffeine intake on maternal cardiovascular adaptations during pregnancy. The unexpected finding of a possible protective association with moderate caffeine intake deserves further investigation.

  17. Low-molecular-weight heparin for prevention of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis (AFFIRM).

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc A; Langlois, Nicole J; de Vries, Johanna Ip; Rey, Evelyne; Gris, Jean-Christophe; Martinelli, Ida; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Ramsay, Timothy; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Skidmore, Becky; Middeldorp, Saskia; Bates, Shannon; Petroff, David; Bezemer, Dick; van Hoorn, Marion E; Abheiden, Carolien Nh; Perna, Annalisa; de Jong, Paulien; Kaaja, Risto

    2014-06-26

    Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications include pre-eclampsia, late pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and the small-for-gestational age newborn. They are leading causes of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in developed nations. Women who have experienced these complications are at an elevated risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies. However, despite decades of research no effective strategies to prevent recurrence have been identified, until recently. We completed a pooled summary-based meta-analysis that strongly suggests that low-molecular-weight heparin reduces the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated complications. The proposed individual patient data meta-analysis builds on this successful collaboration. The project is called AFFIRM, An individual patient data meta-analysis oF low-molecular-weight heparin For prevention of placenta-medIated pRegnancy coMplications. We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized controlled trials with a low-molecular-weight heparin intervention for the prevention of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. Investigators and statisticians representing eight trials met to discuss the outcomes and analysis plan for an individual patient data meta-analysis. An additional trial has since been added for a total of nine eligible trials. The primary analyses from the original trials will be replicated for quality assurance prior to recoding the data from each trial and combining it into a common dataset for analysis. Using the anonymized combined data we will conduct logistic regression and subgroup analyses aimed at identifying which women with previous pregnancy complications benefit most from treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin during pregnancy. The goal of the proposed individual patient data meta-analysis is a thorough estimation of treatment effects in patients with prior individual placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and exploration of which complications are

  18. Pregnancy Complications Following Prenatal Exposure to SSRIs or Maternal Psychiatric Disorders: Results From Population-Based National Register Data.

    PubMed

    Malm, Heli; Sourander, Andre; Gissler, Mika; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian W; Artama, Miia; Brown, Alan S

    2015-12-01

    Using national register data, the authors examined the relationship between prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment and pregnancy complications, accounting for psychiatric diagnoses related to SSRI use. This was a population-based prospective birth cohort study using national register data. The sampling frame included 845,345 offspring, representing all singleton live births in Finland between 1996 and 2010. Pregnancies were classified as exposed to SSRIs (N=15,729), unexposed to SSRIs but with psychiatric diagnoses (N=9,652), and unexposed to medications and psychiatric diagnoses (N=31,394). Pregnancy outcomes in SSRI users were compared with those in the unexposed groups. Offspring of mothers who received SSRI prescriptions during pregnancy had a lower risk for late preterm birth (odds ratio=0.84, 95% CI=0.74-0.96), for very preterm birth (odds ratio=0.52, 95% CI=0.37-0.74), and for cesarean section (odds ratio=0.70, 95% CI=0.66-0.75) compared with offspring of mothers unexposed to medications but with psychiatric disorders. In contrast, in SSRI-treated mothers, the risk was higher for offspring neonatal complications, including low Apgar score (odds ratio=1.68, 95% CI=1.34-2.12) and monitoring in a neonatal care unit (odds ratio=1.24, 95% CI=1.14-1.35). Compared with offspring of unexposed mothers, offspring of SSRI-treated mothers and mothers unexposed to medications but with psychiatric disorders were both at increased risk of many adverse pregnancy outcomes, including cesarean section and need for monitoring in a neonatal care unit. In a large national birth cohort, treatment of maternal psychiatric disorders with SSRIs during pregnancy was related to a lower risk of preterm birth and cesarean section but a higher risk of neonatal maladaptation. The findings provide novel evidence for a protective role of SSRIs on some deleterious reproductive outcomes, possibly by reducing maternal depressive symptoms. The divergent findings suggest

  19. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use during pregnancy and possible neonatal complications.

    PubMed

    Cantor Sackett, Jillan; Weller, Ronald A; Weller, Elizabeth B

    2009-06-01

    This paper reviews the risks and benefits of using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in pregnant women. The effects of SSRI use on pregnant women and fetuses are discussed, and the need for SSRI treatment is explained. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, teratogenic risks of SSRI treatment during pregnancy, neonatal adaptations, and long-term outcomes for children whose mothers used SSRIs during pregnancy are specifically considered. Due to conflicting results from current studies, there are no clear guidelines for SSRI treatment in pregnancy. Patients and doctors must discuss together the risks and benefits of SSRI use during pregnancy and decide on a course of treatment. Potential risks must be balanced against the effects of untreated maternal depression.

  20. Obstetrical complications in dichorionic twin pregnancies in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Fjola; Nilas, Lisbeth; Andreasen, Kirsten R; Grinsted, Jørgen; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula L; Naver, Klara V

    2017-10-05

    Both women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and women with twin pregnancies have increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of PCOS and maternal androgen levels on the outcome of dichorionic twin pregnancy. A retrospective study of 360 women with dichorionic twin pregnancies: 72 PCOS women from a fertility clinic (years 1997 to 2010) and 288 non-PCOS women from a hospital cohort (years 2005 to 2007). The obstetrical outcome was extracted from Danish National registers and supplemented by patient file data. 65% of the PCOS group had a registered pre-pregnancy androgen level and these were stratified into normo- and hyperandrogenic women. The groups were compared by multiple regression analysis adjusting for mode of conception and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We found no overall impact of PCOS on the pregnancy outcome; the risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm delivery were comparable within the groups. However, five deliveries in the PCOS group compared to two in the control group occurred before gestational week 28. No difference in the obstetrical outcome between hyperandrogenic and normoandrogenic women was found. The body mass index in the PCOS population was lower than in the non-PCOS, possibly reflecting a higher socioeconomic status and a healthier lifestyle, which may underestimate the impact of a PCOS diagnosis. Neither PCOS nor maternal androgen levels confer additional risks to the outcome of dichorionic twin pregnancies of normal weight women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in weight and health behaviors after pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Wendy L; Liu, Su-Hsun; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Nicholson, Wanda K; Gunderson, Erica P; Lewis, Cora E; Clark, Jeanne M

    2013-06-01

    Prepregnancy to postpregnancy change in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, diet, and physical activity in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were compared. Using the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, women with at least one pregnancy during 20 years of follow-up (n = 1,488 with 3,125 pregnancies) was identified. Linear regression with generalized estimating equations to compare prepregnancy to postpregnancy changes in health behaviors and anthropometric measurements between 137 GDM pregnancies and 1,637 non-GDM pregnancies, adjusted for parity, age at delivery, outcome measure at the prepregnancy exam, race, education, mode of delivery, and interval between delivery and postpregnancy examination were used. When compared with women without GDM in pregnancy, women with GDM had higher prepregnancy mean weight (158.3 vs. 149.6 lb, P = 0.011) and BMI (26.7 vs. 25.1 kg/m(2) , P = 0.002), but nonsignificantly lower total daily caloric intake and similar levels of physical activity. Both GDM and non-GDM groups had higher average postpartum weight of 7-8 lbs and decreased physical activity on average 1.4 years after pregnancy. Both groups similarly increased total caloric intake but reduced fast food frequency. Prepregnancy to postpregnancy changes in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and diet did not differ between women with and without GDM in pregnancy. Following pregnancy, women with and without GDM increased caloric intake, BMI, and weight and decreased physical activity, but reduced their frequency of eating fast food. Given these trends, postpartum lifestyle interventions, particularly for women with GDM, are needed to reduce obesity and diabetes risk. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Appendectomy during the third trimester of pregnancy in a 27-year old patient: case report of a "near miss" complication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The management of acute appendicitis during pregnancy is not fully established, especially regarding the choice between open and laparoscopic surgery during the third trimester. We report herein the case of a major uterine variecele hemorrhage during a laparoscopic appendectomy in a 27-year old pregnant patient at 33 weeks of amenorrhea. After conversion to a Pfannenstiel incision, the baby was delivered, the bleeding stopped and the appendectomy completed. While both mother and child fully recovered, this «near miss» complication underlines the challenges linked to the management of acute appendicitis during pregnancy. Based on a literature review, we propose an algorithm favoring the laparoscopic approach during the first and second trimesters, and the open approach during the third trimester (especially after the 26th week of amenorrhea). In case of unclear pre-operative diagnosis, a laparoscopy should be conducted even during the third trimester with a Mc Burney conversion when the diagnosis of appendicitis is confirmed. PMID:21575272

  3. Postpartum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in a twin pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia-eclampsia: case report.

    PubMed

    Papoutsis, D; El-Attabi, N; Sizer, A

    2014-01-01

    This is the second case in literature of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in a twin pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia-eclampsia. A 27-year-old primigravida with dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy was admitted at 36 weeks of gestation for induction of labour due to preeclampsia. On the second day postpartum, the patient developed severe hypertension, visual symptoms, confusion, headache, and eclamptic fits. Head computed tomography (CT) showed hypodense basal ganglia lesions. The patient was treated in the intensive treatment unit with hydralazine and labetalol infusions and anticonvulsants. Five days later, there was complete clinical improvement and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal. The patient was discharged 11 days post-delivery. Diagnosis of PRES is based on the presence of clinical features of acute neurologic compromise, abnormal neuroimaging findings, and complete reversibility of findings after prompt treatment. Early recognition and proper treatment result in complete reversibility of this condition.

  4. Causes of the excessive rates of perinatal mortality and prematurity in pregnancies complicated by maternal urinary-tract infections.

    PubMed

    Naeye, R L

    1979-04-12

    The study was undertaken to determine the causes of the more frequent pre-term deliveries, fetal and neonatal deaths associated with maternal urinary-tract infections during pregnancy. The combined perinatal mortality rate for eight common placental and fetal disorders was 42 per thousand births in the infected vs. 21 per thousand in the noninfected, owing to a greater mortality from noninfectious placental and fetal disorders in the gestations with the urinary-tract infections (P less than 0.001). All the mortality excess took place when the urinary-tract infections occurred within 15 days of delivery. Death rates were highest when the urinary-tract infections coexisted with maternal hypertension and acetonuria.Hydramnios, amniotic-fluid bacterial infections and abruptio placentae were responsible for two thirds of the more frequent preterm deliveries in the pregnancies complicated by urinary-tract infections.

  5. Intraamniotic inflammation and umbilical cord blood interleukin-6 concentrations in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Musilova, Ivana; Andrys, Ctirad; Drahosova, Marcela; Soucek, Ondrej; Stepan, Martin; Bestvina, Tomas; Spacek, Richard; Jacobsson, Bo; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate umbilical cord blood interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations and the occurrence of fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) with respect to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or intraamniotic inflammation (IAI) in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). One-hundred-eighty-eight women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM between gestational ages of 24 + 0 and 36 + 6 weeks were included in the study. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from the umbilical cord after the delivery of the newborn. The umbilical cord blood IL-6 concentrations were evaluated using ELISA kits. FIRS was defined as umbilical cord blood IL-6 > 11 pg/mL. Women with MIAC and IAI had higher IL-6 concentrations than women without these complications (with MIAC: median 18.1 pg/mL versus without MIAC: median 5.8; p < 0.0001; with IAI: median 32.9 pg/mL, versus without IAI: median 5.8; p < 0.0001). Women with IAI with MIAC and women with IAI without MIAC had the highest umbilical cord blood IL-6 concentrations (medians: 32.6 and 39.4 pg/mL) and rates of FIRS (78% and 67%). IAI was associated with the highest umbilical cord blood IL-6 concentrations and rate of FIRS independent of the presence or absence of MIAC.

  6. Symptoms of an Intrauterine Hematoma Associated with Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lan; Wei, Zhaolian; Cao, Yunxia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of the symptoms of an intrauterine hematoma (IUH) for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods A literature review was performed with the search terms, including intrauterine/subchorionic/retroplacental/subplacental hematoma/hemorrhage/bleeding/collection/fluid, covering the period from January, 1981 to January, 2014. We just focused on the pregnancy outcomes associated with different symptoms of an IUH. Results It is generally agreed that a retroplacental, posterior or subchorionic in the fundus of uterus, and/or persistent IUH is associated with adverse outcomes in the ongoing pregnancy. However, the prognosis value of both volume and gestational age at diagnosis of IUH still remains controversial. Some researchers argue that a large IUH is associated with an increased risk of adverse events during pregnancy while others refuted. It is believed by some that the earlier an IUH was detected, the higher the risk for adverse outcomes would be, while no or weak association were reported by other studies. The prognostic value of the simultaneous presence of vaginal bleeding on pregnancy outcome is also controversial. Conclusions Both the position relative to the placenta or uterus and duration of IUH have strong predictive value on the prognosis in the ongoing pregnancy. However, the prognostic values of the IUH volume, gestational age at diagnosis and the simultaneous presence of vaginal bleeding remain controversial up to now. Moreover, most of previous reports are small, uncontrolled studies with incomplete information. Prospective, large sample, cohorts studies which take all detailed symptoms of an IUH into consideration are needed when we evaluate its clinical significance in the prognosis of pregnancy. PMID:25369062

  7. Provider adherence to first antenatal care guidelines and risk of pregnancy complications in public sector facilities: a Ghanaian cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Kayode, Gbenga A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Ansah, Evelyn K

    2016-11-24

    Guideline utilization aims at improvement in quality of care and better health outcomes. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of provider complete adherence to the first antenatal care guidelines on the risk of maternal and neonatal complications in a low resource setting. Women delivering in 11 health facilities in the Greater Accra region of Ghana were recruited into a cohort study. Their first antenatal visit records were reviewed to assess providers' adherence to the guidelines, using a thirteen-point checklist. Information on their socio-demographic characteristics and previous pregnancy history was collected. Participants were followed up for 6 weeks post-partum to complete data collection on outcomes. The incidence of maternal and neonatal complications was estimated. The effects of complete adherence on risk of maternal and neonatal complications were estimated and expressed as relative risks (RRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for a potential clustering effect of health facilities. Overall, 926 women were followed up to 6 weeks post-partum. Mean age (SD) of participants was 28.2 (5.4) years. Complete adherence to guidelines pertained to the care of 48.5% of women. Incidence of preterm deliveries, low birth weight, stillbirths and neonatal mortality were 5.3, 6.1, 0.4 and 1.4% respectively. Complete adherence to the guidelines decreased risk of any neonatal complication [0.72 (0.65-0.93); p = 0.01] and delivery complication [0.66 (0.44-0.99), p = 0.04]. Complete provider adherence to antenatal care guidelines at first antenatal visit influences delivery and neonatal outcomes. While there is the need to explore and understand explanatory mechanisms for these observations, programs that promote complete adherence to guidelines will improve the pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Does IVF cleavage stage embryo quality affect pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes in singleton gestations after double embryo transfers?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinliang; Lian, Ying; Li, Ming; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-12-01

    Embryo quality is associated with successful implantation and live births. Our retrospective study was carried out to determine whether or not cleavage stage embryo quality affects the miscarriage rate, pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes of singletons conceived with assisted reproduction technology. The current study included 11,721 In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer cycles (IVF-ET) between January 2009 (the date at which electronic medical records were implemented at our center) and March 2013. Only women < 40 years of age undergoing their first fresh embryo transfer cycle using non-donor oocytes were included. Our study indicated that the transfer of poor-quality embryos resulted in higher miscarriage (19.77% vs. 13.28%, p = 0.02) and lower ongoing pregnancy rates (15.33% vs. 48.06%, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis performed on data derived from 744 cycles culminating in miscarriages versus 4,333 cycles culminating in live births, suggested that embryo quality (p = 0.04) is significantly associated with miscarriage rate after adjusting for other confounding factors. Moreover, there were no differences in the mean birth weight, low birth weight (<2,500 g), very low birth weight (<1,500 g), gestational age, preterm delivery (<37 weeks), very preterm delivery (<32 weeks), congenital malformations, small-for-gestational-age singletons (SGA), and large-for-gestational-age singleton (LGA) rate (p > 0.05). Similarly, pregnancy complications resulting from poor-quality embryos were not different from good-quality embryos (4.04% vs. 2.57 %, p = 0.33). Finally, logistic regression suggested that embryo quality was not significantly associated with pregnancy complications after adjusting for other confounding factors (p = 0.40). Our study suggests that transfer of poor-quality embryos did not increase the risk of adverse outcomes; however, the quality of cleavage stage embryos significantly affected the miscarriage rate

  9. Pregnancy complications and birth outcomes of pregnant women with urinary tract infections and related drug treatments.

    PubMed

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Acs, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2007-01-01

    Maternal urinary tract infections in pregnancy showed an association with a higher rate of preterm birth in previous studies. The aim of this study was to check this relationship, and in addition to evaluate the efficacy of recent medical treatments. The population-based large control (without any defects) data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities was evaluated. Of 38,151 newborn infants, 2188 (5.7%) had mothers with urinary tract infections during pregnancy, and 90% of these maternal diseases were prospectively and medically recorded. The prevalence of pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios showed an association with urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Pregnant women with urinary tract infections in pregnancy had a somewhat shorter gestational age (0.1 week) and a higher proportion of preterm births (10.4% vs 9.1%). These differences were correlated with the severity of urinary tract infections. However, the preterm-inducing effect of maternal urinary tract infections is preventable by some antimicrobial drugs such as ampicillin, cefalexin and cotrimoxazole. In conclusion, maternal urinary tract infections during pregnancy increase pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios, and in addition the rate of preterm birth; however, the latter is preventable by appropriate drug treatments.

  10. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by bone and soft-tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Cynthia; Barzilay, Bernard; Shah, Vibhuti; Wunder, Jay S; Bell, Robert; Farine, Dan

    2004-08-01

    Primary bone and soft-tissue tumors occur rarely in pregnancy. The objective of this study was to describe the outcome of a large cohort of pregnant patients with these rare tumors. Pregnant women diagnosed with bone or soft-tissue tumors during pregnancy or within 3 months after delivery were identified retrospectively for the years 1983-2003 in the University Health Network database, University of Toronto. Relevant maternal and neonatal data were collected on a standardized data form. In more than 60,000 deliveries during the study period, 17 patients were identified. Gestational age at diagnosis ranged from 11 weeks to 2 months postpartum. Eight cases involved the lower extremity and 6 involved the upper extremity. Osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and giant-cell tumors were the most common histological types. Metastases occurred in 7 cases. Nine cases were treated surgically during the course of pregnancy. The majority of patients were delivered at term. Chemotherapy was deferred until the postpartum period. One patient elected for early termination of pregnancy. Three patients were delivered before 37 weeks of gestation to proceed with therapy. One neonate delivered at 34 weeks developed respiratory distress syndrome and required intubation. Three patients died, all as the result of metastatic disease. There were no perinatal or infant deaths. Most cases of soft-tissue and bone tumors during pregnancy can be successfully managed with surgery during gestation. Therapies with fetal toxicity were more likely to be deferred to the postpartum period.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Improvements in birth outcomes and complications through direct genomic alteration.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2017-02-07

    Pregnancy represents a time of rapid change, including dramatic shifts in vitamin D metabolism. Circulating concentrations of the active form of vitamin D-1,25(OH)2D skyrocket early in pregnancy to levels that would be toxic to a nonpregnant adult, signaling a decoupling of vitamin D from the classic endocrine calcium metabolic pathway, likely serving an immunomodulatory function in the mother and her developing fetus. In this review, we summarize the unique aspects of vitamin D metabolism and the data surrounding vitamin D requirements during this important period. Both observational and clinical trials are reviewed in the context of vitamin D's health effects during pregnancy that include preeclampsia, preterm birth, and later disease states such as asthma and multiple sclerosis. With enhanced knowledge about vitamin D's role as a preprohormone, it is clear that recommendations about supplementation must mirror what is clinically relevant and evidence-based. Future research that focuses on the critical period(s) leading up to conception and during pregnancy to correct deficiency or maintain optimal vitamin D status remains to be studied. In addition, what effects vitamin D has on genetic signatures that minimize the risk to the mother and her developing fetus have not been elucidated. Clearly, while there is much more research that needs to be performed, our understanding of vitamin D requirements during pregnancy has advanced significantly during the last few decades.

  12. Ectopic pregnancies in a Caesarean scar: review of the medical approach to an iatrogenic complication.

    PubMed

    Maymon, R; Halperin, R; Mendlovic, S; Schneider, D; Herman, A

    2004-01-01

    Implantation of a pregnancy within a Caesarean fibrous tissue scar is considered to be the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy and a life-threatening condition. We conducted a computer search of the English literature of all studies since 2002 to gather updated data on the outcome of such pregnancies. Sixty-six new cases were reported since 2002, possibly reflecting the increasing number of Caesareans currently being performed as well as the more widespread use of the transvaginal scan allowing their earlier detection. Analysis of these women's obstetric history revealed that those at risk for pregnancy in a Caesarean scar appear to have a history of dilatation and curettage, placental pathology, ectopic pregnancy, and IVF. Twenty-one out of 39 for which this information was available (54%) had undergone multiple (> or =2) Caesareans and 13 had previous dilatation and curettage, which might also be an associated factor. We review and discuss the features of contemporary work-ups, including a high index of awareness, a detailed history and a skillful ultrasound examination for an early and accurate diagnosis. Healthcare professionals should be familiar with the possibility of untoward sequelae and how a modern work-up can help in guiding conservative options, thus reducing morbidity and preserving fertility.

  13. Determination of risk factors and perinatal outcomes of singleton pregnancies complicated by isolated single umbilical artery in Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Tülek, Fırat; Kahraman, Alper; Taşkın, Salih; Özkavukçu, Esra; Söylemez, Feride

    2015-01-01

    To address the possible risk factors, eventual pregnancy outcomes, and probable troubles in follow-ups of pregnancies complicated by an isolated single umbilical artery and to provide data on Turkish cases in such an aspect that ethnic divergences may have influence. A total of 16568 singleton pregnancies that were delivered between May 2006 and May 2013 were retrospectively screened. Ninety-three fetuses were found to have an isolated single umbilical artery. One-hundred pregnancies that did not show any structural or chromosomal abnormalities were randomly selected from the rest of the cases to establish the control group. IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 software was utilized for statistical analysis. Non-parametric data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test and were presented as means±standard deviations. P values less than 0.05 were statistically significant. For the adjustment of confounding factors, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy was found to be significantly higher in cases with an isolated single umbilical artery (p<0.001 and p=0.022, respectively). Maternal smoking was found to be independently associated with the occurrence of an isolated single umbilical artery (OR: 3.556; 95% CI: 1.104-11.45). The risk of preterm birth was not higher in the study group (OR: 0.538; 95% CI: 0.576-2.873). The incidence of cases who underwent cesarean delivery because of non-reassuring fetal heart trace was similar in the study and control groups (p=0.499). Attention should be paid to the development of hypertensive disorders in cases with a diagnosis of an isolated single umbilical artery, and parents should be counseled properly, including the information on increased risk of SGA. Strict follow-up of pregnancies complicated with an isolated single umbilical artery in terms of preterm birth seems

  14. Determination of risk factors and perinatal outcomes of singleton pregnancies complicated by isolated single umbilical artery in Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Tülek, Fırat; Kahraman, Alper; Taşkın, Salih; Özkavukçu, Esra; Söylemez, Feride

    2015-01-01

    Objective To address the possible risk factors, eventual pregnancy outcomes, and probable troubles in follow-ups of pregnancies complicated by an isolated single umbilical artery and to provide data on Turkish cases in such an aspect that ethnic divergences may have influence. Material and Methods A total of 16568 singleton pregnancies that were delivered between May 2006 and May 2013 were retrospectively screened. Ninety-three fetuses were found to have an isolated single umbilical artery. One-hundred pregnancies that did not show any structural or chromosomal abnormalities were randomly selected from the rest of the cases to establish the control group. IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 software was utilized for statistical analysis. Non-parametric data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test and were presented as means±standard deviations. P values less than 0.05 were statistically significant. For the adjustment of confounding factors, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy was found to be significantly higher in cases with an isolated single umbilical artery (p<0.001 and p=0.022, respectively). Maternal smoking was found to be independently associated with the occurrence of an isolated single umbilical artery (OR: 3.556; 95% CI: 1.104–11.45). The risk of preterm birth was not higher in the study group (OR: 0.538; 95% CI: 0.576–2.873). The incidence of cases who underwent cesarean delivery because of non-reassuring fetal heart trace was similar in the study and control groups (p=0.499). Conclusion Attention should be paid to the development of hypertensive disorders in cases with a diagnosis of an isolated single umbilical artery, and parents should be counseled properly, including the information on increased risk of SGA. Strict follow-up of pregnancies complicated with an isolated single

  15. The maternal serum thiol/disulfide homeostasis is impaired in pregnancies complicated by idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Orkun; Karaman, Erbil; Boza, Baris; Cim, Numan; Alisik, Murat; Erel, Ozcan; Kolusarı, Ali; Sahin, Hanım Guler

    2017-02-28

    To investigate the maternal serum thiol/disulfide homeostasis in pregnancies complicated by idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to compare the results with healthy pregnancies. This descriptive cohort study included 55 pregnant women complicated by idiopathic IUGR and 57 similar gestational aged healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation. Maternal serum samples were collected at the day of diagnosis and the thiol/disulfide homeostasis was measured by using an automated assay method. The patients were followed up until delivery and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Maternal serum native thiol (308.1 ± 40.7 μmol/L vs. 282.4 ± 60.6 μmol/L) and total thiol (346.8 ± 48.1 μmol/L vs. 324.0 ± 62.2 μmol/L) concentrations were significantly lower in IUGR group compared with healthy controls (p: .010 and p: .032, respectively), whereas disulfide (19.3 ± 8.7 μmol/L vs. 20.8 ± 7.8 μmol/L) concentrations were similar between the groups (p: .350). Maternal serum disulfide/native thiol and disulfide/total thiol ratios were higher in IUGR group compared with healthy controls (p: .014 and p: .017, respectively), whereas native thiol/total thiol ratio was significantly lower in IUGR group compared with healthy controls (p: .016). This study suggests that there is an impaired maternal thiol/disulfide homeostasis in pregnancies complicated by idiopathic IUGR during the third trimester of gestation.

  16. Relationship between maternal obesity and prenatal, metabolic syndrome, obstetrical and perinatal complications of pregnancy in Indiana, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Feresu, Shingairai A; Wang, Yi; Dickinson, Stephanie

    2015-10-16

    Obesity is a serious medical condition affecting more than 30% of Indiana, and 25% of Unites States pregnant women. Obesity is related to maternal complications, and significantly impacts the health of pregnant women. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between maternal complications and pre-pregnancy maternal weight. Using logistic regression models, we analyzed 2008 to 2010 birth certificate data, for 255,773 live births abstracted from the Indiana Vital Statistics registry. We examined the risk of reproductive factors, obstetrical complications and perinatal (intrapartum) complications for underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obese women for this population. Women who received prenatal care were more likely to be obese [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.82 (1.56-2.13)]. While women with parity of zero (0) were less likely to be obese [AOR = 0.89, 95% CI (0.86-0.91)]. Women giving birth to twins [AOR = 1.25, 95% CI (1.17- 1.33)], women delivering by Caesarian section [AOR = 2.31, 95% CI ( 2.26-2.37)], and women who previously had a Caesarian section [AOR = 1.95, 95% CI (1.88-2.02)] were more likely to be obese. There was evidence of metabolic like complication in this population, due to obesity. Obesity was significantly associated with obstetrical conditions of the metabolic syndrome, including pre-pregnancy diabetes, gestational diabetes, pre-pregnancy hypertension, pregnancy-induced hypertension and eclampsia [AOR = 5.12, 95% CI (4.47-5.85); AOR = 3.87, 95% CI (3.68-4.08); AOR = 7.66, 95% CI (6.77-8.65); AOR = 3.23, 95% CI (3.07-3.39); and AOR = 1.77, 95% CI (1.31-2.40), respectively. Maternal obesity modestly increased the risk of induction, epidural, post-delivery bleeding, and prolonged labor [AOR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.23-1.29); AOR = 1.15, 95% CI (1.13-1.18); AOR = 1.20, 95% CI (1.12-1.28); and AOR = 1.44, 95% CI (1.30-1.61)], respectively. Obese women were less likely to have blood transfusions [AOR

  17. Neonatal listeriosis followed by nosocomial infection.

    PubMed

    Dinic, M; Stankovic, S

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal listeriosis is widely reported, but this is the first case reported in Serbia. A newborn developed respiratory distress syndrome 2 hours after delivery and was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Initial empirical therapy was inappropriate. Consequently, on the second day, the patient developed meningitis. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the tracheal aspirate, blood, periumbilical swab, and cerebrospinal fluid. After bacteriology results, the therapy was changed to ampicillin and meropenem. On day 11 of hospitalization, the patient developed nosocomial infection due to multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Since therapeutic options were limited, the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin. After 26 days of hospitalization the patient showed complete recovery and was discharged with no apparent sequelae. This case showed the importance of bacteriological examination in cases of infections caused by uncommon organisms. Pediatricians should be aware of the neonatal infection caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

  18. Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of pregnancy complications: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Feng; Chen, Hong-Su; Rao, Da-Pang; Gong, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is inconsistently associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence regarding the strength of the association between pregnancy in women with PCOS and pregnancy complications. We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library to identify observational studies up to January 2016. The primary focus was pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, oligohydramnios, and polyhydramnios. Effect estimates were pooled using the random-effects model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect these associations. We included 40 observational studies that reported data on a total of 17,816 pregnancies with PCOS and 123,756 pregnancies without PCOS. Overall, PCOS in pregnancy was associated with greater risk of GDM, preeclampsia, PIH, preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, miscarriage, hypoglycemia, and perinatal death. However, PCOS in pregnancy had little or no effect on oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, large-for-gestational age (LGA), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), fetal growth restriction (FGR), preterm premature membrane rupture, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, total cholesterol, congenital malformation, macrosomia, and respiratory distress syndrome. Subgroup analysis suggested that these associations might be influenced by study design and pre-BMI. PCOS in pregnancy is associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes.

  19. Vitamins C and E to Prevent Complications of Pregnancy-Associated Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, James M.; Myatt, Leslie; Spong, Catherine Y.; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Hauth, John C.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Pearson, Gail D.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Thorp, John M.; Mercer, Brian M.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Samuels, Philip; Sciscione, Anthony; Harper, Margaret; Smith, Wendy J.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Anderson, Garland B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism linking the poor placental perfusion characteristic of preeclampsia with the clinical manifestations of the disorder. We assessed the effects of antioxidant supplementation with vitamins C and E, initiated early in pregnancy, on the risk of serious adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes related to pregnancy-associated hypertension. Methods We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial involving nulliparous women who were at low risk for preeclampsia. Women were randomly assigned to begin daily supplementation with 1000 mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E or matching placebo between the 9th and 16th weeks of pregnancy. The primary outcome was severe pregnancy-associated hypertension alone or severe or mild hypertension with elevated liver-enzyme levels, thrombocytopenia, elevated serum creatinine levels, eclamptic seizure, medically indicated preterm birth, fetal-growth restriction, or perinatal death. Results A total of 10,154 women underwent randomization. The two groups were similar with respect to baseline characteristics and adherence to the study drug. Outcome data were available for 9969 women. There was no significant difference between the vitamin and placebo groups in the rates of the primary outcome (6.1% and 5.7%, respectively; relative risk in the vitamin group, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 1.25) or in the rates of preeclampsia (7.2% and 6.7%, respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.24). Rates of adverse perinatal outcomes did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Vitamin C and E supplementation initiated in the 9th to 16th week of pregnancy in an unselected cohort of low-risk, nulliparous women did not reduce the rate of adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes related to pregnancy-associated hypertension (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00135707). PMID:20375405

  20. The potential role of HPV vaccination in the prevention of infectious complications of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Ulla; Joergensen, Jan Stener; Mogensen, Ole; Lamont, Ronald F

    2014-11-01

    There is now incontrovertible evidence that HPV is the cause of almost all cases of genital warts, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Moreover the current review of the recent literature on HPV in relation to pregnancy found strong indications that HPV plays an important role in adverse outcomes of pregnancy. HPV may contribute to infertility and may increase the risk of miscarriage. Recent studies indicate a significant rate of vertical transmission of HPV between mother and child but whether the mode of delivery makes a difference to the risk of transmission remains unknown. HPV infection appears to be correlated with both spontaneous preterm birth and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes.

  1. Perceived access to contraception among adolescents with diabetes: barriers to preventing pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eleanor B; Sobota, Mindy; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess beliefs, perceived access to, and practices regarding contraception among adolescent women with type 1 diabetes. Eighty-nine females with type 1 diabetes between the ages of 13 and 19 years, who were recruited from 2 endocrinology practices as part of a larger study, completed a battery of questionnaires designed to assess variables relevant to discussions of sexuality, preconception counseling, contraception, and pregnancy. In addition, items were designed to explore adolescents' relationship with their health care provider and comfort requesting birth control. Baseline data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Half of the sexually active adolescents in this sample reported having had sex without birth control at a time they were trying to avoid pregnancy. A third (36%) of subjects felt that women with diabetes have very limited choices of birth control, and 43% incorrectly believe that all birth control methods are less effective when used by women with diabetes. Less than half (47%) reported that they had discussed birth control with a health care professional, and 29% of subjects reported they had not received formal instruction on birth control in any setting. Perhaps of greatest concern, only 69% stated they would feel comfortable asking a professional for birth control. Many adolescent women with diabetes are at risk of unintended pregnancy and do not feel comfortable asking a health professional for birth control. Diabetes educators who initiate preconception counseling at puberty and discuss contraceptive options with adolescent women with diabetes may improve pregnancy outcomes.

  2. Maternal obesity in females born small: Pregnancy complications and offspring disease risk.

    PubMed

    Mahizir, Dayana; Briffa, Jessica F; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wadley, Glenn D; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health crisis, with 1.6 billion adults worldwide being classified as overweight or obese in 2014. Therefore, it is not surprising that the number of women who are overweight or obese at the time of conception is increasing. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that perturbations during critical stages of development can result in adverse fetal changes that leads to an increased risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Of particular concern, children born to obese mothers are at a greater risk of developing cardiometabolic disease. One subset of the population who are predisposed to developing obesity are children born small for gestational age, which occurs in 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Epidemiological studies report that these growth-restricted children have an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Importantly during pregnancy, growth-restricted females have a higher risk of developing cardiometabolic disease, indicating that they may have an exacerbated phenotype if they are also overweight or obese. Thus, the development of early pregnancy interventions targeted to obese mothers may prevent their children from developing cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicating Abdominal Pregnancy: Conservative Management and Successful Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Ihekwoaba, Eric Chukwudi; Udegbunam, Onyebuchi Izuchukwu; Egeonu, Richard Obinwanne; Okwuosa, Ayodele Obianuju

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is a very challenging and unusual nonobstetric surgical entity often linked with considerable fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. When it is synchronous with abdominal pregnancy, it is even rarer. Case Presentation. A 28-year-old lady in her second pregnancy was referred to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, at 27 weeks of gestation due to vomiting, constipation, and abdominal pain. Examination and ultrasound scan revealed a single live intra-abdominal extrauterine fetus. Plain abdominal X-ray was diagnostic of intestinal obstruction. Conservative treatment was successful till the 34-week gestational age when she had exploratory laparotomy. At surgery, the amniotic sac was intact and the placenta was found to be adherent to the gut. There was also a live female baby with birth weight of 2.3 kg and Apgar scores of 9 and 10 in the 1st and 5th minutes, respectively, with the baby having right clubbed foot. Adhesiolysis and right adnexectomy were done. The mother and her baby were well and were discharged home nine days postoperatively. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abdominal pregnancy as the cause of acute intestinal obstruction in the published literature. Management approach is multidisciplinary. PMID:27313923

  4. Intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration: an uncommon complication of termination of pregnancy by vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Deffieux, Xavier; Kane, Aminata; Faivre, Erika; Gervaise, Amélie; Frydman, René; Fernandez, Hervé

    2008-11-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with an intermittent abdominal pain 5 years after voluntary vacuum aspiration for interruption of a first-trimester pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete septate uterus and a cystic mass that infiltrated the posterior myometrial wall of the right side of the uterus. Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy revealed an intra uterine fallopian tube incarceration.

  5. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options. PMID:26199801

  6. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  7. Perinatal Management of Pregnancy Complicated by Autosomal Dominant Emery–Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Megumi; Shirasawa, Hiromitsu; Makino, Kenichi; Miura, Hiroshi; Sato, Wataru; Shimizu, Dai; Sato, Naoki; Kumagai, Jin; Sato, Akira; Terada, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autosomal dominant Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (AD-EDMD) is rare compared with other forms of muscular dystrophy and is characterized by cardiac conduction defects. Here, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with AD-EDMD during the first trimester of pregnancy who developed acute preeclampsia and subsequently, congestive heart failure (CHF) following cesarean section. Case A 36-year-old, gravida 0 para 0 woman was diagnosed with AD-EDMD by genetic testing during the first trimester of pregnancy, and she suddenly developed preeclampsia and partial HELLP (hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient subsequently developed CHF following cesarean section. Conclusion CHF can occur as a direct result of the cardiac defects arising due to EDMD, and therefore, careful prenatal and postpartum management is recommended for such cases. PMID:27054045

  8. Prospective assessment of neurodevelopment in children following a pregnancy complicated by severe pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Warshafsky, Chelsie; Walker, Mark; Wen, Shi-Wu; Smith, Graeme N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine whether children of women with a pregnancy affected by severe pre-eclampsia (PE), compared to children of women without a PE-affected pregnancy, have differences in neurodevelopmental performance up to 5 years of age. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care centre. Participants Women were recruited following a PE-affected pregnancy. After each PE participant was recruited, the next normotensive woman without a prior history of PE and matched by parity, maternal age and race was invited to participate. Women with a history of chronic hypertension, diabetes or renal disease were excluded. Total enrolment included 129 PE-affected and 140 normotensive mothers. Outcome measures The primary outcome measure was failure of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). The ASQ was completed yearly, until age 5. Results A significant difference was found in the proportion of ASQ categories failed in year 3 (p<0.05), and this approached significance in years 1 and 4 (p<0.10 and p<0.15, respectively). At year 1, the number of ASQ categories failed was significantly greater among children born to PE mothers. A subgroup analysis revealed that a significant proportion of PE children born preterm (<37 weeks) failed the ASQ in years 3 and 4 (p<0.05), and when failed, those who were preterm failed significantly more categories (p<0.05). A trend towards increased failure in the gross motor category was found. There was a significant positive correlation between maternal lifetime CVD risk score and number of ASQ categories failed at years 1 and 3 (p<0.05). Conclusions Severe PE is associated with other adverse pregnancy outcomes, including intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth, all of which are associated with increased neurodevelopment delays. Thus, PE indicates a need for early screening and intervention at the neurodevelopmental level to improve children's long-term health, with larger studies required to tease out

  9. Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Bacteremia Complicating Pregnancy in the Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krunal; Gittens-Williams, Lisa; Apuzzio, Joseph J.; Martimucci, Kristina; Williams, Shauna F.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is an anaerobic gram-negative enteric rod that causes infection when contaminated food or water is ingested and may cause illness in pregnancy. Case. This is a patient who presented at 31 weeks' gestation with abdominal pain and fever and was diagnosed with S. Typhi bacteremia. Conclusion. S. Typhi should be considered in febrile patients with recent travel presenting with abdominal discomfort with or without elevated liver enzymes. PMID:28203469

  10. Glucose Fluctuations during Gestation: An Additional Tool for Monitoring Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dalfrà, M. G.; Chilelli, N. C.; Di Cianni, G.; Mello, G.; Lencioni, C.; Biagioni, S.; Scalese, M.; Sartore, G.; Lapolla, A.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) gives a unique insight into magnitude and duration of daily glucose fluctuations. Limited data are available on glucose variability (GV) in pregnancy. We aimed to assess GV in healthy pregnant women and cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes (GDM) and its possible association with HbA1c. CGM was performed in 50 pregnant women (20 type 1, 20 GDM, and 10 healthy controls) in all three trimesters of pregnancy. We calculated mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), standard deviation (SD), interquartile range (IQR), and continuous overlapping net glycemic action (CONGA), as parameters of GV. The high blood glycemic index (HBGI) and low blood glycemic index (LBGI) were also measured as indicators of hyperhypoglycemic risk. Women with type 1 diabetes showed higher GV, with a 2-fold higher risk of hyperglycemic spikes during the day, than healthy pregnant women or GDM ones. GDM women had only slightly higher GV parameters than healthy controls. HbA1c did not correlate with GV indicators in type 1 diabetes or GDM pregnancies. We provided new evidence of the importance of certain GV indicators in pregnant women with GDM or type 1 diabetes and recommended the use of CGM specifically in these populations. PMID:24319455

  11. [Newborn outcomes after radiofrequency ablation for selective reduction in the complicated monochorionic pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Panciatici, M; Tosello, B; Blanc, J; Haumonté, J-B; D'Ercole, C; Gire, C

    2017-04-01

    To describe perinatal data and to evaluate the neonatal neurological outcome of monochorionic twin pregnancies with selective termination by radiofrequency ablation. Retrospective data of perinatal data for nine consecutive monochorionic pregnancies eligible for radiofrequency ablation from January 2013 to August 2015 were collected. A prospective observational study of the neurological outcome of nine children was conducted using the Ages & Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), 2nd edition, French version, adapted to the age. The radiofrequency procedures were performed at a mean gestational age (GA) of 21.4 weeks (±7 weeks). The indications for a selective interruption of a pregnancy were: acardiac twin (n=4), brain malformation (n=1), severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with massive cerebral ischemia in the context of twin-twin transfusion syndrome grade III (n=1), severe selective IUGR associated with a polymalformative syndrome (n=1) and severe selective IUGR (n=2). The mean GA at birth was 36.7 weeks GA (±3.8 weeks). No infant showed neurological neonatal morbidity. Any ASQ area explored was pathological (<-2SD) for the nine children (mean age at follow-up [±SD], 14.8 months [±8.8 months]). This work constitutes a preliminary study for developing long-term follow-up and early care programs for those children born subsequent to a radiofrequency ablation for selective reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. NOTE: Haemodynamic resistance model of monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by acardiac twinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umur, Asli; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Ross, Michael G.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.

    2004-07-01

    An acardiac twin is a severely malformed monochorionic twin fetus that lacks most organs, particularly a heart. It grows during pregnancy, because it is perfused by its developmentally normal co-twin (called the pump twin) via a set of placental arterioarterial and venovenous anastomoses. The pump twin dies intrauterine or neonatally in about 50% of the cases due to congestive heart failure, polyhydramnios and prematurity. Because the pathophysiology of this pregnancy is currently incompletely understood, we modified our previous haemodynamic model of monochorionic twins connected by placental vascular anastomoses to include the analysis of acardiac twin pregnancies. We incorporated the fetoplacental circulation as a resistance circuit and used the fetal umbilical flow that perfuses the body to define fetal growth, rather than the placental flow as done previously. Using this modified model, we predicted that the pump twin has excess blood volume and increased mean arterial blood pressure compared to those in the acardiac twin. Placental perfusion of the acardiac twin is significantly reduced compared to normal, as a consequence of an increased venous pressure, possibly implying reduced acardiac placental growth. In conclusion, the haemodynamic analysis may contribute to an increased knowledge of the pathophysiologic consequences of an acardiac body mass for the pump twin.

  13. Accuracy of Sonographically Estimated Fetal Weight Near Delivery in Pregnancies Complicated With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Valent, Amy M; Newman, Tondra; Kritzer, Sara; Magner, Kristin; Warshak, Carri R

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of sonographic estimations of fetal weight (FW) and signed percent error between pregnant patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all singleton nonanomalous live births who delivered after 34 weeks and received a sonographic estimation of FW within 2 weeks of delivery at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center between 2008 and 2011. Our primary outcome compared the ΔFW and signed percent error between DM and non-DM pregnancies. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the prediction of FW greater than 4000 g in each study group. Linear regression analysis assessed correlation coefficients, R(2) values, and variance of the ΔFW by live birth weight. The mean ΔFWs were 62 and 103 g for non-DM and DM pregnancies, respectively (P = .04). However, the signed percent error (mean ± SD, 1.7% ± 9.8% versus 2.6% ± 9.9%; P = .15) was similar between the study groups. Linear regression comparing the ΔFW to the live birth weight revealed a weak correlation in DM (r = 0.34; R(2)  = 0.11) and non-DM pregnancies, (r = 0.17; R(2)  = 0.03) pregnancies. Overall sensitivity for the prediction of FW greater than 4000 g was poor (0.41 and 0.62 in non-DM and DM pregnancies). However, the specificity was high (0.97 and 0.99 for both groups). Although DM alters the biometric measurements of the fetus with increasing thoracoabdominal size, there are no clinically significant alterations in the accuracy of sonography for FW prediction when performed near delivery. Sonography is highly specific for birth weight greater than 4000 g, which is helpful for delivery planning and management. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Combined blood purification for treating acute fatty liver of pregnancy complicated by acute kidney injury: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wan Xin; Huang, Zhong Ying; Chen, Ze Jun; Cui, Tian Lei; Zhang, Ling; Fu, Ping

    2012-06-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI) is serious and life-threatening for the mother. The present study aimed to determine the clinical efficacy of combined blood purification treatment (CBPT) in patients with AFLP complicated by AKI. The CBPT involves plasma exchange (PE) combined with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). The subjects were 17 patients with AFLP complicated by AKI. The CBPT was implemented based on the timely termination of pregnancy and general treatment. Changes in clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, liver ultrasounds, as well as Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Glasgow scores were evaluated. The efficacy and adverse reactions of the CBPT were also assessed. The CBPT was smoothly performed without any obvious adverse reaction. After treatment, the clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, and liver ultrasonography significantly improved. Therefore, the SOFA scores correspondingly decreased 1 week after treatment [9 (range 5-11) vs. 3 (range 0-10), P = 0.002], and the median was close to normal by the second week. The clearance rate of the total bilirubin in PE was significantly higher than that in CVVH (37.2 vs. 7.9%, P = 0.000). The incidence of acute pulmonary edema in CVVH was less than that in PE (0 vs. 41.2%, P = 0.007). Finally, the maternal mortality was 5.88% (95% CI: 0-29%). Overall, we think that CBPT aids in the recovery of liver and kidney function. Different blood purification methods may be combined to integrate and maximize their advantages to improve the prognoses of patients with serious AFLP.

  15. The Impact of Inherited Thrombophilia Types and Low Molecular Weight Heparin Treatment on Pregnancy Complications in Women with Previous Adverse Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Aracic, Nada; Roje, Damir; Jakus, Ivana Alujevic; Bakotin, Marinela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the distribution of births and spontaneous abortions, first-trimester abortion (FTA) and mid-trimester abortion (MTA), in untreated (n=128) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treated pregnancies (n=50) of the same women with inherited thrombophilias and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO) in previous pregnancies. We particularly investigated the impact of LMWH on reducing the pregnancy complications in two thrombophilia types, "Conventional" and "Novel". Materials and Methods 50 women with inherited thrombophilia (26 Conventional and 24 Novel) and APO in previous pregnancies were included in the study. Conventional group included factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin G20210A (PT) mutations and antithrombin (AT), protein S (PS), and protein C (PC) deficiency, while the Novel group included methylentetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism. APO was defined as one of the following: preterm birth (PTB), fetal growth restriction (FGR), preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), placental abruption (PA) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Results There was no difference in distribution of births and spontaneous abortions between Conventional and Novel thrombophilia in untreated pregnancies (χ2=2.7; p=0.100) and LMWH treated pregnancies (χ2=0.442; p=0.506). In untreaed pregnancies thrombophilia type did not have any impact on the frequency of FTA and MTA (χ2=0.14; p=0.711). In birth-ended pregnancies LMWH treatement reduced the incidence of IUFD (p=0.011) in Conventional and FGR, IUFD, and PTB in Novel thrombophilia group. Conclusion The equal impact of two thrombophilia types on the pregnancy outcomes and a more favorable effect of LMWH therapy on pregnancy complications in Novel thrombophilia group point the need for Novel thrombophilias screening and the future studies on this issue should be recommended. PMID:27401656

  16. Assisted reproductive technology pregnancy complications are significantly associated with endometriosis severity before conception: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Harada, Miyuki; Hirata, Tetsuya; Koga, Kaori; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2016-11-03

    Endometriosis has been shown to be associated with second- to third-trimester pregnancy complications such as preterm birth and placenta previa, but the evidence is inconsistent. We hypothesized that endometriosis severity might affect these inconsistent results. Therefore we aimed to conduct a retrospective cohort study to elucidate whether endometriosis severity is associated with the incidence rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The patients who achieved singleton pregnancy by assisted reproductive technology (ART) in our facility between March 2000 and December 2014 (N = 631) were included in this analysis. Among them, 92 women demonstrated surgically proven endometriosis, and 512 women were shown to not have endometriosis as a complication. Among the 92 cases of endometriosis, 10 were classified as revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine (rASRM) stage I and II, 31 cases were rASRM stage III, and 43 cases were rASRM stage IV; in 8 cases, the rASRM stage was unavailable. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the rates of preterm birth, placenta previa, and small for gestational age. OR were adjusted by age, parity and the number of transferred embryos. First we confirmed the frequency of preterm birth and placenta previa were significantly increased in women with endometriosis (preterm birth OR, 2.08; 95 % CI, 1.07-3.89, placenta previa OR, 15.1; 95 % CI, 4.40-61.7), while the frequency of small for gestational age was not. Moreover, we found the frequencies of preterm birth and placenta previa were significantly increased in women with rASRM stage IV endometriosis compared to other two groups: women with rASRM stage I-III endometriosis (preterm birth OR, 7.40; 95 % CI, 1.83-50.3; placenta previa OR, 11.0; 95 % CI, 1.75-216.5) and women without endometriosis (preterm birth adjusted OR, 4.11; 95 % CI, 1.88-8.55; placenta previa adjusted OR, 39.8; 95 % CI, 10

  17. Soluble HLA-G in pregnancies complicated by autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Beneventi, Fausta; Badulli, Carla; Locatelli, Elena; Caporali, Roberto; Ramoni, Véronique; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Simonetta, Margherita; Garbin, Giulia; Tinelli, Carmine; Alpini, Claudia; Montecucco, CarloMaurizio; Martinetti, Miryam; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2015-08-01

    Autoimmune rheumatic diseases in pregnancies are associated with increased adverse obstetric outcomes. We compared maternal soluble human leucocyte antigen-G (sHLA-G) blood levels in subjects with a rheumatic disease preexisting pregnancy and unaffected controls. Third-trimester blood maternal sHLA-G concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with rheumatic diseases than in controls (mean 93.1ng/ml [SD 42.1] vs 58.1ng/ml [SD 96.3], p=0.003). Cord blood sHLA-G concentrations were significantly higher in rheumatic disease than in those born to control mothers (median 41.2ng/ml [IQR: 3.3-44.0] vs 17.9ng/ml [IQR: 17.2-88.1], p=0.007). A strict positive correlation (r=0.88, p<0.001) was found between the maternal and fetal titers of ANA autoantibodies as well as between maternal and fetal sHLAG circulating levels (r=0.58 and r=0.67, respectively, for controls and cases, p<0.001). Maternal s-HLA-G blood concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with rheumatic disease DEL/DEL homozygous for a polymorphism of the 3' untranslated regulatory region of HLA-G (HLA-G 14bp) than in the corresponding healthy controls (mean values 141.5ng/ml [SD: 166] vs 54.2ng/ml [SD: 35], p=0.009). Increasing maternal and cord blood levels of s-HLA-G concentrations among pregnant subjects with rheumatic diseases compared with controls suggest that autoimmune diseases prompt a maternal and fetal immune response that favors pregnancy immune tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal serum soluble CD30 is increased in pregnancies complicated with acute Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Edwin, Samuel; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Soto, Eleazar; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Than, Nandor Gabor; Friel, Lara; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Mazor, Moshe; Hassan, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Normal pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immunity and suppression of the adaptive limb of the immune response. However, pregnant women are more susceptible to the effects of infection and microbial products than non-pregnant women. CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is preferentially expressed by activated T cells producing Th2-type cytokines. Its soluble form (sCD30) is proposed to be an index of Th2 immune response. High serum concentrations of sCD30 have been found in the acute phase of viral infections, such as HIV-1 and hepatitis B. There is, however, conflicting evidence about serum sCD30 concentration in patients with bacterial infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are changes in the serum concentration of sCD30 in pregnant women with pyelonephritis. Methods This cross-sectional study included normal pregnant women (N=89) and pregnant women with pyelonephritis (N=41). Maternal serum concentration of sCD30 was measured by a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results (1) Pregnant women with pyelonephritis had a significantly higher median serum concentration of sCD30 than those with a normal pregnancy (median: 44.3 U/ml, range: 16–352.5 vs. median: 29.7 U/ml, range: 12.2–313.2, respectively; p<0.001); and (2) No significant differences were found in the median maternal serum concentration of sCD30 between pregnant women with pyelonephritis who had a positive blood culture compared to those with a negative blood culture (median:47.7 U/mL, range: 17.1–118.8 vs. median: 42.6 U/mL, range: 16–352.5, respectively; p=0.86). Conclusions Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with a higher maternal serum concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnancy. This finding is novel, and suggests that pregnant women with pyelonephritis may

  19. Systematic review of human listeriosis in China, 1964-2010.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanfang; Wu, Shuyu; Varma, Jay K; Klena, John D; Angulo, Frederick J; Ran, Lu

    2013-10-01

    Listeria is an important foodborne pathogen with severe manifestations and high case-fatality rate. However, listeriosis is not yet a notifiable disease in China, and there is no national monitoring system for cases. We conducted a systematic review to better understand the clinical and epidemiologic features of listeriosis in China. Both electronic and manual retrieval systems were used to search Chinese literature for cases and isolates of human listeriosis reported between 1964 and 2010. We recorded and analysed demographic, clinical and laboratory information available for reported cases. A total of 147 clinical cases, 479 Listeria isolates and 82 outbreak-related cases were reported in 28 (90%) provinces in China from January 1964 to December 2010. Of the clinical cases, 45 (31%) were central nervous system infections, 68 (46%) were septicaemia and 34 (23%) were focal infections or gastroenteritis. The overall case-fatality rate was 26% (34/130) among clinical cases with known outcomes and 46% (21/46) among neonatal cases. Listeriosis cases occurred in China throughout the study period between 1964 and 2010. Case-fatality was similar to published data from other countries. China should consider requiring notification of listeriosis cases to improve estimates of incidence, identification of risk factors and design of preventive measures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Left ventricular midwall mechanics at 24 weeks' gestation in high-risk normotensive pregnant women: relationship to placenta-related complications of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Novelli, G P; Vasapollo, B; Gagliardi, G; Tiralongo, G M; Pisani, I; Manfellotto, D; Giannini, L; Valensise, H

    2012-04-01

    Most studies during pregnancy have assessed maternal left ventricular (LV) function by load-dependent indices, assessing only chamber function. The aim of this study was to assess afterload-adjusted LV myocardial and chamber systolic function at 24 weeks' gestation and 6 months postpartum in high-risk normotensive pregnant women. A group of 118 high-risk women with bilateral notching of the uterine arteries underwent an echocardiographic examination to evaluate midwall mechanics (midwall shortening (mFS%) and stress-corrected midwall shortening (SCmFS%)) of the LV at 24 weeks' gestation and 6 months postpartum. Patients were followed until delivery and pregnancies were classified retrospectively as uneventful (uncomplicated outcome) or complicated. A control group of 54 low-risk women with uneventful pregnancies without bilateral notching was also enrolled. The pregnancy was uneventful in 74 (62.7%) women, whereas 44 (37.3%) developed complications. At 24 weeks' gestation, mFS% and SCmFS% were greater in the uncomplicated-outcome compared with the complicated-outcome group (25.9 ± 4.8 vs 18.8 ± 5.0%, P < 0.001 and 107.9 ± 18.4 vs 77.9 ± 20.7%, P < 0.001, respectively). At 6 months postpartum, SCmFS% remained greater in the uncomplicated-outcome compared with the complicated-outcome group (100.4 ± 21.6 vs 87.8 ± 19.1, P < 0.05). In the uncomplicated-outcome group, SCmFS% was higher during pregnancy than it was postpartum, whereas in the complicated-outcome group, it was lower during pregnancy than it was postpartum (P < 0.05). Maternal cardiac midwall mechanics appear to be enhanced (SCmFS% increased compared with controls) during pregnancy compared with postpartum in high-risk patients with uncomplicated pregnancy, whereas midwall mechanics are depressed both during pregnancy and postpartum in patients with pregnancy complications. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Semaphorin 3F expression is reduced in pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia. An observational clinical study.

    PubMed

    Stallone, Giovanni; Matteo, Maria; Netti, Giuseppe Stefano; Infante, Barbara; Di Lorenzo, Adelaide; Prattichizzo, Clelia; Carlucci, Stefania; Trezza, Federica; Gesualdo, Loreto; Greco, Pantaleo; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a systemic disorder, affecting 2-10% of pregnancies, characterized by a deregulated pro- and anti-angiogenic balance. Semaphorin 3F is an angiogenesis inhibitor. We aimed to investigate whether semaphorin 3F expression is modulated in preeclampsia. We performed two observational single center cohort studies between March 2013 and August 2014. In the first we enrolled 110 consecutive women, undergoing an elective cesarean section; in the second we included 150 consecutive women undergoing amniocentesis for routine clinical indications at 16-18 week of gestation. Semaphorin 3F concentration was evaluated in maternal peripheral blood, venous umbilical blood and amniotic fluid, along with its placenta protein expression at the time of delivery in the first study group and in the amniotic fluid at 16-18 weeks of gestation in the second study group. In the first study 19 patients presented at delivery with preeclampsia. Semaphorin 3F placenta tissue expression was significantly reduced in preeclampsia. In addition, semaphorin 3F level at delivery was significantly lower in serum, amniotic fluid and venous umbilical blood of preeclamptic patients compared with normal pregnant women. In the prospective cohort study 14 women developed preeclampsia. In this setting, semaphorin 3F amniotic level at 16-18 weeks of gestation was reduced in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared to women with a normal pregnancy. ROC curve analysis showed that semaphorin 3F amniotic levels could identify women at higher risk of preeclampsia. Semaphorin 3F might represent a predictive biomarker of preeclampsia.

  2. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in pregnancies complicated by diabetes: implications for screening programs.

    PubMed

    Martin, A O; Dempsey, L M; Minogue, J; Liu, K; Keller, J; Tamura, R; Freinkel, N

    1990-10-01

    Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein may be reduced in diabetic pregnancies, but the association with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin has been controversial. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein may reflect the same phenomena that can also impair normal rates of embryo growth in the presence of poorly compensated maternal diabetes. If so, associations would be expected among maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, embryo rates of growth, and levels of glycosylated hemoglobin reflective of regulation of maternal diabetes during the period of organogenesis. We found maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in 93 pregnant patients with diabetes to be negatively associated with the earliest (4 to 12 weeks) glycosylated hemoglobin determinations. At glycosylated hemoglobin values greater than 9.6% (which approximates the upper quartile), all maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein values fell below the median for patients without diabetes (below 0.8 multiple of the median after weight adjustment). Moreover, there was a trend for pregnancies with lower maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and higher glycosylated hemoglobin values to also demonstrate early fetal growth delay as measured by ultrasonography.

  3. Intrauterine growth correlation to postnatal growth--influence of risk factors and complications in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T; Greisen, G; Petersen, S

    1997-01-20

    In a population of 616 pregnant women with increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, we examined the relationship of third trimester fetal growth to maternal and pregnancy risk factors, the infants condition at birth, and postnatal growth. Intrauterine growth velocity was calculated from repeated estimations of fetal weight using ultrasound. Postnatal growth up to 3 months was measured in 313 of the infants. Intrauterine growth velocity was directly correlated to birth weight deviation (R = 0.35, P < 0.0001) and inversely correlated to postnatal growth (R = 0.21, P = 0.0001). Heavy smoking throughout pregnancy was the most pronounced factor associated with loss of fetal growth percentiles (P = 0.006), and it was also associated with postnatal catchup (P = 0.01). Infants who needed neonatal care had significantly lower intrauterine growth velocities compared to the rest of the study group; no correlation was found between intrauterine growth velocity and Apgar scores or umbilical pH. It is concluded that growth retardation in the third trimester can be identified by ultrasound fetometry, and is associated with maladaptation at birth and postnatal catchup. However, the correlations were weak suggesting that deviation at birth reflects, only to a limited degree, acceleration or deceleration of growth in the third trimester.

  4. Low-molecular-weight heparin for prevention of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis (AFFIRM)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications include pre-eclampsia, late pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and the small-for-gestational age newborn. They are leading causes of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in developed nations. Women who have experienced these complications are at an elevated risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies. However, despite decades of research no effective strategies to prevent recurrence have been identified, until recently. We completed a pooled summary-based meta-analysis that strongly suggests that low-molecular-weight heparin reduces the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated complications. The proposed individual patient data meta-analysis builds on this successful collaboration. The project is called AFFIRM, An individual patient data meta-analysis oF low-molecular-weight heparin For prevention of placenta-medIated pRegnancy coMplications. Methods/Design We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized controlled trials with a low-molecular-weight heparin intervention for the prevention of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. Investigators and statisticians representing eight trials met to discuss the outcomes and analysis plan for an individual patient data meta-analysis. An additional trial has since been added for a total of nine eligible trials. The primary analyses from the original trials will be replicated for quality assurance prior to recoding the data from each trial and combining it into a common dataset for analysis. Using the anonymized combined data we will conduct logistic regression and subgroup analyses aimed at identifying which women with previous pregnancy complications benefit most from treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin during pregnancy. Discussion The goal of the proposed individual patient data meta-analysis is a thorough estimation of treatment effects in patients with prior individual placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and

  5. Risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications or pregnancy-related VTE in VTE-asymptomatic families of probands with VTE and heterozygosity for factor V Leiden or G20210 prothrombin mutation.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Iris; Pegenaute, Carlota; González-López, Tomás José; Chillon, Carmen; Sarasquete, Maria Eugenia; Martin-Herrero, Francisco; Guerrero, Carmen; Cabrero, Mónica; Garcia Sanchez, Maria Helena; Pabon, Pedro; Lozano, Francisco Santiago; Gonzalez, Marcos; Alberca, Ignacio; González-Porras, José Ramón

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of pregnancy-related adverse events in asymptomatic relatives of probands for VTE and factor V Leiden or the G20210A variant. The antepartum management of this population ranges from antepartum anticoagulation therapy to clinical surveillance. To evaluate the risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and pregnancy-related VTE in VTE-asymptomatic families of probands with VTE and who are heterozygous carriers of either factor V Leiden or PT-G20210A mutation. One hundred and fifty-eight relatives, who had 415 pregnancies, were retrospectively evaluated. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare pregnancy outcomes between women with and without thrombophilia. In the factor V Leiden group, 22 placenta-mediated pregnancy events of 152 pregnancies (14.4%) were reported, compared with 25 adverse events of 172 pregnancies in the G20210A prothrombin group (14.5%) and 13 adverse events of 91 pregnancies in the non-carrier group (14.2%). Carriers of factor V Leiden or G20210A prothrombin were not associated with a higher risk of pregnancy-adverse outcomes compared with non-carriers: OR 1.02 (95% CI, 0.40-2.25) and 1.25 (95% CI, 0.48-3.24), respectively. Four episodes of pregnancy-associated VTE of 415 pregnancies (0.96%) were recorded. Two episodes of VTE in the G20210A group, one in the factor V Leiden group, and one episode in the non-carrier group were noted. In VTE-asymptomatic relatives of probands with VTE, the presence of factor V Leiden or the G20210A prothrombin mutation in heterozygosis should not lead to a decision to instigate antepartum prophylaxis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection complicated by pseudoaneurysm formation in pregnancy: role of CT coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shahid; Abdul-Waheed, Mohammed; Helmy, Tarek; Huffman, Lynn C; Koshal, Vipin; Guitron, Julian; Merrill, Walter H; Lewis, David F; Dunlap, Stephanie; Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Weintraub, Neal L; Meyer, Christopher; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2009-04-01

    We report a case of a 26-year-old female, who presented at 34 weeks of an uncomplicated pregnancy with an acute ST elevation anterior wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization suggested a left main coronary artery dissection with pseudoaneurysm formation. The patient's course was complicated by congestive heart failure. She was initially managed conservatively by a multidisciplinary team including heart failure specialists, obstetricians, and cardiovascular surgeons. 4 days after admission, her LMC was imaged by dual-source 64 slice Cardiac computed tomography, coronary dissection was identified extending to the lumen, and the presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed. She underwent subsequently a staged procedure, which included placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump, cesarean section, and coronary artery bypass grafting. This case illustrates the utility of coronary artery CT imaging to assess the complexity and stability of coronary artery dissections, thereby helping to determine the need for, and timing of revascularization procedures.

  7. The emerging role of telemedicine in managing glycemic control and psychobehavioral aspects of pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chilelli, Nino Cristiano; Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Lapolla, Annunziata

    2014-01-01

    There is a gradual decline in concern of specialists who follow up the care of pregnant women with diabetes. In addition, due to the dwindling economic resources allocated to health services, access to specialized healthcare facilities is becoming more difficult. Telemedicine, or medicine practiced at a distance, is inserted in this context with applications differing for type of interaction (real-time or deferred, i.e., videoconferencing versus store-and-forward data transmission), type of monitoring (automatic versus requesting cooperation from the patient), and type of devices used (web connections and use of mobile phones or smartphones). Telemedicine can cope with the current lack of ability to ensure these patients frequent direct contact with their caregivers. This approach may have an impact not only on the classical maternal-fetal outcome, but also on some underestimated aspects of patients with diabetes in pregnancy, in this case their quality of life, the perception of "diabetes self-efficacy," and the glycemic variability. In this paper, we will analyze the current evidence regarding the use of telemedicine in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, trying to highlight the main limitations of these studies and possible strategies to overcome them in order to improve the effectiveness of future clinical interventions with these medical applications.

  8. Effect of prenatal betamethasone on fetal, uteroplacental, and maternal blood flow velocity in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Niroomanesh, Shirin; Shojaei, Kobra; Moghadam, Sahar F; Mohammadi, Noshin; Rahimi, Zahra; RezaeiKeyhanaei, Khadija

    2015-09-01

    To assess Doppler flow velocity in fetal, uteroplacental, and maternal arteries before and after betamethasone therapy among singleton pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). A prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study was conducted at three university-affiliated hospitals in Tehran, Iran, between January 1 and November 30, 2013. The inclusion criteria were FGR, a gestational age of 24-34 weeks, no fetal anomalies, and no previous betamethasone therapy. Doppler blood flow was measured in uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries before treatment, and 24 hours and 5 days after completion of betamethasone therapy (two 12-mg doses at a 24-hour interval). Overall, 40 women were enrolled. Doppler blood flow through the uterine and umbilical arteries showed significant but transient changes across the three timepoints (P<0.001), whereas the middle cerebral artery showed no changes. Prenatal betamethasone led to transient improvements in blood flow in the uterine and umbilical arteries among pregnancies affected by FGR. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic syndrome after pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia or small-for-gestational-age: a retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Al-Nasiry, S; Ghossein-Doha, C; Polman, S E J; Lemmens, S; Scholten, R R; Heidema, W M; Spaan, J J; Spaanderman, M E A

    2015-12-01

    To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women after a pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia or small-for-gestational-age (SGA), both epitomes of placental syndrome. A retrospective cohort study. Single tertiary centre for maternal medicine in the Netherlands. Women with a history of pre-eclampsia in absence of SGA (n = 742) or pregnancy complicated by normotensive SGA (n = 147) between 1996 and 2010. Women were routinely screened for underlying cardiometabolic and cardiovascular risk factors at least 6 months postpartum. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio for each group. Adjustments were made for age, maternal height, smoking, parity, and interval between delivery and measurement. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in our population was two-fold higher for women with a history of pre-eclampsia (13.9%) compared with women with a history of SGA (7.6%). Calculated odds ratios for metabolic syndrome, fasting insulin, HOMA, and microalbuminuria were all higher for women with a history of pre-eclampsia compared with women with SGA. This difference persisted after adjustment for confounding factors: metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.00-4.47) and hyperinsulinaemia (aOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.13-2.81) insulin resistance (HOMAIR ; aOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.14-2.86). Microalbuminuria (aOR 1.58; 95% CI 0.85-2.93) did not reach the level of significance after adjustment for confounding factors. A history of pre-eclampsia, rather than SGA, was associated with metabolic syndrome, suggesting that it relates to maternal rather than fetal etiology of placental syndrome. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Septicemic listeriosis in wild hares from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Bennett, Katarina R; Bryan, Lorraine; Bollinger, Trent K

    2015-04-01

    The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes causes disease in a wide variety of mammals including rabbits and hares. We describe naturally acquired metritis and septicemic listeriosis in wild female hares from Saskatchewan, Canada. Between April 2012 and July 2013, two white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) were presented to the Veterinary Medical Centre at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada with nonspecific neurologic signs. The hares were euthanized and autopsied. Necrotizing fibrinosuppurative metritis was present in all. Additional findings in individual hares included fetal maceration, multifocal necrotizing myocarditis, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and nonsuppurative encephalitis. Listeria monocytogenes was cultured from multiple tissues in each hare. Although listeriosis in pregnant domestic rabbits has been studied, this is the first detailed description in wild North American hares. The epidemiology of listeriosis, including prevalence and the role of environmental sources and coprophagy in transmission among hares, requires further investigation.

  11. Successful Management of Pregnancy Complicated by Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome Using MR Angiography-Based Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Reiko; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Ishibashi Hiasa, Kana; Yumoto, Yasuo; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Fukushima, Kotaro; Wake, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare congenital disease, and extensive cutaneous hemangiomas and abnormal venous vessels are characteristic. In our case, to manage her pregnancy with KTS, whole-body MRA was performed before delivery. A 29-year-old woman was referred at 28 weeks because of prominent vulvovaginal varicosities due to KTS. At 35 weeks, hypertrophy and multiple venous varicosities of her leg as well as massive vulvovaginal varicosities became prominent with a normal coagulation profile. Systematic MRAs revealed hemangiomas and varicosities in the right leg, the lower abdomen, and the pubic region, while no obvious AVM was detected around the bronchial tube and spine. We decided to deliver her baby by cesarean section at 37 weeks under general anesthesia, and a healthy baby was delivered. No blood transfusion was required. Prophylaxis against thrombosis was performed after the operation. She was discharged with her baby. Her vulvovaginal varicosities shrunk considerably one month later. PMID:22567516

  12. Incidence of maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by ovarian masses.

    PubMed

    Nazer, Ahmed; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Oddy, Lisa; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of our study is to estimate the incidence of adnexal mass and ovarian cancers during pregnancy and to evaluate their effects on obstetrical and fetal outcomes. We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Cases of ovarian mass during delivery were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Women were categorized into subgroups of malignant and benign masses. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate maternal and fetal outcomes. There were 7,785,583 deliveries between 2003 and 2011, of which 19,591 were diagnosed with ovarian masses during delivery, representing 0.25 % of all deliveries. Among these, 1:200 were malignant. The overall malignancy rate was 0.12/10,000 deliveries. Apart from the increased rate of cesarean section, OR 5.92 (95 % CI 4.12-8.40), and the risk of thrombosis, OR 5.52 (95 % CI 1.96-15.53), there was no significant increase in maternal morbidity or mortality. Prematurity, OR 2.24 (95 % CI 1.48-3.40), was the only significant newborn risk in women with malignant ovarian tumors. Newborns of women with an ovarian mass had comparable risks of intrauterine growth restriction, preterm rupture of membrane and intrauterine death. The diagnosis of ovarian mass is rare during pregnancy and it is associated with an extremely low malignancy rate. Pregnant woman with a confirmed malignant ovarian tumor should be counseled regarding risks of prematurity, thrombosis and hysterectomy.

  13. Semaphorin 3F expression is reduced in pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia. An observational clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Stallone, Giovanni; Matteo, Maria; Netti, Giuseppe Stefano; Infante, Barbara; Di Lorenzo, Adelaide; Prattichizzo, Clelia; Carlucci, Stefania; Trezza, Federica; Gesualdo, Loreto; Greco, Pantaleo

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Preeclampsia is a systemic disorder, affecting 2–10% of pregnancies, characterized by a deregulated pro- and anti-angiogenic balance. Semaphorin 3F is an angiogenesis inhibitor. We aimed to investigate whether semaphorin 3F expression is modulated in preeclampsia. Design, setting, participants, and measurements We performed two observational single center cohort studies between March 2013 and August 2014. In the first we enrolled 110 consecutive women, undergoing an elective cesarean section; in the second we included 150 consecutive women undergoing amniocentesis for routine clinical indications at 16–18 week of gestation. Semaphorin 3F concentration was evaluated in maternal peripheral blood, venous umbilical blood and amniotic fluid, along with its placenta protein expression at the time of delivery in the first study group and in the amniotic fluid at 16–18 weeks of gestation in the second study group. Results In the first study 19 patients presented at delivery with preeclampsia. Semaphorin 3F placenta tissue expression was significantly reduced in preeclampsia. In addition, semaphorin 3F level at delivery was significantly lower in serum, amniotic fluid and venous umbilical blood of preeclamptic patients compared with normal pregnant women. In the prospective cohort study 14 women developed preeclampsia. In this setting, semaphorin 3F amniotic level at 16–18 weeks of gestation was reduced in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared to women with a normal pregnancy. ROC curve analysis showed that semaphorin 3F amniotic levels could identify women at higher risk of preeclampsia. Conclusions Semaphorin 3F might represent a predictive biomarker of preeclampsia. PMID:28350837

  14. Facility-based treatment for medical complications resulting from unsafe pregnancy termination in the developing world, 2012: a review of evidence from 26 countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Maddow-Zimet, I

    2016-08-01

    With changing conditions affecting receipt of postabortion care, an updated estimate of the incidence of treatment for complications from unsafe pregnancy termination is needed to inform policies and programmes. National estimates of facility-based treatment for complications in 26 countries form the basis for estimating treatment rates in the developing world. An estimated seven million women were treated in the developing world for complications from unsafe pregnancy termination in 2012, a rate of 6.9 per 1000 women aged 15-44 years. Regionally, rates ranged from 5.3 in Latin America and the Caribbean to 8.2 in Asia. Results inform policies to improve women's health. An estimated 7 million women were treated in the developing world for complications of unsafe TOP in 2012. © 2015 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... each trimester are described below. 1 First Trimester (Week 1 to Week 12) The events that lead to pregnancy begin ... and oxygen to the fetus. 2 Second Trimester (Week 13 to Week 28) At 16 weeks, and ...

  16. Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome. PMID:23012479

  17. The Influence of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Placental Pathology in Pregnancies Complicated by Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, Lilian M.; Ananth, Cande V.; Prasad, Vinay; Nath, Carl A.; Vintzileos, Anthony M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of maternal cigarette smoking on placental histology in women with abruption. Study design Data were derived from the New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study (NJ-PAS)—an ongoing, case-control study, conducted since August 2002 in two large hospitals in NJ. Abruption cases were identified based on a clinical diagnosis. Histological evaluations were performed by two perinatal pathologists who were blinded to the abruption status. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was determined based on patient’s self report. Among abruption cases, histological findings were compared between smokers and non-smokers, and the association expressed as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). All analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Results A total of 189 abruption cases were available for analysis, of which 10.6% (n=20) were smokers. Intervillous thrombus was more common in women who smoked (20%) than in non-smokers (3.0%) (OR 17.5, 95% CI 3.1, 99.4). However, placental infarcts were seen less frequently among smokers than non-smokers (10.0% vs 32.5%; OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1, 0.8). Conclusion These findings suggest that different pathologic mechanisms may be responsible for the histologic findings between smokers and non-smokers diagnosed with placental abruption. PMID:17826418

  18. Review: Fetal-maternal communication via extracellular vesicles - Implications for complications of pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Adam, Stefanie; Elfeky, Omar; Kinhal, Vyjayanthi; Dutta, Suchismita; Lai, Andrew; Jayabalan, Nanthini; Nuzhat, Zarin; Palma, Carlos; Rice, Gregory E; Salomon, Carlos

    2016-12-05

    The maternal physiology experiences numerous changes during pregnancy which are essential in controlling and maintaining maternal metabolic adaptations and fetal development. The human placenta is an organ that serves as the primary interface between the maternal and fetal circulation, thereby supplying the fetus with nutrients, blood and oxygen through the umbilical cord. During gestation, the placenta continuously releases several molecules into maternal circulation, including hormones, proteins, RNA and DNA. Interestingly, the presence of extracellular vesicles (EVs) of placental origin has been identified in maternal circulation across gestation. EVs can be categorised according to their size and/or origin into microvesicles (∼150-1000 nm) and exosomes (∼40-120 nm). Microvesicles are released by budding from the plasmatic membrane, whereas exosome release is by fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasmatic membrane. Exosomes released from placental cells have been found to be regulated by oxygen tension and glucose concentration. Furthermore, maternal exosomes have the ability to stimulate cytokine release from endothelial cells. In this review, we will discuss the role of EVs during fetal-maternal communication during gestation with a special emphasis on exosomes.

  19. Life-threatening complications following multidose methotrexate for medical management of ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Papa; Sagili, Haritha

    2012-01-01

    A 25-year-old primigravida was diagnosed to be suffering from unruptured ectopic pregnancy. The serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were 2851 mIU/l and the ectopic gestational sac was 2.7×2.7 cm without any fetal pole. It was decided to manage her by expectant therapy. But she received medical therapy with multidose methotrexate because of misinterpretation of expectant therapy as medical therapy. She suffered from methotrexate toxicity, which manifested as high-grade fever, vomiting, melena, oral ulcerations, pneumonitis, subconjunctival haemorrhages and skin pigmentation. She developed severe third space fluid collection and shock, which was mistaken for rupture ectopic gestation. Her haematological picture showed severe neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia which confirmed the clinical picture to be due to methotrexate toxicity. She also developed septicaemia and candidal infection secondary to immunosuppression. She was managed in intensive care unit with ventilatory support, high-dose leucovorin and injection filgastrim. She responded well to the therapy with dramatic recovery in 4 days. PMID:22922914

  20. First trimester placental volume and vascular indices in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Plasencia, Walter; González-Dávila, Enrique; González Lorenzo, Alejandra; Armas-González, Marina; Padrón, Erika; González-González, Nieves L

    2015-12-01

    To analyze placental volume and vascularization at first trimester in women with pre-eclampsia, and secondarily, the effect of maternal characteristics on placental development and perinatal outcomes. This was a prospective cohort study including women seen between 11 and 14 weeks of pregnancy. Biophysical and biochemical markers included in the screening program for aneuploidy were recorded. Placental volume and vascularization indices were obtained using three-dimensional power-Doppler imaging and Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL) techniques. We compared 84 women with pre-eclampsia versus 904 non-affected. Placental volume and all vascular indices were lower in those with pre-eclampsia. Multivariate analysis showed that parity and maternal weight had a significant effect on placental volume and vascularization indices (p = 0.004 and p = 0.011). In women with pre-eclampsia, multiparity showed a negative effect on placental volume, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar test score. By contrast, in the non-affected group, multiparity had a protective effect. Low maternal weight had a significantly worse effect on placental vascularization and perinatal outcomes in women with pre-eclampsia. Women with pre-eclampsia showed significantly lower placental volume and vascularization indices at first trimester. Multiparity and low maternal weight independently exacerbated the negative effects of pre-eclampsia on placental characteristics and perinatal outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Gestational Gigantomastia Complicating Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rezai, Shadi; Nakagawa, Jenna T.; Tedesco, John; Chadee, Annika; Gottimukkala, Sri; Mercado, Ray; Henderson, Cassandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Gestational gigantomastia is a rare disorder without clear etiology or well-established risk factors. Several pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the disease process have been proposed, all of which can lead to a similar phenotype of breast hypertrophy. Case. A 28-year-old Guinean woman presented at 37 weeks of gestation with bilateral gigantomastia, mastalgia, peau d'orange, and back pain. Prolactin levels were 103.3 μg/L (with a normal reference value for prolactin in pregnancy being 36–372 μg/L). The patient was treated with bromocriptine (2.5 mg twice daily), scheduled for a repeat cesarean, and referred to surgery for bilateral mammoplasty. Conclusion. Gestational gigantomastia is a rare disorder, characterized by enlargement and hypertrophy of breast tissue. Our patient presented with no endocrine or hematological abnormalities, adding to a review of the literature for differential diagnoses, workup, and management of cases of gestational gigantomastia with normal hormone levels. PMID:26713166

  2. Pregnancy with hypoplastic left lung complicated by pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Zainudin, Lily D; Abdul Hafidz, Muhammad I; Zakaria, Ahmad F; Mohd Zim, Mohd A; Ismail, Ahmad I; Abdul Rani, Mohammed F

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of a 34-year-old lady with past history of asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis, who presented 5 weeks pregnant with acute dyspnea. Her chest X-ray showed left-sided complete lung collapse and concomitant right-sided pneumothorax. The pneumothorax was initially managed conservatively with a chest tube but due to its persistence despite suction, was subsequently changed to a Pneumostat(TM), with which she was later discharged. She had a normal echocardiography (ejection fraction [EF] 67%) at 5 weeks of gestation but developed pulmonary hypertension (EF 55%, pulmonary arterial pressure 40.7 mmHg) as the pregnancy progressed. She delivered a healthy baby at 35 weeks via elective lower section caesarean section with spinal anesthesia. We followed her up postnatally and noted the presence of left-sided pulmonary embolism, hypoplastic left lung, and left pulmonary artery. The management of this complex case involved a multidisciplinary effort between general medical, respiratory, obstetric, and cardiothoracic teams.

  3. Poor Vitamin C Status Late in Pregnancy Is Associated with Increased Risk of Complications in Type 1 Diabetic Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Juhl, Bente; Lauszus, Finn Friis; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C (vitC) is essential for normal pregnancy and fetal development and poor vitC status has been related to complications of pregnancy. We have previously shown lower vitC status in diabetic women throughout pregnancy compared to that of non-diabetic controls. Here, we evaluate the relationship between vitC status late in diabetic pregnancy in relation to fetal outcome, complications of pregnancy, diabetic characteristics, and glycemic control based on data of 47 women from the same cohort. We found a significant relationship between the maternal vitC level > or ≤ the 50% percentile of 26.6 μmol/L, respectively, and the umbilical cord blood vitC level (mean (SD)): 101.0 μmol/L (16.6) versus 78.5 μmol/L (27.8), p = 0.02; n = 12/16), while no relation to birth weight or Apgar score was observed. Diabetic women with complications of pregnancy had significantly lower vitC levels compared to the women without complications (mean (SD): 24.2 μmol/L (10.6) vs. 34.6 μmol/L (14.4), p = 0.01; n = 19 and 28, respectively) and the subgroup of women (about 28%) characterized by hypovitaminosis C (<23 μmol/L) had an increased relative risk of complications of pregnancy that was 2.4 fold higher than the one found in the group of women with a vitC status above this level (p = 0.02, 95% confidence interval 1.2–4.4). No correlation between diabetic characteristics of the pregnant women and vitC status was observed, while a negative association of maternal vitC with HbA1c at delivery was found at regression analysis (r = −0.39, p < 0.01, n = 46). In conclusion, our results may suggest that hypovitaminosis C in diabetic women is associated with increased risk of complications of pregnancy. PMID:28241487

  4. Listeriosis Phytotherapy: A Review Study on the Effectiveness of Iranian Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-12-17

    Listeria monocytogenes can be found in many processed foods, raw milk, dairy products, meat and meat products such as sausages, beef and fish products, seafoods, eggs, fruits, and vegetables such as radish and cabbage. This article is a review study on the Iranian medicinal plants applied for treatment of listeriosis. Information of this review article was obtained by searching various key words such as Listeria monocytogenes, medicinal plants, plant extracts and essential oils among scientific articles published in databases of Google scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, SID and Magiran. Thyme, German chamomile, great chamomile, yarrow, onion, oregano, nutmeg, sage, sagebrush, hyssop, rosemary, St John's wort, safflower, ajowan, cumin, peppermint, shallot, anise, and parsnip are known antilisteriosis medicinal plants. Bioactive phytochemicals, antioxidants and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, coumarin, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids are the main ingredients of antilisteriosis medicinal plants.

  5. Teenage Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... plan to get pregnant, but many do. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother ... later on. They have a higher risk for pregnancy-related high blood pressure and its complications. Risks ...

  6. The role of antenatal corticosteroids in twin pregnancies complicated by preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Nir; Shah, Jyotsna; Yoon, Eugene W; Pelausa, Ermelinda; Lee, Shoo K; Shah, Prakesh S; Murphy, Kellie E

    2016-10-01

    Data regarding the effects of antenatal corticosteroids in twin pregnancies are limited because of the insufficient number of women with twins enrolled in randomized controlled trials on antenatal corticosteroids. Furthermore, the interpretation of available data is limited by the fact that the interval from the administration of antenatal corticosteroids to delivery is greater than 7 days in a large proportion of twins, a factor that has been shown to affect the efficacy of antenatal corticosteroids and has not been controlled for in previous studies. The objective of the study was to compare neonatal mortality and morbidity in preterm twins receiving a complete course of antenatal corticosteroids 1-7 days before birth to those who did not receive antenatal corticosteroids and to compare these outcome effects with those observed in singletons. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data collected on singleton and twin neonates born between 24(0/7) and 33(6/7) weeks' gestational age and were admitted to tertiary neonatal units in Canada between 2010 and 2014. A comparison of neonatal outcomes between twin neonates who received a complete course of antenatal corticosteroids 1-7 days before birth (n = 1758) and those who did not receive antenatal corticosteroids (n = 758) and between singleton neonates who received a complete course of antenatal corticosteroids 1-7 days before birth (n = 4638) and those did not receive antenatal corticosteroids (n = 2312) was conducted after adjusting for gestational age, sex, hypertension, outborn status, small for gestational age, parity, and cesarean birth. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for various neonatal outcomes were calculated. Administration of a complete course of antenatal corticosteroids within 1-7 days before birth in both twins and singletons was associated with similar reduced odds of neonatal death (for twins adjusted odds ratio 0.42 [95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.76] and for

  7. Homocysteine, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide in patients with hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yachang; Li, Mujun; Chen, Yue; Wang, Sumei

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of level of serum homocysteine (Hcy), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) and clinical significance in patients with HDCP. Two hundred and thirty nine patients with HDCP (137 patients with mild preeclampsia, 102 patients with severe preeclampsia) who were hospitalized between June 2012 and June 2015 and 200 normal pregnancy women in outpatient department were enrolled in our study were divided into HDCP group and control group. Serum Hcy concentration was measured by enzymatic cycling assay. ET-1 concentration was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. And no concentration was measured by nitrate reductase assay. Serum Hcy and ET-1 in HDCP group were significantly higher as compared to control group (P<0.05). Level of serum NO in HDCP group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05). Level of serum Hcy and ET-1 in mild and severe preeclampsia group were significantly higher as compared to control group, respectively (P<0.05). Level of serum NO in mild and severe preeclampsia group were significantly lower than in the control group' respectively (P<0.05). Level of serum Hcy and ET-1 in severe preeclampsia group were significantly higher as compared to mild preclampsia group (P<0.05). Level of serum NO in severe preeclampsia group were significantly lower than in mild preeclampsia group (P<0.05). Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that level of serum Hcy and ET-1 was positively correlated with severity of diseases (r=0.689, 0.718, P<0.05). Level of serum NO was negatively correlated with severity of diseases (r=-0.702, P<0.05). Serum Hcy, ET-1 and NO were associated with pathogenesis of HDCP. Comprehensively measurement of them could effectively evaluate the incidence and progress of HDCP.

  8. Homocysteine, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide in patients with hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yachang; Li, Mujun; Chen, Yue; Wang, Sumei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of level of serum homocysteine (Hcy), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) and clinical significance in patients with HDCP. Methods: Two hundred and thirty nine patients with HDCP (137 patients with mild preeclampsia, 102 patients with severe preeclampsia) who were hospitalized between June 2012 and June 2015 and 200 normal pregnancy women in outpatient department were enrolled in our study were divided into HDCP group and control group. Serum Hcy concentration was measured by enzymatic cycling assay. ET-1 concentration was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. And no concentration was measured by nitrate reductase assay. Results: Serum Hcy and ET-1 in HDCP group were significantly higher as compared to control group (P<0.05). Level of serum NO in HDCP group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05). Level of serum Hcy and ET-1 in mild and severe preeclampsia group were significantly higher as compared to control group, respectively (P<0.05). Level of serum NO in mild and severe preeclampsia group were significantly lower than in the control group’ respectively (P<0.05). Level of serum Hcy and ET-1 in severe preeclampsia group were significantly higher as compared to mild preclampsia group (P<0.05). Level of serum NO in severe preeclampsia group were significantly lower than in mild preeclampsia group (P<0.05). Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that level of serum Hcy and ET-1 was positively correlated with severity of diseases (r=0.689, 0.718, P<0.05). Level of serum NO was negatively correlated with severity of diseases (r=-0.702, P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Hcy, ET-1 and NO were associated with pathogenesis of HDCP. Comprehensively measurement of them could effectively evaluate the incidence and progress of HDCP. PMID:26823880

  9. PP13, Maternal ABO Blood Groups and the Risk Assessment of Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Meiri, Hamutal; Erez, Offer; Xu, Yi; Tarquini, Federica; Barna, Laszlo; Szilagyi, Andras; Ackerman, Ron; Sammar, Marei; Fule, Tibor; Karaszi, Katalin; Kovalszky, Ilona; Dong, Zhong; Kim, Chong Jai; Zavodszky, Peter; Papp, Zoltan; Gonen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background Placental Protein 13 (PP13), an early biomarker of preeclampsia, is a placenta-specific galectin that binds beta-galactosides, building-blocks of ABO blood-group antigens, possibly affecting its bioavailability in blood. Methods and Findings We studied PP13-binding to erythrocytes, maternal blood-group effect on serum PP13 and its performance as a predictor of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Datasets of maternal serum PP13 in Caucasian (n = 1078) and Hispanic (n = 242) women were analyzed according to blood groups. In vivo, in vitro and in silico PP13-binding to ABO blood-group antigens and erythrocytes were studied by PP13-immunostainings of placental tissue-microarrays, flow-cytometry of erythrocyte-bound PP13, and model-building of PP13 - blood-group H antigen complex, respectively. Women with blood group AB had the lowest serum PP13 in the first trimester, while those with blood group B had the highest PP13 throughout pregnancy. In accordance, PP13-binding was the strongest to blood-group AB erythrocytes and weakest to blood-group B erythrocytes. PP13-staining of maternal and fetal erythrocytes was revealed, and a plausible molecular model of PP13 complexed with blood-group H antigen was built. Adjustment of PP13 MoMs to maternal ABO blood group improved the prediction accuracy of first trimester maternal serum PP13 MoMs for preeclampsia and IUGR. Conclusions ABO blood group can alter PP13-bioavailability in blood, and it may also be a key determinant for other lectins' bioavailability in the circulation. The adjustment of PP13 MoMs to ABO blood group improves the predictive accuracy of this test. PMID:21799738

  10. Women with homozygous AT deficiency type II heparin-binding site (HBS) are at high risk of pregnancy loss and pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Julia; Sunder-Plassmann, Raute; Mannhalter, Christine; Quehenberger, Peter; Tews, Gernot; Langer, Martin; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2017-06-01

    Data regarding outcome and therapy of pregnancies in patients with homozygous antithrombin (AT) deficiency are very rare. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive investigation with emphasis on the obstetric history of eight women with homozygous AT deficiency heparin-binding site (HBS), who had at least one pregnancy. The aim of the study was to get a better insight into the outcome and identify suitable management procedures of pregnancy in this rare disease. All patients suffered from homozygous AT deficiency caused by the mutation c.391C>T p.Leu131Phe in the AT gene (SERPINC1). The women reported in total 23 pregnancies; one pregnancy was excluded because of induced abortion. We found that only seven out of the 22 analyzed pregnancies ended with a live infant, all of them were born preterm. Among the 15 negative outcomes, seven were early pregnancy losses and eight were intrauterine fetal deaths. We found no clear association between treatment protocols and outcome. Eight pregnancies were not treated at all; all of them ended with pregnancy loss. We conclude that homozygous AT deficiency HBS, a form of severe thrombophilia, is associated with high risk of pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. Rigorous anticoagulation and/or replacement of AT during pregnancy may improve the outcome.

  11. INTER-ACT: prevention of pregnancy complications through an e-health driven interpregnancy lifestyle intervention - study protocol of a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Annick; Ameye, Lieveke; Bijlholt, Margriet; Amuli, Kelly; Heynickx, Dorine; Devlieger, Roland

    2017-05-26

    Excessive maternal pre-pregnancy and gestational weight gain are related to pregnancy- and birth outcomes. The interpregnancy time window offers a unique opportunity to intervene in order to acquire a healthy lifestyle before the start of a new pregnancy. INTER-ACT is an e-health driven multicentre randomised controlled intervention trial targeting women at high risk of pregnancy- and birth related complications. Eligible women are recruited for the study at day 2 or 3 postpartum. At week 6 postpartum, participants are randomised into the intervention or control arm of the study. The intervention focuses on weight, diet, physical activity and mental well-being, and comprises face-to-face coaching, in which behavioural change techniques are central, and use of a mobile application, which is Bluetooth-connected to a weighing scale and activity tracker. The intervention is rolled out postpartum (4 coaching sessions between week 6 and month 6) and in a new pregnancy (3 coaching sessions, one in each trimester of pregnancy); the mobile app is used throughout the two intervention phases. Data collection includes data from the medical record of the participants (pregnancy outcomes and medical history), anthropometric data (height, weight, waist- and hip circumferences, skinfold thickness and body composition by bio-electrical impedance analysis), data from the mobile app (physical activity and weight; intervention group only) and questionnaires (socio-demographics, breastfeeding, food intake, physical activity, lifestyle, psychosocial factors and process evaluation). Medical record data are collected at inclusion and at delivery of the subsequent pregnancy. All other data are collected at week 6 and month 6 postpartum and every subsequent 6 months until a new pregnancy, and in every trimester in the new pregnancy. Primary outcome is the composite endpoint score of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, caesarean section, and large

  12. Risk and prediction of preterm delivery in pregnancies complicated by antepartum hemorrhage of unknown origin before 34 weeks.

    PubMed

    Leung, T Y; Chan, L W; Tam, W H; Leung, T N; Lau, T K

    2001-01-01

    To assess the timing and risk factors of preterm delivery in pregnancies complicated by antepartum hemorrhage of unknown origin (APHUO) before 34 weeks of gestation, and to formulate a clinical management protocol. A retrospective study involving singleton pregnancies with APHUO occurring before the 34th week of gestation was performed over a 4-year period at a university teaching hospital. Seventy-five cases were identified. Fifty-nine (78.7%) did not have any associated uterine contractions, 74.7 and 90.7% of the cases were classified as having mild bleeding according to history and physical examination, respectively. The number of cases delivering before 37 weeks of gestation and before 34 weeks were 28 (37.3%) and 22 (29.3%), respectively. Eighteen cases (24%) delivered within the first week of APHUO, and 4 (5.3%) within the first day. The number of cases delivering within the first week was significantly higher when there were uterine contractions (62.5 vs. 13.6%, p < 0.001). The severity of bleeding was not shown to be related to the time of delivery. APHUO that occurs before 34 weeks is associated with a high risk of preterm delivery before 34 weeks (29.3%). The chance of delivery within the first week is 62.5% when there are coexisting uterine contractions. Even if contractions are absent, the risk is still high (13.6%) and persists beyond the first week. We suggest that this group of patients should be managed with a course of steroid injection and hospitalization for 4 days. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Increased endoplasmic reticulum stress in decidual tissue from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction with and without pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Lian, I.A.; Løset, M.; Mundal, S.B.; Fenstad, M.H.; Johnson, M.P.; Eide, I.P.; Bjørge, L.; Freed, K.A.; Moses, E.K.; Austgulen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in both pre-eclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR), and is characterised by activation of three signalling branches: 1) PERK-pEIF2α, 2) ATF6 and 3) splicing of XBP1(U) into XBP1(S). To evaluate the contribution of ER stress in the pathogenesis of PE relative to FGR, we compared levels of ER stress markers in decidual tissue from pregnancies complicated by PE and/or FGR. Study design Whole-genome transcriptional profiling was performed on decidual tissue from women with PE (n = 13), FGR (n = 9), PE+FGR (n = 24) and controls (n = 58), and used for pathway- and targeted transcriptional analyses of ER stress markers. The expression and cellular localisation of ER stress markers was assesses by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Results Increased ER stress was observed in FGR and PE+FGR, including both the PERK-pEIF2α and ATF6 signalling branches, whereas ER stress was less evident in isolated PE. However, these cases demonstrated elevated levels of XBP1(U) protein. ATF6 and XBP1 immunoreactivity was detected in most (> 80%) extravillous trophoblasts, decidual cells and macrophages. No difference in the proportion of immunopositive cells or staining pattern was observed between study groups. Conclusions Increased PERK-pEIF2α and ATF6 signalling have been associated with decreased cellular proliferation and may contribute to the impaired placental growth characterising pregnancies with FGR and PE+FGR. XBP1(U) has been proposed as a negative regulator of ER stress, and increased levels in PE may reflect a protective mechanism against the detrimental effects of ER stress. PMID:21907405

  14. Listeriosis Prevention for Older Adults: Effective Messages and Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Sheryl C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Moore, Christina M.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Cowen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis…

  15. Listeriosis Prevention for Older Adults: Effective Messages and Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Sheryl C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Moore, Christina M.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Cowen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis…

  16. [Pregnancy and labor complications--their significance in the development of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Stöber, G; Franzek, E; Beckmann, H

    1993-10-01

    In a retrospective study of 80 chronic DSM III-R schizophrenics and 80 controls, the occurrence of obstetric complications (OCs) into the development of chronic schizophrenias was investigated using Leonhard's distinction in systematic schizophrenia (no obvious familial loading) and unsystematic schizophrenia (mainly genetically determined according to Leonhard). The Lewis & Murray and Fuchs scales were used for evaluation. In both scales, unsystematic schizophrenias did not differ from controls, but those with OCs were significantly (p < 0.01) earlier hospitalized (20.5 years) than those without OCs (25.6 years). Systematic schizophrenics had an increased frequency, severity and total score of OCs compared to controls in the Fuchs scale (p < 0.01). Likewise, in the Lewis & Murray scale systematic schizophrenia showed an increased presence of OCs compared to controls (p < 0.05) and to unsystematic schizophrenia (p < 0.1). Systematic schizophrenias were significantly allocated to maternal infectious diseases during mid-gestation. Patients with maternal infections showed more additional OCs than those without (p < 0.05; Lewis & Murray scale). In systematic schizophrenia, a history of OC was not associated with an early onset of the disease. In the genetic determined schizophrenias prenatal and perinatal disturbances lead to an early onset of the disease, however, in systematic schizophrenias they seem to be of causal importance for the development of the disease.

  17. [The use of transvaginal ultrasound following voluntary interruption of pregnancy to reduce complications due to incomplete curettage].

    PubMed

    Caserta, L; Labriola, D; Torella, M; Di Caterina, B

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess by what percentage the use of transvaginal ultrasound (TV, curettage) following voluntary interruption of pregnancy (IVG) reduces the incidence of haemorrhagic events resulting from incomplete drainage of the cavity during the first trimester of gestation. The present is a randomized prospective study involving 720 women who in the period between January 2005 and January 2007 underwent drainage of the cavity during the first trimester of gestation. The study group involved 360 women who were submitted to TV ultrasound using the Toshiba JustVision 400 system at the end of the surgical procedure. The control group also numbered 360 women; they, by contrast, did not undergo ultrasound examination at the end of surgery. In the study group, in those cases in which the ultrasound examination carried out with a TV probe highlighted an endometrial rima of thickness 8 mm, recurettage was carried out. Patients then underwent further gynecological and ultrasound control examination, 5-8 days after the surgical procedure. The index of complications overall was 3.2%. Retained products of conception were encountered in 2 women in the study group (0.5%) and in 13 women from the control group (3.6%, P<0.05). Vaginal bleeding requiring hospitalization was observed in 2 women in the study group (0,5%) against 6 in the control group (1.6%, P=0.2). Cases of endometritis were diagnosed in only one woman in the study group (0.3%) against 5 in the control group (1.4%) and uterine perforation occurred in only one woman in the control group versus no case in the study group. There were no cases of retained products of conception in women presenting endometrial thickness <8 mm, a dimension obtained with the aid of ultrasound at the end of the surgical procedure. The use of ultrasound examination, carried out with the aid of a TV probe immediately following uterine drainage during the first trimester of pregnancy, may considerably reduce the incidence both

  18. Prenatal Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Do Not Affect Pregnancy or Childbirth Complications or Cesarean Delivery in Bangladesh: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.

    PubMed

    Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Paul, Rina Rani; Hussain, Sohrab; Sarker, Mostofa; Hossain, Mokbul; Peerson, Janet M; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-09-01

    Background: Pregnancy and childbirth complications and cesarean delivery are common in Bangladesh.Objective: We evaluated the effect of lipid-based nutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women (LNS-PL) on pregnancy and childbirth complications and cesarean delivery.Methods: We conducted the Rang-Din Nutrition Study, a cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial within a community health program in rural Bangladesh. We enrolled 4011 pregnant women in early pregnancy. Women in 48 clusters received iron and folic acid (IFA; 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d) and women in 16 clusters received LNS-PL (20 g/d, 118 kcal) containing essential fatty acids and 22 vitamins and minerals. Pregnancy and childbirth complications and the cesarean delivery rate were secondary outcomes of the study.Results: Women in the LNS-PL group did not differ significantly from the IFA group with respect to mean systolic blood pressure at 36 wk gestation (113 and 112 mm Hg; P = 0.17), diastolic blood pressure at 36 wk gestation (68.9 and 68.7 mmHg; P = 0.88), or mean total number of pregnancy and childbirth complications (0.32 and 0.31; P = 0.86). They also did not differ significantly with respect to the prevalence of high blood pressure at 36 wk (1.74% and 2.03%; P = 0.62), antepartum hemorrhage (0.83% and 1.39%; P = 0.21), prolonged labor (8.34% and 8.79%; P = 0.68), early rupture of membranes (9.30% and 8.45%; P = 0.43), convulsions (1.57% and 1.08%; P = 0.24), high blood pressure in labor (1.54% and 1.19%; P = 0.46), obstructed labor (2.83% and 2.91%; P = 0.90), any complications during pregnancy or childbirth (35.9% and 37.1%; P = 0.64), episiotomy (6.31% and 6.44%; P = 0.90), or cesarean delivery (15.6% and 14.2%; P = 0.48).Conclusion: Compared with IFA, antenatal LNS-PL did not increase or decrease pregnancy and childbirth complications or cesarean delivery among women in rural Bangladesh. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715038. © 2017 American

  19. Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be tired and need more rest. Your body will change as your baby grows during the nine months of your pregnancy. Don't hesitate to call your health care provider if you think you have a problem or something is bothering or worrying you.

  20. Characterizing the lipid and metabolite changes associated with placental function and pregnancy complications using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin S.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2017-03-29

    A successful pregnancy is dependent upon discrete biological events, which include embryo implantation, decidualization, and placentation. Furthermore, problems associated with each of these events can cause infertility or conditions such as preeclampsia. A greater understanding of the molecular changes associated with these complex processes is necessary to aid in identifying treatments for each condition. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies have been used to identify metabolites and lipids associated with pregnancy-related complications. However, due to limitations associated with conventional implementations of both techniques, novel technology developments are needed to more fully understand the initiation and development ofmore » pregnancy related problems at the molecular level. Here, we describe current analytical techniques for metabolomic and lipidomic characterization of pregnancy complications and discuss the potential for new technologies such as ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging to contribute to a better understanding of the molecular changes that affect the placenta and pregnancy outcomes.« less

  1. Effectiveness of combining plasma exchange with continuous hemodiafiltration on acute Fatty liver of pregnancy complicated by multiple organ dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yu-Feng; Meng, Mei; Zeng, Juan; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Jin-Jiao; Ren, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Ji-Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Ying; Wang, Chun-Ting

    2012-06-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare disease of progressive hepatic insufficiency and secondary systemic complications that induce significant maternal risk. The application of combining plasma exchange (PE) and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) is a novel concept for patients with AFLP. Since 2002, we have utilized the combination of PE with CHDF as adjunctive medical therapy for 11 AFLP patients with multiple organ dysfunction. Before PE and CHDF initiation, four patients had signs and symptoms of encephalopathy, four required ventilatory support, and all 11 were developing liver failure, significant renal compromise, and coagulopathy. PE combined with CHDF for patients was initiated a mean of 2 days postpartum (range, days 0-3). Daily or every other day PE combined with CHDF was undertaken on two to eight occasions for each of the 11 patients. Ten patients responded with composite clinical and laboratory improvement and were discharged to the ward, then cured and discharged from hospital; one patient died of septic shock. Average duration of hospitalization was 17 days (range, days 9-38) from time of admission to discharge; the average duration of intensive care unit was 10 days (range, days 4-23). No significant PE- and CHDF-related complications occurred. These results indicate that combing PE and CHDF in a series-parallel circuit is an effective and safe treatment for patients with severe AFLP. This finding may have important implications for the development of an effective treatment for patients with AFLP suffering multiple organ dysfunction. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Galectins: Double-edged Swords in the Cross-roads of Pregnancy Complications and Female Reproductive Tract Inflammation and Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Balogh, Andrea; Karpati, Eva; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Staretz-Chacham, Orna; Hahn, Sinuhe; Erez, Offer; Papp, Zoltan; Kim, Chong Jai

    2015-01-01

    Galectins are an evolutionarily ancient and widely expressed family of lectins that have unique glycan-binding characteristics. They are pleiotropic regulators of key biological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and pre-mRNA splicing, as well as homo- and heterotypic cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Galectins are also pivotal in immune responses since they regulate host-pathogen interactions, innate and adaptive immune responses, acute and chronic inflammation, and immune tolerance. Some galectins are also central to the regulation of angiogenesis, cell migration and invasion. Expression and functional data provide convincing evidence that, due to these functions, galectins play key roles in shared and unique pathways of normal embryonic and placental development as well as oncodevelopmental processes in tumorigenesis. Therefore, galectins may sometimes act as double-edged swords since they have beneficial but also harmful effects for the organism. Recent advances facilitate the use of galectins as biomarkers in obstetrical syndromes and in various malignancies, and their therapeutic applications are also under investigation. This review provides a general overview of galectins and a focused review of this lectin subfamily in the context of inflammation, infection and tumors of the female reproductive tract as well as in normal pregnancies and those complicated by the great obstetrical syndromes. PMID:26018511

  3. Pregnancy outcomes and maternal and perinatal complications of pregnancies following in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection using own oocytes, donor oocytes, and vitrified embryos: A prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Banker, Manish; Mehta, Vidhisha; Sorathiya, Dipesh; Dave, Mira; Shah, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several global studies have assessed maternal and perinatal outcomes and complications with the type of embryo transfer (ET) following in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). The present study assessed the incidence of maternal and perinatal outcomes and complications following IVF/ICSI associated with the type of embryo transferred. METHODOLOGY: A total of 2112 ETs were performed in 2092 female patients aged 21–50 years between January 1 and December 31, 2014 (Group A: Fresh ET using self-oocytes: 691; Group B: Fresh ET using donor oocytes: 810; and Group C: Thaw ET using vitrified-warmed embryos: 611). RESULTS: Incidence of clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and maternal complications was: Group A: 40.8%, 15.9%, 2.8%, 27.3%, 31.9%, and 17.7%; Group B: 50.2%, 21.8%, 1.6%, 32.5%, 36.9%, and 23.7%; and Group C: 42.9%, 25.2%, 1.1%, 31.3%, 29.6%, and 17.8%, respectively. Incidence of prematurity (<36 weeks of pregnancy), lower birth weight (<2500 g), perinatal mortality, and congenital abnormalities was as follows: Group A (29.52%, 36.2%, 5.22%, and 1.39%), Group B (42.58%, 46.2%, 4.6%, and 1.32%), and Group C (35.74%, 32.4%, 7.85%, and 0.94%), respectively. CONCLUSION: The higher incidence of the pregnancy outcomes in oocyte donation (OD) cycles can mainly be attributed to the younger age of oocyte donors. The higher incidence of complications in OD cycles could be due to advanced maternal age, different placentation, and immune tolerance. PMID:28216912

  4. Complicated abdominal pregnancy with placenta feeding off sacral plexus and subsequent multiple ectopic pregnancies during a 4-year follow-up: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chaitali; Feldman, Joseph; Ogedegbe, Chinwe

    2016-02-11

    Abdominal pregnancy (pregnancy in the peritoneal cavity) is a very rare and serious type of extrauterine gestation that accounts for approximately 1.4% of all ectopic pregnancies. It also represents one of the few times an ectopic pregnancy can be carried to term. Early strategic diagnosis and management decisions can make a critical difference with regards to severity of morbidity and mortality risk. After an extensive search of the English language medical literature, we are unaware of any case of abdominal pregnancy in which the placenta was receiv