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Sample records for literature analysis cross-validation

  1. Annotation of protein residues based on a literature analysis: cross-validation against UniProtKb

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Kevin; Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    Background A protein annotation database, such as the Universal Protein Resource knowledge base (UniProtKb), is a valuable resource for the validation and interpretation of predicted 3D structure patterns in proteins. Existing studies have focussed on point mutation extraction methods from biomedical literature which can be used to support the time consuming work of manual database curation. However, these methods were limited to point mutation extraction and do not extract features for the annotation of proteins at the residue level. Results This work introduces a system that identifies protein residues in MEDLINE abstracts and annotates them with features extracted from the context written in the surrounding text. MEDLINE abstract texts have been processed to identify protein mentions in combination with taxonomic species and protein residues (F1-measure 0.52). The identified protein-species-residue triplets have been validated and benchmarked against reference data resources (UniProtKb, average F1-measure of 0.54). Then, contextual features were extracted through shallow and deep parsing and the features have been classified into predefined categories (F1-measure ranges from 0.15 to 0.67). Furthermore, the feature sets have been aligned with annotation types in UniProtKb to assess the relevance of the annotations for ongoing curation projects. Altogether, the annotations have been assessed automatically and manually against reference data resources. Conclusion This work proposes a solution for the automatic extraction of functional annotation for protein residues from biomedical articles. The presented approach is an extension to other existing systems in that a wider range of residue entities are considered and that features of residues are extracted as annotations. PMID:19758468

  2. Cross-Validation in Canonical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dianne L.

    The need for using invariance procedures to establish the external validity or generalizability of statistical results has been well documented. Invariance analysis is a tool that can be used to establish confidence in the replicability of research findings. Several approaches to invariance analysis are available that are broadly applicable across…

  3. Exact Analysis of Squared Cross-Validity Coefficient in Predictive Regression Models.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2009-01-01

    In regression analysis, the notion of population validity is of theoretical interest for describing the usefulness of the underlying regression model, whereas the presumably more important concept of population cross-validity represents the predictive effectiveness for the regression equation in future research. It appears that the inference procedures of the squared multiple correlation coefficient have been extensively developed. In contrast, a full range of statistical methods for the analysis of the squared cross-validity coefficient is considerably far from complete. This article considers a distinct expression for the definition of the squared cross-validity coefficient as the direct connection and monotone transformation to the squared multiple correlation coefficient. Therefore, all the currently available exact methods for interval estimation, power calculation, and sample size determination of the squared multiple correlation coefficient are naturally modified and extended to the analysis of the squared cross-validity coefficient. The adequacies of the existing approximate procedures and the suggested exact method are evaluated through a Monte Carlo study. Furthermore, practical applications in areas of psychology and management are presented to illustrate the essential features of the proposed methodologies. The first empirical example uses 6 control variables related to driver characteristics and traffic congestion and their relation to stress in bus drivers, and the second example relates skills, cognitive performance, and personality to team performance measures. The results in this article can facilitate the recommended practice of cross-validation in psychological and other areas of social science research.

  4. Exact Analysis of Squared Cross-Validity Coefficient in Predictive Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2009-01-01

    In regression analysis, the notion of population validity is of theoretical interest for describing the usefulness of the underlying regression model, whereas the presumably more important concept of population cross-validity represents the predictive effectiveness for the regression equation in future research. It appears that the inference…

  5. Cross-validation of matching correlation analysis by resampling matching weights.

    PubMed

    Shimodaira, Hidetoshi

    2016-03-01

    The strength of association between a pair of data vectors is represented by a nonnegative real number, called matching weight. For dimensionality reduction, we consider a linear transformation of data vectors, and define a matching error as the weighted sum of squared distances between transformed vectors with respect to the matching weights. Given data vectors and matching weights, the optimal linear transformation minimizing the matching error is solved by the spectral graph embedding of Yan et al. (2007). This method is a generalization of the canonical correlation analysis, and will be called as matching correlation analysis (MCA). In this paper, we consider a novel sampling scheme where the observed matching weights are randomly sampled from underlying true matching weights with small probability, whereas the data vectors are treated as constants. We then investigate a cross-validation by resampling the matching weights. Our asymptotic theory shows that the cross-validation, if rescaled properly, computes an unbiased estimate of the matching error with respect to the true matching weights. Existing ideas of cross-validation for resampling data vectors, instead of resampling matching weights, are not applicable here. MCA can be used for data vectors from multiple domains with different dimensions via an embarrassingly simple idea of coding the data vectors. This method will be called as cross-domain matching correlation analysis (CDMCA), and an interesting connection to the classical associative memory model of neural networks is also discussed.

  6. Cross-validation analysis of bias models in Bayesian multi-model projections of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttunen, J. M. J.; Räisänen, J.; Nissinen, A.; Lipponen, A.; Kolehmainen, V.

    2017-03-01

    Climate change projections are commonly based on multi-model ensembles of climate simulations. In this paper we consider the choice of bias models in Bayesian multimodel predictions. Buser et al. (Clim Res 44(2-3):227-241, 2010a) introduced a hybrid bias model which combines commonly used constant bias and constant relation bias assumptions. The hybrid model includes a weighting parameter which balances these bias models. In this study, we use a cross-validation approach to study which bias model or bias parameter leads to, in a specific sense, optimal climate change projections. The analysis is carried out for summer and winter season means of 2 m-temperatures spatially averaged over the IPCC SREX regions, using 19 model runs from the CMIP5 data set. The cross-validation approach is applied to calculate optimal bias parameters (in the specific sense) for projecting the temperature change from the control period (1961-2005) to the scenario period (2046-2090). The results are compared to the results of the Buser et al. (Clim Res 44(2-3):227-241, 2010a) method which includes the bias parameter as one of the unknown parameters to be estimated from the data.

  7. Airborne environmental endotoxin: a cross-validation of sampling and analysis techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, M; Milton, D; Larsson, L; Ford, T

    1994-01-01

    A standard method for measurement of airborne environmental endotoxin was developed and field tested in a fiberglass insulation-manufacturing facility. This method involved sampling with a capillary-pore membrane filter, extraction in buffer using a sonication bath, and analysis by the kinetic-Limulus assay with resistant-parallel-line estimation (KLARE). Cross-validation of the extraction and assay method was performed by comparison with methanolysis of samples followed by 3-hydroxy fatty acid (3-OHFA) analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Direct methanolysis of filter samples and methanolysis of buffer extracts of the filters yielded similar 3-OHFA content (P = 0.72); the average difference was 2.1%. Analysis of buffer extracts for endotoxin content by the KLARE method and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 3-OHFA content produced similar results (P = 0.23); the average difference was 0.88%. The source of endotoxin was gram-negative bacteria growing in recycled washwater used to clean the insulation-manufacturing equipment. The endotoxin and bacteria become airborne during spray cleaning operations. The types of 3-OHFAs in bacteria cultured from the washwater, present in the washwater and in the air, were similar. Virtually all of the bacteria cultured from air and water were gram negative composed mostly of two species, Deleya aesta and Acinetobacter johnsonii. Airborne countable bacteria correlated well with endotoxin (r2 = 0.64). Replicate sampling showed that results with the standard sampling, extraction, and Limulus assay by the KLARE method were highly reproducible (95% confidence interval for endotoxin measurement +/- 0.28 log10). These results demonstrate the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of the standard procedure proposed for airborne environmental endotoxin. PMID:8161191

  8. Cross-validation of the reduced form of the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait using confirmatory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Iani, Luca; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Lombardo, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is commonly used to assess habitual food cravings among individuals. Previous studies have shown that a brief version of this instrument (FCQ-T-r) has good reliability and validity. This article is the first to use Confirmatory factor analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the FCQ-T-r in a cross-validation study. Method: Habitual food cravings, as well as emotion regulation strategies, affective states, and disordered eating behaviors, were investigated in two independent samples of non-clinical adult volunteers (Sample 1: N = 368; Sample 2: N = 246). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to simultaneously test model fit statistics and dimensionality of the instrument. FCQ-T-r reliability was assessed by computing the composite reliability coefficient. Results: Analysis supported the unidimensional structure of the scale and fit indices were acceptable for both samples. The FCQ-T-r showed excellent reliability and moderate to high correlations with negative affect and disordered eating. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the FCQ-T-r scores can be reliably used to assess habitual cravings in an Italian non-clinical sample of adults. The robustness of these results is tested by a cross-validation of the model using two independent samples. Further research is required to expand on these findings, particularly in children and adolescents. PMID:25918510

  9. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms—A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, James; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. Methods In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine samples were collected from 67 children and adults with ASD and 50 neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. The samples were analyzed to determine the levels of 10 urinary toxic metals (UTM). Autism-related symptoms were assessed with eleven behavioral measures. Statistical analysis was used to distinguish participants on the ASD spectrum and neurotypical participants based upon the UTM data alone. The analysis also included examining the association of autism severity with toxic metal excretion data using linear and nonlinear analysis. “Leave-one-out” cross-validation was used to ensure statistical independence of results. Results and Discussion Average excretion levels of several toxic metals (lead, tin, thallium, antimony) were significantly higher in the ASD group. However, ASD classification using univariate statistics proved difficult due to large variability, but nonlinear multivariate statistical analysis significantly improved ASD classification with Type I/II errors of 15% and 18%, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the urinary toxic metal excretion profiles of participants in the ASD group were significantly different from those of the neurotypical participants. Similarly, nonlinear methods determined a significantly stronger association between the behavioral measures and toxic metal excretion. The association was strongest for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (including subscales on Irritability, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate

  10. Validity Evidence in Scale Development: The Application of Cross Validation and Classification-Sequencing Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tu¨lin

    2014-01-01

    In literature, it has been observed that many enhanced criteria are limited by factor analysis techniques. Besides examinations of statistical structure and/or psychological structure, such validity studies as cross validation and classification-sequencing studies should be performed frequently. The purpose of this study is to examine cross…

  11. Remote sensing and GIS-based landslide hazard analysis and cross-validation using multivariate logistic regression model on three test areas in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the cross-validation of a multivariate logistic regression model using remote sensing data and GIS for landslide hazard analysis on the Penang, Cameron, and Selangor areas in Malaysia. Landslide locations in the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by field surveys. SPOT 5 and Landsat TM satellite imagery were used to map landcover and vegetation index, respectively. Maps of topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial datasets. Ten factors which influence landslide occurrence, i.e., slope, aspect, curvature, distance from drainage, lithology, distance from lineaments, soil type, landcover, rainfall precipitation, and normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi), were extracted from the spatial database and the logistic regression coefficient of each factor was computed. Then the landslide hazard was analysed using the multivariate logistic regression coefficients derived not only from the data for the respective area but also using the logistic regression coefficients calculated from each of the other two areas (nine hazard maps in all) as a cross-validation of the model. For verification of the model, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Among the three cases of the application of logistic regression coefficient in the same study area, the case of Selangor based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the highest accuracy (94%), where as Penang based on the Penang coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (86%). Similarly, among the six cases from the cross application of logistic regression coefficient in other two areas, the case of Selangor based on logistic coefficient of Cameron showed highest (90%) prediction accuracy where as the case of Penang based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (79%). Qualitatively, the cross

  12. The Performance of Cross-Validation Indices Used to Select among Competing Covariance Structure Models under Multivariate Nonnormality Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    Cudeck and Browne (1983) proposed using cross-validation as a model selection technique in structural equation modeling. The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of eight cross-validation indices under conditions not yet examined in the relevant literature, such as nonnormality and cross-validation design. The performance of each…

  13. Attrition from an Adolescent Addiction Treatment Program: A Cross Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathisen, Kenneth S.; Meyers, Kathleen

    Treatment attrition is a major problem for programs treating adolescent substance abusers. To isolate and cross validate factors which are predictive of addiction treatment attrition among adolescent substance abusers, screening interview and diagnostic variables from 119 adolescent in-patients were submitted to a discriminant equation analysis.…

  14. Double Cross-Validation in Multiple Regression: A Method of Estimating the Stability of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, R. Kevin

    In multiple regression analysis, where resulting predictive equation effectiveness is subject to shrinkage, it is especially important to evaluate result replicability. Double cross-validation is an empirical method by which an estimate of invariance or stability can be obtained from research data. A procedure for double cross-validation is…

  15. Direct spectral analysis of tea samples using 266 nm UV pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and cross validation of LIBS results with ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Gondal, M A; Habibullah, Y B; Baig, Umair; Oloore, L E

    2016-05-15

    Tea is one of the most common and popular beverages spanning vast array of cultures all over the world. The main nutritional benefits of drinking tea are its anti-oxidant properties, presumed protection against certain cancers, inhibition of inflammation and possible protective effects against diabetes. Laser induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) was assembled as a powerful tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of various brands of tea samples using 266 nm pulsed UV laser. LIBS spectra for six brands of tea samples in the wavelength range of 200-900 nm was recorded and all elements present in our tea samples were identified. The major toxic elements detected in several brands of tea samples were bromine, chromium and minerals like iron, calcium, potassium and silicon. The spectral assignment was conducted prior to the determination of concentration of each element. For quantitative analysis, calibration curves were drawn for each element using standard samples prepared in known concentration in the tea matrix. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and electron density) were also determined prior to the tea samples spectroscopic analysis. The concentration of iron, chromium, potassium, bromine, copper, silicon and calcium detected in all tea samples was between 378-656, 96-124, 1421-6785, 99-1476, 17-36, 2-11 and 92-130 mg L(-1) respectively. The limits of detection estimated for Fe, Cr, K, Br, Cu, Si, Ca in tea samples were 22, 12, 14, 11, 6, 1 and 12 mg L(-1) respectively. To further confirm the accuracy of our LIBS results, we determined the concentration of each element present in tea samples by using standard analytical technique like ICP-MS. The concentrations detected with our LIBS system are in excellent agreement with ICP-MS results. The system assembled for spectral analysis in this work could be highly applicable for testing the quality and purity of food and also pharmaceuticals products.

  16. Cross-validated detection of crack initiation in aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanniamparambil, Prashanth A.; Cuadra, Jefferson; Guclu, Utku; Bartoli, Ivan; Kontsos, Antonios

    2014-03-01

    A cross-validated nondestructive evaluation approach was employed to in situ detect the onset of damage in an Aluminum alloy compact tension specimen. The approach consisted of the coordinated use primarily the acoustic emission, combined with the infrared thermography and digital image correlation methods. Both tensile loads were applied and the specimen was continuously monitored using the nondestructive approach. Crack initiation was witnessed visually and was confirmed by the characteristic load drop accompanying the ductile fracture process. The full field deformation map provided by the nondestructive approach validated the formation of a pronounced plasticity zone near the crack tip. At the time of crack initiation, a burst in the temperature field ahead of the crack tip as well as a sudden increase of the acoustic recordings were observed. Although such experiments have been attempted and reported before in the literature, the presented approach provides for the first time a cross-validated nondestructive dataset that can be used for quantitative analyses of the crack initiation information content. It further allows future development of automated procedures for real-time identification of damage precursors including the rarely explored crack incubation stage in fatigue conditions.

  17. Reliable Digit Span: A Systematic Review and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ryan W.; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Baade, Lyle E.; Marshall, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a heavily researched symptom validity test with a recent literature review yielding more than 20 studies ranging in dates from 1994 to 2011. Unfortunately, limitations within some of the research minimize clinical generalizability. This systematic review and cross-validation study was conducted to address these…

  18. Cross validation in LASSO and its acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    We investigate leave-one-out cross validation (CV) as a determinator of the weight of the penalty term in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). First, on the basis of the message passing algorithm and a perturbative discussion assuming that the number of observations is sufficiently large, we provide simple formulas for approximately assessing two types of CV errors, which enable us to significantly reduce the necessary cost of computation. These formulas also provide a simple connection of the CV errors to the residual sums of squares between the reconstructed and the given measurements. Second, on the basis of this finding, we analytically evaluate the CV errors when the design matrix is given as a simple random matrix in the large size limit by using the replica method. Finally, these results are compared with those of numerical simulations on finite-size systems and are confirmed to be correct. We also apply the simple formulas of the first type of CV error to an actual dataset of the supernovae.

  19. Modified cross-validation as a method for estimating parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chye Rou; Adnan, Robiah

    2014-12-01

    Best subsets regression is an effective approach to distinguish models that can attain objectives with as few predictors as would be prudent. Subset models might really estimate the regression coefficients and predict future responses with smaller variance than the full model using all predictors. The inquiry of how to pick subset size λ depends on the bias and variance. There are various method to pick subset size λ. Regularly pick the smallest model that minimizes an estimate of the expected prediction error. Since data are regularly small, so Repeated K-fold cross-validation method is the most broadly utilized method to estimate prediction error and select model. The data is reshuffled and re-stratified before each round. However, the "one-standard-error" rule of Repeated K-fold cross-validation method always picks the most stingy model. The objective of this research is to modify the existing cross-validation method to avoid overfitting and underfitting model, a modified cross-validation method is proposed. This paper compares existing cross-validation and modified cross-validation. Our results reasoned that the modified cross-validation method is better at submodel selection and evaluation than other methods.

  20. A cross-validation package driving Netica with python

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs) are powerful tools for probabilistically simulating natural systems and emulating process models. Cross validation is a technique to avoid overfitting resulting from overly complex BNs. Overfitting reduces predictive skill. Cross-validation for BNs is known but rarely implemented due partly to a lack of software tools designed to work with available BN packages. CVNetica is open-source, written in Python, and extends the Netica software package to perform cross-validation and read, rebuild, and learn BNs from data. Insights gained from cross-validation and implications on prediction versus description are illustrated with: a data-driven oceanographic application; and a model-emulation application. These examples show that overfitting occurs when BNs become more complex than allowed by supporting data and overfitting incurs computational costs as well as causing a reduction in prediction skill. CVNetica evaluates overfitting using several complexity metrics (we used level of discretization) and its impact on performance metrics (we used skill).

  1. Cross-Validation of the Quick Word Test as an Estimator of Adult Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotelueschen, Arden; McQuarrie, Duncan

    1970-01-01

    This report provides additional evidence that the Quick Word Test (Level 2, Form AM) is valid for estimating adult mental ability as defined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The validation sample is also described to facilitate use of the conversion table developed in the cross-validation analysis. (Author/LY)

  2. Cross-validating a bidimensional mathematics anxiety scale.

    PubMed

    Haiyan Bai

    2011-03-01

    The psychometric properties of a 14-item bidimensional Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R) were empirically cross-validated with two independent samples consisting of 647 secondary school students. An exploratory factor analysis on the scale yielded strong construct validity with a clear two-factor structure. The results from a confirmatory factor analysis indicated an excellent model-fit (χ(2) = 98.32, df = 62; normed fit index = .92, comparative fit index = .97; root mean square error of approximation = .04). The internal consistency (.85), test-retest reliability (.71), interfactor correlation (.26, p < .001), and positive discrimination power indicated that MAS-R is a psychometrically reliable and valid instrument for measuring mathematics anxiety. Math anxiety, as measured by MAS-R, correlated negatively with student achievement scores (r = -.38), suggesting that MAS-R may be a useful tool for classroom teachers and other educational personnel tasked with identifying students at risk of reduced math achievement because of anxiety.

  3. Cross-Validation for Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Emily; Bair, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Cross-validation is frequently used for model selection in a variety of applications. However, it is difficult to apply cross-validation to mixed effects models (including nonlinear mixed effects models or NLME models) due to the fact that cross-validation requires “out-of-sample” predictions of the outcome variable, which cannot be easily calculated when random effects are present. We describe two novel variants of cross-validation that can be applied to nonlinear mixed effects models. One variant, where out-of-sample predictions are based on post hoc estimates of the random effects, can be used to select the overall structural model. Another variant, where cross-validation seeks to minimize the estimated random effects rather than the estimated residuals, can be used to select covariates to include in the model. We show that these methods produce accurate results in a variety of simulated data sets and apply them to two publicly available population pharmacokinetic data sets. PMID:23532511

  4. Can lncRNAs be indicators for the diagnosis of early onset or acute schizophrenia and distinguish major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder?-A cross validation analysis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xuelian; Niu, Wei; Kong, Lingming; He, Mingjun; Jiang, Kunhong; Chen, Shengdong; Zhong, Aifang; Li, Wanshuai; Lu, Jim; Zhang, Liyi

    2017-03-28

    Depression and anxiety are apparent symptoms in the early onset or acute phase of schizophrenia (SZ), which complicate timely diagnosis and treatment. It is imperative to seek an indicator to distinguish schizophrenia from depressive and anxiety disorders. Using lncRNA microarray profiling and RT-PCR, three up-regulated lncRNAs in SZ, six down-regulated lncRNAs in major depressive disorder (MDD), and three up-regulated lncRNAs in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) had been identified as potential biomarkers. All the lncRNAs were, then, cross-validated in 40 SZ patients, 40 MDD patients, 40 GAD patients, and 40 normal controls. Compared with controls, three up-regulated SZ lncRNAs had a significantly down-regulated expression in GAD, and no remarkable differences existed between MDD and the controls. Additionally, the six down-regulated MDD lncRNAs were expressed in an opposite fashion in SZ, and the expression of the three up-regulated GAD lncRNAs were significantly different between SZ and GAD. These results indicate that the expression patterns of the three up-regulated SZ lncRNAs could not be completely replicated in MDD and GAD, and vice versa. Thus, these three SZ lncRNAs seem to be established as potential indicators for diagnosis of schizophrenia and distinguishing it from MDD and GAD.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Cross-Validation Study of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Alia I.; Marotta, Sylvia A.

    2005-01-01

    This article is a cross-validation of R. G. Tedeschi and L. G. Calhoun's (1996) original study of the development of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). It describes several psychometric properties of scores on the PTGI in a sample of middle- to old-aged adults with a history of cardiovascular disease. The results did not support the…

  6. The Cross Validation of the Attitudes toward Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Joan D.; Neal, W. R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Reliability and factorial validity of the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale was supported in a cross-validation study with teachers. Three factors emerged: learning capability, general mainstreaming, and traditional limiting disabilities. Factor intercorrelations varied from .42 to .55; correlations between total scores and individual factors…

  7. Cross-Validation of Predictor Equations for Armor Crewman Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    assignment rather than specify the contents of the test battery to be used. Eaton, Bessemer , and Kristiansen (1979) evaluated the relationship... Bessemer , & Kristiansen, 1979). Consideration of their results suggested the potential for two cross-validation strategies. The first was to attempt to...formulas and their correlations with the criteria data from Eaton, Bessemer , and Kristiansen (1979) are shown in Table 2. By comparing Tables 1 and 2, one

  8. Predicting IQ change from brain structure: A cross-validation study

    PubMed Central

    Price, C.J.; Ramsden, S.; Hope, T.M.H.; Friston, K.J.; Seghier, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Procedures that can predict cognitive abilities from brain imaging data are potentially relevant to educational assessments and studies of functional anatomy in the developing brain. Our aim in this work was to quantify the degree to which IQ change in the teenage years could be predicted from structural brain changes. Two well-known k-fold cross-validation analyses were applied to data acquired from 33 healthy teenagers – each tested at Time 1 and Time 2 with a 3.5 year interval. One approach, a Leave-One-Out procedure, predicted IQ change for each subject on the basis of structural change in a brain region that was identified from all other subjects (i.e., independent data). This approach predicted 53% of verbal IQ change and 14% of performance IQ change. The other approach used half the sample, to identify regions for predicting IQ change in the other half (i.e., a Split half approach); however – unlike the Leave-One-Out procedure – regions identified using half the sample were not significant. We discuss how these out-of-sample estimates compare to in-sample estimates; and draw some recommendations for k-fold cross-validation procedures when dealing with small datasets that are typical in the neuroimaging literature. PMID:23567505

  9. Predicting IQ change from brain structure: a cross-validation study.

    PubMed

    Price, C J; Ramsden, S; Hope, T M H; Friston, K J; Seghier, M L

    2013-07-01

    Procedures that can predict cognitive abilities from brain imaging data are potentially relevant to educational assessments and studies of functional anatomy in the developing brain. Our aim in this work was to quantify the degree to which IQ change in the teenage years could be predicted from structural brain changes. Two well-known k-fold cross-validation analyses were applied to data acquired from 33 healthy teenagers - each tested at Time 1 and Time 2 with a 3.5 year interval. One approach, a Leave-One-Out procedure, predicted IQ change for each subject on the basis of structural change in a brain region that was identified from all other subjects (i.e., independent data). This approach predicted 53% of verbal IQ change and 14% of performance IQ change. The other approach used half the sample, to identify regions for predicting IQ change in the other half (i.e., a Split half approach); however--unlike the Leave-One-Out procedure--regions identified using half the sample were not significant. We discuss how these out-of-sample estimates compare to in-sample estimates; and draw some recommendations for k-fold cross-validation procedures when dealing with small datasets that are typical in the neuroimaging literature.

  10. The Religious Support Scale: construction, validation, and cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Fiala, William E; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard

    2002-12-01

    Cutrona and Russell's social support model was used to develop a religious support measure (C. E. Cutrona & D. W. Russell, 1987), including 3 distinct but related subscales respectively measuring support from God, the congregation, and church leadership. Factor analyses with the main sample's data (249 Protestants) and cross-validation (93 additional Protestants) supported the scales' reliability and validity. All 3 types of religious support were related to lower depression and greater life satisfaction. Moreover, several relationships between the 3 subscales and psychological functioning variables remained significant after controlling for variance because of church attendance and social support. Results suggest that religious attendance does not automatically imply religious support, and that religious support can provide unique resources for religious persons, above and beyond those furnished by social support. Findings are discussed regarding relevance to community psychology.

  11. Robust cross-validation of linear regression QSAR models.

    PubMed

    Konovalov, Dmitry A; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Coomans, Danny

    2008-10-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model is typically developed to predict the biochemical activity of untested compounds from the compounds' molecular structures. "The gold standard" of model validation is the blindfold prediction when the model's predictive power is assessed from how well the model predicts the activity values of compounds that were not considered in any way during the model development/calibration. However, during the development of a QSAR model, it is necessary to obtain some indication of the model's predictive power. This is often done by some form of cross-validation (CV). In this study, the concepts of the predictive power and fitting ability of a multiple linear regression (MLR) QSAR model were examined in the CV context allowing for the presence of outliers. Commonly used predictive power and fitting ability statistics were assessed via Monte Carlo cross-validation when applied to percent human intestinal absorption, blood-brain partition coefficient, and toxicity values of saxitoxin QSAR data sets, as well as three known benchmark data sets with known outlier contamination. It was found that (1) a robust version of MLR should always be preferred over the ordinary-least-squares MLR, regardless of the degree of outlier contamination and that (2) the model's predictive power should only be assessed via robust statistics. The Matlab and java source code used in this study is freely available from the QSAR-BENCH section of www.dmitrykonovalov.org for academic use. The Web site also contains the java-based QSAR-BENCH program, which could be run online via java's Web Start technology (supporting Windows, Mac OSX, Linux/Unix) to reproduce most of the reported results or apply the reported procedures to other data sets.

  12. Feature selection based on fusing mutual information and cross-validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-wei; Liu, Chun-ping; Chen, Ning-qiang; Wang, Zhao-hui

    2009-10-01

    Many algorithms have been proposed in literature for feature selection; unfortunately, none of them ensures a perfect result. Here we propose an adaptive sequential floating forward feature selection algorithm which achieves accuracy results higher than that of already existing algorithms and naturally adaptive for implementation into the number of best feature subset to be selected. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is to adopt two relatively well-settled algorithms for the problem at hand and combine mutual information and Cross-Validation through suitable fusion techniques, with the aim of taking advantage of the adopted algorithms' capabilities, at the same time, limiting their deficiencies. This method adaptively obtains the number of features to be selected according to dimensions of original feature set, and Dempster-Shafer Evidential Theory is used to fuse Max-Relevance, Min-Redundancy and CVFS. Extensive experiments show that the higher accuracy of classification and the less redundancy of features could be achieved.

  13. Literature Survey and Situation Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-28

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Bernard Moulin et Associes Inc,91 rue Lockwell Quebec,Quebec QC GJR IV6, Canada, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...Situation Analysis by Dr. Bernard Moulin, Dr. Mohamad Allouche, Dr. Hengameh Irandoust Bernard Moulin et Associes Inc. 91 rue Lockwell Quebec Quebec

  14. Correcting evaluation bias of relational classifiers with network cross validation

    DOE PAGES

    Neville, Jennifer; Gallagher, Brian; Eliassi-Rad, Tina; ...

    2011-01-04

    Recently, a number of modeling techniques have been developed for data mining and machine learning in relational and network domains where the instances are not independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). These methods specifically exploit the statistical dependencies among instances in order to improve classification accuracy. However, there has been little focus on how these same dependencies affect our ability to draw accurate conclusions about the performance of the models. More specifically, the complex link structure and attribute dependencies in relational data violate the assumptions of many conventional statistical tests and make it difficult to use these tests to assess themore » models in an unbiased manner. In this work, we examine the task of within-network classification and the question of whether two algorithms will learn models that will result in significantly different levels of performance. We show that the commonly used form of evaluation (paired t-test on overlapping network samples) can result in an unacceptable level of Type I error. Furthermore, we show that Type I error increases as (1) the correlation among instances increases and (2) the size of the evaluation set increases (i.e., the proportion of labeled nodes in the network decreases). Lastly, we propose a method for network cross-validation that combined with paired t-tests produces more acceptable levels of Type I error while still providing reasonable levels of statistical power (i.e., 1–Type II error).« less

  15. Correcting evaluation bias of relational classifiers with network cross validation

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, Jennifer; Gallagher, Brian; Eliassi-Rad, Tina; Wang, Tao

    2011-01-04

    Recently, a number of modeling techniques have been developed for data mining and machine learning in relational and network domains where the instances are not independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). These methods specifically exploit the statistical dependencies among instances in order to improve classification accuracy. However, there has been little focus on how these same dependencies affect our ability to draw accurate conclusions about the performance of the models. More specifically, the complex link structure and attribute dependencies in relational data violate the assumptions of many conventional statistical tests and make it difficult to use these tests to assess the models in an unbiased manner. In this work, we examine the task of within-network classification and the question of whether two algorithms will learn models that will result in significantly different levels of performance. We show that the commonly used form of evaluation (paired t-test on overlapping network samples) can result in an unacceptable level of Type I error. Furthermore, we show that Type I error increases as (1) the correlation among instances increases and (2) the size of the evaluation set increases (i.e., the proportion of labeled nodes in the network decreases). Lastly, we propose a method for network cross-validation that combined with paired t-tests produces more acceptable levels of Type I error while still providing reasonable levels of statistical power (i.e., 1–Type II error).

  16. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  17. Cross-validation pitfalls when selecting and assessing regression and classification models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We address the problem of selecting and assessing classification and regression models using cross-validation. Current state-of-the-art methods can yield models with high variance, rendering them unsuitable for a number of practical applications including QSAR. In this paper we describe and evaluate best practices which improve reliability and increase confidence in selected models. A key operational component of the proposed methods is cloud computing which enables routine use of previously infeasible approaches. Methods We describe in detail an algorithm for repeated grid-search V-fold cross-validation for parameter tuning in classification and regression, and we define a repeated nested cross-validation algorithm for model assessment. As regards variable selection and parameter tuning we define two algorithms (repeated grid-search cross-validation and double cross-validation), and provide arguments for using the repeated grid-search in the general case. Results We show results of our algorithms on seven QSAR datasets. The variation of the prediction performance, which is the result of choosing different splits of the dataset in V-fold cross-validation, needs to be taken into account when selecting and assessing classification and regression models. Conclusions We demonstrate the importance of repeating cross-validation when selecting an optimal model, as well as the importance of repeating nested cross-validation when assessing a prediction error. PMID:24678909

  18. Assessing the performance of spectroscopic models for cancer diagnostics using cross-validation and permutation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, G. R.; Hutchings, J.; Almond, L. M.; Barr, H.; Kendall, C.; Stone, N.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate classifiers (such as Linear Discriminant Analysis, Support Vector Machines etc) are known to be useful tools for making diagnostic decisions based on spectroscopic data. However, robust techniques for assessing their performance (e.g. by sensitivity and specificity) are vital if the application of these methods is to be successful in the clinic. In this work the application of repeated cross-validation for estimating confidence intervals for sensitivity and specificity of multivariate classifiers is presented. Furthermore, permutation testing is presented as a suitable technique for estimating the probability of obtaining the observed sensitivity and specificity by chance. Both approaches are demonstrated through their application to a Raman spectroscopic model of gastrointestinal cancer.

  19. Block-Regularized m × 2 Cross-Validated Estimator of the Generalization Error.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruibo; Wang, Yu; Li, Jihong; Yang, Xingli; Yang, Jing

    2017-02-01

    A cross-validation method based on [Formula: see text] replications of two-fold cross validation is called an [Formula: see text] cross validation. An [Formula: see text] cross validation is used in estimating the generalization error and comparing of algorithms' performance in machine learning. However, the variance of the estimator of the generalization error in [Formula: see text] cross validation is easily affected by random partitions. Poor data partitioning may cause a large fluctuation in the number of overlapping samples between any two training (test) sets in [Formula: see text] cross validation. This fluctuation results in a large variance in the [Formula: see text] cross-validated estimator. The influence of the random partitions on variance becomes serious as [Formula: see text] increases. Thus, in this study, the partitions with a restricted number of overlapping samples between any two training (test) sets are defined as a block-regularized partition set. The corresponding cross validation is called block-regularized [Formula: see text] cross validation ([Formula: see text] BCV). It can effectively reduce the influence of random partitions. We prove that the variance of the [Formula: see text] BCV estimator of the generalization error is smaller than the variance of [Formula: see text] cross-validated estimator and reaches the minimum in a special situation. An analytical expression of the variance can also be derived in this special situation. This conclusion is validated through simulation experiments. Furthermore, a practical construction method of [Formula: see text] BCV by a two-level orthogonal array is provided. Finally, a conservative estimator is proposed for the variance of estimator of the generalization error.

  20. SU-E-T-231: Cross-Validation of 3D Gamma Comparison Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, KM; Jechel, C; Pinter, C; Lasso, A; Fichtinger, G; Salomons, G; Schreiner, LJ

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Moving the computational analysis for 3D gel dosimetry into the 3D Slicer (www.slicer.org) environment has made gel dosimetry more clinically accessible. To ensure accuracy, we cross-validate the 3D gamma comparison module in 3D Slicer with an independently developed algorithm using simulated and measured dose distributions. Methods: Two reference dose distributions were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. The first distribution consisted of a four-field box irradiation delivered to a plastic water phantom and the second, a VMAT plan delivered to a gel dosimeter phantom. The first reference distribution was modified within Eclipse to create an evaluated dose distribution by spatially shifting one field by 3mm, increasing the monitor units of the second field, applying a dynamic wedge for the third field, and leaving the fourth field unchanged. The VMAT plan was delivered to a gel dosimeter and the evaluated dose in the gel was calculated from optical CT measurements. Results from the gamma comparison tool built into the SlicerRT toolbox were compared to results from our in-house gamma algorithm implemented in Matlab (via MatlabBridge in 3D Slicer). The effects of noise, resolution and the exchange of reference and evaluated designations on the gamma comparison were also examined. Results: Perfect agreement was found between the gamma results obtained using the SlicerRT tool and our Matlab implementation for both the four-field box and gel datasets. The behaviour of the SlicerRT comparison with respect to changes in noise, resolution and the role of the reference and evaluated dose distributions was consistent with previous findings. Conclusion: Two independently developed gamma comparison tools have been cross-validated and found to be identical. As we transition our gel dosimetry analysis from Matlab to 3D Slicer, this validation serves as an important test towards ensuring the consistency of dose comparisons using the 3D Slicer

  1. Cross-Validation of the Self-Motivation Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiby, Elaine M.; And Others

    Because the literature suggests that aerobic exercise is associated with physical health and psychological well-being, there is a concern with discovering how to improve adherence to such exercise. There is growing evidence that self-motivation, as measured by the Dishman Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI), is a redictor of adherence to regular…

  2. Estimators of the Squared Cross-Validity Coefficient: A Monte Carlo Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Drasgow, Fritz

    1979-01-01

    A Monte Carlo experiment was used to evaluate four procedures for estimating the population squared cross-validity of a sample least squares regression equation. One estimator was particularly recommended. (Author/BH)

  3. Investigation of electroforming techniques, literature analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A literature analysis is presented of reports, specifications, and documented experiences with the use of electroforming to produce copper and nickel structures for aerospace and other engineering applications. The literature period covered is from 1948 to 1974. Specific effort was made to correlate mechanical property data for the electrodeposited material with known electroforming solution compositions and operating conditions. From this survey, electrolytes are suggested for selection to electroform copper and nickel outer shells on regeneratively cooled thrust chamber liners, and other devices subject to thermal and pressure exposure, based on mechanical properties obtainable, performance under various thermal environments, and ease of process control for product reproducibility. Processes of potential value in obtaining sound bonds between electrodeposited copper and nickel and copper alloy substrates are also discussed.

  4. Biased binomial assessment of cross-validated estimation of classification accuracies illustrated in diagnosis predictions.

    PubMed

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Lesenfants, Damien; Gomez, Francisco; Soddu, Andrea; Schrouff, Jessica; Garraux, Gaëtan; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with cross-validation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the cross-validation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain-computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation.

  5. Cross-validation of Waist-Worn GENEA Accelerometer Cut-Points

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Whitney A.; Bassett, David R.; Freedson, Patty S.; John, Dinesh; Steeves, Jeremy A.; Conger, Scott A.; Ceaser, Tyrone G.; Howe, Cheryl A.; Sasaki, Jeffer E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the classification accuracy of the waist GENEA cut-points developed by Esliger et al. for predicting intensity categories across a range of lifestyle activities. Methods Each participant performed one of two routines, consisting of seven lifestyle activities (home/office, ambulatory, and sport). The GENEA was worn on the right waist and oxygen uptake was continuously measured using the Oxycon mobile. A one-way chi-square was used to determine the classification accuracy of the GENEA cut-points. Cross tabulation tables provided information on under- and over-estimations, and sensitivity and specificity analyses of the waist cut-points were also performed. Results Spearman’s rank order correlation for the GENEA SVMgs and Oxycon mobile MET values was 0.73. For all activities combined, the GENEA accurately predicted intensity classification 55.3% of the time, and increased to 58.3% when stationary cycling was removed from the analysis. The sensitivity of the cut-points for the four intensity categories ranged from 0.244 to 0.958 and the specificity ranged from 0.576 to 0.943. Conclusion In this cross-validation study, the proposed GENEA cut-points had a low overall accuracy rate for classifying intensity (55.3%) when engaging in 14 different lifestyle activities. PMID:24496118

  6. Linear Models for Field Trials, Smoothing, and Cross-Validation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    in fertility and other environmental factors. Blocking methods are customarily used, even when blocks have no physical meaning in thei% experiment, but... TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU nT STANDARDS 196b3 A . - -. .. .• • ei .. o .’ ’."., " ". " ’ . .J . . .~i• j,... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .,.. - i...34-""bution/ __Availability Code..""s’’ Technical Summary Report #2779 December 1984 1J ABSTRACT Spatial methods for the analysis of agricultural field

  7. Evaluation and cross-validation of Environmental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Joseph

    , preliminary analyses should be carried out under the control and authority of an established international professional Organization or Association, before any final political decision is made by ISO to select a specific Environmental Models, like for example IGRF and DGRF. Of course, Commissions responsible for checking the consistency of definitions, methods and algorithms for data processing might consider to delegate specific tasks (e.g. bench-marking the technical tools, the calibration procedures, the methods of data analysis, and the software algorithms employed in building the different types of models, as well as their usage) to private, intergovernmental or international organization/agencies (e.g.: NASA, ESA, AGU, EGU, COSPAR, . . . ); eventually, the latter should report conclusions to the Commissions members appointed by IAGA or any established authority like IUGG.

  8. Boosted leave-many-out cross-validation: the effect of training and test set diversity on PLS statistics.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert D

    2003-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly common in quantitative structure/activity relationship (QSAR) analyses to use external test sets to evaluate the likely stability and predictivity of the models obtained. In some cases, such as those involving variable selection, an internal test set--i.e., a cross-validation set--is also used. Care is sometimes taken to ensure that the subsets used exhibit response and/or property distributions similar to those of the data set as a whole, but more often the individual observations are simply assigned 'at random.' In the special case of MLR without variable selection, it can be analytically demonstrated that this strategy is inferior to others. Most particularly, D-optimal design performs better if the form of the regression equation is known and the variables involved are well behaved. This report introduces an alternative, non-parametric approach termed 'boosted leave-many-out' (boosted LMO) cross-validation. In this method, relatively small training sets are chosen by applying optimizable k-dissimilarity selection (OptiSim) using a small subsample size (k = 4, in this case), with the unselected observations being reserved as a test set for the corresponding reduced model. Predictive errors for the full model are then estimated by aggregating results over several such analyses. The countervailing effects of training and test set size, diversity, and representativeness on PLS model statistics are described for CoMFA analysis of a large data set of COX2 inhibitors.

  9. Bayesian cross-validation for model evaluation and selection, with application to the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, William; Sauer, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ecological data has changed in two important ways over the last 15 years. The development and easy availability of Bayesian computational methods has allowed and encouraged the fitting of complex hierarchical models. At the same time, there has been increasing emphasis on acknowledging and accounting for model uncertainty. Unfortunately, the ability to fit complex models has outstripped the development of tools for model selection and model evaluation: familiar model selection tools such as Akaike's information criterion and the deviance information criterion are widely known to be inadequate for hierarchical models. In addition, little attention has been paid to the evaluation of model adequacy in context of hierarchical modeling, i.e., to the evaluation of fit for a single model. In this paper, we describe Bayesian cross-validation, which provides tools for model selection and evaluation. We describe the Bayesian predictive information criterion and a Bayesian approximation to the BPIC known as the Watanabe-Akaike information criterion. We illustrate the use of these tools for model selection, and the use of Bayesian cross-validation as a tool for model evaluation, using three large data sets from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

  10. Bayesian cross-validation for model evaluation and selection, with application to the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

    PubMed

    Link, William A; Sauer, John R

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of ecological data has changed in two important ways over the last 15 years. The development and easy availability of Bayesian computational methods has allowed and encouraged the fitting of complex hierarchical models. At the same time, there has been increasing emphasis on acknowledging and accounting for model uncertainty. Unfortunately, the ability to fit complex models has outstripped the development of tools for model selection and model evaluation: familiar model selection tools such as Akaike's information criterion and the deviance information criterion are widely known to be inadequate for hierarchical models. In addition, little attention has been paid to the evaluation of model adequacy in context of hierarchical modeling, i.e., to the evaluation of fit for a single model. In this paper, we describe Bayesian cross-validation, which provides tools for model selection and evaluation. We describe the Bayesian predictive information criterion and a Bayesian approximation to the BPIC known as the Watanabe-Akaike information criterion. We illustrate the use of these tools for model selection, and the use of Bayesian cross-validation as a tool for model evaluation, using three large data sets from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

  11. Cross-Validating Chinese Language Mental Health Recovery Measures in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John; Chan, Tiffany Hill Ching; Chen, Eric HY; Ng, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting recovery in mental health services is hampered by a shortage of reliable and valid measures, particularly in Hong Kong. We seek to cross validate two Chinese language measures of recovery and one of recovery-promoting environments. Method: A cross-sectional survey of people recovering from early episode psychosis (n = 121)…

  12. A Cross-Validation of MMPI Scales of Aggression on Male Criminal Criterion Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deiker, Thomas E.

    1974-01-01

    The 13 basic Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scales, 21 experimental scales of hostility and control, and four response-bias scales are cross-validated on 168 male criminals assigned to four aggressive criterion groups (nonviolent, threat, battery, and homicide). (Author)

  13. The Employability of Psychologists in Academic Settings: A Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed the curriculum vitae (CV) of 117 applicants for the position of assistant professor of psychology to yield four cross-validated factors. Comparisons of the results with those of four years ago indicated considerable stability of the factors. Scholarly publications remain an important factor. (JAC)

  14. A Cross-Validation of Sex Differences in the Expression of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chino, Allan F.; Funabiki, Dean

    1984-01-01

    Presents results of a cross-validational test of previous findings that men and women express depression differently. Reports that when depressed, females are more prone to somatic symptoms, self-deprecating statements, and less selectiveness than males in seeking out others. Qualifies findings, however, by posting a possible gap between reported…

  15. Cross-Validation of the Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual and Violent Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Leam A.; Beech, Anthony; Browne, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    The predictive accuracy of the newly developed actuarial risk measures Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual/Violence (RMS, RMV) were cross validated and compared with two risk assessment measures (SVR-20 and Static-99) in a sample of sexual (n = 85) and nonsex violent (n = 46) offenders. The sexual offense reconviction rate for the sex offender group was 18%…

  16. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  17. A New Symptom Model for Autism Cross-Validated in an Independent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boomsma, A.; Van Lang, N. D. J.; De Jonge, M. V.; De Bildt, A. A.; Van Engeland, H.; Minderaa, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Results from several studies indicated that a symptom model other than the DSM triad might better describe symptom domains of autism. The present study focused on a) investigating the stability of a new symptom model for autism by cross-validating it in an independent sample and b) examining the invariance of the model regarding three…

  18. Methodology Review: Estimation of Population Validity and Cross-Validity, and the Use of Equal Weights in Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    This review finds that formula-based procedures can be used in place of empirical validation for estimating population validity or in place of empirical cross-validation for estimating population cross-validity. Discusses conditions under which the equal weights procedure is a viable alternative. (SLD)

  19. Cross-Validation of easyCBM Reading Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical report presents results from a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut scores when using easyCBM[R] reading tests in Oregon. The cross-validation study analyzes data from the 2009-2010 academic year for easyCBM[R] reading measures. A sample of approximately 2,000 students per grade, randomly split into two groups of…

  20. Literature Reviews: Analysis, Planning, and Query Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, William J.; Kaunelis, David

    2005-01-01

    Graduate students, tenured and tenure-track professors, and other professionals conduct scholarly research and have their findings published in recognized journals. Undergraduate and graduate students engage in rudimentary research to gather data relevant to case assignments in order to develop reasoned arguments. A focused literature review helps…

  1. The female sexual function index (FSFI): cross-validation and development of clinical cutoff scores.

    PubMed

    Wiegel, Markus; Meston, Cindy; Rosen, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    , independently. Discriminant validity testing confirmed the ability of both total and domain scores to differentiate between functional and nondysfunctional women. On the basis of sensitivity and specificity analyses and the CART procedure, we found an FSFI total score of 26.55 to be the optimal cut score for differentiating women with and without sexual dysfunction. On the basis of this cut-off we found 70.7% of women with sexual dysfunction and 88.1% of the sexually functional women in the cross-validation sample to be correctly classified. Addition of the lubrication score in the model resulted in slightly improved specificity (from .707 to .772) at a slight cost of sensitivity (from .881 to .854) for identifying women without sexual dysfunction. We discuss the results in terms of potential strengths and weaknesses of the FSFI, as well in terms of further clinical and research implications.

  2. Automatic regularization parameter selection by generalized cross-validation for total variational Poisson noise removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiongjun; Javidi, Bahram; Ng, Michael K

    2017-03-20

    In this paper, we propose an alternating minimization algorithm with an automatic selection of the regularization parameter for image reconstruction of photon-counted images. By using the generalized cross-validation technique, the regularization parameter can be updated in the iterations of the alternating minimization algorithm. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms the two existing methods, the maximum likelihood expectation maximization estimator with total variation regularization and the primal dual method, where the parameters must be set in advance.

  3. Application of robust Generalised Cross-Validation to the inverse problem of electrocardiology.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Josef P; Johnston, Peter R

    2016-02-01

    Robust Generalised Cross-Validation was proposed recently as a method for determining near optimal regularisation parameters in inverse problems. It was introduced to overcome a problem with the regular Generalised Cross-Validation method in which the function that is minimised to obtain the regularisation parameter often has a broad, flat minimum, resulting in a poor estimate for the parameter. The robust method defines a new function to be minimised which has a narrower minimum, but at the expense of introducing a new parameter called the robustness parameter. In this study, the Robust Generalised Cross-Validation method is applied to the inverse problem of electrocardiology. It is demonstrated that, for realistic situations, the robustness parameter can be set to zero. With this choice of robustness parameter, it is shown that the robust method is able to obtain estimates of the regularisation parameter in the inverse problem of electrocardiology that are comparable to, or better than, many of the standard methods that are applied to this inverse problem.

  4. Automation literature: A brief review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D.; Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Current thought and research positions which may allow for an improved capability to understand the impact of introducing automation to an existing system are established. The orientation was toward the type of studies which may provide some general insight into automation; specifically, the impact of automation in human performance and the resulting system performance. While an extensive number of articles were reviewed, only those that addressed the issue of automation and human performance were selected to be discussed. The literature is organized along two dimensions: time, Pre-1970, Post-1970; and type of approach, Engineering or Behavioral Science. The conclusions reached are not definitive, but do provide the initial stepping stones in an attempt to begin to bridge the concept of automation in a systematic progression.

  5. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as…

  6. [Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Katherine; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: K-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Literature. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide starts with an overview of literature topics for grades 4-12, followed by suggested activities, a list of supplementary books for elementary grades, and a table listing specific skills. The remainder of the guide deals with ten cardinal concerns and…

  7. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pražnikar, Jure; Turk, Dušan

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  8. A statistical method (cross-validation) for bone loss region detection after spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Li, Wenjun; Li, Caixia; Chu, Philip W.; Kornak, John; Lang, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience bone loss after the long spaceflight missions. Identifying specific regions that undergo the greatest losses (e.g. the proximal femur) could reveal information about the processes of bone loss in disuse and disease. Methods for detecting such regions, however, remains an open problem. This paper focuses on statistical methods to detect such regions. We perform statistical parametric mapping to get t-maps of changes in images, and propose a new cross-validation method to select an optimum suprathreshold for forming clusters of pixels. Once these candidate clusters are formed, we use permutation testing of longitudinal labels to derive significant changes. PMID:20632144

  9. Using cross-validation to evaluate predictive accuracy of survival risk classifiers based on high-dimensional data.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard M; Subramanian, Jyothi; Li, Ming-Chung; Menezes, Supriya

    2011-05-01

    Developments in whole genome biotechnology have stimulated statistical focus on prediction methods. We review here methodology for classifying patients into survival risk groups and for using cross-validation to evaluate such classifications. Measures of discrimination for survival risk models include separation of survival curves, time-dependent ROC curves and Harrell's concordance index. For high-dimensional data applications, however, computing these measures as re-substitution statistics on the same data used for model development results in highly biased estimates. Most developments in methodology for survival risk modeling with high-dimensional data have utilized separate test data sets for model evaluation. Cross-validation has sometimes been used for optimization of tuning parameters. In many applications, however, the data available are too limited for effective division into training and test sets and consequently authors have often either reported re-substitution statistics or analyzed their data using binary classification methods in order to utilize familiar cross-validation. In this article we have tried to indicate how to utilize cross-validation for the evaluation of survival risk models; specifically how to compute cross-validated estimates of survival distributions for predicted risk groups and how to compute cross-validated time-dependent ROC curves. We have also discussed evaluation of the statistical significance of a survival risk model and evaluation of whether high-dimensional genomic data adds predictive accuracy to a model based on standard covariates alone.

  10. Interrelations between temperament, character, and parental rearing among delinquent adolescents: a cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jörg; Krecklow, Beate; Eisemann, Matrin

    2002-01-01

    We performed a cross-validation of results from investigations in juvenile delinquents in Russia and Germany concerning relationships of personality characteristics in terms of temperament and character with parental rearing. Both studies used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) based on Cloninger's psychobiological theory, and the Own Memories on Parenting (Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran-Swedish [EMBU]) questionnaire on parental rearing based on Perris' vulnerability model. The inter-relatedness of parental rearing, temperament, and character traits in socially normally integrated adolescents, as well as in delinquent adolescents, implying direct and indirect pathways from personality and parental rearing to delinquency, could be cross-validated. Differences between delinquents and socially normally integrated adolescents are rather based on different levels of expressions of various temperament traits, harm avoidance and novelty seeking in particular, and the character trait self-directedness, as well as on parental rearing behavior (predominantly parental rejection and emotional warmth) than on different structures within related developmental processes.

  11. Evaluation of a cross-validation stopping rule in MLE SPECT reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Falcón, C; Juvells, I; Pavía, J; Ros, D

    1998-05-01

    One of the problems in the routine use of the maximum-likelihood estimator method-expectation maximization (MLE-EM) algorithm is to decide when the iterative process should be stopped. We studied a cross-validation stopping rule to assess its usefulness in SPECT. We tested this stopping rule criterion in the MLE-EM algorithm without acceleration as well as in two accelerating algorithms, the successive substitutions algorithm (SSA) and the additive algorithm (AA). Different values of an acceleration factor were tested in SSA and AA. Our results from numerical and physical phantoms show that the stopping rule based on the cross-validation ratio (CVR) takes into account the similarity of the reconstructed image to the ideal image, noise and the contrast of the image. CVR yields reconstructed images with balanced values of the figures of merit (FOM) employed to assess the image quality. The CVR criterion can be used in the original MLE-EM algorithm as well as in SSA and AA. The reconstructed images obtained with SSA and AA showed FOM values that were very similar. These results were justified by considering AA to be an approximate form of SSA. The range of validity for the acceleration factor in SSA and AA was found to be [1, 2]. In this range, an inverse function connects the acceleration factor to the number of iterations needed to attain prefixed values of FOMs.

  12. Variational cross-validation of slow dynamical modes in molecular kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Markov state models are a widely used method for approximating the eigenspectrum of the molecular dynamics propagator, yielding insight into the long-timescale statistical kinetics and slow dynamical modes of biomolecular systems. However, the lack of a unified theoretical framework for choosing between alternative models has hampered progress, especially for non-experts applying these methods to novel biological systems. Here, we consider cross-validation with a new objective function for estimators of these slow dynamical modes, a generalized matrix Rayleigh quotient (GMRQ), which measures the ability of a rank-m projection operator to capture the slow subspace of the system. It is shown that a variational theorem bounds the GMRQ from above by the sum of the first m eigenvalues of the system’s propagator, but that this bound can be violated when the requisite matrix elements are estimated subject to statistical uncertainty. This overfitting can be detected and avoided through cross-validation. These result make it possible to construct Markov state models for protein dynamics in a way that appropriately captures the tradeoff between systematic and statistical errors. PMID:25833563

  13. Analysis of a librarian-mediated literature search service.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Carol; Lê, Mê-Linh; Cooke, Carol; Raynard, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Librarian-mediated literature searching is a key service provided at medical libraries. This analysis outlines ten years of data on 19,248 literature searches and describes information on the volume and frequency of search requests, time spent per search, databases used, and professional designations of the patron requestors. Combined with information on best practices for expert searching and evaluations of similar services, these findings were used to form recommendations on the improvement and standardization of a literature search service at a large health library system.

  14. [Analysis on evaluation tool for literature quality in clinical study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhai, Wei; Tan, Ya-qin; Huang, Juan

    2014-09-01

    The tools used for the literature quality evaluation are introduced. The common evaluation tools that are publicly and extensively used for the evaluation of clinical trial literature quality in the world are analyzed, including Jadad scale, Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement and Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system and the others. Additionally, the present development, updates and applications of these tools are involved in analysis.

  15. Applicability of Monte Carlo cross validation technique for model development and validation using generalised least squares regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Khaled; Rahman, Ataur; A Zaman, Mohammad; Shrestha, Surendra

    2013-03-01

    SummaryIn regional hydrologic regression analysis, model selection and validation are regarded as important steps. Here, the model selection is usually based on some measurements of goodness-of-fit between the model prediction and observed data. In Regional Flood Frequency Analysis (RFFA), leave-one-out (LOO) validation or a fixed percentage leave out validation (e.g., 10%) is commonly adopted to assess the predictive ability of regression-based prediction equations. This paper develops a Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) technique (which has widely been adopted in Chemometrics and Econometrics) in RFFA using Generalised Least Squares Regression (GLSR) and compares it with the most commonly adopted LOO validation approach. The study uses simulated and regional flood data from the state of New South Wales in Australia. It is found that when developing hydrologic regression models, application of the MCCV is likely to result in a more parsimonious model than the LOO. It has also been found that the MCCV can provide a more realistic estimate of a model's predictive ability when compared with the LOO.

  16. Cross-validation and discriminant validity of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale among overweight and nonoverweight adolescents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Wang, Edward K; Chang, Chee-Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study used cross-validation and discriminant analysis to evaluate the construct and discriminant validity of Adolescent Health Promotion (AHP) scale between the overweight and nonoverweight adolescents in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey method was used and 660 adolescents participated in this study. Cluster and discriminant analyses were used to analyze the data. Our findings indicate that the AHP is a valid and reliable scale to discriminate between the health-promoting behaviors of overweight and nonoverweight adolescents. For the total scale, cluster analyses revealed two distinct patterns, which we designated the healthy and unhealthy groups. Discriminate analysis supported this clustering as having good discriminant validity, as nonoverweight adolescents tended to be classified as healthy, while the overweight tended to be in the unhealthy group. In general, overweight adolescents practiced health-related behaviors at a significantly lower frequency than the nonoverweight. These included exercise behavior, stress management, life appreciation, health responsibility, and social support. These findings can be used to further develop and refine knowledge of adolescent overweight and related strategies for intervention.

  17. Test, revision, and cross-validation of the Physical Activity Self-Definition Model.

    PubMed

    Kendzierski, Deborah; Morganstein, Mara S

    2009-08-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test an extended version of the Kendzierski, Furr, and Schiavoni (1998) Physical Activity Self-Definition Model. A revised model using data from 622 runners fit the data well. Cross-validation indices supported the revised model, and this model also provided a good fit to data from 397 cyclists. Partial invariance was found across activities. In both samples, perceived commitment and perceived ability had direct effects on self-definition, and perceived wanting, perceived trying, and enjoyment had indirect effects. The contribution of perceived ability to self-definition did not differ across activities. Implications concerning the original model, indirect effects, skill salience, and the role of context in self-definition are discussed.

  18. Cross Validation for Selection of Cortical Interaction Models From Scalp EEG or MEG

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Bing Leung Patrick; Nowak, Robert; Lee, Hyong Chol; van Drongelen, Wim; Van Veen, Barry D.

    2012-01-01

    A cross-validation (CV) method based on state-space framework is introduced for comparing the fidelity of different cortical interaction models to the measured scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) data being modeled. A state equation models the cortical interaction dynamics and an observation equation represents the scalp measurement of cortical activity and noise. The measured data are partitioned into training and test sets. The training set is used to estimate model parameters and the model quality is evaluated by computing test data innovations for the estimated model. Two CV metrics normalized mean square error and log-likelihood are estimated by averaging over different training/test partitions of the data. The effectiveness of this method of model selection is illustrated by comparing two linear modeling methods and two nonlinear modeling methods on simulated EEG data derived using both known dynamic systems and measured electrocorticography data from an epilepsy patient. PMID:22084038

  19. Cross-validation of the 20- versus 30-s Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Laurent, C Matthew; Meyers, Michael C; Robinson, Clay A; Green, J Matt

    2007-08-01

    The 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (30-WAT) is the most widely accepted protocol for measuring anaerobic response, despite documented physical side effects. Abbreviation of the 30-WAT without loss of data could enhance subject compliance while maintaining test applicability. The intent of this study was to quantify the validity of the 20-s Wingate anaerobic test (20-WAT) versus the traditional 30-WAT. Fifty males (mean +/- SEM; age = 20.5 +/- 0.3 years; Ht = 1.6 +/- 0.01 m; Wt = 75.5 +/- 2.6 kg) were randomly selected to either a validation (N = 35) or cross-validation group (N = 15) and completed a 20-WAT and 30-WAT in double blind, random order on separate days to determine peak power (PP; W kg(-1)), mean power (MP; W kg(-1)), and fatigue index (FI; %). Utilizing power outputs (relative to body mass) recorded during each second of both protocols, a non-linear regression equation (Y (20WAT+10 )= 31.4697 e(-0.5)[ln(X (second)/1174.3961)/2.6369(2)]; r (2) = 0.97; SEE = 0.56 W kg(-1)) successfully predicted (error approximately 10%) the final 10 s of power outputs in the cross-validation population. There were no significant differences between MP and FI between the 20-WAT that included the predicted 10 s of power outputs (20-WAT+10) and the 30-WAT. When derived data were subjected to Bland-Altman analyses, the majority of plots (93%) fell within the limits of agreement (+/-2SD). Therefore, when compared to the 30-WAT, the 20-WAT may be considered a valid alternative when used with the predictive non-linear regression equation to derive the final power output values.

  20. Cross-validation and Peeling Strategies for Survival Bump Hunting using Recursive Peeling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Choe, Michael; LeBlanc, Michael; Rao, J. Sunil

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a framework to build a survival/risk bump hunting model with a censored time-to-event response. Our Survival Bump Hunting (SBH) method is based on a recursive peeling procedure that uses a specific survival peeling criterion derived from non/semi-parametric statistics such as the hazards-ratio, the log-rank test or the Nelson--Aalen estimator. To optimize the tuning parameter of the model and validate it, we introduce an objective function based on survival or prediction-error statistics, such as the log-rank test and the concordance error rate. We also describe two alternative cross-validation techniques adapted to the joint task of decision-rule making by recursive peeling and survival estimation. Numerical analyses show the importance of replicated cross-validation and the differences between criteria and techniques in both low and high-dimensional settings. Although several non-parametric survival models exist, none addresses the problem of directly identifying local extrema. We show how SBH efficiently estimates extreme survival/risk subgroups unlike other models. This provides an insight into the behavior of commonly used models and suggests alternatives to be adopted in practice. Finally, our SBH framework was applied to a clinical dataset. In it, we identified subsets of patients characterized by clinical and demographic covariates with a distinct extreme survival outcome, for which tailored medical interventions could be made. An R package PRIMsrc (Patient Rule Induction Method in Survival, Regression and Classification settings) is available on CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network) and GitHub. PMID:27034730

  1. Cancer Nursing Education: Literature Review and Documentary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Helen; Blunden, Gillian; Hek, Gill

    The knowledge and skills needed by cancer nurses and the content and strategies of England's existing cancer nursing education programs were examined. The study included a comprehensive literature review and an analysis of course documents from selected English National Board-approved post-qualifying cancer nursing and palliative care courses…

  2. AUTOMATED LITERATURE PROCESSING HANDLING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM--FIRST GENERATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redstone Scientific Information Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL.

    THE REPORT PRESENTS A SUMMARY OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIRST GENERATION OF THE AUTOMATED LITERATURE PROCESSING, HANDLING AND ANALYSIS (ALPHA-1) SYSTEM. DESCRIPTIONS OF THE COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY OF ALPHA-1 AND THE USE OF THIS AUTOMATED LIBRARY TECHNIQUE ARE PRESENTED. EACH OF THE SUBSYSTEMS AND MODULES NOW IN OPERATION ARE…

  3. Cross-validation and hypothesis testing in neuroimaging: an irenic comment on the exchange between Friston and Lindquist et al

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Philip T.

    2016-01-01

    The “ten ironic rules for statistical reviewers” presented by Friston (2012) prompted a rebuttal by Lindquist et al. (2013), which was followed by a rejoinder by Friston (2013). A key issue left unresolved in this discussion is the use of cross-validation to test the significance of predictive analyses. This note discusses the role that cross-validation-based and related hypothesis tests have come to play in modern data analyses, in neuroimaging and other fields. It is shown that such tests need not be suboptimal and can fill otherwise-unmet inferential needs. PMID:25918034

  4. A leave-one-out cross-validation SAS macro for the identification of markers associated with survival.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Christel; Bulusu, Anuradha; Hurwitz, Herbert I; Nixon, Andrew B; Pang, Herbert

    2015-02-01

    A proper internal validation is necessary for the development of a reliable and reproducible prognostic model for external validation. Variable selection is an important step for building prognostic models. However, not many existing approaches couple the ability to specify the number of covariates in the model with a cross-validation algorithm. We describe a user-friendly SAS macro that implements a score selection method and a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. We discuss the method and applications behind this algorithm, as well as details of the SAS macro.

  5. Credible Intervals for Precision and Recall Based on a K-Fold Cross-Validated Beta Distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jihong

    2016-08-01

    In typical machine learning applications such as information retrieval, precision and recall are two commonly used measures for assessing an algorithm's performance. Symmetrical confidence intervals based on K-fold cross-validated t distributions are widely used for the inference of precision and recall measures. As we confirmed through simulated experiments, however, these confidence intervals often exhibit lower degrees of confidence, which may easily lead to liberal inference results. Thus, it is crucial to construct faithful confidence (credible) intervals for precision and recall with a high degree of confidence and a short interval length. In this study, we propose two posterior credible intervals for precision and recall based on K-fold cross-validated beta distributions. The first credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the beta posterior distribution inferred by all K data sets corresponding to K confusion matrices from a K-fold cross-validation. Second, considering that each data set corresponding to a confusion matrix from a K-fold cross-validation can be used to infer a beta posterior distribution of precision (or recall), the second proposed credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the average of K beta posterior distributions. Experimental results on simulated and real data sets demonstrate that the first credible interval proposed in this study almost always resulted in degrees of confidence greater than 95%. With an acceptable degree of confidence, both of our two proposed credible intervals have shorter interval lengths than those based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution. Meanwhile, the average ranks of these two credible intervals are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the degree of confidence and are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the

  6. Cross-validation and hypothesis testing in neuroimaging: An irenic comment on the exchange between Friston and Lindquist et al.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Philip T

    2015-08-01

    The "ten ironic rules for statistical reviewers" presented by Friston (2012) prompted a rebuttal by Lindquist et al. (2013), which was followed by a rejoinder by Friston (2013). A key issue left unresolved in this discussion is the use of cross-validation to test the significance of predictive analyses. This note discusses the role that cross-validation-based and related hypothesis tests have come to play in modern data analyses, in neuroimaging and other fields. It is shown that such tests need not be suboptimal and can fill otherwise-unmet inferential needs.

  7. A cross-validated cytoarchitectonic atlas of the human ventral visual stream.

    PubMed

    Rosenke, M; Weiner, K S; Barnett, M A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K; Goebel, R; Grill-Spector, K

    2017-02-14

    The human ventral visual stream consists of several areas considered processing stages essential for perception and recognition. A fundamental microanatomical feature differentiating areas is cytoarchitecture, which refers to the distribution, size, and density of cells across cortical layers. Because cytoarchitectonic structure is measured in 20-micron-thick histological slices of postmortem tissue, it is difficult to assess (a) how anatomically consistent these areas are across brains and (b) how they relate to brain parcellations obtained with prevalent neuroimaging methods, acquired at the millimeter and centimeter scale. Therefore, the goal of this study was to (a) generate a cross-validated cytoarchitectonic atlas of the human ventral visual stream on a whole brain template that is commonly used in neuroimaging studies and (b) to compare this atlas to a recently published retinotopic parcellation of visual cortex (Wang, 2014). To achieve this goal, we generated an atlas of eight cytoarchitectonic areas: four areas in the occipital lobe (hOc1-hOc4v) and four in the fusiform gyrus (FG1-FG4) and tested how alignment technique affects the accuracy of the atlas. Results show that both cortex-based alignment (CBA) and nonlinear volumetric alignment (NVA) generate an atlas with better cross-validation performance than affine volumetric alignment (AVA). Additionally, CBA outperformed NVA in 6/8 of the cytoarchitectonic areas. Finally, the comparison of the cytoarchitectonic atlas to a retinotopic atlas shows a clear correspondence between cytoarchitectonic and retinotopic areas in the ventral visual stream. The successful performance of CBA suggests a coupling between cytoarchitectonic areas and macroanatomical landmarks in the human ventral visual stream, and furthermore that this coupling can be utilized towards generating an accurate group atlas. In addition, the coupling between cytoarchitecture and retinotopy highlights the potential use of this atlas in

  8. Longitudinal analysis of meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changtai; Jiang, Ting; Cao, Hao; Sun, Wenguang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    The meta-analysis is regarded as an important evidence for making scientific decision. The database of ISI Web of Science collected a great number of high quality literatures including meta-analysis literatures. However, it is significant to understand the general characteristics of meta-analysis literatures to outline the perspective of meta-analysis. In this present study, we summarized and clarified some features on these literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science. We retrieved the meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science including SCI-E, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, CCR-E, and IC. The annual growth rate, literature category, language, funding, index citation, agencies and countries/territories of the meta-analysis literatures were analyzed, respectively. A total of 95,719 records, which account for 0.38% (99% CI: 0.38%-0.39%) of all literatures, were found in the database. From 1997 to 2012, the annual growth rate of meta-analysis literatures was 18.18%. The literatures involved in many categories, languages, fundings, citations, publication agencies, and countries/territories. Interestingly, the index citation frequencies of the meta-analysis were significantly higher than that of other type literatures such as multi-centre study, randomize controlled trial, cohort study, case control study, and cases report (P<0.0001). The increasing numbers, intensively global influence and high citations revealed that the meta-analysis has been becoming more and more prominent in recent years. In future, in order to promote the validity of meta-analysis, the CONSORT and PRISMA standard should be continuously popularized in the field of evidence-based medicine.

  9. Recent literature on structural modeling, identification, and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The literature on the mathematical modeling of large space structures is first reviewed, with attention given to continuum models, model order reduction, substructuring, and computational techniques. System identification and mode verification are then discussed with reference to the verification of mathematical models of large space structures. In connection with analysis, the paper surveys recent research on eigensolvers and dynamic response solvers for large-order finite-element-based models.

  10. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM[R] Mathematics Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in Oregon. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Oregon state test was used as the…

  11. How Nonrecidivism Affects Predictive Accuracy: Evidence from a Cross-Validation of the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, N. Zoe; Harris, Grant T.

    2009-01-01

    Prediction effect sizes such as ROC area are important for demonstrating a risk assessment's generalizability and utility. How a study defines recidivism might affect predictive accuracy. Nonrecidivism is problematic when predicting specialized violence (e.g., domestic violence). The present study cross-validates the ability of the Ontario…

  12. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  13. Density-preserving sampling: robust and efficient alternative to cross-validation for error estimation.

    PubMed

    Budka, Marcin; Gabrys, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of the generalization ability of a classification or regression model is an important issue, as it indicates the expected performance on previously unseen data and is also used for model selection. Currently used generalization error estimation procedures, such as cross-validation (CV) or bootstrap, are stochastic and, thus, require multiple repetitions in order to produce reliable results, which can be computationally expensive, if not prohibitive. The correntropy-inspired density-preserving sampling (DPS) procedure proposed in this paper eliminates the need for repeating the error estimation procedure by dividing the available data into subsets that are guaranteed to be representative of the input dataset. This allows the production of low-variance error estimates with an accuracy comparable to 10 times repeated CV at a fraction of the computations required by CV. This method can also be used for model ranking and selection. This paper derives the DPS procedure and investigates its usability and performance using a set of public benchmark datasets and standard classifiers.

  14. Approximate l-fold cross-validation with Least Squares SVM and Kernel Ridge Regression

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Richard E; Zhang, Hao; Parker, Lynne Edwards; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Kernel methods have difficulties scaling to large modern data sets. The scalability issues are based on computational and memory requirements for working with a large matrix. These requirements have been addressed over the years by using low-rank kernel approximations or by improving the solvers scalability. However, Least Squares Support VectorMachines (LS-SVM), a popular SVM variant, and Kernel Ridge Regression still have several scalability issues. In particular, the O(n^3) computational complexity for solving a single model, and the overall computational complexity associated with tuning hyperparameters are still major problems. We address these problems by introducing an O(n log n) approximate l-fold cross-validation method that uses a multi-level circulant matrix to approximate the kernel. In addition, we prove our algorithm s computational complexity and present empirical runtimes on data sets with approximately 1 million data points. We also validate our approximate method s effectiveness at selecting hyperparameters on real world and standard benchmark data sets. Lastly, we provide experimental results on using a multi-level circulant kernel approximation to solve LS-SVM problems with hyperparameters selected using our method.

  15. Cross-validation of a Shortened Battery for the Assessment of Dysexecutive Disorders in Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, Olivier; Martinaud, Olivier; Verny, Marc; Mosca, Chrystèle; Lenoir, Hermine; Bretault, Eric; Devendeville, Agnès; Diouf, Momar; Pere, Jean-Jacques; Bakchine, Serge; Delabrousse-Mayoux, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Martine

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of executive disorders in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) has been demonstrated by the application of a comprehensive battery. The present study analyzed data from 2 recent multicenter studies based on the same executive battery. The objective was to derive a shortened battery by using the GREFEX population as a training dataset and by cross-validating the results in the REFLEX population. A total of 102 AD patients of the GREFEX study (MMSE=23.2±2.9) and 72 patients of the REFLEX study (MMSE=20.8±3.5) were included. Tests were selected and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated relative to the performance of 780 controls from the GREFEX study. Stepwise logistic regression identified 3 cognitive tests (Six Elements Task, categorical fluency and Trail Making Test B error) and behavioral disorders globally referred as global hypoactivity (P=0.0001, all). This shortened battery was as accurate as the entire GREFEX battery in diagnosing dysexecutive disorders in both training group and the validation group. Bootstrap procedure confirmed the stability of AUC. A shortened battery based on 3 cognitive tests and 3 behavioral domains provides a high diagnosis accuracy of executive disorders in mild-to-moderate AD.

  16. Comparison of cross-validation and bootstrap aggregating for building a seasonal streamflow forecast model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Simon; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-10-01

    Based on a hindcast experiment for the period 1982-2013 in 66 sub-catchments of the Swiss Rhine, the present study compares two approaches of building a regression model for seasonal streamflow forecasting. The first approach selects a single "best guess" model, which is tested by leave-one-out cross-validation. The second approach implements the idea of bootstrap aggregating, where bootstrap replicates are employed to select several models, and out-of-bag predictions provide model testing. The target value is mean streamflow for durations of 30, 60 and 90 days, starting with the 1st and 16th day of every month. Compared to the best guess model, bootstrap aggregating reduces the mean squared error of the streamflow forecast by seven percent on average. Thus, if resampling is anyway part of the model building procedure, bootstrap aggregating seems to be a useful strategy in statistical seasonal streamflow forecasting. Since the improved accuracy comes at the cost of a less interpretable model, the approach might be best suited for pure prediction tasks, e.g. as in operational applications.

  17. Sound quality indicators for urban places in Paris cross-validated by Milan data.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Paola; Delaitre, Pauline; Lavandier, Catherine; Torchia, Francesca; Aumond, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    A specific smartphone application was developed to collect perceptive and acoustic data in Paris. About 3400 questionnaires were analyzed, regarding the global sound environment characterization, the perceived loudness of some emergent sources and the presence time ratio of sources that do not emerge from the background. Sound pressure level was recorded each second from the mobile phone's microphone during a 10-min period. The aim of this study is to propose indicators of urban sound quality based on linear regressions with perceptive variables. A cross validation of the quality models extracted from Paris data was carried out by conducting the same survey in Milan. The proposed sound quality general model is correlated with the real perceived sound quality (72%). Another model without visual amenity and familiarity is 58% correlated with perceived sound quality. In order to improve the sound quality indicator, a site classification was performed by Kohonen's Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and seven specific class models were developed. These specific models attribute more importance on source events and are slightly closer to the individual data than the global model. In general, the Parisian models underestimate the sound quality of Milan environments assessed by Italian people.

  18. Genomic predictions in Angus cattle: comparisons of sample size, response variables, and clustering methods for cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Boddhireddy, P; Kelly, M J; Northcutt, S; Prayaga, K C; Rumph, J; DeNise, S

    2014-02-01

    Advances in genomics, molecular biology, and statistical genetics have created a paradigm shift in the way livestock producers pursue genetic improvement in their herds. The nexus of these technologies has resulted in combining genotypic and phenotypic information to compute genomically enhanced measures of genetic merit of individual animals. However, large numbers of genotyped and phenotyped animals are required to produce robust estimates of the effects of SNP that are summed together to generate direct genomic breeding values (DGV). Data on 11,756 Angus animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip were used to develop genomic predictions for 17 traits reported by the American Angus Association through Angus Genetics Inc. in their National Cattle Evaluation program. Marker effects were computed using a 5-fold cross-validation approach and a Bayesian model averaging algorithm. The accuracies were examined with EBV and deregressed EBV (DEBV) response variables and with K-means and identical by state (IBS)-based cross-validation methodologies. The cross-validation accuracies obtained using EBV response variables were consistently greater than those obtained using DEBV (average correlations were 0.64 vs. 0.57). The accuracies obtained using K-means cross-validation were consistently smaller than accuracies obtained with the IBS-based cross-validation approach (average correlations were 0.58 vs. 0.64 with EBV used as a response variable). Comparing the results from the current study with the results from a similar study consisting of only 2,253 records indicated that larger training population size resulted in higher accuracies in validation animals and explained on average 18% (69% improvement) additional genetic variance across all traits.

  19. Comparison, cross-validation and consolidation of the results from two different geodynamic projects working in the eastern Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosious, B.; Dinter, G.; van der Hoeven, A.; Mocanu, V.; Nutto, M.; Schmitt, G.; Spakman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Since 1995 several projects/programmes are working in the Vrancea-region in Romania with partly different intensions. First of all, the CERGOP project installed the CEGRN-network and performed GPS-measurements ('95,'96,'97,'99,'01), mainly to realise a geodetic reference frame for local geodynamic projects. In the framework of the Collaborative Research Center CRC461 "Strong Earthquakes" the Geodetic Institute of the University Karlsruhe (GIK) Densified the network up to 35 stations and carried out three GPS-campaigns ('97, '98 and '00). First results of this project were presented at the EGS-meeting 2001 in Nice. In 2002 a new geodynamic research project was initiated at the Delft Institute of Earth-Oriented Space Research (DEOS). In the context of this project, 4 permanent stations and 10 new campaign stations were installed, which leads to a common network of about 50 stations. In tight cooperation with the GIK and the University of Bucarest (Departement of Geophysics) the currently last GPS-campaign was successfully carried out in 2002. Now the great challenge and at the same time the great difficulty is a correct combination of all available GPS datasets particularly in consideration of station excentricities and variations of antenna- and receiver-types. Different evalutation strategies and software packages (Bernese-GPS-Software, GIPSY) were used to analyse the GPS data and to estimate the station velocities. Main focus of this joint-presentation is the comparison of the results from the German and Dutch geodynamic projects. The results of the two working groups are cross-validated and finally joined together in a most reasonable solution. Even if three-dimensional analysis is in work, the presentation is limited to the horizontal component.

  20. The Bibliometric Analysis Of Literature On Museum Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. W.; Yang, Y. H.

    2015-08-01

    Museum studies, is the study of museums, museum curation, and how and why museums developed into their institutional role in education and culture through scientific, social, political and other related forces. The purpose of this study is to shed light on the application trends of the international literature related to museum studies on the SCIE, SSCI, and AHCI databases between 1995 and 2014 using a bibliometric technique and citation analysis. The results of this study reveal that influences of the literature related to museum studies on other subject areas continue to expand. Considering the publication of major countries, subject areas, journal and institutions, the results also discussed that the future trend through analysing most cited articles. Moreover, 12 core journal lists are identified by Bradford's law.

  1. Laplacian Smoothing Splines with Generalized Cross Validation for Objective Analysis of Meteorological Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    REPOR NUMUERVi ACCESO NO3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG HUMMER NPS-53-85-0008 __ 4. TITLE (and ,Subite) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVER[’D Technical Report...is best. Though not discernable from the table, the GCV func- tion generally was found to have multiple local minima, especial- ly for the larger data

  2. Cross Validation Through Two-dimensional Solution Surface for Cost-Sensitive SVM.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor; Tay, Keng; Romano, Walter; Li, Shuo

    2016-06-08

    Model selection plays an important role in cost-sensitive SVM (CS-SVM). It has been proven that the global minimum cross validation (CV) error can be efficiently computed based on the solution path for one parameter learning problems. However, it is a challenge to obtain the global minimum CV error for CS-SVM based on one-dimensional solution path and traditional grid search, because CS-SVM is with two regularization parameters. In this paper, we propose a solution and error surfaces based CV approach (CV-SES). More specifically, we first compute a two-dimensional solution surface for CS-SVM based on a bi-parameter space partition algorithm, which can fit solutions of CS-SVM for all values of both regularization parameters. Then, we compute a two-dimensional validation error surface for each CV fold, which can fit validation errors of CS-SVM for all values of both regularization parameters. Finally, we obtain the CV error surface by superposing K validation error surfaces, which can find the global minimum CV error of CS-SVM. Experiments are conducted on seven datasets for cost sensitive learning and on four datasets for imbalanced learning. Experimental results not only show that our proposed CV-SES has a better generalization ability than CS-SVM with various hybrids between grid search and solution path methods, and than recent proposed cost-sensitive hinge loss SVM with three-dimensional grid search, but also show that CV-SES uses less running time.

  3. The generalized cross-validation method applied to geophysical linear traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassrei, A.; Oliveira, N. P.

    2009-12-01

    The oil industry is the major user of Applied Geophysics methods for the subsurface imaging. Among different methods, the so-called seismic (or exploration seismology) methods are the most important. Tomography was originally developed for medical imaging and was introduced in exploration seismology in the 1980's. There are two main classes of geophysical tomography: those that use only the traveltimes between sources and receivers, which is a cinematic approach and those that use the wave amplitude itself, being a dynamic approach. Tomography is a kind of inverse problem, and since inverse problems are usually ill-posed, it is necessary to use some method to reduce their deficiencies. These difficulties of the inverse procedure are associated with the fact that the involved matrix is ill-conditioned. To compensate this shortcoming, it is appropriate to use some technique of regularization. In this work we make use of regularization with derivative matrices, also called smoothing. There is a crucial problem in regularization, which is the selection of the regularization parameter lambda. We use generalized cross validation (GCV) as a tool for the selection of lambda. GCV chooses the regularization parameter associated with the best average prediction for all possible omissions of one datum, corresponding to the minimizer of GCV function. GCV is used for an application in traveltime tomography, where the objective is to obtain the 2-D velocity distribution from the measured values of the traveltimes between sources and receivers. We present results with synthetic data, using a geological model that simulates different features, like a fault and a reservoir. The results using GCV are very good, including those contaminated with noise, and also using different regularization orders, attesting the feasibility of this technique.

  4. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die.

  5. Refractive error and the reading process: a literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Grisham, J D; Simons, H D

    1986-01-01

    The literature analysis of refractive error and reading performance includes only those studies which adhere to the rudaments of scientific investigation. The relative strengths and weaknesses of each study are described and conclusions are drawn where possible. Hyperopia and anisometropia appear to be related to poor reading progress and their correction seems to result in improved performance. Reduced distance visual acuity and myopia are not generally associated with reading difficulties. There is little evidence relating astigmatism and reading, but studies have not been adequately designed to draw conclusions. Implications for school vision screening are discussed.

  6. Visual Interaction with Dimensionality Reduction: A Structured Literature Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacha, Dominik; Zhang, Leishi; Sedlmair, Michael; Lee, John A; Peltonen, Jaakko; Weiskopf, Daniel; North, Stephen C; Keim, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Dimensionality Reduction (DR) is a core building block in visualizing multidimensional data. For DR techniques to be useful in exploratory data analysis, they need to be adapted to human needs and domain-specific problems, ideally, interactively, and on-the-fly. Many visual analytics systems have already demonstrated the benefits of tightly integrating DR with interactive visualizations. Nevertheless, a general, structured understanding of this integration is missing. To address this, we systematically studied the visual analytics and visualization literature to investigate how analysts interact with automatic DR techniques. The results reveal seven common interaction scenarios that are amenable to interactive control such as specifying algorithmic constraints, selecting relevant features, or choosing among several DR algorithms. We investigate specific implementations of visual analysis systems integrating DR, and analyze ways that other machine learning methods have been combined with DR. Summarizing the results in a "human in the loop" process model provides a general lens for the evaluation of visual interactive DR systems. We apply the proposed model to study and classify several systems previously described in the literature, and to derive future research opportunities.

  7. The computation of generalized cross-validation functions through householder tridiagonalization with applications to the fitting of interaction spline models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Chong; Bates, Douglas M.; Chen, Zehua; Wahba, Grace

    1989-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for computing the generalized cross-validation function for the general cross-validated regularization/smoothing problem is provided. This algorithm is appropriate for problems where no natural structure is available, and the regularization/smoothing problem is solved (exactly) in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. It is particularly appropriate for certain multivariate smoothing problems with irregularly spaced data, and certain remote sensing problems, such as those that occur in meteorology, where the sensors are arranged irregularly. The algorithm is applied to the fitting of interaction spline models with irregularly spaced data and two smoothing parameters; favorable timing results are presented. The algorithm may be extended to the computation of certain generalized maximum likelihood (GML) functions. Application of the GML algorithm to a problem in numerical weather forecasting, and to a broad class of hypothesis testing problems, is noted.

  8. Predicting Chinese Children and Youth's Energy Expenditure Using ActiGraph Accelerometers: A Calibration and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zheng; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate an equation based on ActiGraph accelerometer GT3X output to predict children and youth's energy expenditure (EE) of physical activity (PA). Method: Participants were 367 Chinese children and youth (179 boys and 188 girls, aged 9 to 17 years old) who wore 1 ActiGraph GT3X…

  9. Body fat measurement by bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography: a cross-validation study to design bioelectrical impedance equations in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Nayeli; Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E

    2007-01-01

    Background The study of body composition in specific populations by techniques such as bio-impedance analysis (BIA) requires validation based on standard reference methods. The aim of this study was to develop and cross-validate a predictive equation for bioelectrical impedance using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as standard method to measure body composition in Mexican adult men and women. Methods This study included 155 male and female subjects from northern Mexico, 20–50 years of age, from low, middle, and upper income levels. Body composition was measured by ADP. Body weight (BW, kg) and height (Ht, cm) were obtained by standard anthropometric techniques. Resistance, R (ohms) and reactance, Xc (ohms) were also measured. A random-split method was used to obtain two samples: one was used to derive the equation by the "all possible regressions" procedure and was cross-validated in the other sample to test predicted versus measured values of fat-free mass (FFM). Results and Discussion The final model was: FFM (kg) = 0.7374 * (Ht2 /R) + 0.1763 * (BW) - 0.1773 * (Age) + 0.1198 * (Xc) - 2.4658. R2 was 0.97; the square root of the mean square error (SRMSE) was 1.99 kg, and the pure error (PE) was 2.96. There was no difference between FFM predicted by the new equation (48.57 ± 10.9 kg) and that measured by ADP (48.43 ± 11.3 kg). The new equation did not differ from the line of identity, had a high R2 and a low SRMSE, and showed no significant bias (0.87 ± 2.84 kg). Conclusion The new bioelectrical impedance equation based on the two-compartment model (2C) was accurate, precise, and free of bias. This equation can be used to assess body composition and nutritional status in populations similar in anthropometric and physical characteristics to this sample. PMID:17697388

  10. [Acupuncture for aphasia: a retrospective analysis of clinical literature].

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Han, Guodong; Ai, Kun; Deng, Shifeng

    2016-04-01

    With the Meta-analysis method, the clinical efficacy of acupuncture and other regular methods for aphasia was evaluated, and the acupoints selection for aphasia was explored. The acupuncture literature of clinical randomized control trials for aphasia published in CNKI, WANFANG, VIP and CBM database was searched; the statistical analysis of clinical efficacy of acupuncture and other regular methods for aphasia was performed by using software Revman 5. 2 provided by Cochrane library. A file of Microsoft Excel was established to perform the analysis of acupoints selection based on frequency analysis method, so as to summarize the characteristics and rules. Totally 385 articles were searched, and 37 articles those met the inclusive criteria was included, involving 1,260 patients in the acupuncture group and 1 238 patients in the control group. The Meta-analysis results showed OR = 3.82, 95% Cl [3.01, 4.85]; rhombus was located on the right side and the funnel plot was nearly symmetry, indicating the treatment effect of the acupuncture group for aphasia was superior to the control group (Z = 11.04, P < 0.000 01). The frequency-analysis results showed that the frequency of acupoints from top to bottom was Lian-quan (CV 23), Tongli (HT 5), Yamen (GV 15), Jinjin (EX-HN 12), Yuye (EX-HN 13), Baihui (GV 20), Yuyan II, Yuyan I and Yuyan III. The frequency of meridians from top to bottom was the governor vessel, extra channels, conception vessel, heart meridian and large intestine meridian. It is concluded that the clinical efficacy of acupuncture combined with speech rehabilitation training and medication treatment for aphasia is superior to that of speech rehabilitation training and medication treatment alone. The clinical treatment for aphasia focuses on its local effect; the main acupoints are in the head and face, and the meridians are governor vessel, extra channels and conception vessel.

  11. Issues in Benchmarking Human Reliability Analysis Methods: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; John A. Forester; Tuan Q. Tran; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  12. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, Erasmia; Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L.

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  13. Computing fuzzy associations for the analysis of biological literature.

    PubMed

    Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Keer, Harindar S; Bork, Peer; Andrade, Miguel A

    2002-06-01

    The increase of information in biology makes it difficult for researchers in any field to keep current with the literature. The MEDLINE database of scientific abstracts can be quickly scanned using electronic mechanisms. Potentially interesting abstracts can be selected by matching words joined by Boolean operators. However this means of selecting documents is not optimal. Nonspecific queries have to be effected, resulting in large numbers of irrelevant abstracts that have to be manually scanned To facilitate this analysis, we have developed a system that compiles a summary of subjects and related documents on the results of a MEDLINE query. For this, we have applied a fuzzy binary relation formalism that deduces relations between words present in a set of abstracts preprocessed with a standard grammatical tagger. Those relations are used to derive ensembles of related words and their associated subsets of abstracts. The algorithm can be used publicly at http:// www.bork.embl-heidelberg.de/xplormed/.

  14. Embedded Performance Validity Measures with Postdeployment Veterans: Cross-Validation and Efficiency with Multiple Measures.

    PubMed

    Shura, Robert D; Miskey, Holly M; Rowland, Jared A; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; Denning, John H

    2016-01-01

    Embedded validity measures support comprehensive assessment of performance validity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of individual embedded measures and to reduce them to the most efficient combination. The sample included 212 postdeployment veterans (average age = 35 years, average education = 14 years). Thirty embedded measures were initially identified as predictors of Green's Word Memory Test (WMT) and were derived from the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Conners' Continuous Performance Test-Second Edition (CPT-II), Trail Making Test, Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Letter-Number Sequencing, Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, and the Finger Tapping Test. Eight nonoverlapping measures with the highest area-under-the-curve (AUC) values were retained for entry into a logistic regression analysis. Embedded measure accuracy was also compared to cutoffs found in the existing literature. Twenty-one percent of the sample failed the WMT. Previously developed cutoffs for individual measures showed poor sensitivity (SN) in the current sample except for the CPT-II (Total Errors, SN = .41). The CVLT-II (Trials 1-5 Total) showed the best overall accuracy (AUC = .80). After redundant measures were statistically eliminated, the model included the RCFT (Recognition True Positives), CPT-II (Total Errors), and CVLT-II (Trials 1-5 Total) and increased overall accuracy compared with the CVLT-II alone (AUC = .87). The combination of just 3 measures from the CPT-II, CVLT-II, and RCFT was the most accurate/efficient in predicting WMT performance.

  15. The Adolescent Religious Coping Scale: Development, Validation, and Cross-Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Braese, Robert W.; Tadie, Joseph T.; Gililland, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Research literature on adolescent coping is growing, but typically such studies have ignored religious coping strategies and their potential impact on functioning. To address this lack, we developed the Adolescent Religious Coping Scale and used its seven subscales to examine the relationship between religious coping and emotional functioning. A…

  16. Supported Employment: Review of Literature. Policy Analysis Series, No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Governor's Planning Council on Developmental Disabilities, St. Paul.

    This review of the literature on supported employment for individuals with severe disabilities begins by outlining two Federal definitions of supported employment and noting their similarities. Literature on approaches to supported employment is examined, focusing on individual jobs at distributed or scattered sites, enclaves, mobile crews, and…

  17. Fear factors: cross validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L Kevin; Vines, Lauren; Petrie, Jenny

    2011-05-01

    The current study attempted a cross-validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults based on a previous model of phobia domains in a college student sample of African Americans. Subjects were 100 African American community-dwelling adults who completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II). Domains of fear were created using a similar procedure as the original, college sample of African American adults. A model including all of the phobia domains from the FSS-II was initially tested and resulted in poor model fit. Cross-validation was subsequently attempted through examining the original factor pattern of specific phobia domains from the college sample (Chapman, Kertz, Zurlage, & Woodruff-Borden, 2008). Data from the current, community based sample of African American adults provided poor fit to this model. The trimmed model for the current sample included the animal and social anxiety factors as in the original model. The natural environment-type specific phobia factor did not provide adequate fit for the community-based sample of African Americans. Results indicated that although different factor loading patterns of fear may exist among community-based African Americans as compared to African American college students, both animal and social fears are nearly identical in both groups, indicating a possible cultural homogeneity for phobias in African Americans. Potential explanations of these findings and future directions are discussed.

  18. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J.

    1996-04-01

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed.

  19. Conversational Analysis: A Review of the Literature from the Perspective of Sequencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    1987-01-01

    Reviews literature relating to conversational analysis, identifying two major approaches which exhibit chronological and methodological differentiations and focusing from a perspective of sequencing. (CB)

  20. Cross-Validation of Levenson's Psychopathy Scale in a Sample of Federal Female Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Chad A.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Heigel, Caron P.

    2008-01-01

    Levenson, Kiehl, and Fitzpatrick's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRPS) is evaluated to determine the factor structure and concurrent validity of the instrument among 430 federal female inmates. Confirmatory factor analysis fails to validate the expected 2-factor structure. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis reveals a 3-factor structure…

  1. Analysis of Bildungsroman Literature as a Research Modality in Adult Education: An Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Leon

    1975-01-01

    The problem addressed concerns the analysis of a specific genre of literature for the purpose of acquiring new knowledge about adult development and learning. A need for further study in the area of developing research principles for the analysis of literature is indicated. (Author)

  2. A cross-validation procedure for stopping the EM algorithm and deconvolution of neutron depth profiling spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Coakley, K.J. )

    1991-02-01

    The iterative EM algorithm is used to deconvolve neutron depth profiling spectra. Because of statistical noise in the data, artifacts in the estimated particle emission rate profile appear after too many iterations of the EM algorithm. To avoid artifacts, the EM algorithm is stopped using a cross-validation procedure. The data are split into two independent halves. The EM algorithm is applied to one half of the data to get an estimate of the emission rates. The algorithm is stopped when the conditional likelihood of the other half of the data passes through its maximum. The roles of the two halves of the data are then switched to get a second estimate of the emission rates. The two estimates are then averaged.

  3. British Literature: Discipline Analysis. Women in the Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Susan

    This essay examines the ways in which British literature, as a discipline, has been influenced by feminist scholarship and research into the areas of gender and sexuality. It reports that feminist literary criticism took definitive shape in the late 1960s as part of the women's liberation movement, and that a central concern of this first…

  4. Qualitative Analysis Techniques for the Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we provide a framework for analyzing and interpreting sources that inform a literature review or, as it is more aptly called, a research synthesis. Specifically, using Leech and Onwuegbuzie's (2007, 2008) frameworks, we delineate how the following four major source types inform research syntheses: talk, observations,…

  5. An Analysis of Contemporary Literature on Strategy in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eacott, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, contemporary literature on strategy in education is examined in an integrative and analytical manner. To achieve this, an empirical investigation on strategy in education was undertaken. As the goal is to understand and propose specific research directions, the findings are both descriptive and analytical. Initially, peer reviewed…

  6. Achievement in Mother Tongue Literature: Some Strategies of Causal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulcock, Jeffrey W.

    Three stages of linear causal model building procedures (conceptual, main theory, and auxiliary theory) were used to examine the cultural and personality resources of individuals and their school-related skills as determinants of achievement in mother tongue literature. A path analytic approach was used to test a popular model of literature…

  7. Math Disabilities: A Selective Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Jerman, Olga

    2006-01-01

    This article synthesizes published literature comparing the cognitive functioning of children who have math disabilities (MD) with that of (a) average-achieving children; (b) children who have reading disabilities (RD); and (c) children who have co-morbid disabilities (MD+RD). Average achievers outperformed children with MD on measures of verbal…

  8. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Teachers' Views on LGBT Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a thread of discussion posted to a web-based forum in the context of a children's literature course in one teacher education program in the USA. Participants in the virtual discussion include three preservice elementary teachers and the course instructor (author) on the subject of bringing lesbian, gay, bisexual and…

  9. Research on Rural Veterans: An Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, William B.; Wallace, Amy E.; West, Alan N.; Heady, Hilda R.; Hawthorne, Kara

    2008-01-01

    Context: The Veterans Health Administration (VA) provides comprehensive health care services to veterans across the United States. Recently, the VA established an Office of Rural Health to address the health care needs of rural veterans. Purpose: To review the literature on rural veterans' health care needs in order to identify areas for future…

  10. Simulating California Reservoir Operation Using the Classification and Regression Tree Algorithm Combined with a Shuffled Cross-Validation Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    The controlled outflows from a reservoir or dam are highly dependent on the decisions made by the reservoir operators, instead of a natural hydrological process. Difference exists between the natural upstream inflows to reservoirs, and the controlled outflows from reservoirs that supply the downstream users. With the decision maker's awareness of changing climate, reservoir management requires adaptable means to incorporate more information into decision making, such as the consideration of policy and regulation, environmental constraints, dry/wet conditions, etc. In this paper, a reservoir outflow simulation model is presented, which incorporates one of the well-developed data-mining models (Classification and Regression Tree) to predict the complicated human-controlled reservoir outflows and extract the reservoir operation patterns. A shuffled cross-validation approach is further implemented to improve model's predictive performance. An application study of 9 major reservoirs in California is carried out and the simulated results from different decision tree approaches are compared with observation, including original CART and Random Forest. The statistical measurements show that CART combined with the shuffled cross-validation scheme gives a better predictive performance over the other two methods, especially in simulating the peak flows. The results for simulated controlled outflow, storage changes and storage trajectories also show that the proposed model is able to consistently and reasonably predict the human's reservoir operation decisions. In addition, we found that the operation in the Trinity Lake, Oroville Lake and Shasta Lake are greatly influenced by policy and regulation, while low elevation reservoirs are more sensitive to inflow amount than others.

  11. Estimation of influential points in any data set from coefficient of determination and its leave-one-out cross-validated counterpart.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gergely; Bodai, Zsolt; Héberger, Károly

    2013-10-01

    Coefficient of determination (R (2)) and its leave-one-out cross-validated analogue (denoted by Q (2) or R cv (2) ) are the most frequantly published values to characterize the predictive performance of models. In this article we use R (2) and Q (2) in a reversed aspect to determine uncommon points, i.e. influential points in any data sets. The term (1 - Q (2))/(1 - R (2)) corresponds to the ratio of predictive residual sum of squares and the residual sum of squares. The ratio correlates to the number of influential points in experimental and random data sets. We propose an (approximate) F test on (1 - Q (2))/(1 - R (2)) term to quickly pre-estimate the presence of influential points in training sets of models. The test is founded upon the routinely calculated Q (2) and R (2) values and warns the model builders to verify the training set, to perform influence analysis or even to change to robust modeling.

  12. Classification of technical pitfalls in objective universal hearing screening by otoacoustic emissions, using an ARMA model of the stimulus waveform and bootstrap cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Vannier, E; Avan, P

    2005-10-01

    Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) are widely used for objective hearing screening in neonates. Their main shortcoming is their sensitivity to adverse conditions for sound transmission through the middle-ear, to and from the cochlea. We study here whether a close examination of the stimulus waveform (SW) recorded in the ear canal in the course of a screening test can pinpoint the most frequent middle-ear dysfunctions, thus allowing screeners to avoid misclassifying the corresponding babies as deaf for lack of TEOAE. Three groups of SWs were defined in infants (6-36 months of age) according to middle-ear impairment as assessed by independent testing procedures, and analyzed in the frequency domain where their properties are more readily interpreted than in the time domain. Synthetic SW parameters were extracted with the help of an autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) model, then classified using a maximum likelihood criterion and a bootstrap cross-validation. The best classification performance was 79% with a lower limit (with 90% confidence) of 60%, showing the results' consistency. We therefore suggest that new parameters and methodology based upon a more thorough analysis of SWs can improve the efficiency of TEOAE-based tests by helping the most frequent technical pitfalls to be identified.

  13. Cross-Validation of the Norwegian Teacher's Self-Efficacy Scale (NTSES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avanzi, Lorenzo; Miglioretti, Massimo; Velasco, Veronica; Balducci, Cristian; Vecchio, Luca; Fraccaroli, Franco; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2013-01-01

    The study assesses the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale--NTSES. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the measurement invariance of the scale across two countries. Analyses performed on Italian and Norwegian samples confirmed a six-factor structure of the scale…

  14. Repeated holdout Cross-Validation of Model to Estimate Risk of Lyme Disease by Landscape Attributes

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously modeled Lyme disease (LD) risk at the landscape scale; here we evaluate the model's overall goodness-of-fit using holdout validation. Landscapes were characterized within road-bounded analysis units (AU). Observed LD cases (obsLD) were ascertained per AU. Data were ...

  15. Citation analysis in the literature of tropical medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, P W; Davey, W P

    1978-01-01

    A brief historical account of tropical medicine as a science is given, followed by a short survey of the development of the literature in the field. The citations indexed in Tropical Diseases Bulletin for a forty-eight-month period (1972-1975) were analyzed according to the journal in which they were published and the language in which they appeared. The results of the study conformed to Bradford's law of bibliographic distribution. The reference scattering coefficient was determined to be 0.504, which indicated a high concentration of articles in relatively few journal titles. A rank order list of sixty-one journal titles is given in an appendix. The study showed English to be the most important language in the literature in terms of productivity. The results of the study may be used as an acquisition tool for developing a journal collection in tropical medicine. PMID:626794

  16. Advanced literature analysis in a Big Data world.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, Chris; Cao, Hongbao; Kalinin, Andrey; Hodgkinson, Jaqui

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive data mining of the scientific literature has become an increasing challenge. To address this challenge, Elsevier's Pathway Studio software uses the techniques of natural language processing to systematically extract specific biological information from journal articles and abstracts that is then used to create a very large, structured, and constantly expanding literature knowledgebase. Highly sophisticated visualization tools allow the user to interactively explore the vast number of connections created and stored in the Pathway Studio database. We demonstrate the value of this structured information approach by way of a biomarker use case example and describe a comprehensive collection of biomarkers and biomarker candidates, as reported in the literature. We use four major neuropsychiatric diseases to demonstrate common and unique biomarker elements, demonstrate specific enrichment patterns, and highlight strategies for identifying the most recent and novel reports for potential biomarker discovery. Finally, we introduce an innovative new taxonomy based on brain region identifications, which greatly increases the potential depth and complexity of information retrieval related to, and now accessible for, neuroscience research.

  17. Evidence cross-validation and Bayesian inference of MAST plasma equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nessi, G. T.; Hole, M. J.; Svensson, J.; Appel, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, current profiles for plasma discharges on the mega-ampere spherical tokamak are directly calculated from pickup coil, flux loop, and motional-Stark effect observations via methods based in the statistical theory of Bayesian analysis. By representing toroidal plasma current as a series of axisymmetric current beams with rectangular cross-section and inferring the current for each one of these beams, flux-surface geometry and q-profiles are subsequently calculated by elementary application of Biot-Savart's law. The use of this plasma model in the context of Bayesian analysis was pioneered by Svensson and Werner on the joint-European tokamak [Svensson and Werner,Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50(8), 085002 (2008)]. In this framework, linear forward models are used to generate diagnostic predictions, and the probability distribution for the currents in the collection of plasma beams was subsequently calculated directly via application of Bayes' formula. In this work, we introduce a new diagnostic technique to identify and remove outlier observations associated with diagnostics falling out of calibration or suffering from an unidentified malfunction. These modifications enable a good agreement between Bayesian inference of the last-closed flux-surface with other corroborating data, such as that from force balance considerations using EFIT++ [Appel et al., "A unified approach to equilibrium reconstruction" Proceedings of the 33rd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (Rome, Italy, 2006)]. In addition, this analysis also yields errors on the plasma current profile and flux-surface geometry as well as directly predicting the Shafranov shift of the plasma core.

  18. Evidence cross-validation and Bayesian inference of MAST plasma equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Nessi, G. T. von; Hole, M. J.; Svensson, J.; Appel, L.

    2012-01-15

    In this paper, current profiles for plasma discharges on the mega-ampere spherical tokamak are directly calculated from pickup coil, flux loop, and motional-Stark effect observations via methods based in the statistical theory of Bayesian analysis. By representing toroidal plasma current as a series of axisymmetric current beams with rectangular cross-section and inferring the current for each one of these beams, flux-surface geometry and q-profiles are subsequently calculated by elementary application of Biot-Savart's law. The use of this plasma model in the context of Bayesian analysis was pioneered by Svensson and Werner on the joint-European tokamak [Svensson and Werner,Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50(8), 085002 (2008)]. In this framework, linear forward models are used to generate diagnostic predictions, and the probability distribution for the currents in the collection of plasma beams was subsequently calculated directly via application of Bayes' formula. In this work, we introduce a new diagnostic technique to identify and remove outlier observations associated with diagnostics falling out of calibration or suffering from an unidentified malfunction. These modifications enable a good agreement between Bayesian inference of the last-closed flux-surface with other corroborating data, such as that from force balance considerations using EFIT++[Appel et al., ''A unified approach to equilibrium reconstruction'' Proceedings of the 33rd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (Rome, Italy, 2006)]. In addition, this analysis also yields errors on the plasma current profile and flux-surface geometry as well as directly predicting the Shafranov shift of the plasma core.

  19. Cross-validation of a portable, six-degree-of-freedom load cell for use in lower-limb prosthetics research.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Sara R; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Hansen, Andrew H

    2014-04-11

    The iPecs load cell is a lightweight, six-degree-of-freedom force transducer designed to fit easily into an endoskeletal prosthesis via a universal mounting interface. Unlike earlier tethered systems, it is capable of wireless data transmission and on-board memory storage, which facilitate its use in both clinical and real-world settings. To date, however, the validity of the iPecs load cell has not been rigorously established, particularly for loading conditions that represent typical prosthesis use. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of an iPecs load cell during in situ human subject testing by cross-validating its force and moment measurements with those of a typical gait analysis laboratory. Specifically, the gait mechanics of a single person with transtibial amputation were simultaneously measured using an iPecs load cell, multiple floor-mounted force platforms, and a three-dimensional motion capture system. Overall, the forces and moments measured by the iPecs were highly correlated with those measured by the gait analysis laboratory (r>0.86) and RMSEs were less than 3.4% and 5.2% full scale output across all force and moment channels, respectively. Despite this favorable comparison, however, the results of a sensitivity analysis suggest that care should be taken to accurately identify the axes and instrumentation center of the load cell in situations where iPecs data will be interpreted in a coordinate system other than its own (e.g., inverse dynamics analysis).

  20. Vulnerabilities—bibliometric analysis and literature review of evolving concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Biscaro, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    In this work we analyse the evolution of the vulnerability concept in the research streams of climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR). We combine a traditional literature review with data mining procedures applied to bibliographic databases to reconstruct the history of the concept within various research topics, showing its evolution and convergences over time. To do that, we integrate different methods combining machine learning algorithms with network and cluster analyses to examine a set of 3757 articles, analysing their distinctive features and similarities on the basis of their contents as well as co-authorships. Bibliometric analyses enable the identification of different communities of articles, pinpointing key papers and authors, while literature review makes it possible to assess the concept of vulnerability evolved within and beyond research communities and scientific networks. Moreover, this work examines the role played by documents published by UN institutions (UNDRO, UNISDR, IPCC) in contributing to the evolution of vulnerability and related concepts. Results show that signs of convergence are evident between the two research streams, and that the IPCC reports have played a major role in proposing solutions for unifying definitions of vulnerability. We observe that the phases of preparation of the IPCC reports are very rich in methodological and terminological developments, while after publication, the literature shows evident signs of propagation of the proposed concepts. The DRR research stream developed before the research stream on CCA, but the latter flourished rapidly and became much larger in terms of number of publications. Nevertheless, in terms of contents, adaptation studies and the IPCC have shown increasing adoption of the concepts developed within the disaster research stream, in particular with regard to the interpretation of vulnerability as one of the dimensions of risk.

  1. Cross-validation of satellite products over France through their integration into a land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Barbu, Alina; Carrer, Dominique; Meurey, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Long (more than 30 years) time series of satellite-derived products over land are now available. They concern Essential Climate Variables (ECV) such as LAI, FAPAR, surface albedo, and soil moisture. The direct validation of such Climate Data Records (CDR) is not easy, as in situ observations are limited in space and time. Therefore, indirect validation has a key role. It consists in comparing the products with similar preexisting products derived from satellite observations or from land surface model (LSM) simulations. The most advanced indirect validation technique consists in integrating the products into a LSM using a data assimilation scheme. The obtained reanalysis accounts for the synergies of the various upstream products and provides statistics which can be used to monitor the quality of the assimilated observations. Meteo-France develops the ISBA-A-gs generic LSM able to represent the diurnal cycle of the surface fluxes together with the seasonal, interannual and decadal variability of the vegetation biomass. The LSM is embedded in the SURFEX modeling platform together with a simplified extended Kalman filter. These tools form a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS). The current version of the LDAS assimilates SPOT-VGT LAI and ASCAT surface soil moisture (SSM) products over France (8km x 8km), and a passive monitoring of albedo, FAPAR and Land Surface temperature (LST) is performed (i.e., the simulated values are compared with the satellite products). The LDAS-France system is used in the European Copernicus Global Land Service (http://land.copernicus.eu/global/) to monitor the quality of upstream products. The LDAS generates statistics whose trends can be analyzed in order to detect possible drifts in the quality of the products: (1) for LAI and SSM, metrics derived from the active monitoring (i.e. assimilation) such as innovations (observations vs. model forecast), residuals (observations vs. analysis), and increments (analysis vs. model forecast) ; (2

  2. A cross-validation study of nurses' attitudes and commitment to organ donation in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Boey, Kam Weng

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes and commitment to posthumous organ donation among a group of nurses (N=314) in a teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Attitude was operationally defined by a self-report measure of favorable or unfavorable feelings and beliefs about organ donation, whereas commitment was defined by having signed a donor card. Consistent with findings reported in the West, nurses who exhibited favorable attitudes towards organ donation were of greater proportion than those who had signed a donor card. Younger and unmarried nurses were more likely to commit to posthumous organ donation. More than half (55%) of the nurses were undecided about commitment to organ donation, but most of them were likely to sign a donor card. Principal component analysis confirmed the conceptual structure of the Organ Donation Attitude Scale developed by Parisi and Katz (Health Psychol. 5 (1986) 565-580). Reliability of the factor scores (Humanitarian and moral conviction, Fears of bodily mutilation, and Fears of medical neglect) was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha ranged from 0.80 to 0.86). Fears of bodily mutilation were most significantly related to unwillingness to commit to organ donation. Implications of the findings for nursing education are discussed and suggestions for future research made.

  3. The structure of peritraumatic dissociation: a cross validation in clinical and nonclinical samples.

    PubMed

    Sijbrandij, Marit; Engelhard, Iris M; Opmeer, Brent C; van de Schoot, Rens; Carlier, Ingrid V E; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2012-08-01

    Empirical data have challenged the unidimensionality of the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ), a widely used measure for peritraumatic dissociation. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure of the PDEQ in 3 trauma-exposed samples: (a) trauma-exposed police officers (N = 219); (b) trauma-exposed civilians (N = 158); and (c) treatment-seeking trauma-exposed civilians (N = 185). Confirmatory factor analyses using measurement invariance testing supported a 2-factor structure (CFIs .96-.98; RMSEAs .07-.09), but excluded 2 of the original items. Factor 1 was termed Altered Awareness; Factor 2 was termed Derealization. Altered Awareness reflected disturbances in information processing during the traumatic event, whereas Derealization reflected distortions in perception. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that Derealization predicted posttraumatic stress severity at 26.5 weeks follow-up only in the sample of police officers (R(2) = .45). Future longitudinal research shortly following trauma is required to elucidate causality and underlying mechanisms of peritraumatic dissociation, which may contribute to the development of more accurate screening strategies, as well as more effective strategies for prevention and early intervention.

  4. A Quantitative Analysis of Published Skull Base Endoscopy Literature.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Douglas A; Ponce, Francisco A; Little, Andrew S; Nakaji, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Skull base endoscopy allows for minimal access approaches to the sinonasal contents and cranial base. Advances in endoscopic technique and applications have been published rapidly in recent decades. Setting We utilized an Internet-based scholarly database (Web of Science, Thomson Reuters) to query broad-based phrases regarding skull base endoscopy literature. Participants All skull base endoscopy publications. Main Outcome Measures Standard bibliometrics outcomes. Results We identified 4,082 relevant skull base endoscopy English-language articles published between 1973 and 2014. The 50 top-cited publications (n = 51, due to articles with equal citation counts) ranged in citation count from 397 to 88. Most of the articles were clinical case series or technique descriptions. Most (96% [49/51])were published in journals specific to either neurosurgery or otolaryngology. Conclusions A relatively small number of institutions and individuals have published a large amount of the literature. Most of the publications consisted of case series and technical advances, with a lack of randomized trials.

  5. A Quantitative Analysis of Published Skull Base Endoscopy Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hardesty, Douglas A.; Ponce, Francisco A.; Little, Andrew S.; Nakaji, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Skull base endoscopy allows for minimal access approaches to the sinonasal contents and cranial base. Advances in endoscopic technique and applications have been published rapidly in recent decades. Setting We utilized an Internet-based scholarly database (Web of Science, Thomson Reuters) to query broad-based phrases regarding skull base endoscopy literature. Participants All skull base endoscopy publications. Main Outcome Measures Standard bibliometrics outcomes. Results We identified 4,082 relevant skull base endoscopy English-language articles published between 1973 and 2014. The 50 top-cited publications (n = 51, due to articles with equal citation counts) ranged in citation count from 397 to 88. Most of the articles were clinical case series or technique descriptions. Most (96% [49/51])were published in journals specific to either neurosurgery or otolaryngology. Conclusions A relatively small number of institutions and individuals have published a large amount of the literature. Most of the publications consisted of case series and technical advances, with a lack of randomized trials. PMID:26949585

  6. The Wartegg Zeichen Test: A Literature Overview and a Meta-Analysis of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soilevuo Gronnerod, Jarna; Gronnerod, Cato

    2012-01-01

    All available studies on the Wartegg Zeichen Test (WZT; Wartegg, 1939) were collected and evaluated through a literature overview and a meta-analysis. The literature overview shows that the history of the WZT reflects the geographical and language-based processes of marginalization where relatively isolated traditions have lived and vanished in…

  7. An Investigation of Distance Education in North American Research Literature Using Co-Word Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Stewart, Michelle; Smith, Patryce; Barron, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    The field of distance education is composed of a multiplicity of topics leading to a vast array of research literature. However, the research does not provide a chronological picture of the topics it addresses, making it difficult to develop an overview of the evolution and trends in the literature. To address this issue, a co-word analysis was…

  8. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap AnalysisWhite Paper Summary of Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Ga...

  9. Assessing genomic prediction accuracy for Holstein sires using bootstrap aggregation sampling and leave-one-out cross validation.

    PubMed

    Mikshowsky, Ashley A; Gianola, Daniel; Weigel, Kent A

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of genome-enabled prediction for dairy cattle in 2009, genomic selection has markedly changed many aspects of the dairy genetics industry and enhanced the rate of response to selection for most economically important traits. Young dairy bulls are genotyped to obtain their genomic predicted transmitting ability (GPTA) and reliability (REL) values. These GPTA are a main factor in most purchasing, marketing, and culling decisions until bulls reach 5 yr of age and their milk-recorded offspring become available. At that time, daughter yield deviations (DYD) can be compared with the GPTA computed several years earlier. For most bulls, the DYD align well with the initial predictions. However, for some bulls, the difference between DYD and corresponding GPTA is quite large, and published REL are of limited value in identifying such bulls. A method of bootstrap aggregation sampling (bagging) using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) was applied to predict the GPTA of 2,963, 2,963, and 2,803 young Holstein bulls for protein yield, somatic cell score, and daughter pregnancy rate (DPR), respectively. For each trait, 50 bootstrap samples from a reference population comprising 2011 DYD of 8,610, 8,405, and 7,945 older Holstein bulls were used. Leave-one-out cross validation was also performed to assess prediction accuracy when removing specific bulls from the reference population. The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the extent to which current REL values and alternative measures of variability, such as the bootstrap standard deviation (SD) of predictions, could detect bulls whose daughter performance deviates significantly from early genomic predictions, and (2) to identify factors associated with the reference population that inform about inaccurate genomic predictions. The SD of bootstrap predictions was a mildly useful metric for identifying bulls whose future daughter performance may deviate significantly from early GPTA for protein and DPR. Leave

  10. Methods for Examining Small Literatures: Explication, Physical Analysis, and Citation Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes literature on information overload research in library studies using explication, physical analysis, and citation patterns. Makes cross-discipline comparisons with consumer science and psychology/psychiatry. Contains 93 references. (PEN)

  11. Review and bibliometric analysis of published literature citing data produced by the Gap Analysis Program (GAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratz, Joan M.; Conk, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces geospatial datasets providing information on land cover, predicted species distributions, stewardship (ownership and conservation status), and an analysis dataset which synthesizes the other three datasets. The intent in providing these datasets is to support the conservation of biodiversity. The datasets are made available at no cost. The initial datasets were created at the state level. More recent datasets have been assembled at regional and national levels. GAP entered an agreement with the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance branch of the USGS to conduct an evaluation to describe the effect that using GAP data has on those who utilize the datasets (GAP users). The evaluation project included multiple components: a discussion regarding use of GAP data conducted with participants at a GAP conference, a literature review of publications that cited use of GAP data, and a survey of GAP users. The findings of the published literature search were used to identify topics to include on the survey. This report summarizes the literature search, the characteristics of the resulting set of publications, the emergent themes from statements made regarding GAP data, and a bibliometric analysis of the publications. We cannot claim that this list includes all publications that have used GAP data. Given the time lapse that is common in the publishing process, more recent datasets may be cited less frequently in this list of publications. Reports or products that used GAP data may be produced but never published in print or released online. In that case, our search strategies would not have located those reports. Authors may have used GAP data but failed to cite it in such a way that the search strategies we used would have located those publications. These are common issues when using a literature search as part of an evaluation project. Although the final list of publications we identified is not

  12. Accuracy of Population Validity and Cross-Validity Estimation: An Empirical Comparison of Formula-Based, Traditional Empirical, and Equal Weights Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    Performed an empirical Monte Carlo study using predictor and criterion data from 84,808 U.S. Air Force enlistees. Compared formula-based, traditional empirical, and equal-weights procedures. Discusses issues for basic research on validation and cross-validation. (SLD)

  13. Cross-validation of generalised body composition equations with diverse young men and women: the Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generalised skinfold equations developed in the 1970s are commonly used to estimate laboratory-measured percentage fat (BF%). The equations were developed on predominately white individuals using Siri's two-component percentage fat equation (BF%-GEN). We cross-validated the Jackson-Pollock (JP) gene...

  14. Cross-Validation of a Recently Published Equation Predicting Energy Expenditure to Run or Walk a Mile in Normal-Weight and Overweight Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Cody E.; Owens, Scott G.; Waddell, Dwight E.; Bass, Martha A.; Bentley, John P.; Loftin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An equation published by Loftin, Waddell, Robinson, and Owens (2010) was cross-validated using ten normal-weight walkers, ten overweight walkers, and ten distance runners. Energy expenditure was measured at preferred walking (normal-weight walker and overweight walkers) or running pace (distance runners) for 5 min and corrected to a mile. Energy…

  15. Actuarial assessment of sex offender recidivism risk: a cross-validation of the RRASOR and the Static-99 in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, G; Långström, N

    2001-12-01

    We cross-validated two actuarial risk assessment tools, the RRASOR (R. K. Hanson, 1997) and the Static-99 (R. K. Hanson & D. Thornton, 1999), in a retrospective follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3.69 years) of all sex offenders released from Swedish prisons during 1993-1997 (N = 1,400, all men, age > or =18 years). File-based data were collected by a researcher blind to the outcome (registered criminal recidivism), and individual risk factors as well as complete instrument characteristics were explored. Both the RRASOR and the Static-99 showed similar and moderate predictive accuracy for sexual reconvictions whereas the Static-99 exhibited a significantly higher accuracy for the prediction of any violent recidivism as compared to the RRASOR. Although particularly the Static-99 proved moderately robust as an actuarial measure of recidivism risk among sexual offenders in Sweden, both procedures may need further evaluation, for example, with sex offender subpopulations differing ethnically or with respect to offense characteristics. The usefulness of actuarial methods for the assessment of sex offender recidivism risk is discussed in the context of current practice.

  16. Simulating California reservoir operation using the classification and regression-tree algorithm combined with a shuffled cross-validation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tiantian; Gao, Xiaogang; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Li, Xin

    2016-03-01

    The controlled outflows from a reservoir or dam are highly dependent on the decisions made by the reservoir operators, instead of a natural hydrological process. Difference exists between the natural upstream inflows to reservoirs and the controlled outflows from reservoirs that supply the downstream users. With the decision maker's awareness of changing climate, reservoir management requires adaptable means to incorporate more information into decision making, such as water delivery requirement, environmental constraints, dry/wet conditions, etc. In this paper, a robust reservoir outflow simulation model is presented, which incorporates one of the well-developed data-mining models (Classification and Regression Tree) to predict the complicated human-controlled reservoir outflows and extract the reservoir operation patterns. A shuffled cross-validation approach is further implemented to improve CART's predictive performance. An application study of nine major reservoirs in California is carried out. Results produced by the enhanced CART, original CART, and random forest are compared with observation. The statistical measurements show that the enhanced CART and random forest overperform the CART control run in general, and the enhanced CART algorithm gives a better predictive performance over random forest in simulating the peak flows. The results also show that the proposed model is able to consistently and reasonably predict the expert release decisions. Experiments indicate that the release operation in the Oroville Lake is significantly dominated by SWP allocation amount and reservoirs with low elevation are more sensitive to inflow amount than others.

  17. An Efficient Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation-Based Extreme Learning Machine (ELOO-ELM) With Minimal User Intervention.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhifei; Er, Meng Joo; Wang, Ning

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the architecture of the extreme learning machine (ELM) significantly affects its performance and how to determine a suitable set of hidden neurons is recognized as a key issue to some extent. The leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) is usually used to select a model with good generalization performance among potential candidates. The primary reason for using the LOO-CV is that it is unbiased and reliable as long as similar distribution exists in the training and testing data. However, the LOO-CV has rarely been implemented in practice because of its notorious slow execution speed. In this paper, an efficient LOO-CV formula and an efficient LOO-CV-based ELM (ELOO-ELM) algorithm are proposed. The proposed ELOO-ELM algorithm can achieve fast learning speed similar to the original ELM without compromising the reliability feature of the LOO-CV. Furthermore, minimal user intervention is required for the ELOO-ELM, thus it can be easily adopted by nonexperts and implemented in automation processes. Experimentation studies on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed ELOO-ELM algorithm can achieve good generalization with limited user intervention while retaining the efficiency feature.

  18. Crossing the North Sea seems to make DCD disappear: cross-validation of Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 norms.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Waelvelde, Hilde; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2015-02-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children has been revised as the Movement ABC-2 (Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007). In Europe, the 15th percentile score on this test is recommended for one of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). A representative sample of Dutch and Flemish children was tested to cross-validate the UK standard scores, including the 15th percentile score. First, the mean, SD and percentile scores of Dutch children were compared to those of UK normative samples. Item standard scores of Dutch speaking children deviated from the UK reference values suggesting necessary adjustments. Except for very young children, the Dutch-speaking samples performed better. Second, based on the mean and SD and clinical relevant cut-off scores (5th and 15th percentile), norms were adjusted for the Dutch population. For diagnostic use, researchers and clinicians should use the reference norms that are valid for the group of children they are testing. The results indicate that there possibly is an effect of testing procedure in other countries that validated the UK norms and/or cultural influence on the age norms of the Movement ABC-2. It is suggested to formulate criterion-based norms for age groups in addition to statistical norms.

  19. Use of statistical analysis in the biomedical informatics literature.

    PubMed

    Scotch, Matthew; Duggal, Mona; Brandt, Cynthia; Lin, Zhenqui; Shiffman, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is an essential aspect of biomedical informatics. To examine the use of statistics in informatics research, a literature review of recent articles in two high-impact factor biomedical informatics journals, the Journal of American Medical Informatics Association (JAMIA) and the International Journal of Medical Informatics was conducted. The use of statistical methods in each paper was examined. Articles of original investigations from 2000 to 2007 were reviewed. For each journal, the results by statistical methods were analyzed as: descriptive, elementary, multivariable, other regression, machine learning, and other statistics. For both journals, descriptive statistics were most often used. Elementary statistics such as t tests, chi(2), and Wilcoxon tests were much more frequent in JAMIA, while machine learning approaches such as decision trees and support vector machines were similar in occurrence across the journals. Also, the use of diagnostic statistics such as sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recall, was more frequent in JAMIA. These results highlight the use of statistics in informatics and the need for biomedical informatics scientists to have, as a minimum, proficiency in descriptive and elementary statistics.

  20. Demographic Faultlines: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Sherry M. B.; Patel, Pankaj C.

    2011-01-01

    We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting…

  1. Topology analysis of social networks extracted from literature.

    PubMed

    Waumans, Michaël C; Nicodème, Thibaut; Bersini, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    In a world where complex networks are an increasingly important part of science, it is interesting to question how the new reading of social realities they provide applies to our cultural background and in particular, popular culture. Are authors of successful novels able to reproduce social networks faithful to the ones found in reality? Is there any common trend connecting an author's oeuvre, or a genre of fiction? Such an analysis could provide new insight on how we, as a culture, perceive human interactions and consume media. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to define the signature of a novel's story based on the topological analysis of its social network of characters. For this purpose, an automated tool was built that analyses the dialogs in novels, identifies characters and computes their relationships in a time-dependent manner in order to assess the network's evolution over the course of the story.

  2. Topology Analysis of Social Networks Extracted from Literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a world where complex networks are an increasingly important part of science, it is interesting to question how the new reading of social realities they provide applies to our cultural background and in particular, popular culture. Are authors of successful novels able to reproduce social networks faithful to the ones found in reality? Is there any common trend connecting an author’s oeuvre, or a genre of fiction? Such an analysis could provide new insight on how we, as a culture, perceive human interactions and consume media. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to define the signature of a novel’s story based on the topological analysis of its social network of characters. For this purpose, an automated tool was built that analyses the dialogs in novels, identifies characters and computes their relationships in a time-dependent manner in order to assess the network’s evolution over the course of the story. PMID:26039072

  3. Taxonomies of Organizational Change: Literature Review and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    expressed feelings of boredom and frustration , and wanted to get back into their technical specialties and "real jobs in the real military." 3. Client...to reward or advance staff for outstanding per- formance. 4. Crisis atmosphere. Many government organizations face external attacks from frustrated ...interventions as well. A group leader’s theoretical orientation as a Gestalt , trans- actional analysis, or T-group practitioner is unassociated with

  4. Wind Shear: A Literature Search, Analysis, and Annotated Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    horizontal flow fields consistent with the observed component fields showed environmental flow basically through the storm except at mid-levels. The radial...surface winds and gusts on aircraft stability and control is presented. The analysis is applied to the development of air- frames, improvement of basic ...Administration, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The objective is to provide basic data for the improvement of the operational safety of civil

  5. A content analysis of fingerprint literature for educational curricula.

    PubMed

    Houck, Max M; Boyle, Jessica

    2010-09-01

    Forensic science is being required to justify and elucidate its scientific foundations. One way of doing this is through academic curricula. For many native forensic sciences, these curricula do not exist. A content analysis of nine major books in fingerprints was conducted to develop a structure for curricula in that field. The results of this study can be used to organize course content and serve as a model for other disciplines with published materials but no coherent or standard curricula.

  6. [Chinese medicine adverse reactions' literature statistical analysis in recent five years].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2011-10-01

    Since the state food and drug administration (SFDA) issued the first edition of adverse drug reaction(ADR) information in November, 2001, it has 32 edition, reported the drug 66 species of adverse reactions, involving the variety of 12 traditional Chinese medicines, it was effectively reminds all social concern of adverse drug reaction. For statistical analysis in recent years reported adverse drug reaction of prepared Chinese medicine, collected 462 literatures from 2005-09 CNKI Chinese journal full-text database of medicine health directory. In all the collections, about 94 literatures are closely related to adverse drug reaction report of prepared Chinese medicine. But there are only 7 references could identify traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine correctly in 72 literatures with the value of statistical analysis. That means only 8.9% of literatures can correctly identify western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. So it proved that TCM workers' knowledge of ADR remains to be greatly improved.

  7. Summary measures for clinical gait analysis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela

    2014-04-01

    Instrumented 3D-gait analysis (3D-GA) is an important method used to obtain information that is crucial for establishing the level of functional limitation due to pathology, observing its evolution over time and evaluating rehabilitative intervention effects. However, a typical 3D-GA evaluation produces a vast amount of data, and despite its objectivity, its use is complicated, and the data interpretation is difficult. It is even more difficult to obtain an overview on patient cohorts for a comparison. Moreover, there is a growing awareness of the need for a concise index, specifically, a single measure of the 'quality' of a particular gait pattern. Several gait summary measures, which have been used in conjunction with 3D-GA, have been proposed to objectify clinical impression, quantify the degree of gait deviation from normal, stratify the severity of pathology, document the changes in gait patterns over time and evaluate interventions.

  8. Characteristics of Education Doctoral Dissertation References: An Inter-Institutional Analysis of Review of Literature Citations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beile, Penny M.; Boote, David N.; Killingsworth, Elizabeth K.

    This study had two purposes: to examine the expertise of doctoral students in their use of the scholarly literature and to investigate the use of citation analysis as a tool for collection development. Analysis of 1,842 coded citations gleaned from 30 education dissertations awarded in 2000 from 3 institutions in the United States revealed that…

  9. A Review and Application of Citation Analysis Methodology to Reading Research Journal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Edward G.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews citation analysis literature and explores use of citation analysis to identify core journals and indicate disciplinary structure and interrelationships of journals reporting on reading research. Use of 1980 "Journal Citation Reports" data to generate criterion for selecting high impact journals and list of 33 core journals is…

  10. Scholarly Publishing in the Internet Age: A Citation Analysis of Computer Science Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, Abby A.; McCain, Katherine W.; Lawrence, Steve; Giles, C. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of changes in scholarly communication due to the World Wide Web focuses on a comparison of two views of information production and use in computer-related research based on citation analysis of publications on the Web using autonomous citation indexing and a parallel citation analysis of traditional journal literature. (Author/LRW)

  11. Demographic faultlines: a meta-analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Sherry M B; Patel, Pankaj C

    2011-11-01

    We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting of 311 data points (i.e., k [predictor-criterion relationships]), from 39 studies that were obtained from 36 papers with a total sample size of 24,388 individuals in 4,366 teams, we found that sex and racial diversity increased demographic faultline strength more than did diversity on the attributes of functional background, educational background, age, and tenure. Demographic faultline strength was found to increase task and relationship conflict as well as decrease team cohesion. Furthermore, although demographic faultline strength decreased both team satisfaction and team performance, there was a stronger decrease in team performance than in team satisfaction. The strength of these relationships increased when the study was conducted in the lab rather than in the field. We describe the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for advancing the study of faultlines.

  12. Cerebral gliosarcoma: Analysis of 16 patients and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gajendra; Das, Kuntal K.; Sharma, Pradeep; Guruprasad, B.; Jaiswal, Sushila; Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun K.; Sahu, Rabi N.; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K.; Behari, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gliosarcoma (GS), a subtype of glioblastoma (GBM), is a rare primary neoplasm of the central nervous system. Certain features like temporal lobe affinity, tendency for extraneural metastasis and poorer outcome compared to GBM indicate that GS may indeed be a separate clinicopathologic entity. This led us to revisit this entity in our settings. Materials and Methods: Between 2009 and 2014, 16 cases of histologically proven GSs (14 primary, two secondary) were treated. Patient data were retrieved retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed with? Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17.0. (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier method. Results: GS predominantly affected males in their fifth decade of life. Raised intracranial pressure was the most common mode of clinical presentation. Temporal lobe was the most commonly affected part of the brain and majority of primary and all of secondary GBM were located peripherally. In 7 (43.8%) patients, tumor was radiologically well-demarcated and enhanced strongly and homogenously on contrast as compared to 9 (56.2%) patients where the tumor was ill-defined and showed heterogenous patchy or ring enhancement. Extent of excision was total in seven patients (43.8%), near total in 4 (25%) and subtotal in five patients (31.2%). Median survival was 6 months. Patients with well-demarcated, enhancing mass on imaging intraoperatively had firm tumors with a good plane of cleavage and had a better survival (8 months) compared to those in whom the tumor radiologically and intraoperatively mimicked GBM (2 months). Conclusion: GS is associated with poor survival (median survival 6 months). Radiological and intraoperative findings help categorize these tumors into GBM like GS and meningioma like GS. While the former histologically mimics GBM and has very poor survival (2 months), GS with meningioma like feature tends to have better survival (8 months). PMID:26396606

  13. Spirituality in nursing and health-related literature: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Sessanna, Loralee; Finnell, Deborah; Jezewski, Mary Ann

    2007-12-01

    Spirituality has become an increasingly popular concept among the nursing and health-related literature. The purpose for conducting this concept analysis, guided by Walker and Avant's methodology, was to (a) examine how spirituality has been used within the current body of nursing and health-related literature, (b) clarify the meaning of spirituality by discovering what this concept's current critical attributes/characteristics are, and (c) propose a definition of spirituality based on the concept analysis findings. A total of 90 references were reviewed, including 73 nursing and health-related references. Concept analysis findings revealed that spirituality was defined within four main themes in the nursing and health-related literature: (a) spirituality as religious systems of beliefs and values (spirituality = religion); (b) spirituality as life meaning, purpose, and connection with others; (c) spirituality as nonreligious systems of beliefs and values; and (d) spirituality as metaphysical or transcendental phenomena.

  14. Prediction of maize single cross hybrids using the total effects of associated markers approach assessed by cross-validation and regional trials.

    PubMed

    Melo, Wagner Mateus Costa; Pinho, Renzo Garcia Von; Balestre, Marcio

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to predict the performance of maize hybrids and assess whether the total effects of associated markers (TEAM) method can correctly predict hybrids using cross-validation and regional trials. The training was performed in 7 locations of Southern Brazil during the 2010/11 harvest. The regional assays were conducted in 6 different South Brazilian locations during the 2011/12 harvest. In the training trial, 51 lines from different backgrounds were used to create 58 single cross hybrids. Seventy-nine microsatellite markers were used to genotype these 51 lines. In the cross-validation method the predictive accuracy ranged from 0.10 to 0.96, depending on the sample size. Furthermore, the accuracy was 0.30 when the values of hybrids that were not used in the training population (119) were predicted for the regional assays. Regarding selective loss, the TEAM method correctly predicted 50% of the hybrids selected in the regional assays. There was also loss in only 33% of cases; that is, only 33% of the materials predicted to be good in training trial were considered to be bad in regional assays. Our results show that the predictive validation of different crop conditions is possible, and the cross-validation results strikingly represented the field performance.

  15. Meta-analysis as a tool for understanding existing research literature.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M; Rumrill, Phillip D

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and methods used in conducting meta-analyses in rehabilitation research. Advantages and disadvantages of meta-analysis, vis a vis the narrative and quantitative literature reviews described in previous articles, are discussed. Hypothetical and actual examples from the rehabilitation and related health sciences fields are used to illustrate points throughout the text.

  16. Technology in Mathematics Classrooms: A Meta-Analysis of the Recent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing; Ma, Xin

    2008-01-01

    The increasingly use of technology in education does set off a flurry of research studies that focus on the successfulness and effectiveness of technology in elementary and secondary education. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of research literature on technology in relation to mathematics teaching and learning.…

  17. Redefining Normal: A Critical Analysis of (Dis)ability in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This literary analysis examines constructions of normalcy and disability within contemporary young adult literature, including "Jerk," "California" (Friesen, 2008), "Marcelo in the Real World" (Stork, 2009), and "Five Flavors of Dumb" (John, 2010). As recent winners of the Schneider Family Book Award from the American Library Association, these…

  18. The School to Work Transition of Indigenous Australians: A Review of the Literature and Statistical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Mike; Frigo, Tracey; Batten, Margaret

    This report describes the current educational and employment situation of Australian Indigenous youth in terms of their pathways from school to work. A literature review and analysis of statistical data identify barriers to successful transition from school to work, including forms of teaching, curriculum, and assessment that pose greater…

  19. Effects of Training on Gender Differences in Overhand Throwing: A Brief Quantitative Literature Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Literature analysis compared training gains in elementary girls' and boys' throwing performance to evaluate whether catchup effects were present. There was a lack of significant interaction between gender and training, supporting the hypothesis that training produces significant improvements in performance for both sexes. There was no catchup…

  20. Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

  1. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis of Student and Teacher Editions of Secondary Christian American Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agiro, Christa Preston

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative application of critical discourse analysis to student and teacher editions of the two most widely used high school American literature textbooks by Christian publishers, examining them through the lens of critical theory. The study examined all parts of the student and teacher editions, excepting literary…

  2. Two Decades of Literature on Self-Directed Learning: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Ralph G.; Stockdale, Susan L.; Fogerson, Dewey L.; Cox, Barry F.; Canipe, James B.; Chuprina, Larissa A.; Donaghy, Robert C.; Chadwell, Nancy E.

    Using a quantitative content analysis approach, a study examined the literature on self direction, or self-directed learning (SDL), that appeared in 14 mainstream adult education journals between 1980-98. The procedure involved classifying, entering, and tallying information on each article through use of an Internet-based program. Results…

  3. Qualitative Research in Distance Education: An Analysis of Journal Literature 2005-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…

  4. Species-level Analysis of Biological Literature for Storage and Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shervis, L. J.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval system in entomology which could also be used for other biological literature. With the examples of coding information into the system, a user might get some idea of how to search and what kind of information might be found. No cost analysis for running the program is included. (PS)

  5. Content Analysis of Literature about LGB People of Color: 1998-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yu-Ping; Brewster, Melanie E.; Moradi, Bonnie; Goodman, Melinda B.; Wiseman, Marcie C.; Martin, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a content analysis of the past decade (1998-2007) of psychological scholarship about lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color. Findings revealed that literature about LGB people of color is growing. But, findings also highlighted underused methods, underrepresented subpopulations, and understudied topics in the…

  6. [The use of modern documentation methods in dental offices, an analysis of the literature].

    PubMed

    Gitt, H A; Makuch, A

    1975-10-01

    The aim of the present paper was to assess, on the basis of an analysis of the relevant modern, national and international literature as available in the GDR, the present state of the introduction of data processing to stomatology and to deduce recommendations for further lines of work.

  7. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 1: The Psychological Literature Review for the IDHEAS Method

    SciTech Connect

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Katya L. Le Blanc; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    In response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is sponsoring work to update the technical basis underlying human reliability analysis (HRA) in an effort to improve the robustness of HRA. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a hybrid of existing methods addressing limitations of current HRA models and in particular issues related to intra- and inter-method variabilities and results. This hybrid method is now known as the Integrated Decision-tree Human Event Analysis System (IDHEAS). Existing HRA methods have looked at elements of the psychological literature, but there has not previously been a systematic attempt to translate the complete span of cognition from perception to action into mechanisms that can inform HRA. Therefore, a first step of this effort was to perform a literature search of psychology, cognition, behavioral science, teamwork, and operating performance to incorporate current understanding of human performance in operating environments, thus affording an improved technical foundation for HRA. However, this literature review went one step further by mining the literature findings to establish causal relationships and explicit links between the different types of human failures, performance drivers and associated performance measures ultimately used for quantification. This is the first of two papers that detail the literature review (paper 1) and its product (paper 2). This paper describes the literature review and the high-level architecture used to organize the literature review, and the second paper (Whaley, Hendrickson, Boring, & Xing, these proceedings) describes the resultant cognitive framework.

  8. BeeSpace Navigator: exploratory analysis of gene function using semantic indexing of biological literature.

    PubMed

    Sen Sarma, Moushumi; Arcoleo, David; Khetani, Radhika S; Chee, Brant; Ling, Xu; He, Xin; Jiang, Jing; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zhai, ChengXiang; Schatz, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    With the rapid decrease in cost of genome sequencing, the classification of gene function is becoming a primary problem. Such classification has been performed by human curators who read biological literature to extract evidence. BeeSpace Navigator is a prototype software for exploratory analysis of gene function using biological literature. The software supports an automatic analogue of the curator process to extract functions, with a simple interface intended for all biologists. Since extraction is done on selected collections that are semantically indexed into conceptual spaces, the curation can be task specific. Biological literature containing references to gene lists from expression experiments can be analyzed to extract concepts that are computational equivalents of a classification such as Gene Ontology, yielding discriminating concepts that differentiate gene mentions from other mentions. The functions of individual genes can be summarized from sentences in biological literature, to produce results resembling a model organism database entry that is automatically computed. Statistical frequency analysis based on literature phrase extraction generates offline semantic indexes to support these gene function services. The website with BeeSpace Navigator is free and open to all; there is no login requirement at www.beespace.illinois.edu for version 4. Materials from the 2010 BeeSpace Software Training Workshop are available at www.beespace.illinois.edu/bstwmaterials.php.

  9. Quantification of rainfall prediction uncertainties using a cross-validation based technique. Methodology description and experimental validation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Ignacio; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo; Salsón, Santiago; Petazzi, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology to compute rainfall fields including the quantification of predictions uncertainties using raingauge network data. The proposed methodology comprises two steps. Firstly, the ordinary krigging technique is used to determine the estimated rainfall depth in every point of the study area. Then multiple equi-probable errors fields, which comprise both interpolation and measuring uncertainties, are added to the krigged field resulting in multiple rainfall predictions. To compute these error fields first the standard deviation of the krigging estimation is determined following the cross-validation based procedure described in Delrieu et al. (2014). Then, the standard deviation field is sampled using non-conditioned Gaussian random fields. The proposed methodology was applied to study 7 rain events in a 60x60 km area of the west coast of Galicia, in the Northwest of Spain. Due to its location at the junction between tropical and polar regions, the study area suffers from frequent intense rainfalls characterized by a great variability in terms of both space and time. Rainfall data from the tipping bucket raingauge network operated by MeteoGalicia were used to estimate the rainfall fields using the proposed methodology. The obtained predictions were then validated using rainfall data from 3 additional rain gauges installed within the CAPRI project (Probabilistic flood prediction with high resolution hydrologic models from radar rainfall estimates, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. Reference CGL2013-46245-R.). Results show that both the mean hyetographs and the peak intensities are correctly predicted. The computed hyetographs present a good fit to the experimental data and most of the measured values fall within the 95% confidence intervals. Also, most of the experimental values outside the confidence bounds correspond to time periods of low rainfall depths, where the inaccuracy of the measuring devices

  10. Citation analysis in journal rankings: medical informatics in the library and information science literature.

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanatham, R

    1998-01-01

    Medical informatics is an interdisciplinary field. Medical informatics articles will be found in the literature of various disciplines including library and information science publications. The purpose of this study was to provide an objectively ranked list of journals that publish medical informatics articles relevant to library and information science. Library Literature, Library and Information Science Abstracts, and Social Science Citation Index were used to identify articles published on the topic of medical informatics and to identify a ranked list of journals. This study also used citation analysis to identify the most frequently cited journals relevant to library and information science. PMID:9803294

  11. Citation analysis in journal rankings: medical informatics in the library and information science literature.

    PubMed

    Vishwanatham, R

    1998-10-01

    Medical informatics is an interdisciplinary field. Medical informatics articles will be found in the literature of various disciplines including library and information science publications. The purpose of this study was to provide an objectively ranked list of journals that publish medical informatics articles relevant to library and information science. Library Literature, Library and Information Science Abstracts, and Social Science Citation Index were used to identify articles published on the topic of medical informatics and to identify a ranked list of journals. This study also used citation analysis to identify the most frequently cited journals relevant to library and information science.

  12. Analysis of poetic literature using B. F. Skinner's theoretical framework from verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nicole M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines Skinner's work on verbal behavior in the context of literature as a particular class of written verbal behavior. It looks at contemporary literary theory and analysis and the contributions that Skinner's theoretical framework can make. Two diverse examples of poetic literature are chosen and analyzed following Skinner's framework, examining the dynamic interplay between the writer and reader that take place within the bounds of the work presented. It is concluded that Skinner's hypotheses about verbal behavior and the functional approach to understanding it have much to offer literary theorists in their efforts to understand literary works and should be more carefully examined.

  13. Visual Analysis and Dissemination of Scientific Literature Collections with SurVis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Fabian; Koch, Sebastian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bibliographic data such as collections of scientific articles and citation networks have been studied extensively in information visualization and visual analytics research. Powerful systems have been built to support various types of bibliographic analysis, but they require some training and cannot be used to disseminate the insights gained. In contrast, we focused on developing a more accessible visual analytics system, called SurVis, that is ready to disseminate a carefully surveyed literature collection. The authors of a survey may use our Web-based system to structure and analyze their literature database. Later, readers of the survey can obtain an overview, quickly retrieve specific publications, and reproduce or extend the original bibliographic analysis. Our system employs a set of selectors that enable users to filter and browse the literature collection as well as to control interactive visualizations. The versatile selector concept includes selectors for textual search, filtering by keywords and meta-information, selection and clustering of similar publications, and following citation links. Agreement to the selector is represented by word-sized sparkline visualizations seamlessly integrated into the user interface. Based on an analysis of the analytical reasoning process, we derived requirements for the system. We developed the system in a formative way involving other researchers writing literature surveys. A questionnaire study with 14 visual analytics experts confirms that SurVis meets the initially formulated requirements.

  14. The Strategic Environment Assessment bibliographic network: A quantitative literature review analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Caschili, Simone; De Montis, Andrea; Ganciu, Amedeo; Ledda, Antonio; Barra, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Academic literature has been continuously growing at such a pace that it can be difficult to follow the progression of scientific achievements; hence, the need to dispose of quantitative knowledge support systems to analyze the literature of a subject. In this article we utilize network analysis tools to build a literature review of scientific documents published in the multidisciplinary field of Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA). The proposed approach helps researchers to build unbiased and comprehensive literature reviews. We collect information on 7662 SEA publications and build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) employing the basic idea that two publications are interconnected if one cites the other. We apply network analysis at macroscopic (network architecture), mesoscopic (sub graph) and microscopic levels (node) in order to i) verify what network structure characterizes the SEA literature, ii) identify the authors, disciplines and journals that are contributing to the international discussion on SEA, and iii) scrutinize the most cited and important publications in the field. Results show that the SEA is a multidisciplinary subject; the SEABN belongs to the class of real small world networks with a dominance of publications in Environmental studies over a total of 12 scientific sectors. Christopher Wood, Olivia Bina, Matthew Cashmore, and Andrew Jordan are found to be the leading authors while Environmental Impact Assessment Review is by far the scientific journal with the highest number of publications in SEA studies. - Highlights: • We utilize network analysis to analyze scientific documents in the SEA field. • We build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) of 7662 publications. • We apply network analysis at macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic network levels. • We identify SEABN architecture, relevant publications, authors, subjects and journals.

  15. Educational services in health sciences libraries: a content analysis of the literature, 1987-1994.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitroff, A

    1995-01-01

    The recent literature (1987-1994) describing educational services of health sciences librarians was analyzed for content. Variables examined included publication journal, country, type of article (description, review, or advocacy), target audience of education services, and subject of article. Articles that reported research results also were identified. Of 123 articles studied, 82.1% were descriptive, 14.6% advocacy, and 3.3% reviews. Library users were the primary target audience (85.1%), an increase over the percentage reported in an earlier study of the 1975-1986 literature. Librarians were the target audience in 12.8% of the articles, a decrease from the previous study's findings. There was an increase in educational offerings by academic libraries, which sponsored 83.2% of programs, while hospital libraries' sponsorship decreased to 5% of programs reported in the literature. The analysis identified a major need for research related to educational activities in health sciences libraries. PMID:8547899

  16. The Secrets of Scheherazade: Toward a Functional Analysis of Imaginative Literature

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Lyle K

    2005-01-01

    A functional analysis of selected aspects of imaginative literature is presented. Reading imaginative literature is described as a process in which the reader makes indirect contact with the contingencies operating on the behavior of story characters. A functional story grammar is proposed in which the reader's experience with a story is interpreted in terms of escape contingencies in which the author initially introduces an establishing operation consisting of a source of tension, which is resolved in some way by the outcome of the story. Although escape contingencies represent the functional basis for the structure of stories, they are to be understood in a context of many other reinforcers for reading fiction. Other contingencies that maintain reading are discussed. Functional analyses of imaginative literature have much to offer, both in improving literary education and in understanding the behavioral processes that occur on the part of the reader. PMID:22477324

  17. Smell and taste in palliative care: a systematic analysis of literature.

    PubMed

    Heckel, Maria; Stiel, Stephanie; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Little is known on the role of the senses smell and taste in end-of-life care. The presented systematic literature analysis investigates the significance of smell and taste in palliative care. The online databases PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Deutsche Nationalbibliothek and British National Library were searched for English and German literature published between 1970 and April 2013 containing any kind of original data on the impact of smell and taste in patients in a palliative care situation. All retrieved publications were screened for relevance and full text was obtained for all articles identified as relevant. We integrated 13 papers for further analysis (explorative surveys 5, clinical trials 3, case studies 2, qualitative study 1, brief report 1, clinical report 1). Prevalence of smell and taste alterations in palliative care ranges between 60 and 86%. Existing literature reflects the significance of smells and tastes in palliative care setting in two main streams--smell and taste alterations as symptoms and malodorous wounds. Prevalence of smell and taste alterations in palliative care is high. However, in palliative care literature concepts for the assessment and fostering of subjective significance of smell and taste and the individual impact of significant smells and tastes are predominantly neglected. Available instruments should be characterized, validated and adapted for the use for palliative care patients.

  18. Autism, lateralisation, and handedness: a review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Preslar, Jessica; Kushner, Howard I; Marino, Lori; Pearce, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent investigators have hypothesised a link between autism, left-handedness, and brain laterality. Their findings have varied widely, in part because these studies have relied on different methodologies and definitions. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the literature, with the hypothesis that there would be an association between autism and laterality that would be moderated by handedness, sex, age, brain region studied, and level of autism. From a broad search resulting in 259 papers, 54 were identified for inclusion in the literature review. This list was narrowed further to include only studies reporting results in the inferior frontal gyrus for meta-analysis, resulting in four papers. The meta-analysis found a moderate but non-significant effect size of group on lateralisation, suggesting a decrease in strength of lateralisation in the autistic group, a trend supported by the literature review. A subgroup analysis of sex and a meta-regression of handedness showed that these moderating variables did not have a significant effect on this relationship. Although the results are not conclusive, there appears to be a trend towards a relationship between autism and lateralisation. However, more rigorous studies with better controls and clearer reporting of definitions and results are needed.

  19. Linguistic analysis of discourse in aphasia: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Lucy; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth

    This review examined previous research applications of linguistic discourse analysis to assess the language of adults with aphasia. A comprehensive literature search of seven databases identified 165 studies that applied linguistic measures to samples of discourse collected from people with aphasia. Analysis of methodological applications revealed an increase in published research using linguistic discourse analysis over the past 40 years, particularly to measure the generalisation of therapy outcomes to language in use. Narrative language samples were most frequently subject to analysis though all language genres were observed across included studies. A total of 536 different linguistic measures were applied to examine language behaviours. Growth in the research use of linguistic discourse analysis and suggestions that this growth may be reflected in clinical practice requires further investigation. Future research directions are discussed to investigate clinical use of discourse analysis and examine the differences that exist between research and clinical practice.

  20. Mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 at amniocentesis: prenatal diagnosis, molecular genetic analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Ming; Su, Yi-Ning; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Chen-Chi; Chen, Li-Feng; Pan, Chen-Wen; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-10-15

    We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic analysis of mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 [sSMC(1)]. We review the literature of sSMC(1) at amniocentesis and chromosome 1p21.1-p12 duplication syndrome. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation of the involved genes of ALX3, RBM15, NTNG1, SLC25A24, GPSM2, TBX15 and NOTCH2 in this case.

  1. Trunk muscle activation in low-back pain patients, an analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    van Dieën, Jaap H; Selen, Luc P J; Cholewicki, Jacek

    2003-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the literature on trunk muscle recruitment in low-back pain patients. Two models proposed in the literature, the pain-spasm-pain model and the pain adaptation model, yield conflicting predictions on how low- back pain would affect trunk muscle recruitment in various activities. The two models are outlined and evidence for the two from neurophsysiological studies is reviewed. Subsequently, specific predictions with respect to changes in activation of the lumbar extensor musculature are derived from both models. These predictions are compared to the results from 30 clinical studies and three induced pain studies retrieved in a comprehensive literature search. Neither of the two models is unequivocally supported by the literature. These data and further data on timing of muscle activity and load sharing between muscles suggest an alternative model to explain the alterations of trunk muscle recruitment due to low-back pain. It is proposed that motor control changes in patients are functional in that they enhance spinal stability.

  2. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for secondary education, but none of these strategies focused specifically on scientific argumentation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a strategy for teaching pre-university students to read unadapted primary scientific literature, translated into students' native language, based on a new argumentation analysis framework. This framework encompasses seven types of argumentative elements: motive, objective, main conclusion, implication, support, counterargument and refutation. During the intervention, students studied two research articles. We monitored students' reading comprehension and their opinion on the articles and activities. After the intervention, we measured students' ability to identify the argumentative elements in a third unadapted and translated research article. The presented framework enabled students to analyse the article by identifying the motive, objective, main conclusion and implication and part of the supports. Students stated that they found these activities useful. Most students understood the text on paragraph level and were able to read the article with some help for its vocabulary. We suggest that primary scientific literature has the potential to show students important aspects of the scientific process and to learn scientific vocabulary in an authentic context.

  3. Global mapping of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 viruses with spatial cross-validation

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Madhur S; Artois, Jean; Robinson, Timothy P; Linard, Catherine; Chaiban, Celia; Xenarios, Ioannis; Engler, Robin; Liechti, Robin; Kuznetsov, Dmitri; Xiao, Xiangming; Dobschuetz, Sophie Von; Claes, Filip; Newman, Scott H; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Global disease suitability models are essential tools to inform surveillance systems and enable early detection. We present the first global suitability model of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and demonstrate that reliable predictions can be obtained at global scale. Best predictions are obtained using spatial predictor variables describing host distributions, rather than land use or eco-climatic spatial predictor variables, with a strong association with domestic duck and extensively raised chicken densities. Our results also support a more systematic use of spatial cross-validation in large-scale disease suitability modelling compared to standard random cross-validation that can lead to unreliable measure of extrapolation accuracy. A global suitability model of the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, a group of viruses that recently spread extensively in Asia and the US, shows in comparison a lower spatial extrapolation capacity than the HPAI H5N1 models, with a stronger association with intensively raised chicken densities and anthropogenic factors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19571.001 PMID:27885988

  4. Derivation and Cross-Validation of Cutoff Scores for Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders on WAIS-IV Digit Span-Based Performance Validity Measures.

    PubMed

    Glassmire, David M; Toofanian Ross, Parnian; Kinney, Dominique I; Nitch, Stephen R

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify and cross-validate cutoff scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Digit Span-based embedded performance validity (PV) measures for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In Study 1, normative scores were identified on Digit Span-embedded PV measures among a sample of patients (n = 84) with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses who had no known incentive to perform poorly and who put forth valid effort on external PV tests. Previously identified cutoff scores resulted in unacceptable false positive rates and lower cutoff scores were adopted to maintain specificity levels ≥90%. In Study 2, the revised cutoff scores were cross-validated within a sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 96) committed as incompetent to stand trial. Performance on Digit Span PV measures was significantly related to Full Scale IQ in both studies, indicating the need to consider the intellectual functioning of examinees with psychotic spectrum disorders when interpreting scores on Digit Span PV measures.

  5. A self-adaptive genetic algorithm-artificial neural network algorithm with leave-one-out cross validation for descriptor selection in QSAR study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingheng; Mei, Juan; Wen, Sixiang; Liao, Siyan; Chen, Jincan; Shen, Yong

    2010-07-30

    Based on the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) models developed by artificial neural networks (ANNs), genetic algorithm (GA) was used in the variable-selection approach with molecule descriptors and helped to improve the back-propagation training algorithm as well. The cross validation techniques of leave-one-out investigated the validity of the generated ANN model and preferable variable combinations derived in the GAs. A self-adaptive GA-ANN model was successfully established by using a new estimate function for avoiding over-fitting phenomenon in ANN training. Compared with the variables selected in two recent QSAR studies that were based on stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) models, the variables selected in self-adaptive GA-ANN model are superior in constructing ANN model, as they revealed a higher cross validation (CV) coefficient (Q(2)) and a lower root mean square deviation both in the established model and biological activity prediction. The introduced methods for validation, including leave-multiple-out, Y-randomization, and external validation, proved the superiority of the established GA-ANN models over MLR models in both stability and predictive power. Self-adaptive GA-ANN showed us a prospect of improving QSAR model.

  6. The development of the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS)*

    PubMed Central

    Dee, Cheryl Rae

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The research provides a chronology of the US National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) contribution to access to the world's biomedical literature through its computerization of biomedical indexes, particularly the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS). Method: Using material gathered from NLM's archives and from personal interviews with people associated with developing MEDLARS and its associated systems, the author discusses key events in the history of MEDLARS. Discussion: From the development of the early mechanized bibliographic retrieval systems of the 1940s and to the beginnings of online, interactive computerized bibliographic search systems of the early 1970s chronicled here, NLM's contributions to automation and bibliographic retrieval have been extensive. Conclusion: As NLM's technological experience and expertise grew, innovative bibliographic storage and retrieval systems emerged. NLM's accomplishments regarding MEDLARS were cutting edge, placing the library at the forefront of incorporating mechanization and technologies into medical information systems. PMID:17971889

  7. The Wartegg Zeichen Test: a literature overview and a meta-analysis of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Soilevuo Grønnerød, Jarna; Grønnerød, Cato

    2012-06-01

    All available studies on the Wartegg Zeichen Test (WZT; Wartegg, 1939) were collected and evaluated through a literature overview and a meta-analysis. The literature overview shows that the history of the WZT reflects the geographical and language-based processes of marginalization where relatively isolated traditions have lived and vanished in different parts of the world. The meta-analytic review indicates a high average interscorer reliability of rw = .74 and high validity effect size for studies with clear hypotheses of rw = .33. Although the results were strong, we conclude that the WZT research has not been able to establish cumulative knowledge of the method because of the isolation of research traditions.

  8. Analysis of the Team-Based Learning Literature: TBL Comes of Age.

    PubMed

    Haidet, Paul; Kubitz, Karla; McCormack, Wayne T

    Team-based learning, or TBL, is an application-oriented teaching method that combines small- and large-group learning by incorporating multiple small groups into a large group setting. It has been increasingly used in postsecondary and professional education over the past two decades. Given this increasing usage, many faculty wonder about the effects TBL has on learning outcomes. The authors performed a review and synthesis on the educational literature with respect to TBL to examine the quality of their descriptions of core TBL elements, then constructed narrative summaries of these selected articles. Their analysis demonstrated early evidence of positive educational outcomes in terms of knowledge acquisition, participation and engagement, and team performance. The authors conclude that the TBL literature is at an important maturation point, where more rigorous testing and study of additional questions relating to the method are needed, as well as more accurate reporting of TBL implementation.

  9. Analysis of the Team-Based Learning Literature: TBL Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    Haidet, Paul; Kubitz, Karla; McCormack, Wayne T.

    2015-01-01

    Team-based learning, or TBL, is an application-oriented teaching method that combines small- and large-group learning by incorporating multiple small groups into a large group setting. It has been increasingly used in postsecondary and professional education over the past two decades. Given this increasing usage, many faculty wonder about the effects TBL has on learning outcomes. The authors performed a review and synthesis on the educational literature with respect to TBL to examine the quality of their descriptions of core TBL elements, then constructed narrative summaries of these selected articles. Their analysis demonstrated early evidence of positive educational outcomes in terms of knowledge acquisition, participation and engagement, and team performance. The authors conclude that the TBL literature is at an important maturation point, where more rigorous testing and study of additional questions relating to the method are needed, as well as more accurate reporting of TBL implementation. PMID:26568668

  10. Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Barbaresko, Janett; Koch, Manja; Schulze, Matthias B; Nöthlings, Ute

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present literature review was to investigate and summarize the current evidence on associations between dietary patterns and biomarkers of inflammation, as derived from epidemiological studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE, and a total of 46 studies were included in the review. These studies predominantly applied principal component analysis, factor analysis, reduced rank regression analysis, the Healthy Eating Index, or the Mediterranean Diet Score. No prospective observational study was found. Patterns identified by reduced rank regression as being statistically significantly associated with biomarkers of inflammation were almost all meat-based or "Western" patterns. Studies using principal component analysis or a priori-defined diet scores found that meat-based or "Western-like" patterns tended to be positively associated with biomarkers of inflammation, predominantly C-reactive protein, while vegetable- and fruit-based or "healthy" patterns tended to be inversely associated. While results of the studies were inconsistent, interventions with presumed healthy diets resulted in reductions of almost all investigated inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, prospective studies are warranted to confirm the reported findings and further analyze associations, particularly by investigating dietary patterns as risk factors for changes in inflammatory markers over time.

  11. Demonstrations of Agency in Contemporary International Children's Literature: An Exploratory Critical Content Analysis across Personal, Social, and Cultural Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Janelle B.

    2015-01-01

    International children's literature has the potential to create global experiences and cultural insights for young people confronted with limited and biased images of the world offered by media. The current inquiry was designed to explore, through a critical content analysis approach, international children's literature in which characters…

  12. Targeting VEGFR-2 in Metastatic Gastric Cancer: Results From a Literature-Based Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Roviello, Giandomenico; Polom, Karol; Roviello, Franco; Marrelli, Daniele; Multari, Andrea Giovanni; Paganini, Giovanni; Pacifico, Chiara; Generali, Daniele

    2017-02-06

    Angiogenesis is a key process in cancer development. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of the novel VEGFR-2 inhibitors in patients with metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer. A literature-based meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken. The primary outcome was the overall survival. The pooled analysis from RCTs on anti-VEGFR-2 inhibitors revealed a significant increase in overall survival (hazard ratio for death: 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.55-0.87; p = .002). This study confirms the efficacy of novel anti-VEGFR-2 inhibitors. The future studies of these agents will evaluate alone and in combination with chemotherapy the early line of treatment along with the identification of proper predictive biomarker.

  13. Ten year literature on psychological and behavioral interventions against cancer: a terms analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui; Chai, Jing; Wang, De-Bin; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Peng-Lai; Dai, Zhao-Yang

    2012-01-01

    We here performed a systematic review of PBIC literature using terms analysis in a hope of both identifying potential trends and patterns and exploring methods leveraging traditional literature reviews in this specific area. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were retrieved from PUBMED and translated into dichotomized article records representing presence or non-presence of MeSH terms and a metric consisting of numbers of times of co- occurrence between all pairs of terms identified using a self-designed program. The occurrence of and relations among the terms were calculated and visualized using Excel2007 and UCINET respectively. A total of 1,742 terms were identified from 997 articles retrieved. Put in a descending order, the lines representing the times of term occurrence formed a typical hyperbolic curve; when plotted along the x-axis of whole MESH terms, the lines clustered within four specific regions. Comparison of term occurrence between 2002 and 2011 revealed priority changes in population and subjects (from general groups to priority groups), intervention approaches (from medicine to exercise and psychotherapy), methodology and techniques (from cohort studies to randomized controlled trials) and outcomes (from health and mental health to quality of life, depression etc.). Networks of the terms featured a number of closely linked groups of topics including method and questionnaires, therapy and outcomes, survival management, psychological assessment and intervention, behavioral intervention (individual and community oriented). Terms analysis revealed interesting trends and patterns about PBIC publications and both the analysis methods and findings have implications for future research and literature reviews.

  14. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina.

  15. Documentation of immunocytochemistry controls in the cytopathologic literature: a meta-analysis of 100 journal articles.

    PubMed

    Colasacco, Carol; Mount, Sharon; Leiman, Gladwyn

    2011-04-01

    Although a detailed description of the procedure and tissue used as controls is considered a necessary component in surgical pathology articles in which immunohistochemistry is utilized, such documentation seems less stringent in the cytopathologic literature. A comprehensive literature search was done for articles published in English within the last 15 years on nine of the most widely used antibodies in cytopathology. Individual case reports were excluded. Of the 100 articles reviewed, 13 articles were review articles or commentaries and hence not included in the analysis. Only 11 (13%) of the remaining 87 articles described positive and negative controls run on identically prepared samples. Forty-seven articles (54%) either did not mention controls or did not run controls as separate specimens. Sixteen articles (18%) included a vague statement about controls. Twelve (14%) commented only on the negative control, included only histology tissue controls, or included cell block controls, but the study also included other types of preparations, such as cytospins. One article (1%) did not include controls because of insufficient material. The College of American Pathologists recognizes the impracticality of maintaining separate positive control samples for every possible combination of fixation, processing, and specimen type. However, more stringent documentation of procedure and use of controls in the cytopathologic literature will ensure that immunocytochemistry results in diagnostic cytopathology as well as in research are valid and reproducible.

  16. Literature review and meta-analysis of translaminar pressure difference in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Siaudvytyte, L; Januleviciene, I; Daveckaite, A; Ragauskas, A; Bartusis, L; Kucinoviene, J; Siesky, B; Harris, A

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence in the literature regarding translaminar pressure difference's (TPD) role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. The optic nerve is exposed not only to intraocular pressure in the eye, but also to intracranial pressure (ICP), as it is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. Although pilot studies have identified the potential importance of TPD in glaucoma, limited available data currently prevent a comprehensive description of the role that TPD may have in glaucomatous pathophysiology. In this review, we present all available qualified data from a systematic review of the literature of the role of TPD in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). PubMed (Medline), OVID Medline, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and all available library databases were reviewed and subsequent meta-analysis of pooled mean differences are presented where appropriate. Five papers including 396 patients met criteria for inclusion to the analysis. Importantly, we included all observational studies despite differences in ICP measurement methods, as there is no consensus regarding best-practice ICP measurements in glaucoma. Our results show that not only TPD is higher in glaucoma patients compared with healthy subjects, it is related to structural glaucomatous changes of the optic disc. Our analysis suggests further longitudinal prospective studies are needed to investigate the influence of TPD in OAG, with a goal of overcoming methodological weaknesses of previous studies. PMID:26183286

  17. Literature review and meta-analysis of translaminar pressure difference in open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Siaudvytyte, L; Januleviciene, I; Daveckaite, A; Ragauskas, A; Bartusis, L; Kucinoviene, J; Siesky, B; Harris, A

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing evidence in the literature regarding translaminar pressure difference's (TPD) role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. The optic nerve is exposed not only to intraocular pressure in the eye, but also to intracranial pressure (ICP), as it is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. Although pilot studies have identified the potential importance of TPD in glaucoma, limited available data currently prevent a comprehensive description of the role that TPD may have in glaucomatous pathophysiology. In this review, we present all available qualified data from a systematic review of the literature of the role of TPD in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). PubMed (Medline), OVID Medline, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and all available library databases were reviewed and subsequent meta-analysis of pooled mean differences are presented where appropriate. Five papers including 396 patients met criteria for inclusion to the analysis. Importantly, we included all observational studies despite differences in ICP measurement methods, as there is no consensus regarding best-practice ICP measurements in glaucoma. Our results show that not only TPD is higher in glaucoma patients compared with healthy subjects, it is related to structural glaucomatous changes of the optic disc. Our analysis suggests further longitudinal prospective studies are needed to investigate the influence of TPD in OAG, with a goal of overcoming methodological weaknesses of previous studies.

  18. Hidden or uninvited? A content analysis of elder LGBT of color literature in gerontology.

    PubMed

    Van Sluytman, Laurens G; Torres, Denise

    2014-01-01

    As longevity increases and marginalized communities achieve greater visibility in the United States, a content analysis of 64 articles in social work, health, medicine and nursing, and gerontology/psychology examined the extent to which the literature examines the needs and concerns of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) seniors of color (SOC). We found recognition of the distinct cultural needs of sexual orientation and gender minorities. However the distinctive needs of LGBT SOC remains underexplored and poorly documented. Gerontologists, social workers, policymakers, and advocates must support research that values the experience and multiple vulnerabilities of LGBT seniors and questions the structures preventing inclusion and participation.

  19. Rehabilitative intervention during and after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: An analysis of the existing literature.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Francesca; Coppo, Monica; Zucchetti, Giulia; Bazzano, Daniela; Ricci, Federica; Vassallo, Elena; Nesi, Francesca; Fagioli, Franca

    2016-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a therapeutic strategy for several oncohematological diseases. It increases survival rates but leads to a high incidence of related effects. The objective of this paper was to examine the existing literature on physical exercise interventions among pediatric HSCT recipients to explore the most often utilized rehabilitative assessment and treatment tools. Studies published from 2002 to April 1, 2015 were selected: 10 studies were included. A previous literary review has shown that rehabilitation programs have a positive impact on quality of life. Our analysis identified some significant outcome variables and shared intervention areas.

  20. Review of literature on herbicides, including phenoxy herbicides and associated dioxins. Volume 13: Analysis of recent literature on health effects and Volume 14: Annotated bibliography of recent literature on health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-15

    The report consists of a bibliography and critical review of scientific literature that became available during 1988 on the health effects of the herbicides (including impurities) used as defoliants in the Vietnam conflict. An attempt has been made to identify all scientific literature (including unpublished reports) relevant to the potential human health effects of the herbicidal preparation commonly referred to as Agent Orange, the herbicidal active ingredients 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichloroacetic acid and their esters, as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, henceforth referred to as TCDD, known to be contaminating impurities of some phenoxy herbicide preparations, an the herbicides, picloram and cacodylic acid. The scope of the review does not include literature dealing exclusively with the chemistry, analysis, or environmental fate and effects of these compounds.

  1. Bibliometric Analysis of Orthopedic Literature on Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Countries: A 10-year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang Hwa; Bamne, Ankur B.; Chowdhry, Madhav; Chae, Ihn Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine the quantity and quality of research output of selected Asian countries in the field of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the last 10 years. Materials and Methods Top 15 Asian countries were selected according to their gross domestic product. The Science Citation Index Expanded database was used to search for the literature published between 2004 and 2013 using "Total Knee Arthroplasty". The numbers of articles, journals and citations and the contribution of each country were analyzed. The articles were classified according to the type of study and the relative proportion of each type was analyzed. Results Asian surgeons have increasingly contributed to orthopedic literature on TKA for the past 10 years, but the dominant contribution came from only a few countries. The total number of articles published by Asian countries increased by 261%, with Japan producing most of the studies and China showing the maximum growth rate. The majority of studies were published in low impact factor journals. Korea published the highest proportion of articles in high impact factor journals. Clinical papers were most frequent. Conclusions Our identification of research productivity pertaining to TKA among Asian countries gives a unique insight into the level of academic research in the field of TKA in these countries. There is a need to improve the quality of research to enhance the publishing power in high impact journals as well as the need for more basic research and epidemiological studies considering the unique differences among Asian patients undergoing TKA. PMID:26389067

  2. Integrated oncogeriatric approach: a systematic review of the literature using concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Dominique; Charlebois, Kathleen; Terret, Catherine; Joannette, Sonia; Latreille, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to provide a more precise definition of an integrated oncogeriatric approach (IOGA) through concept analysis. Data sources The literature was reviewed from January 2005 to April 2011 integrating three broad terms: geriatric oncology, multidisciplinarity and integrated care delivery models. Study eligibility criteria Citation selection was based on: (1) elderly cancer patients as the study population; (2) disease management and (3) case studies, intervention studies, assessments, evaluations and studies. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were refined in the course of the literature search. Interventions Initiatives in geriatric oncology that relate to oncology services, social support services and primary care services for elderly cancer patients. Participants Elderly cancer patients aged 70 years old or more. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Rodgers’ concept analysis method was used for this study. The analysis was carried out according to thematic analysis based on the elements of the Chronic Care Model. Results The search identified 618 citations. After in-depth appraisal of 327 potential citations, 62 articles that met our inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Three IOGA main attributes were identified, which constitute IOGA's core aspects: geriatric assessment (GA), comorbidity burden and treatment outcomes. The IOGA concept comprises two broad antecedents: coordinated healthcare delivery and primary supportive care services. Regarding the consequents of an integrated approach in geriatric oncology, the studies reviewed remain inconclusive. Conclusions Our study highlights the pioneering character of the multidimensional IOGA concept, for which the relationship between clinical and organisational attributes, on the one hand, and contextual antecedents, on the other, is not well understood. We have yet to ascertain IOGA's consequents. Implications of key findings There is clearly a need for a whole

  3. Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. I. Cross Validation of Polarization Measurements by Impedance Spectroscopy and Current-Potential Sweep

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiao Dong; Pederson, Larry R.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-09

    The aim of this paper is to address three issues in solid oxide fuel cells: (1) cross-validation of the polarization of a single cell measured using both dc and ac approaches, (2) the precise determination of the total areal specific resistance (ASR), and (3) understanding cathode polarization with LSCF cathodes. The ASR of a solid oxide fuel cell is a dynamic property, meaning that it changes with current density. The ASR measured using ac impedance spectroscopy (low frequency interception with real Z´ axis of ac impedance spectrum) matches with that measured from a dc IV sweep (the tangent of dc i-V curve). Due to the dynamic nature of ASR, we found that an ac impedance spectrum measured under open circuit voltage or on a half cell may not represent cathode performance under real operating conditions, particularly at high current density. In this work, the electrode polarization was governed by the cathode activation polarization; the anode contribution was negligible.

  4. SILAC-Pulse Proteolysis: A Mass Spectrometry-Based Method for Discovery and Cross-Validation in Proteome-Wide Studies of Ligand Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Jagat; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-12-01

    Reported here is the use of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and pulse proteolysis (PP) for detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions on the proteomic scale. The incorporation of SILAC into PP enables the PP technique to be used for the unbiased detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions in complex biological mixtures (e.g., cell lysates) without the need for prefractionation. The SILAC-PP technique is demonstrated in two proof-of-principle experiments using proteins in a yeast cell lysate and two test ligands including a well-characterized drug, cyclosporine A (CsA), and a non-hydrolyzable adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogue, adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). The well-known tight-binding interaction between CsA and cyclophilin A was successfully detected and quantified in replicate analyses, and a total of 33 proteins from a yeast cell lysate were found to have AMP-PNP-induced stability changes. In control experiments, the method's false positive rate of protein target discovery was found to be in the range of 2.1% to 3.6%. SILAC-PP and the previously reported stability of protein from rates of oxidation (SPROX) technique both report on the same thermodynamic properties of proteins and protein-ligand complexes. However, they employ different probes and mass spectrometry-based readouts. This creates the opportunity to cross-validate SPROX results with SILAC-PP results, and vice-versa. As part of this work, the SILAC-PP results obtained here were cross-validated with previously reported SPROX results on the same model systems to help differentiate true positives from false positives in the two experiments.

  5. A bayesian cross-validation approach to evaluate genetic baselines and forecast the necessary number of informative single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixed stock analysis (MSA) is a powerful tool used in the management and conservation of numerous species. Its function is to estimate the sources of contributions in a mixture of populations of a species, as well as to estimate the probabilities that individuals originated at a source. Considerable...

  6. A Retrospective Analysis of Dissemination Biases in the Brief Alcohol Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Polanin, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined dissemination and reporting biases in the brief alcohol intervention literature. We used retrospective data from 179 controlled trials included in a meta-analysis on brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults. We examined whether the magnitude and direction of effect sizes were associated with publication type, identification source, language, funding, time lag between intervention and publication, number of reports, journal impact factor, and subsequent citations. Results indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that had been funded (b = 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.04, 0.23]), had a shorter time lag between intervention and publication (b = −0.03, 95% CI [−0.05, −.001]), and cited more frequently (b = 0.01, 95% CI [+0.00, 0.01]). Studies that were cited more frequently by other authors also had greater odds of reporting positive effects (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI [1.02, 1.18]). Results indicated that time lag bias has increased recently: larger and positive effect sizes were published more quickly in recent years. We found no evidence, however, that the magnitude or direction of effects was associated with location source, language, or journal impact factor. We conclude that dissemination biases may indeed occur in the social and behavioral science literature, as has been consistently documented in the medical literature. As such, primary researchers, journal reviewers, editors, systematic reviewers, and meta-analysts must be cognizant of the causes and consequences of these biases, and commit to engage in ethical research practices that attempt to minimize them. PMID:25134044

  7. New directions in evidence-based policy research: a critical analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kathryn; Lorenc, Theo; Innvær, Simon

    2014-07-14

    Despite 40 years of research into evidence-based policy (EBP) and a continued drive from both policymakers and researchers to increase research uptake in policy, barriers to the use of evidence are persistently identified in the literature. However, it is not clear what explains this persistence - whether they represent real factors, or if they are artefacts of approaches used to study EBP. Based on an updated review, this paper analyses this literature to explain persistent barriers and facilitators. We critically describe the literature in terms of its theoretical underpinnings, definitions of 'evidence', methods, and underlying assumptions of research in the field, and aim to illuminate the EBP discourse by comparison with approaches from other fields. Much of the research in this area is theoretically naive, focusing primarily on the uptake of research evidence as opposed to evidence defined more broadly, and privileging academics' research priorities over those of policymakers. Little empirical data analysing the processes or impact of evidence use in policy is available to inform researchers or decision-makers. EBP research often assumes that policymakers do not use evidence and that more evidence - meaning research evidence - use would benefit policymakers and populations. We argue that these assumptions are unsupported, biasing much of EBP research. The agenda of 'getting evidence into policy' has side-lined the empirical description and analysis of how research and policy actually interact in vivo. Rather than asking how research evidence can be made more influential, academics should aim to understand what influences and constitutes policy, and produce more critically and theoretically informed studies of decision-making. We question the main assumptions made by EBP researchers, explore the implications of doing so, and propose new directions for EBP research, and health policy.

  8. New directions in evidence-based policy research: a critical analysis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite 40 years of research into evidence-based policy (EBP) and a continued drive from both policymakers and researchers to increase research uptake in policy, barriers to the use of evidence are persistently identified in the literature. However, it is not clear what explains this persistence – whether they represent real factors, or if they are artefacts of approaches used to study EBP. Based on an updated review, this paper analyses this literature to explain persistent barriers and facilitators. We critically describe the literature in terms of its theoretical underpinnings, definitions of ‘evidence’, methods, and underlying assumptions of research in the field, and aim to illuminate the EBP discourse by comparison with approaches from other fields. Much of the research in this area is theoretically naive, focusing primarily on the uptake of research evidence as opposed to evidence defined more broadly, and privileging academics’ research priorities over those of policymakers. Little empirical data analysing the processes or impact of evidence use in policy is available to inform researchers or decision-makers. EBP research often assumes that policymakers do not use evidence and that more evidence – meaning research evidence – use would benefit policymakers and populations. We argue that these assumptions are unsupported, biasing much of EBP research. The agenda of ‘getting evidence into policy’ has side-lined the empirical description and analysis of how research and policy actually interact in vivo. Rather than asking how research evidence can be made more influential, academics should aim to understand what influences and constitutes policy, and produce more critically and theoretically informed studies of decision-making. We question the main assumptions made by EBP researchers, explore the implications of doing so, and propose new directions for EBP research, and health policy. PMID:25023520

  9. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Brazil (2000–2010): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Maria Glória; Siqueira,, João Bosco; Ferreira, Germano L. C.; Bricks, Lucia; Joint, Graham

    2013-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Brazil reported between 2000 and 2010. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42011001826: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42011001826). Between 31 July and 4 August 2011, the published literature was searched for epidemiological studies of dengue disease, using specific search strategies for each electronic database. A total of 714 relevant citations were identified, 51 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Brazil, in this period, was characterized by increases in the geographical spread and incidence of reported cases. The overall increase in dengue disease was accompanied by a rise in the proportion of severe cases. The epidemiological pattern of dengue disease in Brazil is complex and the changes observed during this review period are likely to have been influenced by multiple factors. Several gaps in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Brazil were identified that provide avenues for future research, in particular, studies of regional differences, genotype evolution, and age-stratified seroprevalence. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001826. PMID:24386496

  10. Parkinson's disease plasma biomarkers: an automated literature analysis followed by experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Alberio, Tiziana; Bucci, Enrico M; Natale, Massimo; Bonino, Dario; Di Giovanni, Marco; Bottacchi, Edo; Fasano, Mauro

    2013-09-02

    Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is currently assessed by the clinical evaluation of extrapyramidal signs. The identification of specific biomarkers would be advisable, however most studies stop at the discovery phase, with no biomarkers reaching clinical exploitation. To this purpose, we developed an automated literature analysis procedure to retrieve all the background knowledge available in public databases. The bioinformatic platform allowed us to analyze more than 51,000 scientific papers dealing with PD, containing information on 4121 proteins. Out of these, we could track back 35 PD-related proteins as present in at least two published 2-DE maps of human plasma. Then, 9 different proteins (haptoglobin, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-1, serum amyloid P component, apolipoprotein E, complement factor H, fibrinogen γ, thrombin, complement C3) split into 32 spots were identified as a potential diagnostic pattern. Eventually, we compared the collected literature data to experimental gels from 90 subjects (45 PD patients, 45 non-neurodegenerative control subjects) to experimentally verify their potential as plasma biomarkers of PD.

  11. A meta-analysis of the published literature on the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research was to conduct a systematic quantitative analysis of the existing data in the literature in order to determine if there is a difference between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps and to identify the methodological factors that might affect this difference. Data on hand washing efficacy and experimental conditions (sample size, wash duration, soap quantity, challenge organism, inoculum size, and neutralization method) from published studies were compiled and transferred to a relational database. A total of 25 publications, containing 374 observations, met the study selection criteria. The majority of the studies included fewer than 15 observations with each treatment and included a direct comparison between nonantimicrobial soap and antimicrobial soap. Although differences in efficacy between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soap were small (∼0.5-log CFU reduction difference), antimicrobial soap produced consistently statistically significantly greater reductions. This difference was true for any of the antimicrobial compounds investigated where n was >20 (chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophor, triclosan, or povidone). Average log reductions were statistically significantly greater (∼2 log CFU) when either gram-positive or gram-negative transient organisms were deliberately added to hands compared with experiments done with resident hand flora (∼0.5 log CFU). Our findings support the importance of using a high initial inoculum on the hands, well above the detection limit. The inherent variability in hand washing seen in the published literature underscores the importance of using a sufficiently large sample size to detect differences when they occur.

  12. The long tail: a usage analysis of pre-1993 print biomedical journal literature

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Susan; Williams, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The research analyzes usage of a major biomedical library's pre-1993 print journal collection. Methodology: In July 2003, in preparation for a renovation and expansion project, the Biomedical Library at the University of California, San Diego, moved all of its pre-1993 journal volumes off-site, with the exception of twenty-two heavily used titles. Patrons wishing to consult one of these stored volumes could request that it be delivered to the library for their use. In the spring of 2006, an analysis was made of these requests. Results: By July of 2006, 79,827 journal volumes published in 1992 or earlier had been requested from storage. The number of requests received declined with age of publication. The usage distribution exhibited a “long tail”: 50% of the 79,827 requests were for journal volumes published before 1986. The availability of electronic access dramatically reduced the chance that corresponding print journal volumes would be requested. Conclusions: The older biomedical print journal literature appears to be of continued value to the biomedical research community. When electronic access was provided to the older literature, demand for older print volumes declined dramatically. PMID:18219377

  13. Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected colorectal cancer metastases: Literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brandi, Giovanni; De Lorenzo, Stefania; Nannini, Margherita; Curti, Stefania; Ottone, Marta; Dall’Olio, Filippo Gustavo; Barbera, Maria Aurelia; Pantaleo, Maria Abbondanza; Biasco, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the only option of cure for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the risk of recurrence within 18 mo after metastasectomy is around 75% and the liver is the most frequent site of relapse. The current international guidelines recommend an adjuvant therapy after surgical resection of CRC metastases despite the lower level of evidence (based on the quality of studies in this setting). However, there is still no standard treatment and the effective role of an adjuvant therapy remains controversial. The aim of this review is to report the state-of-art of systemic chemotherapy and regional chemotherapy with hepatic arterial infusion in the management of patients after resection of metastases from CRC, with a literature review and meta-analysis of the relevant randomized controlled trials. PMID:26811604

  14. The Historical Necessity for--and Difficulties with--New Historical Analysis in Introductory Literature Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brook

    1987-01-01

    Reflects on the role of New Historicism in teaching literature and remarks on the lack of historical awareness in students today. Offers suggestions for connecting history, as well as other disciplines, to literature to combat currently fragmented college educations. (JC)

  15. Analysis of Publication Bias in the literature for Distal Radius Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Ian C; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Distal radius fractures are the most commonly treated fracture, and their management remains complex. We aim to evaluate the presence of publication bias in the literature on distal radius fracture management and identify specific study variables that may influence the reporting of positive outcomes. Methods We conducted a systematic review on all available journal articles to find primary articles reporting on the management of distal radius fractures. Data collected included the direction of study outcome (positive, neutral, and negative) and various study characteristics including sample size, geographic origin of the study, clinical setting, study design, type of treatment, analysis for statistical significance, evaluation of wrist function, presence of subjective outcome measures, mean follow-up time, adequacy of reduction, complications, mean patient age, and the presence of any extramural funding. Results We reviewed 215 journal articles and found that 70% of articles reported positive outcomes, 25% reported neutral outcomes, and 5% reported negative outcomes. Funnel plot analysis suggested the presence of publication bias due to the asymmetric distribution of studies. In addition, we found statistically significant differences between study outcomes with respects to treatment type, presence of external funding, reduction adequacy, hand/wrist functional assessment, and patient questionnaires for subjective assessment. Conclusions Publication bias likely exists in the literature for distal radius fracture management. Several study characteristics influence the reporting of positive outcomes, but whether or not the presence of these characteristics portends a greater chance of publication remains unclear. A standardized approach to measure and track results may improve evidence-based outcomes. PMID:23566720

  16. CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL FOODS AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER RISK: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Moore, Dirk F.; Gifkins, Dina M.; McCullough, Marjorie L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes and quantifies the current evidence relating dietary intake of animal products and endometrial cancer. Literature searches were conducted to identify peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to December 2006. Twenty-two manuscripts from three cohort studies and 16 case-control studies were identified. One of these cohort studies evaluated only fried meat and another only milk consumption; they were not included in our meta-analyses. The third cohort study identified did not present exposure levels and could not be included in dose-response meta-analysis. This cohort study did not show an association with meat or red meat consumption. Random-effects dose-response summary estimates for case-control studies evaluating these foods were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03–1.54) per 100 g/day of total meat, 1.51 (95% CI: 1.19–1.93) per 100 g/day of red meat, 1.03 (95% CI: 0.32–3.28) per 100 g/day of poultry, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.55–1.98) per 100 g/day of fish, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.93–1.01) per serving of dairy. Our meta-analysis, based on case-control data, suggests that meat consumption, particularly red meat, increases endometrial cancer risk. The current literature does not support an association with dairy products, while the evidence is inconsistent for poultry, fish, and eggs. More studies, particularly prospective studies, are needed. PMID:17638104

  17. Arteriovenous malformations of the corpus callosum: Pooled analysis and systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Pabaney, Aqueel H.; Ali, Rushna; Kole, Maximillian; Malik, Ghaus M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the corpus callosum (CC) are rare entities. We performed a systematic review of the available literature to better define the natural history, patient characteristics, and treatment options for these lesions. Methods: A MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and The Cochrane Library search were performed for studies published through June 2015. Data from all eligible studies were used to examine epidemiology, natural history, clinical features, treatment strategies, and outcomes of patients with CC-AVMs. A systematic review and pooled analysis of the literature were performed. Results: Our search yielded 37 reports and 230 patients. Mean age at presentation was 26.8 years (±13.12 years). AVMs were most commonly located in the splenium (43%), followed by the body (31%), and then the genu (23%) of the CC. A Spetzler-Martin grade of III was the most common (37%). One hundred eighty-seven (81.3%) patients presented with hemorrhage, 91 (40%) underwent microsurgical excision, and 87 (38%) underwent endovascular embolization. Radiosurgery was performed on 57 (25%) patients. Complete obliteration of the AVM was achieved in 102 (48.1%) patients and approximately twice as often when microsurgery was performed alone or in combination with other treatment modalities (94% vs. 49%; P < 0.001). Mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at presentation was 1.54 and mean mRS at last follow-up was 1.31. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.35). Conclusion: We present an analysis of the pooled data in the form of a systematic review focusing on management of CC-AVMs. This review aims to provide a valuable tool to aid in decision making when dealing with this particular subtype of AVM. PMID:27127713

  18. The Representation of Asian Americans in Children's Literature: A Content Analysis of Texas Reading Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Agnes C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's literature serves as mirrors and windows for the students we teach today. Through literature, children should be able to see their own reflections as well as the world around them. Yet despite their long history in the United States, Asian Americans have not always been represented in children's literature. This study analyzed the…

  19. Digoxin-associated mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Mate; Erath, Julia W; Hohnloser, Stefan H

    2015-07-21

    There are conflicting data regarding the effect of digoxin use on mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or with congestive heart failure (CHF). The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide detailed analysis of the currently available study reports. We performed a MEDLINE and a COCHRANE search (1993-2014) of the English literature dealing with the effects of digoxin on all-cause-mortality in subjects with AF or CHF. Only full-sized articles published in peer-reviewed journals were considered for this meta-analysis. A total of 19 reports were identified. Nine reports dealt with AF patients, seven with patients suffering from CHF, and three with both clinical conditions. Based on the analysis of adjusted mortality results of all 19 studies comprising 326 426 patients, digoxin use was associated with an increased relative risk of all-cause mortality [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07 to 1.38, P < 0.01]. Compared with subjects not receiving glycosides, digoxin was associated with a 29% increased mortality risk (HR 1.29; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.39) in the subgroup of publications comprising 235 047 AF patients. Among 91.379 heart failure patients, digoxin-associated mortality risk increased by 14% (HR 1.14, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22). The present systematic review and meta-analysis of all available data sources suggest that digoxin use is associated with an increased mortality risk, particularly among patients suffering from AF.

  20. Calibration and Cross-Validation of the ActiGraph wGT3X+ Accelerometer for the Estimation of Physical Activity Intensity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    McGarty, Arlene M.; Penpraze, Victoria; Melville, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Valid objective measurement is integral to increasing our understanding of physical activity and sedentary behaviours. However, no population-specific cut points have been calibrated for children with intellectual disabilities. Therefore, this study aimed to calibrate and cross-validate the first population-specific accelerometer intensity cut points for children with intellectual disabilities. Methods Fifty children with intellectual disabilities were randomly assigned to the calibration (n = 36; boys = 28, 9.53±1.08yrs) or cross-validation (n = 14; boys = 9, 9.57±1.16yrs) group. Participants completed a semi-structured school-based activity session, which included various activities ranging from sedentary to vigorous intensity. Direct observation (SOFIT tool) was used to calibrate the ActiGraph wGT3X+, which participants wore on the right hip. Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analyses determined the optimal cut points for sedentary, moderate, and vigorous intensity activity for the vertical axis and vector magnitude. Classification agreement was investigated using sensitivity, specificity, total agreement, and Cohen’s kappa scores against the criterion measure of SOFIT. Results The optimal (AUC = .87−.94) vertical axis cut points (cpm) were ≤507 (sedentary), 1008−2300 (moderate), and ≥2301 (vigorous), which demonstrated high sensitivity (81−88%) and specificity (81−85%). The optimal (AUC = .86−.92) vector magnitude cut points (cpm) of ≤1863 (sedentary), 2610−4214 (moderate), and ≥4215 (vigorous) demonstrated comparable, albeit marginally lower, accuracy than the vertical axis cut points (sensitivity = 80−86%; specificity = 77−82%). Classification agreement ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .51−.85) with high sensitivity and specificity, and confirmed the trend that accuracy increased with intensity, and vertical axis cut points provide higher classification agreement than vector magnitude cut points

  1. Slips of Action and Sequential Decisions: A Cross-Validation Study of Tasks Assessing Habitual and Goal-Directed Action Control.

    PubMed

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Dietrich, Anja; Deserno, Lorenz; de Wit, Sanne; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. MB control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas MF control did not show any associations. Interestingly, parameter estimates of MB and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g., visual short-term memory). These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly) mediate the association between MB control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and MB system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the MF and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural systems driving these constructs

  2. Slips of Action and Sequential Decisions: A Cross-Validation Study of Tasks Assessing Habitual and Goal-Directed Action Control

    PubMed Central

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Dietrich, Anja; Deserno, Lorenz; de Wit, Sanne; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. MB control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas MF control did not show any associations. Interestingly, parameter estimates of MB and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g., visual short-term memory). These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly) mediate the association between MB control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and MB system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the MF and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural systems driving these constructs

  3. Dermatology within the UK podiatric literature: a content analysis (1989-2010)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although dermatology, as a medical subject, has been a facet of the training and education of podiatrists for many years, it is, arguably, only in recent years that the speciality of podiatric dermatology has emerged within the profession. Some indication of this gradual development may be identified through a content analysis of the podiatric literature in the UK, spanning a 21 year timeframe. Method 6 key professional journals were selected for content analysis in order to provide a picture of the emergence and development of podiatric dermatology over a period extending from 1989 to 2010. Both syntactical and thematic unitization were deployed in the analysis, revealing both manifest and latent content. Categories were devised using a prior coding, a codebook produced to define relevant concepts and category characteristics, and the coding scheme subject to an assessment of reliability. Results 1611 units appeared in the 6 journals across a 21 year timeframe. 88% (n = 1417) occurred in one journal (Podiatry Now and its predecessors). Modal categories within all journals included course adverts (n = 673), commercial adverts (n = 562) and articles by podiatrists (n = 133). There was an overall rise from 40 per annum in 1989, to over 100 in 2010. A wider range of dermatological topics were addressed, ranging from fungal nail infections to melanoma. Conclusions It is evident from this analysis that there has been an increasing focus on dermatology as a topic within the main podiatric journals in the UK over the last 21 years, primarily reflecting a rise in commercial advertising and an increase in academic dermatology related publications. Whilst earlier publications tended to focus on warts and fungal infections, more recent publications address a broader spectrum of topics. Changes in prescribing rights may be relevant to these findings, as may the enhanced professional and regulatory body requirements on continuing professional

  4. A Systematic Review of Perennial Staple Crops Literature Using Topic Modeling and Bibliometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research on perennial staple crops has increased in the past ten years due to their potential to improve ecosystem services in agricultural systems. However, multiple past breeding efforts as well as research on traditional ratoon systems mean there is already a broad body of literature on perennial crops. In this review, we compare the development of research on perennial staple crops, including wheat, rice, rye, sorghum, and pigeon pea. We utilized the advanced search capabilities of Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Agricola to gather a library of 914 articles published from 1930 to the present. We analyzed the metadata in the entire library and in collections of literature on each crop to understand trends in research and publishing. In addition, we applied topic modeling to the article abstracts, a type of text analysis that identifies frequently co-occurring terms and latent topics. We found: 1.) Research on perennials is increasing overall, but individual crops have each seen periods of heightened interest and research activity; 2.) Specialist journals play an important role in supporting early research efforts. Research often begins within communities of specialists or breeders for the individual crop before transitioning to a more general scientific audience; 3.) Existing perennial agricultural systems and their domesticated crop material, such as ratoon rice systems, can provide a useful foundation for breeding efforts, accelerating the development of truly perennial crops and farming systems; 4.) Primary research is lacking for crops that are produced on a smaller scale globally, such as pigeon pea and sorghum, and on the ecosystem service benefits of perennial agricultural systems. PMID:27213283

  5. Breast volumetric analysis for aesthetic planning in breast reconstruction: a literature review of techniques

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, Warren Matthew; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate volumetric analysis is an essential component of preoperative planning in both reconstructive and aesthetic breast procedures towards achieving symmetrization and patient-satisfactory outcome. Numerous comparative studies and reviews of individual techniques have been reported. However, a unifying review of all techniques comparing their accuracy, reliability, and practicality has been lacking. Methods A review of the published English literature dating from 1950 to 2015 using databases, such as PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and EMBASE, was undertaken. Results Since Bouman’s first description of water displacement method, a range of volumetric assessment techniques have been described: thermoplastic casting, direct anthropomorphic measurement, two-dimensional (2D) imaging, and computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. However, most have been unreliable, difficult to execute and demonstrate limited practicability. Introduction of 3D surface imaging has revolutionized the field due to its ease of use, fast speed, accuracy, and reliability. However, its widespread use has been limited by its high cost and lack of high level of evidence. Recent developments have unveiled the first web-based 3D surface imaging program, 4D imaging, and 3D printing. Conclusions Despite its importance, an accurate, reliable, and simple breast volumetric analysis tool has been elusive until the introduction of 3D surface imaging technology. However, its high cost has limited its wide usage. Novel adjunct technologies, such as web-based 3D surface imaging program, 4D imaging, and 3D printing, appear promising. PMID:27047788

  6. The use of multi-criteria decision analysis to tackle waste management problems: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Achillas, Charisios; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Karagiannidis, Avraam; Banias, Georgias; Perkoulidis, George

    2013-02-01

    Problems in waste management have become more and more complex during recent decades. The increasing volumes of waste produced and social environmental consciousness present prominent drivers for environmental managers towards the achievement of a sustainable waste management scheme. However, in practice, there are many factors and influences - often mutually conflicting - criteria for finding solutions in real-life applications. This paper presents a review of the literature on multi-criteria decision aiding in waste management problems for all reported waste streams. Despite limitations, which are clearly stated, most of the work published in this field is reviewed. The present review aims to provide environmental managers and decision-makers with a thorough list of practical applications of the multi-criteria decision analysis techniques that are used to solve real-life waste management problems, as well as the criteria that are mostly employed in such applications according to the nature of the problem under study. Moreover, the paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of using multi-criteria decision analysis techniques in waste management problems in comparison to other available alternatives.

  7. Accuracy of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; Mazin, Suleimy Cristina; dos Santos, Elisa Raphael; Cesetti, Mariana Vicente; Bächtold, Guilherme Albergaria Brízida; Cordeiro, João Henrique de Freitas; Theodoro, Fabrício Claudino Estrela Terra; Damasco, Fabiana dos Santos; Carranza, Sebastián Andrés Vernal; Santos, Adriana de Oliveira; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is hampered by the absence of a gold standard. An accurate diagnosis is essential because of the high toxicity of the medications for the disease. This study aimed to assess the ability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MCL and to compare these results with clinical research recently published by the authors. A systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement was performed using comprehensive search criteria and communication with the authors. A meta-analysis considering the estimates of the univariate and bivariate models was performed. Specificity near 100% was common among the papers. The primary reason for accuracy differences was sensitivity. The meta-analysis, which was only possible for PCR samples of lesion fragments, revealed a sensitivity of 71% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59; 0.81] and a specificity of 93% (95% CI = 0.83; 0.98) in the bivariate model. The search for measures that could increase the sensitivity of PCR should be encouraged. The quality of the collected material and the optimisation of the amplification of genetic material should be prioritised. PMID:25946238

  8. The joint WAIS-III and WMS-III factor structure: development and cross-validation of a six-factor model of cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, David S; Price, Larry R

    2003-06-01

    During the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (3rd ed.; WMS-III) the participants in the normative study completed both scales. This "co-norming" methodology set the stage for full integration of the 2 tests and the development of an expanded structure of cognitive functioning. Until now, however, the WAIS-III and WMS-III had not been examined together in a factor analytic study. This article presents a series of confirmatory factor analyses to determine the joint WAIS-III and WMS-III factor structure. Using a structural equation modeling approach, a 6-factor model that included verbal, perceptual, processing speed, working memory, auditory memory, and visual memory constructs provided the best model fit to the data. Allowing select subtests to load simultaneously on 2 factors improved model fit and indicated that some subtests are multifaceted. The results were then replicated in a large cross-validation sample (N = 858).

  9. PLS/OPLS models in metabolomics: the impact of permutation of dataset rows on the K-fold cross-validation quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Triba, Mohamed N; Le Moyec, Laurence; Amathieu, Roland; Goossens, Corentine; Bouchemal, Nadia; Nahon, Pierre; Rutledge, Douglas N; Savarin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the software packages available for discriminant analyses based on projection to latent structures (PLS-DA) or orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS-DA), SIMCA (Umetrics, Umeå Sweden) is the more widely used in the metabolomics field. SIMCA proposes many parameters or tests to assess the quality of the computed model (the number of significant components, R2, Q2, pCV-ANOVA, and the permutation test). Significance thresholds for these parameters are strongly application-dependent. Concerning the Q2 parameter, a significance threshold of 0.5 is generally admitted. However, during the last few years, many PLS-DA/OPLS-DA models built using SIMCA have been published with Q2 values lower than 0.5. The purpose of this opinion note is to point out that, in some circumstances frequently encountered in metabolomics, the values of these parameters strongly depend on the individuals that constitute the validation subsets. As a result of the way in which the software selects members of the calibration and validation subsets, a simple permutation of dataset rows can, in several cases, lead to contradictory conclusions about the significance of the models when a K-fold cross-validation is used. We believe that, when Q2 values lower than 0.5 are obtained, SIMCA users should at least verify that the quality parameters are stable towards permutation of the rows in their dataset.

  10. Partial cross-validation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) General Memory-Attention/Concentration Malingering Index in a nonlitigating sample.

    PubMed

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Thompson, Matthew D; Irby, James W; Adams, Russell L; Scott, James G; Gouvier, Wm Drew

    2003-01-01

    The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) malingering indices proposed by Mittenberg, Azrin, Millsaps, and Heilbronner [Psychol Assess 5 (1993) 34.] were partially cross-validated in a sample of 200 nonlitigants. Nine diagnostic categories were examined, including participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain tumor, stroke/vascular, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), epilepsy, depression/anxiety, medical problems, and no diagnosis. Results showed that the discriminant function using WMS-R subtests misclassified only 6.5% of the sample as malingering, with significantly higher misclassification rates of SDAT and stroke/vascular groups. The General Memory Index-Attention/Concentration Index (GMI-ACI) difference score misclassified only 8.5% of the sample as malingering when a difference score of greater than 25 points was used as the cutoff criterion. No diagnostic group was significantly more likely to be misclassified. Results support the utility of the GMI-ACI difference score, as well as the WMS-R subtest discriminant function score, in detecting malingering.

  11. Shuffling cross-validation-bee algorithm as a new descriptor selection method for retention studies of pesticides in biopartitioning micellar chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Kobra; Atabati, Morteza; Ahmadi, Monire

    2017-02-22

    Bee algorithm (BA) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the natural foraging behaviour of honey bees to find the optimal solution which can be proposed to feature selection. In this paper, shuffling cross-validation-BA (CV-BA) was applied to select the best descriptors that could describe the retention factor (log k) in the biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) of 79 heterogeneous pesticides. Six descriptors were obtained using BA and then the selected descriptors were applied for model development using multiple linear regression (MLR). The descriptor selection was also performed using stepwise, genetic algorithm and simulated annealing methods and MLR was applied to model development and then the results were compared with those obtained from shuffling CV-BA. The results showed that shuffling CV-BA can be applied as a powerful descriptor selection method. Support vector machine (SVM) was also applied for model development using six selected descriptors by BA. The obtained statistical results using SVM were better than those obtained using MLR, as the root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R) for whole data set (training and test), using shuffling CV-BA-MLR, were obtained as 0.1863 and 0.9426, respectively, while these amounts for the shuffling CV-BA-SVM method were obtained as 0.0704 and 0.9922, respectively.

  12. Adaptive smoothing of high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging data by generalized cross-validation improves Q-ball orientation distribution function reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, Nader S; Hu, Xiaoping P; Carew, John D

    2010-09-01

    Q-ball imaging (QBI) is a high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) technique for reconstructing the orientation distribution function (ODF). Some form of smoothing or regularization is typically required in the ODF reconstruction from low signal-to-noise ratio HARDI data. The amount of smoothing or regularization is usually set a priori at the discretion of the investigator. In this article, we apply an adaptive and objective means of smoothing the raw HARDI data using the smoothing splines on the sphere method with generalized cross-validation (GCV) to estimate the diffusivity profile in each voxel. Subsequently, we reconstruct the ODF, from the smoothed data, based on the Funk-Radon transform (FRT) used in QBI. The spline method was applied to both simulated data and in vivo human brain data. Simulated data show that the smoothing splines on the sphere method with GCV smoothing reduces the mean squared error in estimates of the ODF as compared with the standard analytical QBI approach. The human data demonstrate the utility of the method for estimating smooth ODFs.

  13. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7–8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  14. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7-8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  15. Cross-validation of serial optical coherence scanning and diffusion tensor imaging: a study on neural fiber maps in human medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhu, Junfeng; Reuter, Martin; Vinke, Louis N; Yendiki, Anastasia; Boas, David A; Fischl, Bruce; Akkin, Taner

    2014-10-15

    We established a strategy to perform cross-validation of serial optical coherence scanner imaging (SOCS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on a postmortem human medulla. Following DTI, the sample was serially scanned by SOCS, which integrates a vibratome slicer and a multi-contrast optical coherence tomography rig for large-scale three-dimensional imaging at microscopic resolution. The DTI dataset was registered to the SOCS space. An average correlation coefficient of 0.9 was found between the co-registered fiber maps constructed by fractional anisotropy and retardance contrasts. Pixelwise comparison of fiber orientations demonstrated good agreement between the DTI and SOCS measures. Details of the comparison were studied in regions exhibiting a variety of fiber organizations. DTI estimated the preferential orientation of small fiber tracts; however, it didn't capture their complex patterns as SOCS did. In terms of resolution and imaging depth, SOCS and DTI complement each other, and open new avenues for cross-modality investigations of the brain.

  16. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  17. The Prevalence of Juvenile Huntington's Disease: A Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quarrell, Oliver; O'Donovan, Kirsty L; Bandmann, Oliver; Strong, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile Huntington’s disease (JHD) is usually defined as Huntington's disease with an onset ≤ 20 years. The proportion of JHD cases reported in studies of Huntington’s disease (HD) varies. A review of the literature found 62 studies that reported the proportion of JHD cases amongst all HD cases. The proportion of JHD cases in these studies ranged from 1% to 15%, and in a meta-analysis the pooled proportion of JHD cases was 4.92% (95% confidence interval of 4.07% to 5.84%). Limiting the analysis to the 25 studies which used multiple methods of ascertainment resulted in a similar pooled proportion of 5.32%, (95% confidence interval 4.18% to 6.60%). A small difference was observed when the meta-analysis was restricted to studies from countries defined by the World Bank as high income, that used multiple methods of ascertainment, and that were conducted since 1980 (4.81%, 95% confidence interval 3.31% to 6.58%, n=11). This contrasts with the pooled result from three post 1980 studies using multiple methods of ascertainment from South Africa and Venezuela, defined by the World Bank as upper middle income, where the estimated mean proportion was 9.95%, (95% confidence interval 6.37% to 14.22%). These results, which are expected to be more robust than those from a single study alone, may be helpful in estimating the proportion of JHD cases in a given population. Key Words: Juvenile Huntington’s disease, prevalence, epidemiology PMID:22953238

  18. Association between diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Louati, Karine; Vidal, Céline; Berenbaum, Francis; Sellam, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of DM in patients with OA and whether OA and DM are associated. Design A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We included cohort, case–control and cross-sectional studies assessing the number of patients with DM and/or OA. The mean prevalence of OA among patients with DM and DM among patients with OA was calculated. Data from trials assessing an association of diabetes and OA were pooled and results are presented as unadjusted OR and 95% CI. Results From the 299 publications, we included 49 studies in the analysis, including 28 cross-sectional studies, 11 cohort studies and 10 case–control studies. In all, 21, 5 and 23 articles involved patients with OA exclusively, patients with DM and the general population, respectively. For 5788 patients with DM, the mean OA prevalence was 29.5±1.2%. For 645 089 patients with OA, the prevalence of DM was 14.4±0.1%. The risk of OA was greater in the DM than non-DM population (OR=1.46 (1.08 to 1.96), p=0.01), as was DM in the OA than non-OA population (OR=1.41 (1.21 to 1.65), p<0.00 001). Among the 12 studies reporting an OR adjusted on at least the body mass index, 5 showed no association of DM and OA and 7 identified DM as an independent risk factor. Conclusions This meta-analysis highlights a high frequency of OA in patients with DM and an association between both diseases, representing a further step towards the individualisation of DM-related OA within a metabolic OA phenotype. PMID:26535137

  19. The Prevalence of Juvenile Huntington's Disease: A Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Quarrell, Oliver; O'Donovan, Kirsty L; Bandmann, Oliver; Strong, Mark

    2012-07-20

    Juvenile Huntington's disease (JHD) is usually defined as Huntington's disease with an onset ≤ 20 years. The proportion of JHD cases reported in studies of Huntington's disease (HD) varies. A review of the literature found 62 studies that reported the proportion of JHD cases amongst all HD cases. The proportion of JHD cases in these studies ranged from 1% to 15%, and in a meta-analysis the pooled proportion of JHD cases was 4.92% (95% confidence interval of 4.07% to 5.84%). Limiting the analysis to the 25 studies which used multiple methods of ascertainment resulted in a similar pooled proportion of 5.32%, (95% confidence interval 4.18% to 6.60%). A small difference was observed when the meta-analysis was restricted to studies from countries defined by the World Bank as high income, that used multiple methods of ascertainment, and that were conducted since 1980 (4.81%, 95% confidence interval 3.31% to 6.58%, n=11). This contrasts with the pooled result from three post 1980 studies using multiple methods of ascertainment from South Africa and Venezuela, defined by the World Bank as upper middle income, where the estimated mean proportion was 9.95%, (95% confidence interval 6.37% to 14.22%). These results, which are expected to be more robust than those from a single study alone, may be helpful in estimating the proportion of JHD cases in a given population. Key Words: Juvenile Huntington's disease, prevalence, epidemiology.

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment services: review of the literature*

    PubMed

    Cartwright, William S.

    2000-03-01

    BACKGROUND: How valuable is public investment in treatment for drug abuse and dependency in the real world of everyday practice? Does drug abuse treatment provide benefits and how are they valued? What are the costs of obtaining outcomes and benefits? Cost-benefit analysis attempts to answer these questions in a standard analytic framework. AIMS: This paper reviews cost-benefit analyses with scientific merit so that analysts will have a current picture of the state of the research. It will also give public decision-makers information with regards to the available evidence for policy purposes. METHOD: Bibliographic searches were performed. Studies were obtained through the assistance of the Parklawn Health Library system, a component of the US Public Health Service. Selected studies were from the scientific literature with the exception of eight studies published as governmental reports. RESULTS: Cost-benefit studies have fallen into the following categories: (i) planning models for delivery systems in states and cities; (ii) short-term follow-up studies of individuals, (iii) single individual programs and (iv) state system's monitoring of outcomes. In 18 cost-benefit studies, a persistent finding is that benefits exceed costs, even when not all benefits are accounted for in the analysis. Much variation is found in the implementation of cost-benefit methods, and this is detailed across discussions of effectiveness, benefits and costs. Studies have emphasized the cost savings to society from the reduction in external costs created by the behavioral consequences of addiction and drug use. DISCUSSION: Economic analysis of drug treatment requires sophisticated conceptualization and measurement. Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment has been a significant analytical exercise since the early 1970s when the public drug treatment system was founded in the United States. CONCLUSION: Drug abuse treatment services may be considered as contributing positive economic returns

  1. Revealing Latent Value of Clinically Acquired CTs of Traumatic Brain Injury Through Multi-Atlas Segmentation in a Retrospective Study of 1,003 with External Cross-Validation.

    PubMed

    Plassard, Andrew J; Kelly, Patrick D; Asman, Andrew J; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B; Landman, Bennett A

    2015-03-20

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a "big data" paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold cross-validation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R(2) to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  2. A meta-analysis of the RTI literature for children at risk for reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Tran, Loan; Sanchez, Tori; Arellano, Brenda; Lee Swanson, H

    2011-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature comparing at-risk children designated as responders and low responders to interventions in reading. The central question addressed in this review is whether individual differences in reading-related skills at pretest predict responders at posttest across a variety of interventions and sets of criteria for determining responding and low responding. A total of 13 studies met criteria for the meta-analysis, yielding 107 weighted effect sizes (ESs) at posttest (M = .76, SE = .03, 95% confidence interval [CI] =.71, .81) and 108 weighted ESs at pretest (M = 1.02, SE = .03, CI = 1.02, 1.13). The results showed that the magnitude of ES between responders and low responders increased from pretest to posttest on measures of reading (e.g., real word identification = 1.06 vs. 1.53, word attack = 1.10 vs. 1.28, and passage comprehension, 0.45 vs. 1.43). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that overall posttest ESs were significantly moderated by pretest scores as well as the type of measure administered, whereas no significant moderating effects were found for number of weeks of intervention, length of sessions, number of sessions, type of intervention (one-to-one vs. small group instruction), and criteria for defining responders (cutoff, scores, discrepancy, benchmark). Overall, the synthesis suggested that regardless of type of treatment and identification criteria, response-to-intervention (RTI) conditions were not effective in mitigating learner characteristics related to pretest conditions.

  3. [Cost of lost productivity in pharmacoeconomics analysis. Part I. A systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Wrona, Witold; Hermanowski, Tomasz; Golicki, Dominik; Jakubczyk, Michał; Macioch, Tomasz; Goszczyńska, Katarzyna; Wójcik, Radosław

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of indirect costs of illness in economic studies is still a subject of considerable debate. The aim of the systematic literature review was to present the Polish economic practice concerning indirect costs evaluation of healthcare interventions. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Polish Medical Bibliography (PBL) were searched. Cut-off dates were set to February and March 2009. The main specific keywords were 'indirect costs' or 'costs and cost analysis'. Nineteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review, of a total of 2300 references. Seventeen out of 19 studies were cost of illness studies, 2 were economic analyses. Methods of indirect costs evaluation were all based on human capital approach. The work absenteeism unit time measure used to value productivity loss were average salary (9/19), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (7/19), Gross National Product per capita (1/19), GDP per active worker (1/19), sold production of industry per active worker (1/19). Mean indirect costs were ca. 58% of total costs (range: 16%-98%). In 5 studies transfer payments were added to productivity loss category. Indirect cost is rarely included in the economic analyses in Poland. Various methods of indirect costs calculation limit comparison between studies and support the need for development of robust and widely accepted methodology.

  4. Reading disabilities in children: A selective meta-analysis of the cognitive literature.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Milagros F; Lussier, Cathy M; Swanson, H Lee

    2015-05-01

    This article synthesizes literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of children with and without reading disabilities (RD). Forty-eight studies met the criteria for the meta-analysis, yielding 735 effect sizes (ESs) with an overall weighted ES of 0.98. Small to high ESs in favor of children without RD emerged on measures of cognition (rapid naming [ES = 0.89], phonological awareness [ES = 1.00], verbal working memory [ES = 0.79], short-term memory [ES = 0.56], visual-spatial memory [ES = 0.48], and executive processing [ES = 0.67]), academic achievement (pseudoword reading [ES = 1.85], math [ES = 1.20], vocabulary [ES = 0.83], spelling [ES = 1.25], and writing [ES = 1.20]), and behavior skills (ES = 0.80). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that specific cognitive process measures (verbal working memory, visual-spatial memory, executive processing, and short-term memory) and intelligence measures (general and verbal intelligence) significantly moderated overall group effect size differences. Overall, the results supported the assumption that cognitive deficits in children with RD are persistent.

  5. ['Biomedicine' in anthropological literature. The career of a concept between analysis and polemics].

    PubMed

    Bruchhausen, Walter

    2010-01-01

    During its career in North American social sciences and anthropology since the late 1960s the concept of 'biomedicine' acquired a large variety of meanings, sometimes even contradictory ones. Originating in research on biological and medical phenomena in technical areas like nuclear weapons, space flight, informatics or engineering, the term 'biomedical' entered politics and the social sciences, especially medical anthropology. Here it could mean medical research methods derived from biology as opposed to behavioural research or social sciences in general, the complex of Western health care n non-Western countries and the reductionism and alleged Cartesian dualism of its approach - the opposite of traditional, religious, holistic and psychic views and treatment of illness. Oscillating between the levels of anthropological research or analysis and of practical health care delivery, intra- and cross-cultural perspectives and affirmative and critical attitudes the term has to be carefully considered in any reading of past and recent literature. The rather ate German reception included replacing the term Schulmedizin born of older controversies on naturopathy, as well as naming the more somatic part of illness and medicine-as opposed to psychic or social aspects-and serving as the criticised object of many feminist and post-colonial studies on health.

  6. Economic Evaluation in Global Perspective: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Catherine; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara

    2016-02-01

    We present a bibliometric analysis of recently published full economic evaluations of health interventions and reflect critically on the implications of our findings for this growing field. We created a database drawing on 14 health, economic, and/or general literature databases for articles published between 1 January 2012 and 3 May 2014 and identified 2844 economic evaluations meeting our criteria. We present findings regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and added value of searches in the different databases. We examine the distribution of publications between countries, regions, and health areas studied and compare the relative volume of research with disease burden. We analyse authors' country and institutional affiliations, journals and journal type, language, and type of economic evaluation conducted. More than 1200 economic evaluations were published annually, of which 4% addressed low-income countries, 4% lower-middle-income countries, 14% upper-middle-income countries, and 83% high-income countries. Across country income levels, 53, 54, 86, and 100% of articles, respectively, included an author based in a country within the income level studied. Biomedical journals published 74% of economic evaluations. The volume of research across health areas correlates more closely with disease burden in high-income than in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings provide an empirical basis for further study on methods, research prioritization, and capacity development in health economic evaluation.

  7. Does benzene cause multiple myeloma? An analysis of the published case-control literature

    SciTech Connect

    Bezabeh, S.; Engel, A.; Morris, C.B.; Lamm, S.H.

    1996-12-01

    Two case series and two epidemiological studies in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that benzene exposure might be a risk factor for multiple myeloma. An analysis has now been conducted of the published population-based and hospital-based case-control studies published through mid-1995 that permit examination of the relationship between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or surrogates for benzene exposure. No increased association was found between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or exposure to chemical groups that included benzene. The odds ratios from these analyses approximated 1.0. Exposures to petroleum products and employment in petroleum-related occupations did not appear to be risk factors for multiple myeloma. Cigarette smoking, as a surrogate of benzene exposure, was not found to be associated with multiple myeloma, while some studies of products of combustion described as {open_quotes}engine exhaust{close_quotes} did show a significant association with multiple myeloma. In toto, the population-based and hospital-based case-control literature indicated that benzene exposure was not a likely causal factor for multiple myeloma. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Development of ADOCS controllers and control laws. Volume 2: Literature review and preliminary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Kenneth H.; Glusman, Steven I.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Cockpit Controls/Advanced Flight Control System (ACC/AFCS) study was conducted by the Boeing Vertol Company as part of the Army's Advanced Digital/Optical Control System (ADOCS) program. Specifically, the ACC/AFCS investigation was aimed at developing the flight control laws for the ADOCS demonstrator aircraft which will provide satisfactory handling qualities for an attack helicopter mission. The three major elements of design considered are as follows: Pilot's integrated Side-Stick Controller (SSC) -- Number of axes controlled; force/displacement characteristics; ergonomic design. Stability and Control Augmentation System (SCAS)--Digital flight control laws for the various mission phases; SCAS mode switching logic. Pilot's Displays--For night/adverse weather conditions, the dynamics of the superimposed symbology presented to the pilot in a format similar to the Advanced Attack Helicopter (AAH) Pilot Night Vision System (PNVS) for each mission phase as a function of ACAS characteristics; display mode switching logic. Findings from the literature review and the analysis and synthesis of desired control laws are reported in Volume 2. Conclusions drawn from pilot rating data and commentary were used to formulate recommendations for the ADOCS demonstrator flight control system design. The ACC/AFCS simulation data also provide an extensive data base to aid the development of advanced flight control system design for future V/STOL aircraft.

  9. Unhealthy diets, obesity and time discounting: a systematic literature review and network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is an increasing policy commitment to address the avoidable burdens of unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity. However, to design effective policies, it is important to understand why people make unhealthy dietary choices. Research from behavioural economics suggests a critical role for time discounting, which describes how people's value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. We systematically reviewed the literature on the relationship of time discounting with unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity in Web of Science and PubMed. We identified 41 studies that met our inclusion criteria as they examined the association between time discount rates and (i) unhealthy food consumption; (ii) overweight and (iii) response to dietary and weight loss interventions. Nineteen out of 25 cross‐sectional studies found time discount rates positively associated with overweight, obesity and unhealthy diets. Experimental studies indicated that lower time discounting was associated with greater weight loss. Findings varied by how time discount rates were measured; stronger results were observed for food than monetary‐based measurements. Network co‐citation analysis revealed a concentration of research in nutrition journals. Overall, there is moderate evidence that high time discounting is a significant risk factor for unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity and may serve as an important target for intervention. © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO) PMID:27256685

  10. A Quasi Meta-Analysis of the God Concept Literature from 1970 to 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Norman

    This literature review examines the "God concept," defined as the "cognitive or affective internal psychological representation of God." Most religions have a conception of God. In this review relevant literature focused on: (1) conceptual representations of God; (2) factors related to or predictive of these representations;…

  11. Analysis of Student Responses to Participation in Literature Circles in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Lynda E.; DeCastro-Ambrosetti, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This combined quantitative and qualitative study examined the responses of students to participation in literature circles and the use of trade books in a university classroom. Students in an adolescence course participated in this strategy throughout the semester. The literature circles involved small groups of students who had chosen to read the…

  12. A Critical Review of the Cognitive and Learning Style Literature through Citation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmedt, Ella; Valcke, Martin

    This paper proposes a way to organize the literature on cognitive and learning styles that avoids the shortcomings of existing taxonomies. Most existing reviews and organizations of literature in the field can be criticized on the basis of inconsistency, selectivity, lack of scientific criteria, failure to consider scientific impact, bias, and…

  13. Introducing Pre-University Students to Primary Scientific Literature through Argumentation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for…

  14. The Relevance of Literary Analysis to Teaching Literature in the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van, Truong Thi My

    2009-01-01

    For many university teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL), the study of literature is indispensable because it exposes students to meaningful contexts that are replete with descriptive language and interesting characters. Structuring lessons around the reading of literature introduces a profound range of vocabulary, dialogues, and prose.…

  15. Evaluation in Moves: An Integrated Analysis of Chinese MA Thesis Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate communicative purpose of literature reviews is to convince the reader of the worthiness of the writer's research, which is realized stage by stage and evaluation plays an important role in achieving this end. However, concerns about evaluation demonstration in novice academic writers' literature reviews have been repeatedly voiced in…

  16. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Technical Analysis of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splaine, Pam; Frankel, Steven M.

    This report, prepared for the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools superintendent and board members, identifies the questions concerning seat belt use in school buses, examines relevant literature, and draws some conclusions. According to the literature, seat belts are one of many alternative and interdependent safety devices built into…

  17. Homonormativity in Children's Literature: An Intersectional Analysis of Queer-Themed Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jasmine Z.

    2014-01-01

    Effective social justice movements, including those at the level of children's literature, address the ways different forms of oppression intersect and affect the experiences of diverse queer identities. Children's literature can help combat heteronormative discourse by instilling at a young age the inherent value of all people.…

  18. The Constitution of Outdoor Education Groups: An Analysis of the Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Groups are ubiquitous in outdoor education and while there is a lot of literature on groups, there is limited examination of the assumptions made about groups and the effects these assumptions have on the practices of outdoor education. I utilise some of Michel Foucault's (1992) tools to investigate literature on outdoor education groups.…

  19. Drug repositioning in SLE: crowd-sourcing, literature-mining and Big Data analysis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, A C; Ryals, M M; Heuer, S E; Robl, R D; Madamanchi, S; Davis, L S; Lauwerys, B; Catalina, M D; Lipsky, P E

    2016-09-01

    Lupus patients are in need of modern drugs to treat specific manifestations of their disease effectively and safely. In the past half century, only one new treatment has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In 2014-2015, the FDA approved 71 new drugs, only one of which targeted a rheumatic disease and none of which was approved for use in SLE. Repositioning/repurposing drugs approved for other diseases using multiple approaches is one possible means to find new treatment options for lupus patients. "Big Data" analysis approaches this challenge from an unbiased standpoint whereas literature mining and crowd sourcing for candidates assessed by the CoLTs (Combined Lupus Treatment Scoring) system provide a hypothesis-based approach to rank potential therapeutic candidates for possible clinical application. Both approaches mitigate risk since the candidates assessed have largely been extensively tested in clinical trials for other indications. The usefulness of a multi-pronged approach to drug repositioning in lupus is highlighted by orthogonal confirmation of hypothesis-based drug repositioning predictions by "Big Data" analysis of differentially expressed genes from lupus patient samples. The goal is to identify novel therapies that have the potential to affect disease processes specifically. Involvement of SLE patients and the scientists that study this disease in thinking about new drugs that may be effective in lupus though crowd-sourcing sites such as LRxL-STAT (www.linkedin.com/in/lrxlstat) is important in stimulating the momentum needed to test these novel drug targets for efficacy in lupus rapidly in small, proof-of-concept trials conducted by LuCIN, the Lupus Clinical Investigators Network (www.linkedin.com/in/lucinstat).

  20. Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

  1. Health, Climate Change and Sustainability: A systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, A.; Maynard, V.; Goodman, B.; Richardson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence of climate change and its impact continues to be accumulated, and it is argued that the consequences of climate change are likely to result in an increased demand on health services. It has been claimed that climate change presents new challenges for health services and that strategies should be adopted to address these challenges. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to map published literature on health, climate change and sustainability by categorising papers according to their focus on effects, strategy and actions, and to provide a thematic analysis of their content. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted via a range of healthcare related databases i.e. Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, AMED, ASSIA, IBSS and ISI Web of Knowledge. Searches focussed upon papers published in English between 1998 and 2008. Retrieved papers were studied by the authors in order to inform the thematic analysis of their content. Results: A total of 114 publications were retrieved, of which 36 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. These 36 publications were categorised and are discussed according to their focus on: effects/impacts, strategy/policy, action/examples. Conclusions: A number of papers report the potential health effects of climate change while others report policies and strategies to tackle these effects. However there is an urgent need to identify and report on the implementation of strategies to mitigate and adapt to these challenges and to publish real examples of actions. Actions that are taken need to be evidence/policy based, and implementations monitored, evaluated and published. PMID:20508757

  2. Integrating Language and Literature: Teaching Textual Analysis with Input and Output Activities and an Input-to-Output Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Feve, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    The Modern Language Association report and "Profession" issue from summer 2007 (Geisler et al., 2007) are highly indicative of the increasingly debated concerns in the profession surrounding (1) the traditional division of foreign language curriculum between "language" and "literature" and (2) the instruction of textual analysis (or practice of…

  3. Acquisition and Generalization of Word Decoding in Students with Reading Disabilities by Integrating Vowel Pattern Analysis and Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, E. Judith; Brady, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a reading intervention that integrated vowel pattern analysis and children's literature on the word decoding performance of second graders with reading disabilities. The intervention evaluated students' abilities to decode a set of training words using 3 common vowel patterns (syllable types), in isolation…

  4. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier transform spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Gerrit; Walker, Kaley A.; Conway, Stephanie; Saitoh, Naoko; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly; Drummond, James R.

    2016-05-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three data sets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Laboratory at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional collocation criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and

  5. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier Transform Spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three datasets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Lab at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and between 1.5 and 3

  6. An intercomparison of a large ensemble of statistical downscaling methods for Europe: Overall results from the VALUE perfect predictor cross-validation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Huth, Radan; Hertig, Elke; Benestad, Rasmus; Roessler, Ole; Wibig, Joanna; Wilcke, Renate; Kotlarski, Sven

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research (http://www.value-cost.eu). A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods. This framework is based on a user-focused validation tree, guiding the selection of relevant validation indices and performance measures for different aspects of the validation (marginal, temporal, spatial, multi-variable). Moreover, several experiments have been designed to isolate specific points in the downscaling procedure where problems may occur (assessment of intrinsic performance, effect of errors inherited from the global models, effect of non-stationarity, etc.). The list of downscaling experiments includes 1) cross-validation with perfect predictors, 2) GCM predictors -aligned with EURO-CORDEX experiment- and 3) pseudo reality predictors (see Maraun et al. 2015, Earth's Future, 3, doi:10.1002/2014EF000259, for more details). The results of these experiments are gathered, validated and publicly distributed through the VALUE validation portal, allowing for a comprehensive community-open downscaling intercomparison study. In this contribution we describe the overall results from Experiment 1), consisting of a European wide 5-fold cross-validation (with consecutive 6-year periods from 1979 to 2008) using predictors from ERA-Interim to downscale precipitation and temperatures (minimum and maximum) over a set of 86 ECA&D stations representative of the main geographical and climatic regions in Europe. As a result of the open call for contribution to this experiment (closed in Dec. 2015), over 40 methods representative of the main approaches (MOS and Perfect Prognosis, PP) and techniques (linear scaling, quantile mapping, analogs, weather typing, linear and generalized regression, weather generators, etc.) were submitted, including information both data

  7. Use of n-fold cross-validation to evaluate three methods to calculate heavy truck annual average daily traffic and vehicle miles traveled.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna L; Souleyrette, Reginald; Lamptey, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Reliable estimates of heavy-truck volumes in the United States are important in a number of transportation applications including pavement design and management, traffic safety, and traffic operations. Additionally, because heavy vehicles emit pollutants at much higher rates than passenger vehicles, reliable volume estimates are critical to computing accurate inventories of on-road emissions. Accurate baseline inventories are also necessary to forecast future scenarios. The research presented in this paper evaluated three different methods commonly used by transportation agencies to estimate annual average daily traffic (AADT), which is used to determine vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Traffic data from continuous count stations provided by the Iowa Department of Transportation were used to estimate AADT for single-unit and multiunit trucks for rural freeways and rural primary highways using the three methods. The first method developed general expansion factors, which apply to all vehicles. AADT, representing all vehicles, was estimated for short-term counts and was multiplied by statewide average truck volumes for the corresponding roadway type to obtain AADT for each truck category. The second method also developed general expansion factors and AADT estimates. Truck AADT for the second method was calculated by multiplying the general AADT by truck volumes from the short-term counts. The third method developed expansion factors specific to each truck group. AADT estimates for each truck group were estimated from short-term counts using corresponding expansion factors. Accuracy of the three methods was determined by comparing actual AADT from count station data to estimates from the three methods. Accuracy of the three methods was compared using n-fold cross-validation. Mean squared error of prediction was used to estimate the difference between estimated and actual AADT. Prediction error was lowest for the method that developed separate expansion factors for trucks

  8. A cross validation study of deep brain stimulation targeting: from experts to atlas-based, segmentation-based and automatic registration algorithms.

    PubMed

    Castro, F Javier Sanchez; Pollo, Claudio; Meuli, Reto; Maeder, Philippe; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2006-11-01

    Validation of image registration algorithms is a difficult task and open-ended problem, usually application-dependent. In this paper, we focus on deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting for the treatment of movement disorders like Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. DBS involves implantation of an electrode deep inside the brain to electrically stimulate specific areas shutting down the disease's symptoms. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has turned out to be the optimal target for this kind of surgery. Unfortunately, the STN is in general not clearly distinguishable in common medical imaging modalities. Usual techniques to infer its location are the use of anatomical atlases and visible surrounding landmarks. Surgeons have to adjust the electrode intraoperatively using electrophysiological recordings and macrostimulation tests. We constructed a ground truth derived from specific patients whose STNs are clearly visible on magnetic resonance (MR) T2-weighted images. A patient is chosen as atlas both for the right and left sides. Then, by registering each patient with the atlas using different methods, several estimations of the STN location are obtained. Two studies are driven using our proposed validation scheme. First, a comparison between different atlas-based and nonrigid registration algorithms with a evaluation of their performance and usability to locate the STN automatically. Second, a study of which visible surrounding structures influence the STN location. The two studies are cross validated between them and against expert's variability. Using this scheme, we evaluated the expert's ability against the estimation error provided by the tested algorithms and we demonstrated that automatic STN targeting is possible and as accurate as the expert-driven techniques currently used. We also show which structures have to be taken into account to accurately estimate the STN location.

  9. Molluscicidal efficacies of different formulations of niclosamide: result of meta-analysis of Chinese literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Li, Wei; Sun, Le-Ping; Wu, Feng; Yang, Kun; Huang, Yi-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-09-07

    The control efforts on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, cannot be easily excluded from the integrated approach of schistosomiasis control in China. Application of chemical compounds, molluscicides, in snail habitats is a common method for snail control in addition to environmental modification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the molluscicidal effects of the currently recommended 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder and a new 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder developed by Chinese researchers. Literature was searched from three Chinese databases, i.e. Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Database and Wanfang Database, on field mollusciciding trials of niclosamide in China (from January 1, 1990 to April 1, 2010). Molluscicidal effects on reduction of snail population of the 50% or 4% niclosamide formulations in field trial were evaluated 3 days, 7 days or 15 days post-application. Out of 90 publications, 20 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity tests indicated that no publication bias existed but heterogeneity between studies was present. Meta-analysis in a random effect model showed that the snail mortality of 3, 7 and 15 days after spraying the 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were 77% [95%CI: 0.68-0.86], 83% [95%CI: 0.77-0.89], and 88% [95%CI: 0.82-0.92], respectively. For the 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder, the snail mortality after 3, 7 and 15 days were 81% [95%CI: 0.65-0.93], 90% [95%CI: 0.83-0.95] and 94% [95%CI: 0.91-0.97], respectively. Both are good enough to be used as molluscicides integrated with a schistosomiasis control programme. The 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder can be applied in the field without water supply as the surrogate of the current widely used 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder. However, to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievement gained, it is

  10. Quality and Quantity of the Elbow Arthroscopy Literature: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Frank, Rachel M; Romeo, Anthony A; Harris, Joshua D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of elbow arthroscopy literature to answer the following questions: "Across the world, what demographic of patients are undergoing elbow arthroscopy, what are the most common indications for elbow arthroscopy, and how good is the evidence?" The authors hypothesized that patients who undergo elbow arthroscopy will be chiefly age <40 years, the most common indication for elbow arthroscopy will be a release/débridement, and the evidence regarding elbow arthroscopy will be poor. Also, no significant differences will exist in elbow arthroscopy publications, subjects, outcomes, and techniques based on continent/country of publication. A systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) and performed with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using 3 publicly available databases. Therapeutic clinical outcome investigations reporting arthroscopic elbow outcomes with levels of evidence I-IV were eligible for inclusion. All study, subject, and surgical technique demographics were analyzed and compared between continents and countries. Statistics were calculated using 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare between continents and Pearson's correlation coefficients to evaluate changes over time. In total, 112 studies were included (3093 subjects; 3168 elbows; 64% male; mean 34.9 ± 14.68 years. Mean 33.4 ± 26.02 months follow-up. Most studies were level IV evidence (94.6%) and had a low Modified Coleman Methodology Score (MCMS) (mean 28.1 ± 8.06). From 1985 through 2013, the number of publications significantly increased with time (P = .004) in all continents. The 3 most common indications for elbow arthroscopy were osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), lateral epicondylitis, and release and débridement. The number of reported cases for the 3 most common indications significantly

  11. Educational services in health sciences libraries: an analysis of the periodical literature, 1975-1986.

    PubMed Central

    Zachert, M J

    1987-01-01

    The periodical literature on group instructional services in health sciences libraries was analyzed to determine the nature of these services, their target audiences, and their institutional settings. Three kinds of reports were identified: descriptions of services (70%), reviews of the literature (10.5%), and future-oriented articles that advocate various group instructional services (19.5%). Five target audiences were identified: library users, staff, librarian peers, library science students, and patients. Instructional services were offered primarily in medical school/center libraries, hospital libraries, and the National Library of Medicine and its Regional Medical Libraries (RMLs). To a lesser extent, health sciences educational services are offered through other professional school libraries, library associations and consortia, and schools of library science. There are gaps in the literature in the areas of library experience with marketing, evaluation, administration of the offered educational services, and continuing education for health sciences librarians. PMID:3676534

  12. Recidivism and resilience in juvenile sexual offenders: an analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Efta-Breitbach, Jill; Freeman, Kurt A

    2004-01-01

    The majority of research that exists studying juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) is dominated by the predilection that identifying risk factors associated with recidivism will benefit both the JSOs and treatment providers. Further, the majority of existing treatments are guided by research that has identified what makes JSOs more likely to reoffend. Absent from the majority of the literature is an examination of the strengths and positive characteristics demonstrated by JSOs that may prove useful in both reducing recidivism and increasing the likelihood of achieving positive outcomes (i.e., demonstrating resilience). Research examining known risk factors for sexual and nonsexual recidivism is described. Next, literature on resilience is reviewed, followed by a discussion of this literature in the context of treatment for JSOs. Finally, future directions of research are presented.

  13. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  14. RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Heladia; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; García-Sotelo, Jair S.; Weiss, Verena; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Salgado-Osorio, Gerardo; Alquicira-Hernández, Shirley; Alquicira-Hernández, Kevin; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; Porrón-Sotelo, Liliana; Huerta, Araceli M.; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Balderas-Martínez, Yalbi I.; Pannier, Lucia; Olvera, Maricela; Labastida, Aurora; Jiménez-Jacinto, Verónica; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; del Moral-Chávez, Victor; Hernández-Alvarez, Alfredo; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes our progress with RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) during the past 2 years. We have kept up-to-date the knowledge from the published literature regarding transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. We have maintained and expanded our curation efforts to improve the breadth and quality of the encoded experimental knowledge, and we have implemented criteria for the quality of our computational predictions. Regulatory phrases now provide high-level descriptions of regulatory regions. We expanded the assignment of quality to various sources of evidence, particularly for knowledge generated through high-throughput (HT) technology. Based on our analysis of most relevant methods, we defined rules for determining the quality of evidence when multiple independent sources support an entry. With this latest release of RegulonDB, we present a new highly reliable larger collection of transcription start sites, a result of our experimental HT genome-wide efforts. These improvements, together with several novel enhancements (the tracks display, uploading format and curational guidelines), address the challenges of incorporating HT-generated knowledge into RegulonDB. Information on the evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements is also available now. Altogether, RegulonDB version 8.0 is a much better home for integrating knowledge on gene regulation from the sources of information currently available. PMID:23203884

  15. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-03-14

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  16. Intracranial abscesses: Retrospective analysis of 32 patients and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Udoh, David O.; Ibadin, Emmanuel; Udoh, Mojisola O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracranial abscess collections, though uncommon, are dreaded complications of head trauma, neurosurgical operations, meningitis, and otogenic, mastoid, and paranasal air sinus infections. Combining surgical evacuation with the appropriate antibiotic therapy is the effective treatment for intracranial abscesses. However, literature on surgical treatment is replete with several procedures which, on their own, may not Objectives: To determine the epidemiology and outcomes (of various treatment modalities) of intracranial abscesses in our institution, a major referral center for neurosurgical conditions in the midwestern region of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of demographic data as well as indications, treatment modalities, and outcomes of various surgical procedures for evacuation of intracranial abscesses between September 2006 and December 2011. Results: We carried out 40 procedures in 32 (23 male and 9 female) patients with various intracranial abscesses. These represented approximately 5.6% of all operative neurosurgical procedures in our unit since inception. Most abscesses [16, i.e. 50%] occurred in the second decade. In the first decade, there were 7 (22%), and after the age of 30 years, there were 4 (12.5%). The most susceptible single year of life was infancy with 4 (12.5%) cases of intracranial abscesses. None of the infants had features of congenital heart disease. The predisposing factors were mostly otolaryngologic (9) or posttraumatic (6). Most abscesses (41%) were located in the frontal region, and intraparenchymal (i.e. intracerebral or intracerebellar) (50%) lesions were commoner than extradural, subdural, or intraventricular lesions. The commonest procedure performed (50%) was burr hole evacuation. Four patients (12.5% of cases) died. Prognosis appears to worsen with meningitis as the predisposing infection, ventriculitis, multiple abscesses especially in infants, and immunosuppression. Conclusion

  17. Raising critical issues in the analysis of gender and science in children's literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-12-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science, and childhood in literature for children; (b) the need to consider socio/historical/cultural contexts in analytical and theoretical frameworks; and (c) the importance of fostering critical literacy perspectives in pre- and in-service science teachers and the children whom they teach.

  18. Why farmers adopt best management practice in the United States: A meta-analysis of the adoption literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumgart-Getz, Adam; Stalker Prokopy, Linda; Floress, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies assesses factors believed to influence adoption of agricultural Best Management Practices in the United States. Using an established statistical technique to summarize the adoption literature in the United States, we identified the following variables as having the largest impact on adoption: access to and quality of information, financial capacity, and being connected to agency or local networks of farmers or watershed groups. This study shows that various approaches to data collection affect the results and comparability of adoption studies. In particular, environmental awareness and farmer attitudes have been inconsistently used and measured across the literature. This meta-analysis concludes with suggestions regarding the future direction of adoption studies, along with guidelines for how data should be presented to enhance the adoption of conservation practices and guide research.

  19. Sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems: Summary of literature survey and concept analysis, task 3 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennethum, W. H.; Sherwood, L. T.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a literature survey and concept analysis related to sensing techniques for measuring of surface temperature, strain, and heat flux for (non-specific) ceramic materials exposed to elevated temperatures (to 2200 K) are summarized. Concepts capable of functioning in a gas turbine hot section environment are favored but others are reviewed also. Recommendation are made for sensor development in each of the three areas.

  20. Bibliometric analysis of the literature from the mainland of China on animal-derived regenerative implantable medical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Man; Li, Fu-Yao

    2014-12-01

    Choosing animal-derived regenerative implantable medical devices based on tissue engineering technology as a research theme, this paper presents bibliometric analysis of relative literature from the mainland of China to understand such data as publication year and journal preference, authors' geographic location, research topics and core expertise to predict the research trends and provide an informed basis of decision making for researchers and clinicians.

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the elderly: Meta-analysis and systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Annie K; Guy, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis to investigate the clinical outcomes of surgical resection and locoregional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in elderly patients defined as aged 70 years or more. METHODS: Literature documenting a comparison of clinical outcomes for elderly and non elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was identified by searching PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases, for those from inception to March 2015 with no limits. Dichotomous outcomes and standard meta-analysis techniques were used. Heterogeneity was tested by the Cochrane Q statistic. Pooled estimates were measured using the fixed or random effect model. RESULTS: Twenty three studies were included with a total of 12482 patients. Of these patients, 6341 were treated with surgical resection, 3138 were treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and 3003 were treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Of the patients who underwent surgical resection, the elderly had significantly more respiratory co-morbidities than the younger group, with both groups having a similar proportion of cardiovascular co-morbidities and diabetes. After 1 year, the elderly group had significantly increased survival rates after surgical resection compared to the younger group (OR = 0.762, 95%CI: 0.583-0.994, P = 0.045). However, the 3-year and 5-year survival outcomes with surgical resection between the two groups were similar (OR = 0.947, 95%CI: 0.777-1.154, P = 0.67 for the third year; and OR = 1.131, 95%CI: 0.895-1.430, P = 0.304 for the fifth year). Postoperative treatment complications were similar between the elderly and younger group. The elderly group and younger group had similar survival outcomes for the first and third year after RFA (OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 0.788-2.885, P = 0.217 and OR = 1.352, 95%CI: 0.940-1.944, P = 0.104). For the fifth year, the elderly group had significantly worse survival rates compared to the younger group after RFA (OR = 1.379, 95

  2. Understanding System Utilization as a Limitation Associated with Cybersecurity Laboratories--A Literature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The use of laboratories as part of cybersecurity education is well evidenced in the existing literature. We are informed about the benefits, different types of laboratories and, in addition, underlying learning theories therein. Existing research also demonstrates that the success of employing cybersecurity laboratory exercises relies upon…

  3. Educational Leadership, Management and Administration in Africa: An Analysis of Contemporary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asuga, Gladys Nyanchama; Scevak, Jill; Eacott, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been calls by scholars for a more concerted effort to develop empirically grounded research studies on educational leadership management and administration in an indigenous context rather than hegemonic western contexts. This paper presents a review of contemporary literature on educational leadership from…

  4. The Emergence and Evolution of School Psychology Literature: A Scientometric Analysis from 1907 through 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shuyan; Oakland, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this current study is to identify the growth and development of scholarly literature that specifically references the term "school psychology" in the Science Citation Index from 1907 through 2014. Documents from Web of Science were accessed and analyzed through the use of scientometric analyses, including HistCite and…

  5. The Representation of Psychology in the Child Sexual Abuse Literature: An Analysis and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurkjian, Jayne A.; Scotti, Joseph R.

    It has been estimated that 20 to 38% of females and 10% of males have been sexually abused prior to age 18. This study reviewed the treatment literature to determine any differential interests in the topic of child sexual abuse across the disciplines of social work, psychology, psychiatry, and medicine. Ten professional journals, considered…

  6. A Critical Analysis of Selected Native American Literature for Juvenile Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anna C.; Adams, Caryl L.

    Intended to help teachers who want to offer their students the best native American literature, this paper analyzes a selection of books written by and about native Americans, in particular the Navajo Indians. The criteria used to select materials for the paper include historical accuracy, cultural accuracy, idealism versus realism, and reader…

  7. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  8. Group Investigation as a Cooperative Learning Strategy: An Integrated Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mitzi G.; Montgomery, Hilary; Holder, Michelle; Stuart, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The cooperative learning strategy of group investigation has been used extensively in elementary and high school classrooms. Whereas this learning strategy seems to benefit low- and middle-achieving students, the performance of high-achieving students seems to change little. This article examines the literature on group investigation as a…

  9. Reading Disabilities in Adults: A Selective Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Hsieh, Ching-Ju

    2009-01-01

    This article synthesizes the experimental literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of adults with reading disabilities to those of average-achieving adult readers. The central question posed by this review is to what extent and in what manner do adults with reading disabilities differ from adults without reading…

  10. A Meta-Analysis of the RTI Literature for Children at Risk for Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Loan; Sanchez, Tori; Arellano, Brenda; Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature comparing at-risk children designated as responders and low responders to interventions in reading. The central question addressed in this review is whether individual differences in reading-related skills at pretest predict responders at posttest across a variety of interventions and sets of criteria for…

  11. "What Could I Say?" A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Construction of Race in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Christian, June

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of Whiteness in children's literature that intentionally brings Whiteness to the surface. We wondered: do the authors re-center Whiteness in their attempts to racialize White people? What literary strategies and linguistic techniques do the authors call on to present Whiteness and, subsequently, Blackness?…

  12. A Content Analysis of Acculturation Research in the Career Development Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.; Kerlow-Myers, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to highlight the importance of acculturation as an explanatory variable in career development and to provide an empirical review of acculturation research in the career development literature. Acculturation is a cultural variable that has been linked to a number of important career development outcomes for…

  13. Language Curriculum Analysis of French Literature in Iranian Universities at BA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Cheraghi, Haleh; Letafati, Roya; Safa, Parivash

    2017-01-01

    This article attempts to realize the dominant approach in developing the academic curriculum of language degree and French literature in Iran. It concentrates on analyzing the content of the curriculum approved by the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology in Iran and the University of Tehran. It was concluded that the first curriculum opts…

  14. Representations of the Moon in Children's Literature: An Analysis of Written and Visual Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.; Pritchard, T. Gail

    2008-01-01

    This review focused on the written and visual representation of the moon in 80 children's books, including Caldecott Medal and Honor books over the past 20 years. Results revealed that many of these books misrepresent the moon and even reinforce misconceptions about lunar phases. Teachers who use children's literature that misrepresents the moon…

  15. [Epidermoid cysts in the pineal region--analysis of four cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Laleva, M; Uzunov, K; Gabrovski, N; abrovski, St

    2009-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent 0.2-1% of all intracranial tumours. Extremely rare they are found in the pineal region. We present four patients with epidermoid cysts located in the pineal region observed and operated by the senior author (S.G.) during a period of twenty years and review of the literature.

  16. College-Readiness in Math: A Conceptual Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Reni A.; Slate, John R.; Saxon, D. Patrick; Barnes, Wally

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examined the extant literature regarding college-readiness in math for students entering community colleges. Included in this review are the following topics: (a) the role of community colleges between secondary and postsecondary institutions; (b) national initiatives for college-readiness standards in math; (c) Texas…

  17. Analogies in the Teaching of Chemical Equilibrium: A Synthesis/Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres; Garritz, Andoni

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a thorough literature review of the analogies used to teach chemical equilibrium. The main objective is to compile all the analogies that have been found to be of service to the teacher and the student. Additionally, we categorize and analyze analogies in relation to the following aspects: representation of the dynamic nature…

  18. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  19. Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes for Essential Hypertension: A Literature Analysis of 13,272 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background. To simplify traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation and allow researchers to master syndrome differentiation for hypertension, this paper retrospectively studied the literature and analyzed syndrome elements corresponding to hypertension syndromes. Methods. Six databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data were searched from 1/January/2003 to 30/October/2013. We included all clinical literature testing hypertension syndromes and retrospectively studied the hypertension literature published from 2003 to 2013. Descriptive statistics calculated frequencies and percentages. Results. 13,272 patients with essential hypertension were included. Clinical features of hypertension could be attributed to 11 kinds of syndrome factors. Among them, seven syndrome factors were excess, while four syndrome factors were deficient. Syndrome targets were mainly in the liver and related to the kidney and spleen. There were 33 combination syndromes. Frequency of single-factor syndromes was 31.77% and frequency of two-factor syndromes was 62.26%. Conclusions. Excess syndrome factors of hypertension patients include yang hyperactivity, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, internal dampness, and internal fire. Deficient syndrome factors of hypertension patients are yin deficiency and yang deficiency. Yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity, phlegm-dampness retention, and deficiency of both yin and yang were the three most common syndromes in clinical combination. PMID:24660016

  20. Experimental Intervention Studies on Word Problem Solving and Math Disabilities: A Selective Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Xinhua; Flynn, Lindsay J.; Swanson, H. Lee

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a quantitative synthesis of the published literature on word problem solving intervention studies for children with math disabilities (MD). Seven group and eight single-subject design studies met inclusion criteria. Mean effect sizes ("ES"s) for solution accuracy for group design studies were 0.95 (SE = 0.19) for…

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  2. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Nursing Education Programs. Volume III: Analysis of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The three volume study is a review of the available literature to determine the relative effectiveness and efficiency of diploma, associate degree, and baccalaureate nursing education programs in producing the number and quality of registered nurses needed in the nation; and to analyze the cost of nursing education. Volume three notes that a mild…

  3. Ascertaining Activities in a Subject Area Through Bibliometric Analysis; Application to "Library Literature"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracevic, Tefko; Perk, Lawrence J.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analize the journal articles indexed in one volume of Library Literature.'' This approach, merging bibliometrics and classification, yielded results in such areas as dispersion of articles among journals, frequency of article type and types of subjects covered. (16 references)…

  4. Grounding a new information technology implementation framework in behavioral science: a systematic analysis of the literature on IT use.

    PubMed

    Kukafka, Rita; Johnson, Stephen B; Linfante, Allison; Allegrante, John P

    2003-06-01

    Many interventions to improve the success of information technology (IT) implementations are grounded in behavioral science, using theories, and models to identify conditions and determinants of successful use. However, each model in the IT literature has evolved to address specific theoretical problems of particular disciplinary concerns, and each model has been tested and has evolved using, in most cases, a more or less restricted set of IT implementation procedures. Functionally, this limits the perspective for taking into account the multiple factors at the individual, group, and organizational levels that influence use behavior. While a rich body of literature has emerged, employing prominent models such as the Technology Adoption Model, Social-Cognitive Theory, and Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the complexity of defining a suitable multi-level intervention has largely been overlooked. A gap exists between the implementation of IT and the integration of theories and models that can be utilized to develop multi-level approaches to identify factors that impede usage behavior. We present a novel framework that is intended to guide synthesis of more than one theoretical perspective for the purpose of planning multi-level interventions to enhance IT use. This integrative framework is adapted from PRECEDE/PROCEDE, a conceptual framework used by health planners in hundreds of published studies to direct interventions that account for the multiple determinants of behavior. Since we claim that the literature on IT use behavior does not now include a multi-level approach, we undertook a systematic literature analysis to confirm this assertion. Our framework facilitated organizing this literature synthesis and our analysis was aimed at determining if the IT implementation approaches in the published literature were characterized by an approach that considered at least two levels of IT usage determinants. We found that while 61% of studies mentioned or referred to

  5. Integrity of Literature on Expressed Emotion and Relapse in Patients with Schizophrenia Verified by a p-Curve Analysis.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Marc J; Hall, Daniel L; Carbonella, Julia Y; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Hooley, Jill M

    2016-02-15

    There is growing concern that much published research may have questionable validity due to phenomena such as publication bias and p-hacking. Within the psychiatric literature, the construct of expressed emotion (EE) is widely assumed to be a reliable predictor of relapse across a range of mental illnesses. EE is an index of the family climate, measuring how critical, hostile, and overinvolved a family member is toward a mentally ill patient. No study to date has examined the evidential value of this body of research as a whole. That is to say, although many studies have shown a link between EE and symptom relapse, the integrity of the literature from which this claim is derived has not been tested. In an effort to confirm the integrity of the literature of EE predicting psychiatric relapse in patients with schizophrenia, we conducted a p-curve analysis on all known studies examining EE (using the Camberwell Family Interview) to predict psychiatric relapse over a 9- to 12-month follow-up period. Results suggest that the body of literature on EE is unbiased and has integrity, as there was a significant right skew of p-values, a nonsignificant left skew of p-values, and a nonsignificant test of flatness. We conclude that EE is a robust and valuable predictor of symptom relapse in schizophrenia.

  6. Dealing With Major Life Events and Transitions: A Systematic Literature Review on and Occupational Analysis of Spirituality.

    PubMed

    Maley, Christine M; Pagana, Nicole K; Velenger, Christa A; Humbert, Tamera Keiter

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review analyzed the construct of spirituality as perceived by people who have experienced or are experiencing a major life event or transition. The researchers investigated studies that used narrative analysis or a phenomenological methodology related to the topic. Thematic analysis resulted in three major themes: (1) avenues to and through spirituality, (2) the experience of spirituality, and (3) the meaning of spirituality. The results provide insights into the intersection of spirituality, meaning, and occupational engagement as understood by people experiencing a major life event or transition and suggest further research that addresses spirituality in occupational therapy and interdisciplinary intervention.

  7. Analysis Tools for Sizing and Placement of Energy Storage for Grid Applications - A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sadovsky, Artyom; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-09-24

    The purpose of this report was to review pertinent literature and studies that might reveal models capable of optimizing the siting, sizing and economic value of energy storage in the future smart grid infrastructure. Energy storage technology and utility system deployment have been subjects of intense research and development for over three decades. During this time, many models have been developed that consider energy storage implementation in the electric power industry and other applications. Nevertheless, this review of literature discovered no actual models and only a few software tools that relate specifically to the application environment and expected requirements of the evolving smart grid infrastructure. This report indicates the existing need for such a model and describes a pathway for developing it.

  8. Retrospective analysis of surgical treatment outcomes for gelastic seizures: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Likavec, A M; Dickerman, R D; Heiss, J D; Liow, K

    2000-04-01

    Gelastic seizures are known to be refractory to medical treatment and to date surgical therapy has yet to pinpoint the best treatment for these refractory seizures. There has been a multitude of case reports published on gelastic seizures and different surgical treatments, thus we performed a review of the literature on gelastic seizures and surgical treatments to elucidate the best surgical approaches for medically refractory gelastic seizures.

  9. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research.

  10. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and hearing disorders: Literature review and meta-analysis of clinical and temporal bone findings.

    PubMed

    Di Stadio, Arianna; Ralli, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Objective This literature review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations among hearing and vestibular clinical symptoms, temporal bone findings, and pathological mechanisms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Study design Relevant papers in the literature were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical hearing aspects in patients with SLE and relevant temporal bone studies in the same field were analyzed. Methods PubMed and Google Scholar searches were performed using the following keywords: "auto-immune disease," "systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)," "hearing loss," "temporal bone study," "vertigo," "dizziness," "tinnitus," "ear symptoms," "treatment," "diagnosis," "symptoms," "etiopathogenesis," "Wegener granulomatosis," "Sjogren," "polyarteritis nodosa," "Cogan syndrome," and "granulomatosis." Also included were reviews in which the following terms were present: "SLE," "temporal bone," and "hearing symptoms." Review and conclusion This literature review and meta-analysis focused on the pathological mechanisms through which SLE can damage inner ear structures and determinate hearing and vestibular symptoms. The main mechanisms involved in inner ear damage include the autoimmune response, deposition of immune complexes in the vessels and, to a lesser extent, cytotoxic damage.

  11. Cross-validated stable-isotope dilution GC-MS and LC-MS/MS assays for monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) activity by measuring arachidonic acid released from the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol.

    PubMed

    Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Schauerte, Celina; Kling, Katharina; Herbers, Jan; Beckmann, Bibiana; Engeli, Stefan; Jordan, Jens; Zoerner, Alexander A; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-15

    2-Arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) is an endocannabinoid that activates cannabinoid (CB) receptors CB1 and CB2. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inactivates 2AG through hydrolysis to arachidonic acid (AA) and glycerol, thus modulating the activity at CB receptors. In the brain, AA released from 2AG by the action of MAGL serves as a substrate for cyclooxygenases which produce pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. Here we report stable-isotope GC-MS and LC-MS/MS assays for the reliable measurement of MAGL activity. The assays utilize deuterium-labeled 2AG (d8-2AG; 10μM) as the MAGL substrate and measure deuterium-labeled AA (d8-AA; range 0-1μM) as the MAGL product. Unlabelled AA (d0-AA, 1μM) serves as the internal standard. d8-AA and d0-AA are extracted from the aqueous buffered incubation mixtures by ethyl acetate. Upon solvent evaporation the residue is reconstituted in the mobile phase prior to LC-MS/MS analysis or in anhydrous acetonitrile for GC-MS analysis. LC-MS/MS analysis is performed in the negative electrospray ionization mode by selected-reaction monitoring the mass transitions [M-H](-)→[M-H - CO2](-), i.e., m/z 311→m/z 267 for d8-AA and m/z 303→m/z 259 for d0-AA. Prior to GC-MS analysis d8-AA and d0-AA were converted to their pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) esters by means of PFB-Br. GC-MS analysis is performed in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode by selected-ion monitoring the ions [M-PFB](-), i.e., m/z 311 for d8-AA and m/z 303 for d0-AA. The GC-MS and LC-MS/MS assays were cross-validated. Linear regression analysis between the concentration (range, 0-1μM) of d8-AA measured by LC-MS/MS (y) and that by GC-MS (x) revealed a straight line (r(2)=0.9848) with the regression equation y=0.003+0.898x, indicating a good agreement. In dog liver, we detected MAGL activity that was inhibitable by the MAGL inhibitor JZL-184. Exogenous eicosatetraynoic acid is suitable as internal standard for the quantitative determination of d8-AA produced from d8

  12. Perioperative mortality after pneumonectomy: analysis of risk factors and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Daniel E.; Lachapelle, Kevin; Sampalis, John; Mulder, David S.; Chiu, Ray C.-J.; Wilson, James

    1997-01-01

    Objective To determine risk factors for perioperative death associated with pneumonectomy. Design A retrospective case-control study in which a perioperative death group was compared with a survivor group, and a review of the English literature on the subject. Setting The Montreal General Hospital, a tertiary-care teaching institution. Patients and intervention Ninety-two consecutive patients who underwent pneumonectomy between April 1989 and 1994. Main outcome measures The effects of age, sex, smoking history, tumour size, type and stage, pulmonary function, cardiovascular risks, comorbidity, preoperative blood values and volume of fluids administered perioperatively. Values from the literature were reported for comparison. Results The perioperative death rate was 10.9%. Selection bias and in-hospital values reported in the literature have underestimated the death rate, with actual rates ranging from 7% to 11%. Age (odds ratio 2.48, p = 0.04), the presence of 1 or more comorbid diseases (odds ratio 7.92, p = 0.05) and amount of fluids given in the first 12 hours postoperatively (odds ratio 2.21, p = 0.06) were found to be significant risk factors for death. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that the volume of fluids given remains an independent risk factor whereas age and comorbid disease are dependent variables. Conclusions The results were consistent with previously reported death rates and risk factors. Patient age and concomitant disease are not modifiable risk factors, but perioperative fluid administration and other means to prevent postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema may reduce the perioperative death rate. PMID:9416253

  13. Psychotic disorder due to traumatic brain injury: analysis of case studies in the literature.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Daryl; Fujii, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    The present study utilized methodology from a previous descriptive study that analyzed case studies of psychotic disorder due to traumatic brain injury (PD-TBI) reported in psychiatry and neurology journals. The purpose was to replicate findings from the PD-TBI literature and to elucidate a pattern of characteristics that would differentiate PD-TBI from schizophrenia. The findings supported both objectives. PD-TBI data were highly consistent with previous studies: PD-TBI differed from schizophrenia in showing more focal frontal and temporal abnormalities on neurological studies and a lower rate of negative symptoms. The authors discuss implications of these findings for conceptualizing psychosis as a neurobiological syndrome.

  14. Traditional herbal drugs of Southern Uganda, II: literature analysis and antimicrobial assays.

    PubMed

    Hamill, F A; Apio, S; Mubiru, N K; Bukenya-Ziraba, R; Mosango, M; Maganyi, O W; Soejarto, D D

    2003-01-01

    Continuing field interviews brought the total species used for disease treatment by herbalists of the majority Baganda Tribe of southern Uganda to 168. Literature searches provided support for the ethnomedical claims for a number of these species, and provided criteria for the species classification into four categories of use validation. They also helped guide the selection of species for recollection, for chemical extraction and further testing in laboratories of the Uganda Ministry of Health and the University of Illinois at Chicago. Many species proved active against microorganisms in several susceptibility assays conducted in Uganda and the US.

  15. [Analysis of acupuncture literatures published in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2010].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yan; Li, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Acupuncture-related literatures published in foreign medical journal in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2010 were retrieved, summarized and analyzed. The result shows that the recognition of acupuncture clinic abroad was still in the initial period. Most of the researches were still remained in the section of clinical efficacy verification. There was comparatively less studies on its working mechanism. Traditional treatments according to differentiation of syndromes were still deficient in clinical researches. There were big differences on research results, however, most of the result equated therapeutic effect of acupuncture with placeboes. And it was lack of unified and standard estimation system on the effect of acupuncture.

  16. Managing Fire in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert: A Review and Analysis of the Literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebow, Brooke S.; Halvorson, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary This report began as a literature review (Gebow and Halvorson 2001) conducted for fire planners at Carlsbad Caverns National Park who were seeking information about (1) the natural state of park vegetation, (2) northern Chihuahuan Desert natural fire regimes, and (3) fire effects on park plant species. It is the goal of managers there to continue to refine the wildland and prescribed fire program as they learn more about the ecosystems at the park.The park has a history of grazing and then fire suppression in the 20th century. The current effort revisits questions asked by earlier workers at the park, Walter Kittams and Gary Ahlstrand, who began fire studies in the 1970s. This document addresses ecosystems and historical change to those systems in Chihuahuan Desert areas of southeast Arizona, southern New Mexico, west Texas, or in neighboring regions that share the same plant species. It examines fire literature for situations possibly analogous to those at Carlsbad Caverns. It also includes papers that offer advice on extrapolating future ecological trends from past ones (Swetnam et al. 1999) and on resource management decision-making (Grumbine 1997), and other pieces that address broader aspects of fire or landscape change (Goldman 1994; Marston 1996; Mutch 1994, 1995). These more philosophical works were included in the original review at the park's request and have been retained here because they discuss other issues relevant to fire management. Individual reviews of 35 papers, as requested originally by Carlsbad Caverns, appear in Appendix 1. The results section-summary of key findings-discusses historical changes to plant communities then focuses on burn intervals observed or recommended by workers for particular plant communities. Results from a search of the USDA Forest Service's Fire Effects Information System (www.fs.fed.us/database/feis) are also included in this report, supplemented with information from a review conducted by Ahlstrand

  17. A content analysis of the prevalence and portrayal of sexual activity in adolescent literature.

    PubMed

    Callister, Mark; Coyne, Sarah M; Stern, Lesa A; Stockdale, Laura; Miller, Malinda J; Wells, Brian M

    2012-01-01

    Most research on sexual content in the media has focused on visual images such as those in TV, film, advertisements, and magazines. However, researchers have largely overlooked sexual content in novels. The popularity of novels and the potential for such literature to educate teens on sexual behaviors merits a closer examination into the sexual messages contained in popular adolescent literature. This study content analyzes the top 40 novels targeting adolescents. Results show that adolescent novels are replete with sex-related information, especially in novels targeted to girls. These sexual behaviors range from passionate kissing and romantic ideation to sexual intercourse. Over one third of the instances focus on references to sex, suggestive innuendos, or sexual descriptions; and an additional one third of sexual behavior involved sexual affection in the form of passionate kissing, intimate touching, and playful sexual behavior. Across the 40 books, there were 56 instances of sexual intercourse, most of which involved unmarried couples (94%); and many were in non-committal relationships. Moreover, sexual material rarely dealt with issues of abstinence, safe sex practices, and the health risks associated with sex.

  18. Trends in the growth of literature of telemedicine: A bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Ting; Iqbal, Usman; Ching, Jack Horn-Yu; Ting, Jonathan Bee-Shen; Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Tamashiro, Hiko; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades, the use of telemedicine as a way to provide medical services has grown as communication technologies advance and patients seek more convenient ways to receive care. Because developments within this field are still rapidly evolving, identifying trends within telemedicine literature is an important task to help delineate future directions of telemedicine research. In this study, we analyzed 7960 telemedicine-related publication records found in the Science Citations Index - Expanded database between 1993 and 2012. Bibliometric analyses revealed that while the total growth in telemedicine literature has been significant in the last twenty years, the publication activity per country and over time has been variable. While the United States led the world in the cumulative number of telemedicine publications, Norway ranked highest when we ordered countries by publications per capita. We also saw that the growth in the number of publications per year has been inconsistent over the past two decades. Our results identified that neuroscience neurology and nursing as two fields of research in telemedicine that have seen considerable growth in interest in this field, and are poised to be the focus of research activity in the near future.

  19. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications. PMID:27177402

  20. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications.

  1. BDNF DNA methylation changes as a biomarker of psychiatric disorders: literature review and open access database analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheleznyakova, Galina Y; Cao, Hao; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-06

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in nervous system development and function and it is well established that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Recently, numerous studies have associated the DNA methylation level of BDNF promoters with certain psychiatric phenotypes. In this review, we summarize data from current literature as well as from our own analysis with respect to the correlation of BDNF methylation changes with psychiatric disorders and address questions about whether DNA methylation related to the BDNF can be useful as biomarker for specific neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Cultural variances in composition of biological and supernatural concepts of death: a content analysis of children's literature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Seong; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Younyoung; Koo, Ja Hyouk

    2014-01-01

    Children's reasoning about the afterlife emerges naturally as a developmental regularity. Although a biological understanding of death increases in accordance with cognitive development, biological and supernatural explanations of death may coexist in a complementary manner, being deeply imbedded in cultural contexts. This study conducted a content analysis of 40 children's death-themed picture books in Western Europe and East Asia. It can be inferred that causality and non-functionality are highly integrated with the naturalistic and supernatural understanding of death in Western Europe, whereas the literature in East Asia seems to rely on naturalistic aspects of death and focuses on causal explanations.

  3. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis. A Systematic Review Literature

    PubMed Central

    Benucci, Maurizio; Saviola, Gianantonio; Manfredi, Mariangela; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of treatments that have changed the “natural history” of a chronic progressive disease needs to be evaluated over the long term. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the standard treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and should be started as early as possible. A number of studies have shown that they are effective in improving disease activity and function, and in joint damage. Our review was focused on revision and critical evaluation of the studies including the literature on cost effectiveness of DMARDs (cyclosporine A, sulphasalazine, leflunomide, and methotrexate). The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations showed that traditional DMARDs are cost effective at the time of disease onset. They are less expensive than biological DMARDs and can be useful in controlling disease activity in early RA. PMID:22162693

  4. Visualizing context through theory deconstruction: a content analysis of three bodies of evaluation theory literature.

    PubMed

    Vo, Anne T

    2013-06-01

    While the evaluation field collectively agrees that contextual factors bear on evaluation practice and related scholarly endeavors, the discipline does not yet have an explicit framework for understanding evaluation context. To address this gap in the knowledge base, this paper explores the ways in which evaluation context has been addressed in the practical-participatory, values-engaged, and emergent realist evaluation literatures. Five primary dimensions that constitute evaluation context were identified for this purpose: (1) stakeholder; (2) program; (3) organization; (4) historical/political; and (5) evaluator. Journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers rooted in the selected evaluation approaches were compared along these dimensions in order to explore points of convergence and divergence in the theories. Study results suggest that the selected prescriptive theories most clearly explicate stakeholder and evaluator contexts. Programmatic, organizational, and historical/political contexts, on the other hand, require further clarification.

  5. Mindfulness-Based Mobile Applications: Literature Review and Analysis of Current Features

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Objective Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. Methods We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. Results The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria–a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of “walking meditation,” and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools

  6. Breast cancer amongst Filipino migrants: a review of the literature and ten-year institutional analysis.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jory S; Briggs, Kaleigh; George, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    As one migrates from an area of low to high incidence of breast cancer their personal risk of developing breast cancer increases. This is however not equally distributed across all races and ethnicities. This paper specifically examines Filipino migrants. A literature review was conducted to summarize breast cancer incidence, screening practices and trends in treatment amongst Filipino migrants. In addition, a retrospective cohort study was conducted specifically examining the age in which Filipino women were diagnosed with breast cancer compared to Asian and Caucasian counterparts. Filipino women are diagnosed with breast cancer at a statistically significant younger age (53.2) compared to their Asian (55.1) and Caucasian (58.4) counterparts. In addition, they are at an increased risk of developing more aggressive breast cancer with noteworthy disparities in the care they are receiving. The evidence suggest this group is worthy of special focus when diagnosing and treating breast cancer.

  7. Developing a common language for using social marketing: an analysis of Public Health literature.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Ellery, Jane; Thomas, Kamilah B; Marshall, Robert

    2010-10-01

    The term social marketing has been used to describe a multitude of interventions that incorporate the use of traditional marketing techniques to promote a behavior that will improve the health or well-being of a target audience or of society as a whole. However, there is wide variation in the way social marketing is defined and used. This systematic review article examines how social marketing has been defined and applied to social problems within the public health literature from 2001-2006, by adapting a grading-system borrowed from evidence-based medicine and utilizing Kotler and Zaltman's definition of social marketing. Additionally, definitions of social marketing were identified in the reviewed articles. Identifying a common language in the description and design of social marketing interventions will benefit researchers and practitioners interested in social marketing as a behavior change approach.

  8. Material Models and Properties in the Finite Element Analysis of Knee Ligaments: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Galbusera, Fabio; Freutel, Maren; Dürselen, Lutz; D’Aiuto, Marta; Croce, Davide; Villa, Tomaso; Sansone, Valerio; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Knee ligaments are elastic bands of soft tissue with a complex microstructure and biomechanics, which are critical to determine the kinematics as well as the stress bearing behavior of the knee joint. Their correct implementation in terms of material models and properties is therefore necessary in the development of finite element models of the knee, which has been performed for decades for the investigation of both its basic biomechanics and the development of replacement implants and repair strategies for degenerative and traumatic pathologies. Indeed, a wide range of element types and material models has been used to represent knee ligaments, ranging from elastic unidimensional elements to complex hyperelastic three-dimensional structures with anatomically realistic shapes. This paper systematically reviews literature studies, which described finite element models of the knee, and summarizes the approaches, which have been used to model the ligaments highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25478560

  9. Granulomatous bone marrow disease. A review of the literature and clinicopathologic analysis of 58 cases.

    PubMed

    Bodem, C R; Hamory, B H; Taylor, H M; Kleopfer, L

    1983-11-01

    We have reviewed 58 cases of bone marrow granuloma at a single institution over a 20-year time span, and have summarized the available English literature. We conclude that bone marrow granulomas are an infrequent pathologic finding which, when found, require definition as to an underlying etiology. Undoubtedly, the illnesses associated with marrow granuloma are similar to those causing granulomatous hepatitis. The following additional statements may justifiably be made based on this review. There are no morphologic features which allow reliable differentiation between the causes of bone marrow granuloma. By combining careful histologic, microbiologic, and serologic techniques, an etiology can be documented in most (87%) patients with marrow granulomas. A medication history is an important element of this evaluation. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, cytomegalovirus infection, ibuprofen, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and various collagen vascular diseases should be added to the list of causes of marrow granuloma. The prognostic significance of marrow granuloma in patients without an ascertainable underlying illness remains unclear.

  10. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Mexico (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dantés, Héctor Gómez; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Sarti, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000–2011). The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively). Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10–20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico. PMID:25375162

  11. [Analysis on scraping therapy literatures in Chinese national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) from 2002 to 2012].

    PubMed

    Rong-rong, Jiang; Gui-hua, Xu; Hua, Chen; Jie, Li

    2013-04-01

    In order to figure out the current situation and development of scraping therapy, and provide references for further researches. With "scroping therapy" as key word, the inclusive literatures in CNKI from 2002 to 2012 were retrieved and they were analyzed with the bibliometric method. Totaly 420 valid articles were acquined. The article number was increasing yearly and clinical trial was the main researching type. The articles were published in 147 different journals, of which 36.7% were source journals. The articles were mainly from areas with dominating TCM cultural atmosphere, specific folk medicine and prosperous economy. In recent 10 years, although the development of scraping therapy can be seen, the researching depth and width is not enough. In the future, the key point and direction of the research should focus on basic research of action mechanism and standardization of clinical trials in scraping therapy.

  12. An Analysis of the Top-cited Articles in Emergency Medicine Education Literature

    PubMed Central

    Munzer, Brendan W.; Love, Jeffery; Shipman, Barbara L.; Byrne, Brendan; Cico, Stephen J.; Furlong, Robert; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Santen, Sally A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dissemination of educational research is critical to improving medical education, promotion of faculty and ultimately patient care. The objective of this study was to identify the top 25 cited education articles in the emergency medicine (EM) literature and the top 25 cited EM education articles in all journals, as well as report on the characteristics of the articles. Methods Two searches were conducted in the Web of Science in June 2016 using a list of education-related search terms. We searched 19 EM journals for education articles as well as all other literature for EM education-related articles. Articles identified were reviewed for citation count, article type, journal, authors, and publication year. Results With regards to EM journals, the greatest number of articles were classified as articles/reviews, followed by research articles on topics such as deliberate practice (cited 266 times) and cognitive errors (cited 201 times). In contrast in the non-EM journals, research articles were predominant. Both searches found several simulation and ultrasound articles to be included. The most common EM journal was Academic Emergency Medicine (n = 18), and Academic Medicine was the most common non-EM journal (n=5). A reasonable number of articles included external funding sources (6 EM articles and 13 non-EM articles.) Conclusion This study identified the most frequently cited medical education articles in the field of EM education, published in EM journals as well as all other journals indexed in Web of Science. The results identify impactful articles to medical education, providing a resource to educators while identifying trends that may be used to guide EM educational research and publishing efforts. PMID:28116010

  13. Analysis of duration of risk behaviour for key populations: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fazito, Erika; Cuchi, Paloma; Mahy, Mary; Brown, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to review literature in order to calculate regional estimates of the average duration of time individuals maintain a specific high-risk behaviour. Methods The review targeted the key populations of female sex workers (FSW), male clients of female sex workers (MCFSW), people who inject drugs (injecting drug users (IDU)) and high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). To be included in the review the study had to provide information on (1) the time a person spent at risk until death or cessation of the risk behaviour, (2) the percentage of the sample who initiated the risk behaviour in less than a year or (3) the mean or median duration of the behaviour from a representative sample. Results 49 papers were found for the FSW population describing the period of time FSW stay in sex work to be between 2.9 years (Asia) and 12 years (Latin America). Eight papers were found for MCFSW showing the duration of the risk behaviour in this category varying from 4.6 years in Africa to 32 years in Asia. 86 papers were reviewed for the population of IDU showing that the average time a person injects illegal drugs varies from 5.6 years (Africa) to 21 years (South America). No information was found for duration of high-risk behaviour among MSM; instead, the definitions found in the literature for high- and low-risk behaviour among MSM were described. Conclusions There is high variability of estimates of duration of high-risk behaviours at regional level. More research is needed to inform models and prevention programmes on the average duration of time individuals maintain a specific high-risk behaviour. PMID:23172343

  14. Critical analysis of the literature investigating urogenital function preservation following robotic rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Ahmed, Jamil; Harper, Mick; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyses the current literature regarding the urogenital functional outcomes of patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases was performed in October 2015. The following search terms were applied: “rectal cancer” or “colorectal cancer” and robot* or “da Vinci” and sexual or urolog* or urinary or erect* or ejaculat* or impot* or incontinence. All original studies examining the urological and/or sexual outcomes of male and/or female patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery were included. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were manually searched for further relevant articles. Abstracts were independently searched by two authors. RESULTS Fifteen original studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 1338 patients were included; 818 received robotic, 498 laparoscopic and 22 open rectal cancer surgery. Only 726 (54%) patients had their urogenital function assessed via means of validated functional questionnaires. From the included studies, three found that robotic rectal cancer surgery leads to quicker recovery of male urological function and five of male sexual function as compared to laparoscopic surgery. It is unclear whether robotic surgery offers favourable urogenital outcomes in the long run for males. In female patients only two studies assessed urological and three sexual function independently to that of males. In these studies there was no difference identified between patients receiving robotic and laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, in females the presented evidence was very limited making it impossible to draw any substantial conclusions. CONCLUSION There seems to be a trend towards earlier recovery of male urogenital function following robotic surgery. To evaluate this further, larger well designed studies are required. PMID:27933136

  15. A Survey of the Literature on Subject Analysis for 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Doris Cruger; Wilson, Betty-Ruth

    1986-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of materials published during 1984-1985 on subject analysis covers classification, indexing, subject headings, and thesauri. The major theme is the need for improved subject analysis and the new computer technology is seen as the way to achieve it. (EM)

  16. Department of Defense Operational Energy Strategy: A Content Analysis of Energy Literature from 1973-2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Applications: Solar, Wind, Biomass, Geothermal , Hydrokinetic Energy , Biofuels and Synfuels, Fuel Cells, Microgrids, Smart meters, and Energy Efficiency...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE OPERATIONAL ENERGY STRATEGY: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF ENERGY ...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENS-14-M-26 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE OPERATIONAL ENERGY STRATEGY: A CONTENT ANALYSIS

  17. Ethical Considerations in Citing Scientific Literature and Using Citation Analysis in Evaluation of Research Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotiaho, Janne S.

    2002-01-01

    Examines possible sources of bias in the citation process and discusses consequences they may have on researchers. Discusses subjective and biased choice of citations; whether to cite reviews or original publications; citation errors; and whether citation analysis is a good measure of quality. Concludes citation analysis may be far from ideal way…

  18. An Analysis of a Teacher's Use of Revoicing during a Third Grade Literature Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This article details findings of an analysis of a third grade classroom's read-aloud discussions spanning a 6 week period. Data were analyzed first using the constant-comparative method, followed by an analysis of selected interactions in which the teacher revoiced students' utterances. Findings suggest students co-constructed knowledge through…

  19. Web 2.0 in the Professional LIS Literature: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis and a thorough content analysis of descriptors and journal titles extracted from the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database, focusing on the subject of Web 2.0 and its main applications: blog, wiki, social network and tags.The primary research questions include: whether the…

  20. Ten Years of the Literature of Online Searching: An Analysis of "Online" and "Online Review."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sievert, MaryEllen C.

    1990-01-01

    The first 10 years of 2 journals on online searching are compared in terms of vital statistics, editorial policies, citation data, author affiliations, subject analysis of titles, circulation, impact factors, and immediacy using data from SSCI Journal Citation Reports. (EAM)

  1. Neuropsychology of subjects with ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis: A critical analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mam-Lam-Fook, C; Danset-Alexandre, C; Pedron, L; Amado, I; Gaillard, R; Krebs, M-O

    2017-03-25

    Cognitive disorders are currently considered as central components of disorders found in schizophrenia and are a major handicap for patients day to day. These disorders appear before the first psychotic episode, in the prodromal phase, during which time the symptoms are below the threshold for psychosis. People with these symptoms are considered as presenting an at-risk mental state (or at ultra-high risk, UHR of psychosis) and their risk for psychotic transition is between 20% and 40% within one year. Despite a number of studies, the chronology in which cognitive disorders appear in relation to the psychotic symptoms has not clearly been established and the study of the links between cognition and symptoms could improve our understanding of psychotic disorders. The detection of certain cognitive disorders before the onset of psychotic disorders could help improve early detection. We carried out a systematic analysis of the literature exploring cognitive disorders found in subjects with UHR for psychosis. The objective of most studies was to establish the predictive value for psychotic transition. Nevertheless study results have shown little consensus. Faced with this heterogeneity of results from past studies, we carried out a critical analysis of the literature and suggest areas of reflection for future research.

  2. Expectations in the field of the Internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature

    PubMed Central

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-01-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users’ online and offline practices and contexts. PMID:25847533

  3. Expectations in the field of the internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature.

    PubMed

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-03-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users' online and offline practices and contexts.

  4. High-Dose Corticosteroid Use and Risk of Hip Osteonecrosis: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mont, Michael A; Pivec, Robert; Banerjee, Samik; Issa, Kimona; Elmallah, Randa K; Jones, Lynne C

    2015-09-01

    The effect of varying corticosteroid regimens on hip osteonecrosis incidence remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis and systematic literature review to determine osteonecrosis occurrences in patients taking corticosteroids at varying mean and cumulative doses and treatment durations, and whether medical diagnoses affected osteonecrosis incidence. Fifty-seven studies (23,561 patients) were reviewed. Regression analysis determined significance between corticosteroid usage and osteonecrosis incidence. Osteonecrosis incidence was 6.7% with corticosteroid treatment of >2 g (prednisone-equivalent). Systemic lupus erythematosus patients had positive correlations between dose and osteonecrosis incidence. Each 10 mg/d increase was associated with a 3.6% increase in osteonecrosis rate, and >20 mg/d resulted in a higher osteonecrosis incidence. Clinicians must be wary of osteonecrosis in patients on high corticosteroid regimens, particularly in systematic lupus erythematosus.

  5. The Development of Appreciation Learning Model of Indonesia Literature Based Critical Discourse Analysis to Improve the Students' Critical Thinking Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustofa; Yuwana, H. Setya

    2016-01-01

    Learning literature should be taken to instill recognition, familiarity and enjoyment of literature as a vehicle for character education. Learning literature must be packaged properly so that students interested in compose competence by developing literature learning models. In an effort to assist students in understanding the success of…

  6. High-power-density prime power systems: A literature search and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.C. . Research Inst.)

    1989-06-01

    The electrical characteristics of the loads to be faced by the power source are given. Two loads are inductive-resistive; one to be brought to a specified flux in the inductor and one to be brought to a specified energy in the inductor within stated time limits which are of the order of milliseconds. The third load is capacitive-resistive and the capacitor is to be brought to a specified voltage in a period of seconds. Charge (a few Coulombs) and energy (about 10{sup 5} Joules) requirements of the loads are modest compared to the capabilities of common automotive batteries; however, the average power demands of the loads are high (25 to 50 MW or higher for the inductive-resistive loads). Source voltages required to drive the specified loads are much larger than those of common batteries. The literature indicates that the way to achieve the required voltages at high power density and specific power is to utilize thin cell bipolar batteries, a bipolar design offers potential advantages of low cell resistance and weight, and uniformity of electrode current density. 123 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Biofuels: network analysis of the literature reveals key environmental and economic unknowns.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Caroline E; Clark, Christopher M; Leduc, Stephen D; Bierwagen, Britta G; Lin, Brenda B; Mehl, Adrea; Tobias, David A

    2012-02-07

    Despite rapid growth in biofuel production worldwide, it is uncertain whether decision-makers possess sufficient information to fully evaluate the impacts of the industry and avoid unintended consequences. Doing so requires rigorous peer-reviewed data and analyses across the entire range of direct and indirect effects. To assess the coverage of scientific research, we analyzed over 1600 peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2009 that addressed 23 biofuels-related topics within four thematic areas: environment and human well-being, economics, technology, and geography. Greenhouse gases, fuel production, and feedstock production were well-represented in the literature, while trade, biodiversity, and human health were not. Gaps were especially striking across topics in the Southern Hemisphere, where the greatest potential socio-economic benefits, as well as environmental damages, may co-occur. There was strong asymmetry in the connectedness of research topics; greenhouse gases articles were twice as often connected to other topics as biodiversity articles. This could undermine the ability of scientific and economic analyses to adequately evaluate impacts and avoid significant unintended consequences. At the least, our review suggests caution in this developing industry and the need to pursue more interdisciplinary research to assess complex trade-offs and feedbacks inherent to an industry with wide-reaching potential impacts.

  8. Evolution of the "drivers" of translational cancer epidemiology: analysis of funded grants and the literature.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Chang, Christine Q; Rogers, Scott D; Khoury, Muin J; Schully, Sheri D

    2015-04-01

    Concurrently with a workshop sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, we identified key "drivers" for accelerating cancer epidemiology across the translational research continuum in the 21st century: emerging technologies, a multilevel approach, knowledge integration, and team science. To map the evolution of these "drivers" and translational phases (T0-T4) in the past decade, we analyzed cancer epidemiology grants funded by the National Cancer Institute and published literature for 2000, 2005, and 2010. For each year, we evaluated the aims of all new/competing grants and abstracts of randomly selected PubMed articles. Compared with grants based on a single institution, consortium-based grants were more likely to incorporate contemporary technologies (P = 0.012), engage in multilevel analyses (P = 0.010), and incorporate elements of knowledge integration (P = 0.036). Approximately 74% of analyzed grants and publications involved discovery (T0) or characterization (T1) research, suggesting a need for more translational (T2-T4) research. Our evaluation indicated limited research in 1) a multilevel approach that incorporates molecular, individual, social, and environmental determinants and 2) knowledge integration that evaluates the robustness of scientific evidence. Cancer epidemiology is at the cusp of a paradigm shift, and the field will need to accelerate the pace of translating scientific discoveries in order to impart population health benefits. While multi-institutional and technology-driven collaboration is happening, concerted efforts to incorporate other key elements are warranted for the discipline to meet future challenges.

  9. The emergence and evolution of school psychology literature: A scientometric analysis from 1907 through 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyan; Oakland, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this current study is to identify the growth and development of scholarly literature that specifically references the term 'school psychology' in the Science Citation Index from 1907 through 2014. Documents from Web of Science were accessed and analyzed through the use of scientometric analyses, including HistCite and Pajek software, resulting in the identification of 4,806 scholars who contributed 3,260 articles in 311 journals. Whereas the database included journals from around the world, most articles were published by authors in the United States and in 20 journals, including the Journal of School Psychology, Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology Review, School Psychology International, and School Psychology Quarterly. Analyses of the database from the past century revealed that 20 of the most prolific scholars contributed 14% of all articles. Contributions from faculty and students at University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of South Carolina, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and University of Texas-Austin represented 10% of all articles including the term school psychology in the Science Citation Index. Relationships among some of the most highly cited articles are also described. Collectively, the series of analyses reported herein contribute to our understanding of scholarship in school psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. The Preclose Technique in Percutaneous Endovascular Aortic Repair: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffan, Abdel Aziz A.; Prince, Ethan A.; Hampson, Christopher O.; Murphy, Timothy P.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To establish the efficacy and safety of the preclose technique in total percutaneous endovascular aortic repair (PEVAR).MethodsA systematic literature search of Medline database was conducted for series on PEVAR published between January 1999 and January 2012.ResultsThirty-six articles comprising 2,257 patients and 3,606 arterial accesses were included. Anatomical criteria used to exclude patients from undergoing PEVAR were not uniform across all series. The technical success rate was 94 % per arterial access. Failure was unilateral in the majority (93 %) of the 133 failed PEVAR cases. The groin complication rate in PEVAR was 3.6 %; a minority (1.6 %) of these groin complications required open surgery. The groin complication rate in failed PEVAR cases converted to groin cutdown was 6.1 %. A significantly higher technical success rate was achieved when arterial access was performed via ultrasound guidance. Technical failure rate was significantly higher with larger sheath size ({>=}20F). Conclusion. The preclose technique in PEVAR has a high technical success rate and a low groin complication rate. Technical success tends to increase with ultrasound-guided arterial access and decrease with larger access. When failure occurs, it is unilateral in the majority of cases, and conversion to surgical cutdown does not appear to increase the operative risk.

  11. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  12. Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces: literature review and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisetto, A.; Torresin, D.; Tiwari, M. K.; Del, D., Col; Poulikakos, D.

    2014-04-01

    It is well established that the dropwise condensation (DWC) mode can lead up to significant enhancement in heat transfer coefficients as compared to the filmwise mode (FWC). Typically, hydrophobic surfaces are expected to promote DWC, while hydrophilic ones induce FWC. To this end, superhydrophobic surfaces, where a combination of low surface energy and surface texturing is used to enhance the hydrophobicity, have recently been proposed as a promising approach to promote dropwise condensation. An attractive feature of using superhydrophobic surfaces is to facilitate easy roll-off of the droplets as they form during condensation, thus leading to a significant improvement in the heat transfer associated with the condensation process. High droplet mobility can be obtained acting on the surface chemistry, decreasing the surface energy, and on the surface structure, obtaining a micro- or nano- superficial roughness. The first part of this paper will present a literature review of the most relevant works about DWC on superhydrophobic nanotextured substrates, with particular attention on the fabrication processes. In the second part, experimental data about DWC on superhydrophobic nanotextured samples will be analyzed. Particular attention will be paid to the effect of vapour velocity on the heat transfer. Results clearly highlight the excellent potential of nanostructured surfaces for application in flow condensation applications. However, they highlight the need to perform flow condensation experiments at realistic high temperature and saturation conditions in order to evaluate the efficacy of superhydrophobic surfaces for practically relevant pure vapor condensation applications.

  13. Rerouting of the intratemporal facial nerve: an analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Selesnick, S H; Abraham, M T; Carew, J F

    1996-09-01

    Anterior rerouting of the intratemporal facial nerve in the infratemporal fossa approach is employed to access to the jugular bulb, hypotympanum, and lateral skull base, whereas posterior rerouting of the facial nerve, as employed in the transcochlear craniotomy, is most frequently used for surgery of the posterior fossa, cerebellopontine angle, prepontine region, and petrous apex. Facial nerve rerouting may lead to facial paresis or paralysis. This review of the literature is intended to define the physiologic "cost" of these procedures, so that the neurotologic surgeon can determine if the morbidity incurred in these techniques is worth the resultant exposure. Inconsistencies in reporting facial function places into question the validity of some of the cumulative data reported. Postoperatively, grades I-II facial nerve function was seen in 91% of patients undergoing short anterior rerouting, 74% of patients undergoing long anterior rerouting, and 26% of patients undergoing posterior complete rerouting. Although facial nerve rerouting allows unhindered exposure to previously inaccessible regions, it is achieved at the cost of facial nerve function. Facial nerve dysfunction increases with the length of facial nerve rerouted.

  14. [The efficiency of one-to-one support during labour - a literature analysis].

    PubMed

    Knape, N; Schnepp, W; Krahl, A; Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, F

    2013-10-01

    Today, the way and the intensity of labour support differ internationally because of traditions, cultural background, legislation and finance issues. Moreover, the aspects of -labour support have changed in industrialized countries due to the transition from home birth to hospital birth. Technical aspects and surveillance have become more important. The increasing workload in hospitals (IQWIG 2006) as well as increasing Cesarean section rates and epidural rates are well documented (AQUA 2011). One reason for these changes might be a lack of support during childbirth. International studies emphasise the importance for continuous support in labour (Hodnett et al. 2011). This paper adds a German perspective on one-to-one-care and discusses how the results from international studies can be transferred into the German midwifery context.A literature search was conducted in 12/2012.One-to-one care seems to be effective for decreasing intervention rates. Results of international studies demonstrate differences in settings, supporting persons and defining one-to-one care and impede that the right conclusions can be drawn for the German context. -Especially the effect of midwifery presence in the German context isn't conducted sufficiently.Professional care and trusting emotional support incorporated by one person seems to be the best way to deliver one-to-one care and to avoid fragmentation of care. Organisational barriers should be dismantled to realize this aim.National Research is needed to evaluate the effects of one-to-one care by midwives.

  15. Literature review of baseline study for risk analysis - the landfill leachate case.

    PubMed

    Butt, T E; Gouda, H M; Baloch, M I; Paul, P; Javadi, A A; Alam, A

    2014-02-01

    There is growing awareness and public concern about environmental impacts of waste management and disposal. Environmental policy instruments have been strengthened and associated governmental programmes have increased in recent years, resulting in high level strategies for waste management. Risk assessment is now an essential tool in the prioritisation of environmental and human health protection. However, regulators need to compare the full range of risks on a sound and consistent basis. Comparing risks from such diverse sources poses a significant challenge, and traditional hazard and risk assessments are no longer sufficient. Consideration now needs to be given to a much wider range of factors if risk assessment is to be used as an aid to more integrated decision-making process. For this purpose, baseline study - the foundation of risk assessment - can play a crucial role. To date limited research has been conducted on the need, parameters, requirements, and constituents of baseline study particularly in the context of how, why, and what information is to be collated in order to render risk assessments more appropriately integrated and complete. To establish the 'state-of-the-art' of baseline study, this paper comprehensively reviews the literature regarding environmental risk assessment in general terms, and then proceeds to review work that is specifically related to landfills and landfill leachate, thereby identifying knowledge gaps and shortfall areas. This review concludes that a holistic baseline study procedure for waste disposal sites, which risk assessors could use for carrying out risk analyses specifically for landfill leachate, does not as yet exist.

  16. Bibliometric analysis of literature on antifungal triazole resistance: 1980 – 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sweileh, Waleed M.; Sawalha, Ansam F.; Al-Jabi, Samah; Zyoud, Sa’ed H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Triazole antifungal agents play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of fungal infections. Little is known about antifungal triazole drug resistance when compared to antibiotic resistance. Therefore, this study was carried out to give a bibliometric overview of literature on triazole antifungal drug resistance. Methods Keywords related to triazole drug class and resistance were used in a search query in the Scopus search engine. The time span was set from 1980 to 2015. Data pertaining to growth of publications, the most active countries and institutions, the most cited articles, and mapping of molecular mechanisms of resistance were analyzed. Results A total of 1648 journal articles were retrieved with an average of 20.46 citations per article. Annual growth of triazole resistance showed an increasing pattern during the study period. The United States of America (n=446; 27.06%) ranked first in productivity followed by the United Kingdom (UK) (n=176; 10.68%), and China (n=133; 8.07%). Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (n=69, 4.19%) in the Netherlands ranked first in productivity, while the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ranked first (n=255; 15.47%) in publishing articles on triazole resistance. Mapping mechanisms of resistance showed that efflux pump and mutations in target enzyme are major mechanisms described in resistance to triazoles. Conclusion There was a growth of publications on triazole resistance in the past two decades with the bulk of publications on triazole resistance in Candida species. The data presented here will serve as baseline information for future comparative purposes. PMID:28331838

  17. Randomised clinical trials on acupuncture in the Korean literature: bibliometric analysis and methodological quality

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sina; Sagong, Hye Seon; Kong, Jae Cheol; Choi, Jun-Yong; Lee, Myeong Soo; Wieland, L Susan; Manheimer, Eric; Shin, Byung-Cheul

    2014-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture systematic reviewers have increasingly searched Chinese databases and journals to identify eligible randomised clinical trials (RCTs). However, reviewers have infrequently searched for eligible RCTs in Korean databases and journals. This study aimed to identify difficult to locate acupuncture RCTs in Korean databases and journals and to assess the characteristics and quality of the identified RCTs. Methods Eleven electronic databases and seven journals were searched up to December 2012. All RCTs using needle acupuncture were considered for inclusion. Key study characteristics were extracted and risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Results One hundred and forty-three publications met our inclusion criteria. Acupuncture RCTs in the Korean literature emerged in the mid-1990s and increased in the mid-2000s. Diverse methods of acupuncture were used, including some methods unique to Korea (eg, Saam acupuncture). The largest proportion of trials evaluated acupuncture for musculoskeletal conditions (27.3%). The mean sample size was 44.3±25.3 per trial. Random sequence generation methods were reported in 44.8% of the RCTs, whereas only 11.9% reported methods of allocation concealment. A low proportion of trials reported participant blinding (32.9%) and outcome assessment blinding (18.9%). Conclusions Korean acupuncture trials, many of which evaluate acupuncture styles unique to Korea, are typically omitted from systematic reviews of acupuncture, resulting in the potential for language bias. The development of this database of difficult to locate Korean trials, which includes English language translations of abstracts, will enable these trials of varying quality to be assessed for inclusion in future acupuncture systematic reviews. PMID:24280950

  18. International migration and gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Anita J; McDermott, Sarah; Rigol-Chachamovich, Juliana; Bandyopadhyay, Mridula; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Stewart, Donna

    2011-11-01

    Influxes of migrant women of childbearing age to receiving countries have made their perinatal health status a key priority for many governments. The international research collaboration Reproductive Outcomes And Migration (ROAM) reviewed published studies to assess whether migrants in countries of resettlement have a greater risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than women in receiving countries. A systematic review of the literature from Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL from 1990 to 2009 included studies of migrant women and GDM. Studies were excluded if there was no cross-border movement or comparison group or if the receiving country was not the country of resettlement. Studies were assessed for quality, analysed descriptively and meta-analysed. Twenty-four reports (representing >120,000 migrants) met our inclusion criteria. Migrants were described primarily by geographic origin; other relevant aspects (e.g. time in country, language fluency) were rarely studied. Migrants' results for GDM were worse than those for receiving-country women in 79% of all studies. Meta-analyses showed that, compared with receiving-country women, Caribbean, African, European and Northern European women were at greater risk of GDM, while North Africans and North Americans had risks similar to receiving-country women. Although results of the 31 comparisons of Asians, East Africans or non-Australian Oceanians were too heterogeneous to provide a single GDM risk estimate for migrant women, only one comparison was below the receiving-country comparison group, all others presented a higher risk estimate. The majority of women migrants to resettlement countries are at greater risk for GDM than women resident in receiving countries. Research using clear, specific migrant definitions, adjusting for relevant risk factors and including other aspects of migration experiences is needed to confirm and understand these findings.

  19. Using a Thematic Analysis of Literature to Survey Subfields within Communication Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Johny T.; Ragland, J. Parker

    2015-01-01

    The activity described by the authors here is a thematic analysis of published articles in a broad area of study. Students search for articles relating to the topic of study in different academic journals that fall in a specific date range. Students record details about the topics covered and theories/methods used. The class then assembles to…

  20. Like a Hurricane: A Citation Analysis of Emergency Management Scholarly Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Jennifer; Furay, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This bibliometric study used citation analysis to uncover citing characteristics in the burgeoning academic field of emergency management. Of the 281 degree programs listed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency nationwide, those at community colleges accounted for 17% of the total. Using the interdisciplinary database of Academic Search…

  1. How Will DSM-5 Affect Autism Diagnosis? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulage, Kristine M.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Cohn, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5…

  2. Cyberbullying: A Research-Based Content Analysis of the Psychological Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Research on the topic of cyber-bullying has proliferated over the past decade, particularly on its impact on children through adolescents. Thus, it would be of interest to examine the scope and extent of research interest on the topic in scholarly publications. This paper reports on a reference citation analysis of the database PsycINFO, using the…

  3. An Integrative Literature Review of Student Affairs Competencies: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Riefler, Laurel; Mrowka, Kaleigh

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed 17 years of research extending the work of Lovell and Kosten (2000) on student affairs competencies important for professional preparation and practice. A meta-analysis was used to organize and present data on 22 articles concerned with knowledge, skills, dispositions, curriculum, multicultural competency, and professional…

  4. Ikeda Research in China and Taiwan: Critical Analysis of the Chinese Language Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inukai, Nozomi

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first attempt to conduct a critical analysis of the research on Ikeda's educational philosophy published in mainland China and Taiwan. The study employed a combination of archival research and responses to an online questionnaire by professors and doctorate students studying Ikeda's educational philosophy. The study analyzed the…

  5. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18…

  6. Siblings and Child Development: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of the Literature on Only Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polit, Denise F.; Falbo, Toni

    The present study involved a meta-analysis of 157 studies in which only children were compared with individuals raised with siblings. Findings failed to confirm the persistent negative stereotype of only children as maladjusted and disadvantaged. In fact, results suggested that only children are advantaged with respect to intelligence, educational…

  7. 3D cephalometric analysis obtained from computed tomography. Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rossini, Giulia; Cavallini, Costanza; Cassetta, Michele; Barbato, Ersilia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction The aim of this systematic review is to estimate accuracy and reproducibility of craniometric measurements and reliability of landmarks identified with computed tomography (CT) techniques in 3D cephalometric analysis. Methods Computerized and manual searches were conducted up to 2011 for studies that addressed these objectives. The selection criteria were: (1) the use of human specimen; (2) the comparison between 2D and 3D cephalometric analysis; (3) the assessment of accuracy, reproducibility of measurements and reliability of landmark identification with CT images compared with two-dimensional conventional radiographs. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used as the guideline for this article. Results Twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Most of them demonstrated high measurements accuracy and reproducibility, and landmarks reliability, but their cephalometric analysis methodology varied widely. Conclusion These differencies among the studies in making measurements don’t permit a direct comparison between them. The future developments in the knowledge of these techniques should provide a standardized method to conduct the 3D CT cephalometric analysis. PMID:22545187

  8. The Relationship between Pay and Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Timothy A.; Piccolo, Ronald F.; Podsakoff, Nathan P.; Shaw, John C.; Rich, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the motivational aspects of pay are well-documented, the notion that high pay leads to high levels of satisfaction is not without debate. The current study used meta-analysis to estimate the population correlation between pay level and measures of pay and job satisfaction. Cumulating across 115 correlations from 92 independent samples,…

  9. Behavioral Outcomes of Young Children with Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol: Review and Analysis of Experimental Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rosanne C.; Carta, Judith J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 51 studies of developmental effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol in children from birth to 72 months found that, although adverse outcomes were found within each domain, age grouping, and exposure category, they comprised fewer than 50% of all outcomes measured. Most adverse outcomes were found in the neurobehavioral domain with…

  10. Critical Discourse Analysis in Education: A Review of the Literature, 2004 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda; Schott, Christopher; O'Brien, Kathryn; Trigos-Carrillo, Lina; Starkey, Kim; Chasteen, Cynthia Carter

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews critical discourse analysis scholarship in education research from 2004 to 2012. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases. Second, we completed an analytic review template for each article and encoded these data into a digital spreadsheet to assess macro-trends in the field.…

  11. The First Century of Disability Portrayal in Film: An Analysis of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an interdisciplinary review of portrayal of disability in film by integrating resources from film history, the social sciences, rehabilitation, mass communication, psychology, psychiatry, and education. Analysis addresses the quality of cinematic representations of disability and the politics of film. Psychiatric disorders were most…

  12. Primary tonsillar lymphomas according to the new World Health Organization classification: to report 87 cases and literature review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Daneshbod, Yahya; Ramzi, Mani; Hamidizadeh, Nasrin; Dehghani, Seyed Javad; Bidouei, Farzad; Khademi, Bijan; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Ansari, Mansour; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Dehghani, Mehdi

    2010-10-01

    The present study aimed to define the natural history, World Health Organization (WHO) classification, prognostic factors, and treatment outcome of 87 patients with primary lymphoma of the palatine tonsil and literature review and analysis. Between 1990 and March 2008, 87 consecutive patients diagnosed with primary lymphoid malignancy of the palatine tonsil. All pathologic specimens were reviewed and reclassified according to the recent WHO classification. To investigate the association of tonsillar lymphomas with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), in situ hybridization was performed for 24 tonsillar lymphomas (23 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBC) and one classic Hodgkin's disease) and ten normal tonsils as control group. In literature review, we found 26 major related series including 1,602 patients with primary tonsillar lymphoma. The median age of our patients was 52 years (range 11-86 years). There were 39 women and 48 men with a median follow-up of 67 months for living patients. The vast majority (95%) of patients had B-cell phenotype. DLBC was the most frequent histology. In situ hybridization revealed none of 23 DLBC to be positive for EBV. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 78.9% and 86%, respectively. In the literature review and by analyzing the data collection from 26 major reported series, the median age was 55 years and male/female ratio was 1.3:1. Intermediate grade tumors consisted of 72% of all tonsillar lymphomas and B-cell lymphomas constituted 82% of all cell immunophenotypes. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 61% and 67%, respectively. The vast majority of tonsillar lymphomas are of B-cell origin and with intermediate to high-grade histology. These neoplasms tend to present in early stage disease and to have favorable outcome. WHO classification predicts more accurately treatment outcome of patients with tonsillar lymphoma. The association of DLBC in the palatine tonsil with EBV infection is infrequent.

  13. The terrain of health policy analysis in low and middle income countries: a review of published literature 1994–2007

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Lucy; Raphaely, Nika

    2008-01-01

    This article provides the first ever review of literature analysing the health policy processes of low and middle income countries (LMICs). Based on a systematic search of published literature using two leading international databases, the article maps the terrain of work published between 1994 and 2007, in terms of policy topics, lines of inquiry and geographical base, as well as critically evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the review is to provide a platform for the further development of this field of work. From an initial set of several thousand articles, only 391 were identified as relevant to the focus of inquiry. Of these, 164 were selected for detailed review because they present empirical analyses of health policy change processes within LMIC settings. Examination of these articles clearly shows that LMIC health policy analysis is still in its infancy. There are only small numbers of such analyses, whilst the diversity of policy areas, topics and analytical issues that have been addressed across a large number of country settings results in a limited depth of coverage within this body of work. In addition, the majority of articles are largely descriptive in nature, limiting understanding of policy change processes within or across countries. Nonetheless, the broad features of experience that can be identified from these articles clearly confirm the importance of integrating concern for politics, process and power into the study of health policy. By generating understanding of the factors influencing the experience and results of policy change, such analysis can inform action to strengthen future policy development and implementation. This article, finally, outlines five key actions needed to strengthen the field of health policy analysis within LMICs, including capacity development and efforts to generate systematic and coherent bodies of work underpinned by both the intent to undertake rigorous analytical work and concern

  14. Hit identification and optimization in virtual screening: practical recommendations based on a critical literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tian; Cao, Shuyi; Su, Pin-Chih; Patel, Ram; Shah, Darshan; Chokshi, Heta B; Szukala, Richard; Johnson, Michael E; Hevener, Kirk E

    2013-09-12

    A critical analysis of virtual screening results published between 2007 and 2011 was performed. The activity of reported hit compounds from over 400 studies was compared to their hit identification criteria. Hit rates and ligand efficiencies were calculated to assist in these analyses, and the results were compared with factors such as the size of the virtual library and the number of compounds tested. A series of promiscuity, druglike, and ADMET filters were applied to the reported hits to assess the quality of compounds reported, and a careful analysis of a subset of the studies that presented hit optimization was performed. These data allowed us to make several practical recommendations with respect to selection of compounds for experimental testing, definition of hit identification criteria, and general virtual screening hit criteria to allow for realistic hit optimization. A key recommendation is the use of size-targeted ligand efficiency values as hit identification criteria.

  15. Hit Identification and Optimization in Virtual Screening: Practical Recommendations Based Upon a Critical Literature Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tian; Cao, Shuyi; Su, Pin-Chih; Patel, Ram; Shah, Darshan; Chokshi, Heta B.; Szukala, Richard; Johnson, Michael E.; Hevener, Kirk E.

    2013-01-01

    A critical analysis of virtual screening results published between 2007 and 2011 was performed. The activity of reported hit compounds from over 400 studies was compared to their hit identification criteria. Hit rates and ligand efficiencies were calculated to assist in these analyses and the results were compared with factors such as the size of the virtual library and the number of compounds tested. A series of promiscuity, drug-like, and ADMET filters were applied to the reported hits to assess the quality of compounds reported and a careful analysis of a subset of the studies which presented hit optimization was performed. This data allowed us to make several practical recommendations with respect to selection of compounds for experimental testing, defining hit identification criteria, and general virtual screening hit criteria to allow for realistic hit optimization. A key recommendation is the use of size-targeted ligand efficiency values as hit identification criteria. PMID:23688234

  16. Do therapists address gender and power in infidelity? A feminist analysis of the treatment literature.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kirstee; Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Sociocontextual factors such as gender and power play an important role in the etiology of affairs and in recovery from them, yet it is unclear how current treatment models address these issues. Drawing on feminist epistemology, this study utilized a grounded theory analysis of 29 scholarly articles and books on infidelity treatment published between 2000 and 2010 to identify the circumstances under which gender and power issues were or were not part of treatment. We found five conditions that limit attention to gender and power: (a) speaking (or assuming) as though partners are equal, (b) reframing infidelity as a relationship problem, (c) limiting discussion of societal context to background, (d) not considering how societal gender and power patterns impact relationship dynamics, and (e) limiting discussion of ethics on how to position around infidelity. Analysis explored how each occurred across three phases of couple therapy. The findings provide a useful foundation for a sociocontextual framework for infidelity treatment.

  17. Literature Mining and Ontology based Analysis of Host-Brucella Gene–Gene Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz, İlknur; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun; Özgür, Arzucan

    2015-01-01

    represented. Our results show that the introduced literature mining and ontology-based modeling approach are effective in retrieving and analyzing host–pathogen gene–gene interaction networks. PMID:26696993

  18. Human health effects of sodium azide exposure: a literature review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Soju; Lamm, Steven H

    2003-01-01

    Sodium azide, used mainly as a preservative in aqueous laboratory reagents and biologic fluids and as a fuel in automobile airbag gas generants, has caused deaths for decades. Its exposure potential for the general population increases as the use of airbags increase. In order to characterize the known health effects of sodium azide in humans and the circumstances of their exposure, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature from 1927 to 2002 on human exposure to sodium azide and its health effects. The most commonly reported health effect from azide exposure is hypotension, almost independent of route of exposure. Most industrial exposures are by inhalation. Most laboratory exposures or suicide attempts are by ingestion. Most of the reported cases involved persons working in laboratories. The time between exposure and detection of hypotension can predict outcome. Fatal doses occur with exposures of >or=700 mg (10 mg/kg). Nonlethal doses ranged from 0.3 to 150 mg (0.004 to 2 mg/kg). Onset of hypotension within minutes or in less than an hour is indicative of a pharmacological response and a benign course. Hypotension with late onset (>1 hour) constitutes an ominous sign for death. All individuals with hypotension for more than an hour died. Additional health effects included mild complaints of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, temporary loss of vision, palpitation, dyspnea, or temporary loss of consciousness or mental status decrease. More severe symptoms and signs included marked decreased mental status, seizure, coma, arrhythmia, tachypnea, pulmonary edema, metabolic acidosis, and cardiorespiratory arrest. The signs and symptoms from lower exposures (<700 mg) are physiological responses at the vascular level and those at or above are toxicological responses at the metabolic level. There is no specific antidote for sodium azide intoxication. Recommended preventive measures for sodium azide exposure consist of education of people at

  19. Literature Mining and Ontology based Analysis of Host-Brucella Gene-Gene Interaction Network.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, İlknur; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun; Özgür, Arzucan

    2015-01-01

    results show that the introduced literature mining and ontology-based modeling approach are effective in retrieving and analyzing host-pathogen gene-gene interaction networks.

  20. Erosion of Northern Reservoir Shores: An Analysis and Application of Pertinent Literature,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    properties and reducing the shearing resistance of natural slopes ( Cedergren 1977). The mechanics of bluff (or beach) failure depend upon the size...needed in slopes with geological complexities ( Cedergren 1977). Calculations may also be performed based upon an analysis of the forces acting on an...slope flow regime or from an assumed hydrostatic condition (Patton and Hendron 1974, Cedergren 1977, Hodge and Freeze 1977, Lafleur and Lefebvre 1980

  1. The Stability of IQ in People with Low Intellectual Ability: An Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the stability of low IQ (IQ less than 80) was performed on IQ tests that have been commonly used--tests that were derived by D. Wechsler (1949, 1955, 1974, 1981, 1991, 1997) and those based on the Binet scales (L. M. Terman, 1960; L. M. Terman & Merrill, 1972). Weighted-mean stability coefficients of 0.77 and 0.78 were found…

  2. Prognostic value of MGMT methylation in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanliang; Lyu, Zhongchuan; Zhao, Lixin; Cheng, Hong; Zhu, Dongyuan; Gao, Yongsheng; Shang, Xiuwan; Shi, Huaijie

    2015-03-01

    The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) spans about 5-10 years, making early detection and prevention beneficial to the survival of CRC patients. To address inconsistencies in evidence regarding O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation as a potential prognostic factor in CRC, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate MGMT methylation in CRC patients. Fourteen studies were included in the meta-analysis after screening 120 articles. The following items were collected from each study: author, published year, country, patient gender, MGMT methylation status, and patients' disease progression. Pooled hazard ratios and odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed or random effect models depending on the heterogeneity between studies. The overall survival of CRC patients was found not to be significantly associated with MGMT methylation. Further subgroup analysis showed that the frequency of MGMT methylation was significantly higher in CRC than in normal tissues (p < 0.00001). MGMT promoter in CRC patients was more frequently methylated than in adenoma patients. In addition, MGMT methylation was significantly increased in adenoma than in normal tissues (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, MGMT methylation is central to the development of cancer that involves a stepwise carcinogenesis of normal adenoma carcinoma cascade. However, MGMT methylation is not associated with the prognosis of CRC.

  3. Are We Missing Something Pertinent? A Bias Analysis of Unmeasured Confounding in the Firearm-Suicide Literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, M; Swanson, S A; Azrael, D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the magnitude and consistency of risk estimates in the peer-reviewed literature linking firearm availability and suicide, inferring causality has been questioned on the theoretical basis that existing studies may have failed to account for the possibility that members of households with firearms differ from members of households without firearms in important ways related to suicide risk. The current bias analysis directly addresses this concern by describing the salient characteristics that such an unmeasured confounder would need to possess in order to yield the associations between firearm availability and suicide observed in the literature when, in fact, the causal effect is null. Four US studies, published between 1992 and 2003, met our eligibility criteria. We find that any such unmeasured confounder would need to possess an untenable combination of characteristics, such as being not only 1) as potent a suicide risk factor as the psychiatric disorders most tightly linked to suicide (e.g., major depressive and substance use disorders) but also 2) an order of magnitude more imbalanced across households with versus without firearms than is any known risk factor. No such confounder has been found or even suggested. The current study strongly suggests that unmeasured confounding alone is unlikely to explain the association between firearms and suicide.

  4. A meta-analysis of literature data relating to the relationships between cadmium intake and toxicity indicators in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Omarova, A.; Phillips, C.J.C. . E-mail: c.phillips@uq.edu.au

    2007-03-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between cadmium (Cd) intake and cadmium toxicity indicators by meta-analysis of literature data, in particular {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2MC), and to compare the results with the current Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) set by FAO/WHO. The literature survey identified 79 feeding trials involving 27,537 people that were suitable for extraction of cadmium intake, levels in blood and urine and {beta}2-microglobulin in urine. There was an exponential increase in {beta}2-microglobulin with increases in cadmium intake above 302 {mu}g/day, which corresponds to a PTWI of 3.02 {mu}g/kg of body weight, when a safety margin of 10 is included. This compares with the current level set by FAO/WHO of 7 {mu}g/kg of body weight. Cadmium in blood and urine were also positively related to cadmium intake and participants' age. There were two principal components of variation in the data set, first: cadmium intake, concentrations of cadmium in blood, urine and {beta}2-microglobulin in urine, and second: duration and age of exposure.

  5. [Medication rule for treatment of functional dyspepsia: an analysis of traditional Chinese medicine literature based on China National Knowledge Internet].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong-ling; Wu, Yuan-jie; Wang, Xiang; Li, Yi-fang; Fang, Zheng-qing

    2015-10-01

    By retrieving the clinical research literature of treatment functional dyspepsia by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from January 2004 to December 2014 based on China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), we would establish a TCM decoction database for treating functional dyspepsia in this study. One hundred and sixty-four literature were included, involving 159 prescriptions, 377 medicines, in a total of 1 990 herbs. These herbs can be divided into 18 categories according to the effectiveness; and qi-regulating herbs, blood circulation herbs, and antipyretic herbs ranked top three ones according to the frequency of usage of the herbs, whose medicine usage frequency accounted for 51.81%. Usage frequency of 16 herbs was over 30, and Atractylodes, Radix, Poriaranked top three according to the usage frequency. Medicinal properties were divided into 9 kinds according to the frequency statistics, and the top three were warm, flat, and cold. Taste frequency statistics were classifiedinto 9 kinds, and the top three were acrid, sweet, and bitter. In frequency statistics of the meridian tropism of herbs, it was classifiedinto 11 kinds, and the top three were spleen, stomach, lung. The analysis can provide a reference for treatment and study of TCM of functional dyspepsia.

  6. Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinomas: a retrospective analysis and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Cao, Youde; Chen, Chen; Liu, Lin; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Shengchun

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinomas (NEBCs) are a rare type of breast carcinomas that lack comprehensive recognition, including the clinicopathological features, therapeutic strategies, and prognostic significance. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present and analyze our own data of primary NEBCs. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records from 2005 to 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China to obtain a cohort of breast carcinoma patients who were confirmed to have primary NEBC by histopathology. The detailed clinical data along with histopathology, treatment, and follow-up aspects were gathered for analysis. Results This retrospective analysis included 19 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of primary NEBC from 2005 to 2015. Their mean age was 59.2 years (ranging from 17 to 82 years). The majority of patients (15/19) focused on stages I and II. Of the 15 patients, 14 were positive for estrogen receptor, and 11 were positive for progesterone receptor. For neuroendocrine markers, the expression rates were 8/19, 14/18, 12/14, and 2/6 for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and CD56, respectively. All operable patients except the one stage M1 underwent a surgery and 4/18 had axillary lymph node metastasis. Chemotherapy was performed in 12/19, and endocrine therapy in 8/10. With a median follow-up of 59.2 months, only 2 cases progressed after postoperative systemic therapy. Conclusion The understanding of NEBC is limited due to its rarity. More evidence should be provided to enhance the understanding of NEBC, especially for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:28176908

  7. [EEG coherence analysis in depressive disorders and its possible use in clinical practice: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Varlamov, A A; Strelets, V B

    2013-01-01

    Recent reviews and meta-analyses of clinical data have revealed that there is a clear need in objective biomarkers of mental disorders and, in particular, of depression. There is a lot of evidence that EEG coherence can be an important marker of depressive disorders, and can predict response to different antidepressants. The most consistent finding is a decrease of frontal interhemispheric EEG coherence which is observed for most disorders related to depression. Methodological issues are discussed with a particular emphasis on use of statistical classifiers and on coupling EEG coherence with other methods of EEG analysis.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of solar hydrogen generation literature from 2001 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Maghami, Mohammad Reza; Asl, Shahin Navabi; Rezadad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Gomes, Chandima

    Solar hydrogen generation is one of the new topics in the field of renewable energy. Recently, the rate of investigation about hydrogen generation is growing dramatically in many countries. Many studies have been done about hydrogen generation from natural resources such as wind, solar, coal etc. In this work we evaluated global scientific production of solar hydrogen generation papers from 2001 to 2014 in any journal of all the subject categories of the Science Citation Index compiled by Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Philadelphia, USA. Solar hydrogen generation was used as keywords to search the parts of titles, abstracts, or keywords. The published output analysis showed that hydrogen generation from the sun research steadily increased over the past 14 years and the annual paper production in 2013 was about three times 2010-paper production. The number of papers considered in this research is 141 which have been published from 2001 to this date. There are clear distinctions among author keywords used in publications from the five most high-publishing countries such as USA, China, Australia, Germany and India in solar hydrogen studies. In order to evaluate this work quantitative and qualitative analysis methods were used to the development of global scientific production in a specific research field. The analytical results eventually provide several key findings and consider the overview hydrogen production according to the solar hydrogen generation.

  9. Qualitative environmental health research: an analysis of the literature, 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2011-10-01

    Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people's opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. In this analysis, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. A primary search for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. This analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes.

  10. Clinical and Genetic Analysis of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chilakamarri, Vijaykrishna; Ranganath, Prajnya; Arora, Abhishek Jagdishchander; Vanaja, Maria Celestina

    2015-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and disabling heterotopic ossification in specific anatomic locations with a world wide prevalence of 1 in 2 million population. Nearly 90% of patients with FOP are misdiagnosed and mismanaged. We present a case of a four-year-old boy brought by his parents with the complaints of stiffness of right shoulder, neck and multiple swellings over the upper back noted over the past 4 months. On examination bilateral symmetrical hallux valgus with microdactyly of great toes and multiple bony hard swellings on both the scapulae were noted. Skeletal survey revealed all the classical features of FOP. Mutation of the ACVR1gene on genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of FOP. Invasive surgical procedures including biopsy and manipulations for stiff joints were avoided as they strikingly end up in rapid progression of FOP. Congenital hallux valgus with short great toe in a child should be considered as an early diagnostic tool for FOP even before the onset of mass lesions. Genetic analysis for mutation of ACVR1gene is confirmatory. Prevention of injury, medical management of acute painful flare-ups and rehabilitation are the mainstay of treatment. PMID:26436010

  11. Statistical analysis of clinical prediction rules for rehabilitation interventions: current state of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lubetzky-Vilnai, Anat; Ciol, Marcia; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2014-01-01

    Deriving clinical prediction rules (CPRs) to identify specific characteristics of patients who would likely respond to certain interventions has become a research priority in physical rehabilitation. Understanding the appropriate statistical principles and methods of analyses underlying the derivation of CPRs is important for future rehabilitation research and clinical applications. In this article, we aimed to provide an overview of statistical techniques used for the derivation of CPRs to predict success following physical therapy interventions and to generate recommendations for improvements in CPR derivation research and statistical analysis in rehabilitation. We have summarized the current state of CPR intervention-related research by reviewing 26 studies. A common technique was found in most studies and included univariate association of factors with treatment success, stepwise logistic regression to determine the most parsimonious set of predictors for success, and calculation of accuracy statistics (focusing on positive likelihood ratios). We identified several shortcomings related to inadequate ratio of events by number of predictors, lack of standardization regarding acceptable interobserver reliability of predictors, questionable handling of predictors including reliance on univariate analysis and early categorization, and not accounting for dependence and collinearity of predictors in multivariable model construction. Interpretation of the derived CPRs was found to be difficult due to lack of precision of estimates and paradoxical findings when a subset of the predictors yielded a larger positive likelihood ratio than did the full set of predictors. Finally, we make recommendations regarding how to strengthen the use of statistical principles and methods to create consistency across rehabilitation research for CPR derivations.

  12. Internet-based support programs to alleviate psychosocial and physical symptoms in cancer patients: a literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Grietje; Admiraal, Jolien M; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Schröder, Carolien P; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Reyners, Anna K L

    2015-07-01

    In this review the effect of internet-based support programs on psychosocial and physical symptoms resulting from cancer diagnosis and treatment is analyzed. Selection of studies was based on the following criteria: (non-)randomized controlled trials, performed in adult cancer patients, comparing quantitative psychosocial and/or physical outcomes of an internet-based support program with (a) comparison group(s). Literature search yielded 2032 studies of which 16 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Three different internet-based support programs were identified: social support groups, online therapy for psychosocial/physical symptoms, and online systems integrating information, support, and coaching services. Outcomes improved by these programs in nine studies. Especially fatigue, social support, and distress improved, regardless of the program type. All online systems showed positive effects, mainly for social support and quality of life. This analysis indicates that internet-based support programs are effective in improving psychosocial and physical symptoms in cancer patients.

  13. Content analysis of five occupational therapy journals, 2006-2010: further review of characteristics of the quantitative literature.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Andrew W; Brennan, Alexandra R; Journey, Tiffany I; Antill, Kayla D; McPherson, James J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To analyze the content of publications in 5 occupational therapy journals to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the literature base from 2006 to 2010. METHOD. A content analysis for 2006 through 2010 of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT), Australian Occupational Therapy Journal (AOTJ), British Journal of Occupational Therapy (BJOT), Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy (CJOT), and Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy (SJOT) was completed. RESULTS. AJOT and SJOT had the highest percentage of articles focusing on physical disabilities, whereas a majority of articles in AOTJ, BJOT, and CJOT focused on education. SJOT published articles with the highest median number of participants in all research designs excluding descriptive studies. The majority of the research articles were descriptive for all journals. CONCLUSION. From 2006 to 2010, AJOT provided stronger evidence conducted at higher levels than the other journals by publishing more articles investigating interventions used to support clinical practice.

  14. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination repr...

  15. Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Voudris, Vassilis; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC) aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC) users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Methods: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE) from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel), the Minimal Risk Level (MRL) defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese) and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium). Results: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium) at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Conclusions: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials. PMID:25988311

  16. Carbothermic Synthesis of 820 m UN Kernels: Literature Review, Thermodynamics, Analysis, and Related Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemer, Terrence; Voit, Stewart L; Silva, Chinthaka M; Besmann, Theodore M; Hunt, Rodney Dale

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel that would be less susceptible to ruptures during a loss-of-coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with large, dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels. This effort explores many factors involved in using gel-derived uranium oxide-carbon microspheres to make large UN kernels. Analysis of recent studies with sufficient experimental details is provided. Extensive thermodynamic calculations are used to predict carbon monoxide and other pressures for several different reactions that may be involved in conversion of uranium oxides and carbides to UN. Experimentally, the method for making the gel-derived microspheres is described. These were used in a microbalance with an attached mass spectrometer to determine details of carbothermic conversion in argon, nitrogen, or vacuum. A quantitative model is derived from experiments for vacuum conversion to an uranium oxide-carbide kernel.

  17. The stability of IQ in people with low intellectual ability: an analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-04-01

    A meta-analysis of the stability of low IQ (IQ < 80) was performed on IQ tests that have been commonly used--tests that were derived by D. Wechsler (1949, 1955, 1974, 1981, 1991, 1997) and those based on the Binet scales (L. M. Terman, 1960; L. M. Terman & Merrill, 1972). Weighted-mean stability coefficients of .77 and .78 were found for Verbal IQ (V IQ) and Performance IQ (P IQ) on the Wechsler tests and .82 for Full-Scale IQ (FS IQ) on both Wechsler and Binet tests, for a mean test-retest interval of 2.8 years. Although the majority of FS IQs changed by less than 6 points, 14% changed by 10 points or more. The author suggests that the results of IQ assessment should be treated with more caution than previously thought.

  18. How will DSM-5 affect autism diagnosis? A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kulage, Kristine M; Smaldone, Arlene M; Cohn, Elizabeth G

    2014-08-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5 criteria. There were statistically significant pooled decreases in ASD [31% (20-44), p = 0.006] and DSM-IV-TR subgroups of Autistic disorder [22% (16-29), p < 0.001] and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) [70% (55-82), p = 0.01]; however, Asperger's disorder pooled decrease was not significant [70% (26-94), p = 0.38]. DSM-5 will likely decrease the number of individuals diagnosed with ASD, particularly the PDD-NOS subgroup. Research is needed on policies regarding services for individuals lacking diagnosis but requiring assistance.

  19. Centrality and Flow Vergence gradient based Path analysis of scientific literature: A case study of Biotechnology for Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathabai, Hiran H.; Prabhakaran, Thara; Changat, Manoj

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology, ever since its inception has had a huge impact on the society and its various applications have been intricately woven into the human web of life. Its evolution amidst all the other research realms vital to mankind is remarkable. In this paper, we intend to identify the radical innovations in Biotechnology for Engineering using network analyses. Centrality analysis and Path analysis are used for identifying important works. Existence of Flow Vergence effect in the scientific literature is revealed. Flow Vergence gradient, an arc metric derived from FV model, is utilised for Path analysis which detects pivotal papers of paradigm shift more accurately. A major paradigm shift has been identified in the business models of Biotechnology for Engineering - 'Capability to Connectivity' model. Evidence towards the adoption of business practices in BT firms by nanotechnology start-ups is also identified. The notion of critical divergence is introduced and the exhibition of interdisciplinary interaction in emerging fields due to critical divergence is discussed. Implications of above analyses which target: (i) Science and technology policy makers, (ii) industrialists and investors, (iii) researchers in academia as well as industry, are also discussed.

  20. Mapping Miles and Huberman's Within-Case and Cross-Case Analysis Methods onto the Literature Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Weinbaum, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several authors have attempted to make the literature review process more transparent by providing a step-by-step guide to conducting literature reviews. However, although these works are very informative, none of them delineate how to display information extracted from literature reviews in a reader-friendly and visually appealing…

  1. Art, Meet Chemistry; Chemistry, Meet Art: Case Studies, Current Literature, and Instrumental Methods Combined to Create a Hands-On Experience for Nonmajors and Instrumental Analysis Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivens, Delana A.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Verges, Katie J.; Jamieson, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    Case studies and current literature are combined with spectroscopic analysis to provide a unique chemistry experience for art history students and to provide a unique inquiry-based laboratory experiment for analytical chemistry students. The XRF analysis method was used to demonstrate to nonscience majors (art history students) a powerful…

  2. Shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases and bone consolidation: qualitative analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kertzman, Paulo; Lenza, Mario; Pedrinelli, André; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Shockwave treatment is an option within orthopedics. The exact mechanism through which shockwaves function for treating musculoskeletal diseases is unknown. The aim of this study was to make a qualitative analysis on the effectiveness of shockwave treatment among patients with musculoskeletal pathological conditions and pseudarthrosis. Searches were conducted in the Cochrane Library, Medline and Lilacs databases. Thirty-nine studies that reported using shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases were found. Their results varied greatly, as did the types of protocol used. The studies that evaluated the effectiveness of shockwave treatment for lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendinopathy, knee osteoarthrosis, femoral head osteonecrosis and trochanteric bursitis reported inconsistent results for most of their patients. Those that evaluated patients with calcifying tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy and pseudarthrosis showed benefits. Shockwave treatment is a safe and non-invasive method for chronic cases in which conventional techniques have been unsatisfactory and should be used in association with other treatment methods for tendinopathy. Further quality studies are needed.

  3. Epistemology of Contaminants of Emerging Concern and Literature Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to inform the epistemology, or theory of knowledge, of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). The CEC terminology acknowledges the existence of harmful environmental agents whose identities, occurrences, hazards, and effects are not sufficiently understood. Here, data on publishing activity were analyzed for 12 CECs, revealing a common pattern of emergence, suitable for identifying past years of peak concern and forecasting future ones: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT; 1972, 2008), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA; 1972, 2009), nitrosodimethylamine (1984), methyl tert-butyl ether (2001), trichloroethylene (2005), perchlorate (2006), 1,4-dioxane (2009), prions (2009), triclocarban (2010), triclosan (2012), nanomaterials (by 2016), and microplastics (2022 ± 4). CECs were found to emerge from obscurity to the height of concern in 14.1 ± 3.6 years, and subside to a new baseline level of concern in 14.5 ± 4.5 years. CECs can emerge more than once (e.g., TCAA, DDT) and the multifactorial process of emergence may be driven by inception of novel scientific methods (e.g., ion chromatography, mass spectrometry and nanometrology), scientific paradigm shifts (discovery of infectious proteins), and the development, marketing and mass consumption of novel products (antimicrobial personal care products, microplastics and nanomaterials). Publishing activity and U.S. regulatory actions were correlated for several CECs investigated. PMID:25294779

  4. Liver cell adenoma: A case report with clonal analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Li; Su, Qin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ai-Ning; Zhu, Shao-Jun; Feng, Ying-Ming

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of liver cell adenoma (LCA) in a 33-year-old female patient with special respect to its clonality status, pathogenic factors and differential diagnosis. The case was examined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and a clonality assay based on X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism in female somatic tissues and polymorphism at androgen receptor focus. The clinicopathological features of the reported cases from China and other countries were compared. The lesion was spherical, sizing 2 cm in its maximal dimension. Histologically, it was composed of cells arranged in cords, most of which were two-cell-thick and separated by sinusoids. Focal fatty change and excessive glycogen storage were observed. The tumor cells were round or polygonal in shape, resembling the surrounding parenchymal cells. Mitosis was not found. No portal tract, central vein or ductule was found within the lesion. The tumor tissue showed a positive reaction for cytokeratin (CK) 18, but not for CK19, vimentin, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Monoclonality was demonstrated for the lesion, confirming the diagnosis of an LCA. Clonality analysis is helpful for its distinction from focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:16610069

  5. Towards an integrated model of nursing competence: an overview of the literature reviews and concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Roberto; Fida, Roberta; Sili, Alessandro; Arrigoni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Introduzione: La competenza è un elemento fondamentale quando si misura la capacità di infer- mieri o studenti di fornire assistenza infermieristica, ma non vi è consenso su ciò che realmente sia la competenza. Questo studio si propone di indagare i significati e i modelli di competenza infermieristica. Metodo: L’overview delle revisioni della letteratura e delle concept analysis è stata effettuata attraverso una ricerca su Pubmed, Cinahl e PsychINFO dal gennaio 2005 a settembre 2014, che includeva parole chiave come: Modello di competenza; Competenza professionale; Competenza infermieristica; Competenza. Risultati: Sono stati inclusi un totale di 14 articoli, provenienti dalla letteratura infermieristica sia in ambito formativo che clinico. È stato possibile individuare alcuni temi comuni negli arti- coli inclusi: la descrizione dei determinanti di competenza; la confusione intorno al concetto di competenza; la carenza nella valutazione delle competenze; la carenza nell’operazionalizzare il concetto di competenza. Conclusioni: I risultati forniscono una panoramica che, arricchita dalla letteratura proveniente dagli studi organizzativi, costituiscono la base concettuale di un modello integrato di compe- tenza infermieristica. Ulteriore ricerca empirica è necessaria per verificare le assunzioni teoriche.

  6. The association between retinal vasculature changes and stroke: a literature review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Qun; Wu, Huan; Shi, Li-Li; Yu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Li-Yuan; Chen, Ya-Lan; Geng, Jin-Song; Shi, Jian; Jiang, Kui; Dong, Jian-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between retinal vasculature changes and stroke. METHODS MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for relevant human studies to September 2015 that investigated the association between retinal vasculature changes and the prevalence or incidence of stroke; the studies were independently examined for their qualities. Data on clinical characteristics and calculated summary odds ratios (ORs) were extracted for associations between retinal microvascular abnormalities and stroke, including stroke subtypes where possible, and adjusted for key variables. RESULTS Nine cases were included in the study comprising 20 659 patients, 1178 of whom were stroke patients. The retinal microvascular morphological markers used were hemorrhage, microaneurysm, vessel caliber, arteriovenous nicking, and fractal dimension. OR of retinal arteriole narrowing and retinal arteriovenous nicking and stroke was 1.42 and 1.91, respectively, indicating that a small-caliber retinal arteriole and retinal arteriovenous nicking were associated with stroke. OR of retinal hemorrhage and retinal microaneurysm and stroke was 3.21 and 3.83, respectively, indicating that retinal microvascular lesions were highly associated with stroke. Results also showed that retinal fractal dimension reduction was associated with stroke (OR: 2.28 for arteriole network, OR: 1.80 for venular network). CONCLUSION Retinal vasculature changes have a specific relationship to stroke, which is promising evidence for the prediction of stroke using computerized retinal vessel analysis. PMID:28149786

  7. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18 studies from science education journals as they relate to the definition, design, and overall practice of using mixed methods. I scrutinized a purposeful sample, derived from 3 journals (the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, and the Research in Science Education) in terms of the type of data collected, timing, priority, design, the mixing of the 2 data strands in the studies, and the justifications authors provide for using mixed methods. Furthermore, the articles were evaluated in terms of how well they met contemporary definitions for mixed methods research. The studies varied considerably in the use and understanding of mixed methods. A systematic evaluation of the employment of mixed methods methodology was used to identify the studies that best reflected contemporary definitions. A comparison to earlier content analyses of mixed methods research indicates that researchers' knowledge of mixed methods methodology may be increasing. The use of this strategy in science education research calls, however, for an improved methodology, especially concerning the practice of mixing. Suggestions are given on how to best use this approach.

  8. Sulodexide therapy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Xing, Jing; Mu, Xaojing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Sulodexide is a heterogeneous group of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that is mainly composed of low-molecular-weight heparin. Clinical studies have demonstrated that sulodexide is capable of reducing urinary albumin excretion rates in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that sulodexide has renal protection. However, this efficacy remains inconclusive. In this article, we used meta-analysis to summarize the clinical results of all prospective clinical studies in order to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of sulodexide in diabetic patients with nephropathy. Overall, sulodexide therapy was associated with a significant reduction in urinary protein excretion. In the sulodexide group, 220 (17.7%) achieved at least a 50% decrease in albumin excretion rate compared with only 141 (11.5%) in the placebo. The odds ratio comparing proportions of patients with therapeutic success between the sulodexide and placebo groups was 3.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.34–8.06; P=0.01). These data suggest a renoprotective benefit of sulodexide in patients with diabetes and micro- and macroalbuminuria, which will provide important information for clinical use of this drug as a potential modality for diabetic nephropathy, specifically, the prevention of end-stage renal disease that is often caused by diabetes. PMID:26664049

  9. A Literature Review of the Numerical Analysis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Treated with Endovascular Stent Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Roy, David; Kauffmann, Claude; Delorme, Sébastien; Lerouge, Sophie; Cloutier, Guy; Soulez, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the basic principles and relevant advances in the computational modeling of abdominal aortic aneurysms and endovascular aneurysm repair, providing the community with up-to-date state of the art in terms of numerical analysis and biomechanics. Frameworks describing the mechanical behavior of the aortic wall already exist. However, intraluminal thrombus nonhomogeneous structure and porosity still need to be well characterized. Also, although the morphology and mechanical properties of calcifications have been investigated, their effects on wall stresses remain controversial. Computational fluid dynamics usually assumes a rigid artery wall, whereas fluid-structure interaction accounts for artery compliance but is still challenging since arteries and blood have similar densities. We discuss alternatives to fluid-structure interaction based on dynamic medical images that address patient-specific hemodynamics and geometries. We describe initial stresses, elastic boundary conditions, and statistical strength for rupture risk assessment. Special emphasis is accorded to workflow development, from the conversion of medical images into finite element models, to the simulation of catheter-aorta interactions and stent-graft deployment. Our purpose is also to elaborate the key ingredients leading to virtual stenting and endovascular repair planning that could improve the procedure and stent-grafts. PMID:22997538

  10. Coronectomy of impacted mandibular third molars: A meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cervera-Espert*, Juan; Pérez-Martínez*, Sara; Cervera-Ballester, Juan; Penarrocha-Oltra, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronectomy is an alternative to complete removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Most authors have recommended coronectomy to prevent damage to the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extraction of lower third molars. The present study offers a systematic review and metaanalysis of the coronectomy technique. Material and Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed based on a PubMed and Cochrane databases search for articles published from 2014 and involving coronectomy of mandibular third molars located near the inferior alveolar nerve canal, with a minimum of 10 cases and a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 12 articles were included in the study. Results and Discussion Coronectomy results in significantly lesser loss of sensitivity of the inferior alveolar nerve and prevents the occurrence of dry socket. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidence of pain and infection between coronectomy and complete surgical extraction. After coronectomy, the remaining tooth fragment migrates an average of 2 mm within two years. Conclusions Coronectomy is indicated when the mandibular third molar is in contact with the inferior alveolar nerve and complete removal of the tooth may cause nerve damage. Key words:Coronectomy, included third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury. PMID:27031064

  11. Sulodexide therapy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Xing, Jing; Mu, Xaojing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Sulodexide is a heterogeneous group of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that is mainly composed of low-molecular-weight heparin. Clinical studies have demonstrated that sulodexide is capable of reducing urinary albumin excretion rates in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that sulodexide has renal protection. However, this efficacy remains inconclusive. In this article, we used meta-analysis to summarize the clinical results of all prospective clinical studies in order to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of sulodexide in diabetic patients with nephropathy. Overall, sulodexide therapy was associated with a significant reduction in urinary protein excretion. In the sulodexide group, 220 (17.7%) achieved at least a 50% decrease in albumin excretion rate compared with only 141 (11.5%) in the placebo. The odds ratio comparing proportions of patients with therapeutic success between the sulodexide and placebo groups was 3.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.34-8.06; P=0.01). These data suggest a renoprotective benefit of sulodexide in patients with diabetes and micro- and macroalbuminuria, which will provide important information for clinical use of this drug as a potential modality for diabetic nephropathy, specifically, the prevention of end-stage renal disease that is often caused by diabetes.

  12. [Contrastive analysis of Latin terms for denoting human organs and structural body parts and parts of organs in anatomy literature in English and Serbian].

    PubMed

    Vukčević-Lacković, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the analysis of the use of Latin terms in the field of human anatomy through the contrastive analysis of examples from anatomy atlases and textbooks, and research papers in the area of human anatomy in English and Serbian. The contrastive analysis of examples has highlighted a certain tendency towards the use of original Latin terms in anatomy literature in the Serbian language, while the tendency of anatomy literature in English is towards the use of English terms which most often have a Latin root. It has also been noted that Serbian literature, in addition to original Latin terms, uses a significant number of terms with a Latin root. The noted tendencies differ depending on the type of literature (anatomy atlas, textbook or research paper). A significantly greater uniformity in the use of terminology has been noted in editions in English as compared to the Serbian anatomy literature where a lack of such a uniform system is evident. Bearing in mind the ever increasing significance of the English language in the world of science, one of the conclusions of this paper is that these differences may be of practical significance for authors from Serbia looking to publish their work in English as well as for translators of medical literature.

  13. A Bibliometric Analysis of PubMed Literature on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengting; Chen, Yongdi; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Liu, Kui; Chen, Bin; Jiang, Jianmin; Gu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), a pandemic threat to human beings, has aroused huge concern worldwide, but no bibliometric studies have been conducted on MERS research. The aim of this study was to map research productivity on the disease based on the articles indexed in PubMed. The articles related to MERS dated from 2012 to 2015 were retrieved from PubMed. The articles were classified into three categories according to their focus. Publication outputs were assessed and frequently used terms were mapped using the VOS viewer software. A total of 443 articles were included for analysis. They were published in 162 journals, with Journal of Virology being the most productive (44 articles; 9.9%) and by six types of organizations, with universities being the most productive (276 articles; 62.4%).The largest proportion of the articles focused on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (47.2%) and those on prevention and control ranked third (26.2%), with those on other focuses coming in between (26.6%). The articles on prevention and control had the highest mean rank for impact factor (IF) (226.34), followed by those on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (180.23) and those on other focuses (168.03). The mean rank differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Besides, “conronavirus”, “case”, “transmission” and “detection” were found to be the most frequently used terms. The findings of this first bibliometric study on MERS suggest that the prevention and control of the disease has become a big concern and related research should be strengthened. PMID:27304963

  14. Composition differences between organic and conventional meat: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Krogh Larsen, Mette; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Yolcu, Halil; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-28

    Demand for organic meat is partially driven by consumer perceptions that organic foods are more nutritious than non-organic foods. However, there have been no systematic reviews comparing specifically the nutrient content of organic and conventionally produced meat. In this study, we report results of a meta-analysis based on sixty-seven published studies comparing the composition of organic and non-organic meat products. For many nutritionally relevant compounds (e.g. minerals, antioxidants and most individual fatty acids (FA)), the evidence base was too weak for meaningful meta-analyses. However, significant differences in FA profiles were detected when data from all livestock species were pooled. Concentrations of SFA and MUFA were similar or slightly lower, respectively, in organic compared with conventional meat. Larger differences were detected for total PUFA and n-3 PUFA, which were an estimated 23 (95 % CI 11, 35) % and 47 (95 % CI 10, 84) % higher in organic meat, respectively. However, for these and many other composition parameters, for which meta-analyses found significant differences, heterogeneity was high, and this could be explained by differences between animal species/meat types. Evidence from controlled experimental studies indicates that the high grazing/forage-based diets prescribed under organic farming standards may be the main reason for differences in FA profiles. Further studies are required to enable meta-analyses for a wider range of parameters (e.g. antioxidant, vitamin and mineral concentrations) and to improve both precision and consistency of results for FA profiles for all species. Potential impacts of composition differences on human health are discussed.

  15. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  16. American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Published bimonthly by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this edition of "Humanities" focuses on issues in American literature. Articles and their authors consist of: (1) "Conversations about Literature" (an interview with Cleanth Brooks and Willie Morris about writing and writers in America); (2) "The Spine of…

  17. Quantitative analysis and relevant features of the scientific literature related to SAXS and SANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craievich, Aldo F.; Fischer, Hannes

    2010-10-01

    We present and discuss here numerical information derived from a systematic searching of scientific papers related to SAXS and SANS published in indexed journals - from 1945 until nowadays - recorded by the Web of Science Data Bank (WoS). We have detected interesting features regarding the time dependence of the number of papers/year, N(t), indicating the existence of three well-defined periods of historical evolution with rather well-defined boundaries. All three periods exhibit a positive and approximately linear variation of N(t) but, at the two transitions between periods, the rate of growth exhibits clear and strong increases. Differences of the historical evolutions in the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS were established. The different behaviours regarding the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS and the existence of three different and well defined periods for N(t) can be qualitatively understood as a consequence of the progressive and increasing availability along the last three decades of very brilliant synchrotrons, last generation commercial X-ray sources, new neutron facilities, powerful computers and novel theoretical approaches for SAS data analysis. The rates of growth in the number of papers/year published by authors from a set of different countries are approximately constant along the last two decades. For other countries we have detected a slowing down effect in the number of papers/year while a clear acceleration could be noticed for the production of SAS papers by authors from several emerging countries. These opposite trends compensate in such a way that the number of SAS (SAXS+SAXS) articles published per year all around the world maintained a vigorous linear growth - during more than 20 years - at a constant rate of 60 papers/year, without any indication of eventual saturation. The observed distribution of articles among different journals indicates that a very high fraction of the volume of SAS research is

  18. Botany in children's literature: A content analysis of plant-centered children's picture books that have a plot and characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goins, Sheila Lewis

    This content analysis study examined 36 plant-centered children's science picture books that have a plot and characters published from 1950 to present. Botanical subject matter and learning opportunities offered by these books were analyzed, along with the range and frequency of the National Science Education Standards-consistent and age-appropriate plant science concepts and principles. The science graphics, artistic innovations, and story plot of these books were also examined. Rubrics and research-based recommendations were developed to offer parents, teachers, and librarians assistance in identifying, evaluating, and using such books to help children of ages 4--8 learn about plants and enjoy plant science. This genre of children's literature was identified and selected primarily through extensive research at four major, nationally recognized children's literature collections: The Kerlan Collection, The de Grummond Collection, The Center for Children's Books, and The Central Children's Room at the Donnell Library. This study determined that there was a substantial increase in the number of books written in this genre of children's literature from 1990 to 2000. Botanical subject-matter knowledge and learning opportunities offered by these books include biodiversity of plants; characteristics of plants; life cycles of plants; economic botany, ecology, and ethnobotany. The range and frequency of National Standards-consistent and age-appropriate plant science concepts and principles identified within these books, in part, though not exclusively, included the emergent categories of the process of photosynthesis; basic needs of plants; plant structures; external signals affecting plant growth; environmental stress to plants; biodiversity of plants; plants as animal habitats; and common uses of plants. With regard to plant science graphics, 13 books were identified as presenting some type of science graphic, beyond simple illustrations. The most frequently used

  19. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 allele in Brazilian populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Carvalho, Wlisses Henrique Veloso; de Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; Crovella, Sergio; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2016-09-01

    The CCR5 is a chemokine receptor widely expressed by several immune cells that are engaged in inflammatory responses. Some populations have individuals exhibiting a 32bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) that produces a truncated non-functional protein not expressed on the cell surface. This polymorphism, known to be associated with susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as osteomyelitis, pre-eclampsia, systemic lupus erythematous, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV/AIDS, is more commonly found in European populations with average frequency of 10%. However, it is also possible to observe a significant frequency in other world populations, such as the Brazilian one. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of CCR5-delta32 genetic association studies in Brazilian populations throughout the country to estimate the frequency of this polymorphism. We also compared CCR5-delta32 frequencies across Brazilian regions. The systematic literature reviewed studies involving delta32 allele in Brazilian populations published from 1995 to 2015. Among the reviewed literature, 25 studies including 30 Brazilian populations distributed between the North, Northeast, South and Southeast regions were included in our meta-analysis. We observed an overall allelic frequency of 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), that was considered moderate and, notably, higher than some European populations, such as Cyprus (2.8%), Italy (3%) and Greece (2.4%). Regarding the regional frequency comparisons between North-Northeast (N-NE) and South-Southeast (S-SE) regions, we observed an allelic frequency of 3% (95%-CI, 0.02-0.04) and 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), respectively. The populations from S-SE regions had a slightly higher CCR5-delta32 frequency than N-NE regions (OR=1.41, p=0.002). Although there are several studies about the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism and its effect on the immune response of some infectious diseases, this report is the first meta-analysis

  20. Surgical Regenerative Treatments for Peri-Implantitis: Meta-analysis of Recent Findings in a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cicciù, Marco; Saulacic, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the surgical regenerative treatment of the peri-implantitis and to determine an effective therapeutic predictable option for their clinical management. Material and Methods The study searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 2006 to 2016. Clinical human studies that had reported changes in probing depth (PD) and/or bleeding on probing (BOP) and/or radiologic marginal bone level (RBL) changes after peri-implantitis surgical treatment at 12-month follow-up or longer were included accordingly to PRISMA guidelines. Results The initial search obtained 883 citations. After screening and determination of eligibility, 18 articles were included in the review. The meta-analysis of selected studies revealed that the weighted mean RBL fill was 1.97 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58 to 2.35 mm), PD reduction was 2.78 mm (95% CI = 2.31 to 3.25 mm), and BOP reduced by 52.5% (95% CI = 41.6 to 63.1%). Defect fill in studies using and not using barrier membranes for graft coverage was 1.86 mm (95% CI = 1.36 to 2.36 mm) and 2.12 mm (95% CI = 1.46 to 2.78 mm) correspondingly. High heterogeneity among the studies regarding defects morphology, surgical protocols, and selection of biomaterials were found. Conclusions All included studies underlined an improvement of clinical conditions after the surgical regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis, however, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the literature regarding the superiority of the regenerative versus non-regenerative surgical treatment. The presence of a barrier membrane or submergence in the regenerative procedure does not seem to be fundamental in order to obtain clinical success of the surgery. PMID:27833740

  1. Complications and Reinterventions in Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: A Literature Review and Meta Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jason Bhanot, Kunal; Athreya, Sriharsha

    2013-04-15

    To perform a literature review of the spectrum of complications associated with UAE relative to surgery and compare the risk of reintervention as well as minor, major, and overall complications. Literature review was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases, and meta-analysis was performed. In randomized clinical trials, common complications were discharge and fever (4.00 %), bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) failure (4.00 %), and postembolization syndrome (2.86 %). Two trials showed a significantly decreased risk in major complications with UAE, with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.07143 (0.009426-0.5413) and 0.5196 (0.279-0.9678). None of the trials showed a significant difference in OR for minor complications of UAE. None of the trials showed a significant difference in risk for overall complications of UAE. Three trials showed a significantly increased risk for reintervention with UAE with ORs of 10.45 (2.654-41.14), 2.679 (1.289-5.564), and 9.096 (1.269-65.18). In 76 nonrandomized studies, common complications were amenorrhea (4.26 %), pain (3.59 %), and discharge and fever (3.37 %). In 41 case studies, common complications were discharge and fever (n = 22 cases), repeat UAE (n = 6 cases), and fibroid expulsion (n = 5 cases). Overall, UAE has a significantly lower rate of major complications relative to surgery, but it comes at the cost of increased risk of reintervention in the future. Educating patients about the rate and types of complications of UAE versus surgery, as well as the potential for reintervention, should help the patient and clinician come to a reasoned decision.

  2. Activation of photoprotective winter photoinhibition in plants from different environments: a literature compilation and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Fátima; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    Overwintering plants face a pronounced imbalance between light capture and use of that excitation for photosynthesis. In response, plants upregulate thermal dissipation, with concomitant reductions in photochemical efficiency, in a process characterized by a slow recovery upon warming. These sustained depressions of photochemical efficiency are termed winter photoinhibition (WPI) here. WPI has been extensively studied in conifers and in few overwintering crops, but other plant species have received less attention. Furthermore, the literature shows some controversies about the association of WPI with xanthophylls and the environmental conditions that control xanthophylls conversion. To overview current knowledge and identify knowledge gaps on WPI mechanisms, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of literature published over the period 1991-2011. All publications containing measurements of Fv/Fm for a cold period and a corresponding warm control were included in our final database of 190 studies on 162 species. WPI was estimated as the relative decrease in Fv/Fm. High WPI was always accompanied by a high (A + Z)/(V + A + Z). Activation of lasting WPI was directly related to air temperature, with a threshold of around 0°C. Tropical plants presented earlier (at a temperature of >0°C) and higher WPI than non-tropical plants. We conclude that (1) activation of a xanthophyll-dependent mechanism of WPI is a requisite for maintaining photosynthetic structures at sub-zero temperatures, while (2) absence (or low levels) of WPI is not necessarily related to low (A + Z)/(V + A + Z); and (3) the air temperature that triggers lasting WPI, and the maximum level of WPI, do not depend on plant growth habit or bioclimatic origin of species.

  3. Canadian Men's Self-Management of Chronic Diseases: A Literature Analysis of Strategies for Dealing With Risks and Promoting Wellness.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, Margareth S; Maheu, Christine; Kolisnyk, Olesya; Mohamed, Mohamed; Guruge, Sepali; Kinslikh, Diana; Christopher, Joneet J; Stevenson, Melissa; SanJose, CaroLine; Sizto, Terry; Byam, Aaron

    2015-03-23

    This article reviews the qualitative research on men's self-management of mental and physical chronic diseases, with emphasis on strategies for dealing with risks and promoting wellness. Using Bardin's method of document analysis, it was focused on the findings of Canadian qualitative studies published in French or English from 2005 to 2011. Boltanski's theory on social uses of the body inspired the analysis. Living with a chronic disease threatens men's sense of masculinity and self-image, as well as their perceived ability to fulfill expected social roles. Social images of men's bodies influence how men express their emotions, attributes, and attitudes, or acknowledge the need for and seek social affirmation. Self-management has been documented in Canadian qualitative literature as a complex phenomenon influenced by the social environment, personal capacities, feelings, perceptions, and potentials. The extent of how all these features interact within the scope of men's mental and physical health and illness experiences was partially revealed in this study. The findings underscore the social invisibility of men's bodies, especially those of men facing social inequities. Attending to principles of social justice can ensure that future research on men's health will amplify the range of men's voices and allow them to be heard. Recommendations address also the international scientific community interested in advancing men's health research, especially in those countries that lack a national men's health policy.

  4. Adopting public values and climate change adaptation strategies in urban forest management: A review and analysis of the relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez Barona, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management.

  5. Methane Cross-Validation Between Spaceborne Solar Occultation Observations from ACE-FTS, Spaceborne Nadir Sounding from Gosat, and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Measurements, at a High Arctic Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S. A.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing observations of methane profiles in the Canadian High Arctic. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas on Earth, and second only to carbon dioxide in its contribution to anthropogenic global warming. Accurate and precise observations of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. The Arctic is a particular region of concern, as melting permafrost and disappearing sea ice might lead to accelerated release of methane into the atmosphere. Global observations require spaceborne instruments, in particular in the Arctic, where surface measurements are sparse and expensive to perform. Satellite-based remote sensing is an underconstrained problem, and specific validation under Arctic circumstances is required. Here, we show a cross-validation between two spaceborne instruments and ground-based measurements, all Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS). We consider the Canadian SCISAT ACE-FTS, a solar occultation spectrometer operating since 2004, and the Japanese GOSAT TANSO-FTS, a nadir-pointing FTS operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environmental and Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W) since 2006. Measurements are collocated considering temporal, spatial, and geophysical criteria and regridded to a common vertical grid. We perform smoothing on the higher-resolution instrument results to account for different vertical resolutions. Then, profiles of differences for each pair of instruments are examined. Any bias between instruments, or any accuracy that is worse than expected, needs to be understood prior to using the data. The results of the study will serve as a guideline on how to use the vertically resolved methane products from ACE and

  6. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A) assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA, showed that, at the respondent level, th...

  7. Other side of the coin for personalised medicine and healthcare: content analysis of ‘personalised’ practices in the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cesuroglu, Tomris; Syurina, Elena; Feron, Frans; Krumeich, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Various terms and definitions are used to describe personalised approaches to medicine and healthcare, but in ambiguous and inconsistent ways. They mostly have been defined in a top-down manner. However, actual practices might take different paths. Here, we aimed to provide a ‘practice-based’ perspective on the debate by analysing the content of ‘personalised’ practices published in the literature. Methods The search in PubMed and EMBASE (April 2014) using the terms frequently used for personalised approaches resulted in 5333 records. 2 independent researchers used different strategies for screening, resulting in 157 articles describing 88 ‘personalised’ practices that were implemented/presented on at least 1 individual/patient case. The content analysis was grounded on these data and did not have a priori analytical frameworks. Results ‘Personalised medicine/healthcare’ can be a commodity in the healthcare market, a way how health services are provided, or a keyword for emerging applications. It can help individuals/patients to gain control of their health, health professionals to provide better services, healthcare organisations to increase effectiveness and efficiency, or national health systems to increase performance. Country examples indicated that for integration of practices into health services, attitude towards innovations and health system and policy context is important. Categorisation based on the terms or the technologies used, if any, was not possible. Conclusions This study is the first to provide a comprehensive content analysis of the ‘personalised’ practices in the literature. Unlike the top-down definitions, our findings highlighted not the technologies but real-life issues faced by the practices. ‘Personalised medicine’ and ‘personalised healthcare’ can be differentiated by using the former for specific tools available and the latter for health services with a holistic approach, implemented in certain

  8. Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Soler-González, Jorge; Roig, Helena; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners. Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and 13 Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation (promax) to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S), were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons. Results: A total of 715 (80%) surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded

  9. A comprehensive analysis of articles retracted between 2004 and 2013 from biomedical literature - a call for reforms.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Mahendra, Ashish; Yadav, Bhupender; Singh, Harpreet; Arora, Nitin; Arora, Monika

    2014-07-01

    Science is a dynamic subject and it was never free of misconduct or bad research. Indeed, the scientific method itself is intended to overcome mistakes and misdeeds. So, we aimed to assess various factors associated with retraction of scientific articles from 2004 to 2013. Data were retrieved from PubMed and Medline using the keywords retraction of articles, retraction notice, and withdrawal of article in April 2014 to detect articles retracted from 2004 to 2013. Statistical analysis was carried out using t-test and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results showed that a total of 2343 articles were retracted between 2004 and 2013, and original articles followed by case reports constituted major part of it. Time interval between submission and retraction of article has reduced in recent times. Impact factor and retraction do not have any significant correlation. We conclude that although retraction of articles is a rare event, its constant rise in scientific literature is quite worrisome. It is still unclear whether misconduct/mistakes in articles are increasing hastily or the articles are retracted at a rapid rate in recent times. So, it should be considered as an urgent issue and it is the responsibility of journal editors to track misconduct by following Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and making an effective strategy.

  10. Health outcomes and related effects of using social media in chronic disease management: a literature review and analysis of affordances.

    PubMed

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the future for social media in chronic disease management appears to be optimistic, there is limited concrete evidence indicating whether and how social media use significantly improves patient outcomes. This review examines the health outcomes and related effects of using social media, while also exploring the unique affordances underpinning these effects. Few studies have investigated social media's potential in chronic disease, but those we found indicate impact on health status and other effects are positive, with none indicating adverse events. Benefits have been reported for psychosocial management via the ability to foster support and share information; however, there is less evidence of benefits for physical condition management. We found that studies covered a very limited range of social media platforms and that there is an ongoing propensity towards reporting investigations of earlier social platforms, such as online support groups (OSG), discussion forums and message boards. Finally, it is hypothesized that for social media to form a more meaningful part of effective chronic disease management, interventions need to be tailored to the individualized needs of sufferers. The particular affordances of social media that appear salient in this regard from analysis of the literature include: identity, flexibility, structure, narration and adaptation. This review suggests further research of high methodological quality is required to investigate the affordances of social media and how these can best serve chronic disease sufferers. Evidence-based practice (EBP) using social media may then be considered.

  11. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults—A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller. PMID:26891319

  12. Prevalence of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS children in highly active antiretroviral therapy era. A literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Sánchez-Vargas, Octavio; Castillo, Nydia

    2015-08-01

    SummaryHighly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the morbidity and mortality related to HIV infection, including oral opportunistic infections. This paper offers an analysis of the scientific literature on the epidemiological aspects of oral candidiasis in HIV-positive children in the combination antiretroviral therapy era. An electronic databases search was made covering the highly active antiretroviral therapy era (1998 onwards). The terms used were oral lesions, oral candidiasis and their combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy and HIV/AIDS children. The following data were collected from each paper: year and country in which the investigation was conducted, antiretroviral treatment, oral candidiasis prevalence and diagnostic parameters (clinical or microbiological). Prevalence of oral candidiasis varied from 2.9% in American HIV-positive children undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy to 88% in Chilean HIV-positive children without antiretroviral therapy. With respect to geographical location and antiretroviral treatment, higher oral candidiasis prevalence in HIV-positive children on combination antiretroviral therapy/antiretroviral therapy was reported in African children (79.1%) followed by 45.9% reported in Hindu children. In HIV-positive Chilean children on no antiretroviral therapy, high oral candidiasis prevalence was reported (88%) followed by Nigerian children (80%). Oral candidiasis is still frequent in HIV-positive children in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era irrespective of geographical location, race and use of antiretroviral therapy.

  13. Analysis of laser therapy and assessment methods in the rehabilitation of temporomandibular disorder: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Herpich, Carolina Marciela; Amaral, Ana Paula; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Tosato, Juliana de Paiva; Gomes, Cid Andre Fidelis de Paula; Arruda, Éric Edmur Camargo; Glória, Igor Phillip dos Santos; Garcia, Marilia Barbosa Santos; Barbosa, Bruno Roberto Borges; Rodrigues, Monique Sampaio; Silva, Katiane Lima; El Hage, Yasmin; Politti, Fabiano; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of TMD, and to analyze the use of different assessment tools. [Subjects and Methods] Searches were carried out of the BIREME, MEDLINE, PubMed and SciELO electronic databases by two independent researchers for papers published in English and Portuguese using the terms: “temporomandibular joint laser therapy” and “TMJ laser treatment”. [Results] Following the application of the eligibility criteria, 11 papers were selected for in-depth analysis. The papers analyzed exhibited considerable methodological differences, especially with regard to the number of sessions, anatomic site and duration of low-level laser therapy irradiation, as well as irradiation parameters, diagnostic criteria and assessment tools. [Conclusion] Further studies are needed, especially randomized clinical trials, to establish the exact dose and ideal parameters for low-level laser therapy and define the best assessment tools in this promising field of research that may benefit individuals with signs and symptoms of TMD. PMID:25642095

  14. Gorlin–Goltz syndrome: A case series of 5 patients in North Indian population with comparative analysis of literature

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Jeevan; Verma, Nitin; Kaur, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Indian scenario, Gorlin–Goltz syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [NBCCS]) has been rarely reported. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings and major and minor criteria in five cases of NBCCS in North Indian population have been presented along with a discussion of the role of gene mutation analysis in early diagnosis of syndrome. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic findings of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in 5 patients were compared with other reports in Indian population and with reports of this syndrome in other parts of the world. Results: The most common features seen were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (100%), calcifications of falx cerebri (60%), palmar-plantar pits (80%), rib anomalies (80%), macroencephaly (60%), ocular hypertelorism (80%), and frontal bossing (60%) in our series. Retained deciduous teeth seen in 80% patients whose association has not been previously reported has been presented. None of our patients had basal cell carcinoma, syndactyly or polydactyly, pectus deformity, bridging of sella turcica, pigmented nevi, or family history of this syndrome in contrast to such findings in other Indian patients. Medulloblastoma has not been reported in any Indian patient so far compared to this finding in other studies conducted worldwide. Conclusions: Combining the features of 48 patients in 38 cases of NBCCS being published in Indian literature with five cases of our series and on comparison with other studies in the world, a wide disparity in different ethnic groups and a wide variation in presentation of syndrome within the same population is suggested. PMID:26604574

  15. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults--A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-02-15

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller.

  16. Literature Use in Engineering and Computer Science Research: An Analysis of Works Cited in Dissertations and Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Any engineering librarian will tell you that their researchers' literature needs differ from researchers in other disciplines: Books are used less, and conference papers more, than in humanities disciplines. This study analyzes literature cited in theses and dissertations submitted over a three-year period by students in three departments of the…

  17. A scoping analysis of peer-reviewed literature about linkages between aquaculture and determinants of human health.

    PubMed

    Burns, Theresa E; Wade, Joy; Stephen, Craig; Toews, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    For many of the world's poor, aquatic products are critical for food security and health. Because the global population is increasing as wild aquatic stocks are declining, aquaculture is an increasingly important source of aquatic products. We undertook a scoping review of the English-language peer-reviewed literature to evaluate how the research community has examined the impacts of aquaculture on four key determinants of human health: poverty, food security, food production sustainability, and gender equality. The review returned 156 primary research articles. Most research (75%) was focused in Asia, with limited research from Africa (10%) and South America (2%). Most research (80%) focused on freshwater finfish and shrimp production. We used qualitative content analysis of records which revealed 11 themes: famer income; the common environment; shared resources; integrated farming/ polyculture; employment; extensive vs. intensive production; local vs. distant ownership; food security; income equity; gender equality; and input costs. We used quantitative content analysis of records and full-text publications about freshwater finfish and shrimp aquaculture to record the frequency with which themes were represented and the positive or negative impacts of aquaculture associated with each theme. Scatter plots showed that no theme was identified in more than half of all articles and publications for both production types. Farmer income was a theme that was identified commonly and was positively impacted by both shrimp and fresh water finfish aquaculture. Polyculture, employment, and local ownership were identified less often as themes, but were also associated with positive impacts. The common environment and shared resources were more common themes in shrimp aquaculture than freshwater finfish aquaculture research, while polyculture and local ownership were more common themes in freshwater finfish aquaculture than shrimp aquaculture. Gender equality, employment, and

  18. A cross-validation of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) among Japanese juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaru; Mori, Takemi; Kroner, Daryl G

    2013-12-01

    The main purpose of the current research is to examine the applicability of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) in a Japanese juvenile offender population. Three hundred eighty-nine youths who were released from the five Juvenile Classification Homes were followed for approximately one and half years. Results show that the YLS/CMI total score significantly predict recidivism. Survival time analysis demonstrates that the YLS/CMI total score also significantly predicted faster time to recidivism. The overall findings support adequate predictive validity of the YLS/CMI total score, but subscales lacked content representativeness and predictive validity in this sample. Canadian and Japanese cultural differences in criminal history and substance abuse are contributors to the lack of content representativeness.

  19. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett, E. D.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  20. The Evolution of Recent Research on Catalan Literature through the Production of PhD Theses: A Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardanuy, Jordi; Urbano, Cristobal; Quintana, Lluis

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper studies the situation of research on Catalan literature between 1976 and 2003 by carrying out a bibliometric and social network analysis of PhD theses defended in Spain. It has a dual aim: to present interesting results for the discipline and to demonstrate the methodological efficacy of scientometric tools in the…

  1. The CREATE Strategy for Intensive Analysis of Primary Literature Can Be Used Effectively by Newly Trained Faculty to Produce Multiple Gains in Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Leslie M.; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2014-01-01

    The CREATE (Consider Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) strategy aims to demystify scientific research and scientists while building critical thinking, reading/analytical skills, and improved science attitudes through intensive analysis of primary literature. CREATE was developed and…

  2. Implementing a Grant Proposal Writing Exercise in Undergraduate Science Courses to Incorporate Real-World Applications and Critical Analysis of Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Kathryn E.; Inada, Maki; Smith, Andrew M.; Haaf, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is an essential part of a successful career in science. As such, many undergraduate science courses have begun to implement writing assignments that reflect "real-world" applications and focus on a critical analysis of current literature; these assignments are often in the form of a review or a research proposal. The…

  3. The Nature and Severity of Cognitive Impairment Associated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleti, Marina G.; Sanfilippo, Antonietta; Maruff, Paul; Weih, LeAnn; Phillips, Kelly-Anne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have identified that adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is associated with cognitive impairment; however, the magnitude of this impairment is unclear. This study assessed the severity and nature of cognitive impairment associated with adjuvant chemotherapy by conducting a meta-analysis of the published literature to…

  4. The Chicano Literary World--1974. The National Symposium on Chicano Literature and Critical Analysis (1st, Las Vegas, New Mexico, November 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortego, Felipe, Comp.; Conde, David, Comp.

    Over 200 participants from 10 states and 17 universities attended "The First National Symposium on Chicano Literature and Critical Analysis." Five of the papers presented at the symposium are given in this publication. The papers cover Chicano poetry, novel, drama, and popular folklore humor. "National Character vs Universality in…

  5. CREATE Cornerstone: Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a New Course for STEM-Interested Freshmen, Demystifies Scientific Thinking through Analysis of Scientific Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Alan J.; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students' critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE…

  6. Early and brain region-specific decrease of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis in Huntington's disease: A cross-validation study in Q175 knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Di Paolo, Eleonora; Leoni, Valerio; Caccia, Claudio; Ferrari Bardile, Costanza; Mohammed, Hussein; Di Donato, Stefano; Kwak, Seung; Marchionini, Deanna; Turner, Scott; Cattaneo, Elena; Valenza, Marta

    2017-02-01

    Cholesterol precursors and cholesterol levels are reduced in brain regions of Huntington's disease (HD) mice. Here we quantified the rate of in vivo de novo cholesterol biosynthesis in the HD brain. Samples from different brain regions and blood of the heterozygous knock-in mouse model carrying 175 CAG repeats (Q175) at different phenotypic stages were processed independently by two research units to quantify cholesterol synthesis rate by (2)H2O labeling and measure the concentrations of lathosterol, cholesterol and its brain-specific cholesterol catabolite 24-hydroxy-cholesterol (24OHC) by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The daily synthesis rate of cholesterol and the corresponding concentration of lathosterol were significantly reduced in the striatum of heterozygous Q175 mice early in the disease course. We also report that the decrease in lathosterol was inversely correlated with CAG-size at symptomatic stage, as observed in striatal samples from an allelic series of HD mice. There was also a significant correlation between the fractional synthesis rates of total cholesterol and 24OHC in brain of wild-type (WT) and Q175 mice, supporting the evidence that plasma 24OHC may reflect cholesterol synthesis in the adult brain. This comprehensive analysis demonstrates consistent cholesterol biosynthesis defects in HD mouse models and suggests that plasma 24OHC may serve as a biomarker of brain cholesterol metabolism.

  7. Brain GABA levels across psychiatric disorders: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of (1) H-MRS studies.

    PubMed

    Schür, Remmelt R; Draisma, Luc W R; Wijnen, Jannie P; Boks, Marco P; Koevoets, Martijn G J C; Joëls, Marian; Klomp, Dennis W; Kahn, René S; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-09-01

    The inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is involved in the etiology of most psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). It is therefore not surprising that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) is increasingly used to investigate in vivo brain GABA levels. However, integration of the evidence for altered in vivo GABA levels across psychiatric disorders is lacking. We therefore systematically searched the clinical (1) H-MRS literature and performed a meta-analysis. A total of 40 studies (N = 1,591) in seven different psychiatric disorders were included in the meta-analysis: MDD (N = 437), schizophrenia (N = 517), ASD (N = 150), bipolar disorder (N = 129), panic disorder (N = 81), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (N = 104), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (N = 173). Brain GABA levels were lower in ASD (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.74, P = 0.001) and in depressed MDD patients (SMD = -0.52, P = 0.005), but not in remitted MDD patients (SMD = -0.24, P = 0.310) compared with controls. In schizophrenia this finding did not reach statistical significance (SMD = -0.23, P = 0.089). No significant differences in GABA levels were found in bipolar disorder, panic disorder, PTSD, and ADHD compared with controls. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provided evidence for lower brain GABA levels in ASD and in depressed (but not remitted) MDD patients compared with healthy controls. Findings in schizophrenia were more equivocal. Even though future (1) H-MRS studies could greatly benefit from a longitudinal design and consensus on the preferred analytical approach, it is apparent that (1) H-MRS studies have great potential in advancing our understanding of the role of the GABA system in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3337-3352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  8. Antimicrobial Treatment for Systemic Anthrax: Analysis of Cases from 1945 to 2014 Identified Through a Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Huang, Eileen; Guarnizo, Julie T; Hoyle, Jamechia D; Katharios-Lanwermeyer, Stefan; Turski, Theresa K; Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine A; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Systemic anthrax is associated with high mortality. Current national guidelines, developed for the individualized treatment of systemic anthrax, outline the use of combination intravenous antimicrobials for a minimum of 2 weeks, bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor antimicrobials for all cases of systemic anthrax, and at least 3 antimicrobials with good blood-brain barrier penetration for anthrax meningitis. However, in an anthrax mass casualty incident, large numbers of anthrax cases may create challenges in meeting antimicrobial needs. To further inform our understanding of the role of antimicrobials in treating systemic anthrax, a systematic review of the English-language literature was conducted to identify cases of systemic anthrax treated with antimicrobials for which a clinical outcome was recorded. A total of 149 cases of systemic anthrax were identified. Among the identified 59 cases of cutaneous anthrax, 33 were complicated by meningitis (76% mortality), while 26 simply had evidence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (4% mortality); 21 of 26 (81%) of this latter group received monotherapy. Subsequent analysis regarding combination antimicrobial therapy was restricted to the remaining 123 cases of more severe anthrax (overall 67% mortality). Recipients of combination bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor therapy had a 45% survival versus 28% in the absence of combination therapy (p = 0.07). For meningitis cases (n = 77), survival was greater for those receiving 3 or more antimicrobials over the course of treatment (3 of 4; 75%), compared to receipt of 1 or 2 antimicrobials (12 of 73; 16%) (p = 0.02). Median parenteral antimicrobial duration was 14 days. Combination bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor therapy may be appropriate in severe anthrax disease, particularly anthrax meningitis, in a mass casualty incident.

  9. Antimicrobial Treatment for Systemic Anthrax: Analysis of Cases from 1945–2014 Identified through Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Satish K.; Huang, Eileen; Guarnizo, Julie; Hoyle, Jamechia; Katharios-Lanwermeyer, Stefan; Turski, Theresa; Bower, William; Hendricks, Katherine; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic anthrax is associated with high mortality. Current national guidelines, developed for the individualized treatment of systemic anthrax, outline the use of combination intravenous antimicrobials for a minimum of two weeks; bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor antimicrobials for all cases of systemic anthrax; and at least 3 antimicrobials with good blood-brain barrier penetration for anthrax meningitis. However, in an anthrax mass casualty incident, large numbers of anthrax cases may create challenges in meeting antimicrobial needs. Methods To further inform our understanding of the role of antimicrobials in treating systemic anthrax, a systematic review of the English language literature was conducted to identify cases of systemic anthrax treated with antimicrobials for which a clinical outcome was recorded. Results A total of 149 cases of systemic anthrax were identified (cutaneous [n=59], gastrointestinal [n=28], inhalation [n=26], primary anthrax meningitis [n=19], multiple routes [n=9], and injection [n=8]). Among the identified 59 cases of cutaneous anthrax, 33 were complicated by meningitis (76% mortality), while 26 simply had evidence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (4% mortality); 21 of 26 (81%) of this latter group received monotherapy. Subsequent analysis regarding combination antimicrobial therapy was restricted to the remaining 123 cases of more severe anthrax (overall 67% mortality). Recipients of combination bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor therapy had a 45% survival versus 28% in the absence of combination therapy (p = 0.07). For meningitis cases (n=77), survival was greater for those receiving a total of ≥3 antimicrobials over the course of treatment (3 of 4; 75%), compared to receipt of 1 or 2 antimicrobials (12 of 73; 16%) (p = 0.02). Median parenteral antimicrobial duration was 14 days. Conclusion Combination bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor therapy may be appropriate in severe

  10. Barriers to innovation in human rabies prophylaxis and treatment: A causal analysis of insights from key opinion leaders and literature.

    PubMed

    van de Burgwal, L H M; Neevel, A M G; Pittens, C A C M; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rupprecht, C E; Claassen, E

    2017-03-20

    Rabies is an essentially 100% fatal, zoonotic disease, caused by Lyssaviruses. Currently, the disease is vaccine-preventable with pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). Still, rabies virus is estimated to cause up to 60,000 human deaths annually, of which the vast majority occurs in rural Asia and Africa, due to the inaccessibility of prophylaxis and non-existence of treatment. Despite these unmet clinical needs, rabies control mainly focuses on the sylvatic reservoir and drug innovation receives relatively little attention compared to other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). As such, the lag of innovation in human rabies prophylaxis and treatment cannot be explained by limited return on investment alone. Strategies countering rabies-specific innovation barriers are important for the acceleration of innovation in human rabies prophylaxis and treatment. Barriers throughout society, science, business development and market domains were identified through literature review and 23 semi-structured interviews with key opinion leaders worldwide. A subsequent root cause analysis revealed causal relations between innovation barriers and a limited set of root causes. Finally, prioritization by experts indicated their relative importance. Root causes, which are fundamental to barriers, were aggregated into four types: market and commercial, stakeholder collaboration, public health and awareness, and disease trajectory. These were found in all domains of the innovation process and thus are relevant for all stakeholders. This study identifies barriers that were not previously described in this specific context, for example the competition for funding between medical and veterinary approaches. The results stress the existence of barriers beyond the limited return on investment and thereby explain why innovation in human rabies medication is lagging behind NTDs with a lower burden of disease. A re-orientation on the full spectrum of barriers that hinder innovation in

  11. Clinicopathological significance and potential drug target of CDH1 in breast cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruixue; Ding, Ping; Yang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    CDH1, as a tumor suppressor gene, contributes sporadic breast cancer (BC) progression. However, the association between CDH1 hypermethylation and BC, and its clinicopathological significance remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between the CDH1 methylation profile and the major clinicopathological features. A detailed literature was searched through the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science™, and EMBASE™ for related research publications. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and summarized respectively. The frequency of CDH1 methylation was significantly higher in invasive ductal carcinoma than in normal breast tissues (OR =5.83, 95% CI 3.76-9.03, P<0.00001). CDH1 hypermethylation was significantly higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative BC than in ER-positive BC (OR =0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.87, P=0.007). In addition, we found that the CDH1 was significantly methylated in HER2-negative BC than in HER2-positive BC (OR =0.26, 95% CI 0.15-0.44, P<0.00001). However, CDH1 methylation frequency was not associated with progesterone receptor (PR) status, or with grades, stages, or lymph node metastasis of BC patients. Our results indicate that CDH1 hypermethylation is a potential novel drug target for developing personalized therapy. CDH1 hypermethylation is strongly associated with ER-negative and HER2-negative BC, respectively, suggesting CDH1 methylation status could contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of ER-negative or HER2-negative BC with aggressive tumor biology.

  12. Literature Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of literature circles, a student-led reading and discussion method that encourages students to see stories in various ways. Explains the student selection of titles, roles of group members, and collaborative projects that complete the activity. (LRW)

  13. Women's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The articles in this focused journal issue discuss women authors and examine female images in English and American literature. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning" (Susan Lundvall Brodie); (2) "Feminist Psychology through…

  14. Literature Ink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  15. Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  16. Literature & Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattor, Emma E.

    An effective way to teach literature to students accustomed to electronic media is to use prose and poetry as raw materials for the production of photography projects that translate print into more familiar and exciting forms. Studies confirm that "visual literacy" should be an important part of a modern student's education. "Picture reading," an…

  17. Invited review: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of mortality and culling in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Compton, C W R; Heuer, C; Thomsen, P T; Carpenter, T E; Phyn, C V C; McDougall, S

    2017-01-01

    Dairy industries and individual farmers are concerned about mortality and culling of dairy animals. This is because the timing and fates of animals that exit dairy farms have important animal welfare and economic consequences that reflect the conditions under which they are farmed and the efficiency of their production systems. Reports from a few countries have indicated increased incidence of mortality, and occasionally culling, of dairy animals in recent decades, and these changes have been associated with intensification of production systems. Dairy industries and farmers need benchmarks for culling and mortality against which they can compare themselves, as well as improved understanding of the extent of any change and of any associated factors. We reasoned that a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of scientific articles published between 1989 and 2014 would allow us to determine whether these reports were universal, to quantify any change over time, and to investigate whether production systems or study factors were associated with culling and mortality. From 3,275 articles retrieved from databases and manual searching of cited articles, 118 articles were appraised independently by 2 assessors, and 51 articles representing 54 studies were determined to be eligible for review and meta-analysis. We estimated that both the annual incidence risk (IR) and incidence density of mortality of cows had increased significantly from 0.02 per cow and 2.32 per 100 cow-years, to 0.04 per cow and 3.75 per 100 cow-years, an increase per decade of 0.02 per cow and 1.42 per 100 cow-years, respectively. We also estimated that the annual IR of culling attributed to low production had declined significantly from 0.07 to 0.05 and that the IR of perinatal, but not neonatal, mortality had increased significantly from 0.04 to 0.06 per decade. We found no evidence of change in overall annual IR of culling of cows over time or any association between study design factors and

  18. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Christian G

    2016-08-15

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination represents the earlier works. As an historical chronology, the focus is on the emergence of key, specific aspects of the overall topic (often termed PiE) in the published literature and on the most highly cited works. This examination is not a conventional, technical review of the literature; as such, little attention was devoted to the more recent literature. The many dimensions involved with PiE span over 70years of published literature. Some articles began to appear in published works in the 1940s and earlier, while others only began to receive attention in the 1990s and later. Decades of early research on what at the time seemed to be disconnected topics eventually coalesced in the mid-to-late 1990s around a number of interconnected concerns and issues that now comprise PiE. Major objectives are to provide a new perspective to the topic, to facilitate more efficient and effective review of the literature by others, and to recognize the more significant, seminal contributions to the advancement of PiE as a field of research. Some of the most highly cited articles in all of environmental science now involve PiE. As of April 2015, a core group of 385 PiE articles had each received at least 200 citations; one had received 5424 citations. But hundreds of additional articles also played important roles in the evolution and advancement of the field.

  19. Literature review :

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-03-01

    Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.

  20. The health effects of the global financial crisis: can we reconcile the differing views? A network analysis of literature across disciplines.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Why are researchers studying the health effects of economic change reaching markedly varying conclusions? To understand these differences, we first systematically searched Web of Science for the literature on recessions and health yielding 461 articles and 14,401 cited documents. We then undertook a network analysis of co-citation pattern by disciplines, journals and backgrounds of the authors, followed by a chronological review of the literature, to trace the evolution of ideas. We then examined the extent to which earlier literature predicted what has happened in the 2007-2012 crisis. Our analysis finds the literature is dominated by disciplinary silos, with economics studies predominantly citing each other and relative isolation of psychiatry and substance abuse journals. Different philosophical approaches to assessing causality appear to contribute to varying interpretations, a tendency that is unlikely to be resolved without a shift in research norms. We conclude by calling for more inter-disciplinary research that combines empirical findings with a search for plausible mechanisms. This approach would evaluate not only the effects of economic shocks but also the mechanisms that offer protection against them.

  1. Manual for Modal Profile Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Harvey A.; Lei, Hau

    Modal Profile Analysis (MPA) is a Fortran IV program for the identification and cross validation of relatively homogenous subgroups within a dimensional or ordination space. This classification approach is designed for use with several samples in a multiple replication design. The program consists of three stages: (1) identification of preliminary…

  2. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  3. Disclosure, consent, and the exercise of patient autonomy in surgical innovation: a systematic content analysis of the conceptual literature.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Roche, Dearbhail; Bell, Emily; Karpowicz, Lila; Racine, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The classification of surgical innovation as clinical care, research, or as third distinct type of activity creates ambiguity which impacts standards for disclosure and informed consent. We conducted a systematic review of the conceptual literature to identify positions expressed about consent and disclosure, as well as major tension points associated with this issue. Literature overwhelmingly favors special consent and disclosure. Four major tension points were identified: the use of biasing/biased terminology to characterize innovation; patient vulnerability; the relationship between surgeon-innovator and patient; and practices and associated gaps related to consent and disclosure. Recommendations often focused on the informed consent process.

  4. Review and Analysis of Literature on Self-Management Interventions to Promote Appropriate Classroom Behaviors (1988-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1980s, J. W. Fantuzzo and colleagues conducted a review of the self-management literature in order to better define the characteristics of this class of interventions. Results indicated that many interventions were minimally student-directed despite the title "self-managed" and that student-managed interventions demonstrated…

  5. Alternative Careers for Graduates of LIS Schools: The North American Perspective--An Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weech, Terry L.; Konieczny, Alison M.

    2007-01-01

    Schools of Library and Information Science (LIS) have often promoted alternative careers as a marketing tool and some students enrol in LIS schools specifically to explore alternative careers. The literature on LIS career patterns continues to suggest that those non-traditional careers are desirable and viable alternatives. Yet the survey research…

  6. Postsecondary Education Plans and Choices: Review of the Literature and Design for Analysis of the Parents Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Rachel A.; Peng, Samuel S.

    This literature review of factors affecting the postsecondary decision-making process, with special emphasis on parents' and students' attitudes and characteristics, focuses, in the first section, on research on these topics: (1) student and family characteristics (ability, expectations, motivation, race and sex, family background including…

  7. The Role of Electronic Preprints in Chemical Communication: Analysis of Citation, Usage, and Acceptance in the Journal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cecelia

    2003-01-01

    Characterizes the use and acceptance of electronic preprints in chemistry literature based on a survey of authors of preprints appearing in the Chemistry Preprint Server (CPS). Shows that preprints are convenient for disseminating research findings and for receiving feedback before submitting to a peer-review journal, but that reception of…

  8. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  9. Fictions, Nation-Building and Ideologies of Belonging in Children's Literature: An Analysis of "Tunzi the Faithful Shadow"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagwirei, Cuthbeth

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates, through Michael Gascoigne's "Tunzi the Faithful Shadow" (1988), that literature for children is sometimes employed by the government into the service of propagating dominant state ideologies in Zimbabwean schools. Such texts disseminate issues of inclusion and exclusion that characterise all nation building…

  10. A Content Analysis of the Four Major Journals in Counseling Psychology: Biracial and Multiracial Literature over the Last Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Giordano, Nancy G.; Goldsworthy, Sarah B.; Stallworth, Tamari C.; Stevens, Kerry L.

    This article presents the findings of a literature review conducted in order to assess the degree to which the biracial/multiracial population has been addressed in the four major journals of counseling psychology: "Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development,""Journal of Counseling and Development,""The Counseling Psychologist," and the…

  11. Literature and Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claremont, Francesca

    1993-01-01

    This reprint of a lecture published in 1976 examines the uses of history and literary stories for instructing children in grammar, creative dramatics, natural history, and prehistory, as well as literary analysis. Provides a starting point for thinking about the power of literature as an integrating medium in the Montessori elementary classroom.…

  12. Reference measurement procedure for CSF amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42 and the CSF Aβ1-42 /Aβ1-40 ratio - a cross-validation study against amyloid PET.

    PubMed

    Pannee, Josef; Portelius, Erik; Minthon, Lennart; Gobom, Johan; Andreasson, Ulf; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hansson, Oskar; Blennow, Kaj

    2016-11-01

    A clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is currently made on the basis of results from cognitive tests in combination with medical history and general clinical evaluation, but the peptide amyloid-beta (Aβ) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is increasingly used as a biomarker for amyloid pathology in clinical trials and in recently proposed revised clinical criteria for Alzheimer's disease. Recent analytical developments have resulted in mass spectrometry (MS) reference measurement procedures for absolute quantification of Aβ1-42 in CSF. The CSF Aβ1-42 /Aβ1-40 ratio has been suggested to improve the detection of cerebral amyloid deposition, by compensating for inter-individual variations in total Aβ production. Our aim was to cross-validate the reference measurement procedure as well as the Aβ1-42 /Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 /Aβ1-38 ratios in CSF, measured by high-resolution MS, with the cortical level of Aβ fibrils as measured by amyloid ((18) F-flutemetamol) positron emission tomography (PET). We included 100 non-demented patients with cognitive symptoms from the Swedish BioFINDER study, all of whom had undergone both lumbar puncture and (18) F-flutemetamol PET. Comparing CSF Aβ1-42 concentrations with (18) F-flutemetamol PET showed high concordance with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85 and a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 81%, respectively. The ratio of Aβ1-42 /Aβ1-40 or Aβ1-42 /Aβ1-38 significantly improved concordance with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 and a sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 91%, respectively. These results show that the CSF Aβ1-42 /Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 /Aβ1-38 ratios using the described MS method are strongly associated with cortical Aβ fibrils measured by (18) F-flutemetamol PET.

  13. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Mature Age Students' Academic Success in Undergraduate Nursing Programs: A Critical Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Lisa J; Jeong, Sarah Y; Norton, Carol A

    2016-01-01

    The population of mature age students entering university nursing programs has steadily increased in both Australia and worldwide. The objective of the literature review was to explore how mature age students perform academically and to analyse the factors associated with their academic performance in nursing programs. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: CINAHL, ProQuest, Medline, Cochrane, Mosby's Index, Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI), and Scopus. Twenty-six (26) research papers published between 2000 and 2014 have met the selection criteria of this review. The key themes identified include; 1) ambiguity in definition of mature age and academic success, 2) age and academic success, 3) intrinsic factors (life experiences, emotional intelligence, and motivation and volition), and 4) extrinsic factors (peer, academic and family support; and learning style, components of the modules and mode of delivery). Current literature provides evidence that mature age nursing students perform at a higher level within the methodological issues discussed in this paper. Future research is warranted to advance the understanding of the complex relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic factors of mature age students and their academic success in higher education. Nursing educators will benefit from novel evidence, ideas and opportunities to explore and implement in nursing education.

  14. The Brain of the Giraffe (Giraffa Camelopardalis): Surface Configuration, Encephalization Quotient, and Analysis of the Existing Literature.

    PubMed

    Graïc, Jean-Marie; Peruffo, Antonella; Ballarin, Cristina; Cozzi, Bruno

    2017-03-27

    The anatomy of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758) has been poorly studied, except for the circulatory system. In particular, only a handful of studies have concerned the brain of this species since the first description in 1839. Accordingly, only a very few articles discussing encephalization mentioned the giraffe or used it in their calculations. In this article, we performed a thorough examination of the literature including old and grey, regarding the central nervous system of the giraffe. Furthermore, we examined the brain of 3 giraffes, and calculated the encephalization quotient (EQ) of the species, based on our own data and the values found in the literature. We also revised the pre-existing literature and re-mapped the main sulci based on current comparative interpretation and anatomical nomenclature. Our results were compared to those of other selected significant mammals. The mean brain weight was of 719.9 ± 12.5 g. Our data indicate that the EQ of the giraffe is 0.64 and matches that of the typical ungulate, despite having the largest brain among terrestrial Cetartiodactyla. This emphasizes that the giraffe is a highly specialized mammal, within the limitations of its clad. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A comparative analysis of media reports of U.S. parricide cases with officially reported national crime data and the psychiatric and psychological literature.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Boots, Denise Paquette

    2007-12-01

    This article is a content analysis of 150 unique cases of children killing parents in the United States as reported in the electronic news media. The accuracy of online coverage of U.S. parricide incidents is assessed using two types of resources: officially reported national statistics on known parricidal incidents and the psychological and psychiatric literature on matricide and patricide. Comparisons of news accounts of media-reported U.S. parricide cases with Supplementary Homicide Report data indicate that electronic media coverage of parricide cases focused on the more sensational and unusual parricides. Analyses of these media accounts by offender age found 13 significant differences between juvenile and adult offenders. Ten of these 13 differences related to motive and Heide's parricide offender types (severely abused, severely mentally ill, and dangerously antisocial) and were consistent with the mental health-related literature in this area. The limitations and directions for future research are discussed at length.

  16. Literature classification for semi-automated updating of biological knowledgebases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As the output of biological assays increase in resolution and volume, the body of specialized biological data, such as functional annotations of gene and protein sequences, enables extraction of higher-level knowledge needed for practical application in bioinformatics. Whereas common types of biological data, such as sequence data, are extensively stored in biological databases, functional annotations, such as immunological epitopes, are found primarily in semi-structured formats or free text embedded in primary scientific literature. Results We defined and applied a machine learning approach for literature classification to support updating of TANTIGEN, a knowledgebase of tumor T-cell antigens. Abstracts from PubMed were downloaded and classified as either "relevant" or "irrelevant" for database update. Training and five-fold cross-validation of a k-NN classifier on 310 abstracts yielded classification accuracy of 0.95, thus showing significant value in support of data extraction from the literature. Conclusion We here propose a conceptual framework for semi-automated extraction of epitope data embedded in scientific literature using principles from text mining and machine learning. The addition of such data will aid in the transition of biological databases to knowledgebases. PMID:24564403

  17. Synthesising the literature as part of a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Ann

    2015-03-18

    This article examines how to synthesise and critique research literature. To place the process of synthesising the research literature into context, the article explores the critiquing process by breaking it down into seven sequential steps. The article explains how and why these steps need to be kept in mind if a robust comprehensive literature search and analysis are to be achieved. The article outlines how to engage in the critiquing process and explains how the literature review needs to be assembled to generate a logical and reasoned debate to examine a topic of interest or research in more detail.

  18. Role of telerehabilitation in patients following total knee arthroplasty: Evidence from a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, H; Nair, S R; Thakker, D

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Increased physical activity and functional ability are the goals of total knee replacement surgery. Therefore, adequate rehabilitation is required for the recovery of patients after discharge from hospital following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This systematic literature review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of home telerehabilitation in patients who underwent TKA. Methods Studies published in the English language between 2000 and 2014 were retrieved from Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases using relevant search strategies. Two researchers independently reviewed the studies as per the Cochrane methodology for systematic literature review. We considered telerehabilitation sessions as those that were conducted by experienced physiotherapists, using videoconferencing to patients' homes via an internet connection. The outcomes assessed included: knee movement (knee extension and flexion); quadriceps muscle strength; functional assessment (the timed up-and-go test); and assessment of pain, stiffness, and functional capacity using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and visual analogue scale for pain. Results In total, 160 potentially relevant studies were screened. Following the screening of studies as abstracts and full-text publications, six primary publications (four randomized controlled trials, one non-randomized controlled trial, and one single-arm trial) were included in the review. Patients experienced high levels of satisfaction with the use of telerehabilitation alone. There was no significant difference in change in active knee extension and flexion in the home telerehabilitation group as compared to the control group (mean difference (MD) -0.52, 95% CI -1.39 to 0.35, p = 0.24 and MD 1.14, 95% CI -0.61 to 2.89, p = 0.20, respectively). The patients in the home telerehabilitation group showed improvement in physical activity and functional status similar to patients in the conventional therapy group

  19. Impact of medical academic genealogy on publication patterns: An analysis of the literature for surgical resection in brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Hirshman, Brian R; Tang, Jessica A; Jones, Laurie A; Proudfoot, James A; Carley, Kathleen M; Marshall, Lawrence; Carter, Bob S; Chen, Clark C

    2016-02-01

    "Academic genealogy" refers to the linking of scientists and scholars based on their dissertation supervisors. We propose that this concept can be applied to medical training and that this "medical academic genealogy" may influence the landscape of the peer-reviewed literature. We performed a comprehensive PubMed search to identify US authors who have contributed peer-reviewed articles on a neurosurgery topic that remains controversial: the value of maximal resection for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Training information for each key author (defined as the first or last author of an article) was collected (eg, author's medical school, residency, and fellowship training). Authors were recursively linked to faculty mentors to form genealogies. Correlations between genealogy and publication result were examined. Our search identified 108 articles with 160 unique key authors. Authors who were members of 2 genealogies (14% of key authors) contributed to 38% of all articles. If an article contained an authorship contribution from the first genealogy, its results were more likely to support maximal resection (log odds ratio = 2.74, p < 0.028) relative to articles without such contribution. In contrast, if an article contained an authorship contribution from the second genealogy, it was less likely to support maximal resection (log odds ratio = -1.74, p < 0.026). We conclude that the literature on surgical resection for HGGs is influenced by medical academic genealogies, and that articles contributed by authors of select genealogies share common results. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of scientific literature, design of medical training, and health care policy.

  20. Possible Biases of Researchers’ Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. Objective The objective of our study was to examine possible systematic biases in the literature, by analyzing the publication trends of the medical and life sciences literature regarding video games. Methods We performed a complete and systematic PubMed search up to December 31, 2013. We assessed all 1927 articles deemed relevant for their attitude toward video games according to the focus, hypothesis, and authors’ interpretation of the study results, using a 3-category outcome (positive, negative, and neutral). We assessed the prevalence of different attitudes for possible association with year of publication, location of researchers, academic discipline, methodological research, and centrality of the publishing journals. Results The attitude toward video games presented in publications varied by year of publication, location, academic discipline, and methodological research applied (P<.001 for all). Moreover, representation of different attitudes differed according to centrality of the journals, as measured by their impact factor (P<.001). Conclusions The results suggest that context, whether scientific or social, is related to researchers’ attitudes toward video games. Readers, both lay and professional, should weigh these contextual variables when interpreting studies’ results, in light of the possible bias they carry. The results also support a need for a more balanced, open-minded approach toward video games, as it is likely that this complex phenomenon carries novel opportunities as well as new hazards. PMID:27430187