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Sample records for lithium aluminosilicate system

  1. Lithium alumino-silicate ion source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Prabir Kumar; Seidl, Peter A.; Kwan, Joe W.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.; Mazaheri, Kavous

    2009-11-01

    We report experimental progress on Li+ source development in preparation for warm dense matter heating experiments. To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, we are pursuing the use of a low (E < 5 MeV) kinetic energy singly ionized lithium beam and a thin target. Two kinds of lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate ion sources, β-spodumene and β-eucryptite, each of area 0.31 cm2, have been fabricated for ion emission measurements. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1200 to 1300 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Tight process controls were necessary in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the porous tungsten substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. Current density limit of the two kinds have been measured, and ion species identification of possible contaminants has been verified with a Wien (E x B) filter.

  2. Selective laser densification of lithium aluminosilicate glass ceramic tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocca, Andrea; Colombo, Paolo; Günster, Jens; Mühler, Thomas; Heinrich, Jürgen G.

    2013-01-01

    Tapes, cast by blade deposition of a lithium aluminosilicate glass slurry, were sintered using a YAG-fiber laser, with the aim of finding suitable parameters for an additive manufacturing process based on layer-wise slurry deposition and selective laser densification. The influence of the laser parameters (output power and scan velocity) on the sintering was evaluated, by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction, on the basis of the quality of the processed layer. Well densified samples could be obtained only in a small window of values for the output power and the scan velocity. The measurement of the width of a set of single scanned lines allowed also to estimate the minimum resolution of the system along the layer plane.

  3. A new SiC-whisker-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate composite

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, L.A.; Chen, Iwei . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The glass-ceramic matrix of the well-known lithium aluminosilicate (LAS)/SiC composite is usually formulated near the spodumene composition. The authors report a new composition which is rich in alumina and lean in silica and lithia. This formulation offers a new option of converting the glass-ceramic matrix to a mullite/alumina matrix upon annealing above 1,400 C, and hence better creep resistance and other high-temperature mechanical properties. Using a transient-phase processing method that they developed previously for the superplastic forming of mullite, the authors are able to hot-press a composite containing 30 vol% SiC whiskers at [approximately]1,350 C to achieve full density. Flexural strength measurements up to 1,400 C have confirmed the improved high-temperature strength and creep resistance over conventional LAS. The fracture toughness is also higher than that of LAS. The results suggest that the new composition may be chosen as a better candidate matrix for SiC-fiber-reinforced composites.

  4. Evidence for lithium-aluminosilicate supersaturation of pegmatite-forming melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, Victoria; Baker, Don R.; Minarik, William

    2015-07-01

    New experimental data on the solubility of lithium (Li) at spodumene (LiAlSi2O6) and petalite (LiAlSi4O10) saturation at 500 MPa and 550-750 °C reveal evidence for lithium supersaturation of pegmatite-forming melts before the formation of Li-aluminosilicates. The degree of Li enrichment in granitic melts can reach ~11,000 ppm above the saturation value before the crystallization of Li-aluminosilicate minerals at lower temperatures. Comparison of the experimental results with the spodumene-rich Moblan pegmatite (Quebec) is consistent with extreme Li enrichment of the pegmatite-forming melt prior to emplacement, which cannot be explained with equilibrium crystallization of Li-aluminosilicates from a common granitic melt. The results of this study support the model of disequilibrium fractional crystallization through liquidus undercooling as the most plausible mechanism for the generation of such Li-rich ore resources.

  5. Mesostructured silica and aluminosilicate carriers for oxytetracycline delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Berger, D; Nastase, S; Mitran, R A; Petrescu, M; Vasile, E; Matei, C; Negreanu-Pirjol, T

    2016-08-30

    Oxytetracycline delivery systems containing various MCM-type silica and aluminosilicate with different antibiotic content were developed in order to establish the influence of the support structural and textural properties and aluminum content on the drug release profile. The antibiotic molecules were loaded into the support mesochannels by incipient wetness impregnation method using a drug concentrated aqueous solution. The carriers and drug-loaded materials were investigated by small- and wide-angle XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. Faster release kinetics of oxytetracycline from uncalcined silica and aluminosilicate supports was observed, whereas higher drug content led to lower delivery rate. The presence of aluminum into the silica network also slowed down the release rate. The antimicrobial assays performed on Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates showed that the oxytetracycline-loaded materials containing MCM-41-type mesoporous silica or aluminosilicate carriers inhibited the bacterial development. PMID:26861688

  6. Mesostructured silica and aluminosilicate carriers for oxytetracycline delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Berger, D; Nastase, S; Mitran, R A; Petrescu, M; Vasile, E; Matei, C; Negreanu-Pirjol, T

    2016-08-30

    Oxytetracycline delivery systems containing various MCM-type silica and aluminosilicate with different antibiotic content were developed in order to establish the influence of the support structural and textural properties and aluminum content on the drug release profile. The antibiotic molecules were loaded into the support mesochannels by incipient wetness impregnation method using a drug concentrated aqueous solution. The carriers and drug-loaded materials were investigated by small- and wide-angle XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. Faster release kinetics of oxytetracycline from uncalcined silica and aluminosilicate supports was observed, whereas higher drug content led to lower delivery rate. The presence of aluminum into the silica network also slowed down the release rate. The antimicrobial assays performed on Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates showed that the oxytetracycline-loaded materials containing MCM-41-type mesoporous silica or aluminosilicate carriers inhibited the bacterial development.

  7. Strength enhancement of Nicalon-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate containing a Ta(2)O(5) second phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, Guillermo R.

    The purpose of this study was to follow up the preliminary results of a previous thesis which appeared to indicate that the addition of Tasb2Osb5 to the matrix of a Nicalon fiber reinforced lithium aluminosilicate glass ceramic composite increased the mechanical properties of the resulting composites. The strength increase was attributed to the presence of a TaC platelet phase in the matrix material. The TaC was thought to be a result of the reaction between the Tasb2Osb5 additions and soluble CO from the hot press atmosphere used in the densification of the composites. These preliminary results (the strength increase and TaC formation) were a side experiment to a larger work and consequently were not rigorously investigated. The present work showed that the CO did react with Tasb2Osb5 to form TaC, but only as a surface coating. The surface coating reached a terminal thickness of 5-10 mum after 1 h at 1400sp°C. There was no evidence of soluble CO reacting to form TaC in the matrix. What was previously thought to be TaC platelets appears to be a two phase eutectic structure of beta-spodumene and Tasb2Osb5. When the Tasb2Osb5 content was increased to 15%, Tasb2Osb5 crystals were formed in addition to the eutectic structure. The formation of the eutectic structure could be suppressed in samples containing less than 3.5% Tasb2Osb5 by cooling at 10sp°C/min. Cooling rates of 1sp°C/min promoted the two phase structure. The interfacial shear strength and flexural strength did not appreciably increase with Tasb2Osb5 additions. Increasing the hot pressing time did increase the interfacial shear strength, but resulted in lower flexural strengths and less graceful failure modes. There was great variation in the flexural strength of the composites which increased with increasing Tasb2Osb5 content. With the very limited sample size of the preliminary study the large variation may have suggested a trend which did not statistically exist.

  8. X-ray and MAS NMR characterization of the thermal transformation of Li(Na)-Y zeolite to lithium aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.A.; Corbin, D.R.; Farlee, R.D.

    1986-12-01

    The high temperature thermal transformation of Li-exchanged Na-Y zeolite has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and /sup 29/Si MAS NMR studies. At 700/sup 0/C, the zeolite was transformed into an amorphous phase and upon further heating to 800/sup 0/C, formation of lithium aluminosilicate with high-quartz structure, in addition to an amorphous phase, was noted. When heated above 900/sup 0/C, the high-quartz structure was transformed into a ..beta..-spodumene related solid solution. X-ray and MAS NMR studies indicate the ..beta..-spodumene solid solution formed has the composition close to (Li/sub 0.23/Na/sub 0.06/)A iota /sub 0.29/Si/sub 0.71/O/sub 2/, which is in agreement with chemical analysis.

  9. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  10. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  11. Sodium sulfate corrosion of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composites. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Maldia, L.C.

    1993-12-01

    Sodium sulfate hot corrosion of a SiC fiber-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass-ceramic matrix composite was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Changes in the microstructural chemical composition of the specimens were investigated. The samples provided by Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Warminster, PA were grouped as follows: (1) as-received, (2) Na2SO4 salt-coated and heat-treated in oxygen, (3) noncoated and heat-treated in oxygen, (4) Na2SO4. Salt-coated and heat-treated in argon, and (5) noncoated and heat-treated in argon. Heat treatment was performed by NAWC for 100 hours at 900 deg C. Experimental data obtained indicated that the presence of Na2SO4 in an oxidative environment resulted in rapid corrosion of the matrix and SiC fibers and in the latter rings of SiO2 replaced what had previously been SiC. There was very limited degradation of the fibers and matrix exposed at the surface in the noncoated sample heat-treated in oxygen and in the salt-coated sample heat-treated in argon. A significant reduction in the amount of mullite in the matrices of all heat-treated samples was observed. Mullite dissolved into either the glassy phase or into the Beta-spodumene matrix. Lastly, the presence of distinct magnesium silicate crystalline phases in the salt-coated and heat-treated in oxygen sample implies that the MgO at the surface reacted with the SiO2 in the matrix.

  12. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  13. Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

  14. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  19. Lithium/bromine cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

  20. A New Titanium-Bearing Calcium Aluminosilicate Phase. 1; Meteoritic Occurrences and Formation in Synthetic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paque, Julie M.; Beckett, John R.; Barber, David J.; Stolper, Edward M.

    1994-01-01

    A new titanium-bearing calcium aluminosilicate mineral has been identified in coarse-grained calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from carbonaceous chondrites. The formula for this phase, which we have temporarily termed "UNK," is Ca3Ti(AlTi)2(Si,Al)3O14, and it is present in at least 8 of the 20 coarse-grained CAIs from the Allende CV3 chondrite examined as part of this project. The phase occurs in Types A and B1 inclusions as small tabular crystals oriented along two mutually perpendicular planes in melilite. UNK crystallizes from melts in dynamic crystallization experiments conducted in air from four bulk compositions modeled after Types A, B1, B2 and C inclusions. Cooling rates resulting in crystallization of UNK ranged from 0.5 to 200 C/h from maximum (initial) temperatures of 1375 to 1580 C. Only below 1190 C does UNK itself begin to crystallize. To first order, the presence or absence of UNK from individual experiments can be understood in terms of the compositions of residual melts and nucleation probabilities. Compositions of synthetic and meteoritic LINK are very similar in terms of major oxides, differing only in the small amounts of trivalent Ti (7-13% of total Ti) in meteoritic samples. UNK crystallized from the Type A analog is similar texturally to that found in CAls, although glass, which is typically associated with synthetic UN& is not observed in meteoritic occurrences. A low Ti end-member of UNK ("Si-UNK") with a composition new that of Ca3Al2Si4O14 was produced in a few samples from the Type B1 analog. This phase has not been found in the meteoritic inclusions.

  1. Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao

    1993-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

  2. Aluminosilicate-based adsorbent in equimolar and non-equimolar binary-component heavy metal removal systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Hadi, Pejman; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; An, Kyoung Jin; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic heavy metals commonly used in various industries. The simultaneous presence of these metals in wastewater amplifies the toxicity of wastewater and the complexity of the treatment process. This study has investigated the selective behavior of an aluminosilicate-based mesoporous adsorbent. It has been demonstrated that when equimolar quantities of the metals are present in wastewater, the adsorbent uptakes the Pb²⁺ ions selectively. This has been attributed to the higher electronegativity value of Pb²⁺ compared to Cd²⁺ which can be more readily adsorbed on the adsorbent surface, displacing the Cd²⁺ ions. The selectivity can be advantageous when the objective is the separation and reuse of the metals besides wastewater treatment. In non-equimolar solutions, a complete selectivity can be observed up to a threshold Pb²⁺ molar ratio of 30%. Below this threshold value, the Cd²⁺ and Pb²⁺ ions are uptaken simultaneously due to the abundance of Cd²⁺ ions and the availability of adsorption sites at very low Pb²⁺ molar ratios. Moreover, the total adsorption capacities of the adsorbent for the multi-component system have been shown to be in the same range as the single-component system for each metal ion which can be of high value for industrial applications. PMID:26676004

  3. Aluminosilicate-based adsorbent in equimolar and non-equimolar binary-component heavy metal removal systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Hadi, Pejman; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; An, Kyoung Jin; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic heavy metals commonly used in various industries. The simultaneous presence of these metals in wastewater amplifies the toxicity of wastewater and the complexity of the treatment process. This study has investigated the selective behavior of an aluminosilicate-based mesoporous adsorbent. It has been demonstrated that when equimolar quantities of the metals are present in wastewater, the adsorbent uptakes the Pb²⁺ ions selectively. This has been attributed to the higher electronegativity value of Pb²⁺ compared to Cd²⁺ which can be more readily adsorbed on the adsorbent surface, displacing the Cd²⁺ ions. The selectivity can be advantageous when the objective is the separation and reuse of the metals besides wastewater treatment. In non-equimolar solutions, a complete selectivity can be observed up to a threshold Pb²⁺ molar ratio of 30%. Below this threshold value, the Cd²⁺ and Pb²⁺ ions are uptaken simultaneously due to the abundance of Cd²⁺ ions and the availability of adsorption sites at very low Pb²⁺ molar ratios. Moreover, the total adsorption capacities of the adsorbent for the multi-component system have been shown to be in the same range as the single-component system for each metal ion which can be of high value for industrial applications.

  4. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  5. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  6. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  7. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  8. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  9. Water behaviour in nanoporous aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Konstantin S; Bougeard, Daniel

    2010-07-21

    This paper briefly reviews results of molecular dynamics simulation studies of water confined in nanoporous aluminosilicates. The behaviour of confined molecules is shown to be influenced by the nature of the host structure, and the size and the topology of the voids. For some of the systems discussed the ambiguity in results of different modelling studies call for the use of extended potential and structural models. Thus, the use of polarizable force fields was shown to be necessary to take into account the variation of the molecular dipole of confined molecules in different environments. PMID:21399287

  10. Water behaviour in nanoporous aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Konstantin S; Bougeard, Daniel

    2010-07-21

    This paper briefly reviews results of molecular dynamics simulation studies of water confined in nanoporous aluminosilicates. The behaviour of confined molecules is shown to be influenced by the nature of the host structure, and the size and the topology of the voids. For some of the systems discussed the ambiguity in results of different modelling studies call for the use of extended potential and structural models. Thus, the use of polarizable force fields was shown to be necessary to take into account the variation of the molecular dipole of confined molecules in different environments.

  11. Solid-State NMR Identification and Quantification of Newly Formed Aluminosilicate Phases in Weathered Kaolinite Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crosson, Garry S.; Choi, Sunkyung; Chorover, Jon; Amistadi, Mary K.; O'Day, Peggy A.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2006-01-19

    nature of the 27Al NMR data shows that cancrinite growth increases while sodalite reaches a steady state with respect to total aluminum in the solid phases. The data also relate the coupling of Cs sorption to the ripening of feldspathoid phases in this heterogeneous system as a function of time, and illustrate the important influence of co-contaminants on the environmental reaction kinetics studied here.

  12. [Lithium].

    PubMed

    Sparsa, A; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2004-03-01

    The mode of action of the cation lithium is not well known. It is at present used as a topical drug in dermatology. Lithium inhibits many enzymes: Na/K ATPase, adenylcyclase, enzymes of the prostaglandines E1 synthesis, inositol-1-phosphatase. It is active on neutrophils et T lymphocytes, explaining in part its anti-inflammatory activity. It has a dose-dependent action on levures. It has possibly a direct inhibitory activity on DNA synthesis of herpes viruses. Lithium has a good local safety. Percutaneous penetration is weak and plasma concentrations are very much lower than that observed after oral intake. Lithium has been studied in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Its efficacy was primarily observed in psychotic patients. An assay with oral lithium did not confirmed the first observations. Topical lithium was found more efficient. Topical lithium succinate associated with zinc sulfate and lithium gluconate had a greater efficacy than placebo. Comparison with topical ketoconazole showed a non inferiority of lithium gluconate. Oral lithium also showed a reduction of symptoms' duration of herpes simplex. Cutaneous side-effects of oral lithium are frequent and numerous. Some of them may be explained by a lithium pharmacological cell activity (such as psoriasis). Teratogenicity is observed in mice and rats. Drug interactions are not expected after topical application. Irritants side effects are mainly observed after topical application; they are moderate and transitory. Lithium gluconate treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis is a bid application during at least 8 weeks. It may be used in renal insufficiency. It is not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  13. Functionalized Amorphous Aluminosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesgar, Milad

    Alkali treated aluminosilicate (geopolymer) was functionalized by surfactant to increase the hydrophobicity for making Pickering emulsion for the first part of this work. In the first part of this study, alkali treated metakaolin was functionalized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH 3)3Br, CTAB). The electrostatic interaction between this quaternary ammonium and the surface of the aluminosilicate which has negative charge has taken place. The particles then were used to prepare Pickering emulsion. The resulting stable dispersions, obtained very fast at very simple conditions with low ratio of aluminosilicate to liquid phase. In the second part, the interaction between geopolymer and glycerol was studied to see the covalent grafting of the geopolymer for making geopolymer composite. The composite material would be the basis material to be used as support catalyst, thin coating reagent and flame retardant material and so on, Variety of techniques, Thermogravimetric (TGA), Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), FTIR, Solid state NMR, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), BET surface area, Elemental analysis (CHN), TEM, SEM and Optical microscopy were used to characterize the functionalized geopolymer.

  14. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  15. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, Ilias; Liu, Jun

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  16. Results of Aluminosilicate Inhibitor Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2001-06-27

    The aluminosilicate scale in the 2H Evaporator has precluded operation since late 1999. The chemistry of scale formation is known but the mechanism(s) for deposition are not well understood. Tests have been conducted to determine if chemical agents could prevent aluminosilicate formation under conditions similar to Tank 43H. Additionally, particle growth inhibition is also tested.

  17. Solubilizing functionalized molecular aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Rascón-Cruz, Fernando; Huerta-Lavorie, Raúl; Jancik, Vojtech; Toscano, Rubén Alfredo; Cea-Olivares, Raymundo

    2009-02-21

    Molecular aluminosilicate Al(SH)(micro-O)Si(OH)(O(t)Bu)(2) ( = [HC{C(Me)N(Ar)}(2)](-), Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3)) has been prepared from Al(SH)(2) and ((t)BuO)(2)Si(OH)(2) in high yield. When reacted with one equiv. of water, the unique aluminosilicate containing two terminal hydroxy groups Al(OH.THF)(mu-O)Si(OH)(O(t)Bu)(2) can be isolated. However, when is reacted with the bulkier silanol ((t)BuO)(3)SiOH, no reaction is observed. The desired Al(SH)(micro-O)Si(O(t)Bu)(3) can be prepared in a two-step synthesis between AlH(2) and ((t)BuO)(3)SiOH giving first Al(H)(micro-O)Si(O(t)Bu)(3), which reacts further with elemental sulfur to give as the only product. Direct hydrolysis of was conducted to obtain Al(OH)(micro-O)Si(O(t)Bu)(3), however, such hydrolysis always resulted in a complete decomposition of the starting material. Therefore we used boric acid, which condenses in non-polar solvents and slowly evolve water, to hydrolyze to under mild conditions. Compounds , and have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  18. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic agents. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain.

  19. Results of Aluminosilicate Formation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2001-09-11

    The purpose of this work was to examine several experimental parameters of the formation of aluminosilicates under several tank chemistries, examine the conversion of crystalline phases, and determine inherent solubilities of certain crystal phases.

  20. Systemic administration of lithium improves distracted bone regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Zhu, Songsong; Jiang, Xiaowen; Li, Yunfeng; Song, Donghui; Hu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Lithium, popular in psychology field, has been recognized as an activator component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. The effect of lithium on osteogenesis or on the human fracture risk has been widely reported. However, little is known on its role in distraction osteogenesis to date. In this study, the effect of systematic administrated lithium on distraction osteogenesis in a rat model was investigated. The osteotomy was performed on the right tibia in 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Then they were randomly assigned into two equal groups (n = 20/group), which underwent Lithium or saline treatment through gastric gavage until the day they were killed. One week after the osteotomy, the tibias were distracted for 14 days (rate 0.6 mm/day). Following 8 weeks consolidation period, the distracted tibias in both groups were harvested and examined by X-ray plain radiography, histology, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Micro-CT, and biomechanical tests. The results showed that lithium group possessed higher bone mineral density, more mature new bone tissue, and better regenerated bone mass continuity in the distraction gaps without any local or systemic adverse effects was encountered. This study suggested lithium could increase bony callus ossification volume and accelerate distracted tissue mineralization to facilitate bone regeneration in distraction gap.

  1. Li+ alumino-silicate ion source development for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX)

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.

    2010-10-01

    We report results on lithium alumino-silicate ion source development in preparation for warmdense-matter heating experiments on the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCXII). The practical limit to the current density for a lithium alumino-silicate source is determined by the maximum operating temperature that the ion source can withstand before running into problems of heat transfer, melting of the alumino-silicate material, and emission lifetime. Using small prototype emitters, at a temperature of ~;;1275 oC, a space-charge-limited Li+ beam current density of J ~;;1 mA/cm2 was obtained. The lifetime of the ion source was ~;;50 hours while pulsing at a rate of 0.033 Hz with a pulse duration of 5-6 mu s.

  2. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  3. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  4. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  5. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  6. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  7. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  8. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  9. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  10. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  11. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  12. 40 CFR 721.633 - Aluminosilicates, phospho-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminosilicates, phospho-. 721.633... Substances § 721.633 Aluminosilicates, phospho-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as Aluminosilicates, phospho- (PMN P-98-1275; CAS...

  13. 40 CFR 721.633 - Aluminosilicates, phospho-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aluminosilicates, phospho-. 721.633... Substances § 721.633 Aluminosilicates, phospho-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as Aluminosilicates, phospho- (PMN P-98-1275; CAS...

  14. 40 CFR 721.633 - Aluminosilicates, phospho-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aluminosilicates, phospho-. 721.633... Substances § 721.633 Aluminosilicates, phospho-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as Aluminosilicates, phospho- (PMN P-98-1275; CAS...

  15. 40 CFR 721.633 - Aluminosilicates, phospho-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aluminosilicates, phospho-. 721.633... Substances § 721.633 Aluminosilicates, phospho-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as Aluminosilicates, phospho- (PMN P-98-1275; CAS...

  16. 40 CFR 721.633 - Aluminosilicates, phospho-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aluminosilicates, phospho-. 721.633... Substances § 721.633 Aluminosilicates, phospho-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as Aluminosilicates, phospho- (PMN P-98-1275; CAS...

  17. Structural Role of Alkali Cations in Calcium Aluminosilicate Glasses as Examined Using Oxygen-17 Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukenaga, Sohei; Kanehashi, Koji; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Saito, Noritaka; Nakashima, Kunihiko

    2016-08-01

    The structural roles of alkali and calcium cations are important for understanding the physical and chemical properties of aluminosilicate melts and glasses. Recently, oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance (17O NMR) studies of calcium-sodium aluminosilicate glasses showed that these structural roles are not randomly given, but rather each cation has its own preferential role. However, the relationship between cation type and role preference in calcium aluminosilicate glass is not completely understood. In the present study, the structural roles of lithium, sodium, and potassium cations in selected calcium aluminosilicate glasses are investigated using 17O solid-state NMR experiments. Data from these experiments clearly show that potassium cations have a notably stronger tendency to act as charge compensators within the network structure, compared to sodium and lithium cations. The result of 17O NMR experiment also showed that sodium and lithium cations in part act as network modifier alongside with calcium cations.

  18. Rydberg States of Lithium and Other Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    The interesting calculation of retardation corrections to excited atomic state energies is facilitated by the existence of good calculations of the nonrelativistic and nonretarded energies, to which retardation corrections can be added. Here I describe a perturbation method, applicable when the angular momentum is high enough which generates an asymptotic series for the energy. It makes use of generalized polarizabilities of the atomic or ionic core (numerically obtained) but otherwise is completely analytic. It is applied here to the lithium atom in detail, and its application to hydrogen molecular ions is outlined.

  19. Development of Li+ alumino-silicate ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Kwan, J.

    2009-04-21

    To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, one strategy is to deposit most of the ion energy at the peak of energy loss (dE/dx) with a low (E< 5 MeV) kinetic energy beam and a thin target[1]. Lower mass ions have a peak dE/dx at a lower kinetic energy. To this end, a small lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate source has been fabricated, and its emission limit has been measured. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1000-1150 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Alumino-silicates sources of K+ and Cs+ have been used extensively in beam experiments, but there are additional challenges for the preparation of high-quality Li+ sources: There are tighter tolerances in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. We report on recent measurements ofhigh ( up to 35 mA/cm2) current density from a Li+ source. Ion species identification of possible contaminants is being verified with a Wien (E x B) filter, and via time-of-flight.

  20. Nanoscale encapsulation: the structure of cations in hydrophobic microporous aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, S.R.; Yuchs, S.E.; Giaquinta, D.; Soderholm, L.; Song, Kang

    1996-10-01

    Hydrophobic microporous aluminosilicates, created by organic surface modification of inherently hydrophilic materials such as zeolites and clays, are currently being investigated as storage media for hazardous cations. Use of organic monolayers to modify the surface of an aluminosilicate after introducing an ion into the zeolite/clay reduces the interaction of water with the material. Resulting systems are about 20 times more resistant to leaching of stored ion. XAS spectra from the encapsulated ion demonstrate that byproducts from the organic modifier can complex with the stored cation. This complexation can result in a decreased affinity of the cation for the aluminosilicate matrix. Changing the organic modifier eliminates this problem. XAS spectra also indicate that the reactivity and speciation of the encapsulated ion may change upon application of the hydrophobic layer.

  1. Investigation of parameters of interaction of hydrogen isotopes with liquid lithium and lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazhibayeva, I. L.; Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.; Ponkratov, Yu. V.; Barsukov, N. I.; Tulubayev, Ye. Yu.; Baklanov, V. V.; Gnyrya, V. S.; Kenzhin, Ye. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the effect of reactor irradiation on the processes of interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) is considered. The experiments are carried out by the gas-absorption method with use of a specially designed ampoule device. The results of investigation of the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium CPS under conditions of reactor irradiation are described; namely, these are the temperature dependences of the rate constant for the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium at different reactor powers, the activation energies of the processes, and the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius dependence. The effect of increasing absorption of hydrogen by the samples under investigation as a result of the reactor irradiation is fixed. The effect can be explained by increasing mobility of hydrogen in liquid lithium due to hot spots in lithium bulk and the interaction of helium and tritium ions (formed as a result of the nuclear reaction of 6Li with neutron) with a surface hydride film.

  2. Investigation of parameters of interaction of hydrogen isotopes with liquid lithium and lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tazhibayeva, I. L. Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.; Ponkratov, Yu. V.; Barsukov, N. I.; Tulubayev, Ye. Yu.; Baklanov, V. V.; Gnyrya, V. S.; Kenzhin, Ye. A.

    2015-12-15

    In this study, the effect of reactor irradiation on the processes of interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) is considered. The experiments are carried out by the gas-absorption method with use of a specially designed ampoule device. The results of investigation of the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium CPS under conditions of reactor irradiation are described; namely, these are the temperature dependences of the rate constant for the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium at different reactor powers, the activation energies of the processes, and the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius dependence. The effect of increasing absorption of hydrogen by the samples under investigation as a result of the reactor irradiation is fixed. The effect can be explained by increasing mobility of hydrogen in liquid lithium due to hot spots in lithium bulk and the interaction of helium and tritium ions (formed as a result of the nuclear reaction of {sup 6}Li with neutron) with a surface hydride film.

  3. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more difficult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to fill the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more effective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. We conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  4. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  5. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ectivemore » or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.« less

  6. The MOLICEL(R) rechargeable lithium system: Multicell battery aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouchard, D.; Taylor, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    MOLICEL rechargeable lithium cells were cycled in batteries using series, parallel, and series/parallel connections. The individual cell voltages and branch currents were measured to understand the cell interactions. The observations were interpreted in terms of the inherent characteristics of the Li/MoS2 system and in terms of a singular cell failure mode. The results confirm that correctly configured multicell batteries using MOLICELs have performance characteristics comparable to those of single cells.

  7. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sichta; J. Dong; R. Gernhardt; G. Gettelfinger; H. Kugel

    2003-10-27

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI.

  8. [Raman active vibrations of aluminosilicates].

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Yu, Xue-hui; Mo, Xuan-xue; You, Jing-lin; Wang, Chen; Chen, Hui; Jiang, Guo-chang

    2006-10-01

    Raman spectra of aluminosilicate minerals, namely kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite and K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses were recorded. Four alumino-silicon tetrahedral model clusters were calculated by self-consistent (SCF) molecular orbital ab-ini-tio calculation of the quantum chem (QC) method. The result shows a decrease tendency in Raman frequencies in the 800-1200 cm(-1) frequency region with increase in four-coordinated Al content, which is assigned to the Si--Onb symmetry stretching vibrations. The Raman spectra in the 700-800 cm(-1) frequency region is attributed to Al-Onb symmetry stretching vibrations. PMID:17205741

  9. [Raman active vibrations of aluminosilicates].

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Yu, Xue-hui; Mo, Xuan-xue; You, Jing-lin; Wang, Chen; Chen, Hui; Jiang, Guo-chang

    2006-10-01

    Raman spectra of aluminosilicate minerals, namely kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite and K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses were recorded. Four alumino-silicon tetrahedral model clusters were calculated by self-consistent (SCF) molecular orbital ab-ini-tio calculation of the quantum chem (QC) method. The result shows a decrease tendency in Raman frequencies in the 800-1200 cm(-1) frequency region with increase in four-coordinated Al content, which is assigned to the Si--Onb symmetry stretching vibrations. The Raman spectra in the 700-800 cm(-1) frequency region is attributed to Al-Onb symmetry stretching vibrations.

  10. Ultrastable Mesoporous Aluminosilicates by Grafting Routes.

    PubMed

    Mokaya

    1999-10-01

    A combination of postsynthesis grafting and hydrothermal treatment offers an excellent route for the synthesis of ultrastable mesoporous aluminosilicates with enhanced acidity and catalytic activity. The stability observed (>150 h in boiling water; 4 h at 1000 degrees C) is, for mesoporous silicates, remarkable. Unusually the hydrothermal treatment is beneficial with respect to the use of the stable aluminosilicates as solid acid catalysts.

  11. Lithium-system corrosion/erosion studies for the FMIT project

    SciTech Connect

    Bazinet, G D

    1983-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment has been studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The liquid lithium test resources and the capabilities of several laboratories were used to study specific concerns associated with the overall objective. Testing conditions ranged from approx. 3700 hours to approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/C to 270/sup 0/C and static lithium at temperatures from 200/sup 0/C to 500/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects of FMIT lithium system materials (largely Type 304 and Type 304L austenitic stainless steels) and candidate materials for major system components.

  12. Modeling of early age loss of lithium ions from pore solution of cementitious systems treated with lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehwan Olek, Jan

    2015-01-15

    Addition of lithium nitrate admixture to the fresh concrete mixture helps to minimize potential problems related to alkali-silica reaction. For this admixture to function as an effective ASR control measure, it is imperative that the lithium ions remain in the pore solution. However, it was found that about 50% of the originally added lithium ions are removed from the pore solution during early stages of hydration. This paper revealed that the magnitude of the Li{sup +} ion loss is highly dependent on the concentration of Li{sup +} ions in the pore solution and the hydration rate of the cementitious systems. Using these findings, an empirical model has been developed which can predict the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution during the hydration period. The proposed model can be used to investigate the effects of mixture parameters on the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution of cementitious system.

  13. Aluminosilicate Precipitation Impact on Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    WILMARTH, WILLIAM

    2006-03-10

    Experiments have been conducted to examine the fate of uranium during the formation of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) when wastes containing high aluminate concentrations are mixed with wastes of high silicate concentration. Testing was conducted at varying degrees of uranium saturation. Testing examined typical tank conditions, e.g., stagnant, slightly elevated temperature (50 C). The results showed that under sub-saturated conditions uranium is not removed from solution to any large extent in both simulant testing and actual tank waste testing. This aspect was not thoroughly understood prior to this work and was necessary to avoid criticality issues when actual tank wastes were aggregated. There are data supporting a small removal due to sorption of uranium on sites in the NAS. Above the solubility limit the data are clear that a reduction in uranium concentration occurs concomitant with the formation of aluminosilicate. This uranium precipitation is fairly rapid and ceases when uranium reaches its solubility limit. At the solubility limit, it appears that uranium is not affected, but further testing might be warranted.

  14. Influence of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscatter system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X H; Liu, A D; Zhou, C; Hu, J Q; Wang, M Y; Yu, C X; Liu, W D; Li, H; Lan, T; Xie, J L

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the first investigation of the effect of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscattering. A liquid lithium limiter has been applied in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), and a Doppler backscattering has been installed in the EAST. A parabolic mirror and a flat mirror located in the vacuum vessel are polluted by lithium. An identical optical system of the Doppler backscattering is set up in laboratory. The power distributions of the emission beam after the two mirrors with and without lithium coating (cleaned before and after), are measured at three different distances under four incident frequencies. The results demonstrate that the influence of the lithium coating on the power distributions are very slight, and the Doppler backscattering can work normally under the dosage of lithium during the 2014 EAST campaign.

  15. Influence of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscatter system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. H.; Liu, A. D. Zhou, C.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, M. Y.; Yu, C. X.; Liu, W. D.; Li, H.; Lan, T.; Xie, J. L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents the first investigation of the effect of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscattering. A liquid lithium limiter has been applied in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), and a Doppler backscattering has been installed in the EAST. A parabolic mirror and a flat mirror located in the vacuum vessel are polluted by lithium. An identical optical system of the Doppler backscattering is set up in laboratory. The power distributions of the emission beam after the two mirrors with and without lithium coating (cleaned before and after), are measured at three different distances under four incident frequencies. The results demonstrate that the influence of the lithium coating on the power distributions are very slight, and the Doppler backscattering can work normally under the dosage of lithium during the 2014 EAST campaign.

  16. Influence of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscatter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. H.; Liu, A. D.; Zhou, C.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, M. Y.; Yu, C. X.; Liu, W. D.; Li, H.; Lan, T.; Xie, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the first investigation of the effect of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscattering. A liquid lithium limiter has been applied in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), and a Doppler backscattering has been installed in the EAST. A parabolic mirror and a flat mirror located in the vacuum vessel are polluted by lithium. An identical optical system of the Doppler backscattering is set up in laboratory. The power distributions of the emission beam after the two mirrors with and without lithium coating (cleaned before and after), are measured at three different distances under four incident frequencies. The results demonstrate that the influence of the lithium coating on the power distributions are very slight, and the Doppler backscattering can work normally under the dosage of lithium during the 2014 EAST campaign.

  17. Development of a higher power cooling system for lithium targets.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, B; Green, S; Scott, M C; Bennett, J R J; Edgecock, T R

    2015-12-01

    The accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy beam at the University of Birmingham is based around a solid thick lithium target cooled by heavy water. Significant upgrades to Birmingham's Dynamitron accelerator are planned prior to commencing a clinical trial. These upgrades will result in an increase in maximum achievable beam current to at least 3 mA. Various upgrades to the target cooling system to cope with this increased power have been investigated. Tests of a phase change coolant known as "binary ice" have been carried out using an induction heater to provide a comparable power input to the Dynamitron beam. The experimental data shows no improvement over chilled water in the submerged jet system, with both systems exhibiting the same heat input to target temperature relation for a given flow rate. The relationship between the cooling circuit pumping rate and the target temperature in the submerged jet system has also been tested.

  18. Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system.

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

    1999-02-12

    A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a {+-}3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of {+-}15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism.

  19. Beneficiation of aluminosilicate and magnesia secondary refractories

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovskii, N.I.; Klyachin, V.V.; Rogozina, V.G.; Bortnikova, N.V.

    1987-09-01

    This article provides a comprehensive description of the recycling, magnetic separation, and utilization of waste refractories comprised of aluminosilicate and magnesia refractories along with data on the properties pertinent to the efficiency of the recycling process.

  20. Shape selectivity extending to ordered supermicroporous aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wen Hua; Liang, Xiao Min; Zhang, Haidong; Wang, Yi Meng; He, Ming Yuan

    2015-01-28

    In the synthesis of polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) catalyzed by ordered supermicroporous aluminosilicates, shape selectivity was observed and the high selectivity for target products (PODE3-8) was attributed to the particular pore diameter.

  1. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-06-01

    In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

  2. Lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoni; Lee, Jaehan; Kang, Jin Soo; Jo, Kyusik; Kim, Seonghwan; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-01

    Lithium is one of the most important elements in various fields including energy storage, medicine manufacturing and the glass industry, and demands for lithium are constantly increasing these days. The lime soda evaporation process using brine lake water is the major extraction method for lithium, but this process is not only inefficient and time-consuming but also causes a few environmental problems. Electrochemical recovery processes of lithium ions have been proposed recently, but the better idea for the silver negative electrodes used in these systems is required to reduce its cost or increase long term stability. Here, we report an electrochemical lithium recovery method based on a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system. In this system, lithium ions and counter anions are effectively captured at each electrode with low energy consumption in a salt solution containing various cationic species or simulated Salar de Atacama brine lake water in Chile. Furthermore, we designed this system as a flow process for practical applications. By experimental analyses, we confirmed that this system has high selectivity and long-term stability, with its performance being retained even after repetitive captures and releases of lithium ions. PMID:25681679

  3. Lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoni; Lee, Jaehan; Kang, Jin Soo; Jo, Kyusik; Kim, Seonghwan; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-01

    Lithium is one of the most important elements in various fields including energy storage, medicine manufacturing and the glass industry, and demands for lithium are constantly increasing these days. The lime soda evaporation process using brine lake water is the major extraction method for lithium, but this process is not only inefficient and time-consuming but also causes a few environmental problems. Electrochemical recovery processes of lithium ions have been proposed recently, but the better idea for the silver negative electrodes used in these systems is required to reduce its cost or increase long term stability. Here, we report an electrochemical lithium recovery method based on a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system. In this system, lithium ions and counter anions are effectively captured at each electrode with low energy consumption in a salt solution containing various cationic species or simulated Salar de Atacama brine lake water in Chile. Furthermore, we designed this system as a flow process for practical applications. By experimental analyses, we confirmed that this system has high selectivity and long-term stability, with its performance being retained even after repetitive captures and releases of lithium ions.

  4. Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, L.

    1978-01-01

    The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

  5. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  6. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as amore » function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.« less

  7. Lithium isotope traces magmatic fluid in a seafloor hydrothermal system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Kejun; Yang, Zhiming; Tian, Shihong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions and hosted gangue quartz from a giant volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in China provide robust evidence for inputting of magmatic fluids into a Triassic submarine hydrothermal system. The δ(7)Li results vary from +4.5‰ to +13.8‰ for fluid inclusions and from +6.7‰ to +21.0‰ for the hosted gangue quartz(9 gangue quartz samples containing primary fluid inclusions). These data confirm the temperature-dependent Li isotopic fractionation between hydrothermal quartz and fluid (i.e., Δδ(7)Liquartz-fluid = -8.9382 × (1000/T) + 22.22(R(2) = 0.98; 175 °C-340 °C)), which suggests that the fluid inclusions are in equilibrium with their hosted quartz, thus allowing to determine the composition of the fluids by using δ(7)Liquartz data. Accordingly, we estimate that the ore-forming fluids have a δ(7)Li range from -0.7‰ to +18.4‰ at temperatures of 175-340 °C. This δ(7)Li range, together with Li-O modeling , suggest that magmatic fluid played a significant role in the ore formation. This study demonstrates that Li isotope can be effectively used to trace magmatic fluids in a seafloor hydrothermal system and has the potential to monitor fluid mixing and ore-forming process. PMID:26347051

  8. Lithium isotope traces magmatic fluid in a seafloor hydrothermal system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Kejun; Yang, Zhiming; Tian, Shihong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-09-08

    Lithium isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions and hosted gangue quartz from a giant volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in China provide robust evidence for inputting of magmatic fluids into a Triassic submarine hydrothermal system. The δ(7)Li results vary from +4.5‰ to +13.8‰ for fluid inclusions and from +6.7‰ to +21.0‰ for the hosted gangue quartz(9 gangue quartz samples containing primary fluid inclusions). These data confirm the temperature-dependent Li isotopic fractionation between hydrothermal quartz and fluid (i.e., Δδ(7)Liquartz-fluid = -8.9382 × (1000/T) + 22.22(R(2) = 0.98; 175 °C-340 °C)), which suggests that the fluid inclusions are in equilibrium with their hosted quartz, thus allowing to determine the composition of the fluids by using δ(7)Liquartz data. Accordingly, we estimate that the ore-forming fluids have a δ(7)Li range from -0.7‰ to +18.4‰ at temperatures of 175-340 °C. This δ(7)Li range, together with Li-O modeling , suggest that magmatic fluid played a significant role in the ore formation. This study demonstrates that Li isotope can be effectively used to trace magmatic fluids in a seafloor hydrothermal system and has the potential to monitor fluid mixing and ore-forming process.

  9. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  10. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  11. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  12. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  14. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  15. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  16. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  17. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  18. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  19. Protection of tokamak plasma facing components by a capillary porous system with lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyublinski, I.; Vertkov, A.; Mirnov, S.; Lazarev, V.

    2015-08-01

    Development of plasma facing material (PFM) based on the Capillary-Porous System (CPS) with lithium and activity on realization of lithium application strategy are addressed to meet the challenges under the creation of steady-state tokamak fusion reactor and fusion neutron source. Presented overview of experimental study of lithium CPS in plasma devices demonstrates the progress in protection of tokamak plasma facing components (PFC) from damage, stabilization and self-renewal of liquid lithium surface, elimination of plasma pollution and lithium accumulation in tokamak chamber. The possibility of PFC protection from the high power load related to cooling of the tokamak boundary plasma by radiation of non-fully stripped lithium ions supported by experimental results. This approach demonstrated in scheme of closed loops of Li circulation in the tokamak vacuum chamber and realized in a series of design of tokamak in-vessel elements.

  20. Mechanisms of voids formation during cooldown and freezing of lithium in SP-100 type systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jae Y.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of void formation during the cooldown and freezing of lithium coolant within the primary loop of SP-100 type systems are investigated. These mechanisms are: (a) homogeneous nucleation, (b) heterogeneous nucleation, (c) normal segregation of helium gas dissolved in liquid lithium, and (d) shrinkage of lithium during freezing. To evaluate the void formation potential due to segregation, a numerical scheme that couples the freezing and mass diffusion processes in both the solid and liquid regions is developed. The results indicated that the formation of He bubbles is unlikely by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation during the cooldown process. However, homogeneous nucleation of He bubbles following the segregation of dissolved He in liquid Lithium ahead of the solid-liquid interface is likely to occur. Results also show that total volume of He void is insignificant when compared to that of shrinkage voids.

  1. Lithium isotope traces magmatic fluid in a seafloor hydrothermal system

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Kejun; Yang, Zhiming; Tian, Shihong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions and hosted gangue quartz from a giant volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in China provide robust evidence for inputting of magmatic fluids into a Triassic submarine hydrothermal system. The δ7Li results vary from +4.5‰ to +13.8‰ for fluid inclusions and from +6.7‰ to +21.0‰ for the hosted gangue quartz(9 gangue quartz samples containing primary fluid inclusions). These data confirm the temperature-dependent Li isotopic fractionation between hydrothermal quartz and fluid (i.e., Δδ7Liquartz-fluid = –8.9382 × (1000/T) + 22.22(R2 = 0.98; 175 °C–340 °C)), which suggests that the fluid inclusions are in equilibrium with their hosted quartz, thus allowing to determine the composition of the fluids by using δ7Liquartz data. Accordingly, we estimate that the ore-forming fluids have a δ7Li range from −0.7‰ to +18.4‰ at temperatures of 175–340 °C. This δ7Li range, together with Li–O modeling , suggest that magmatic fluid played a significant role in the ore formation. This study demonstrates that Li isotope can be effectively used to trace magmatic fluids in a seafloor hydrothermal system and has the potential to monitor fluid mixing and ore-forming process. PMID:26347051

  2. Influence of Boehmite Precursor on Aluminosilicate Aerogel Pore Structure, Phase Stability and Resistance to Densification at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Guo, Haiquan; Newlin, Katy N.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminosilicate aerogels are of interest as constituents of thermal insulation systems for use at temperatures higher than those attainable with silica aerogels. It is anticipated that their effectiveness as thermal insulators will be influenced by their morphology, pore size distribution, physical and skeletal densities. The present study focuses on the synthesis of aluminosilicate aerogel from a variety of Boehmite (precursors as the Al source, and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the Si source, and the influence of starting powder on pore structure and thermal stability.

  3. Quantum-chemical investigation of mechanism of dehydroxylation of crystalline and amorphous aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Senchenya, I.N.; Chuvylkin, N.D.; Kazanskii, V.B.

    1986-07-01

    Within the framework of the cluster approach and the semiempirical SCF MO LCAO method in the CNDO/BW valence approximation, possible pathways have been compared for the dehydroxylation of aluminosilicate systems. It has been shown that dehydroxylation as a result of splitting of a water molecule from an acidic bridge hydroxyl group and a more basic terminal group Al-OH is the most energyfavorable. Apparently, such a dehydroxylation pathway is primarily characteristic for amorphous aluminosilicates. Typical of crystalline aluminosilicates at moderate heat-treating temperature is dehydroxylation through splitting of a water molecule from an acidic bridge hydroxyl group and a neutral Si-OH group; at higher temperatures, there is a possible pathway of dehydroxylation of highsilica zeolites as a result of condensation of two acidic surface hydroxyls.

  4. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held July 16-18, 2013, from...

  5. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will be held July 17-19, 2012, from 9 a.m.-5...

  6. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held February 7, 2013, from...

  7. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held April 2-5, 2013, from...

  8. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013,...

  9. Development of encapsulated lithium hydride thermal energy storage for space power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.

    1987-12-01

    Inclusion of thermal energy storage in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. In this mode, waste heat generated during the brief high-power burst operation is placed in the thermal store; later, the heat in the store is dissipated to space via the radiator over the much longer nonoperational period of the orbit. Thus, the radiator required is of significantly smaller capacity. Scoping analysis indicates that use of lithium hydride as the thermal storage medium results in system mass reduction benefits for burst periods as long as 800 s. A candidate design for the thermal energy storage component utilizes lithium hydride encapsulated in either 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Key issues associated with the system design include phase-change induced stresses in the shell, lithium hydride and shell compatibility, lithium hydride dissociation and hydrogen loss from the system, void presence and movement associated with the melt-freeze process, and heat transfer limitations on obtaining the desired energy storage density. 58 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  11. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes. PMID:26081242

  12. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-17

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  13. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  14. The Thomson Scattering System on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    SciTech Connect

    T. Strickler, R. Majeski, R. Kaita, B. LeBlanc

    2008-07-31

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) is a spherical tokamak with R0 = 0.4m, a = 0.26m, BTF ~ 3.4kG, IP ~ 400kA, and pulse length ~ 0.25s. The goal of LTX is to investigate tokamak plasmas that are almost entirely surrounded by a lithium-coated plasma-facing shell conformal to the last closed magnetic flux surface. Based on previous experimental results and simulation, it is expected that the low-recycling liquid lithium surfaces will result in higher temperatures at the plasma edge, flatter overall temperature profiles, centrally-peaked density profiles, and an increased confinement time. To test these predictions, the electron temperature and density profiles in LTX will be measured by a multi-point Thomson scattering system (TVTS). Initially, TS measurements will be made at up to 12 simultaneous points between the plasma center and plasma edge. Later, high resolution edge measurements will be deployed to study the lithium edge physics in greater detail. Technical challenges to implementing the TS system included limited "line of sight" access to the plasma due to the plasma-facing shell and problems associated with the presence of liquid lithium.

  15. Formulation, physicochemical characterization and stability study of lithium-loaded microemulsion system.

    PubMed

    Mouri, Abdelkader; Legrand, Philippe; El Ghzaoui, Abdeslam; Dorandeu, Christophe; Maurel, Jean Claude; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie

    2016-04-11

    Lithium biocompatible microemulsion based on Peceol(®), lecithin, ethanol and water was studied in attempt to identify the optimal compositions in term of drug content, physicochemical properties and stability. Lithium solubilization in microemulsion was found to be compatible with a drug-surfactant binding model. Lithium ions were predominantly solubilized within lecithin head group altering significantly the interfacial properties of the system. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of drug free and drug loaded microemulsions were built at constant ethanol/lecithin weight ratio (40/60). Lithium loaded microemulsion has totally disappeared in the Peceol(®) rich part of phase diagram; critical fractions of lecithin and ethanol were required for the formation of stable microemulsion. The effect of lithium concentration on the properties and physical stability of microemulsions were studied using microscopy, Karl Fischer titrations, rheology analyses, conductivity measurements and centrifugation tests. The investigated microemulsions were found to be stable under accelerated storage conditions. The systems exhibited low viscosity and behaved as Newtonian fluid and no structural transition was shown. PMID:26836707

  16. 76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  17. 76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  18. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  19. 76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  20. Wnt and lithium: a common destiny in the therapy of nervous system pathologies?

    PubMed

    Meffre, Delphine; Grenier, Julien; Bernard, Sophie; Courtin, Françoise; Dudev, Todor; Shackleford, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu; Jafarian-Tehrani, Mehrnaz; Massaad, Charbel

    2014-04-01

    Wnt signaling is required for neurogenesis, the fate of neural progenitors, the formation of neuronal circuits during development, neuron positioning and polarization, axon and dendrite development and finally for synaptogenesis. This signaling pathway is also implicated in the generation and differentiation of glial cells. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of action of Wnt signaling pathways and their implication in the development and correct functioning of the nervous system. We also illustrate how a dysregulated Wnt pathway could lead to psychiatric, neurodegenerative and demyelinating pathologies. Lithium, used for the treatment of bipolar disease, inhibits GSK3β, a central enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Thus, lithium could, to some extent, mimic Wnt pathway. We highlight the possible dialogue between lithium therapy and modulation of Wnt pathway in the treatment of the diseases of the nervous system.

  1. A HIGH CURRENT DENSITY LI+ ALUMINO-SILICATE ION SOURCE FOR TARGET HEATING EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

    2011-03-23

    The NDCX-II accelerator for target heating experiments has been designed to use a large diameter ({approx_equal} 10.9 cm) Li{sup +} doped alumino-silicate source with a pulse duration of 0.5 {micro}s, and beam current of {approx_equal} 93 mA. Characterization of a prototype lithium alumino-silicate sources is presented. Using 6.35mm diameter prototype emitters (coated on a {approx_equal} 75% porous tungsten substrate), at a temperature of {approx_equal} 1275 C, a space-charge limited Li{sup +} beam current density of {approx_equal} 1 mA/cm{sup 2} was measured. At higher extraction voltage, the source is emission limited at around {approx_equal} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, weakly dependent on the applied voltage. The lifetime of the ion source is {approx_equal} 50 hours while pulsing the extraction voltage at 2 to 3 times per minute. Measurements show that the life time of the ion source does not depend only on beam current extraction, and lithium loss may be dominated by neutral loss or by evaporation. The life time of a source is around {ge} 10 hours in a DC mode extraction, and the extracted charge is {approx_equal} 75% of the available Li in the sample. It is inferred that pulsed heating may increase the life time of a source.

  2. Evaluation of Uranium Coprecipitation with Sodium Aluminosilicate Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, Lawrence N.; Williams, Adrienne L.

    2004-02-15

    Batch laboratory experiments performed to evaluate uranium incorporation into aluminosilicate structures during synthesis are described. This research was conducted in response to plant problems related to the accumulation of uranium with aluminosilicates in low-level radioactive waste evaporators. Conditions that favor precipitation of aluminosilicates also foster uranium solid precipitation, so it is difficult to attribute problems with uranium accumulation to, for example, only the formation of the aluminosilicates. Infrared spectra show that sodium uranates, uranium silicates, and other uranium solids are formed during the synthesis of sodium aluminosilicates structures in the presence of uranium. Both amorphous and sodalite aluminosilicate phases, unlike the zeolite A phase, show appreciable affinity for uranium incorporation during their formation in the presence of uranium.

  3. A highly crystalline microporous hybrid organic-inorganic aluminosilicate resembling the AFI-type zeolite.

    PubMed

    Bellussi, Giuseppe; Millini, Roberto; Montanari, Erica; Carati, Angela; Rizzo, Caterina; Parker, Wallace O; Cruciani, Giuseppe; de Angelis, Alberto; Bonoldi, Lucia; Zanardi, Stefano

    2012-07-28

    ECS-14, a crystalline microporous hybrid organic-inorganic aluminosilicate, has been synthesized by using 1,4-bis-(triethoxysilyl)-benzene (BTEB) as a source of silica. Its structure contains a system of linear channels with 12-membered ring openings, running along the [001] direction, resembling the pore architecture of the AFI framework type. PMID:22717682

  4. Formic acid, ethanol in vycor glass, and water in aluminosilicate zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Loong, C.K.; Trouw, F.; Iton, L.E.

    1993-11-01

    We present results of incoherent inelastic neutron-scattering experiments on formic acid, ethanol in vycor glass, and water in aluminosilicate zeolites performed at Argonne`s spallation neutron source, IPNS. The forming and breaking of hydrogen bonds are discussed in terms of translational and rotational diffusion, and vibrational footprints of various molecular species in these systems.

  5. Underpinning energetics of lithium bonding and stability in the Li-Pt-Sn system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Samir F.; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Within the Li-Pt-Sn system, we examine the electronic structures and Li-binding of LiPtSn2, Li2PtSn and Li3Pt2Sn3 with fluorite-related crystal structures. The structures with totally de-intercalated lithium keep the characteristics of the pristine ternary compound with a reduction of the volume. In Li3Pt2Sn3 the binding energies of lithium belonging to three crystallographically inequivalent Wyckoff sites are different and point to distinct activities of de-intercalation concomitant with site-selective bonding magnitudes. The derived potentials are within the range of non-oxide binary and ternary lithium based compounds and indicate the possibility of at least partial delithiation.

  6. Mixed organic compound-ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium battery electrolyte systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanino, M.; Moreno, M.; Carewska, M.; Maresca, G.; Simonetti, E.; Lo Presti, R.; Alessandrini, F.; Appetecchi, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal, transport, rheological and flammability properties of electrolyte mixtures, proposed for safer lithium-ion battery systems, were investigated as a function of the mole composition. The blends were composed of a lithium salt (LiTFSI), organic solvents (namely EC, DEC) and an ionic liquid (PYR13TFSI). The main goal is to combine the fast ion transport properties of the organic compounds with the safe issues of the non-flammable and non-volatile ionic liquids. Preliminary tests in batteries have evidenced cycling performance approaching that observed in commercial organic electrolytes.

  7. Simplified thermochemistry of oxygen in lithium and sodium for liquid metal cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.

    1972-01-01

    Plots of oxygen chemical potential against composition of lithium-oxygen solutions and sodium-oxygen solutions for a range of temperature were constructed. For each liquid metal two such plots were prepared. For one plot ideal solution behavior was assumed. For the other plot, existing solubility limit data for oxygen in the liquid metal were used to determine a first-order term for departure from ideality. The use of the plots in evaluating the oxygen gettering capability of refractory metals in liquid metal cooling systems is illustrated by a simple example involving lithium, oxygen, and hafnium.

  8. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research.

    PubMed

    Lampert, M; Anda, G; Czopf, A; Erdei, G; Guszejnov, D; Kovácsik, Á; Pokol, G I; Réfy, D; Nam, Y U; Zoletnik, S

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties. PMID:26233377

  9. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, M.; Anda, G.; Czopf, A.; Erdei, G.; Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I.; Réfy, D.; Nam, Y. U.; Zoletnik, S.

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  10. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, M.; Anda, G.; Réfy, D.; Zoletnik, S.; Czopf, A.; Erdei, G.; Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I.; Nam, Y. U.

    2015-07-15

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  11. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research.

    PubMed

    Lampert, M; Anda, G; Czopf, A; Erdei, G; Guszejnov, D; Kovácsik, Á; Pokol, G I; Réfy, D; Nam, Y U; Zoletnik, S

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  12. Automated control and data acquisition system for lithium-ion accumulators test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrah, E. A.; Balakirev, R. V.; Shtabel, N. V.

    2015-10-01

    In the article authors describe architecture of an automated data acquisition system for lithium ion accumulators lifetime test bench. The system is based on high performance data acquisition modules and allows acquisition of data in the process of simultaneous testing of 12 accumulators, including current, voltage and temperature of each accumulator. LabView based software is used to control testing, registration of data and loading of test program into system modules.

  13. Uranium and Aluminosilicate Surface Precipitation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, M.Z.

    2002-11-27

    The 2H evaporator at the Savannah River Site has been used to treat an aluminum-rich waste stream from canyon operations and a silicon-rich waste stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The formation of aluminosilicate scale in the evaporator has caused significant operational problems. Because uranium has been found to accumulate in the aluminosilicate solids, the scale deposition has introduced criticality concerns as well. The objective of the tests described in this report is to determine possible causes of the uranium incorporation in the evaporator scale materials. The scope of this task is to perform laboratory experiments with simulant solutions to determine if (1) uranium can be deposited on the surfaces of various sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) forms and (2) aluminosilicates can form on the surfaces of uranium-containing solids. Batch experiments with simulant solutions of three types were conducted: (1) contact of uranium solutions/sols with NAS coatings on stainless steel surfaces, (2) contact of uranium solutions with NAS particles, and (3) contact of precipitated uranium-containing particles with solutions containing aluminum and silicon. The results show that uranium can be incorporated in NAS solids through encapsulation in bulk agglomerated NAS particles of different phases (amorphous, zeolite A, sodalite, and cancrinite) as well as through heterogeneous deposition on the surfaces of NAS coatings (amorphous and cancrinite) grown on stainless steel. The results also indicate that NAS particles can grow on the surfaces of precipitated uranium solids. Particularly notable for evaporator operations is the finding that uranium solids can form on existing NAS scale, including cancrinite solids. If NAS scale is present, and uranium is in sufficient concentration in solution to precipitate, a portion of the uranium can be expected to become associated with the scale. The data obtained to date on uranium-NAS affinity are qualitative. A necessary

  14. Probing lithium germanide phase evolution and structural change in a germanium-in-carbon nanotube energy storage system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Liu, Yanpeng; Peng, Chengxin; Hu, Mary Y; Deng, Xuchu; Lin, Ming; Hu, Jian Zhi; Loh, Kian Ping

    2015-02-25

    Lithium alloys of group IV elements such as silicon and germanium are attractive candidates for use as anodes in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, the poor capacity retention arising from volume swing during lithium cycling restricts their widespread application. Herein, we report high reversible capacity and superior rate capability from core-shell structure consisting of germanium nanorods embedded in multiwall carbon nanotubes. To understand how the core-shell structure helps to mitigate volume swings and buffer against mechanical instability, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and in situ (7)Li nuclear magnetic resonance were used to probe the structural rearrangements and phase evolution of various Li-Ge alloy phases during (de)alloying reactions with lithium. The results provide insights into amorphous-to-crystalline transition and lithium germanide alloy phase transformation, which are important reactions controlling performance in this system.

  15. Evaluation of Uranium Co-precipitations with Sodium Aluminosilicate Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    2003-06-24

    This paper describes batch laboratory experiments performed to evaluate uranium incorporation into aluminosilicate structures during synthesis. This research was conducted in response to plant problems related to the accumulation of uranium with aluminosilicates in low-level radioactive waste evaporators. We have found that conditions which favor precipitation of aluminosilicates also foster uranium solid precipitation, so it is difficult to attribute problems with uranium accumulation to say just the formation of the aluminosilicates. Infrared spectra shows that sodium uranates, uranium silicates and other uranium solids are formed during the synthesis of sodium aluminosilicates structures in the presence of uranium. Both amorphous and sodalite aluminosilcate phases, unlike zeolite A phase, show appreciable affinity for uranium incorporation during their formation in the presence of uranium.

  16. Characterization of a Liquid Lithium Pellet Delivery (LLPD) System for ELM Pacing and Lithium Replenishment in NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruczyk, Daniel; Roquemore, Lane; Fiflis, Peter; Ruzic, David

    2013-10-01

    A new liquid lithium pellet delivery system has been developed that will be used in several Li delivery schemes in NSTX-U. The LLPD is based on dripping Li out of a 300 μm diameter nozzle. A modulating current and permanent magnets provide a J × B force that drives the formation of the droplets. It is suggested that the current amplitude sets the size of the drops and the modulation sets the frequency that the drops come out of the nozzle. An alternative method for drop production uses high pressure gas where the pressure sets the frequency, up to 2 kHz, and drop size, 0.6 < ddrop < 2.0 mm. It's intended to use LLPD to deliver solid Li pellets for the granular injector system, fill the upward facing LITER (U-LITER) being developed and maintain fresh Li during a discharge by injecting Li drops into the plasma, ablating the Li and replenishing the coatings on the PFCs. Work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. The aluminium-scandium-lithium-magnesium system as a potential source of superplastically formable alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Emigh, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    Alloys from the aluminum-lithium-scandium-magnesium system have been cast and rolled for study. The goal is to evaluate this system for the development of superplastically formable, high strength alloys. Aluminum-scandium-magnesium alloys have shown potential as superplastic alloys. These alloys rely on small Al{sub 3}Sc (ordered L1{sub 2}) precipitates for grain structure stabilization and strengthening. Additional precipitation strengthening is required to raise their strength to levels sufficient for aircraft applications. The addition of lithium provides this additional strengthening through the formation of Al{sub 3}Li({delta}{prime}). To produce the alloys studied in this research, a unique induction melting furnace was constructed that incorporates special features to produce aluminum-lithium alloys with low hydrogen content. The furnace also features a water cooled, copper casting mold to achieve a moderately rapid solidification rate. This is because the amount of scandium used (0.5 wt %) is in excess of the solubility limit and Al{sub 3}Sc cannot be re-solutionized to any extent. It is therefore desired to super-saturate the matrix with as much scandium as possible for later precipitation. Two high lithium alloys were produced, ALS2 (nominal composition Al-2.2Li-O.5 Sc) and AlS4 (nominal composition Al-2.0Li-2.2Mg-0.5Sc) that were strengthened with {delta}{prime} (Al{sub 3}Li). These alloys exhibited strength and ductility superior to those of aluminum-lithium-(magnesium)-zirconium alloys. This is because the scandium containing alloys have developed a finer grain structure and the Al{sub 3}Sc precipitates contribute to the alloys strength. 41 refs., 29 figs.

  18. Nanostructure of gel-derived aluminosilicate materials.

    PubMed

    Sinkó, Katalin; Hüsing, Nicola; Goerigk, Günter; Peterlik, Herwig

    2008-02-01

    In the present work, aluminosilicate aerogels prepared under various conditions were compared with respect to their nanostructures and porosity. The purpose of this investigation was to find a suitable way to predict the final product structure and to tailor a required texture. Several Al and Si precursors (Al nitrate, Al isopropoxide, Al acetate, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), and sodium silicate) were used in our examinations; the solvent content (water and alcohols), surfactants, as well as the catalysts were varied. In addition, the aerogels were subjected to various heat treatments. Hybrid aerogels were synthesized by the addition of different polymers (poly(acrylic acid), polyvinyl acetate, and polydimethylsiloxane). Aluminosilicate and hybrid aerogel structures were investigated by 27Al MAS NMR, SAXS, SEM, and porosity measurements. Loose fractal structures with a good porosity and high Al incorporation can be achieved from TEOS and Al nitrate or isopropoxide via a sol-gel preparation route. The use of Al acetate led to compact aerogel structures independently of the Si precursor, the pH, and the catalyst.

  19. Electromagnetically induced transparency in an open {Lambda}-type molecular lithium system

    SciTech Connect

    Lazoudis, A.; Kirova, T.; Ahmed, E. H.; Lyyra, A. M.; Li, L.; Qi, J.

    2010-08-15

    We present an experimental study of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a {Lambda}-type molecular lithium system. Copropagating beam geometry is utilized in order to minimize the residual Doppler width. A coupling laser power dependent study of the EIT feature is carried out. Our findings have been complemented by theoretical studies of open systems that trace the presence of EIT starting from the density-matrix equations. Numerical simulations have been performed and are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-10-28

    During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached {approx}10 psi while processing {approx}1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective

  1. Sorption of cesium ions by nanostructured calcium aluminosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, P. S.; Shabalin, I. A.; Yarusova, S. B.; Suponina, A. P.; Zhevtun, I. G.

    2016-10-01

    Data on the sorption properties of synthetic calcium aluminosilicates (CASes) with Al: Si ratios of 2: 2, 2: 6, and 2: 10, fabricated within the multicomponent system CaCl2-AlCl3-KOM-SiO2-H2O, are presented. Isotherms of the sorption of Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions with Cs+ concentrations of 0.2 to 6.0 mmol L-1 are analyzed. The CAS maximum sorption capacity and the Langmuir constants are determined. Kinetic data are obtained, and the energy of cation-exchange activation upon the sorption of Cs+ ions is determined. The effect of a salt background (1% KCl + 6% NaCl) has on the values of distribution coefficient ( K d) and the degree of Cs+ ion removal is established.

  2. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Ireland, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-07-15

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  3. Fail-safe design for large capacity lithium-ion battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  4. Accretion of planetary matter and the lithium problem in the 16 Cygni stellar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, Morgan; Richard, Olivier; Vauclair, Sylvie

    2015-12-01

    Context. The 16 Cygni system is composed of two solar analogues with similar masses and ages. A red dwarf is in orbit around 16 Cygni A, and 16 Cygni B hosts a giant planet. The abundances of heavy elements are similar in the two stars, but lithium is much more depleted in 16 Cygni B than in 16 Cygni A, by a factor of at least 4.7. Aims: The interest of studying the 16 Cygni system is that the two star have the same age and the same initial composition. The differences currently observed must be due to their different evolution, related to the fact that one of them hosts a planet while the other does not. Methods: We computed models of the two stars that precisely fit the observed seismic frequencies. We used the Toulouse Geneva Evolution Code (TGEC), which includes complete atomic diffusion (including radiative accelerations). We compared the predicted surface abundances with the spectroscopic observations and confirm that another mixing process is needed. We then included the effect of accretion-induced fingering convection. Results: The accretion of planetary matter does not change the metal abundances but leads to lithium destruction, which depends upon the accreted mass. A fraction of the Earth's mass is enough to explain the lithium surface abundances of 16 Cygni B. We also checked the beryllium abundances. Conclusions: In the case of accretion of heavy matter onto stellar surfaces, the accreted heavy elements do not remain in the outer convective zones, but are mixed downwards by fingering convection induced by the unstable μ-gradient. Depending on the accreted mass, this mixing process may transport lithium down to its nuclear destruction layers and lead to an extra lithium depletion at the surface. A fraction of the Earth's mass is enough to explain a lithium ratio of 4.7 in the 16 Cygni system. In this case beryllium is not destroyed. Such a process may be frequent in planet-hosting stars and should be studied in other cases in the future.

  5. Design and operation of a 1000 C lithium-cesium test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, L. G.; Haskins, G. M.; Oconnor, D. E.; Torola, J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A 100 kWt cesium-lithium test loop fabricated of niobium-1% zirconium for experiments on erosion and two-phase system operation at temperatures of 980 C and velocities of 150 m/s. Although operated at design temperature for 100 hours, flow instabilities in the two-phase separator interfered with the achievement of the desired mass flow rates. A modified separator was fabricated and installed in the loop to alleviate this problem.

  6. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Photoelastic response of alkaline earth aluminosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Smedskjaer, Morten M; Saxton, Scott A; Ellison, Adam J; Mauro, John C

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the structural origins of the photoelastic response in oxide glasses is important for discovering new families of zero-stress optic glasses and for developing a predictive physical model. In this Letter, we have investigated the composition dependence of the stress optic coefficient C of 32 sodium aluminosilicate glasses with different types of alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO). We find that most of the composition dependence of the stress optic response can be captured by a linear regression model and that the individual contributions from the alkaline earths to C depend on the alkaline earth-oxygen bond metallicity. High bond metallicity is required to allow bonds to be distorted along both the bonding direction and perpendicular to it. These findings are valuable for understanding the photoelastic response of oxide glasses.

  8. Characterization of Uranium Solids Precipitated with Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    DUFF, MC

    2004-04-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), the High-Level Waste (HLW) Tank Farms store and process high-level liquid radioactive wastes from the Canyons and recycle water from the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The waste is concentrated using evaporators to minimize the volume of space required for HLW storage. Recently, the 2H Evaporator was shutdown due to the crystallization of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) solids (such as cancrinite and sodalite) that contained close to 10 weight percent of elementally-enriched uranium (U). Prior to extensive cleaning,the evaporator deposits resided on the evaporator walls and other exposed internal surfaces within the evaporator pot. Our goal is to support the basis for the continued safe operation of SRS evaporators and to gain more information that could be used to help mitigate U accumulation during evaporator operation.

  9. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W

    2012-03-05

    A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm2 have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of ~1275 °C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J ≥ 1.5 mA/cm2, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A 6.35 mm diameter source with an alumino-silicate coating, ≤0.25 mm thick, has a measured lifetime of ~40 h at ~1275 °C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of ~6 μs each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. Finally, the source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be further extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

  10. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W.

    2012-04-01

    A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm2 have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of ~1275 °C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J ≥ 1.5 mA/cm2, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A 6.35 mm diameter source with an alumino-silicate coating, ≤0.25 mm thick, has a measured lifetime of ~40 h at ~1275 °C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of ~6 μs each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. Finally, the source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be further extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

  11. A Novel Conversion Process for Waste Slag: The Preparation of Aluminosilicate Glass with Evaluation of the Dielectric Properties from Blast Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Huang, Sanxi; Liu, Hongting; Wu, Fengnian; Chang, Ziyuan; Yue, Yunlong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, aluminosilicate glass was prepared from blast furnace slag and quartz sand. Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry and density measurements were carried out to investigate the effects of SiO2 on the aluminosilicate glass network rigidity. The results indicate that glass structure would be enhanced if more SiO2 was introduced into the glass system. Meanwhile, both the glass transition temperature ( T g) and the glass crystallization temperature ( T c) increase slightly; the increase in density of the glass being further evidence of the enhancement in glass network rigidity. Dielectric measurements show that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with more SiO2. The properties of the prepared aluminosilicate glasses are comparable to those of E glass, indicating that blast furnace slags are suitable for producing aluminosilicate glass with low dielectric constant and dielectric loss.

  12. Modeling and verification of a lithium iron phosphate battery pack system for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lin

    In recent years, Lithium chemistry based batteries have gained popularity with all automotive manufacturers. Thousands of battery cells are put into a battery pack to satisfy the need of power consumption of vehicles using electric traction. Managing the battery pack for hybrid and electric vehicles is a challenging problem. Despite the advantage of power density and charge retaining capabilities, Lithium ion batteries do not handle over-charge and over-discharge very well compared to other battery chemistries. Therefore, creating an accurate model to predict the battery pack behavior is essential in research and development for battery management systems. This work presents a general technique to extend accepted modeling methodologies for single cells to models for large packs. The theoretical framework is accompanied by parameter identification process based on the circuit model, and experimental verification procedures supporting the validity of this approach.

  13. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  14. Li+ alumino-silicate ion source development for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II)

    SciTech Connect

    LBNL; Roy, P.K.; Greenway, W.; Kwan, J.W.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.

    2011-04-20

    To heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter with intense ion beams, low mass ions, such as lithium, have an energy loss peak (dE/dx) at a suitable kinetic energy. The Heavy Ion Fusion Sciences (HIFS) program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory will carry out warm dense matter experiments using Li{sup +} ion beam with energy 1.2-4 MeV in order to achieve uniform heating up to 0.1-1 eV. The accelerator physics design of Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) has a pulse length at the ion source of about 0.5 {micro}s. Thus for producing 50 nC of beam charge, the required beam current is about 100 mA. Focusability requires a normalized (edge) emittance {approx}2 {pi}-mm-mrad. Here, lithium aluminosilicate ion sources, of {beta}-eucryptite, are being studied within the scope of NDCX-II construction. Several small (0.64 cm diameter) lithium aluminosilicate ion sources, on 70%-80% porous tungsten substrate, were operated in a pulsed mode. The distance between the source surface and the mid-plane of the extraction electrode (1 cm diameter aperture) was 1.48 cm. The source surface temperature was at 1220 C to 1300 C. A 5-6 {micro}s long beam pulsed was recorded by a Faraday cup (+300 V on the collector plate and -300 V on the suppressor ring). Figure 1 shows measured beam current density (J) vs. V{sup 3/2}. A space-charge limited beam density of {approx}1 mA/cm{sup 2} was measured at 1275 C temperature, after allowing a conditioning time of about {approx} 12 hours. Maximum emission limited beam current density of {ge} 1.8mA/cm{sup 2} was recorded at 1300 C with 10-kV extractions. Figure 2 shows the lifetime of two typical sources with space-charge limited beam current emission at a lower extraction voltage (1.75 kV) and at temperature of 1265 {+-} 7 C. These data demonstrate a constant, space-charge limited beam current for 20-50 hours. The lifetime of a source is determined by the loss of lithium from the alumino-silicate

  15. Additive effects of lithium and antidepressants in the forced swimming test: further evidence for involvement of the serotoninergic system.

    PubMed

    Nixon, M K; Hascoet, M; Bourin, M; Colombel, M C

    1994-06-01

    In the mouse forced swimming test (FST) pretreatment with a subactive dose of lithium (1 mEq/kg), given IP 45 min before the test, facilitated the antidepressant activity of iprindole, fluoxetine, and moclobemide (given IP 30 min before the test). These antidepressants (ADS) were not active alone in the FST in this study. Moreover, when subactive lithium was combined with a wide range of ADS, each given at subactive doses, those ADS with serotoninergic properties (e.g. imipramine, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, trazodone, mianserin, and moclobemide) significantly reduced immobility times. ADS acting primarily on noradrenaline (NA) or dopamine (DA) systems (desipramine, maprotiline, viloxazine, and bupropion) did not significantly decrease immobility when given in combination with lithium. This was also the case for RO 16 6491 [a reversible, B specific monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)], nialamide, and pargyline (both irreversible, mixed MAOIs). The anti-immobility effect of iprindole in combination with lithium suggests either a direct or indirect action on the serotonin (5HT) system by this ADS whose mechanism of action remains obscure. These results, using an animal behavioral model of depression and combining our present knowledge of the acute action of various ADS, support the hypothesis that the potentiation by lithium of ADS is via direct 5HT mechanisms, indirectly via a NA/5HT link, and/or by second messenger systems. Lithium may also facilitate the expression of antidepressant activity of ADS not active by themselves in the FST.

  16. Studies of the surface charge of amorphous aluminosilicates using surface complexation models.

    PubMed

    Jara, Alejandra A; Goldberg, Sabine; Mora, M L

    2005-12-01

    Synthetic noncrystalline aluminosilicates with variable charge, similar to allophanes present naturally in volcanic soils, were studied. The surface charge behavior was determined by zero point charge (ZPC) measured by electrophoretic mobility (isoelectric points, IEP) and determined by potentiometric titration (point of zero salt effect, PZSE). The ZPC calculated by Parks model (ZPC(c)), compared with IEP values, showed that the aluminosilicate (AlSi) surface was slightly enriched by AlOH (34% Al(2)O(3) and 66% SiO(2)) compared with the bulk composition (29% Al(2)O(3) and 71% SiO(2)). For aluminosilicate coated with iron oxide (AlSiFe) the ZPC(c) (4.4) was lower than the IEP (8.46), showing that the surface composition is formed mainly from iron oxide. The PZSE values for AlSi and AlSiFe were 6.2 and 4.8, respectively. The differences between the IEP and PZSE are attributed to the formation of Si-O-Fe or Si-O-Al bonds; therefore, the reactivity of Fe and Al atoms was modified on the surface. Two mechanistic models, the constant capacitance model (CCM) and the triple layer model (TLM), using the program FITEQL 3.2 were able to describe the surface behavior of both synthetic aluminosilicates. The acidity constants determined using both models for the aluminosilicates showed differences with respect to pure oxide, mainly attributed to the presence of SiOH sites on the internal surfaces. The ionic strength showed a good relation with the parameters obtained using the CCM (pK(int)(a1), pK(int)(a2) and capacitance values) and the TLM (pK(int)(a1), pK(int)(a2), pK(int)(Cl-), pK(int)(K+), and inner capacitance) for both aluminosilicates. However, the TLM was able to describe the acidity and complexation constants better since it considered the formation of the outer sphere complex between the background electrolyte and the surface. Then, the TLM makes it possible to describe real systems.

  17. Evaluation of the Incorporation of Uranium into Sodium Aluminosilicate Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    2003-03-26

    This report describes batch laboratory experiments performed to determine the relative amounts of uranium incorporated in aluminosilicate structures during synthesis. The findings summarized here are based on laboratory experiments, which involved the synthesis of sodium aluminosilicates (NAS) structures, amorphous, zeolites A and sodalite phases in the presence of depleted uranium and the analytical search for incorporated uranium in NAS internal structures after synthesis. These studies will support the basis for continued operation of evaporators at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  18. NASA lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juvinall, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages of lithium systems are described and a general summary of their application in present and future NASA programs is presented. Benefits of the lithium systems include an increased payload weight and an increased cost effectiveness to the customer. This also allows for more flexibility in the design of future space transportation systems.

  19. US Navy lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of lithium systems that are already in the fleet are discussed. The approach that the Navy is taking in the control of the introduction of lithium batteries into the fleet is also discussed.

  20. STUDIES OF POTENTIAL INHIBITORS OF SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE SCALES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B; Lawrence Oji, L; Terri Fellinger, T; David Hobbs, D; Nilesh Badheka, N

    2008-02-27

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 underground storage tanks used to store High Level Waste (HLW). The tank space in these tanks must be managed to support the continued operation of key facilities. The reduction of the tank volumes in these tanks are accomplished through the use of three atmospheric pressure HLW evaporators. For a decade, evaporation of highly alkaline HLW containing aluminum and silicates has produced sodium aluminosilicate scales causing both operation and criticality hazards in the 2H Evaporator System. Segregation of aluminum-rich wastes from silicate-rich wastes minimizes the amount of scale produced and reduces cleaning expenses, but does not eliminate the scaling nor increases operation flexibility in waste process. Similar issues have affected the aluminum refining industry for many decades. Over the past several years, successful commercial products have been identified to eliminate aluminosilicate fouling in the aluminum industry, but have not been utilized in a nuclear environment. Laboratory quantities of three proprietary aluminosilicate scale inhibitors have been produced and been shown to prevent formation of scales. SRNL has been actively testing these potential inhibitors to examine their radiation stability, radiolytic degradation behaviors, and downstream impacts to determine their viability within the HLW system. One of the tested polymers successfully meets the established criteria for application in the nuclear environment. This paper will describe a summary of the methodology used to prioritize laboratory testing protocols based on potential impacts/risks identified for inhibitor deployment at SRS.

  1. The role of plasma volume, plasma renin and the sympathetic nervous system in the posture-induced decline in renal lithium clearance in man.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F; Shimizu, M

    1978-01-01

    Excretion of lithium in urine was studied in 2 healthy males while recumbent and while upright, either walking or standing quietly. An oral dose of 24.3 mmol of Lit was taken as three lithium carbonate tablets 13 h before clearance tests. Renal lithium clearance decreased and lithium fractional reabsorption increased while upright. Standing immersed to the neck in water, which prevents the fall in plasma volume upon changing posture from recumbent to upright, prevented the fall in renal lithium clearance as well as the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption while upright. Oral doses of guanethidine (total dose of 200 mg) or oxprenolol (total dose of 140 mg) taken to prevent high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity and plasma renin, respectively, failed to prevent the fall in renal lithium clearance or the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright. The findings indicate that the fall in renal lithium clearance and the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright is related to the fall in plasma volume but not to high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity or plasma renin activity. PMID:692834

  2. The role of plasma volume, plasma renin and the sympathetic nervous system in the posture-induced decline in renal lithium clearance in man.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F; Shimizu, M

    1978-01-01

    Excretion of lithium in urine was studied in 2 healthy males while recumbent and while upright, either walking or standing quietly. An oral dose of 24.3 mmol of Lit was taken as three lithium carbonate tablets 13 h before clearance tests. Renal lithium clearance decreased and lithium fractional reabsorption increased while upright. Standing immersed to the neck in water, which prevents the fall in plasma volume upon changing posture from recumbent to upright, prevented the fall in renal lithium clearance as well as the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption while upright. Oral doses of guanethidine (total dose of 200 mg) or oxprenolol (total dose of 140 mg) taken to prevent high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity and plasma renin, respectively, failed to prevent the fall in renal lithium clearance or the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright. The findings indicate that the fall in renal lithium clearance and the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright is related to the fall in plasma volume but not to high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity or plasma renin activity.

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-04-29

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  5. Characterization of Uranium Solids Precipitated with Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    DUFF, MC

    2004-01-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), the High-Level Waste (HLW) Tank Farms store and process high-level liquid radioactive wastes from the Canyons and recycle water from the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The waste is concentrated using evaporators to minimize the volume of space required for HLW storage. Recently, the 2H Evaporator was shutdown due to the crystallization of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) solids (such as cancrinite and sodalite) that contained close to 10 weight percent of elementally-enriched uranium (U). Prior to extensive cleaning,the evaporator deposits resided on the evaporator walls and other exposed internal surfaces within the evaporator pot. Our goal is to support the basis for the continued safe operation of SRS evaporators and to gain more information that could be used to help mitigate U accumulation during evaporator operation. To learn more about the interaction between U(VI) and NAS in HLW salt solutions, we performed several fundamental studies to examine the mechanisms of U accumulation with NAS in highly caustic solutions. This larger group of studies focused on the following processes: co-precipitation/structural incorporation, sorption, and precipitation (with or without NAS), which will be reviewed in this presentation. We will present and discuss local atomic structural characterization data about U that has been co-precipitated with NAS solids (such as amorphous zeolite precursor material and sodalite) using X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopic techniques.

  6. Uranium Sorption on Sodium Aluminosilicates and Gibbsite

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M.C.

    2003-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), the High-Level Waste (HLW) Tank Farms store and process high-level liquid radioactive wastes from the Canyons and recycle water from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The waste is concentrated using evaporators to minimize the volume of space required for HLW storage. After evaporation, the waste concentrate is transferred to one or more receipt storage tanks. Recently, the 2H Evaporator was shutdown due to the crystallization of sodium aluminosilicates (NAS) solids that contained elementally enriched uranium (U) precipitates. The scale deposits resided on the evaporator walls and other exposed internal surfaces within the evaporator pot. Little is known about U interactions with NAS in HLW solutions. Hence, this research was conducted to improve our basic understanding of one possible mechanism for U accumulation in the evaporators and in other SRS process areas. These studies will help support the basis for the continued safe operation of SRS evaporators and provide information on other issues associated with U behavior in the tank farms. For example, the knowledge of such fundamental information could help mitigate U accumulation during evaporator operation and optimize saltcake dissolution.

  7. 77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held November 27-29, 2012,...

  8. 77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held October 9-11, 2012, from...

  9. Electro-optical parameters of bond polarizability model for aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Konstantin S; Bougeard, Daniel; Tandon, Poonam

    2006-04-01

    Electro-optical parameters (EOPs) of bond polarizability model (BPM) for aluminosilicate structures were derived from quantum-chemical DFT calculations of molecular models. The tensor of molecular polarizability and the derivatives of the tensor with respect to the bond length are well reproduced with the BPM, and the EOPs obtained are in a fair agreement with available experimental data. The parameters derived were found to be transferable to larger molecules. This finding suggests that the procedure used can be applied to systems with partially ionic chemical bonds. The transferability of the parameters to periodic systems was tested in molecular dynamics simulation of the polarized Raman spectra of alpha-quartz. It appeared that the molecular Si-O bond EOPs failed to reproduce the intensity of peaks in the spectra. This limitation is due to large values of the longitudinal components of the bond polarizability and its derivative found in the molecular calculations as compared to those obtained from periodic DFT calculations of crystalline silica polymorphs by Umari et al. (Phys. Rev. B 2001, 63, 094305). It is supposed that the electric field of the solid is responsible for the difference of the parameters. Nevertheless, the EOPs obtained can be used as an initial set of parameters for calculations of polarizability related characteristics of relevant systems in the framework of BPM.

  10. Lithium Ceramic Blankets for Russian Fusion Reactors and Influence of Breeding Operation Mode on Parameters of Reactor Tritium Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kapyshev, Victor K.; Chernetsov, Mikhail Yu.; Zhevotov, Sergej I.; Kersnovskij, Alexandr Yu.; Kolbasov, Boris N.; Kovalenko, Victor G.; Paltusov, Nikolaj P.; Sernyaev, Georgeij A.; Sterebkov, Juri S.; Zyryanov, Alexej P.

    2005-07-15

    Russian controlled fusion program supposes development of a DEMO reactor design and participation in ITER Project. A solid breeder blanket of DEMO contains a ceramic lithium orthosilicate breeder and a beryllium multiplier. Test modules of the blanket are developed within the scope of ITER activities. Experimental models of module tritium breeding zones (TBZ), materials and fabrication technology of the TBZ, tritium reactor systems to analyse and process gas released from lithium ceramics are being developed. Two models of tritium breeding and neutron multiplying elements of the TBZ have been designed, manufactured and tested in IVV-2M nuclear reactor. Initial results of the in-pile experiments and outcome of lithium ceramics irradiation in a water-graphite nuclear reactor are considered to be a data base for development of the test modules and initial requirements for DEMO tritium system design. Influence of the tritium release parameters and hydrogen concentration in a purge gas on parameters of reactor system are discussed.

  11. The lithium/air battery: still an emerging system or a practical reality?

    PubMed

    Grande, Lorenzo; Paillard, Elie; Hassoun, Jusef; Park, Jin-Bum; Lee, Yung-Jung; Sun, Yang-Kook; Passerini, Stefano; Scrosati, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Lithium/air is a fascinating energy storage system. The effective exploitation of air as a battery electrode has been the long-time dream of the battery community. Air is, in principle, a no-cost material characterized by a very high specific capacity value. In the particular case of the lithium/air system, energy levels approaching that of gasoline have been postulated. It is then not surprising that, in the course of the last decade, great attention has been devoted to this battery by various top academic and industrial laboratories worldwide. This intense investigation, however, has soon highlighted a series of issues that prevent a rapid development of the Li/air electrochemical system. Although several breakthroughs have been achieved recently, the question on whether this battery will have an effective economic and societal impact remains. In this review, a critical evaluation of the progress achieved so far is made, together with an attempt to propose future R&D trends. A forecast on whether Li/air may have a role in the next years' battery technology is also postulated.

  12. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Terai, T.

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determinemore » operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.« less

  13. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Terai, T.

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determine operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate formation in tank waste simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.; Wang, L.; Bunker, B.C.; Windisch, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    Aluminosilicates are one of the major class of species controlling the volume of radioactive high-level waste that will be produced from future remediation at Hanford site. Here the authors present studies of the phases and structures of aluminosilicates as a function of sludge composition using X-ray powder diffraction, solid state {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si NMR, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the content of NaNO{sub 3} in solution has significant effects on the nature of the insoluble aluminosilicate phases produced. It was found that regardless of the initial Si:Al ratio, nitrate cancrinite was the main phase formed in the solution with pH of 13.5 and 5 M NaNO{sub 3}. However, at lower NaNO{sub 3} concentration with initial Si:Al ratios of 1.1, 2.2, and 11.0 in the solutions, a range of aluminosilicate zeolites was produced with Si:Al ratios of 1.1, 1.3, and 1.5, respectively. Lowering the solution pH appears to promote the formation of amorphous aluminosilicates. The results presented here are important for the prediction of the solubility and dissolution rate of Al in tank wastes.

  15. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Y; Manabe, T; Kajita, S; Ohno, N; Takagi, M; Tsuchiya, H; Morisaki, T

    2014-09-01

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ~4 × 10(19) m(-2) s(-1) when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  16. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y. Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M.; Kajita, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T.

    2014-09-15

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ∼4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} s{sup −1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  17. Power System Electronics Accommodation for a Lithium Ion Battery on the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ST5 mission requirements include validation of Lithium-ion battery in orbit. Accommodation in the power system for Li-ion battery can be reduced with smaller amp-hour size, highly matched cells when compared to the larger amp-hour size approach. Result can be lower system mass and increased reliability.

  18. Lithium control on experimental serpentinization processes: implications for natural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafay, Romain; Janots, Emilie; Montes-Hernandez, German

    2014-05-01

    Fluid mobile elements such as As, B, Li or Sb are of prime importance to trace fluid-rock interactions in the oceanic lithosphere from its hydrothermal alteration at the ocean ridge up to its dehydration in deep subduction. Although the cycle of fluid mobile elements is increasingly studied, their partitioning between fluid and mineral are still poorly know and their role on mechanism and kinetic of serpentinization reaction have been neglected. In the present experimental study supported by two kinds of experiments, we focussed on Li study and highlighted that this element play a substantial role on serpentinization reaction kinetic/mechanism and on serpentine textural properties. Indeed, in presence of 200 µg g-1 of dissolved Li alteration rate is 2-4 time faster with respect to olivine alteration reactions in undoped system (1) at same experimental conditions (alkaline solution, T = 200°C, Psat ~16 bar, olivine grains < 150μm). Moreover, serpentinization reaction mechanism is modified in presence of Li and characterized by a decoupling between olivine dissolution and serpentine precipitation. The control of olivine grain size on Li distribution between serpentinization products and fluid suggests for Li sequestration by an adsorption mechanism. Additionaly, with respect to pure chrysotile sythesis (2) we indicated that Li strongly affect chrysotile sizes and morphology especially by favoring wider particles precipitation and stabilizing lizardite (3). Experimental distribution coefficients obtains in both systems are compatible with measurements made on abyssal serpentinites and hydrothermal fluids. These remarkable results increase our ability for understanding the fate of Li during fluid/olivine interaction and its retroactive effect on serpentinization reactions. At mid ocean ridge this may explain Li heterogeneous distributions and links between chemical and mineralogical observations. Moreover in subduction environments, where fluids released from the

  19. Influence of Surface Treatments and Adhesive Systems on Lithium Disilicate Microshear Bond Strength.

    PubMed

    Garboza, Celso Sebastião; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Fugolin, Ana Paula Piovezan; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Moura, Sandra Kiss; Lopes, Murilo Baena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength of ceramic prosthetic structures reinforced by lithium disilicate cemented with resin cement under conditions of different surface treatments and adhesive systems. Seventy-two rectangular blocks of lithium disilicate (6.5 mm long × 5 mm wide × 1 mm thick) were fabricated, air abraded with 50-μm Al2O3 particles and divided into six groups (n=12) depending on the surface pretreatments. The groups were as follows: 10HF/S/SBM: 10% hydrofluoric acid etched for 20 s (10HF) + silane (S) + Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBM); 10HF/S/SB: 10HF + S + Single Bond Universal (SB); 10HF/SBM; 10HF/SB; S/SBM and S/SB. Two 1-mm-long plastic tubes were placed on the specimens, filled with RelyX ARC resin cement and cured for 20 s per tube. The plastic tube was removed, and the microshear bond strength was tested. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). Fractured specimens were observed under optical microscopy. For both adhesives, the bond strengths (MPa) of groups treated with acid-etching and silane (10HF/S/SB: 24.82, 10HF/S/SBM: 24.90) were higher (p<0.001) than those of groups treated with acid-etching (10HF/SB: 16.47, 10HF/SBM: 19.94) only or only silane (S/SB: 18.42, S/SBM: 13.24). All groups showed a predominance of failure adhesive. The silanization should be a clinical step in cementing ceramic structures reinforced by lithium disilicate, even with the application of universal adhesive that contains silane in its formulation. PMID:27652711

  20. The cost of lithium is unlikely to upend the price of Li-ion storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciez, Rebecca E.; Whitacre, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    As lithium ion batteries become more common in electric vehicles and other storage applications, concerns about the cost of their namesake material, and its impact on the cost of these batteries, will continue. However, examining the constituent materials of these devices shows that lithium is a relatively small contributor to both the battery mass and manufacturing cost. The use of more expensive lithium precursor materials results in less than 1% increases in the cost of lithium ion cells considered. Similarly, larger fluctuations in the global lithium price (from 0 to 25/kg from a baseline of 7.50 per kg of Li2CO3) do not change the cost of lithium ion cells by more than 10%. While this small cost increase will not have a substantial impact on consumers, it could affect the manufacturers of these lithium ion cells, who already operate with small profit margins.

  1. Effect of acute lithium administration on penile erection: involvement of nitric oxide system

    PubMed Central

    Sandoughdaran, Saleh; Sadeghipour, Hamed; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lithium has been the treatment of choice for bipolar disorder (BD) for many years. Although erectile dysfunction is a known adverse effect of this drug, the mechanism of action by which lithium affects erectile function is still unknown. Objective: The aim was to investigate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in modulatory effect of lithium on penile erection (PE). We further evaluated the possible role of Sildenafil in treatment of lithium-induced erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Erectile function was determined using rat model of apomorphine-induced erections. For evaluating the effect of lithium on penile erection, rats received intraperitoneal injection of graded doses of lithium chloride 30 mins before subcutaneous injection of apomorphine. To determine the possible role of NO pathway, sub-effective dose of N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, was administered 15 min before administration of sub-effective dose of lithium chloride. In other separate experimental groups, sub- effective dose of the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, or Sildenafil was injected into the animals 15 min before administration of a potent dose of lithium. 30 min after administration of lithium chloride, animals were assessed in apomorphine test. Serum lithium levels were measured 30 min after administration of effective dose of lithium. Results: Lithium at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased number of PE (p<0.001), whereas at lower doses (5, 10 and 30 mg/kg) had no effect on apomorphine induced PE. The serum Li+ level of rats receiving 50 mg/kg lithium was 1±0.15 mmol/L which is in therapeutic range of lithium. The inhibitory effect of Lithium was blocked by administration of sub-effective dose of nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg) (p<0.001) and sildenafil (3.5 mg/kg) (p<0.001) whereas pretreatment with a low and sub-effective dose of L-NAME (10mg/kg) potentiated sub-effective dose of

  2. Synthesis and characterization of aluminosilicate catalyst impregnated by nickel oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulida, Iffana Dani; Sriatun, Taslimah

    2015-09-01

    Aluminosilicate as a catalyst has been synthesized by pore-engineering using CetylTrimethylAmmonium-Bromide (CTAB) as templating agent. It can produce bigger aluminosilicate pore therefore it will be more suitable for bulky molecule. The aims of this research are to synthesize aluminosilicate supported by Nickel, using CTAB surfactant as templating agent for larger pore radius than natural zeolite and characterize the synthesis product, consist of total acid sites and surface area characteristic. This research has been done with following steps. First, making sodium silicate and sodium aluminate. Second, aluminosilicate was synthesized by direct methods, calcined at 550, 650 and 750°C variation temperature, characterized product by X-RD and FTIR spectrometer. Third, NiCl2 was impregnated to the aluminosilicate that has the best cristallinity and main TO4 functional groups product (550 sample). Variation of NiCl2:aluminosilicate (w/w) ratio were 25%:75%, 50%:50% and 75%:25%. Last but not least characterization of catalytic properties was performed. It comprised total acidity test (gravimetric method) and Surface Area Analyzer. The result shows that the product synthesized by direct method at 550oC calcination temperature has the best cristallinity and main functional groups of TO4. The highest total acid sites was 31.6 mmole/g (Imp-A sample). Surface Area Analyzer shows that Imp-B sample has the best pore distribution and highest total pore volume and specific surface area with value 32.424 cc/g and 46.8287 m2/g respectively. We can draw the conclusion that the most potential catalyst is Imp-A sample compared to Imp-B and Imp-C because it has the highest total acid sites. However the most effective catalyst used for product selectivity was Imp-B sample among all samples.

  3. Evaluation of a solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production operating with ammonia/lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, W.; Moreno-Quintanar, G.; Best, R.; Rivera, C.O.; Martinez, F.

    2011-01-15

    A novel solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production developed in the Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico is presented. The system operates with the ammonia/lithium nitrate mixture. The system developed has a nominal capacity of 8 kg of ice/day. It consists of a cylindrical parabolic collector acting as generator-absorber. Evaporator temperatures as low as -11 C were obtained for several hours with solar coefficients of performance up to 0.08. It was found that the coefficient of performance increases with the increment of solar radiation and the solution concentration. A dependency of the coefficient of performance was not founded against the cooling water temperature. Also it was found that the maximum operating pressure increases meanwhile the generation temperature decreases with an increase of the solution concentration. (author)

  4. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  5. Aluminosilicate and aluminosilicate based polymer composites: Present status, applications and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, A. C.; Martins, P.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.

    2014-08-01

    Aluminosilicates have traditionally been important materials for applications related to adsorbents, water softeners, catalysis and mechanical and thermal reinforcement due to their high surface area, excellent thermal/hydrothermal stability, high shape-selectivity and superior ion-exchange ability. Recently, their use as polymer fillers has allowed to increasingly extending their application range to innovative areas such as medical and biological fields as well as in sensors, filtration membranes, energy storage and novel catalysis routes. Further, the large versatility and tailoring possibilities of both filler and matrix indicates this area as one of the enabling key technologies of the near future. This work summarizes the main developments up to date in this increasingly interesting field, focuses on the main applications already developed as well as on the key challenges for the near future.

  6. Recycling of aluminosilicate waste: Impact onto geopolymer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaidi, N.; Gharzouni, A.; Vidal, L.; Gouny, F.; Joussein, E.; Rossignol, S.

    2015-07-01

    Geopolymers are innovative ecomaterials resulting from the activation of an aluminosilicate source by an alkaline solution. Their properties depend on the used raw materials. This paper focuses on the possibility to obtain geopolymer materials with aluminosilicate laboratory waste. The effect of these additions on the geopolymer properties was studied by FTIR spectroscopy and mechanical test. It was evidenced a slowdown of the polycondensation reaction as well as the compressive strength due to the addition of laboratory waste which decreases the Si/K ratio of mixture.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of zinc on antioxidant defense system in lithium treated rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Punita; Chadha, Vijayta Dani; Dhar, Rakesh; Dhawan, D K

    2007-11-01

    With a view to find out whether zinc affords protection against lithium toxicity the activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation profile were determined in the cerebrum and cerebellum of lithium treated female Sprague Dawley rats. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in both the cerebrum and the cerebellum of animals administered with lithium for a total duration of 4 months as compared to the normal control group. On the contrary, the activities of catalase and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were significantly reduced after 4 months of lithium treatment. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased in the cerebrum after 4 months lithium administration, whereas in the cerebellum the enzyme activity was unaffected. No significant change in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) was found in either cerebrum or cerebellum after 2 months of lithium treatment. However, 4 months lithium treatment did produce significant changes in GSH levels in the cerebrum and in the cerebellum. Zinc supplementation for 4 months in lithium-treated rats significantly increased the activities of catalase and GST in the cerebellum, showing that the treatment with zinc reversed the lithium induced depression in these enzyme activities. Though, zinc treatment tended to normalize the SOD activity in the cerebrum yet it was still significantly higher in comparison to normal levels. From the present study, it can be concluded that the antiperoxidative property of zinc is effective in reversing the oxidative stress induced by lithium toxicity in the rat brain.

  8. The preliminary design of bearings for the control system of a high-temperature lithium-cooled nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yacobucci, H. G.; Waldron, W. D.; Walowit, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The design of bearings for the control system of a fast reactor concept is presented. The bearings are required to operate at temperatures up to 2200 F in one of two fluids, lithium or argon. Basic bearing types are the same regardless of the fluid. Crowned cylindrical journals were selected for radially loaded bearings and modified spherical bearings were selected for bearings under combined thrust and radial loads. Graphite and aluminum oxide are the materials selected for the argon atmosphere bearings while cermet compositions (carbides or nitrides bonded with refractory metals) were selected for the lithium lubricated bearings. Mounting of components is by shrink fit or by axial clamping utilizing differential thermal expansion.

  9. A system for remote dosimetry audit of 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT based on lithium formate dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Adolfsson, Emelie; Gustafsson, Håkan; Lund, Eva; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun; Olsson, Sara; Carlsson Tedgren, Sa

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to develop and test a remote end-to-end audit system using lithium formate EPR dosimeters. Four clinics were included in a pilot study, absorbed doses determined in the PTV agreed with TPS calculated doses within ±5% for 3D-CRT and ±7% (k=1) for IMRT/VMAT dose plans.

  10. Control of a lithium-ion battery storage system for microgrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegueroles-Queralt, Jordi; Bianchi, Fernando D.; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2014-12-01

    The operation of future microgrids will require the use of energy storage systems employing power electronics converters with advanced power management capacities. This paper presents the control scheme for a medium power lithium-ion battery bidirectional DC/AC power converter intended for microgrid applications. The switching devices of a bidirectional DC converter are commanded by a single sliding mode control law, dynamically shaped by a linear voltage regulator in accordance with the battery management system. The sliding mode controller facilitates the implementation and design of the control law and simplifies the stability analysis over the entire operating range. Control parameters of the linear regulator are designed to minimize the impact of commutation noise in the DC-link voltage regulation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by experimental results.

  11. Carbon catalysis of reactions in the lithium SOCl2 and SO2 systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilroy, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    Certain hazards associated with lithium batteries have delayed widespread acceptance of these power sources. The reactivity of ground lithium carbon mixtures was examined. The effect of carbon types on this reactivity was determined. The basic reaction involved mixtures of lithium and carbon with battery electrolyte. The various parameters that influenced this reactivity included: the nature and freshness of the carbon; the freshness, the purity, and the conductive salt of the electrolyte; and the effect of Teflon or moisture.

  12. Lithium overdosage and related tests.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2016-12-01

    Lithium acts biochemically through the inositol depletion in brain cortex. At low doses, however, it is partly effective and/or ineffective, whereas in high concentrations is toxic. We would like to make one point about this review. In fact, in our view, the patient should be given a support to correct hypernatremia and even sodium levels should be tested serially-along with serum lithium concentrations-because high sodium levels reduce the rate of elimination of lithium. Lithium is mainly a neurotoxicant. Lithium-related central nervous system toxicity as well as the cardiovascular and thyroid changes are most likely due to the cations (Na2 (+) and K(+)) competition. PMID:26753697

  13. Modelling studies of water in crystalline nanoporous aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Bougeard, Daniel; Smirnov, Konstantin S

    2007-01-14

    The paper presents a review of molecular modelling studies of hydrated nanoporous aluminosilicates (zeolites and clays) performed during the last decade. A special emphasis is set on the calculation of the dynamical quantities and collective properties of the confined water. Some new results concerning the behaviour of water molecules in the siliceous silicalite and zeolite beta structures are presented.

  14. 27Al-->1H cross-polarization in aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejski, W; Corma, A

    1994-06-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) cross-polarization (CP) from 27Al to 1H was set on kaolinite, verified by a variable-contact time experiment and applied to ultrastable zeolite Y. The technique is useful for the selective NMR observation of AlOH sites in aluminosilicates, especially those from extraframework species in zeolites.

  15. Enhancement of ion mobility in aluminosilicate-polyphosphazene nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, J.C.; Bissessur, R.; Shriver, D.F.

    1997-09-01

    Nanocomposites of poly(bis-(2(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene) (MEEP) or cryptand[2.2.2] with the aluminosilicate Na-montmorillonite (NaMont) were studied to develop new solid electrolytes with high conductivity and a unity cation transport number. An aluminosilicate was chosen because the low basicity of the Si-O-Al framework should minimize ion pairing. To further reduce ion pairing, solvating molecules or polymers such as cryptand[2.2.2] or MEEP were introduced into the aluminosilicate. When compared to pristine Na-montmorillonite, impedance spectroscopy indicates an increase in conductivity of up to 100 for MEEP{center_dot}NaMont intercalates, and of 50 for cryptand[2.2.2]{center_dot}NaMont intercalates. The MEEP{center_dot}NaMont intercalate exhibits high ionic conductivity anisotropy with respect to the montmorillonite layers ({sigma}{sub para.}/{sigma}{sub perp.} = 100), which is consistent with increased tortuosity of the cation diffusion path perpendicular to the structure layers. The temperature dependence of the conductivity suggests that cation transport is coupled to segmental motion of the intercalated polymer, as observed previously for simple polymer-salt complexes. Nanocomposites of solvating polymers or molecules with aluminosilicates provide a promising new direction in solid-state electrolytes.

  16. Thermochemistry of tantalum-wall cooling system with lithium and sodium working fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.

    1972-01-01

    Plots are presented which show the distribution of oxygen between liquid lithium and tantalum or niobium, and between liquid sodium and tantalum at elevated temperatures. Additional plots showing the composition of the gas phase above the solutions of oxygen and alkali metal are presented. The use of the plots is illustrated by an example tantalum heat pipe filled with lithium.

  17. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  18. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE LITHIUM BEAM EDGE PLASMA CURRENT DENSITY DIAGNOSTIC ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    SciTech Connect

    PEAVY,J.J; CARY,W.P; THOMAS,D.M; KELLMAN,D.H; HOYT,D.M; DELAWARE,S.W; PRONKO,S.G.E; HARRIS,T.E

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 An edge plasma current density diagnostic employing a neutralized lithium ion beam system has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. The lithium beam control system is designed around a GE Fanuc 90-30 series PLC and Cimplicity{reg_sign} HMI (Human Machine Interface) software. The control system operates and supervises a collection of commercial and in-house designed high voltage power supplies for beam acceleration and focusing, filament and bias power supplies for ion creation, neutralization, vacuum, triggering, and safety interlocks. This paper provides an overview of the control system, while highlighting innovative aspects including its remote operation, pulsed source heating and pulsed neutralizer heating, optimizing beam regulation, and beam ramping, ending with a discussion of its performance.

  19. Reactor Lithium Heat Pipes for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-01

    Design and performance analysis of the nuclear reactor's lithium heat pipes for a 110-kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The evaporator length of the heat pipes is the same as the active core height (0.45 m) and the C-C finned condenser is of the same length as the STMC panels (1.5 m). The C-C finned condenser section is radiatively coupled to the collector shoes of the STMCs placed on both sides. The lengths of the adiabatic section, the values of the power throughput and the evaporator wall temperature depend on the radial location of the heat pipe in the reactor core and the number and dimensions of the potassium heat pipes in the heat rejection radiator. The reactor heat pipes have a total length that varies from 7.57 to 7.73 m, and a 0.2 mm thick Mo-14%Re wick with an average pore radius of 12 μm. The wick is separated from the Mo-14%Re wall by a 0.5 mm annulus filled with liquid lithium, to raise the prevailing capillary limit. The nominal evaporator (or reactor) temperature varies from 1513 to 1591 K and the thermal power of the reactor is 1.6 MW, which averages 12.7 kW for each of the 126 reactor heat pipes. The power throughput per heat pipe increase to a nominal 15.24 kW at the location of the peak power in the core and to 20.31 kW when an adjacent heat pipe fails. The prevailing capillary limit of the reactor heat pipes is 28.3 kW, providing a design margin >= 28%.

  20. Reactor Lithium Heat Pipes for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-04

    Design and performance analysis of the nuclear reactor's lithium heat pipes for a 110-kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The evaporator length of the heat pipes is the same as the active core height (0.45 m) and the C-C finned condenser is of the same length as the STMC panels (1.5 m). The C-C finned condenser section is radiatively coupled to the collector shoes of the STMCs placed on both sides. The lengths of the adiabatic section, the values of the power throughput and the evaporator wall temperature depend on the radial location of the heat pipe in the reactor core and the number and dimensions of the potassium heat pipes in the heat rejection radiator. The reactor heat pipes have a total length that varies from 7.57 to 7.73 m, and a 0.2 mm thick Mo-14%Re wick with an average pore radius of 12 {mu}m. The wick is separated from the Mo-14%Re wall by a 0.5 mm annulus filled with liquid lithium, to raise the prevailing capillary limit. The nominal evaporator (or reactor) temperature varies from 1513 to 1591 K and the thermal power of the reactor is 1.6 MW, which averages 12.7 kW for each of the 126 reactor heat pipes. The power throughput per heat pipe increase to a nominal 15.24 kW at the location of the peak power in the core and to 20.31 kW when an adjacent heat pipe fails. The prevailing capillary limit of the reactor heat pipes is 28.3 kW, providing a design margin {>=} 28%.

  1. Universality of NMR Results in LISICON Systems and Other Solid Lithium Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertermann, R.; Müller-Warmuth, W.

    1998-11-01

    The temperature evolution of the 7Li NMR spectra and relaxation rates in many investigated solid lithium conductors shows more or less the same behavior. These compounds are characterized by a disordered lithium sublattice with a surplus of cation sites in cavities and channels of the anionic network. At low temperature, the spectra consist of a central line and a distributed satellite base structure. Upon increasing temperature, both components narrow until a reduced constant width with a well resolved quadrupole structure is reached. The mean nuclear quadrupole coupling parameters reduce by either about 5 or by a factor of 15 in all the compounds. The spin-lattice relaxation rates 1/T1 are asymmetric as a function of reciprocal temperature and of quadrupolar origin. The activation energy of the main process of ionic motion may best be obtained from the temperature dependence of the dipolar spin-spin-relaxation rate 1/T2 . The spectral densities of the relaxation dependences correspond to those for inhomogeneous motions; they may be described by modification of the BPP equation, a Cole-Davidson distribution or a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function. Within this study three LISICON systems, Li4-3x Gax GeO4 , and two phosphates Li3M2 (PO4)3 (M = Sc, In) were investigated or re-investigated which fit well into this scheme. Activation energies of 39-43 kJ/mol (Li4-3x Gax GeO4 with x = 0.06,0.14, 0.24), 53 kJ/mol (Li 3 Sc 2 (PO4)3) and 75 kJ/mol (Li3 In2 (PO4)3) were obtained.

  2. Development of a New Ferrous Aluminosilicate Refractory Material for Investment Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chen; Jones, Sam; Blackburn, Stuart

    2012-12-01

    Investment casting is a time-consuming, labour intensive process, which produces complex, high value-added components for a variety of specialised industries. Current environmental and economic pressures have resulted in a need for the industry to improve current casting quality, reduce manufacturing costs and explore new markets for the process. Alumino-silicate based refractories are commonly used as both filler and stucco materials for ceramic shell production. A new ceramic material, norite, is now being produced based on ferrous aluminosilicate chemistry, having many potential advantages when used for the production of shell molds for casting aluminum alloy. This paper details the results of a direct comparison made between the properties of a ceramic shell system produced with norite refractories and a typical standard refractory shell system commonly used in casting industry. A range of mechanical and physical properties of the systems was measured, and a full-scale industrial casting trial was also carried out. The unique properties of the norite shell system make it a promising alternative for casting aluminum based alloys in the investment foundry.

  3. Contribution of aluminas and aluminosilicates to the formation of PCDD/Fs on fly ashes.

    PubMed

    Potter, Phillip M; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M

    2016-02-01

    Chlorinated aromatics undergo surface-mediated reactions with metal oxides to form Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) which can further react to produce polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Previous work using laboratory-made fly ash surrogates composed of transition metal oxides deposited on silica powder has confirmed their ability to mimic fly ash in the production of PCDD/Fs. However, little is known about the propensity of aluminas and aluminosilicates, other components of fly ash, to form PCDD/Fs. A fly ash sample containing both alumina and mullite, an aluminosilicate, was tested for PCDD/F formation ability and compared to PCDD/F yields from the thermal degradation of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP) precursor over γ-alumina, α-alumina, and mullite. A packed-bed flow reactor was used to investigate the thermal degradation of 2-MCP over the various catalysts at 200-600 °C. Fly ash gave similar PCDD/F yields to surrogates made with similar transition metal content. γ-alumina, which is thermodynamically unfavorable, was very catalytically active and gave low PCDD/F yields despite a high destruction of 2-MCP. Mullite and α-alumina, the thermodynamically favorable form of alumina, yielded higher concentrations of dioxins and products with a higher degree of chlorine substitution than γ-alumina. The data suggest that certain aluminas and aluminosilicates, commonly found in fly ash, are active catalytic surfaces in the formation of PCDD/Fs in the post-flame cool zones of combustion systems and should be considered as additional catalytic surfaces active in the process. PMID:26615490

  4. Efficient adsorbents of nanoporous aluminosilicate monoliths for organic dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Shahat, Ahmed; Awual, Md Rabiul

    2011-07-01

    Growing public awareness on the potential risk to humans of toxic chemicals in the environment has generated demand for new and improved methods for toxicity assessment and removal, rational means for health risk estimation. With the aim of controlling nanoscale adsorbents for functionality in molecular sieving of organic pollutants, we fabricated cubic Im3m mesocages with uniform entrance and large cavity pores of aluminosilicates as highly promising candidates for the colorimetric monitoring of organic dyes in an aqueous solution. However, a feasible control over engineering of three-dimensional (3D) mesopore cage structures with uniform entrance (~5 nm) and large cavity (~10 nm) allowed the development of nanoadsorbent membranes as a powerful tool for large-quantity and high-speed (in minutes) adsorption/removal of bulk molecules such as organic dyes. Incorporation of high aluminum contents (Si/Al=1) into 3D cubic Im3m cage mesoporous silica monoliths resulted in small, easy-to-use optical adsorbent strips. In such adsorption systems, natural surfaces of active acid sites of aluminosilicate strips strongly induced both physical adsorption of chemically responsive dyes and intraparticle diffusion into cubic Im3m mesocage monoliths. Results likewise indicated that although aluminosilicate strips with low Si/Al ratios exhibit distortion in pore ordering and decrease in surface area and pore volume, enhancement of both molecular converges and intraparticle diffusion onto the network surfaces and into the pore architectures of adsorbent membranes was achieved. Moreover, 3D mesopore cage adsorbents are reversible, offering potential for multiple adsorption assays.

  5. Contribution of aluminas and aluminosilicates to the formation of PCDD/Fs on fly ashes.

    PubMed

    Potter, Phillip M; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M

    2016-02-01

    Chlorinated aromatics undergo surface-mediated reactions with metal oxides to form Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) which can further react to produce polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Previous work using laboratory-made fly ash surrogates composed of transition metal oxides deposited on silica powder has confirmed their ability to mimic fly ash in the production of PCDD/Fs. However, little is known about the propensity of aluminas and aluminosilicates, other components of fly ash, to form PCDD/Fs. A fly ash sample containing both alumina and mullite, an aluminosilicate, was tested for PCDD/F formation ability and compared to PCDD/F yields from the thermal degradation of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP) precursor over γ-alumina, α-alumina, and mullite. A packed-bed flow reactor was used to investigate the thermal degradation of 2-MCP over the various catalysts at 200-600 °C. Fly ash gave similar PCDD/F yields to surrogates made with similar transition metal content. γ-alumina, which is thermodynamically unfavorable, was very catalytically active and gave low PCDD/F yields despite a high destruction of 2-MCP. Mullite and α-alumina, the thermodynamically favorable form of alumina, yielded higher concentrations of dioxins and products with a higher degree of chlorine substitution than γ-alumina. The data suggest that certain aluminas and aluminosilicates, commonly found in fly ash, are active catalytic surfaces in the formation of PCDD/Fs in the post-flame cool zones of combustion systems and should be considered as additional catalytic surfaces active in the process.

  6. 29Si NMR study of structural ordering in aluminosilicate geopolymer gels.

    PubMed

    Duxson, Peter; Provis, John L; Lukey, Grant C; Separovic, Frances; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2005-03-29

    A systematic series of aluminosilicate geopolymer gels was synthesized and then analyzed using 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) in combination with Gaussian peak deconvolution to characterize the short-range ordering in terms of T-O-T bonds (where T is Al or Si). The effect of nominal Na2O/(Na2O + K2O) and Si/Al ratios on short-range network ordering was quantified by deconvolution of the 29Si MAS NMR spectra into individual Gaussian peaks representing different Q4(mAl) silicon centers. The deconvolution procedure developed in this work is applicable to other aluminosilicate gel systems. The short-range ordering observed here indicates that Loewenstein's Rule of perfect aluminum avoidance may not apply strictly to geopolymeric gels, although further analyses are required to quantify the degree of aluminum avoidance. Potassium geopolymers appeared to exhibit a more random Si/Al distribution compared to that of mixed-alkali and sodium systems. This work provides a quantitative account of the silicon and aluminum ordering in geopolymers, which is essential for extending our understanding of the mechanical strength, chemical and thermal stability, and fundamental structure of these systems.

  7. Computational Raman spectroscopy of organometallic reaction products in lithium and sodium-based battery systems.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carrera, Roel S; Kozinsky, Boris

    2014-11-28

    A common approach to understanding surface reaction mechanisms in rechargeable lithium-based battery systems involves spectroscopic characterization of the product mixtures and matching of spectroscopic features to spectra of pure candidate reference compounds. This strategy, however, requires separate chemical synthesis and accurate characterization of potential reference compounds. It also assumes that atomic structures are the same in the actual product mixture as in the reference samples. We propose an alternative approach that uses first-principles computations of spectra of the possible reaction products and by-products present in advanced battery systems. We construct a library of computed Raman spectra for possible products, achieving excellent agreement with reference experimental data, targeting solid-electrolyte interphase in Li-ion cells and discharge products of Li-air cells. However, the solid-state crystalline structure of Li(Na) metal-organic compounds is often not known, making the spectra computations difficult. We develop and apply a novel technique of simplifying spectra calculations by using dimer-like representations of the solid state structures. On the basis of a systematic investigation, we demonstrate that molecular dimers of Li(Na)-based organometallic material provide relevant information about the vibrational properties of many possible solid reaction products. Such an approach should serve as a basis to extend existing spectral libraries of molecular structures relevant for understanding the link between atomic structures and measured spectroscopic data of materials in novel battery systems.

  8. Transformation of Aluminosilicate Wet Gel to Solid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkó, Katalin; Pöppl, László

    2002-04-01

    Optically clear, homogeneous, monolithic aluminosilicate gels were prepared directly from solutions of inorganic aluminum salt, tetraethoxysilane, and alcohol. The dried aluminosilicate gels show new special properties, e.g. piezoelectricity and variable porosity (1-2000 m 2/g) due to the fractal-like gel structure. Ceramic products, which keep the chemical bonds and structure of the gels, were produced by heat treatment at 300-350°C. The processes that occurred during heat treatment were investigated by thermal analysis and mass spectrometry. The temperature limits of the gel state were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and small angle X-ray scattering. The collapse of the gel structure began around 350°C; however, the amorphous character remained until the temperature (ca. 970°C) of the phase transmission.

  9. Aluminosilicates and senile plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Candy, J M; Oakley, A E; Klinowski, J; Carpenter, T A; Perry, R H; Atack, J R; Perry, E K; Blessed, G; Fairbairn, A; Edwardson, J A

    1986-02-15

    Aluminium and silicon were found to be colocalised in the central region of senile plaque cores in studies with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The distribution of these elements was similar in cores isolated from the cerebral cortex of patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type and in cores studied in situ from tissue sections from the cerebral cortex of presenile and senile patients with Alzheimer's disease, and elderly, mentally normal patients. High-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques showed aluminium and silicon to be present as aluminosilicates. The presence of aluminosilicates at the centre of senile plaque cores contrasts with the distribution of other inorganic constituents and suggests that they may be involved in the initiation or early stages of senile plaque formation.

  10. Mesoporous aluminosilicate ropes with improved stability from protozeolitic nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Junlin; Kong, Dejin; Yang, Weimin; Xie, Zaiku; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan

    2007-02-01

    Mesoporous aluminosilicate ropes with improved hydrothermal stability have been prepared through S +X -I + route via self-assembly of protozeolitic nanoclusters with cetyltrimethylammonium bromides (CTAB) template micelles in HNO 3 solution. SEM observation confirmed that high-yield aluminosilicate ropes could be produced under proper HNO 3 concentration. NO 3- ions had strong binding strength to the CTA + ions and tended to form more elongated surfactant micelles, thus fibrous products were fabricated under the direction of these long rod micelles in shearing flow. At the same time, the NO 3- ions combining with CTA + ions generated more active (CTA +NO 3-) assembly, which effectively catalysed the polymerization of protozeolitic nanoclusters with large volume into highly ordered mesostructures. Compared with normal MCM-41 silica synthesized through S +X -I + route in acidic media, the hydrothermal stability was improved considerably. These protozeolitic nanoclusters survived strongly acidic media and entered into mesostructured framework, which contributed to the improvement of hydrothermal stability.

  11. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H.

    1999-12-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  12. Hard x-ray nanotomography of amorphous aluminosilicate cements.

    SciTech Connect

    Provis, J. L.; Rose, V.; Winarski, R. P.; van Deventer, J. S. J.

    2011-08-01

    Nanotomographic reconstruction of a sample of low-CO{sub 2} 'geopolymer' cement provides the first three-dimensional view of the pore structure of the aluminosilicate geopolymer gel, as well as evidence for direct binding of geopolymer gel onto unreacted fly ash precursor particles. This is central to understanding and optimizing the durability of concretes made using this new class of binder, and demonstrates the value of nanotomography in providing a three-dimensional view of nanoporous inorganic materials.

  13. Mesoporous aluminosilicate ropes with improved stability from protozeolitic nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Junlin; Kong Dejin; Yang Weimin; Xie Zaiku; Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan

    2007-02-15

    Mesoporous aluminosilicate ropes with improved hydrothermal stability have been prepared through S{sup +}X{sup -}I{sup +} route via self-assembly of protozeolitic nanoclusters with cetyltrimethylammonium bromides (CTAB) template micelles in HNO{sub 3} solution. SEM observation confirmed that high-yield aluminosilicate ropes could be produced under proper HNO{sub 3} concentration. NO{sub 3} {sup -} ions had strong binding strength to the CTA{sup +} ions and tended to form more elongated surfactant micelles, thus fibrous products were fabricated under the direction of these long rod micelles in shearing flow. At the same time, the NO{sub 3} {sup -} ions combining with CTA{sup +} ions generated more active (CTA{sup +}NO{sub 3} {sup -}) assembly, which effectively catalysed the polymerization of protozeolitic nanoclusters with large volume into highly ordered mesostructures. Compared with normal MCM-41 silica synthesized through S{sup +}X{sup -}I{sup +} route in acidic media, the hydrothermal stability was improved considerably. These protozeolitic nanoclusters survived strongly acidic media and entered into mesostructured framework, which contributed to the improvement of hydrothermal stability. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous aluminosilicate ropes with enhanced hydrothermal stability were fabricated from protozeolitic nanoclusters through S{sup +}X{sup -}I{sup +} route in HNO{sub 3} solution under the direction of CTAB templates.

  14. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium wallsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Widmann, K.; Tritz, K.

    2015-05-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  15. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  16. Measuring flow and pressure of lithium coolant under developmental testing of a high-temperature cooling system of a space nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. Ya.; Sinyavsky, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-megawatt space NPP use lithium as a coolant and niobium alloy as a structural material. In order to refine the lithium-niobium technology of the material and design engineering, lithium-niobium loops were worked out in RSC Energia, and they were tested at a working temperature of lithium equal to 1070-1300 K. In order to measure the lithium flow and pressure, special gauges were developed, which made possible the calibration and checkout of the loops without their dismantling. The paper describes the architecture of the electromagnetic flowmeter and the electromagnetic vibrating-wire pressure transducer (gauge) for lithium coolant in the nuclear power plant cooling systems. The operating principles of these meters are presented. Flowmeters have been developed for channel diameters ranging from 10 to 100 mm, which are capable of measuring lithium flows in the range of 0.1 to 30 L/s with the error of 3% for design calibration and 1% for volume graduation. The temperature error of the pressure transducers does not exceed 0.4% per 100 K; the nonlinearity and hysteresis of the calibration curve do not exceed 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. The transducer applications are illustrated by the examples of results obtained from tests on the NPP module mockup and heat pipes of a radiation cooler.

  17. Novel thermal management system design methodology for power lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Nerea; Díaz, Luis; Gastelurrutia, Jon; Blanco, Francisco; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    Battery packs conformed by large format lithium-ion cells are increasingly being adopted in hybrid and pure electric vehicles in order to use the energy more efficiently and for a better environmental performance. Safety and cycle life are two of the main concerns regarding this technology, which are closely related to the cell's operating behavior and temperature asymmetries in the system. Therefore, the temperature of the cells in battery packs needs to be controlled by thermal management systems (TMSs). In the present paper an improved design methodology for developing TMSs is proposed. This methodology involves the development of different mathematical models for heat generation, transmission, and dissipation and their coupling and integration in the battery pack product design methodology in order to improve the overall safety and performance. The methodology is validated by comparing simulation results with laboratory measurements on a single module of the battery pack designed at IK4-IKERLAN for a traction application. The maximum difference between model predictions and experimental temperature data is 2 °C. The models developed have shown potential for use in battery thermal management studies for EV/HEV applications since they allow for scalability with accuracy and reasonable simulation time.

  18. Lithium phthalocyanine: a probe for electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry in viable biological systems.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, K J; Gast, P; Moussavi, M; Norby, S W; Vahidi, N; Walczak, T; Wu, M; Swartz, H M

    1993-01-01

    Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) is a prototype of another generation of synthetic, metallic-organic, paramagnetic crystallites that appear very useful for in vitro and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. The peak-to-peak line width of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of LiPc is a linear function of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2); this linear relation is independent of the medium surrounding the LiPc. It has an extremely exchange-narrowed spectrum (peak-to-peak line width = 14 mG in the absence of O2). Physicochemically LiPc is very stable; its response to pO2 does not change with conditions and environments (e.g., pH, temperature, redox conditions) likely to occur in viable biological systems. These characteristics provide the sensitivity, accuracy, and range to measure physiologically and pathologically pertinent O2 tensions (0.1-50 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa). The application of LiPc in biological systems is demonstrated in measurements of pO2 in vivo in the heart, brain, and kidney of rats. PMID:8390665

  19. Neuroprotective action of lithium in disorders of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chi-Tso; Chuang, De-Maw

    2011-06-01

    Substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence of neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of lithium suggests that it may also have considerable potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. Lithium's main mechanisms of action appear to stem from its ability to inhibit glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity and also to induce signaling mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This in turn alters a wide variety of downstream effectors, with the ultimate effect of enhancing pathways to cell survival. In addition, lithium contributes to calcium homeostasis. By inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium influx, for instance, it suppresses the calcium-dependent activation of pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. By inhibiting the activity of phosphoinositol phosphatases, it decreases levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, a process recently identified as a novel mechanism for inducing autophagy. These mechanisms allow therapeutic doses of lithium to protect neuronal cells from diverse insults that would otherwise lead to massive cell death. Lithium, moreover, has been shown to improve behavioral and cognitive deficits in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, and Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. Since lithium is already FDA-approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder, our conclusions support the notion that its clinical relevance can be expanded to include the treatment of several neurological and neurodegenerative-related diseases.

  20. Neuroprotective action of lithium in disorders of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    CHIU, Chi-Tso; CHUANG, De-Maw

    2011-01-01

    Substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence of neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of lithium suggests that it may also have considerable potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. Lithium's main mechanisms of action appear to stem from its ability to inhibit glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity and also to induce signaling mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This in turn alters a wide variety of downstream efectors, with the ultimate effect of enhancing pathways to cell survival. In addition, lithium contributes to calcium homeostasis. By inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium influx, for instance, it suppresses the calcium-dependent activation of pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. By inhibiting the activity of phosphoinositol phosphatases, it decreases levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, a process recently identified as a novel mechanism for inducing autophagy. These mechanisms alow therapeutic doses of lithium to protect neuronal cells from diverse insults that would otherwise lead to massive cell death. Lithium, moreover, has been shown to improve behavioral and cognitive deficits in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, and Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. Since lithium is already FDA-approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder, our conclusions support the notion that its clinical relevance can be expanded to include the treatment of several neurological and neurodegenerative-related diseases. PMID:21743136

  1. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  2. Relationship between texture and acidic properties of aluminosilicates and the conditions of their preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Grzechowiak, E.R.; Masalska, A.

    1986-04-01

    A study has been made of the method of pH adjustment in the precipitation of hydrogel in relation to its influence on the texture and acidic properties of alumino-silicates. It has been established that large-pore aluminosilicates can be obtained from neutral solutions. X-ray diffraction analysis of aluminosilicates has shown that the method of pH adjustment also affects their phase composition.

  3. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  4. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Capasso, Ilaria; Caputo, Domenico; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a "meringue" type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (˜500 Kg/m3) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the "meringue" approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  5. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino; Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a “meringue” type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (∼500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the “meringue” approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  6. The effects of surface modification on the speciation of metal ions intercalated into aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, S.R.; Giaquinta, D.M.; Yuchs, S.E.; Soderholm, L.

    1996-12-31

    Microporous aluminosilicates, including clay minerals and zeolites, are ion-exchange materials. In their most common forms, they have the ability to incorporate cationic species within their matrices. Because of this property, microporous aluminosilicates have been proposed as storage media for hazardous waste. In this paper the authors use X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to examine the structure of cations held within smectite clay minerals and to determine how modification of the surface of the clay using an organic monolayer affects the coordination of the stored cation. The effects of hydrothermal and thermal processing on the coordination of the ions contained within these systems are also investigated. The presence of the monolayer changes the surface of the clay from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. It inhibits the interlayer ions from exchanging freely into environmental water and reduces the leach rate of cations out of the clay by approximately a factor of 20. Significant changes are observed when these coated samples are treated under hydrothermal and thermal conditions. Reductions of uranium (VI), in the form of uranyl, and cupric ions occur. In addition, the uranium aggregates, forming small particles that appear similar to UO{sub 2}. Comparable conglomeration occurs with lead cations and with the reduced copper species.

  7. Effect of temperature and aluminium on calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate chemistry under equilibrium conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Rupert J.; L'Hôpital, Emilie; Provis, John L.; Lothenbach, Barbara

    2015-02-15

    There exists limited information regarding the effect of temperature on the structure and solubility of calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H). Here, calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C–(A–)S–H) is synthesised at Ca/Si = 1, Al/Si ≤ 0.15 and equilibrated at 7–80 °C. These systems increase in phase-purity, long-range order, and degree of polymerisation of C–(A–)S–H chains at higher temperatures; the most highly polymerised, crystalline and cross-linked C–(A–)S–H product is formed at Al/Si = 0.1 and 80 °C. Solubility products for C–(A–)S–H were calculated via determination of the solid-phase compositions and measurements of the concentrations of dissolved species in contact with the solid products, and show that the solubilities of C–(A–)S–H change slightly, within the experimental uncertainty, as a function of Al/Si ratio and temperature between 7 °C and 80 °C. These results are important in the development of thermodynamic models for C–(A–)S–H to enable accurate thermodynamic modelling of cement-based materials.

  8. Analysis of heat generation of lithium ion rechargeable batteries used in implantable battery systems for driving undulation pump ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Akasaka, Yuhta; Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yusuke; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Mochizuki, Shuichi; Imachi, Kou; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2007-07-01

    We have developed internal battery systems for driving an undulation pump ventricular assist device using two kinds of lithium ion rechargeable batteries. The lithium ion rechargeable batteries have high energy density, long life, and no memory effect; however, rise in temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable battery is a critical issue. Evaluation of temperature rise by means of numerical estimation is required to develop an internal battery system. Temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable batteries is determined by ohmic loss due to internal resistance, chemical loss due to chemical reaction, and heat release. Measurement results of internal resistance (R(cell)) at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C were 0.1 Omega in the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery and 0.03 Omega in the lithium polymer (Li-po) battery. Entropy change (DeltaS) of each battery, which leads to chemical loss, was -1.6 to -61.1 J/(mol.K) in the Li-ion battery and -9.6 to -67.5 J/(mol.K) in the Li-po battery depending on state of charge (SOC). Temperature of each lithium ion rechargeable battery under a discharge current of 1 A was estimated by finite element method heat transfer analysis at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C configuring with measured R(cell) and measured DeltaS in each SOC. Results of estimation of time-course change in the surface temperature of each battery coincided with results of measurement results, and the success of the estimation will greatly contribute to the development of an internal battery system using lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

  9. Implications of Chloride, Boron, and Lithium in Hydrothermal Systems of Jamaica, WI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, D.

    2012-12-01

    Chloride (Cl) often termed a "relatively conservative element" served as a very useful tracer (pathfinder element) in fluids from hydrothermal systems by comparing its concentration to those of select ions in solution. The concentrations of major ions of three thermal spring water samples: Bath hot springs (BTHS and BTHN), Milk River (MKR), Windsor (WS) and a cold spring water sample-Salt River spring (SR) of Jamaica were plotted against the Cl concentration. Results of chemical analyses, graphical analyses, and hydrogeochemical modeling confirmed three water types: Na-Cl-SO4, Na-Cl, and Ca-Na-Cl. Whereas chloride concentrations at MKR, WS and SR strongly indicate the influence of sea water mixing, the concentrations at MKR and SR are spatially related to a major tectonic feature, the South Coast Fault Zone (SCFZ). A principal component analysis (PCA) performed for the water samples showed a direct correlation between the concentrations of chloride and other conservative elements: boron (B), lithium (Li), bromide (Br), strontium (Sr), arsenic (As), and cesium (Cs). Isotope results (δ18O, δ2H, 3H) of the water samples implied minimal shallow mixing with deep circulating thermal fluids at the Bath site and the predominance of mixing with deep-circulating brines at the WS, MKR, and SR sites. Ionic ratios (Cl/B, Br/Cl, Li/B, have provided further interesting results for these hydrothermal systems including (1) a power series relationship between Li/B and SO4/Cl ratios; (2) the variation of B/Li versus Cl/SO4 concentrations with relatively prolonged water-rock contact time for these waters occurring at depth; and (3) low enthalpy. A discriminant analysis (DA) aided in the delineation of three independent hydrothermal systems based on processes affecting the chemical compositions of the water samples. Calculated chloride convective heat fluxes range between compared to the boron flux range of 3.41 x 104 - 1.63 x 106 Calories/second.

  10. A theoretical study of a carbon lattice system for lithium intercalated carbon anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, L.G.; Storch, D.M.; Newton, J.H.; Sandi, G.

    1997-09-01

    A theoretical study was performed using computational chemistry to describe the intermolecular forces between graphite layers as well as spacing and conformation. It was found that electron correlation and a diffuse basis set were important for this calculation. In addition, the high reactivity of edge sites in lithium intercalated carbon anodes was also investigated. In this case, the reactive sites appear to strongly correlate with the relative distribution of the total atomic spin densities as well as total atomic charges. The spacing of graphite layers and lithium ion separation within an {open_quotes}approximated{close_quotes} lithium intercalated carbon anode was also investigated. The spacing of the carbon layers used in this investigation agrees most closely for that found in disordered carbon lattices.

  11. Primary lithium batteries, some consumer considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bro, P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether larger size lithium batteries would be commercially marketable, the performance of several D size lithium batteries was compared with that of an equivalent alkaline manganese battery, and the relative costs of the different systems were compared. It is concluded that opportunities exist in the consumer market for the larger sizes of the low rate and moderate rate lithium batteries, and that the high rate lithium batteries need further improvements before they can be recommended for consumer applications.

  12. Phase evolution of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O gels in synthetic aluminosilicate binders.

    PubMed

    Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Sani, Marc-Antoine; Gehman, John D; van Deventer, Jannie S J; Provis, John L

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrates the production of stoichiometrically controlled alkali-aluminosilicate gels ('geopolymers') via alkali-activation of high-purity synthetic amorphous aluminosilicate powders. This method provides for the first time a process by which the chemistry of aluminosilicate-based cementitious materials may be accurately simulated by pure synthetic systems, allowing elucidation of physicochemical phenomena controlling alkali-aluminosilicate gel formation which has until now been impeded by the inability to isolate and control key variables. Phase evolution and nanostructural development of these materials are examined using advanced characterisation techniques, including solid state MAS NMR spectroscopy probing (29)Si, (27)Al and (23)Na nuclei. Gel stoichiometry and the reaction kinetics which control phase evolution are shown to be strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the reaction mix, while the main reaction product is a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O type gel comprised of aluminium and silicon tetrahedra linked via oxygen bridges, with sodium taking on a charge balancing function. The alkali-aluminosilicate gels produced in this study constitute a chemically simplified model system which provides a novel research tool for the study of phase evolution and microstructural development in these systems. Novel insight of physicochemical phenomena governing geopolymer gel formation suggests that intricate control over time-dependent geopolymer physical properties can be attained through a careful precursor mix design. Chemical composition of the main N-A-S-H type gel reaction product as well as the reaction kinetics governing its formation are closely related to the Si/Al ratio of the precursor, with increased Al content leading to an increased rate of reaction and a decreased Si/Al ratio in the N-A-S-H type gel. This has significant implications for geopolymer mix design for industrial applications. PMID:26911317

  13. Phase evolution of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O gels in synthetic aluminosilicate binders.

    PubMed

    Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Sani, Marc-Antoine; Gehman, John D; van Deventer, Jannie S J; Provis, John L

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrates the production of stoichiometrically controlled alkali-aluminosilicate gels ('geopolymers') via alkali-activation of high-purity synthetic amorphous aluminosilicate powders. This method provides for the first time a process by which the chemistry of aluminosilicate-based cementitious materials may be accurately simulated by pure synthetic systems, allowing elucidation of physicochemical phenomena controlling alkali-aluminosilicate gel formation which has until now been impeded by the inability to isolate and control key variables. Phase evolution and nanostructural development of these materials are examined using advanced characterisation techniques, including solid state MAS NMR spectroscopy probing (29)Si, (27)Al and (23)Na nuclei. Gel stoichiometry and the reaction kinetics which control phase evolution are shown to be strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the reaction mix, while the main reaction product is a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O type gel comprised of aluminium and silicon tetrahedra linked via oxygen bridges, with sodium taking on a charge balancing function. The alkali-aluminosilicate gels produced in this study constitute a chemically simplified model system which provides a novel research tool for the study of phase evolution and microstructural development in these systems. Novel insight of physicochemical phenomena governing geopolymer gel formation suggests that intricate control over time-dependent geopolymer physical properties can be attained through a careful precursor mix design. Chemical composition of the main N-A-S-H type gel reaction product as well as the reaction kinetics governing its formation are closely related to the Si/Al ratio of the precursor, with increased Al content leading to an increased rate of reaction and a decreased Si/Al ratio in the N-A-S-H type gel. This has significant implications for geopolymer mix design for industrial applications.

  14. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  15. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  16. Characterisation of frequency doubling in Eu(2+) doped aluminosilicate fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, T. J.; Lawandy, N. M.; Killian, A.; Rienhart, L.; Morse, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments on efficient second-harmonic generation in a fiber with a Eu(2+)-doped aluminosilicate core are reported. The fiber was prepared by the seeding method with CW mode-locked radiation at 1.06 micron and produced ultrastable peak conversion efficiencies of 0.001 during mode-locked readout. Experiments were performed to determine the IR preparation intensity dependence, the stability of the output, and the type of erasure mechanisms which occur. The results are compared with those of germanosilicate fibers and some similarities and differences are discussed.

  17. Relation of the acidity of amorphous aluminosilicates with their activity and selectivity in isomerization of xylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Zadymov, V.V.; Lupina, M.I.; Kaliko, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Conversion of m-xylene on amorphous aluminosilicates is determined by overall surface acidity. The formation of acid centres with pK a greater than or equal toapprox. =-10 as a result of heat-steam treatment of aluminosilicates and a reduction in the number of strong centres increases selectivity in isomerization of m-xylene.

  18. Accelerating rate calorimetry: A new technique for safety studies in lithium systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    The role of exothermic reactions in battery test modes is discussed. The exothermic reactions are characterized with respect to their time-temperature and time-pressure behavior. Reactions occuring for any major exotherm were examined. The accelerating rate calorimetry methods was developed to study lithium cells susceptibility to thermal runaway reactions following certain abuse modes such as forced discharge into reversal and charging.

  19. Design and analysis of the lithium target system for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, T.; Smith, D.; Hassanein, A.; Gomes, I.

    1995-09-01

    Three lithium target design options are being evaluated for the IFMIF. The impact of various requirements on material selection, lifetime, operation and maintenance are discussed. Analysis for the free jet option is presented. Key aspects include jet stability, thermal and nuclear responses.

  20. Phthalocyanine cathode materials for secondary lithium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, J.; Yamaji, A.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge and charge characteristics of various phthalocyanine cathodes coupled with lithium metal are studied. The best capacity based only on cathode active material weight is 1440 A-hr/kg in the lithium/iron phthalocyanine system, and the cycle life of the lithium/Cu phthalocyanine system is more than 100 times at the discharge depth of 157 A-hr/kg. The cathode reaction mechanism is supposed to be lithium intercalation between phthalocyanine molecules. The results indicate that these phthalocyanines are promising cathode active materials for lithium secondary batteries.

  1. Alumino-silicate ion sources for accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, A.I.

    1985-04-01

    As part of the program of Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, ion sources have been developed using thermionic emitters of singly charged alkali metal ions. These emitters are flat surfaces of alumino-silicate, loaded with the appropriate ion. They have become convenient and reliable sources producing pulsed beams of very low emittance. Thermionic emission of ions from alumino-silicates has been known for a very long time. Here the author focuses on the practical application as accelerator ion sources. The author discusses the fabrication and heating of large area emitters, uniformity of emission and the maximum ion current density which can be extracted under space charge limited conditions, with zero electric field on the emitter surface. Results are presented for Na, K and Cs ions showing maximum space charge limited current densities of 25, 40 and 120 mAcm/sup -2/ respectively. In the case of cesium the author has produced a 5 mA beam at a kinetic energy of 200 keV with normalized emittance 1.2 x 10/sup -7/ ..pi.. m rad.

  2. Effective Sequestration of Clostridium difficile Protein Toxins by Calcium Aluminosilicate.

    PubMed

    Sturino, Joseph M; Pokusaeva, Karina; Carpenter, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the etiologic agent responsible for C. difficile infection. Toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) are nearly indispensable virulence factors for Clostridium difficile pathogenesis. Given the toxin-centric mechanism by which C. difficile pathogenesis occurs, the selective sequestration with neutralization of TcdA and TcdB by nonantibiotic agents represents a novel mode of action to prevent or treat C. difficile-associated disease. In this preclinical study, we used quantitative enzyme immunoassays to determine the extent by which a novel drug, calcium aluminosilicate uniform particle size nonswelling M-1 (CAS UPSN M-1), is capable of sequestering TcdA and TcdB in vitro. The following major findings were derived from the present study. First, we show that CAS UPSN M-1 efficiently sequestered both TcdA and TcdB to undetectable levels. Second, we show that CAS UPSN M-1's affinity for TcdA is greater than its affinity for TcdB. Last, we show that CAS UPSN M-1 exhibited limited binding affinity for nontarget proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that ingestion of calcium aluminosilicate might protect gastrointestinal tissues from antibiotic- or chemotherapy-induced C. difficile infection by neutralizing the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of luminal TcdA and TcdB.

  3. Age, duration of formation, and geotectonic position of the Zavitaya lithium granite-pegmatite system, Eastern Transbaikalia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorsky, V. Ye.; Shokalsky, S. P.; Sergeev, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Zavitaya granite-pegmatite system with a lithium deposit is localized in the northern marginal part of the Onon terrane (Aginskii massif) and ajoins to the Ingoda-Shilka branch of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture in the south. This paper presents the first U-Pb (SHRIMP) age of granites and barren and spodumene pegmatites of the Zavitaya field. The Zavitaya polychronous granite-pegmatite system evolved through 40 million years: porphyritic biotite granites (169.0 ± 3 Ma), two mica granites-leucogranites (147.5 ± 3.1 Ma), muscovite leucogranites (140.0 ± 3.0 Ma), barren pegmatites (139.6 ± 3.1 Ma), and lithium spodumem pegmatites (129.6 ± 2.7 Ma). The formation of the system coincides with the change in geodynamic regimes of the region at the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous boundary: the age of the early granites of the system and spodumene pegmatites corresponds to the termination of collision and to the beginning of the Early Cretaceous rifting, respectively.

  4. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Tompkins, J.A.; Haff, K.W.; Case, F.N.

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-seven fully loaded /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 1500/sup 0/C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of /sup 137/Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded /sup 137/Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10/sup -10/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10/sup -12/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10/sup -16/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, 6.88 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, and 1.35 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, respectively.

  5. Fictive temperature-independent density and minimum indentation size effect in calcium aluminosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, T. M.; Tomozawa, M.

    2008-09-01

    Using the calcium aluminosilicate system a glass was developed that exhibits fictive temperature-independent density by creating an intermediate glass between normal and anomalous glasses. Normal glass, such as soda-lime silicate glass, exhibits decreasing density with increasing fictive temperature while anomalous glass, such as silica glass, exhibits increasing density with increasing fictive temperature. This intermediate glass composition was found to exhibit the minimum indentation size effect during indentation hardness testing. It appears that the indentation size effect is correlated with a deformation-induced fictive temperature increase, which is accompanied by a density change and hardness change in the vicinity of the indentation. It is suggested from these observations that indentation size effect originates from the energy required to create interfaces and defects such as shear bands, subsurface cracks, and point defects near the indenter-specimen boundary, which accompany the volume change.

  6. Mesoporous MCM-41 aluminosilicates as model silica-alumina catalysts: Spectroscopic characterization of the acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Di Renzo, F.; Chiche, B.; Fajula, F.; Viale, S.; Garrone, E.

    1996-12-31

    The synthesis procedure brings about a low threshold value for the surface concentration of Al species and renders MCM-41 a model system for the study of silica-alumina phases. On severely outgassed samples, two types of Lewis sites are present, differing in their protrusion from the surface, as well as Bronsted sites engaged in lateral H-bonding, evidenced by the interaction with NH{sub 3} and CO. The conversion of Lewis sites into Bronsted ones by water adsorption shows that the Bronsted species are Si(OH)Al, typical of zeolites, and Si-Al(OH)-Si, found in dealuminated zeolites. The flexibility of the amorphous framework accounts for the differences with zeolitic aluminosilicates.

  7. Fictive temperature-independent density and minimum indentation size effect in calcium aluminosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, T. M.; Tomozawa, M.

    2008-09-15

    Using the calcium aluminosilicate system a glass was developed that exhibits fictive temperature-independent density by creating an intermediate glass between normal and anomalous glasses. Normal glass, such as soda-lime silicate glass, exhibits decreasing density with increasing fictive temperature while anomalous glass, such as silica glass, exhibits increasing density with increasing fictive temperature. This intermediate glass composition was found to exhibit the minimum indentation size effect during indentation hardness testing. It appears that the indentation size effect is correlated with a deformation-induced fictive temperature increase, which is accompanied by a density change and hardness change in the vicinity of the indentation. It is suggested from these observations that indentation size effect originates from the energy required to create interfaces and defects such as shear bands, subsurface cracks, and point defects near the indenter-specimen boundary, which accompany the volume change.

  8. Tailoring of Boehmite-Derived Aluminosilicate Aerogel Structure and Properties: Influence of Ti Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Guo, Haiquan; Sheets, Erik J.; Miller, Derek R.; Newlin, Katy N.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminosilicate aerogels offer potential for extremely low thermal conductivities at temperatures greater than 900 C, beyond where silica aerogels reach their upper temperature limits. Aerogels have been synthesized at various Al:Si ratios, including mullite compositions, using Boehmite (AlOOH) as the Al source, and tetraethoxy orthosilicate as the Si precursor. The Boehmite-derived aerogels are found to form by a self-assembly process of AlOOH crystallites, with Si-O groups on the surface of an alumina skeleton. Morphology, surface area and pore size varies with the crystallite size of the starting Boehmite powder, as well as with synthesis parameters. Ternary systems, including Al-Si-Ti aerogels incorporating a soluble Ti precursor, are possible with careful control of pH. The addition of Ti influences sol viscosity, gelation time pore structure and pore size distribution, as well as phase formation on heat treatment.

  9. Lithium toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... dialysis (machine) Medicines to treat symptoms Whole bowel irrigation with a special solution taken by mouth or through a tube through the nose into the stomach (to flush sustained-release lithium quickly through the stomach and intestines)

  10. Methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazenes as ionic conductive fire retardant additives for lithium battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Shih-To; Allcock, Harry R.

    The current highly flammable configurations for rechargeable lithium batteries generate safety concerns. Although commercial fire retardant additives have been investigated, they tend to decrease the overall efficiency of the battery. We report here ionically conductive, non-halogenated lithium battery additives based on a methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene oligomer and the corresponding high polymer, which can increase the fire resistance of a battery while retaining a high energy efficiency. Conductivities in the range of 10 -4 S cm -1 have been obtained for self-extinguishing, ion-conductive methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene oligomers. The addition of 25 wt% high polymeric poly[bis(methoxyethoxyethoxy)phosphazene] to propylene carbonate electrolytes lowers the flammability by 90% while maintaining a good ionic conductivity of 2.5 × 10 -3 S cm -1.

  11. Liquid lithium experiments in CDX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeski, R.; Efthimion, P.; Hoffman, D.; Jones, B.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Menard, J.; Munsat, T.; Raftopoulos, S.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Woolley, R.; Zakharov, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Soukhanovski, V.; Stutman, D.; Doerner, R.; Luckhardt, S.; Whyte, D.; Maingi, R.; Causey, R.; Buchanauer, D.

    2000-10-01

    The research goal of the Current Drive eXperiment - Upgrade (CDX-U) is to investigate the use of liquid lithium as a plasma-facing component in an operating spherical torus. A liquid lithium rail limiter system has been constructed at UCSD and will be installed in CDX-U in late July 2000. A liquid lithium toroidal belt limiter is to follow in October 2000. Modifications to CDX-U to accommodate in-vessel inventories of approximately 1 liter of liquid lithium, techniques for loading lithium onto the limiters, and other preparations will be described. Results of CDX-U experiments with lithium limiter systems on lithium influx, core and edge plasma modifications associated with very low recycling edges, and the effect of forced disruptions and halo currents on the liquid metal will be presented as available.

  12. Mode-locking optimization with a real-time feedback system in a Nd:yttrium lithium fluoride laser cavity.

    PubMed

    Marengoni, C; Canova, F; Batani, D; Benocci, R; Librizzi, M; Narayanan, V; Gomareschi, M; Lucchini, G; Kilpio, A; Shashkov, E; Stuchebrukhov, I; Vovchenko, V; Chernomyrdin, V; Krasuyk, I; Hall, T; Bittanti, S

    2007-01-01

    We present a control system, which allows an automatic optimization of the pulse train stability in a mode-locked laser cavity. In order to obtain real-time corrections, we chose a closed loop approach. The control variable is the cavity length, mechanically adjusted by gear system acting on the rear cavity mirror, and the controlled variable is the envelope modulation of the mode-locked pulse train. Such automatic control system maintains the amplitude of the mode-locking pulse train stable within a few percent rms during the working time of the laser. Full implementation of the system on an Nd:yttrium lithium fluoride actively mode-locked laser is presented.

  13. The corrosion phenomena in the coin cell BR2325 of the ``superstoichiometric fluorocarbon-lithium'' system

    SciTech Connect

    Mitkin, V.N.; Galkin, P.S.; Denisova, T.N.

    1998-07-01

    It was noted at the earlier study and at the longer observations of the novel various types of superstoichiometric fluorocarbon materials CF{sub 1+x}, where x = 0.1--0.33 (FCM) and their behavior, that despite of their known hygroscopity during a storage of samples in laboratory and technological utensils nevertheless occurs an appreciable sorption of atmospheric moisture. The color of samples does not change but sometimes there appears a smell of hydrogen fluoride and even corrosion of glasswares at a long storage. On the basis of these facts was assumed that at a long storage the slow reactions of HF producing with a sorption moisture can proceed. This phenomena is necessary to take into account for successful manufacturing of long life lithium cells based on superstoichiometric fluorocarbon composite cathodes (FCC). The chemistry of such slow hydrolytic process and especially of processes which can proceed at manufacturing of FCC earlier was not investigated also of any data in the literature in this occasion is not present. Just for this reason the authors undertook a study of the corrosion phenomena which can proceed in industrial sources of a current at a long storage under influence of slow hydrolysis of C-F bonds by moisture. The goal of the study was to search long term damages in the slightly wet FCM and based on these materials cathodic composites for fluorocarbon-lithium cells. As a model for corrosion process investigation they have chosen a standard coin lithium battery of a type BR2325.

  14. Analysis of aluminosilicate particles in biological matrices using histochemistry and X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Powell, J J

    2002-06-01

    Aluminosilicates are a group of ubiquitous environmental particles that, in some cases, have been implicated in human disease. Characterisation of aluminosilicates in tissue samples requires, first, their in situ identification and, secondly, analysis of their aluminium and silicon content or, at least, aluminium:silicon ratio. Here, histochemical staining, microscopy and X-ray microanalysis were investigated as potential methods for the detection of aluminosilicates in biological samples. In contrast to aluminium phosphate or hydroxide, aluminosilicates were refractory to histochemical staining for aluminium. However, using electron microscopy, back scattered electrons allowed identification of aluminosilicates in tissue-like (gelatine) sections. X-ray microanalysis, using conventional peak:background ratios, did not provide a sufficiently accurate assessment of the aluminium content of various standard aluminosilicates to allow their identification. However, the similar spectral energies of aluminium and silicon allowed spectral peak heights to be directly compared and, using simple standards, aluminium:silicon ratios were found for a range of reference particles. Application of this technique should allow the localisation and identification of aluminosilicates in biological samples.

  15. Phase selection during the crystallization of metal-organic frameworks; thermodynamic and kinetic factors in the lithium tartrate system.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Hamish Hei-Man; Cheetham, Anthony Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We report the phase behaviour of chiral, racemic and meso-lithium tartrate frameworks, which was examined as a function of solvent system, temperature and ligand isomer. Through our comprehensive investigation of this system of 14 diverse phases, we have gained detailed insight into the effect of synthesis conditions on product structure, and elucidated the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in phase selection. Reactions in ethanol between lithium acetate and chiral, racemic and meso-tartaric acids give rise to anhydrous kinetic products; polymorphs with higher entropy tend to appear at high temperatures. Reactions at room temperature in water-ethanol mixtures give rise to hydrated kinetic products, including two new crystal structures, [Li2(D,L-tartrate)(H2O)2]n in P1 and [Li2(meso-tartrate)(H2O)(0.5)]n in C222(1), whose structures are contrasted with known anhydrous products. Reactions at elevated temperatures in water-ethanol mixtures result in the formation of low enthalpy, anhydrous products and, furthermore, the global minimum energy structure appears at high temperatures in all cases owing to in situ ligand isomerization.

  16. Dynamic Reduction of FeO-Bearing, Anhydrous Aluminosilicate Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everman, R. L.; Cooper, R. F.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the reduction dynamics of FeO-bearing aluminosilicate melts at oxygen activities sufficiently low to form metallic iron. The experiments involved reacting droplets, suspended from refractory metal wires, with a high-temperature ( ˜1400oC), controlled-oxygen-activity environment maintained by a dynamic CO:CO2 buffer. In the case of an FeO-doped magnesium aluminosilicate ("Fe-MAS") melt ( ˜5 mol% FeO) exposed to an oxygen activity of 2x10-13 ("QIF-2"; CO:CO2=240:1), the reduction dynamic is rate-limited by chemical diffusion of Mg2+: oxygen chemically ablates from the free surface and the network-modifying cations diffuse inward, charge-compensated by a counterflux of electron holes (the "semiconductor condition" holds for diffusion dynamics in this melt [e.g., Cook and Cooper, 2000]); nm-scale crystals of pure α -Fe nucleate at an internal front. Diffusion of an oxygen species is not involved. In the case of FeO-doped calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate (Fe-CMAS) melt ( ˜8 mol% FeO) exposed to an oxygen activity of 2x10-15 (QIF-4; CO:CO2=1750:1), the dynamic changes: molten Fe-C-Si alloy droplets form near the surface, and bubbles are seen to form internally, truncating at an internal front. Further, the reaction occurs more slowly than that seen for the similarly polymerized Fe-MAS melt. The results suggests that molecular CO diffuses inward, consuming electron holes so as to form carbonate ion species in the melt [cf. Brooker et al., 2001]. Quenching produces a driving potential to reverse the internal reduction reaction, so creating the bubbles. Consumption of the electron holes by reaction with the carbon species dramatically reduces the reduction-to-metal kinetics. Brooker RA, Kohn SC, Holloway JR, McMillan PF (2001) Chem Geol 174:241-254; Cook GB, Cooper RF (2000) Am Mineral 85:397-406

  17. Structure and properties of sodium aluminosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ye; Du, Jincheng; Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Mauro, John C.

    2013-07-01

    Addition of alumina to sodium silicate glasses considerably improves the mechanical properties and chemical durability and changes other properties such as ionic conductivity and melt viscosity. As a result, aluminosilicate glasses find wide industrial and technological applications including the recent Corning® Gorilla® Glass. In this paper, the structures of sodium aluminosilicate glasses with a wide range of Al/Na ratios (from 1.5 to 0.6) have been studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations in a system containing around 3000 atoms, with the aim to understand the structural role of aluminum as a function of chemical composition in these glasses. The short- and medium-range structures such as aluminum coordination, bond angle distribution around cations, Qn distribution (n bridging oxygen per network forming tetrahedron), and ring size distribution have been systematically studied. In addition, the mechanical properties including bulk, shear, and Young's moduli have been calculated and compared with experimental data. It is found that aluminum ions are mainly four-fold coordinated in peralkaline compositions (Al/Na < 1) and form an integral part of the rigid silicon-oxygen glass network. In peraluminous compositions (Al/Na > 1), small amounts of five-fold coordinated aluminum ions are present while the concentration of six-fold coordinated aluminum is negligible. Oxygen triclusters are also found to be present in peraluminous compositions, and their concentration increases with increasing Al/Na ratio. The calculated bulk, shear, and Young's moduli were found to increase with increasing Al/Na ratio, in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. XPS study of distribution of elements between surface and volume in aluminosilicate catalysts and adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Chukin, G.D.; Grishin, S.A.; Kulikov, A.S.; Nefedov, B.K.; Surin, S.A.

    1986-02-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used in an investigation of the distribution of aluminum and sodium on the surface and in the volume of amorphous aluminosilicates. It has been shown that in the Na form of the aluminosilicates, the sodium and aluminum ions are localized preferentially on the surface. When the Na/sup +/ ions are replaced by protons, there is a change in the electronic state of the near-surface atoms in the aluminosilicates. Information on acidic centers that has been obtained by IR spectroscopy is consistent with the XPS data.

  19. Crystallization Kinetics of Calcium-magnesium Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2015-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of a calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass with composition relevant for aerospace applications, like air-breathing engines, were evaluated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) in powder and bulk forms. Activation energy and frequency factor values for crystallization of the glass were evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the onset of crystallization and the phases that developed after heat treating bulk glass at temperatures ranging from 690 to 960 deg for various times. Samples annealed at temperatures below 900 deg remained amorphous, while specimens heat treated at and above 900 deg exhibited crystallinity originating at the surface. The crystalline phases were identified as wollastonite (CaSiO3) and aluminum diopside (Ca(Mg,Al) (Si,Al)2O6). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to examine the microstructure and chemical compositions of crystalline phases formed after heat treatment.

  20. The aluminosilicate fraction of North Pacific manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Piper, D.Z.; Leong, K.

    1981-01-01

    Nine nodules collected from throughout the deep North Pacific were analyzed for their mineralogy and major-element composition before and after leaching with Chester-Hughes solution. Data indicate that the mineral phillipsite accounts for the major part (> 75%) of the aluminosilicate fraction of all nodules. It is suggested that formation of phillipsite takes place on growing nodule surfaces coupled with the oxidation of absorbed manganous ion. All the nodules could be described as ternary mixtures of amorphous iron fraction (Fe-Ti-P), manganese oxide fraction (Mn-Mg Cu-Ni), and phillipsite fraction (Al-Si-K-Na), these fractions accounting for 96% of the variability of the chemical composition. ?? 1981.

  1. Adsorption of β-galactosidase on silica and aluminosilicate adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Dobryakova, I. V.; Pilipenko, O. S.

    2015-03-01

    It is shown that adsorption of β-galactosidase of Aspergillus oryzae fungi on mesoporous and biporous silica and aluminosilicate adsorbents and the rate of the process grow along with the diameter of the pores of the adsorbent. It is found that the shape of the adsorption isotherms changes as well, depending on the texture of the adsorbent: the Michaelis constant rises from 0.3 mM for the enzyme in solution to 0.4-0.5 mM for the enzyme on a surface in the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside. It is concluded that β-galactosidase displays its maximum activity on the surface of biporous adsorbents.

  2. Amphiphilic properties of poly(oxyalkylene)amine-intercalated smectite aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiang-Jen; Chen, Yu-Min

    2004-05-11

    Layered aluminosilicates, including synthetic fluorine mica and natural montmorillonite (MMT), were intercalated with poly(oxypropylene)-polyamine quaternary salts with a 230-5000 molecular weight range. The X-ray basal spacing of these silicates had been expanded from 13.5 to 83.7 A for the synthetic mica and to 92.0 A for MMT. The relative silicate dimensions (300-1000 nm for synthetic mica and 80-100 nm for MMT) were ascertained by direct TEM observations in the case of the co-intercalated synthetic mica and MMT mixtures with Mw = 2000 quaternary ammonium salts. The tailored organic incorporation of synthetic mica and MMT clays could alter these hydrophilic clays, making them amphiphilic, and enable the lowering of toluene/water interfacial tension to 2.0 mN/m at the critical concentration of 0.1 wt %.

  3. The /A 1 Sigma +/ - /X 1 Sigma +/ system of the isotopic lithium hydrides - The molecular constants, potential energy curves, and their adiabatic corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, C. R.; Stwalley, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    The molecular constants and their adiabatic corrections have been determined for the (A 1 Sigma +) - (X 1 Sigma +) system of the isotopic lithium hydrides: (Li-6)H, (Li-7)H, (Li-6)D, and (Li-7)D. Using a fully quantum mechanical variational method, the potential energy curves (IPA potentials) are determined. Extending the variational method, we have obtained for the first time adiabatic corrections of potential energy curves from isotopic spectroscopic data. A significant difference between the potential energy curves of the lithium hydrides and the lithium deuterides has been observed. When Li-6 was replaced by Li-7, a significant difference was only observed for the (A 1 Sigma +) state, but not for the (X 1 Sigma +) state.

  4. Evaluation of marginal fit of 2 CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Min-Kyung; Park, Ji-Hee; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Oh, Gye-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was to evaluate the marginal fit of two CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems compared to lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS Shoulder and deep chamfer margin were formed on each acrylic resin tooth model of a maxillary first premolar. Two CAD-CAM systems (Prettau®Zirconia and ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max®press) crowns were made (n=16). Each crown was bonded to stone dies with resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Marginal gap and absolute marginal discrepancy of crowns were measured using a light microscope equipped with a digital camera (Leica DFC295) magnified by a factor of 100. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's HSD test were conducted to analyze the significance of crown marginal fit regarding the finish line configuration and the fabrication system. RESULTS The mean marginal gap of lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) was significantly lower than that of the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) (P<.05). Both fabrication systems and finish line configurations significantly influenced the absolute marginal discrepancy (P<.05). CONCLUSION The lithium disilicate glass ceramic crown (IPS e.max®press) had significantly smaller marginal gap than the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia). In terms of absolute marginal discrepancy, the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) had under-extended margin, whereas the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) had overextended margins. PMID:26330973

  5. Investigation of oxidative coupling of methane over bismuth oxychloride, samarium chloride, or manganese chloride supported on lithium carbonate-magnesia systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.Z.; Ruckenstein, E. )

    1992-11-01

    The magnesia-supported bismuth oxychloride with lithium carbonate present is significantly more effective and stable with time-on-stream than the unsupported or supported systems free of Li[sub 2]CO[sub 3] in the oxidative coupling of methane at 750[degrees]C, P[sub CH[sub 4

  6. Reference design of 100 MW-h lithium/iron sulfide battery system for utility load leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Zivi, S.M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Barney, D.L.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B.L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, E.; Adler, E.

    1980-03-01

    The first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is presented. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.

  7. Atomic mobility in calcium and sodium aluminosilicate melts at 1200 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claireaux, Corinne; Chopinet, Marie-Hélène; Burov, Ekaterina; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Roskosz, Mathieu; Toplis, Michael J.

    2016-11-01

    Multicomponent chemical diffusion in liquids of the quaternary system CaO-Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 has been studied. Diffusion-couple experiments were performed at 1200 °C and for different durations around a central composition of 64.5 wt%SiO2, 13.3 wt%Na2O, 10.8 wt%CaO, 11.4 wt%Al2O3, leading to an overconstrained system of equations that was used to determine the diffusion matrix of the system. The dominant eigenvector of the diffusion matrix was found to correspond to the exchange between sodium and calcium, consistent with the results of the ternary soda-lime silica system. On the other hand, neither of the other two eigenvectors of the diffusion matrix of the quaternary system involve sodium. Given a factor of 50 between the dominant and second eigenvalue, diffusion couples involving the exchange of sodium oxide and a network-forming oxide result in strong uphill diffusion of calcium. The second eigenvector, corresponding to the exchange of calcium with silicon and aluminum, is close to the dominant eigenvector found in previous studies of ternary alkaline-earth aluminosilicate systems. Our results therefore suggest that simple systems may be used to understand diffusive mechanisms in more complex systems.

  8. Use of natural and synthetic aluminosilicates in decontamination of feed contaminated by fungi and micotoxins.

    PubMed

    Kołacz, R; Dobrzański, Z; Kulok, M

    2004-01-01

    The contamination of feed with micotoxin has been a serious problem in animal nutrition. Many existing methods of decontamination are not satisfying due to the toxicological safety and health quality of the fodder materials. It stimulates the scientists to search for the new methods. The use of sorbents in the form of natural and synthetic aluminosilicates is a promising direction. The efficacy of aluminosilicates towards aflatoxins has been proved. However, their influence on other micotoxins is not that obvious. According to the last investigations, the use of aluminosilicates in nutrition does not cause any side effects and widespread pathological effects are observed only when dosage is incorrect. Regarding the analyses that were published, it can be supposed that the addition of several different aluminosilicates is a sufficient protection against mycotoxicoses.

  9. Effects of Anions on Local Structure of Al and Si in Aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki; Yokoyama

    1999-06-15

    Three kinds of amorphous aluminosilicates were synthesized by coprecipitation of silicic acid with aluminum hydroxide in the presence of different inorganic ions: sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Although the bulk composition of the aluminosilicates obtained was not affected by anion species, their DTA spectra were significantly different, suggesting that their structures also differ. The local structure of Al and Si in the aluminosilicates was studied in detail by 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR. From the 27Al MAS NMR spectra and comparison between 29Si HD- and CP-MAS NMR spectra, it was concluded that the aluminosilicate obtained in the presence of sulfate ions has only a montmorillonite-like structure, whereas in the cases of chloride and nitrate, the solids are composed of three phases: aluminum hydroxide, silica, and the montmorillonite-like aluminosilicate. The difference in the local structure of Al and Si in the aluminosilicates was explained by the difference in interaction between the anions and aluminum ions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Effects of anions on local structure of Al and Si in aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Akane; Yokoyama, Takushi

    1999-06-15

    Three kinds of amorphous aluminosilicates were synthesized by coprecipitation of silicic acid with aluminum hydroxide in the presence of different inorganic ions: sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Although the bulk composition of the aluminosilicates obtained was not affected by anion species, their DTA spectra were significantly different, suggesting that their structures also differ. The local structure of Al and Si in the aluminosilicates was studied in detail by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR. From the {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra and comparison between {sup 29}Si HD- and CP-MAS NMR spectra, it was concluded that the aluminosilicate obtained in the presence of sulfate ions has only a montmorillonite-like structure, whereas in the cases of chloride and nitrate, the solids are composed of three phases: aluminum hydroxide, silica, and the montmorillonite-like aluminosilicate. The difference in the local structure of Al and Si in the aluminosilicates was explained by the difference in interaction between the anions and aluminum ions.

  11. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  12. Triple-wavelength Nd-laser system by cascaded electro-optic periodically poled lithium niobate Bragg modulator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shou-Tai; Hsieh, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-12-31

    This study presents a diode-pumped cw triple-wavelength Nd:GdVO₄ laser system using an electro-optic periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) Bragg modulator. The PPLN consists of two cascaded sections, 20.3 μm and 25.7 μm, functioning as loss modulators for 1063 and 1342 nm at the same Bragg incident angle. When switching the dc voltages on PPLN and applying 25 W pump power, the output wavelength can be selected among 912, 1063, and 1342 nm with output power of 2, 5, and 1.4 W, respectively. The device is capable of triple-wavelength generation simultaneous when applied voltages are 180 (Λ = 20.3 μm) and -50 V (Λ = 25.7 μm) at a 25 W pump power. Gain competition induced power instability was also observed. PMID:23388793

  13. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  14. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  15. Application of solid polymer electrolyte to lithium/polypyrrole secondary battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Osaka, Tetsuya; Momma, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Ken; Kakuda, Satoko; Ishii, Takayuki . Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

    1994-08-01

    An all solid-state lithium/polypyrrole (PPy) battery using polyethylene oxide (PEO)-LiClO[sub 4] as a solid polymer electrolyte was assembled, and the effects of the morphology of the PPy film and the concentration of LiClO[sub 4] on battery performance were investigated. Optimum conditions for the redox properties of PPy films in PEO-LiClO[sub 4] at 80 C were obtained with an LiClO[sub 4] concentration of n = 8 [approximately] 20 (n=[EO]/[Li]) when using rough PPy film. A Li/PPy battery using PEO-LiClO[sub 4] with optimized conditions exhibited high coulombic efficiency, above 90% at 0.1 mA cm [sup [minus]2] at 80 C. Cyclability of 1,400 cycles with high coulombic efficiency was attained.

  16. Fabrication of cermet bearings for the control system of a high temperature lithium cooled nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yacobucci, H. G.; Heestand, R. L.; Kizer, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The techniques used to fabricate cermet bearings for the fueled control drums of a liquid metal cooled reference-design reactor concept are presented. The bearings were designed for operation in lithium for as long as 5 years at temperatures to 1205 C. Two sets of bearings were fabricated from a hafnium carbide - 8-wt. % molybdenum - 2-wt. % niobium carbide cermet, and two sets were fabricated from a hafnium nitride - 10-wt. % tungsten cermet. Procedures were developed for synthesizing the material in high purity inert-atmosphere glove boxes to minimize oxygen content in order to enhance corrosion resistance. Techniques were developed for pressing cylindrical billets to conserve materials and to reduce machining requirements. Finishing was accomplished by a combination of diamond grinding, electrodischarge machining, and diamond lapping. Samples were characterized in respect to composition, impurity level, lattice parameter, microstructure and density.

  17. Development and analysis of a lithium carbon monofluoride battery-lithium ion capacitor hybrid system for high pulse-power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Patricia H.; Sepe, Raymond B.; Waterman, Kyle G.; Myron, L. Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Although Li/CFx and Li/CFxMnO2 have two of the highest energy densities of all commercial lithium primary batteries known to date, they are typically current-limited and therefore are not used in high-power applications. In this work, a Li/CFxMnO2 battery (BA-5790) was hybridized with a 1000 F lithium ion capacitor to allow its use for portable electronic devices requiring 100 W 1-min pulses. An intelligent, power-management board was developed for managing the energy flow between the components. The hybrid architecture was shown to maintain the battery current to a level that minimized energy loss and thermal stress. The performance of the Li/CFxMnO2 hybrid was compared to the standard Li/SO2 battery (BA-5590). The hybrid was shown to deliver the same number of 100 W pulse cycles as two BA-5590 batteries, resulting in a weight savings of 30% and a volumetric reduction of 20%. For devices requiring 8 h of operational time or less, a 5-cell Li/CFxMnO2 hybrid was found to be a lighter (55%) and smaller (45%) power source than the existing two BA-5590 battery option, and a lighter (42%) and smaller (27%) option than 1½ BA-5790 batteries alone. At higher power requirements (>100 W), further weight and size improvements can be expected.

  18. Lithium in 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  19. Fibrous-Root-Inspired Design and Lithium Storage Applications of a Co-Zn Binary Synergistic Nanoarray System.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia; Chen, Shimou; Hao, Wenjun; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-02-23

    Developing lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with fast charging/discharging capability and high capacity is a significant issue for future technical requirements. Transition-metal oxide (TMO) materials are widely studied as the next-generation LIB anode to satisfy this requirement due to their specific capacity, nearly three times than that of conventional graphite anode, and low cost. Meanwhile, they also suffer from slow lithium diffusion and limited electrochemical and structural stability, especially at high charging/discharging rate. The structure design of TMO is an effective strategy to obtain desirable LIB performance. Herein, inspired by natural fibrous roots consisting of functional and supporting units that can enhance substances and energy exchange efficiently, fibrous-root-like Zn(x)Co(3-x)O4@Zn(1-y)Co(y)O binary TMO nanoarrays are designed and synthesized on Cu substrates through a facile one-pot, successive-deposition process for use as an integrated LIB anode. In a multilevel array ordered by orientation, ultrafine Zn(x)Co(3-x)O4 nanowire functional units and stable Zn(1-y)Co(y)O nanorod supporting units synergize, resulting in superior rate performance. At a high current density of 500 mAg(-1), they could maintain a discharge capacity as high as 804 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles, working much higher than unary cobalt-based and zinc-based nanoarrays. This binary synergistic nanoarray system identifies an optimized electrode design strategy for advanced battery materials. PMID:26841220

  20. Crystalline-like molecularly ordered mesoporous aluminosilicates derived from aluminosilica-surfactant mesophases via benign template removal.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongde; Mokaya, Robert

    2006-05-11

    We report the preparation of mesoporous aluminosilicate materials that exhibit molecular-scale ordering in their pore wall framework. The materials were derived from mesoporous aluminosilica-surfactant mesophases via benign template removal methods, which allowed the retention of molecular ordering in surfactant-free materials. The molecularly ordered aluminosilica-surfactant mesophases were obtained from hydrothermal crystallization of cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide/Al,Si/H2O systems at 135 degrees C for 12 days. Benign template removal via H2O2-mediated oxidation of the surfactant at room temperature was found to be the most effective method in generating surfactant-free materials with molecular ordering, high textural properties (depending on Al content), and high acidity. The Al in the resulting aluminosilicates was entirely incorporated in framework (tetrahedrally coordinated) sites. Template extraction in acidified ethanol also generated molecularly ordered materials but compromised the Al content and acidity. Template removal via conventional calcination generated porous materials with high textural properties but which exhibited only limited molecular ordering and had relatively low acidity and significant amounts of nonframework Al. This work demonstrates that molecular ordering in mesoporous silicate-surfactant mesophases is due to crystallographic ordering within inorganic frameworks rather than the arrangement/packing of surfactant molecules.

  1. The metapelitic garnet biotite muscovite aluminosilicate quartz (GBMAQ) geobarometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chun-Ming; Zhao, Guochun C.

    2007-09-01

    In this contribution we have empirically calibrated the garnet-biotite-muscovite-aluminosilicate-quartz (GBMAQ) barometer using low- to medium-high-pressure, mid-grade metapelites. Application of the barometer suggests that the GBMAQ and GASP barometers show quite similar pressure estimates. Furthermore, metapelites within thermal contact aureole or very limited geographic area show no meaningful pressure diversity determined by the GBMAQ and GASP barometers which is the geological reality. The random error of the GBMAQ barometer is expected to be around ± 0.8 kbar, and this barometer shows no systematic bias with respect to either pressure, or temperature, or Al VI in muscovite, or Fe in biotite, or Fe in garnet. The GBMAQ barometer is thermodynamically consistent with the garnet-biotite geothermometer because they share the same activity models of both garnet and biotite. This barometer is especially useful for assemblages with Ca-poor garnet or Ca-poor plagioclase or plagioclase-absent metapelites. Application of this barometer beyond the calibration ranges, i.e., P- T range and chemical ranges of the minerals, is not encouraged.

  2. Mixed alkaline earth effect in the compressibility of aluminosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Smedskjaer, Morten M; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Bockowski, Michal; Mauro, John C

    2014-02-01

    The mixed modifier effect (MME) in oxide glasses manifests itself as a non-additive variation in certain properties when one modifier oxide species is substituted by another one at constant total modifier content. However, the structural and topological origins of the MME are still under debate. This study provides new insights into the MME by investigating the effect of isostatic compression on density and hardness of mixed MgO/CaO sodium aluminosilicate glasses. This is done using a specially designed setup allowing isostatic compression of bulk glass samples up to 1 GPa at elevated temperature. A mixed alkaline earth effect is found in the compressibility and relative change of hardness, viz., a local maximum of density as a function of Mg/Ca ratio appears following compression, whereas a local minimum of hardness in the uncompressed glasses nearly disappears after compression. Moreover, the densification of these glasses is found to occur at temperatures much below the glass transition temperature, indicating that a non-viscous mechanism is at play. This is further supported by the fact that density relaxes in a stretched exponential manner upon subsequent annealing at ambient pressure with an exponent of ∼0.62. This is close to the Phillips value of 3/5 for relaxation in three dimensions when both short- and long-range interactions are activated.

  3. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE SOLIDS AFFINITY FOR CESIUM AND ACTINIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T; Bill Wilmarth, B; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-31

    Washed sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) solids at initial concentrations of 3.55 and 5.4 g/L sorb or uptake virtually no cesium over 288 hours, nor do any NAS solids generated during that time. These concentrations of solids are believed to conservatively bound current and near-term operations. Hence, the NAS solids should not have affected measurements of the cesium during the mass transfer tests and there is minimal risk of accumulating cesium during routine operations (and hence posing a gamma radiation exposure risk in maintenance). With respect to actinide uptake, it appears that NAS solids sorb minimal quantities of uranium - up to 58 mg U per kg NAS solid. The behavior with plutonium is less well understood. Additional study may be needed for radioactive operations relative to plutonium or other fissile component sorption or trapping by the solids. We recommend this testing be incorporated in the planned tests using samples from Tank 25F and Tank 49H to extend the duration to bound expected inventory time for solution.

  4. Ageing characteristics of aluminium alloy aluminosilicate discontinuous fiber reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, D.; Singh, V.

    1999-03-05

    Development of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites is aimed at providing high specific strength and stiffness needed for aerospace and some critical high temperature structural applications. Considerable efforts have been made, during the last decade, to improve the strength of age-hardening aluminium alloy matrix composites by suitable heat treatment. It has also been well established that age-hardenable aluminium alloy composites show accelerated ageing behavior because of enhanced dislocation density at the fiber/matrix interface resulting from thermal expansion mismatch between ceramic fiber and the metal matrix. The accelerated ageing of aluminium alloy composites either from dislocation density or the residual stress, as a result of thermal expansion mismatch is dependent on the size of whisker and particulate. Investigations have also been made on the effect of volume fraction of particulate on the ageing behavior of aluminium alloys. The present investigation is concerned with characterization of age-hardening behavior of an Al-Si-Cu-Mg(AA 336) alloy alumino-silicate discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites (referred to as aluminium MMCs in the present text) being developed for automotive pistons. An effort is made to study the effect of volume fraction of the reinforcement on age-hardening behavior of this composite.

  5. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Selectivity of lithium dodecyl sulfate-lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate mixed-micellar buffers.

    PubMed

    Fuguet, E; Ràfols, C; Bosch, E; Rosés, M; Abraham, M H

    2001-01-12

    The solvation parameter model has been applied to the characterization of micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC) systems with mixtures of lithium dodecyl sulfate and lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate as surfactant. The variation in MEKC surfactant composition results in changes in the coefficients of the correlation equation, which in turns leads to information on solute-solvent and solute-micelle interactions. Lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate is more dipolar and hydrogen bond acidic but less polarizable and hydrogen bond basic than lithium dodecyl sulfate. Therefore mixtures of lithium dodecyl sulfate and lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate cover a very wide range of polarity and hydrogen bond properties, which in turn results in important selectivity changes for analytes with different solute properties.

  6. Microstructural and phase evolution in metakaolin geopolymers with different activators and added aluminosilicate fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Madhuchhanda; Dana, Kausik; Das, Sukhen

    2015-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the microstructural and phase evolution of alkali activated metakaolin products with different activators and added aluminosilicate filler phases. The added filler phases have different reactivity to the alkali activated metakaolin system. Microstructural evolution in the alkali activated products has been investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Variation in strength development in alkali activated metakaolin products was followed by compressive strength measurement test. Microstructural study shows that in case of metakaolin with NaOH activator crystalline sodalite formed in all the product samples irrespective of the added filler phases. The microstructure of these NaOH activated products investigated by FESEM showed crystalline and inhomogeneous morphology. Mixed activator containing both NaOH and sodium silicate in a fixed mass ratio formed predominantly amorphous phase. Microstructure of these samples showed more homogeneity than that of NaOH activated metakaolin products. The study further shows that addition of α-Al2O3 powder, non reactive phase to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount increased crystalline phase in the matrix. α-Al2O3 powder addition increased the compressive strength of the product samples for both the activator compositions. Added phase of colloidal silica, reactive to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount was found to increase amorphous nature of the matrix. Addition of colloidal silica influenced the compressive strength property differently with different activator compositions.

  7. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of the Aluminosilicate LZ-135, a Zeolite Related to ZSM-10

    SciTech Connect

    McCusker, Lynne B.; Baerlocher, Christian; Wilson, Stephen T.; Broach, Robert W.

    2009-09-02

    The aluminosilicate LZ-135 was one of the first zeolites to be prepared in the presence of two or more organic structure-directing agents (in this case, Me{sub 4}N{sup +} (TMA) and Et{sub 4}N{sup +} (TEA)) and was patented 20 years ago. However, the material was polycrystalline, and at the time, its aluminosilicate framework structure could not be determined. In view of the fact that methods of structure determination from powder diffraction data have developed considerably in the meantime, a fresh analysis of the problem was undertaken. High-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction data were collected on a calcined sample of LZ-135 (as synthesized composition ca. |Na{sub 26}TMA{sub 6}|[Si{sub 76}Al{sub 32}O{sub 216}]), and the new powder charge-flipping structure-solution algorithm was applied. The framework structure (P6{sub 3}/mmc; a = 31.3830(2) {angstrom}, c = 7.6513(1) {angstrom}) was revealed immediately, and then the positions of the Na{sup +} ions and a few water molecules were located in a series of difference electron density maps. The [001] projection of the framework structure is identical to that of ZSM-10 (P6{sub 3}/mmm), but the (up-down) orientations of the (Si,Al) tetrahedra, and therefore their connectivities, are different, and this leads to a distinctly different topology with two 1-dimensional, 12-ring channel systems with effective pore widths of 7.2 and 6.5 {angstrom}. The new framework has been assigned the framework type code LTF by the International Zeolite Association. The framework structures of LZ-135 and ZSM-10 are related to one another in the same way as are those of mazzite and zeolite L. Approximately 27.5 Na{sup +} ions were located in six different sites, and all are coordinated to oxygen atoms of the framework. Twelve H{sub 2}O molecules per unit cell are associated with one of the Na{sup +} ion positions, where they serve to complete an octahedral coordination geometry around the ion, and 5.2 are located in the larger of the

  8. Alkali aluminosilicate melts and glasses: structuring at the middle range order of amorphous matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Losq, C.; neuville, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Rheological properties of silicate melts govern both magma ascension from the mantle to the surface of the earth and volcanological eruptions styles and behaviours. It is well known that several parameters impact strongly these properties, such as for instance the temperature, pressure, chemical composition and volatiles concentration, finally influencing eruptive behaviour of volcanoes. In this work, we will focus on the Na2O-K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 system, which is of a prime importance because it deals with a non-negligible part of natural melts, like for instance the Vesuvius (Italy) or Erebus (Antartica) magmas. In an oncoming paper in Chemical Geology (Le Losq and Neuville, 2012), we have communicated results of the study of mixing Na-K in tectosilicate melts containing a high concentration of silica (≥75mol%). In the present communication, we will enlarge this first point of view to tectosilicate melts presenting a lower silica concentration. We will first present our viscosity data, and then the Adam and Gibbs theory that allows theoretically modelling Na-K mixing in aluminosilicate melts by using the so-called "mixed alkali effect". On the basis of the rheological results, the Na-K mixing cannot be explained with the ideal "mixed alkali effect", which involves random exchange of Na-K cationic pairs. To go further and as rheological properties are directly linked with structural properties, we will present our first results obtained by Raman and NMR spectroscopy. These last ones provide important structural pieces of information on the polymerization state of glasses and melts, and also on the environment of tetrahedrally coordinated cations. Rheological and structural results all highlight that Na and K are not randomly distributed in aluminosilicate glasses and melts networks. Na melts present a network with some channels and a non-random distribution of Al and Si. K networks are different. They also present a non-random distribution of Al and Si, but in two sub

  9. Lithium oxide in the Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, J.Q.; Neiswander, P.A.; Armijo, J.R.; Bild, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    The formation of lithium oxide (Li/sub 2/O) in Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries during the required shelf life of twenty-five years has been identified in previous work as a reaction deleterious to thermal battery performance. This paper gives the results of a study designed to determine performance degradation caused by Li/sub 2/O and to determine an acceptable level of Li/sub 2/O that can be used to define required dryness of battery parts and allowable leak rates. Pellets preconditioned with Li/sub 2/O were used in single cells or in batteries. Their performance was compared with discharges made using pellets with no Li/sub 2/O added. The actual Li/sub 2/O present in anode pellets at various stages during fabrication was determined by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis. Results are reported. This work shows that thermal battery production controls should be designed in such a manner that not more than 15 wt.% of the Li(Si) is oxidized at the end of the desired self life. Furthermore, the formation of a Li/sub 2/O layer equivalent to the oxidation of 6.0 wt.% of the anode on the surface facing the current collector must be prevented. Battery designers must allow for a drop in coulombic efficiency as the Li(Si) reacts, and the effect on performance of Li/sub 2/O in the separator must be considered.

  10. Thermoluminescence properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses system doped with dysprosium oxide.

    PubMed

    Mhareb, M H A; Hashim, S; Ghoshal, S K; Alajerami, Y S M; Saleh, M A; Razak, N A B; Azizan, S A B

    2015-12-01

    We report the impact of dysprosium (Dy(3+)) dopant and magnesium oxide (MgO) modifier on the thermoluminescent properties of lithium borate (LB) glass via two procedures. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves reveal a single prominent peak at 190 °C for 0.5 mol% of Dy(3+). An increase in MgO contents by 10 mol% enhances the TL intensity by a factor of 1.5 times without causing any shift in the maximum temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the occurrence of extra electron traps created via magnesium and the energy transfer to trivalent Dy(3+) ions. Good linearity in the range of 0.01-4 Gy with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.998, fading as low as 21% over a period of 3 months, excellent reproducibility without oven annealing and tissue equivalent effective atomic numbers ~8.71 are achieved. The trap parameters, including geometric factor (μg), activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) associated with LMB:Dy are also determined. These favorable TL characteristics of prepared glasses may contribute towards the development of Li2O-MgO-B2O3 radiation dosimeters.

  11. Curly MnOx nanomembranes as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xueyi; Si, Wenping; Sun, Xiaolei; Deng, Junwen; Xi, Lixia; Liu, Bo; Yan, Chenglin; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional MnOx nanomembranes prepared by electron beam evaporation are rolled up into three-dimensional hybrid micro/nano-tubes by strain release. The material is characterized with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry and used as the cathode catalysts for lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. The Li-O2 battery using such curly MnOx nanomembranes as the cathode delivers a specific discharge capacity of 4610 mAh gC-1 at a current density of 70 mA gC-1 which is higher than that of carbon black. Moreover, the MnOx nanomembrane electrode gains improved stability, being capable of cycling 112 times at a current density of 200 mA gC-1 . The encouraging performance is ascribed to the unique superiorities of nanomembranes and those inner oxygen vacancies, indicating that nanomembranes are promising materials for Li-O2 batteries.

  12. Thermoluminescence properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses system doped with dysprosium oxide.

    PubMed

    Mhareb, M H A; Hashim, S; Ghoshal, S K; Alajerami, Y S M; Saleh, M A; Razak, N A B; Azizan, S A B

    2015-12-01

    We report the impact of dysprosium (Dy(3+)) dopant and magnesium oxide (MgO) modifier on the thermoluminescent properties of lithium borate (LB) glass via two procedures. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves reveal a single prominent peak at 190 °C for 0.5 mol% of Dy(3+). An increase in MgO contents by 10 mol% enhances the TL intensity by a factor of 1.5 times without causing any shift in the maximum temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the occurrence of extra electron traps created via magnesium and the energy transfer to trivalent Dy(3+) ions. Good linearity in the range of 0.01-4 Gy with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.998, fading as low as 21% over a period of 3 months, excellent reproducibility without oven annealing and tissue equivalent effective atomic numbers ~8.71 are achieved. The trap parameters, including geometric factor (μg), activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) associated with LMB:Dy are also determined. These favorable TL characteristics of prepared glasses may contribute towards the development of Li2O-MgO-B2O3 radiation dosimeters. PMID:25828828

  13. Aluminosilicate Formation in High Level Waste Evaporators: A Mechanism for Uranium Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2002-02-08

    High level waste Evaporators at the Savannah River Site (SRS) process radioactive waste to concentrate supernate and thus conserve tank space. In June of 1997, difficulty in evaporator operation was initially observed. This operational difficulty evidenced itself as a plugging of the evaporator's gravity drain line (GDL). The material blocking the GDL was determined to be a sodium aluminosilicate. Following a mechanical cleaning of the GDL, the evaporator was returned to service until October 1999. At this time massive deposits were discovered in the evaporator pot. As a result of the changes in evaporator chemistry and the resulting formation of aluminosilicate deposits in the evaporator, a comprehensive research and development program has been undertaken. This program is underway in order to assist in understanding the new evaporator chemistry and gain insight into the deposition phenomena. Key results from testing in FY01 have demonstrated that the chemistry of the evaporator feed favors aluminosilicate formation. Both the reaction kinetics and particle growth of the aluminosilicate material under SRS evaporator conditions has been demonstrated to occur within the residence times utilized in the SRS evaporator operation. Batch and continuous-flow experiments at known levels of supersaturation have shown a significant correlation between the deposition of aluminosilicates and mixing intensity in the vessel. Advances in thermodynamic modeling of the evaporator chemistry have been accomplished. The resulting thermodynamic model has been related to the operational history of the evaporator, is currently assisting in feed selection, and could potentially assist in expanding the operating envelopes technical baselines for evaporator operation.

  14. Aqueous dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate geopolymers derived from metakaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Z.; Vance, E. R.; Perera, D. S.

    2012-05-01

    In dilute aqueous solutions, the elemental releases of Na, Al and Si from a metakaolin-based sodium aluminosilicate geopolymer were not very sensitive to pH in the range of 4-10 but increased outside this range, particularly on the acidic side. To minimise pH drifts, experiments were carried out using small amounts of graded powders in relatively large volumes of water. In deionised water, the Na dissolution rate in 7 days was dominant and increased by at least a factor of ˜4 on heating from 18 to 90 °C, with greater increases in the extractions of Al and Si. At 18 °C the elemental extractions in deionised water increased approximately linearly with time over the 1-7 days period. Further exposure led to a slower extraction into solution for Na and Si, with a decrease in extraction of Al. It was deduced that framework dissolution was important in significantly acidic or alkaline solutions, but that contributions from water transfer from pores to elemental extractions were present, even at low temperatures in neutral solutions. It was also deduced from the Na release data that the Na leaching kinetics of geopolymer in deionised water (dilute solutions) followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the pseudo-second-order rate constant evaluated. Contact with KCl, KHCO3, and pH ˜6 and 10 potassium phthalate buffer solutions gave rise to a high degree of Na+ ↔ K+ exchange and rendered the framework ions less leachable in water.

  15. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication. PMID:23948626

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis of dual-conducting Cu2O@Cu-graphene system with improved electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Xiao, Ying; Hu, Changwen; Cao, Minhua

    2013-09-01

    Two by two: A low-cost, fast, and green microwave-assisted approach has been developed for the controlled synthesis of core-shell Cu2O@Cu/graphene hybrids. With the unique dual-conducting system consisting of graphene support and Cu layer on the surface of the Cu2O nanoparticles, the as-obtained hybrids exhibited significantly enhanced lithium ion battery performance as anode materials. PMID:23757216

  17. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  18. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  19. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  20. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  1. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  2. In situ structural analysis of calcium aluminosilicate glasses under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniz, R. F.; de Ligny, D.; Martinet, C.; Sandrini, M.; Medina, A. N.; Rohling, J. H.; Baesso, M. L.; Lima, S. M.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Guyot, Y.

    2016-08-01

    In situ micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the structural evolution of OH--free calcium aluminosilicate glasses, under high pressure and at room temperature. Evaluation was made of the role of the SiO2 concentration in percalcic join systems, for Al/(Al  +  Si) in the approximate range from 0.9 to 0.2. Under high pressure, the intensity of the main band related to the bending mode of bridging oxygen ({ν\\text{B}} [T-O-T], where T  =  Si or Al) decreased gradually, suggesting that the bonds were severely altered or even destroyed. In Si-rich glasses, compression induced a transformation of Q n species to Q n-1. In the case of Al-rich glass, the Al in the smallest Q n units evolved from tetrahedral to higher-coordinated Al ([5]Al and [6]Al). Permanent structural changes were observed in samples recovered from the highest pressure of around 15 GPa and, particularly for Si-rich samples, the recovered structure showed an increase of three-membered rings in the Si/Al tetrahedral network.

  3. In situ structural analysis of calcium aluminosilicate glasses under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniz, R. F.; de Ligny, D.; Martinet, C.; Sandrini, M.; Medina, A. N.; Rohling, J. H.; Baesso, M. L.; Lima, S. M.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Guyot, Y.

    2016-08-01

    In situ micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the structural evolution of OH‑-free calcium aluminosilicate glasses, under high pressure and at room temperature. Evaluation was made of the role of the SiO2 concentration in percalcic join systems, for Al/(Al  +  Si) in the approximate range from 0.9 to 0.2. Under high pressure, the intensity of the main band related to the bending mode of bridging oxygen ({ν\\text{B}} [T-O-T], where T  =  Si or Al) decreased gradually, suggesting that the bonds were severely altered or even destroyed. In Si-rich glasses, compression induced a transformation of Q n species to Q n‑1. In the case of Al-rich glass, the Al in the smallest Q n units evolved from tetrahedral to higher-coordinated Al ([5]Al and [6]Al). Permanent structural changes were observed in samples recovered from the highest pressure of around 15 GPa and, particularly for Si-rich samples, the recovered structure showed an increase of three-membered rings in the Si/Al tetrahedral network.

  4. Structure and mechanical properties of aluminosilicate geopolymer composites with Portland cement and its constituent minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Tailby, Jonathan; MacKenzie, Kenneth J.D.

    2010-05-15

    The compressive strengths and structures of composites of aluminosilicate geopolymer with the synthetic cement minerals C{sub 3}S, beta-C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and commercial OPC were investigated. All the composites showed lower strengths than the geopolymer and OPC paste alone. X-ray diffraction, {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and SEM/EDS observations indicate that hydration of the cement minerals and OPC is hindered in the presence of geopolymer, even though sufficient water was present in the mix for hydration to occur. In the absence of SEM evidence for the formation of an impervious layer around the cement mineral grains, the poor strength development is suggested to be due to the retarded development of C-S-H because of the preferential removal from the system of available Si because geopolymer formation is more rapid than the hydration of the cement minerals. This possibility is supported by experiments in which the rate of geopolymer formation is retarded by the substitution of potassium for sodium, by the reduction of the alkali content of the geopolymer paste or by the addition of borate. In all these cases the strength of the OPC-geopolymer composite was increased, particularly by the combination of the borate additive with the potassium geopolymer, producing an OPC-geopolymer composite stronger than hydrated OPC paste alone.

  5. Thermodynamics of aluminosilicate garnet solid solution: new experimental data, an optimized model, and thermometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, J.; Cheng, Weiji; Tirone, Massimiliano

    1996-12-01

    We have experimentally determined the displacement of the equilibrium Grossular + 2 Kyanite + Quartz ⇆ 3 Anorthite (GASP) as a function of garnet composition in the systems Mg-Ca-Mn, Fe-Mg-Ca and Fe-Mg-Ca-Mn at 1000°C. The results were treated along with selected experimental and observational data available in the literature as well as binary parameters from other workers to obtain a set of mutually compatible binary mixing parameters of the quaternary (Fe,Mg,Ca,Mn)- aluminosilicate garnet solid solution. Attempts to determine equilibrium garnet composition in the GASP equilibrium in the Ca-Mg binary were unsuccessful due to the formation of pyroxene. Calculations of binary and ternary miscibility gaps show that the P,T,X combination required for unmixing of garnet solid solution is not realized by natural samples. The solution model was applied to account for compositional effects on Fe-Mg exchange between garnet and ortho- or clino-pyroxene. Applications of the revised thermometric formulations to selected natural assemblages yield P-T conditions which are much less sensitive to compositional effects compared to the other available formulations, and are consistent with independent constraints.

  6. Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Reactions and Degradation Mechanisms of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlborg, Nadia L.; Zhu, Dongming

    2013-01-01

    The thermochemical reactions between calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate- (CMAS-) based road sand and several advanced turbine engine environmental barrier coating (EBC) materials were studied. The phase stability, reaction kinetics and degradation mechanisms of rare earth (RE)-silicates Yb2SiO5, Y2Si2O7, and RE-oxide doped HfO2 and ZrO2 under the CMAS infiltration condition at 1500 C were investigated, and the microstructure and phase characteristics of CMAS-EBC specimens were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Experimental results showed that the CMAS dissolved RE-silicates to form crystalline, highly non-stoichiometric apatite phases, and in particular attacking the silicate grain boundaries. Cross-section images show that the CMAS reacted with specimens and deeply penetrated into the EBC grain boundaries and formed extensive low-melting eutectic phases, causing grain boundary recession with increasing testing time in the silicate materials. The preliminary results also showed that CMAS reactions also formed low melting grain boundary phases in the higher concentration RE-oxide doped HfO2 systems. The effect of the test temperature on CMAS reactions of the EBC materials will also be discussed. The faster diffusion exhibited by apatite and RE-doped oxide phases and the formation of extensive grain boundary low-melting phases may limit the CMAS resistance of some of the environmental barrier coatings at high temperatures.

  7. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  8. Monodisperse Aluminosilicate Spheres with Tunable Al/Si Ratio and Hierarchical Macro-Meso-Microporous Structure.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yuan; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2015-06-24

    While tremendous success has been seen in the development of ordered mesoporous silica by soft-templated methods, synthesis of hierarchical structures with controllable multiscale pore networks has remained a challenging topic. On the other hand, introduction of heteroatoms as an effective method of chemically functionalizing silica leads to difficulties in morphological control of the product, and multistep synthesis has been necessary for functionalized silica particles with hierarchical pore structure and uniform size. The present work demonstrates that the conflict between morphological control and heteroatom incorporation can be resolved in a CTAB-stabilized toluene-water-ethanol microemulsion system. For the first time, monodisperse macro-meso-microporous aluminosilicate spheres (MASS) are synthesized in one step at room temperature. Simultaneous tuning of Al/Si ratio (0-0.35) and the hierarchical pore structure is realized by Hofmeister anion effects of the Al source itself, [Al(OH)4](-), which change the geometry of CTAB micelles and giant vesicles. The Al is incorporated purely in a tetrahedrally coordinated status, and preliminary results from catalytic experiments show improved acidity of MASS as a catalyst support.

  9. Aluminosilicates enhance the infectivity of cytomegalovirus in urine using centrifugation-enhanced antigen detection technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Biondo, F X; Teichberg, S; Lipson, S M

    1996-04-01

    Due to the inherent lability of CMV, necessary laboratory identification of this infectious agent is often compromised by a delay in specimen transport. Previous studies have addressed the phenomenon of infectivity enhancement/reduction in the rate of infectivity loss by the incorporation into various viral assay systems of trace concentrations of the adsorbents montmorillonite (bentonite [M]) or kaolinite (kaolin [K]). We extended these studies to the clinical setting to identify whether such aluminosilicates would effect an enhanced level of CMV infectivity. The shell vial assay-indirect immunofluorescent assay (SVA-IFA) was utilized in comparative testing throughout this study. The addition of trace concentrations of M or K to the SVA-IFA was found to enhance the infectivity of CMV in urine by 115 and 126%, respectively. The total CMV detection rate by SVA-IFA was 29% (30/105). Three of the 30 (10%) CMV positive specimens were detected only in shell vials which had been supplemented with K or M. Two specimens were isolation positive alone. The addition of K or M to shell vials immediately prior to the start of the SVA-IFA has the potential of (a), enhancing assay readability by increasing the number of fluorescent focus units per vial monolayer and (b), of detecting positive urine specimens with low viral titers which might otherwise not be identified using the conventional SVA-IFA procedure.

  10. Lithium-Ion Ultracapacitors integrated with Wind Turbines Power Conversion Systems to Extend Operating Life and Improve Output Power Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Nasiri, Adel

    2012-05-23

    In this project we designed and modeled a system for a full conversion wind turbine and built a scaled down model which utilizes Lithium-Ion Capacitors on the DC bus. One of the objectives is to reduce the mechanical stress on the gearbox and drivetrain of the wind turbine by adjusting the torque on generator side according to incoming wind power. Another objective is to provide short-term support for wind energy to be more grid friendly in order to ultimately increase wind energy penetration. These supports include power smoothing, power ramp rate limitation, low voltage ride through, and frequency (inertia) support. This research shows how energy storage in small scale and in an economical fashion can make a significant impact on performance of wind turbines. Gearbox and drivetrain premature failures are among high cost maintenance items for wind turbines. Since the capacitors are directly applied on the turbine DC bus and their integration does not require addition hardware, the cost of the additional system can be reasonable for the wind turbine manufacturers and utility companies.

  11. Highly acidic mesostructured aluminosilicates assembled from surfactant-mediated zeolite hydrolysis products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Yu; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2006-03-16

    The surfactant-mediated hydrolysis of ZSM-5 zeolite affords five-membered ring subunits that can be readily incorporated into the framework walls of a hexagonal mesostructured aluminosilicate, denoted MSU-Z. The five-membered ring subunits, which are identifiable by infrared spectroscopy, impart unprecedented acidity to the mesostructure, as judged by cumene cracking activity at 300 degrees C. Most notably, MSU-Z aluminosilicate made through the base hydrolysis of ZSM-5 in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium ions exhibits a cumene conversion of 73%, which is 6.7-fold higher than the conversion provided by a conventional MCM-41. This approach to stabilizing zeolitic subunits through surfactant-mediated hydrolysis of zeolites appears to be general. The hydrolysis of USY zeolite under analogous hydrolytic conditions also affords zeolitic fragments that boost the acidity of the mesostructure in comparison to equivalent compositions prepared from conventional aluminosilicate precursors.

  12. Synthesis and immobilization of silver nanoparticles on aluminosilicate nanotubes and their antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipek Yucelen, G.; Connell, Rachel E.; Terbush, Jessica R.; Westenberg, David J.; Dogan, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    A novel colloidal method is presented to synthesize silver nanoparticles on aluminosilicate nanotubes. The technique involves decomposition of AgNO3 solution to Ag nanoparticles in the presence of aluminosilicate nanotubes at room temperature without utilizing of reducing agents or any organic additives. Aluminosilicate nanotubes are shown to be capable of providing a unique chemical environment, not only for in situ conversion of Ag+ into Ag0, but also for stabilization and immobilization of Ag nanoparticles. The synthesis strategy described here could be implemented to obtain self-assembled nanoparticles on other single-walled metal oxide nanotubes for unique applications. Finally, we demonstrated that nanotube/nanoparticle hybrid show strong antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli.

  13. Fingering instabilities induced by the accretion of planetary matter onto stars : The lithium case. Application to the 16 Cygni stellar system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, M.; Richard, O.; Vauclair, S.

    2015-12-01

    The 16 Cygni system is composed of two solar analogs with similar masses and ages. They have been observed by Kepler for asteroseismology, and their radii have been precisely determined from interferometry. A red dwarf is in orbit around 16 Cygni A whereas 16 Cygni B hosts a giant planet. The abundances of heavy elements are similar in the two stars but lithium is much more depleted in 16 Cygni B that in 16 Cygni A, by a factor of at least 4.7. We show that fingering convection induced by the accretion of planetary matter onto 16 Cygni B can account for this difference in lithium abundances. This is a general result which may be applied to all planetary-host stars.

  14. Structural and optical characteristics of Eu3+ ions in sodium-lead-zinc-lithium-borate glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagukguk, J.; Kaewkhao, J.; Djamal, M.; Hidayat, R.; Suprijadi; Ruangtaweep, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Structural and optical properties of Eu3+-doped sodium-lead-zinc-lithium-borate glasses (65-x)B2O3sbnd 15Na2Osbnd 10PbOsbnd 5ZnOsbnd 5Li2Osbnd xEu2O3 (where x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0) have been measured and analyzed by varying the Eu3+ ion concentrations. The physical parameters such as polaron radius, field strength and inter nuclear distance have been determined from measurements of densities and refractive indices. The structural properties of the prepared borate glasses were analyzed based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR instruments. The diffraction spectra show no characteristic peaks in these glasses, which indicates the amorphous nature of the glasses. The infrared spectrum of the Eu3+-doped sodium-lead-zinc-lithium-borate glass systems show three disparate regions for active absorption band around 830-860 cm-1, 1020-1040 cm-1 and 1170-1180 cm-1. The electronic transitions in the UV-vis and NIR regions are assigned to the 7F0 → 5D4, 7F0 → 5G2, 7F0 → 5L6, 7F0 → 5D3, 7F0 → 5D2, 7F0 → 5D1, 7F0 → 5D07F1 → 5D07F0 → 7F6 and 7F1 → 7F6 levels centered at 362 nm, 380 nm, 395 nm, 414 nm, 465 nm, 533 nm, 583 nm, 590 nm 2092 nm and 2202 nm respectively. Five transition bands of luminescence spectra have been observed by using an excited wavelength of 395 nm. The luminescence intensity ratio (R) of 5D0 → 7F2 (electric dipole) transition to 5D0 → 7F1 (magnetic dipole) transition has been determined to obtain the strength of the covalent/ionic bond between the Eu3+ ions and the surrounding ligands. Radiative life time and emission color of the glasses were estimated and compared with other literature data by varying Eu3+ concentrations. The experimental lifetime of the 5D0 level was found to increase with increasing Eu3+ ion content, suggesting higher non-radiative energy transfer among Eu3+ ions in the glasses.

  15. Aflatoxin adsorbent capacity of two Mexican aluminosilicates in experimentally contaminated chick diets.

    PubMed

    Márquez Márquez, R N; Tejada de Hernandez, I

    1995-01-01

    To study the aflatoxin-adsorbent capacity of two Mexican aluminosilicates (ALS) identified as Atapulgita (AT) and Füller earth (FE), these ALS were compared with a commercial aluminosilicate, Novasil (NV), at two concentrations (0.05 and 1.0%) added to chick diets with 55% of experimentally contaminated corn (200 micrograms/kg). Eight treatments were studied with two replicates for treatment and four chicks per cage. Results (weight gain, feed efficiency, gross and microscopic pathology) at 3 weeks showed that both Mexican ALS were as efficient as the commercial material in protecting chicks against the aflatoxin toxicity. PMID:7664939

  16. Spectroscopy and laser action of rhodamine 6G doped aluminosilicate xerogels

    SciTech Connect

    McKiernan, J.M.; Yamanaka, S.A.; Dunn, B.; Zink, J.I. )

    1990-07-26

    Rhodamine 6G (R6G) doped aluminosilicate glass synthesized by the sol-gel method exhibits laser action. Transparent 5 mm {times} 5 mm {times} 10 mm monoliths were used as cast in a simple laser cavity. This new material was pumped at rates of up to 25 Hz and was still active after as many as 40,000 pump pulses. Luminescence and free-running laser spectra are measured. The dependence of the R6G doped aluminosilicate dye laser output on the number of pump pulses and the pump pulse energy is discussed.

  17. Aflatoxin adsorbent capacity of two Mexican aluminosilicates in experimentally contaminated chick diets.

    PubMed

    Márquez Márquez, R N; Tejada de Hernandez, I

    1995-01-01

    To study the aflatoxin-adsorbent capacity of two Mexican aluminosilicates (ALS) identified as Atapulgita (AT) and Füller earth (FE), these ALS were compared with a commercial aluminosilicate, Novasil (NV), at two concentrations (0.05 and 1.0%) added to chick diets with 55% of experimentally contaminated corn (200 micrograms/kg). Eight treatments were studied with two replicates for treatment and four chicks per cage. Results (weight gain, feed efficiency, gross and microscopic pathology) at 3 weeks showed that both Mexican ALS were as efficient as the commercial material in protecting chicks against the aflatoxin toxicity.

  18. Calculation of the Aluminosilicate Half-Life Formation Time in the 2H Evaporator

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-09-21

    The 2H Evaporator contains large quantities of aluminosilicate solids deposited on internal fixtures. The proposed cleaning operations will dissolve the solids in nitric acid. Operations will then neutralize the waste prior to transfer to a waste tank. Combining recent calculations of heat transfer for the 2H Evaporator cleaning operations and laboratory experiments for dissolution of solid samples from the pot, the authors estimated the re-formation rate for aluminosilicates during cooling. The results indicate a half-life formation of 17 hours when evaporator solution cools from 60 degrees C and 9 hours when cooled from 90 degrees C.

  19. The Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers photodarkening mechanism based on the charge-transfer state excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybaltovsky, A. A.; Bobkov, K. K.; Velmiskin, V. V.; Umnikov, A. A.; Shestakova, I. A.; Guryanov, A. N.; Likhachev, M. E.; Bubnov, M. M.; Dianov, E. M.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the photodarkening effect in fiber preforms with an ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass core. The room-temperature stable Yb2+ ions formation in the glass matrix under both UV- and NIR-pumping irradiation was revealed by the method of absorption spectra analysis and the fluorescence spectroscopy technique. Comparative studies of preforms and crystals samples luminescence spectra, obtained under UV-excitation, were performed. A general mechanism of Yb2+ ions and aluminium oxygen-hole centers (Al-OHC) formation as a result of photoinduced process of Yb3+ ions excitation to "charge-transfer state" (CTS) was found for both Yb:YAG crystal and aluminosilicate glass.

  20. Composition Optimization of Al-DOPING Lithium Manganese Oxide from Al2O3-Li2CO3-MnO2 Ternary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Sun, Xinyan; Hong, Jianhe; He, Mingzhong

    2013-07-01

    In order to synthesize eutectic compound of Al doping lithium manganese oxide which can be used as cathode material in lithium battery, using γ-Al2O3, Li2CO3 and MnO2 as starting raw materials, the composition optimization research work has been done by the solid state synthesis method. A limited composition range was found in Al2O3-Li2CO3-MnO2 ternary system, in which the synthesized Al doping lithium manganese oxides have single spinel structure and good electrochemical performance. The results showed that the LiAl0.04Mn1.96O4 material presented better charge-discharge cycling behavior than pure LiMn2O4, and showed the best electrochemistry property among the compounds in the Al2O3-Li2O-Mn2O3 ternary system. LiAl0.04Mn1.96O4 still kept perfect cubic structure, but LiMn2O4 kept the coexistence of the cubic and tetragonal phases after 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  1. Hyperfiltration-induced fractionation of lithium isotopes in geologic systems. Progress report, April 1, 1991--December 1, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Effective modeling of hyperfiltration-induced fractionation of lithium isotopes is hindered by a lack of data on aqueous diffusion coefficients of {sup 6}Li{sup +} and {sup 7}Li{sup +}. Several experiments were conducted this past year on yielded a value for the ratio of diffusion coefficients between {sup D6}Li+Cl{minus}/{sup D7}Li+Cl{minus}. A 0.9450 M LiCl solution was placed within sealed dialysis tubing and osmoted against a kilogram of deionized water at 22C. Osmotic equilibrium occurred at 143 minutes, and the ratio of {omega}{sup 6}Li{sup +}Cl{minus}/{omega}{sup 7}Li+Cl{minus} was measured to be 1.011. Because this experimental value is close to the square root of the mass ratio between {sup 7}LiCl and {sup 6}LiCl (1.012), Graham`s Law may be a convenient way to calculate such ratios for aqueous diffusion coefficients of individual isotopic components. In evolution of this closed-system osmotic cell as a function of time, Li isotopic ratios of beaker and bag solutions exhibit a minimum and a maximum before the {sup 6}Li/{sup 7}Li ratios of both solutions assume the inevitable asymptotic approach toward isotopic equilibrium. Max difference in {sup 6}Li/{sup 7}Li ratio between beaker and bag solution was 0.00156 {plus_minus} 0.00015.

  2. A review of thermal performance improving methods of lithium ion battery: Electrode modification and thermal management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Sijie; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2015-12-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery has emerged as an important power source for portable devices and electric vehicles due to its superiority over other energy storage technologies. A mild temperature variation as well as a proper operating temperature range are essential for a Li-ion battery to perform soundly and have a long service life. In this review paper, the heat generation and dissipation of Li-ion battery are firstly analyzed based on the energy conservation equations, followed by an examination of the hazardous effects of an above normal operating temperature. Then, advanced techniques in respect of electrode modification and systematic battery thermal management are inspected in detail as solutions in terms of reducing internal heat production and accelerating external heat dissipation, respectively. Specifically, variable parameters like electrode thickness and particle size of active material, along with optimization methods such as coating, doping, and adding conductive media are discussed in the electrode modification section, while the current development in air cooling, liquid cooling, heat pipe cooling, and phase change material cooling systems are reviewed in the thermal management part as different ways to improve the thermal performance of Li-ion batteries.

  3. Technetium (VII) Co-precipitation with Framework Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Harsh, James B.; Dickson, Johnbull Otah; Pierce, Eric M.; Bargar, John

    2015-07-13

    Technetium-99 (99Tc), a long-lived radionuclide, is one of the most widespread contaminants within the Hanford subsurface. At some depths, it is only extractable with strong acids, suggesting incorporation into a solid phase. We hypothesized that Tc may have coprecipitated with feldspathoid aluminosilicates under waste tanks that had leaked caustic solutions into the vadose zone. Our objectives were to determine if Tc could be incorporated into the feldspathoids cancrinite and sodalite and under what conditions coprecipitation could occur. Our hypothesis was that sodalite was more likely to incorporate and retain Tc. Our approach was to use known methods of feldspathoid formation in solutions resembling those in Hanford waste tanks contacting sediments in terms of major ion (Na, NO3, OH, Al(OH)4, and Si(OH)4 concentrations. In some cases, Al and Si were supplied from zeolite. We used perrhenate (ReO4) as a surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO4) to avoid the radioactivity. The major findings of this study were 1) ReO4 could be incorporated into either sodalite or cancrinite but the concentration in the solid was < 1% of the competing ion Cl, NO3, or NO2. 2) The small amount of ReO4 incorporated was not exchangeable with NO3 or NO2. 3) In sodalite, NO3 was highly preferred over ReO4 but significant Re-sodalite was formed when the mole fraction in solution (Re/Re+N) exceeded 0.8. 4) A nonlinear relation between the unit cell parameter and amount of Re incorporated suggested that a separate Re-sodalite phase was formed rather than a solid solution. 5) We determined that sodalite preference for sodalite in the presence of different anions increased with the ionic size of the competing anion: Cl < CO3 < NO3 < SO4 < MnO4 < WO4 and significant incorporation did not occur unless the difference in anion radii was less than 12%. 6) Re(VII) was not significantly reduced to Re(IV) under the conditions of this experiment and Re appeared to be a good surrogate for Tc under oxidizing

  4. Structural, vibrational, and elastic properties of a calcium aluminosilicate glass from molecular dynamics simulations: The role of the potential

    SciTech Connect

    Bauchy, M.

    2014-07-14

    We study a calcium aluminosilicate glass of composition (SiO{sub 2}){sub 0.60}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.10}(CaO){sub 0.30} by means of molecular dynamics. To this end, we conduct parallel simulations, following a consistent methodology, but using three different potentials. Structural and elastic properties are analyzed and compared to available experimental data. This allows assessing the respective abilities of the potentials to produce a realistic glass. We report that, although all these potentials offer a reasonable glass structure, featuring tricluster oxygen atoms, their respective vibrational and elastic predictions differ. This allows us to draw some general conclusions about the crucial role, or otherwise, of the interaction potential in silicate systems.

  5. Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Cross-Linked Silica, Organic Polyimide, and Inorganic Aluminosilicate Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Guo, Haiquan N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    As aerospace applications become ever more demanding, novel insulation materials with lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight and higher use temperature are required to fit the aerospace application needs. Having nanopores and high porosity, aerogels are superior thermal insulators, among other things. The use of silica aerogels in general is quite restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extereme aerospace environments. Our research goal is to develop aerogels with better mechanical and environmental stability for a variety of aeronautic and space applications including space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Different type of aerogels including organic-inorganic polymer reinforced (hybrid) silica-based aerogels, polyimide aerogels and inorganic aluminosilicate aerogels have been developed and examined.

  6. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  7. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  8. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  9. Electrophysical behavior of ion-conductive organic-inorganic polymer system based on aliphatic epoxy resin and salt of lithium perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkovska, Liubov; Iurzhenko, Maksym; Mamunya, Yevgen; Matkovska, Olga; Demchenko, Valeriy; Lebedev, Eugene; Boiteux, Gisele; Serghei, Anatoli

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, ion-conductive hybrid organic-inorganic polymers based on epoxy oligomer of diglycide aliphatic ester of polyethylene glycol (DEG) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) were synthesized. The effect of LiClO4 content on the electrophysical properties of epoxy polymers has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS). The effect of LiClO4 content on the structure has been studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). It was found that LiClO4 impacts on the structure of the synthesized hybrid epoxy polymers, probably, by formation of coordinative complexes {ether oxygen-lithium cations-ether oxygen} as evidenced from a significant increase in their glass transition temperatures with increasing LiClO4 concentration and WAXS studies. The presence of ether oxygen in DEG macromolecules provides a transfer mechanism of the lithium cations with the ether oxygen similar to polyethylene oxide (PEO). Thus, the obtained hybrid polymers have high values of ionic conductivity σ' (approximately 10-3 S/cm) and permittivity ɛ' (6 × 105) at elevated temperatures (200°C). On the other hand, DEG has higher heat resistance compared to PEO that makes these systems perspective as solid polymer electrolytes able to operate at high temperature.

  10. High Performance Discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) with Liquid Lithium Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, John

    2014-10-01

    The possibility of a liquid metal first wall for a fusion reactor has been extensively discussed. Small-area liquid lithium limiters and divertor targets have been installed in tokamaks, but no confinement device has ever operated with a large-area liquid lithium wall. Here we report the first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (2 m2, or 40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the hot (300 C) wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10 × compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic confinement times exceeded ITER98P(y,2) scaling by up to a factor of four. LTX lacks auxiliary heating, so these confinement improvements represent changes in electron confinement. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges using the John Hopkins University transmission grating extreme ultraviolet spectrometer indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges run against liquid walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges operated against solid lithium walls. This differs strongly from earlier trials of molten lithium walls in LTX, which showed evidence for strong oxygen influx from walls operated at similar temperatures. At present, the Thomson scattering system is undergoing upgrades and realignment, after which confinement times obtained with magnetic diagnostics will be compared with kinetic measurements. A second electron beam will be installed to extend liquid lithium wall operation to 4 m2 coverage, or >80% of the total plasma surface area. Results with expanded liquid lithium wall area will be presented. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. The lithium vapor box divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-02-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  12. EFFECT OF IMPURITIES ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINOSILICATES ON ARSENIC SORPTION AND OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenite, As(III), and arsenate, As(V), are of increasing environmental concern. Risk assessment and risk management of arsenic contaminated sites requires a better understanding of arsenic-mineral interactions. Aluminosilicate minerals, such as feldspars and clays, are the mos...

  13. Direct aerosol synthesis of large-pore amorphous mesostructured aluminosilicates with superior acid-catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Pega, Stéphanie; Boissière, Cédric; Grosso, David; Azaïs, Thierry; Chaumonnot, Alexandra; Sanchez, Clément

    2009-01-01

    An old dream comes true: A direct and environmentally benign synthetic strategy was developed for the aerosol-based mass production of large-pore mesostructured aluminosilicate powders (see TEM image). Although amorphous, some powders exhibit higher activity towards m-xylene isomerization and lower coke formation than a Y-zeolite based industrial reference catalyst.

  14. Epoxide ring-opening and Meinwald rearrangement reactions of epoxides catalyzed by mesoporous aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mathew W C; Davies, A Matthew; Buckle, Richard; Mabbett, Ian; Taylor, Stuart H; Graham, Andrew E

    2009-06-21

    Mesoporous aluminosilicates efficiently catalyze the ring-opening of epoxides to produce beta-alkoxyalcohols in high yields under extremely mild reaction conditions. These materials also catalyze the corresponding Meinwald rearrangement in non-nucleophilic solvents to give aldehydes which can be trapped in situ to provide the corresponding acetals in an efficient tandem process.

  15. High-aluminum-affinity silica is a nanoparticle that seeds secondary aluminosilicate formation.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Brown, Andy; Dietzel, Martin; Powell, Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7) we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP). Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m(2) g(-1) and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III) binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP) with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III) ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III) species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates.

  16. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the... Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held May 1-3, 2012, from 9 a.m.-5...

  17. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the... Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held February 28-29, 2012, from 9 a.m.-5...

  18. Aluminosilicates with varying alumina-silica ratios: synthesis via a hybrid sol-gel route and structural characterisation.

    PubMed

    Nampi, Padmaja Parameswaran; Moothetty, Padmanabhan; Berry, Frank John; Mortimer, Michael; Warrier, Krishna Gopakumar

    2010-06-01

    Aluminosilicates with varying Al2O3:SiO2 molar ratios (3:1, 3:2, 3:3 and 3:4) have been synthesized using a hybrid sol-gel route using boehmite sol as the precursor for alumina and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the precursor for silica. The synthesis of boehmite sol from aluminium nitrate, and its use as the alumina precursor, is cost effective compared to alkoxide precursors. Structural aspects, including bonding and coordination, are studied in detail for samples calcined in the temperature range 400-1400 °C using both NMR and FTIR spectroscopy: the results are correlated with phase formation data (spinel and high temperature phases) obtained from XRD and thermal analysis. FTIR results show a broadening of peaks at 800 °C indicating a disordered distribution of octahedral sites caused by crosslinking between AlO6 octahedral and SiO4 tetrahedral units prior to the formation of mullite. (27)Al MAS NMR spectra are consistent with a progressive decrease in the number of AlO6 polyhedra with increasing temperature corresponding to Al in these units being forced to adopt a tetrahedral coordination due to the increasing presence of similarly coordinated Si species. XRD results confirm the formation of pure mullite at 1250 °C for a 3Al2O3:2SiO2 system. At 1400 °C, phase pure mullite is observed for all compositions except 3Al2O3:SiO2 where α-Al2O3 is the major phase with traces of mullite. The synthesis of aluminosilicates through a hybrid sol-gel route and the detailed insight into structural features gained from spectroscopic and diffraction techniques contributes further to the development of these materials in applications ranging from nanocatalysts to high-temperature ceramics.

  19. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  20. Corrosion behavior of sodium aluminosilicate glasses and crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, James Patrick

    1999-12-01

    A comprehensive study of the effects of structure and composition on the pH-dependent corrosion behavior of sodium-aluminosilicate glasses and crystals at 25°C, was investigated by a combination of various solution and surface analysis techniques. These techniques were used to measure solution stoichiometry relative to the glass and crystal, surface composition, surface layer thickness, and structure of the surface layer. The room temperature dissolution rates of glasses and crystals with the albite composition (NaAlSi3O8) were essentially identical over the acidic-weakly basic pH region. Differences in density and tetrahedral ring structure between the glass and crystal structures, however, led to more extensive Na and Al depletion from the glass surface. Nevertheless, the outermost 17A of the glass and crystal surface were compositionally similar, suggesting that this region of the solid controls the dissolution rate. The corrosion behavior of glasses in the NBO (Na2O-xAl 2O3-(3-x)SiO2) and mineral (Na2O-Al 2O3-y SiO2) series were investigated over the pH range of 1--12. The NBO glass series tested the effects of alumina and non-bridging oxygen (NBO) concentration on corrosion behavior without any change in soda content. The mineral glass series tested the effect of Al/Si ratio on corrosion behavior in glasses with fully polymerized structures and no NBO sites. The elimination of some NBO sites by the initial addition of alumina to the glass with x = 0.0 composition caused a significant reduction in the dissolution rate. However, the dissolution rates of glasses with x > 0.2 (in the NBO series) and all glasses in the mineral series were controlled by Al-O-Si and Si-O-Si bonding. In the NBO series, NBO concentration controlled the formation and thickness of leached surface layers. In the absence of NBO sites, Al-O-Si and Si-O-Si bonding controlled the leaching behavior. Transformation of the glass surfaces during corrosion at any pH led to the formation leached

  1. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  2. Self-diffusion of lithium in LiAlSi2O6 glasses studied using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Welsch, A-M; Behrens, H; Horn, I; Ross, S; Heitjans, P

    2012-01-12

    In order to improve our understanding of the transport mechanisms of lithium in glasses, we have performed diffusion and ionic conductivity studies on spodumene composition (LiAlSi(2)O(6)) glasses. In diffusion couple experiments pairs of chemically identical glasses with different lithium isotopy (natural Li vs pure (7)Li) were processed at temperatures between 482 and 732 K. Profiles of lithium isotopes were measured after the diffusion runs innovatively applying femtosecond UV laser ablation combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS). Self-diffusion coefficients of lithium in the glasses were determined by fitting the isotope profiles. During some of the diffusion experiments the electrical conductivity of the samples was intermittently measured by impedance spectrometry. Combining ionic conductivity and self-diffusivity yields a temperature-independent correlation factor of ~0.50, indicating that motions of Li ions are strongly correlated in this type of glasses. Lithium self-diffusivity in LiAlSi(2)O(6) glass was found to be very similar to that in lithium silicate glasses although Raman spectroscopy demonstrates structural differences between these glasses; that is, the aluminosilicate is completely polymerized while the lithium silicate glasses contain large fractions of nonbridging oxygen.

  3. Preventing Overcharge And Overdischarge Of Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo; Surampudi, Subbarao; Shen, David H.; Deligiannis, Fotios; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Secondary lithium cells operating at ambient temperature protected against overcharge and overdischarge by use of cathode additives acting as sources and sinks of electroactive chemical species, which is lithium. Additive in cathode limits excursion of voltage of cell during both overcharge and overdischarge. In addition to protecting cell, also serves as part of state-of-charge indicator: attainment of greater or lesser limiting voltage indicates end of charge or end of discharge, respectively. Concept applied to Li/TiS2 system, and also applicable to such other lithium systems as Li/MoS2, Li/NbSe3, and Li/V2O5.

  4. Sorption of cesium and strontium from mineralized aqueous solutions on natural aluminosilicates modified by ferrocyanides of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Panasyugin, A.S.; Trofimenko, N.E.; Masherova, N.P.; Rat`ko, A.I.; Golikova, N.I.

    1994-03-10

    The sorption behavior of natural aluminosilicates (bentonite and clinoptilolite) and aluminosilicates modified by ferrocyanides of heavy metals has been studied relative to radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the presence of various quantities of alkali and alkaline-earth ions (e.g. surface waters). It has been shown that the distribution coefficients of the modified samples may exceed 100 for Sr{sup 2+} and 10,000 for Cs{sup +}; however, with a concentration of mineral background over 1.0 g{center_dot}liter, the competing ions strongly depress the sorption properties of the aluminosilicates.

  5. Neural Network Modeling of the Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery System

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; O'Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-10-29

    Battery systems have traditionally relied on extensive build and test procedures for product realization. Analytical models have been developed to diminish this reliance, but have only been partially successful in consistently predicting the performance of battery systems. The complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes within battery systems has made the development of analytical models a significant challenge. Advanced simulation tools are needed to more accurately model battery systems which will reduce the time and cost required for product realization. Sandia has initiated an advanced model-based design strategy to battery systems, beginning with the performance of lithiumhhionyl chloride cells. As an alternative approach, we have begun development of cell performance modeling using non-phenomenological models for battery systems based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs are inductive models for simulating input/output mappings with certain advantages over phenomenological models, particularly for complex systems. Among these advantages is the ability to avoid making measurements of hard to determine physical parameters or having to understand cell processes sufficiently to write mathematical functions describing their behavior. For example, ANN models are also being studied for simulating complex physical processes within the Li/SOC12 cell, such as the time and temperature dependence of the anode interracial resistance. ANNs have been shown to provide a very robust and computationally efficient simulation tool for predicting voltage and capacity output for Li/SOC12 cells under a variety of operating conditions. The ANN modeling approach should be applicable to a wide variety of battery chemistries, including rechargeable systems.

  6. Vapor liquid equilibria on the ternary lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-beryllium fluoride system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Grant Takeshi

    Molten mixtures of LiF, NaF, and BeF2 (FLiNaBe) have been proposed as a liquid first wall for selected fusion reactor designs. Because currently envisaged reactor technologies for igniting and/or sustaining a, fusion reaction require vacuum conditions, the volatility of these liquids is an issue for concern. Many physical properties of the ternary LiF-NaF-BeF 2 (FLiNaBe) system have already been studied as part of the molten salt reactor program, but the vapor pressure has not been measured. A study of the vapor liquid equilibrium of FLiNaBe by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry (KCMS) is presented. The ternary system is treated as a pseudo-binary system by fixing the ratio of LiF:NaF and varying the amount of BeF2. Measurements have been performed over a composition range of 0.3--0.8 mole fraction BeF2 and from 875--975K. Experimental data, are correlated in terms of the BeF 2 activity coefficient. Measurements were also carried out on the binary systems LiF-BeF2 and NaF-BeF2. Measured values of the BeF2 activity coefficient in the binary LiF-BeF2 and NaF-BeF2 systems compare satisfactorily with previous results published in the research literature. The vapor phase of FLiNaBe was found to consist of primarily the species BeF2, LiBeF3, and NaBeF 3 over the temperature and composition range studied. Mixtures of BeF2-containing fluoride salts are highly non-ideal; the BeF2 activity coefficient exhibits both positive and negative deviations from ideality over the composition range studied. An associated solution model with 3 adjustable parameters is used to fit the BeF2 activity coefficient data of the LiF-BeF2 and NaF-BeF2 systems. The parameters obtained from fitting binary data are then used to fit the ternary system. The extension of the model to the ternary system results in a single additional parameter that can only be determined from fitting ternary data. Overall the agreement between the model and experimental data is within

  7. Experimental studies of a single-effect absorption refrigerator using aqueous lithium-bromide: Effect of operating condition to system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Aphornratana, Satha; Sriveerakul, Thanarath

    2007-11-15

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of a single-effect absorption using aqueous lithium-bromide as working fluid. A 2 kW cooling capacity experimental refrigerator was tested with various operating temperatures. It was found that the solution circulation ratio (SCR) has a strong effect on the system performance. The measured SCR was 2-5 times greater than the theoretical prediction. This was due to the low performance of the absorber. The use of solution heat exchanger could increase the COP by up to 60%. (author)

  8. Lithium carbonate teratogenic effects in chick cardiomyocyte micromass system and mouse embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocyte--possible protective role of myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, W M Shaikh; Latif, M L; Parker, T L; Pratten, M K

    2014-07-01

    The drug lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) use during pregnancy increases the possibility of cardiovascular anomalies. The earlier studies confirm its phosphatidylinositol cycle (PI) inhibition and Wnt pathways mimicking properties, which might contribute to its teratogenic effects. In this study the toxic effects of Li2CO3 in chick embryonic cardiomyocyte micromass system (MM) and embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocyte (ESDC) were evaluated, with possible protective role of myo-inositol. In MM system the Li2CO3 did not alter the toxicity estimation endpoints, whereas in ESDC system the cardiomyocytes contractile activity stopped at 1500 μM and above with significant increase in total cellular protein contents. In ESDC system when myo-inositol was added along with Li2CO3 to continue PI cycle, the contractile activity was recovered with decreased protein content. The lithium toxic effects depend on the role of PI cycle at particular stage of cardiogenesis, while relation between myo-inositol and reduced cellular protein contents remains unknown.

  9. Optimal management of stationary lithium-ion battery system in electricity distribution grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvins, Arturs; Sumner, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The present article proposes an optimal battery system management model in distribution grids for stationary applications. The main purpose of the management model is to maximise the utilisation of distributed renewable energy resources in distribution grids, preventing situations of reverse power flow in the distribution transformer. Secondly, battery management ensures efficient battery utilisation: charging at off-peak prices and discharging at peak prices when possible. This gives the battery system a shorter payback time. Management of the system requires predictions of residual distribution grid demand (i.e. demand minus renewable energy generation) and electricity price curves (e.g. for 24 h in advance). Results of a hypothetical study in Great Britain in 2020 show that the battery can contribute significantly to storing renewable energy surplus in distribution grids while being highly utilised. In a distribution grid with 25 households and an installed 8.9 kW wind turbine, a battery system with rated power of 8.9 kW and battery capacity of 100 kWh can store 7 MWh of 8 MWh wind energy surplus annually. Annual battery utilisation reaches 235 cycles in per unit values, where one unit is a full charge-depleting cycle depth of a new battery (80% of 100 kWh).

  10. Rechargeable lithium cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, M.; Plichta, E. J.

    1984-09-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt such as LiF6 or LiAlC14 in a mixed organic solvent as the electrolyte and a lithium intercalating cathode.

  11. Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

  12. Improved Separators For Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David; Surampudi, Subbarao; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Improved pairs of separators proposed for use in rechargeable lithium cells operating at ambient temperature. Block growth of lithium dendrites and help prevent short circuits. Each cell contains one separator made of microporous polypropylene placed next to anode, and one separator made of microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) next to cathode. Separators increase cycle lives of secondary lithium cells. Cells to which concept applicable those of Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/VO(x), and Li/MnO(2) chemical systems. Advantageous in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high energy density and rechargeability needed.

  13. Factors associated with lithium efficacy in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2014-01-01

    About one-third of lithium-treated, bipolar patients are excellent lithium responders; that is, lithium monotherapy totally prevents further episodes of bipolar disorder for ten years and more. These patients are clinically characterized by an episodic clinical course with complete remission, a bipolar family history, low psychiatric comorbidity, mania-depression episode sequences, a moderate number of episodes, and a low number of hospitalizations in the pre-lithium period. Recently, it has been found that temperamental features of hypomania (a hyperthymic temperament) and a lack of cognitive disorganization predict the best results of lithium prophylaxis. Lithium exerts a neuroprotective effect, in which increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) play an important role. The response to lithium has been connected with the genotype of the BDNF gene and serum BDNF levels. A better response to lithium is connected with the Met allele of the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism, as is a hyperthymic temperament. Excellent lithium responders have normal cognitive functions and serum BDNF levels, even after long-term duration of the illness. The preservation of cognitive functions in long-term lithium-treated patients may be connected with the stimulation of the BDNF system, with the resulting prevention of affective episodes exerting deleterious cognitive effects, and possibly also with lithium's antiviral effects. A number of candidate genes that are related to neurotransmitters, intracellular signaling, neuroprotection, circadian rhythms, and other pathogenic mechanisms of bipolar disorder were found to be associated with the lithium prophylactic response. The Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) has recently performed the first genome-wide association study on the lithium response in bipolar disorder.

  14. Search for high-Tc conventional superconductivity at megabar pressures in the lithium-sulfur system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokail, Christian; Heil, Christoph; Boeri, Lilia

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the recent report of superconductivity above 200 K in ultra-dense hydrogen sulfide, we search for high-TC conventional superconductivity in the phase diagram of the binary Li-S system, using ab initio methods for crystal structure prediction and linear response calculations for the electron-phonon coupling. We find that at pressures higher than 20 GPa, several new compositions, besides the known Li2S , are stabilized; many exhibit electride-like interstitial charge localization observed in other alkali-metal compounds. Of all predicted phases, only an fcc phase of Li3S , metastable before 640 GPa, exhibits a sizable TC, in contrast to what is observed in sulfur and phosphorus hydrides, where several stoichiometries lead to high TC. We attribute this difference to 2 s -2 p hybridization and avoided core overlap, and predict similar behavior for other alkali-metal compounds.

  15. Mn(II) deposition on anodes and its effects on capacity fade in spinel lithium manganate-carbon systems.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Chun; Lu, Jun; Jeremy Kropf, A; Wu, Tianpin; Jansen, Andrew N; Sun, Yang-Kook; Qiu, Xinping; Amine, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Dissolution and migration of manganese from cathode lead to severe capacity fading of lithium manganate-carbon cells. Overcoming this major problem requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of manganese dissolution, migration and deposition. Here we apply a variety of advanced analytical methods to study lithium manganate cathodes that are cycled with different anodes. We show that the oxidation state of manganese deposited on the anodes is +2, which differs from the results reported earlier. Our results also indicate that a metathesis reaction between Mn(II) and some species on the solid-electrolyte interphase takes place during the deposition of Mn(II) on the anodes, rather than a reduction reaction that leads to the formation of metallic Mn, as speculated in earlier studies. The concentration of Mn deposited on the anode gradually increases with cycles; this trend is well correlated with the anodes rising impedance and capacity fading of the cell.

  16. Kidney function and lithium concentrations of rats given an injection of lithium orotate or lithium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F; Schou, M

    1979-03-01

    A recent study by Kling et al (1978) noted the finding of higher lithium concentrations in serum and brain of rats after an intraperitoneal injection (2 mmol lithium kg-1) of lithium orotate as a slurry than of lithium carbonate in solution. The authors suggested that lithium orotate might offer advantages in the treatment of patients. We repeated the experiments of Kling et al but in addition examined the kidney function of the rats. Glomerular filtration rate and urine flow were markedly lower in rats given lithium orotate than in rats given lithium carbonate, sodium chloride or a sham injection. The renal lithium clearance was significantly lower, the kidney weight and the lithium concentrations in serum, kidney and heart significantly higher after injection of lithium orotate than after injection of lithium carbonate. The higher lithium concentrations could be accounted for by the lower kidney function. It seems inadvisable to use lithium orotate for the treatment of patients. PMID:34690

  17. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Jin . E-mail: jizhong@iupui.edu; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-12-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3{beta}, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3{beta} (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3{beta} inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits.

  18. Implications of NSTX Lithium Results for Magnetic Fusion Research

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono, M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, R. Kaita, H.W. Kugel, B.P. LeBlanc, J.M. Canik, S. Diem, S.P.. Gerhardt, J. Hosea, S. Kaye, D. Mansfield, R. Maingi, J. Menard, S. F. Paul, R. Raman, S.A. Sabbagh, C.H. Skinner, V. Soukhanovskii, G. Taylor, and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-14

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on NSTX for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ~ 100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium reloadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, ELM control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  19. Optical absorption of Co 2+ in gel-derived aluminosilicate glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiulan; Yuan, Duorong; Cheng, Xiufeng; Wang, Xinqiang

    2006-07-01

    Pure and Co 2+-doped aluminosilicate gels were prepared by the sol-gel method from two different aluminum salts, aluminum-iso-propoxide and aluminum nitrate, and heat-treated at 40-1200 °C. Visible and near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectra of the heated samples were studied. When the heat-treatment temperature was 1100 °C, Co 2+-doped aluminosilicate samples, obtained by using aluminum-iso-propoxide, crystallized to Al 2O 3 nanocrystals and exhibited a broad absorption band in the range of 1200-1600 nm, which is characteristic of tetrahedral Co 2+ ions in crystals. The existence of the broad absorption band has allowed us to consider this kind of material as possible candidate for passive Q-switched materials in the NIR region. While the sample prepared from aluminum nitrate was amorphous when heated to 1200 °C.

  20. Alzheimer's disease may begin in the nose and may be caused by aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Roberts, E

    1986-01-01

    Genetic factors may interact with aging changes in the nasal mucociliary apparatus to increase the probability that ubiquitously occurring aluminosilicates may enter sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium and spread transneuronally to several olfactory-related areas of the brain, thereby initiating changes that eventually result in neuronal damage typical of Alzheimer's disease. A speculative sequence of events is suggested by which neuronally-contained aluminosilicates might cleave or otherwise alter a normal cellular protein in such a manner that aggregates would arise that could interfere with cellular function and which also could act in a pseudo-infective manner, relaxing translational and transcriptional controls in the synthesis of the native protein. Some relevant experiments and potential therapies arising from the hypothesis presented are discussed.

  1. Maximizing the catalytic function of hydrogen spillover in platinum-encapsulated aluminosilicates with controlled nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Im, Juhwan; Shin, Hyeyoung; Jang, Haeyoun; Kim, Hyungjun; Choi, Minkee

    2014-02-25

    Hydrogen spillover has been studied for several decades, but its nature, catalytic functions and even its existence remain topics of vigorous debate. This is a consequence of the lack of model catalysts that can provide direct evidences of the existence of hydrogen spillover and simplify the catalytic interpretation. Here we use platinum encapsulated in a dense aluminosilicate matrix with controlled diffusional properties and surface hydroxyl concentrations to elucidate the catalytic functions of hydrogen spillover. The catalytic investigation and theoretical modelling show that surface hydroxyls, presumably Brønsted acids, are crucial for utilizing the catalytic functions of hydrogen spillover on the aluminosilicate surface. The catalysts with optimized nanostructure show remarkable activities in hydro-/dehydrogenation, but virtually no activity for hydrogenolysis. This distinct chemoselectivity may be beneficial in industrially important hydroconversions such as propane dehydrogenation to propylene because the undesired hydrogenolysis pathway producing light hydrocarbons of low value (methane and ethane) is greatly suppressed.

  2. Oxidative damage in Alzheimer's dementia, and the potential etiopathogenic role of aluminosilicates, microglia and micronutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Evans, P H; Yano, E; Klinowski, J; Peterhans, E

    1992-01-01

    While evidence implicating free radical oxidative processes in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's dementia is accumulating, the specific cellular and biochemical mechanisms involved remain to be identified. The potential pathogenic role of microglial cells in neurodegenerative processes is indicated by the finding that purified murine microglial cells exposed in vitro to various model aluminosilicate particles stimulate the generation of tissue-injurious free radical reactive oxygen metabolites. Analogous inorganic aluminosilicate deposits have been reported to occur in the core of the characteristic senile plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer disease subjects. The possible modulation of free radical oxidative activity by antioxidant micronutrients and pharmacological agents, provides a rational basis for further preventative and therapeutic clinical investigations.

  3. Surface and interface investigation of aluminosilicate biomaterial by the “in vivo” experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudadesse, H.; Derrien, A. C.; Martin, S.; Chaair, H.; Cathelineau, G.

    2008-11-01

    Porous mixtures of aluminosilicate/calcium phosphate have been studied for biomaterials applications. Aluminosilicates formed with an inorganic polymeric constitution present amorphous zeolites because of their 3D network structure and present the ability to link to bone matrix. Amorphous geopolymers of the potassium-poly(sialate)-nanopolymer type were synthesised at low temperature and studied for their use as potential biomaterials. They were mixed with 13% weight of calcium phosphate like biphasic hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate. In this study, " in vivo" experiments were monitored to evaluate the biocompatibility, the surface and the interface behaviour of these composites when used as bone implants. Moreover, it has been demonstrated using histological and physicochemical studies that the developed materials exhibited a remarkable bone bonding when implanted in a rabbit's thighbone for a period of 1 month. The easy synthesis conditions (low temperature) of this composite and the fast intimate links with bone constitute an improvement of synthetic bone graft biomaterial.

  4. Amphiphilic Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Zeotype Aluminosilicate like a Nanoporous Crystallized Langmuir-Blodgett Film.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takuji; Hiyoshi, Norihito; Matsuura, Shun-ichi; Kodaira, Tetsuya; Nakaoka, Takuma; Irisa, Ami; Kawano, Miki; Yamamoto, Katsutoshi

    2015-06-26

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid zeotype compound with amphiphilic one-dimensional nanopore and aluminosilicate composition was developed. The framework structure is composed of double aluminosilicate layers and 12-ring nanopores; a hydrophilic layer pillared by Q(2) silicon atom species and a lipophilic layer pillared by phenylene groups are alternately stacked, and 12-ring nanopores perpendicularly penetrate the layers. The framework topology looks similar to that of an AFI-type zeolite but possesses a quasi-multidimensional pore structure consisting of a 12-ring channel and intersecting small pores equivalent to 8-rings. The hybrid material with alternately laminated lipophilic and hydrophilic nanospaces can be assumed as a crystallized Langmuir-Blodgett film. It demonstrates microporous adsorption for both hydrophilic and lipophilic adsorptives, and its outer surface tightly adsorbs lysozyme whose molecular size is much larger than its micropore opening. Our results suggest the possibility of designing porous adsorbent with high amphipathicity.

  5. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper will discuss the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  6. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  7. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-20

    The Early Flight Fission -- Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  8. Selective Recovery of Lithium from Cathode Materials of Spent Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Akitoshi; Ankei, Naoki; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    2016-10-01

    Selective recovery of lithium from four kinds of cathode materials, manganese-type, cobalt-type, nickel-type, and ternary-type, of spent lithium ion battery was investigated. In all cathode materials, leaching of lithium was improved by adding sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) as an oxidant in the leaching solution, while the leaching of other metal ions (manganese, cobalt, and nickel) was significantly suppressed. Optimum leaching conditions, such as pH, temperature, amount of Na2S2O8, and solid/liquid ratio, for the selective leaching of lithium were determined for all cathode materials. Recovery of lithium from the leachate as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) was then successfully achieved by adding sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to the leachate. Optimum recovery conditions, such as pH, temperature, and amount of Na2CO3, for the recovery of lithium as Li2CO3 were determined for all cases. Purification of Li2CO3 was achieved by lixiviation in all systems, with purities of the Li2CO3 higher than 99.4%, which is almost satisfactory for the battery-grade purity of lithium.

  9. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a diborane intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  10. High-Aluminum-Affinity Silica Is a Nanoparticle That Seeds Secondary Aluminosilicate Formation

    PubMed Central

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Brown, Andy; Dietzel, Martin; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7) we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP). Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m2 g-1 and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III) binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP) with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III) ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III) species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates. PMID:24349573

  11. One-step synthesis of hydrothermally stable mesoporous aluminosilicates with strong acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Dongjiang; Xu Yao Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan

    2008-09-15

    Using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS) and aluminium isopropoxide (AIP) as the reactants, through a one-step nonsurfactant route based on PMHS-TEOS-AIP co-polycondensation, hydrothermally stable mesoporous aluminosilicates with different Si/Al molar ratios were successfully prepared. All samples exclusively showed narrow pore size distribution centered at 3.6 nm. To assess the hydrothermal stability, samples were subjected to 100 deg. C distilled water for 300 h. The boiled mesoporous aluminosilicates have nearly the same N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms and the same pore size distributions as those newly synthesized ones, indicating excellent hydrothermal stability. The {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectra confirmed that PMHS and TEOS have jointly condensed and CH{sub 3} groups have been introduced into the materials. The {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicated that Al atoms have been incorporated in the mesopore frameworks. The NH{sub 3} temperature-programmed desorption showed strong acidity. Due to the existence of large amount of CH{sub 3} groups, the mesoporous aluminosilicates obtained good hydrophobicity. Owing to the relatively large pore and the strong acidity provided by the uniform four-coordinated Al atoms, the excellent catalytic performance for 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene cracking was acquired easily. The materials may be a profitable complement for the synthesis of solid acid catalysts. - Graphical abstract: Based on the nonsurfactant method, a facile one-step synthesis route has been developed to prepare methyl-modified mesoporous aluminosilicates that possessed hydrothermal stability and strong acidity.

  12. A lithium superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window). PMID:21804556

  13. A lithium superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

  14. Mangalith: a new lithium pacemaker battery

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbier, G.; Lehmann, G.

    1980-01-01

    An original lithium battery system is being developed for pacemaker application. The material used, lithium-manganese dioxide, industrially available at the present time for a variety of electronic applications, has been modified and adapted for pacemaker power requirements. The utilization of a different modification of manganese dioxide offers performance advantages. The cell technology is described and performance comparisons between this new cathode material and the industrial counterpart are reported. 7 refs.

  15. Adsorption into mineral mesopores as a stabilization mechanism for organic matter on aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, L.M. . Dept. of Oceanography)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of mineral specific surface area and total organic carbon (TOC) indicate that many marine shelf and estuarine sediments, and aluminosilicate soils, have a TOC content equivalent to a monolayer of organic matter covering all mineral surfaces. Density separations of discrete organic particulates from mineral-associated OC are consistent with a primarily adsorbed nature foremost of TOC. Nitrogen gas adsorption data also suggest extensive organic coatings on the mineral grains. Downcore analyses indicate that sediments with TOC starting in excess of monolayer-equivalent (ME) levels decay with core depth to the ME level and then markedly slow their OC loss rate--i.e., the ME level determines the refractory background concentration of TOC. Pore size distributions of marine sediments, determined by nitrogen adsorption or mercury porosimetry, indicate that most surface area of minerals is to be found in pores of < 10 nm diameter. These observations lead to the hypothesis that organic matter is stabilized on aluminosilicate minerals by adsorption into pores too small to allow entry or functioning of the hydrolytic enzymes responsible for OC degradation. This hypothesis is consistent with, but does not require, humification reactions as necessary for OC stabilization. The ME levels of TOC found in continental platform aluminosilicates hence represent a cap on the amount of organic matter that can be protected in this manner and thus attain a residence time of > 1,000 y. Stabilization of higher levels of TOC, as in acid soils or anoxic sediments, presumably results from protection by different mechanisms.

  16. Mesoporous aluminosilicates with ordered hexagonal structure, strong acidity, and extraordinary hydrothermal stability at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Han, Y; Xiao, F S; Qiu, S; Zhu, L; Wang, R; Yu, Y; Zhang, Z; Zou, B; Wang, Y; Sun, H; Zhao, D; Wei, Y

    2001-05-30

    Highly ordered hexagonal mesoporous aluminosilicates (MAS-5) with uniform pore sizes have been successfully synthesized from assembly of preformed aluminosilcate precursors with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. The aluminosilicate precursors were obtained by heating, at 100--140 degrees C for 2--10 h, aluminasilica gels at the Al(2)O(3)/SiO(2)/TEAOH/H(2)O molar ratios of 1.0/7.0--350/10.0--33.0/500--2000. Mesoporous MAS-5 shows extraordinary stability both in boiling water (over 300 h) and in steam (800 degrees C for 2 h). Temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia shows that the acidic strength of MAS-5 is much higher than that of MCM-41 and is comparable to that of microporous Beta zeolite. In catalytic cracking of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene and alkylation of isobutane with butene, MAS-5 exhibits greater catalytic activity and selectivity, as compared with MCM-41 and HZSM-5. The MAS-5 samples were characterized with infrared, UV--Raman, and NMR spectroscopy and numerous other techniques. The results suggest that MAS-5 consists of both mesopores and micropores and that the pore walls of MAS-5 contain primary and secondary structural building units, similar to those of microporous zeolites. Such unique structural features might be responsible for the observed strong acidity and high thermal stability of the mesoporous aluminosilicates with well-ordered hexagonal symmetry.

  17. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Zeolite Materials: Observation of Abundant Aluminosilicate Oligomers Using an Ion Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, Gary Steven; Kessinger, Glen Frank; Scott, Jill Rennee; Gianotto, Anita Kay; Appelhans, Anthony David; Delmore, James Edward

    2000-12-01

    Oligomeric oxyanions were observed in the secondary ion mass spectra (SIMS) of zeolite materials. The oxyanions have the general composition AlmSinO2(m+n)H(m-1)- (m + n = 2 to 8) and are termed dehydrates. For a given mass, multiple elemental compositions are possible because (Al + H) is an isovalent and isobaric substitute for Si. Using 18 keV Ga+ as a projectile, oligomer abundances are low relative to the monomers. Oligomer abundance can be increased by using the polyatomic projectile ReO4- (~5 keV). Oligomer abundance can be further increased using an ion trap (IT-) SIMS; in this instrument, long ion lifetimes (tens of ms) and relatively high He pressure result in significant collisional stabilization and increased high-mass abundance. The dehydrates rapidly react with adventitious H2O present in the IT-SIMS to form mono-, di-, and trihydrates. The rapidity of the reaction and comparison to aluminum oxyanion hydration suggest that H2O adds to the aluminosilicate oxyanions in a dissociative fashion, forming covalently bound product ions. In addition to these findings, it was noted that production of abundant oligomeric aluminosilicates could be significantly increased by substituting the countercation (NH4+) with the larger alkali ions Rb+ and Cs+. This constitutes a useful tactic for generating large aluminosilicate oligomers for surface characterization and ion-molecule reactivity studies.

  18. Hydration effects on the structural and vibrational properties of yttrium aluminosilicate glasses for in situ radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Malik, Jahangir; Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-11-21

    The performances of silicate glasses as containment matrices or vectors of radioactive ions in nuclear waste storage and in situ radiotherapy are influenced by the effect of interstitial water on the glass durability. In order to assess how hydration determines changes to atomistic structural features which control the glass degradation, we have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of a typical yttrium aluminosilicate (YAS) glass employed in radiotherapy, incorporating different water contents. The analysis of the models allows us to discuss the way in which hydroxyl groups are distributed in the glass structure and modify or disrupt the aluminosilicate glass network. Hydration affects the silicate and aluminate connectivity to a different extent, resulting in a different degree of disruption (depolymerization) of the Si and Al network. The simulations also highlight a strong tendency of all hydrated compositions to form Y(3+)- and OH(-)-rich domains, separated from the aluminosilicate matrix. The implications of these structural effects for the durability and ion release behavior of the glass are discussed, as well as the vibrational signatures of the various hydrous species identified in the models. PMID:24206236

  19. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Burket, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  20. Primary lithium cell life studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capulli, John; Donley, Sam; Deligiannis, Frank; Shen, David

    1990-01-01

    One solution for providing a truly independent power source is to package, within the critical subsystem element, a primary battery that can remain dormant for time periods as long as the mission life, which can be 10-15 years, maximum. When primary power from the spacecraft solar array/battery system is interrupted, the backup battery system, which is connected through a diode to the power input line, would automatically support the load to avoid a power interruption to the critical load for a time period long enough to ensure that ground control could access the satellite and correct the anomaly by sending appropriate commands to the spacecraft. Critical subsystems identified for the application are telemetry and command circuits, volatile computer memory, attitude control circuits, and some critical payloads. Due to volume packaging and weight restrictions that exist on most spacecraft, coupled with the long storage periods required, lithium cell technology was selected for the backup power source. Because of the high energy density (200-400 Wh/kg), long shelf life, and load capability, soluble cathode primary lithium technology was chosen. The most important lithium cell properties that require detail characterization for this application are capacity loss, shelf life, and the voltage delay mechanism. These are functions of storage time and temperature. During storage, a passive film builds up on the lithium electrode. The film protects the lithium electrode from progressive capacity decay but requires time to break down when a load is applied. This phenomenon results in a depressed voltage during the period of film breakdown which can last from fractions of a second to minutes.

  1. First-principles calculation of the 17O NMR parameters in Ca oxide and Ca aluminosilicates: the partially covalent nature of the Ca-O bond, a challenge for density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Profeta, Mickaël; Benoit, Magali; Mauri, Francesco; Pickard, Chris J

    2004-10-01

    We apply density functional theory (DFT) to the calculation of the (17)O NMR parameters in Ca and Mg oxides and aluminosilicates. We study the accuracy of the Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized-gradient approximation to DFT in the description of these systems and the origin of the experimentally observed large dependence of the (17)O chemical shift on the alkaline earth ion. We find that (i) the partially covalent nature of the Ca-O bond has a huge impact on the O chemical shifts. The Ca-O covalence alone explains why in Ca oxides and aluminosilicates the (17)O chemical shifts are much more deshielded than those of the corresponding Mg compounds. (ii) The Ca-O covalence is overestimated by the PBE functional. Thus PBE-DFT is not able to reproduce the measured (17)O NMR parameters in Ca oxide and Ca aluminosilicates. (iii) It is possible to correct for the PBE-DFT deficiency in a simple and transferable way and to predict very accurate (17)O NMR parameters. Such accuracy allows us to assign the (17)O NMR spectra of two important model systems: the grossite aluminate (CaAl(4)O(7)) and the wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) silicate.

  2. Lithium Redistribution in Lithium-Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrese, A; Albertus, P; Christensen, J; Newman, J

    2012-01-01

    A model of a lithium-metal battery with a CoO2 positive electrode has been modeled in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. A finite-element approach was used to incorporate an intercalation positive electrode using superposition, electrode tabbing, transport using concentrated solution theory, as well as the net movement of the lithium electrode during cycling. From this model, it has been found that movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface does occur during cycling and is affected by three factors: the cell geometry, the slope of the open-circuit-potential function of the positive electrode, and concentration gradients in both the solid and liquid phases in the cell. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.027210jes] All rights reserved.

  3. Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hightower, Adrian

    This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20

  4. Hafnium in peralkaline and peraluminous boro-aluminosilicate glass, and glass subcomponents: a solubility study.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Linda L.; Darab, John G.; Qian, Maoxu; Zhao, Donggao; Palenik, Christopher S.; Li, Hong; Strachan, Denis M.; Li, Liyu

    2003-10-15

    A relationship between the solubility of hafnia (HfO2) and the host glass composition was explored by determining the solubility limits of HfO2 in peralkaline and peraluminous borosilicate glasses in the system SiO2-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O, and in glasses in the system SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3 in air at 1450 C. The only Hf-bearing phase to crystallize in the peralkaline borosilicate melts is hafnia, while in the boron-free melts sodium-hafnium silicates crystallize. All peraluminous borosilicate melts crystallize hafnia, but the slightly peraluminous glasses also have sector-zoned hafnia crystals that contain Al and Si. The more peraluminous borosilicate glasses also crystallize a B-containing mullite. The general morphology of the hafnia crystals changes as peralkalinity (Na2O/(Na2O+Al2O3)) decreases, as expected in melts with increasing viscosity. In all of the glasses with Na2O > Al2O3, the solubility of hafnia is linearly and positively correlated with Na2O/(Na2O + Al2O3) or Na2O - Al2O3 (excess sodium), despite the presence of 5 to 16 mol% B2O3. The solubility of hafnia is higher in the sodium-aluminum borosilicate glasses than in the sodium-aluminosilicate glasses, suggesting that the boron is enhancing the effect that excess sodium has on the incorporation of Hf into the glass structure. The results of this solubility study are compared to other studies of high-valence cation solubility in B-free silicate melts. From this, for peralkaline B-bearing glasses, it is shown that, although the solubility limits are higher, the solution behavior of hafnia is the same as in B-free silicate melts previously studied. By comparison, also, it is shown that in peraluminous melts, there must be a different solution mechanism for hafnia: different than for peralkaline sodium-aluminum borosilicate glasses and different than for B-free silicate melts studied by others.

  5. Determination of neutron absorbed doses in lithium aluminates.

    PubMed

    Delfín Loya, A; Carrera, L M; Ureña-Núñez, F; Palacios, O; Bosch, P

    2003-04-01

    Lithium-based ceramics have been proposed as tritium breeders for fusion reactors. The lithium aluminate (gamma phase) seems to be thermally and structurally stable, the damages produced by neutron irradiation depend on the absorbed dose. A method based on the measurement of neutron activation of foils through neutron capture has been developed to obtain the neutron absorbed dose in lithium aluminates irradiated in the thermal column facility and in the fixed irradiation system of a Triga Mark III Nuclear Reactor. PMID:12672632

  6. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  7. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, Robert F.; Meadows, George E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  8. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  9. A Polymer Lithium-Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report the characteristics of a lithium-oxygen battery using a solid polymer membrane as the electrolyte separator. The polymer electrolyte, fully characterized in terms of electrochemical properties, shows suitable conductivity at room temperature allowing the reversible cycling of the Li-O2 battery with a specific capacity as high as 25,000 mAh gC(-1) reflected in a surface capacity of 12.5 mAh cm(-2). The electrochemical formation and dissolution of the lithium peroxide during Li-O2 polymer cell operation is investigated by electrochemical techniques combined with X-ray diffraction study, demonstrating the process reversibility. The excellent cell performances in terms of delivered capacity, in addition to its solid configuration allowing the safe use of lithium metal as high capacity anode, demonstrate the suitability of the polymer lithium-oxygen as high-energy storage system.

  10. A Polymer Lithium-Oxygen Battery

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report the characteristics of a lithium-oxygen battery using a solid polymer membrane as the electrolyte separator. The polymer electrolyte, fully characterized in terms of electrochemical properties, shows suitable conductivity at room temperature allowing the reversible cycling of the Li-O2 battery with a specific capacity as high as 25,000 mAh gC−1 reflected in a surface capacity of 12.5 mAh cm−2. The electrochemical formation and dissolution of the lithium peroxide during Li-O2 polymer cell operation is investigated by electrochemical techniques combined with X-ray diffraction study, demonstrating the process reversibility. The excellent cell performances in terms of delivered capacity, in addition to its solid configuration allowing the safe use of lithium metal as high capacity anode, demonstrate the suitability of the polymer lithium-oxygen as high-energy storage system. PMID:26238552

  11. First experiments with lithium limiter on FTU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Lazarev, V.; Alekseyev, A.; Vertkov, A.; Zagórski, R.; FTU Team

    2007-06-01

    A liquid lithium limiter (LLL) with capillary porous system has been tested for the first time on the high field medium size tokamak, FTU. Lithium acts as a first wall material in the liquid phase and as a conditioning technique by depositing a lithium film on the walls (lithization). Thermal loads exceeding 5 MW/m2 have been so far applied to the LLL surface during plasma discharges: no anomalous Li influx, like 'lithium bloom', occurs and no surface damage is observed, even after plasma disruptions. Radiation losses, plasma contamination and working gas recycling are reduced after Li coating of the wall as for boronization but with better results. A large electron temperature increase (∼50%) in the scrape-off layer occurs that is well reproduced by the simulation of 2D code TECXY. The Greenwald density limit is easily reached and even exceeded in the explored plasma current ranges (Ip = 0.50-0.9 MA).

  12. Lithium transport through nanosized amorphous silicon layers.

    PubMed

    Hüger, Erwin; Dörrer, Lars; Rahn, Johanna; Panzner, Tobias; Stahn, Jochen; Lilienkamp, Gerhard; Schmidt, Harald

    2013-03-13

    Lithium migration in nanostructured electrode materials is important for an understanding and improvement of high energy density lithium batteries. An approach to measure lithium transport through nanometer thin layers of relevant electrochemical materials is presented using amorphous silicon as a model system. A multilayer consisting of a repetition of five [(6)LiNbO3(15 nm)/Si (10 nm)/(nat)LiNbO3 (15 nm)/Si (10 nm)] units is used for analysis, where LiNbO3 is a Li tracer reservoir. It is shown that the change of the relative (6)Li/(7)Li isotope fraction in the LiNbO3 layers by lithium diffusion through the nanosized silicon layers can be monitored nondestructively by neutron reflectometry. The results can be used to calculate transport parameters.

  13. Intrinsic differences in atomic ordering of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrates in conventional and alkali-activated cements

    SciTech Connect

    White, Claire E.; Daemen, Luke L.; Hartl, Monika; Page, Katharine

    2015-01-15

    The atomic structures of calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) and calcium (–sodium) aluminosilicate hydrate (C–(N)–A–S–H) gels, and their presence in conventional and blended cement systems, have been the topic of significant debate over recent decades. Previous investigations have revealed that synthetic C–S–H gel is nanocrystalline and due to the chemical similarities between ordinary Portland cement (OPC)-based systems and low-CO{sub 2} alkali-activated slags, researchers have inferred that the atomic ordering in alkali-activated slag is the same as in OPC–slag cements. Here, X-ray total scattering is used to determine the local bonding environment and nanostructure of C(–A)–S–H gels present in hydrated tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S), blended C{sub 3}S–slag and alkali-activated slag, revealing the large intrinsic differences in the extent of nanoscale ordering between C–S–H derived from C{sub 3}S and alkali-activated slag systems, which may have a significant influence on thermodynamic stability, and material properties at higher length scales, including long term durability of alkali-activated cements.

  14. Measurement of absorbed dose to water around an electronic brachytherapy source. Comparison of two dosimetry systems: lithium formate EPR dosimeters and radiochromic EBT2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolfsson, Emelie; White, Shane; Landry, Guillaume; Lund, Eva; Gustafsson, Håkan; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2015-05-01

    Interest in high dose rate (HDR) electronic brachytherapy operating at 50 kV is increasing. For quality assurance it is important to identify dosimetry systems that can measure the absorbed doses in absolute terms which is difficult in this energy region. In this work a comparison is made between two dosimetry systems, EPR lithium formate dosimeters and radiochromic EBT2 film. Both types of dosimeters were irradiated simultaneously in a PMMA phantom using the Axxent EBS. Absorbed dose to water was determined at distances of 10 mm, 30 mm and 50 mm from the EBS. Results were traceable to different primary standards as regards to absorbed dose to water (EPR) and air kerma (EBT2). Monte Carlo simulations were used in absolute terms as a third estimate of absorbed dose to water. Agreement within the estimated expanded (k = 2) uncertainties (5% (EPR), 7% (EBT2)) was found between the results at 30 mm and 50 mm from the x-ray source. The same result was obtained in 4 repetitions of irradiation, indicating high precision in the measurements with both systems. At all distances, agreement between EPR and Monte Carlo simulations was shown as was also the case for the film measurements at 30mm and 50mm. At 10mm the geometry for the film measurements caused too large uncertainty in measured values depending on the exact position (within sub-mm distances) of the EBS and the 10 mm film results were exculded from comparison. This work has demonstrated good performance of the lithium formate EPR dosimetry system in accordance with earlier experiments at higher photon energies (192Ir HDR brachytherapy). It was also highlighted that there might be issues regarding the energy dependence and intrinsic efficiency of the EBT2 film that need to be considered for measurements using low energy sources.

  15. The NASA Lithium Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Frank, H.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is sponsoring research to develop advanced primary and secondary lithium cells. Lithium cells are conducive to aerospace use because they have high specific energy, volumetric energy density, and long storage capability. The primary cell research is centered on the Li/SOCl2 system. It is in the late development stage and all effort is being placed on resolving safety problems. The secondary cell, which is in the development stage, is the Li/TiS2 system. The objective is to produce a 100 wh/kg cell capable of operating in a geosynchronous orbit for 10 years. The development of improved conductivity polymeric films for electrochemical use is also being investigated. The lightweight batteries will have many applications in space and are already being prepared for the 1986 Galileo mission to Jupiter.

  16. Lithium peroxide primary element

    SciTech Connect

    Winsel, A.

    1985-03-12

    In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

  17. Lithium peroxide primary element

    SciTech Connect

    Winsel, A.

    1982-05-04

    In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with the anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

  18. Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Infiltration and Cyclic Degradations of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings in Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Smialek, Jim; Miller, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop higher temperature capable turbine thermal barrier and environmental barrier coating systems, Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) resistance of the advanced coating systems needs to be evaluated and improved. This paper highlights some of NASA past high heat flux testing approaches for turbine thermal and environmental barrier coatings assessments in CMAS environments. One of our current emphases has been focused on the thermal barrier - environmental barrier coating composition and testing developments. The effort has included the CMAS infiltrations in high temperature and high heat flux turbine engine like conditions using advanced laser high heat flux rigs, and subsequently degradation studies in laser heat flux thermal gradient cyclic and isothermal furnace cyclic testing conditions. These heat flux CMAS infiltration and related coating durability testing are essential where appropriate CMAS melting, infiltration and coating-substrate temperature exposure temperature controls can be achieved, thus helping quantify the CMAS-coating interaction and degradation mechanisms. The CMAS work is also playing a critical role in advanced coating developments, by developing laboratory coating durability assessment methodologies in simulated turbine engine conditions and helping establish CMAS test standards in laboratory environments.

  19. RESULTS OF CAUSTIC DISSOLUTION OF ALUMINOSILICATE SCALE AND CHARACTERIZATION DATA FOR SAMPLES FROM THE EVAPORATOR POT AND GRAVITY DRAIN LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B; Rita Sullivan, R; Chris Martino, C

    2006-08-21

    The build-up of sodium aluminosilicate scale in the 2H Evaporator system continues to cause operational difficulties. The use of a nitric acid cleaning operation proved successful in 2001. However, the operation required additional facilities to support spent cleaning solution neutralization and was quite costly. A proposed caustic cleaning flowsheet has many advantages over the acid flowsheet. Therefore, samples were retrieved from the evaporator system (gravity drain line and pot) for both chemical and radiological characterization and dissolution testing. The characterization of these scale samples showed the presence of nitrated cancrinite along with a dehydrated zeolite. Small amounts of depleted uranium were also found in these samples as expected and the amount of uranium ranged from 0.5 wt% to 2 wt%. Dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions of various caustic concentrations showed that the scale slowly dissolves at elevated temperature (90 C). Data from similar testing indicate that the scale removed from the GDL in 2005 dissolves slower than that removed in 1997. Differences in the particle size of these samples of scale may well explain the measured dissolution rate differences.

  20. Lithium brines: A global perspective: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munk, LeeAnn; Hynek, Scott; Bradley, Dwight C.; Boutt, David; Labay, Keith A.; Jochens, Hillary; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hitzman, Murray W.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is a critical and technologically important element that has widespread use, particularly in batteries for hybrid cars and portable electronic devices. Global demand for lithium has been on the rise since the mid-1900s and is projected to continue to increase. Lithium is found in three main deposit types: (1) pegmatites, (2) continental brines, and (3) hydrothermally altered clays. Continental brines provide approximately three-fourths of the world’s Li production due to their relatively low production cost. The Li-rich brine systems addressed here share six common characteristics that provide clues to deposit genesis while also serving as exploration guidelines. These are as follows: (1) arid climate; (2) closed basin containing a salar (salt crust), a salt lake, or both; (3) associated igneous and/or geothermal activity; (4) tectonically driven subsidence; (5) suitable lithium sources; and (6) sufficient time to concentrate brine. Two detailed case studies of Li-rich brines are presented; one on the longest produced lithium brine at Clayton Valley, Nevada, and the other on the world’s largest producing lithium brine at the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  1. Role of Constituent Hard Polymer in Enhancing Lithium Transference Number of Lithium Salt-Polymer Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Gyuha; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-03-01

    Lithium polymer batteries have been projected as promising energy storage systems, owing to their unique advantages such as long cycle life, high specific capacity, and high cell potential. While the polymer electrolytes such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) employed in lithium polymer batteries have high ionic conductivity and low volatility, the PEO-lithium salt complexes indicated immense shortcomings of concentration polarization, ascribed to the motion of free anions within PEO. This has limited charge/discharge rate of lithium batteries. In this study, we present a new methodology for improving the ionic conductivity and lithium transference number of PEO, by block copolymerization with a hard polymer, namely poly(dithiooxamide) (PDTOA). Compared to a simple PEO/PDTOA blend, lithium-salt doped PEO-b-PDTOA block copolymers exhibited significantly improved ionic conductivity values. Further, lithium transference numbers as high as 0.66 were observed, which are much higher than the corresponding values for conventional PEO-salt electrolytes (~ 0 . 25).

  2. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  3. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  4. Lithium and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Yumiko; Shimada, Kohei; Ishiguro, Koichi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2014-06-18

    Lithium, a drug used to treat bipolar disorders, has a variety of neuroprotective mechanisms, including autophagy regulation, in various neuropsychiatric conditions. In neurodegenerative diseases, lithium enhances degradation of aggregate-prone proteins, including mutated huntingtin, phosphorylated tau, and α-synuclein, and causes damaged mitochondria to degrade, while in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease autophagy downregulation by lithium is observed. The signaling pathway of lithium as an autophagy enhancer might be associated with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent pathway, which is involved in myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the mTOR-dependent pathway might be involved in inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) in other diseases. Lithium's autophagy-enhancing property may contribute to the therapeutic benefit of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. Solubility and solution mechanisms of chlorine in aluminosilicate melts at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalou, C.; Mysen, B. O.

    2012-12-01

    We address the effect of alkalies and aluminum on the solution behavior of Cl by combining solubility measurements of Cl and Raman data of Cl-bearing peralkaline aluminosilicate glasses (quenched melt). Six compositions along the join Na2Si3O7(NS3)-Na2(NaAl)3O7 and six compositions along the join K2Si3O7(KS3)-K2(KAl)3O7 were used. In order to isolate potential effects of Al/(Al+Si) from changes on melt polymerization, Al2O3 was exchanged with SiO2 in a charge-balanced form, NaAlO2 and KaAlO2 thus keeping approximately constant NBO/T (0.65 ± 0.02) for all melts (assuming Al3+ in 4-fold coordination in the melts). Starting materials were doped with 5wt% Cl in the form of PdCl2, which releases Cl2 as its gaseous phase during experiment. Samples were synthetized on piston-cylinder apparatus at 1600°C - 1.5 GPa. At the end of the experiments, Pd forms little spheres (1-2 μm) that for most part dissolves into the capsule. Chlorine oversaturation in the melts is ensured by the observation of bubbles in the quenched samples. The Cl solubility in Na-bearing systems is about twice that of the than in K-bearing system and may, therefore, be negatively correlated with ionic radius of the metal cation.. The solubility also decreases with Al/(Al+Si). In NS3 system, it decreases from 4.01 ± 0.13 wt% of Cl in Al-free systems to 1.87 ± 0.19 wt% of Cl for an Al/Al+Si ratio of 0.34. In KS3 system, this decrease is from 2.23 ± 0.08 wt% of Cl in Al-free systems to 0.62 ± 0.05 wt% of Cl for an Al/Al+Si ratio of 0.36. In Al-free systems, preliminary Raman data show the appearance of a peak around 465cm-1, that we assigned to alkali-Cl bonding. The intensity of this 465cm-1 peak increases with Al content confirming the role of Al in Cl solution mechanism.We also identify the molecular Cl peak at 1540cm-1. The peak can be detected only in Al-bearing melts. The Al substitution for Si results in increased abundance of three-dimensional cages on the melt structure into which molecular

  6. White Paper for U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force: Waste Heat Recovery with Thermoelectric and Lithium-Ion Hybrid Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C

    2007-11-26

    By harvesting waste heat from engine exhaust and storing it in light-weight high-capacity modules, it is believed that the need for energy transport by convoys can be lowered significantly. By storing this power during operation, substantial electrical power can be provided during long periods of silent operation, while the engines are not operating. It is proposed to investigate the potential of installing efficient thermoelectric generators on the exhaust systems of trucks and other vehicles to generate electrical power from the waste heat contained in the exhaust and to store that power in advanced power packs comprised of polymer-gel lithium ion batteries. Efficient inexpensive methods for production of the thermoelectric generator are also proposed. The technology that exists at LLNL, as well as that which exists at industrial partners, all have high technology readiness level (TRL). Work is needed for integration and deployment.

  7. Calculation of the 13C NMR shieldings of the C0 2 complexes of aluminosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    1995-04-01

    13C NMR shieldings have been calculated using the random-phase-approximation, localized-orbital local-origins version of ab initio coupled Hartree-Fuck perturbation theory for CO 2 and and for several complexes formed by the reaction of CO 2 with molecular models for aluminosilicate glasses, H 3TOT'H3 3-n, T,T' = Si,Al. Two isomeric forms of the CO 2-aluminosilicate complexes have been considered: (1) "CO 2-like" complexes, in which the CO 2 group is bound through carbon to a bridging oxygen and (2) "CO 3-like" complexes, in which two oxygens of a central CO 3 group form bridging bonds to the two TH 3 groups. The CO 2-like isomer of CO 2-H 3SiOSiH 3 is quite weakly bonded and its 13C isotropic NMR shielding is almost identical to that in free CO 2. As Si is progressively replaced by Al in the - H terminated aluminosilicate model, the CO 2-like isomers show increasing distortion from the free CO 2 geometry and their 13C NMR shieldings decrease uniformly. The calculated 13C shielding value for H 3AlO(CO 2)AlH 3-2 is only about 6 ppm larger than that calculated for point charge stabilized CO 3-2. However, for a geometry of H 3SiO(CO 2) AlH 3-1, in which the bridging oxygen to C bond length has been artificially increased to that found in the - OH terminated cluster (OH) 3SiO(CO 2)Al(OH) 3-1, the calculated 13C shielding is almost identical to that for free CO 2. The CO 3-like isomers of the CO 2-aluminosili-cate complexes show carbonate like geometries and 13C NMR shieldings about 4-9 ppm larger than those of carbonate for all T,T' pairs. For the Si,Si tetrahedral atom pair the CO 2-like isomer is more stable energetically, while for the Si,Al and Al,Al cases the CO 3-like isomer is more stable. Addition of Na + ions to the CO 3-2 or H 3AlO(CO 2)AlH 3-2 complexes reduces the 13C NMR shieldings by about 10 ppm. Complexation with either Na + or CO 2 also reduces the 29Si NMR shieldings of the aluminosilicate models, while the changes in 27Al shielding with Na + or CO 2

  8. Development of a Composite Non-Electrostatic Surface Complexation Model Describing Plutonium Sorption to Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, B A; Kersting, A; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2008-10-28

    Due to their ubiquity in nature and chemical reactivity, aluminosilicate minerals play an important role in retarding actinide subsurface migration. However, very few studies have examined Pu interaction with clay minerals in sufficient detail to produce a credible mechanistic model of its behavior. In this work, Pu(IV) and Pu(V) interactions with silica, gibbsite (Aloxide), and Na-montmorillonite (smectite clay) were examined as a function of time and pH. Sorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) to gibbsite and silica increased with pH (4 to 10). The Pu(V) sorption edge shifted to lower pH values over time and approached that of Pu(IV). This behavior is apparently due to surface mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV). Surface complexation constants describing Pu(IV)/Pu(V) sorption to aluminol and silanol groups were developed from the silica and gibbsite sorption experiments and applied to the montmorillonite dataset. The model provided an acceptable fit to the montmorillonite sorption data for Pu(V). In order to accurately predict Pu(IV) sorption to montmorillonite, the model required inclusion of ion exchange. The objective of this work is to measure the sorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) to silica, gibbsite, and smectite (montmorillonite). Aluminosilicate minerals are ubiquitous at the Nevada National Security Site and improving our understanding of Pu sorption to aluminosilicates (smectite clays in particular) is essential to the accurate prediction of Pu transport rates. These data will improve the mechanistic approach for modeling the hydrologic source term (HST) and provide sorption Kd parameters for use in CAU models. In both alluvium and tuff, aluminosilicates have been found to play a dominant role in the radionuclide retardation because their abundance is typically more than an order of magnitude greater than other potential sorbing minerals such as iron and manganese oxides (e.g. Vaniman et al., 1996). The sorption database used in recent HST models (Carle et al., 2006

  9. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  10. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  11. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: the case of lithium.

    PubMed

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society--they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like 'servicizing' the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. PMID:23768895

  12. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: the case of lithium.

    PubMed

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society--they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like 'servicizing' the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries.

  13. Metallic nanoparticles and their medicinal potential. Part II: aluminosilicates, nanobiomagnets, quantum dots and cochleates.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Leena; Scarabelli, Tiziano

    2013-09-01

    Metallic miniaturization techniques have taken metals to nanoscale size where they can display fascinating properties and their potential applications in medicine. In recent years, metal nanoparticles such as aluminium, silicon, iron, cadmium, selenium, indium and calcium, which find their presence in aluminosilicates, nanobiomagnets, quantum dots (Q-dots) and cochleates, have caught attention of medical industries. The increasing impact of metallic nanoparticles in life sciences has significantly advanced the production techniques for these nanoparticles. In this Review, the various methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles are outlined, followed by their physicochemical properties, some recent applications in wound healing, diagnostic imaging, biosensing, assay labeling, antimicrobial activity, cancer therapy and drug delivery are listed, and finally their toxicological impacts are revised. The first half of this article describes the medicinal uses of two noble nanoparticles - gold and silver. This Review provides further information on the ability of aluminum, silicon, iron, selenium, indium, calcium and zinc to be used as nanoparticles in biomedical sciences. Aluminosilicates find their utility in wound healing and antibacterial growth. Iron-oxide nanoparticles enhance the properties of MRI contrast agents and are also used as biomagnets. Cadmium, selenium, tellurium and indium form the core nanostructures of tiny Q-dots used in cellular assay labeling, high-resolution cell imaging and biosensing. Cochleates have the bivalent nano ions calcium, magnesium or zinc imbedded in their structures and are considered to be highly effective agents for drug and gene delivery. The aluminosilicates, nanobiomagnets, Q-dots and cochleates are discussed in the light of their properties, synthesis and utility.

  14. Color tunability with temperature and pump intensity in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped aluminosilicate glass under anti-Stokes excitation.

    PubMed

    Silva, W F; Eliel, G S N; dos Santos, P V; de Araujo, M T; Vermelho, M V D; Udo, P T; Astrath, N G C; Baesso, M L; Jacinto, C

    2010-07-21

    Pump and thermally induced color tunabilities were demonstrated in Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) codoped low silica calcium aluminosilicate (LSCAS) glass under anti-Stokes excitation at 1.064 microm. The effects of pump intensity and sample's temperature on the upconversion emissions and mainly on the color tunabilities (from 800 to 480 nm) were investigated. The results revealed a 20- and a threefold reductions at 800/480 nm ratio as, respectively, the pump intensity and sample's temperature were increased from 27 to 700 kW/cm(2) and from 296 to 577 K. These behaviors with pump intensity and temperature (a strong increase of the 480 nm emission in comparison with the 800 nm one) were attributed to the several efficient processes occurring in the LSCAS system (Yb(3+)-->Tm(3+) energy-transfer processes, easy saturations of the Yb(3+) and Tm(3+) excited states, and radiative emissions). Besides these assigns, the temperature dependence is mainly assigned to the temperature-dependent effective absorption cross section of the ytterbium sensitizer through the so-called multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes excitation process. Theoretical analyses and fits of the experimental data provided quantitative information. PMID:20649337

  15. Self-rolling of an aluminosilicate sheet into a single walled imogolite nanotube: The role of the hydroxyl arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    González, R. I.; Rogan, J.; Valdivia, J. A.; Munoz, F.; Valencia, F.; Ramírez, M.; Kiwi, M.; Ramírez, R.

    2015-12-31

    Imogolite is an inorganic nanotube, that forms naturally in weathered volcanic ashes, and it can be synthesized in nearly monodisperse diameters. However, long after its successful synthesis, the details of the way it is achieved are not fully understood. Here we elaborate on a model of its synthesis, which starts with a planar aluminosilicate sheet that is allowed to evolve freely, by means of classical molecular dynamics, until it achieves its minimum energy configuration. The minimal structures that the system thus adopts are tubular, scrolled, and more complex conformations, depending mainly on temperature as a driving force. Here we focus on the effect that the arrangement of the hydroxyl groups in the inner wall of the nanotube have on the minimal nanotubular configurations that we obtain are monodispersed in diameter, and quite similar to both from the those of weathered natural volcanic ashes, and to the ones that are synthesized in the laboratory. In this contribution we expand on the atomic mechanisms behind those behaviors.

  16. Self-rolling of an aluminosilicate sheet into a single walled imogolite nanotube: The role of the hydroxyl arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. I.; Ramírez, R.; Rogan, J.; Valdivia, J. A.; Munoz, F.; Valencia, F.; Ramírez, M.; Kiwi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Imogolite is an inorganic nanotube, that forms naturally in weathered volcanic ashes, and it can be synthesized in nearly monodisperse diameters. However, long after its successful synthesis, the details of the way it is achieved are not fully understood. Here we elaborate on a model of its synthesis, which starts with a planar aluminosilicate sheet that is allowed to evolve freely, by means of classical molecular dynamics, until it achieves its minimum energy configuration. The minimal structures that the system thus adopts are tubular, scrolled, and more complex conformations, depending mainly on temperature as a driving force. Here we focus on the effect that the arrangement of the hydroxyl groups in the inner wall of the nanotube have on the minimal nanotubular configurations that we obtain are monodispersed in diameter, and quite similar to both from the those of weathered natural volcanic ashes, and to the ones that are synthesized in the laboratory. In this contribution we expand on the atomic mechanisms behind those behaviors.

  17. Color tunability with temperature and pump intensity in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped aluminosilicate glass under anti-Stokes excitation.

    PubMed

    Silva, W F; Eliel, G S N; dos Santos, P V; de Araujo, M T; Vermelho, M V D; Udo, P T; Astrath, N G C; Baesso, M L; Jacinto, C

    2010-07-21

    Pump and thermally induced color tunabilities were demonstrated in Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) codoped low silica calcium aluminosilicate (LSCAS) glass under anti-Stokes excitation at 1.064 microm. The effects of pump intensity and sample's temperature on the upconversion emissions and mainly on the color tunabilities (from 800 to 480 nm) were investigated. The results revealed a 20- and a threefold reductions at 800/480 nm ratio as, respectively, the pump intensity and sample's temperature were increased from 27 to 700 kW/cm(2) and from 296 to 577 K. These behaviors with pump intensity and temperature (a strong increase of the 480 nm emission in comparison with the 800 nm one) were attributed to the several efficient processes occurring in the LSCAS system (Yb(3+)-->Tm(3+) energy-transfer processes, easy saturations of the Yb(3+) and Tm(3+) excited states, and radiative emissions). Besides these assigns, the temperature dependence is mainly assigned to the temperature-dependent effective absorption cross section of the ytterbium sensitizer through the so-called multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes excitation process. Theoretical analyses and fits of the experimental data provided quantitative information.

  18. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  19. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  20. DuraLith Alkali-Aluminosilicate Geopolymer Waste Form Testing for Hanford Secondary Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, W. L.; Lutz, Werner; Pegg, Ian L.

    2011-07-21

    The primary objective of the work reported here was to develop additional information regarding the DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer as a waste form for liquid secondary waste to support selection of a final waste form for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant secondary liquid wastes to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility on the Hanford Site. Testing focused on optimizing waste loading, improving waste form performance, and evaluating the robustness of the waste form with respect to waste variability.

  1. Potential Sites for Ice Nucleation on Aluminosilicate Clay Minerals and Related Materials.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Miriam Arak

    2015-10-01

    Few aerosol particles in clouds nucleate the formation of ice. The surface sites available for nucleus formation, which can include surface defects and functional groups, determine in part the activity of an aerosol particle toward ice formation. Although ice nucleation on particles has been widely studied, exploration of the specific sites at which the initial germ forms has been limited, but is important for predicting the microphysical properties of clouds, which impact climate. This Perspective focuses on what is currently known about surface sites for ice nucleation on aluminosilicate clay minerals, which are commonly found in ice residuals, as well as related materials. PMID:26722881

  2. A coarse-graining approach for the proton complex in protonated aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Calero, S; Lobato, M D; García-Pérez, E; Mejías, J A; Lago, S; Vlugt, T J H; Maesen, T L M; Smit, B; Dubbeldam, D

    2006-03-30

    We have developed a computational framework for the adsorption of linear alkanes in protonated aluminosilicates. These zeolites contain trace amounts of water that form hydrated proton complexes. The presence of hydrated protons makes the simulations at the fully atomistic level difficult. Instead of constructing an elaborate and complex model, we show that an approach based on a coarse-graining of the proton-complex accurately describes the available experimental isotherms, Henry coefficients, heats of adsorption, and oxygen-proton distances. Our approach is supported by MP2 quantum mechanical simulations. The model gives remarkably good agreement with experimental data beyond the initial calibration set.

  3. Facile Fabrication of Uniform Polyaniline Nanotubes with Tubular Aluminosilicates as Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Liu, Peng

    2008-08-01

    The uniform polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes, with inner diameter, outer diameter, and tubular thickness of 40, 60, and 10 nm, respectively, were prepared successfully by using natural tubular aluminosilicates as templates. The halloysite nanotubes were coated with PANI via the in situ chemical oxidation polymerization. Then the templates were etched with HCl/HF solution. The PANI nanotubes were characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The conductivity of the PANI nanotubes was found to be 1.752 × 10-5 (Ω·cm)-1.

  4. Cooperative luminescence and absorption in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate glass optical fibres and preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Tom G.; Jackson, Stuart D.

    2007-05-01

    The cooperative luminescence and absorption properties of Yb 3+ doped aluminosilicate glass optical fibres and preforms are investigated in detail. In accordance with previous investigations, both the visible cooperative luminescence and the infrared luminescence decay measurements have been resolved into a single exponential decay component. We show that for a glass with similar Yb 3+ dopant concentration but more Al 3+, the glass emits less visible luminescence. Absorption loss measurements completed on fibre samples revealed a broad absorption in the 350-500 nm range, which we propose is due to a combination of Yb 2+ absorption and cooperative absorption from Yb 3+ ion pairs.

  5. Potential Sites for Ice Nucleation on Aluminosilicate Clay Minerals and Related Materials.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Miriam Arak

    2015-10-01

    Few aerosol particles in clouds nucleate the formation of ice. The surface sites available for nucleus formation, which can include surface defects and functional groups, determine in part the activity of an aerosol particle toward ice formation. Although ice nucleation on particles has been widely studied, exploration of the specific sites at which the initial germ forms has been limited, but is important for predicting the microphysical properties of clouds, which impact climate. This Perspective focuses on what is currently known about surface sites for ice nucleation on aluminosilicate clay minerals, which are commonly found in ice residuals, as well as related materials.

  6. Lithium wall conditioning by high frequency pellet injection in RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocente, P.; Mansfield, D. K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Agostini, M.; Barison, S.; Canton, A.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; De Masi, G.; Fassina, A.; Fiameni, S.; Grando, L.; Rais, B.; Rossetto, F.; Scarin, P.

    2015-08-01

    In the RFX-mod reversed field pinch experiment, lithium wall conditioning has been tested with multiple scopes: to improve density control, to reduce impurities and to increase energy and particle confinement time. Large single lithium pellet injection, lithium capillary-pore system and lithium evaporation has been used for lithiumization. The last two methods, which presently provide the best results in tokamak devices, have limited applicability in the RFX-mod device due to the magnetic field characteristics and geometrical constraints. On the other side, the first mentioned technique did not allow injecting large amount of lithium. To improve the deposition, recently in RFX-mod small lithium multi-pellets injection has been tested. In this paper we compare lithium multi-pellets injection to the other techniques. Multi-pellets gave more uniform Li deposition than evaporator, but provided similar effects on plasma parameters, showing that further optimizations are required.

  7. Direct observation of macrostructure formation of hierarchically structured meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with 3D interconnectivity by optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Arnaud; Rooke, Joanna Claire; Chen, Li-Hua; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-03-15

    Hierarchically structured spongy meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminum content were synthesized from a mixture of single molecular alkoxide precursor, (sec-BuO)2-Al-O-Si(OEt)3, already containing Si-O-Al bonds, and a silica coreactant, tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). The spontaneous byproduct templated macroporous structure formation has been directly visualized using in situ high-resolution optical microscopy (OM), allowing the crucial observation of a microbubble dispersion which is directly correlated to the macrostructure observed by electronic microscopies (SEM and TEM). This discovery leads to a comparative study with meso-macroporous pure metal oxide and to a proposal of the formation mechanism of meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with 3D interconnectivity. The aluminosilicate phase/microbubbles emulsion is produced by a phase separation process occurring between the aluminosilicate nanoparticles and the liquid hydrolysis-condensation reaction byproducts (water, methanol, ethanol, and butanol). The use of alkoxysilane improves the heterocondensation rates between the highly reactive aluminum alkoxide part of the single precursor and added silica species but, above all, leads to the spontaneous generation of an unusual meso-macroporosity in alkaline media. The particles obtained at pH = 13.0 featured regular micrometer-sized macrospheres separated by very thin mesoporous walls and connected by submicrometric openings, providing a 3D interconnectivity. The slight increase in pH value to 13.5 induced significant modifications in morphology and textural properties due to the slower gelification process of the aluminosilicate phase, resulting in the formation of an aluminosilicate material constituted of 1-2 µm large independent hollow mesoporous spheres.

  8. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2003-04-29

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  9. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  10. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2003-05-13

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  11. Design and simulation of a lithium-ion battery with a phase change material thermal management system for an electric scooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khateeb, Siddique A.; Farid, Mohammed M.; Selman, J. Robert; Al-Hallaj, Said

    A lithium-ion battery employing a novel phase change material (PCM) thermal management system was designed for an electric scooter. Passive thermal management systems using PCM can control the temperature excursions and maintain temperature uniformity in Li-ion batteries without the use of active cooling components such as a fan, a blower or a pump found in air/liquid-cooling systems. Hence, the advantages of a compact, lightweight, and energy efficient system can be achieved with this novel form of thermal management system. Simulation results are shown for a Li-ion battery sub-module consisting of nine 18650 Li-ion cells surrounded by PCM with a melting point between 41 and 44 °C. The use of aluminum foam within the PCM and fins attached to the battery module were studied to overcome the low thermal conductivity of the PCM and the low natural convection heat transfer coefficient. The comparative results of the PCM performance in the presence of Al-foam and Al-fins are shown. The battery module is also simulated for summer and winter conditions. The effect of air-cooling on the Li-ion battery was also studied. These simulation results demonstrate the successful use of the PCM as a potential candidate for thermal management solution in electric scooter applications and therefore for other electric vehicle applications.

  12. First principles modeling of interfaces of lithium (thio) phosphate solid electrolytes and lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzwarth, N. A. W.; Lepley, N. D.; Al-Qawasmeh, A. N. M.; Kates, C. M.

    2014-03-01

    Computer modeling studies show that while lithium phosphate electrolytes form stable interfaces with lithium metal anodes, lithium thiophosphate electrolytes are typically structurally and chemically altered by the presence of lithium metal. On the other hand, experiments have shown that an electrochemical cell of Li/Li3PS4/Li can be cycled many times. One possible explanation of the apparent experimental stability of the Li/Li3PS4/Li system is that a stabilizing buffer layer is formed at the interface during the first few electrochemical cycles. In order to computationally explore this possibility, we examined the influence of ``thin film'' buffer layers of Li2S on the surface of the electrolyte. Using first principles techniques, stable electrolyte-buffer layer configurations were constructed and the resulting Li3PS4/Li2S and Li2S/Li interfaces were found to be structurally and chemically stable. Supported by NSF grant DMR-1105485.

  13. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  14. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  15. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redey, Laszlo

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The research and development and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50 to 300 kW/kg specific power and 80 to 130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1 to 10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS2 pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl2 primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future.

  16. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    SciTech Connect

    Redey, L.

    1990-01-01

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The R D and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50--300 kW/kg specific power and 80--130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1--10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl{sub 2} primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabano, J.-P.

    The physical principles and technology of commercial Li batteries operating at ambient temperatures are reviewed in chapters contributed by international specialists. An overview of Li battery systems is presented, and organic and inorganic electrolytes are characterized in terms of properties, structure, conductivity, Li stability, and film formation. Individual chapters are devoted to Li/CuO cells; cells with Pb, Bi, Pb/Bi, or Bi/Cu oxides; Li/FeS2, Li/CuS, Li/MnO2, Li/CF, Li/Ag2CrO4, Li/AgBi(CrO4)2, Li/V2O5, Li/SO2, and Li/oxyhalide cells, secondary Li cells, and solid-electrolyte Li cells. Graphs and tables of performance parameters and drawings and photographs of typical batteries are included. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  18. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  19. Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

  20. Structure and rheological properties in alkali aluminosilicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Losq, Charles; Neuville, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Rheological properties of silicate melts govern both magma ascension from the mantle to the surface of the earth and volcanological eruptions styles and behaviors. In this mind, it is very important to understand which parameters influence these properties. Up to now, we know for example that viscosity of silicate melts is dependent of temperature, pressure and chemical composition. In this work, we will focus on the Na2O-K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 system, which is of a prime importance because it deals with a non-negligible part of natural melts like haplogranitic rhyolitic alkali magmas. We will first present our viscosity measurements and some modelisation concepts based on the Adam and Gibbs theory. From configurational entropy theory we obtain some macroscopic information's that we can link to the structure of glasses and melts. In this mind, we have investigated them with Raman and NMR spectroscopies. These spectroscopies provide information on speciation and polymerization of glasses and melts. We will present and discuss structural and rheological variations as a function of temperature and chemical change.

  1. Aqueous dissolution, solubilities and thermodynamic stabilities of common aluminosilicate clay minerals: Kaolinite and smectites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Howard M.; Klnniburgh, D.G.; Helmke, P.A.; Jackson, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Determinations of the aqueous solubilities of kaolinite at pH 4, and of five smectite minerals in suspensions set between pH 5 and 8, were undertaken with mineral suspensions adjusted to approach equilibrium from over- and undersaturation. After 1,237 days, Dry Branch, Georgia kaolinite suspensions attained equilibrium solubility with respect to the kaolinite, for which Keq = (2.72 ?? 0.35) ?? 107. The experimentally determined Gibbs free energy of formation (??Gf,2980) for the kaolinite is -3,789.51 ?? 6.60 kj mol-1. Equilibrium solubilities could not be determined for the smectites because the composition of the solution phase in the smectite suspensions appeared to be controlled by the formation of gibbsite or amorphous aluminum hydroxide and not by the smectites, preventing attempts to determine valid ??Gf0 values for these complex aluminosilicate clay minerals. Reported solubility-based ??Gf0 determinations for smectites and other variable composition aluminosilicate clay minerals are shown to be invalid because of experimental deficiencies and of conceptual flaws arising from the nature of the minerals themselves. Because of the variable composition of smectites and similar minerals, it is concluded that reliable equilibrium solubilities and solubility-derived ??Gf0 values can neither be rigorously determined by conventional experimental procedures, nor applied in equilibriabased models of smectite-water interactions. ?? 1986.

  2. Effect of aluminosilicates and bentonite on aflatoxin-induced developmental toxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, M A; Nada, S A; Amra, H A

    1999-01-01

    Numerous studies have established that aflatoxin is a potent developmental toxin in animals. Previous research has demonstrated that a phyllosilicate clay, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS or Novasil), tightly binds and immobilizes aflatoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and markedly reduces the bioavailability and toxicity of aflatoxin. Our objective in this study was to utilize the pregnant rat as an in vivo model to compare the potential of HSCAS and bentonite to prevent the developmental toxicity of aflatoxin. Aluminosilicates (HSCAS) and bentonite were added to the diet at a level of 0.5% (w/w) and fed to the pregnant rat throughout pregnancy (i.e. days 0-20). Test animals were fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet (2.5 mg kg(-1) diet) with or without sorbents during gestation days 6-15. Evaluations of toxicity were performed on day 20. These included maternal (mortality, body weights, feed intake and litter weights), developmental (embryonic resorptions and fetal body weights) and biochemical (ALT, AST and AP) evaluations. Sorbents alone were not toxic and aflatoxin alone resulted in significant maternal and developmental toxicity. Animals treated with phyllosilicate (plus aflatoxin) were comparable to controls following evaluations for resorptions, live fetuses and fetal body weights, as well as biochemical parameters. While bentonite plus aflatoxin resulted in significant reduction in fetal body weight, none of the fetuses from HSCAS or bentonite plus aflatoxin-treated groups had any gross, internal soft tissue or major skeletal malformations.

  3. The plumber's nightmare: a new morphology in block copolymer-ceramic nanocomposites and mesoporous aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Finnefrock, Adam C; Ulrich, Ralph; Toombes, Gilman E S; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2003-10-29

    A novel cubic bicontinuous morphology is found in polymer-ceramic nanocomposites and mesoporous aluminosilicates that are derived by an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, poly(isoprene-b-ethylene oxide) (PI-b-PEO), used as a structure-directing agent for an inorganic aluminosilicate. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was employed to unambiguously identify the Im(-)3m crystallographic symmetry of the materials by fitting individual Bragg peak positions in the two-dimensional X-ray images. Structure factor calculations, in conjunction with results from transmission electron microscopy, were used to narrow the range of possible structures consistent with the symmetry and showed the plumber's nightmare morphology to be consistent with the data. The samples are made by deposition onto a substrate that imposes a strain field, generating a lattice distortion. This distortion is quantitatively analyzed and shown to have resulted in shrinkage of the crystallites by approximately one-third in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, in both as-made composites and calcined ceramic materials. Finally, the observation of the bicontinuous block-copolymer-derived hybrid morphology is discussed in the context of a pseudo-ternary morphology diagram and compared to existing studies of ternary phase diagrams of amphiphiles in a mixture of two solvents. The calcined mesoporous materials have potential applications in the fields of catalysis, separation technology, and microelectronics.

  4. Ordered hexagonal mesoporous aluminosilicates with low Si/Al ratio: synthesis, characterization, and catalytic application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aifeng; Che, Hongwei; Liu, Chuanzhi; Fu, Quanrong; Jiang, Ruijiao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Liang

    2014-06-01

    Ordered hexagonal mesoporous aluminosilicates with lower Si/Al ratio below 5 have been successfully synthesized via the co-assembly of preformed aluminosilicate precursors with Gemini surfactant [C12H25N+(CH3)2(CH2)6N+(CH3)2C12H25] x 2Br(-) as the template. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analysis, and temperature-programmed desorption of cyclohexylamine are employed to characterize the resulting samples. The phenol alkylation reaction is carried out to evaluate their catalytic performances. These studies indicate that the sample with a low Si/Al ratio of 3 still retains a highly ordered hexagonal mesoporous structure. And it also possesses the highest acidity of 0.96 mmol among the samples with lower Si/Al ratios below 5 due to its higher specific surface area together with more content of tetrahedrally coordinated Al in the framework. The catalytic tests confirm that the acidity of the samples plays a key role in determining their catalytic performances.

  5. Investigating the Heating of a Potassium-Doped Aluminosilicate Ion Source Using a 1 Micron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R C; Meier, W R; Kwan, J W; Abbott, R P; Latkowski, J F

    2004-12-14

    The heavy ion fusion (HIF) program is interested in developing a high brightness ion source for high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments. One possible approach to obtaining higher brightness may be to raise the surface temperature of the ion source just prior to extraction. The current ion source material being studied is a layer of potassium-doped aluminosilicate bonded to a tungsten substrate. It is speculated that if the surface temperature of the source is raised above 1200 C (from a steady-state temperature of 900 C) for time periods on the order of 100's of nanoseconds, current densities of greater than 100 mA/cm{sup 2} of ions may be achievable. Typical aluminosilicate sources produce ion current densities (either K+ or Na+ ions) of {approx}10 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 1100 C). A number of heating methods might be possible, including lasers, diode arrays, and flash lamps. Here we assume laser heating. In this preliminary study, we used the LLNL RadHeat code to model the time-temperature history of the surface when hit by laser pulses and illustrate how RadHeat can be used to optimize the surface temperature response. Also of interest is the temperature history of the interface temperature between the ceramic and the metal layers. This is also investigated.

  6. Water solubility in calcium aluminosilicate glasses investigated by first principles techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bouyer, Frederic; Geneste, Gregory; Ispas, Simona; Kob, Walter; Ganster, Patrick

    2010-12-15

    First-principles techniques have been employed to study the reactivity of water into a calcium aluminosilicate glass. In addition to the well known hydrolysis reactions Si-O-Si+H{sub 2}O{yields}Si-OH+Si-OH and Si-O-Al+H{sub 2}O{yields}Si-OH+Al-OH, a peculiar mechanism is found, leading to the formation of an AlO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O entity and the breaking of Al-O-Si bond. In the glass bulk, most of the hydrolysis reactions are endothermic. Only a few regular sites are found reactive (i.e. in association with an exothermic reaction), and in that case, the hydrolysis reaction leads to a decrease of the local disorder in the amorphous vitreous network. Afterwards, we suggest that ionic charge compensators transform into network modifiers when hydrolysis occurs, according to a global process firstly suggested by Burnham in 1975. Our theoretical computations provide a more general model of the first hydrolysis steps that could help to understand experimental data and water speciation in glasses. -- Graphical Abstract: Reactivity within glass bulk: structures obtained after hydrolyses reactions (endothermic and exothermic processes) and mechanisms involving Si-OH, Al-OH, Si-OH-Al groups within aluminosilicates glasses (through ab initio molecular dynamics): formation of the Si-OH-Al entity coupled with an H exchange-Frederic Bouyer and Gregory Geneste. Display Omitted

  7. Fate of Uranium during Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation under Waste Tank Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B

    2005-06-22

    Experiments have been conducted to examine the fate of uranium during the formation of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) when wastes containing high aluminate concentrations are mixed with wastes of high silicate concentration. Testing was conducted at varying degrees of uranium saturation. Testing examined typical tank conditions, e.g., stagnant, slightly elevated temperature (50 C). The results showed that under sub-saturated conditions uranium is not removed from solution to any large extent in both simulant testing and actual tank waste testing. There are data supporting a small removal due to sorption of uranium on sites in the NAS. Above the solubility limit the data are clear that a reduction in uranium concentration occurs with the formation of aluminosilicate. This uranium precipitation is fairly rapid and ceases when uranium reaches its solubility limit. At the solubility limit, it appears that uranium is not affected, but further testing might be warranted. Lastly, analysis of the uranium speciation in a Tank 49H set of samples showed the uranium to be soluble. Analysis of the solution composition and subsequent use of the Hobb's uranium solubility model indicated a uranium solubility limit of 32 mg/L. The measured value of uranium in the Tank 49H matched the model prediction.

  8. Effect of water on the heat capacity of polymerized aluminosilicate glasses and melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhifd, M. Ali; Whittington, Alan; Roux, Jacques; Richet, Pascal

    2006-02-01

    The effect of water on heat capacity has been determined for four series of hydrated synthetic aluminosilicate glasses and supercooled liquids close to albite, phonolite, trachyte, and leucogranite compositions. Heat capacities were measured at atmospheric pressure by differential scanning calorimetry for water contents between 0 and 4.9 wt % from 300 K to about 100 K above the glass transition temperature ( Tg). The partial molar heat capacity of water in polymerized aluminosilicate glasses, which can be considered as independent of composition, is =-122.319+341.631×10-3T+63.4426×105/T2 (J/mol K). In liquids containing at least 1 wt % H 2O, the partial molar heat capacity of water is about 85 J/mol K. From speciation data, the effects of water as hydroxyl groups and as molecular water have tentatively been estimated, with partial molar heat capacities of 153 ± 18 and 41 ± 14 J/mol K, respectively. In all cases, water strongly increases the configurational heat capacity at Tg and exerts a marked depressing effect on Tg, in close agreement with the results of viscosity experiments on the same series of glasses. Consistent with the Adam and Gibbs theory of relaxation processes, the departure of the viscosity of hydrous melts from Arrhenian variations correlates with the magnitude of configurational heat capacities.

  9. Compressibility of magnesium silicate glasses in comparison with those of aluminosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuryaeva, R. G.

    2013-10-01

    The refractive index of the Na2MgSi6O14 glass in the pressure range up to 6.0 GPa has been measured using a polarization-interference microscope and an apparatus with diamond anvils. The changes in relative density which characterize the compressibility of the glass have been estimated in the pressure range under investigation from the measured refractive indices within the framework of the theory of photoelasticity. The results have been compared with the data previously obtained for the NaAlSi3O8 and CaAl2Si6O16 glasses. A comparison of the changes in relative density of the aluminosilicate and magnesium silicate glasses has been demonstrated that the difference in the compressibility is not so much significant as should be expected from the replacement of network-forming ions by modifiers ions. Estimated by different methods the degree of depolymerization of the Na2MgSi6O14 glass (NBO/T ≅ 0.2) is compared to those for the aluminosilicate glasses. The decrease in the compressibility in the series NaAlSi3O8, CaAl2Si6O16, Na2MgSi6O14 glasses is in agreement with an increase of the degree of depolymerization in the same series.

  10. Electromagnetic and Mechanical Properties of Silica-Aluminosilicates Plasma Sprayed Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipri, F.; Bartuli, C.; Valente, T.; Casadei, F.

    2007-12-01

    The physico-chemical and thermo-mechanical properties of aluminosilicate ceramics (high-melting point, low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent thermal shock resistance, low-density and good corrosion resistance) make this class of materials a good option for high-temperature structural applications. Al2O3-SiO2 compounds show an excellent refractory behavior allowing a wide use as wear-resistant thermal barrier coatings, in metallurgical and glass plants and in high temperature heat exchangers. Moreover, the low values of thermal expansion coefficient and of complex permittivity allow to extend the use of this ceramic for microelectronic devices, radome for antennas and electromagnetic windows for microwaves and infrared. The present article presents the results of an extensive experimental activity carried out to produce thick aluminosilicate coatings by plasma-spray technique. The APS deposition parameters were optimized on the basis of a surface response approach, as specified by design of experiments (DoE) methodologies. Samples were tested for phase composition, total porosity, microstructure, microhardness, deposition efficiency, fracture toughness, and modulus of rupture. Finally, coatings were characterized for their particularly interesting electromagnetic properties: complex permittivity was measured at microwave frequency using a network analyzer with wave guide.

  11. Thermodynamic assessment of hydrothermal alkali feldspar-mica-aluminosilicate equilibria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sverjensky, D.A.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of minerals retrieved from consideration of solid-solid and dehydration equilibria with calorimetric reference values, and those of aqueous species derived from studies of electrolytes, are not consistent with experimentally measured high-temperature solubilities in the systems K2O- and Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-HCl (e.g., K-fs - Ms - Qtz - K+ - H+). This introduces major inaccuracies into the computation of ionic activity ratios and the acidities of diagenetic, metamorphic, and magmatic hydrothermal fluids buffered by alkali silicate-bearing assemblages. We report a thermodynamic analysis of revised solubility equilibria in these systems that integrates the thermodynamic properties of minerals obtained from phase equilibria studies (Berman, 1988) with the properties of aqueous species calculated from a calibrated equation of state (Shock and Helgeson, 1988). This was achieved in two separate steps. First, new values of the free energies and enthalpies of formation at 25??C and 1 bar for the alkali silicates muscovite and albite were retrieved from the experimental solubility equilibria at 300??C and Psat. Because the latter have stoichiometric reaction coefficients different from those for solid-solid and dehydration equilibria, our procedure preserves exactly the relative thermodynamic properties of the alkali-bearing silicates (Berman, 1988). Only simple arithmetic adjustments of -1,600 and -1,626 (??500) cal/mol to all the K- and Na-bearing silicates, respectively, in Berman (1988) are required. In all cases, the revised values are within ??0.2% of calorimetric values. Similar adjustments were derived for the properties of minerals from Helgeson et al. (1978). Second, new values of the dissociation constant of HCl were retrieved from the solubility equilibria at temperatures and pressures from 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbars using a simple model for aqueous speciation. The results agree well with the conductance-derived dissociation

  12. Mechanisms of lithium transport in amorphous polyethylene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yuhua; Halley, J. W.; Curtiss, Larry; Redfern, Paul

    2005-02-01

    We report calculations using a previously reported model of lithium perchlorate in polyethylene oxide in order to understand the mechanism of lithium transport in these systems. Using an algorithm suggested by Voter, we find results for the diffusion rate which are quite close to experimental values. By analysis of the individual events in which large lithium motions occur during short times, we find that no single type of rearrangement of the lithium environment characterizes these events. We estimate the free energies of the lithium ion as a function of position during these events by calculation of potentials of mean force and thus derive an approximate map of the free energy as a function of lithium position during these events. The results are consistent with a Marcus-like picture in which the system slowly climbs a free energy barrier dominated by rearrangement of the polymer around the lithium ions, after which the lithium moves very quickly to a new position. Reducing the torsion forces in the model causes the diffusion rates to increase.

  13. Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

  14. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure

    PubMed Central

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn4+, Ru4+, etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co3+, Ni3+, etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh⋅g−1 of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions. PMID:26056288

  15. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-06-23

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn(4+), Ru(4+), etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co(3+), Ni(3+), etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh ⋅ g(-1) of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions. PMID:26056288

  16. One-pot synthesis of hierarchical FeZSM-5 zeolites from natural aluminosilicates for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yuanyuan; Liu, Haiyan; Yuan, Pei; Yu, Chengzhong; Bao, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Iron-modified ZSM-5 zeolites (FeZSM-5s) have been considered to be a promising catalyst system to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, one of the most important global environmental issues, but their synthesis faces enormous economic and environmental challenges. Herein we report a cheap and green strategy to fabricate hierarchical FeZSM-5 zeolites from natural aluminosilicate minerals via a nanoscale depolymerization-reorganization method. Our strategy is featured by neither using any aluminum-, silicon-, or iron-containing inorganic chemical nor involving any mesoscale template and any post-synthetic modification. Compared with the conventional FeZSM-5 synthesized from inorganic chemicals with the similar Fe content, the resulting hierarchical FeZSM-5 with highly-dispersed iron species showed superior catalytic activity in the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3. PMID:25791958

  17. One-pot synthesis of hierarchical FeZSM-5 zeolites from natural aluminosilicates for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yuanyuan; Liu, Haiyan; Yuan, Pei; Yu, Chengzhong; Bao, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Iron-modified ZSM-5 zeolites (FeZSM-5s) have been considered to be a promising catalyst system to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, one of the most important global environmental issues, but their synthesis faces enormous economic and environmental challenges. Herein we report a cheap and green strategy to fabricate hierarchical FeZSM-5 zeolites from natural aluminosilicate minerals via a nanoscale depolymerization-reorganization method. Our strategy is featured by neither using any aluminum-, silicon-, or iron-containing inorganic chemical nor involving any mesoscale template and any post-synthetic modification. Compared with the conventional FeZSM-5 synthesized from inorganic chemicals with the similar Fe content, the resulting hierarchical FeZSM-5 with highly-dispersed iron species showed superior catalytic activity in the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3. PMID:25791958

  18. One-pot synthesis of hierarchical FeZSM-5 zeolites from natural aluminosilicates for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yuanyuan; Liu, Haiyan; Yuan, Pei; Yu, Chengzhong; Bao, Xiaojun

    2015-03-20

    Iron-modified ZSM-5 zeolites (FeZSM-5s) have been considered to be a promising catalyst system to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, one of the most important global environmental issues, but their synthesis faces enormous economic and environmental challenges. Herein we report a cheap and green strategy to fabricate hierarchical FeZSM-5 zeolites from natural aluminosilicate minerals via a nanoscale depolymerization-reorganization method. Our strategy is featured by neither using any aluminum-, silicon-, or iron-containing inorganic chemical nor involving any mesoscale template and any post-synthetic modification. Compared with the conventional FeZSM-5 synthesized from inorganic chemicals with the similar Fe content, the resulting hierarchical FeZSM-5 with highly-dispersed iron species showed superior catalytic activity in the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3.

  19. One-pot synthesis of hierarchical FeZSM-5 zeolites from natural aluminosilicates for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuanyuan; Liu, Haiyan; Yuan, Pei; Yu, Chengzhong; Bao, Xiaojun

    2015-03-01

    Iron-modified ZSM-5 zeolites (FeZSM-5s) have been considered to be a promising catalyst system to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, one of the most important global environmental issues, but their synthesis faces enormous economic and environmental challenges. Herein we report a cheap and green strategy to fabricate hierarchical FeZSM-5 zeolites from natural aluminosilicate minerals via a nanoscale depolymerization-reorganization method. Our strategy is featured by neither using any aluminum-, silicon-, or iron-containing inorganic chemical nor involving any mesoscale template and any post-synthetic modification. Compared with the conventional FeZSM-5 synthesized from inorganic chemicals with the similar Fe content, the resulting hierarchical FeZSM-5 with highly-dispersed iron species showed superior catalytic activity in the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3.

  20. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  1. Lithium: a versatile tool for understanding renal physiology

    PubMed Central

    Ecelbarger, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    By virtue of its unique interactions with kidney cells, lithium became an important research tool in renal physiology and pathophysiology. Investigators have uncovered the intricate relationships of lithium with the vasopressin and aldosterone systems, and the membrane channels or transporters regulated by them. While doing so, their work has also led to 1) questioning the role of adenylyl cyclase activity and prostaglandins in lithium-induced suppression of aquaporin-2 gene transcription; 2) unraveling the role of purinergic signaling in lithium-induced polyuria; and 3) highlighting the importance of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Lithium-induced remodeling of the collecting duct has the potential to shed new light on collecting duct remodeling in disease conditions, such as diabetes insipidus. The finding that lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) has opened an avenue for studies on the role of GSK3β in urinary concentration, and GSK isoforms in renal development. Finally, proteomic and metabolomic profiling of the kidney and urine in rats treated with lithium is providing insights into how the kidney adapts its metabolism in conditions such as acquired NDI and the multifactorial nature of lithium-induced NDI. This review provides state-of-the-art knowledge of lithium as a versatile tool for understanding the molecular physiology of the kidney, and a comprehensive view of how this tool is challenging some of our long-standing concepts in renal physiology, often with paradigm shifts, and presenting paradoxical situations in renal pathophysiology. In addition, this review points to future directions in research where lithium can lead the renal community. PMID:23408166

  2. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    (Great Salt Lake, Searles Lake), geothermal systems (Salton Sea) and oil fields contain lithium, but in low concentrations that add relatively little to estimated global resources. Igneous deposits, which constitute 26% of estimated global resources, consist largely of pegmatites, including past and present producers at Kings Mountain-Bessemer City (USA), Greenbushes (Australia) and Bikita (Zimbabwe), as well as numerous active prospects, especially in Canada and China. Amenability of these deposits to economic extraction is controlled by mineralogy and zoning of lithium, which vary considerably from deposit to deposit. An additional 8% of global lithium resources is estimated to be present in unusual deposits including largely hectorite clays in volcaniclastic rocks at Kings Valley (USA) and jadarite in lacustrine evaporite deposits (Serbia), which present new challenges to both mining and processing. If this highly varied population of deposits can be converted to reserves, lithium supplies for the 21st century EV market are relatively secure.

  3. Lithium counterdoped silicon solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I. (Inventor); Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The resistance to radiation damage of an n(+)p boron doped silicon solar cell is improved by lithium counterdoping. Even though lithium is an n-dopant in silicon, the lithium is introduced in small enough quantities so that the cell base remains p-type. The lithium is introduced into the solar cell wafer by implantation of lithium ions whose energy is about 50 keV. After this lithium implantation, the wafer is annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 375 C for two hours.

  4. Aluminum-lithium for aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, P.S.; Wolf, G.J.

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in commercial alloys. Aluminum-lithium alloys are most often selected for aerospace components because of their low density, high strength, and high specific modulus. However, other applications now exploit their excellent fatigue resistance and cryogenic toughness.

  5. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  6. Lithium to the Rescue.

    PubMed

    Jope, Richard S; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    Lithium, an element that Mother Nature has put in some drinking water sources, has been used for its curative powers for centuries. Today, it's given in capsule form as a mood stabilizer for bipolar disorder and depression. New research, however, reveals its role as a neuroprotector, and suggests that a better understanding of the role enzymes modulated by lithium play could lead to new treatments for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27408673

  7. Enhancing stability and oxidation activity of cytochrome C by immobilization in the nanochannels of mesoporous aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Hung; Lang, Jun; Yen, Chun-Wan; Shih, Pei-Chun; Lin, Tien-Sung; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2005-06-30

    Hydrothermally stable and structrurally ordered mesoporous and microporous aluminosilicates with different pore sizes have been synthesized to immobilize cytochrome c (cyt c): MAS-9 (pore size 90 A), MCM-48-S (27 A), MCM-41-S (25 A), and Y zeolites (7.4 A). The amount of cyt c adsorption could be increased by the introduction of aluminum into the framework of pure silica materials. Among these mesoprous silicas (MPS), MAS-9 showed the highest loading capacity due to its large pore size. However, cyt c immobilized in MAS-9 could undergo facile unfolding during hydrothermal treatments. MCM-41-S and MCM-48-S have the pore sizes that match well the size of cyt c (25 x 25 x 37 A). Hence the adsorbed cyt c in these two medium pore size MPS have the highest hydrothermal stability and overall catalytic activity. On the other hand, the pore size of NaY zeolite is so small that cyt c is mostly adsorbed only on the outer surface and loses its enzymatic activity rapidly. The improved stability and high catalytic activity of cyt c immobilized in MPS are attributed to the electrostatic attraction between the pore surface and cyt c and the confinement provided by nanochannels. We further observed that cyt c immobilized in MPS exists in both high and low spin states, as inferred from the ESR and UV-vis studies. This is different from the native cyt c, which shows primarily the low spin state. The high spin state arises from the replacement of Met-80 ligands of heme Fe (III) by water or silanol group on silica surface, which could open up the heme groove for easy access of oxidants and substrates to iron center and facilitate the catalytic activity. In the catalytic study, MAS-9-cyt c showed the highest specific activity toward the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which arises from the fast mass transfer rate of reaction substrate due to its large pore size. For pinacyanol (a hydrophilic substrate), MCM-41-S-cyt c and MCM-48-S-cyt c showed higher specific

  8. Policies governing the use of lithium batteries in the Navy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bis, R. F.; Barnes, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium batteries offer many advantages for Navy systems but may also exhibit undesirable hazardous behavior. Safety problems have been traced to a variety of chemical and physical causes. The Navy has established a central safety office with responsibility for all lithium battery use. Before an item is approved for Navy use, it must pass both a design review and a set of end item tests. These reviews focus on complete systems which include a battery inside the end item. After system approval, specific regulations govern the transportation, storage, and disposal of the unit containing lithium batteries. Each of these areas is discussed in detail.

  9. Lithium-Ion Conductors of the System LiCo 1- xFe xO 2, Preparation and Structural Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzapfel, M.; Haak, C.; Ott, A.

    2001-02-01

    Layered structure oxides of the system NaCo1-xFexO2 were prepared for 0≤x≤1 by solid-state reaction. Vegard-like behavior was proved for these compounds by X-ray analysis, indicating mixed transition metal layers and sodium layers without cation disorder. By ion-exchange of these compounds in a molten eutectic mixture of LiCl and LiNO3 at 260°C the system LiCo1-xFexO2 was prepared for the whole composition range and characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed almost complete ion-exchange from sodium to lithium. The members of this system are shown to crystallize, as the sodium compounds, in the rhombohedral space group Roverline3m (α-NaFeO2-type). X-ray diffraction, considerations based on the intensity ratio R101=I101/I104 and Rietveld refinement give evidence for increasing cation disorder with increasing iron content, that reaches the value of LiFeO2 (4.5%) already at an iron content of x=0.4.

  10. Narrow-Band Imaging System for the Multi-application Solar Telescope at Udaipur Solar Observatory: Characterization of Lithium Niobate Etalons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Bayanna, A.; Mathew, Shibu K.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Srivastava, N.

    2014-10-01

    Multi-application Solar Telescope is a 50 cm off-axis Gregorian telescope that has been installed at the lake site of Udaipur Solar Observatory. For quasi-simultaneous photospheric and chromospheric observations, a narrow-band imager has been developed as one of the back-end instruments for this telescope. Narrow-band imaging is achieved using two lithium niobate Fabry-Perot etalons working in tandem as a filter. This filter can be tuned to different wavelengths by changing either voltage, tilt or temperature of the etalons. To characterize the etalons, a Littrow spectrograph was set up, in conjunction with a 15 cm Carl Zeiss Coud\\'e solar telescope. The etalons were calibrated for the solar spectral lines FeI 6173 {\\AA}, and CaII 8542 {\\AA}. In this work, we discuss the characterization of the Fabry-Perot etalons, specifically the temperature and voltage tuning of the system for the spectral lines proposed for observations. We present the details of the calibration set-up and various tuning parameters. We also present solar images obtained using the system parameters. We also present solar images obtained using the system.

  11. Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Solid Electrolyte Membrane and Lithium Polysulfide Catholyte.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xingwen; Bi, Zhonghe; Zhao, Feng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-08-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are receiving great attention as the most promising next-generation power source with significantly high charge-storage capacity. However, the implementation of Li-S batteries is hampered by a critical challenge because of the soluble nature of the intermediate polysulfide species in the liquid electrolyte. The use of traditional porous separators unavoidably allows the migration of the dissolved polysulfide species from the cathode to the lithium-metal anode and results in continuous loss of capacity. In this study, a LiSICON (lithium super ionic conductor) solid membrane is used as a cation-selective electrolyte for lithium-polysulfide (Li-PS) batteries to suppress the polysulfide diffusion. Ionic conductivity issue at the lithium metal/solid electrolyte interface is successfully addressed by insertion of a "soft", liquid-electrolyte integrated polypropylene interlayer. The solid LiSICON lithium-ion conductor maintains stable ionic conductivity during the electrochemical cycling of the cells. The Li-PS battery system with a hybrid solid/liquid electrolyte exhibits significantly enhanced cyclability relative to the cells with the traditional liquid-electrolyte integrated porous separator. PMID:26161547

  12. A review of lithium and non-lithium based solid state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Gon; Son, Byungrak; Mukherjee, Santanu; Schuppert, Nicholas; Bates, Alex; Kwon, Osung; Choi, Moon Jong; Chung, Hyun Yeol; Park, Sam

    2015-05-01

    Conventional lithium-ion liquid-electrolyte batteries are widely used in portable electronic equipment such as laptop computers, cell phones, and electric vehicles; however, they have several drawbacks, including expensive sealing agents and inherent hazards of fire and leakages. All solid state batteries utilize solid state electrolytes to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. Drawbacks for all-solid state lithium-ion batteries include high resistance at ambient temperatures and design intricacies. This paper is a comprehensive review of all aspects of solid state batteries: their design, the materials used, and a detailed literature review of various important advances made in research. The paper exhaustively studies lithium based solid state batteries, as they are the most prevalent, but also considers non-lithium based systems. Non-lithium based solid state batteries are attaining widespread commercial applications, as are also lithium based polymeric solid state electrolytes. Tabular representations and schematic diagrams are provided to underscore the unique characteristics of solid state batteries and their capacity to occupy a niche in the alternative energy sector.

  13. [Neuroprotective actions of lithium].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Fujimaki, Koichiro; Jeong, Mi Ra; Senatorov, Vladimir V; Christ, Lori; Leeds, Peter; Chuang, De-Maw; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has long been one of the primary drugs used to treat bipolar mood disorder. However, neither the etiology of this disease nor the therapeutic mechanism(s) of this drug is well understood. Several lines of clinical evidence suggest that lithium has neurotrophic actions. For example chronic lithium treatment increases the volume of gray matter and the content of N-acetyl-aspartate, a cell survival marker, in bipolar mood disorder patients (Moore et al., 2000). Moreover, treatment with this mood-stabilizer suppresses the decrease in the volume of the subgenual pre-frontal cortex found in bipolar patients (Drevets, 2001). To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions of lithium, we employed a preparation of cultured cortical neurons prepared form embryonic rats. We found that treatment with therapeutic doses (0.2-1.2 mM) of lithium robustly protects cortical neurons from multiple insults, notably glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. The neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity is time-dependent, requiring treatment for 5-6 days for maximal effect, and is associated with a reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx. The latter is correlated with a decrease in Tyrosine 1472 phosphorylation levels in the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors and a loss of Src kinase activity which is involved in NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation. Neither the activity of total tyrosine protein kinase nor that of tyrosine protein phosphatase is affected by this drug, indicating the selectivity of the modulation. Lithium neuroprotection against excitotoxicity is inhibited by a BDNF-neutralizing antibody and K252a, a Trk antagonist. Lithium treatment time-dependently increases the intracellular level of BDNF in cortical neurons and activates its receptor, TrkB. The neuroprotection can be completely blocked by either heterozygous or homozygous knockout of the BDNF gene. These results suggest a central role of BDNF and TrkB in mediating the

  14. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  15. Biaxial Q-shearing of 27Al 3QMAS NMR spectra: insight into the structural disorder of framework aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiri; Klein, Petr; Dedecek, Jiri; Urbanova, Martina

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we present the application potentiality of biaxial Q-shearing of (27)Al 3QMAS NMR spectra in the analysis of structural defects of aluminium units in aluminosilicates. This study demonstrates that the combination of various shearing transformations of the recorded (27)Al 3QMAS NMR spectra enables an understanding of the broadening processes of the correlation signals of disordered framework aluminosilicates, for which a wide distribution of (27)Al MAS NMR chemical shifts and quadrupolar parameters (i.e., second-order quadrupolar splitting and quadrupole-induced chemical shifts) can be expected. By combining the suitably selected shearing transformation procedures, the mechanisms of the formation of local defects in aluminosilicate frameworks, including Al/Si substitution effects in the next-nearest neighbouring T-sites, variations in bond angles, and/or variations in the physicochemical nature of charge-balancing counter-ions, can be identified. The proposed procedure has been extensively tested on a range of model aluminosilicate materials (kyanite, γ-alumina, metakaolin, analcime, chabazite, natrolite, phillipsite, mordenite, zeolite A, and zeolite Y).

  16. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  17. Lithium intoxication: a coordinated treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Minden, S L; Bassuk, E L; Nadler, S P

    1993-01-01

    This case illustrates the clinical features of lithium intoxication and the problems in treating it that may arise as a result of lithium's effects on the kidney. It also demonstrates the difficulties that can develop when a delicate physiologic balance is inadvertently disrupted by nonpharmacologic interventions such as seclusion and consequent restriction of access to food and water. Patients with lithium-induced urine-concentrating defects are especially at risk for dehydration, and care must be taken to ensure adequate fluid and salt intake. This case also shows how intense negative feelings evoked by chronically mentally ill patients can adversely affect their psychiatric and medical care. While such feelings are inevitable, their impact may be lessened by improved communication and coordination between the medical and psychiatric systems of care and by the presence of psychiatrists in the general medical hospital. PMID:8419561

  18. Rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The cycling performance of a secondary lithium cell with a 2-methyl THF lithium hectofluorarsenate electrolyte is discussed. Stripping efficiency, dendritization, passivation on standing, and discharge efficiency are considered.

  19. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  20. Deposition of lithium on a plasma edge probe in TFTR -- Behavior of lithium-painted walls interacting with edge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Ashida, K.; Kugel, H.

    1998-05-01

    Recent observations have indicated that lithium pellet injection wall conditioning plays an important role in achieving the enhanced supershot regime in TFTR. However, little is understood about the behavior of lithium-coated limiter walls, interacting with edge plasmas. In the final campaign of TFTR, a cylindrical carbon fiber composite probe was inserted into the boundary plasma region and exposed to ohmically-heated deuterium discharges with lithium pellet injection. The ion-drift side probe surface exhibits a sign of codeposition of lithium, carbon, oxygen, and deuterium, whereas the electron side essentially indicates high-temperature erosion. It is found that lithium is incorporated in these codeposits in the form of oxide at the concentration of a few percent. In the electron side, lithium has been found to penetrate deeply into the probe material, presumably via rapid diffusion through interplane spaces in the graphite crystalline. Though it is not conclusive, materials mixing in the carbon and lithium system appears to be a key process in successful lithium wall conditioning.

  1. Lithium question for nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, P.S.S.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the lithium reserve (the economically recoverable lithium) for the tritium breeding in D-T fusion reactors and other uses. Similar development patterns for fusion energy and fission energy are assumed to estimate the future lithium requirements. These requirements are grouped into three categories; the commercial uses, the lithium batteries for electric cars, and the fusion reactor uses. 5 refs.

  2. Primary lithium battery technology and its application to NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of the components, overall cell reactions, and performance characteristics of promising new ambient temperature lithium primary systems based on the Li-V205, Li-SO2, and Li-SOC12 couples. Development status of these systems is described in regard to availability and uncertainties in the areas of safety and selected performance characteristics. Studies show that use of lithium batteries would enhance a variety of missions and applications by decreasing power sytems weight and thereby increasing payload weight. In addition, the lithium batteries could enhance cost effectiveness of the missions.

  3. Development and Evaluation of Active Thermal Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries using Solid-State Thermoelectric Heat Pump and Heat Pipes with Electric Vehicular Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Bhaumik Kamlesh

    Lithium-Ion batteries have become a popular choice for use in energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EV) and Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) because of high power and high energy density. But the use of EV and HEV in all climates demands for a battery thermal management system (BTMS) since temperature effects their performance, cycle life and, safety. Hence the BTMS plays a crucial role in the performance of EV and HEV. In this paper, three thermal management systems are studied: (a) simple aluminum as heat spreader material, (b) heat pipes as heat spreader, and (c) advanced combined solid state thermoelectric heat pump (TE) and heat pipe system; these will be subsequently referred to as Design A, B and C, respectively. A detailed description of the designs and the experimental setup is presented. The experimental procedure is divided into two broad categories: Cooling mode and Warming-up mode. Cooling mode covers the conditions when a BTMS is responsible to cool the battery pack through heat dissipation and Warming-up mode covers the conditions when the BTMS is responsible to warm the battery pack in a low temperature ambient condition, maintaining a safe operating temperature of the battery pack in both modes. The experimental procedure analyzes the thermal management system by evaluating the effect of each variable like heat sink area, battery heat generation rate, cooling air temperature, air flow rate and TE power on parameters like maximum temperature of the battery pack (T max), maximum temperature difference (DeltaT) and, heat transfer through heat sink/cooling power of TE (Q c). The results show that Design C outperforms Design A and Design B in spite of design issues which reduce its efficiency, but can still be improved to achieve better performance.

  4. Calcium-magnesium Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2015-01-01

    Particulates, like sand and volcanic ash, threaten the development of robust environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) that protect next-generation silicon-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine engine components from harsh combustion environments during service. The siliceous particulates transform into molten glassy deposits of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) when ingested by an aircraft engine operating at temperatures above 1200C. In this study, a sample of desert sand was melted into CMAS glass to evaluate high-temperature interactions between the sand glass and an advanced EBC material. Desert sand glass was added to the surface of hot-pressed EBC substrates, which were then heated in air at temperatures ranging from 1200C to 1500C. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate microstructure and phase compositions of specimens and the CMASEBC interface after heat treatments.

  5. Chemical durability of soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass for radioactive waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, F.H.; Yim, M.S.

    1998-09-01

    Vitrification has been identified as one of the most viable waste treatment alternatives for nuclear waste disposal. Currently, the most popular glass compositions being selected for vitrification are the borosilicate family of glasses. Another popular type that has been around in glass industry is the soda-lime-silicate variety, which has often been characterized as the least durable and a poor candidate for radioactive waste vitrification. By replacing the boron constituent with a cheaper substitute, such as silica, the cost of vitrification processing can be reduced. At the same time, addition of network intermediates such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the glass composition increases the environmental durability of the glass. The objective of this study is to examine the ability of the soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass as an alternative vitrification tool for the disposal of radioactive waste and to investigate the sensitivity of product chemical durability to variations in composition.

  6. Composites of Polyindole nanowires within Silicate and Aluminosilicate hosts with distinct conductive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez, J. M.; Gómez Costa, M. B.; Anunziata, O. A.

    2016-07-01

    Nanostructured silicate SBA-15 and aluminosilicate AlSBA-15 were synthesized in order to prepare polyindole composites. The Silica mesoporous materials were prepared by sol- gel method and alumination using post-synthesis technique and analysed by different methods (XRD, BET, TEM, and FTIR). Polyindole/host composites were prepared by in situ oxidative polymerization of pre-adsorbed indole, employing Cl3Fe as oxidant. TG, FTIR, BET, XRD, SEM and TEM were used to characterize the resulting composites. These studies show that the porous structures of the materials are preserved after polymerization, and polyindole is found within the porous channels. The composites have an electrical conductivity range between values higher than those of the pure chemically synthesized polyindole, close to those of the pure electrochemically synthesized polymer and lower than those of the pure chemically synthesized polymer, in the order of 10-8 S/cm.

  7. The effect of surface modification on the ion-exchange properties of layered aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Yuchs, S.E.; Wasserman, S.R.

    1996-10-01

    Layered aluminosilicates and clay type minerals have been shown to have varying degrees of ion-exchange capacity. In this paper, the ion-exchange capacities of untreated and surface modified montmorillonite clays will be discussed. The effects of extent of surface modification, type of modifier, and type of exchangeable ion will also be discussed. Physical properties, including X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, XAS and EXAFS, of the modified and native materials will be compared. These surface modification reactions have been shown to yield novel materials with very low ion leachability. Various leach test results from several encapsulated metal ion-exchanged materials will be detailed. This surface modification method may yield materials suitable for intermediate-term storage of hazardous metal ions.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic polymers from the alkali activation of an aluminosilicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, C. P.; Montaño, A. M.; González, A. K.; Ríos, C. A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the synthesis and characterization of inorganic polymers (IP) from aluminosilicates: bentonite (BT) and pumice (PP). The synthesis of IP, was carried out by two methods involving alkaline activation, at room temperature and 80 ± 5 °C, using as activating agent sodium silicate both commercial and analytical (Na2SiO3). Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 3 M, 7 M and 12 M was added. A lower degree of polymerization was obtained by using analytical precursors subjected to room temperature and 80 ± 5°C. Replacement of heating by the use of the commercial activating agent with greater alkalinity allows the formation of a 3D network. The materials were structurally characterized by FTIR spectroscopy with Attenuated Reflectance (ATR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X -ray diffraction (DRX).

  9. Strong UV absorption and visible luminescence in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass under UV excitation.

    PubMed

    Engholm, M; Norin, L; Aberg, D

    2007-11-15

    A broad visible luminescence band and characteristic IR luminescence of Yb(3+) ions are observed under UV excitation in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass. Samples made under both oxidizing and reducing conditions are analyzed. A strong charge-transfer absorption band in the UV range is observed for glass samples containing ytterbium. Additional absorption bands are observed for the sample made under reducing conditions, which are associated with f-d transitions of divalent ytterbium. The visible luminescence band is attributed to 5d-4f emission from Yb(2+) ions, and the IR luminescence is concluded to originate from a relaxed charge-transfer transition. The findings are important to explain induced optical losses (photodarkening) in high-power fiber lasers. PMID:18026305

  10. A facile strategy to recycle template P123 from mesoporous aluminosilicates by ultrasonic extraction.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun-su; Cao, Li; Su, Guang-xun; Xu, Chun-yan; Zhang, Ze-ting; Gao, Xiong-hou; Liu, Hong-hai; Liu, Hong-tao

    2014-09-01

    High synthesis cost of mesoporous aluminosilicates (MA) limits their practical application. Recycling of copolymer template employed in preparation of MA is an effective way to reduce the synthesis cost. An ultrasonic extraction strategy for recycling of organic template P123 in MAs is reported. Effects of different extraction parameters on P123 recovery are investigated and the optimum conditions are obtained. 75.0% P123 is recovered from MAs within 10 min by one-step ultrasonication. Characterizations indicated that the resulting P123-free MA (MA-U) exhibits excellent properties compared with that of calcined products. Moreover, recovered P123 can be employed to synthesize high hydrothermally stable MA. This investigation provides a facile strategy to recycle P123 from MA.

  11. Particle Control and Plasma Performance in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Majeski, et. al.

    2013-02-21

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) is a small, low aspect ratio tokamak, which is fitted with a stainless steel-clad copper liner, conformal to the last closed flux surface. The liner can be heated to 350{degree}C. Several gas fueling systems, including supersonic gas injection, and molecular cluster injection have been studied, and produce fueling efficiencies up to 35%. Discharges are strongly affected by wall conditioning. Discharges without lithium wall coatings are limited to plasma currents of order 10 kA, and discharge durations of order 5 msec. With solid lithium coatings discharge currents exceed 70 kA, and discharge durations exceed 30 msec. Heating the lithium wall coating, however, results in a prompt degradation of the discharge, at the melting point of lithium. These results suggest that the simplest approach to implementing liquid lithium walls in a tokamak - thin, evaporated, liquefied coatings of lithium - does not produce an adequately clean surface.

  12. Energy Analysis of Aluminosilicate Zeolites with Comprehensive Ranges of Framework Topologies, Chemical Compositions, and Aluminum Distributions.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Koki; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2016-05-18

    The contents and locations of Al in the zeolite frameworks are one of the key factors determining the physicochemical properties of zeolites. Systematic evaluation of the characteristics of zeolites with a wide variety of framework topologies, a wide range of Si/Al ratios, and various locations of Al is of great significance, but very challenging due to the limitation of the realizable ranges of Al contents in zeolites as well as the limited information on the Al locations obtained from the current analytical techniques. Here, we report the systematic analysis of the energetics of aluminosilicate zeolites with 209 existing framework topologies at different Si/Al ratios using molecular mechanics. More than 43 000 initial structures were generated to give comprehensive views of the energetics of zeolites. The results coincide well with the structural knowledge obtained experimentally. It was revealed that the relation between the relative framework energies versus the Al contents varies in accordance with the topologies, suggesting that the relative stability of zeolites depends not only on the topologies, but also on the substituting contents of Al. For particular topologies with the same Al contents, in addition, comparisons between random and specific distributions of Al showed that zeolite with Al at a particular T site is energetically more stable than those with random distributions, suggesting the inherent influences of the Al locations. The contents and locations of Al in zeolites likely have a certain preference that may reflect the range of chemical compositions, the Al distributions, and consequently the physicochemical properties of realizable aluminosilicate zeolites. PMID:27097121

  13. Prospects and challenges of iron pyroelectrolysis in magnesium aluminosilicate melts near minimum liquidus temperature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, N M; Kovalevsky, A V; Mikhalev, S M; Costa, F M; Frade, J R

    2015-04-14

    Although steel production by molten oxide electrolysis offers potential economic and environmental advantages over classic extractive metallurgy, its feasibility is far from being convincingly demonstrated, mainly due to inherent experimental difficulties exerted by harsh conditions and lack of knowledge regarding relevant mechanisms and physico-chemical processes in the melts. The present work was intended to demonstrate the concept of pyroelectrolysis at very high temperature near the minimum liquidus point of magnesium aluminosilicate, being conducted under electron-blocking conditions using yttria-stabilized zirconia cells, and to provide a new insight into electrochemistry behind this process. Significant current yields are possible for pyroelectrolysis performed in electron-blocking mode using a solid electrolyte membrane to separate the anode and the molten electrolyte. Parasitic electrochemical processes rise gradually as the concentration of iron oxide dissolved in the molten electrolytes is depleted, impairing faradaic efficiency. Reduction of silica to metallic silicon was identified as a significant contribution to those parasitic currents, among other plausible processes. Direct pyroelectrolysis without electron blocking was found much less plausible, due to major limitations on faradaic efficiency imposed by electronic leakage and insufficient ionic conductivity of the aluminosilicate melt. Ohmic losses may consume an excessive fraction of the applied voltage, thus failing to sustain the Nernst potential required for reduction to metallic iron. The results suggest the need for further optimization of the molten electrolyte composition to promote ionic conductivity and to suppress electronic transport contribution, possibly, by tuning the Al/Si ratio and altering the network-forming/modifying behaviour of the iron cations. PMID:25760633

  14. The ion transport mechanism of lithium polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hongli

    Lithium polymer electrolytes are of great interest for use in polymer-electrolyte rechargeable batteries. However, the lithium transport mechanism in the polymer electrolyte has not been fully understood, due partly to the lack of a means to characterize a key lithium transport property, the transference number, correctly and efficiently. This research pioneered the use of the electrophoretic nuclear magnetic resonance technique to measure the lithium transference number (TsbLi) of polymer electrolytes. The development of this technique is described. It is shown that the technique is strictly valid regardless of the degree of dissociation of the electrolyte and the measurement protocol is relatively straightforward. As a result, the accuracy of the technique is high compared to existing techniques. The lithium transport mechanism in polymer gel electrolytes are investigated systematically with complementary techniques including vibrational spectroscopy (Raman scattering), nuclear magnetic resonance, and a.c. impedance spectroscopy. The characteristic lithium transport behavior as a function of the temperature, the salt concentration, the anion type, and the polymer matrices is established. Perfluoroimide and perfluoromethide lithium salts always lead to a larger lithium transference number compared to conventional lithium salts. In poly(vinylidene fluororide-hexfloropropylene) based gel electrolytes, the perfluoroimide anion, (CFsb3SOsb3)sb2Nsp-, results in a nearly invariant TsbLi over a wide salt concentration range. In contrast, the CFsb3SOsb3sp- anion results in TsbLi decreasing monotonically with increasing salt concentration. In poly(acrylonitrile), which binds with Lisp+, the TsbLi versus LiCFsb3SOsb3 concentration curve is nearly parabolic. A qualitative model is proposed which defines the important molecular interactions underlying the lithium transport behavior and extends the Fuoss and Onsager theory to systems with extensive ion complexation.

  15. Bipolar and Monopolar Lithium-Ion Battery Technology at Yardney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Flynn, J.; Reddy, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems offer several advantages: intrinsically safe; long cycle life; environmentally friendly; high energy density; wide operating temperature range; good discharge rate capability; low self-discharge; and no memory effect.

  16. Root Cause Assessment of Pressure Drop Rise of a Packed Bed of Lithium Hydroxide in the International Space Station Trace Contaminant Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilera, Tatiana; Perry, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) located in the International Space Station s (ISS) U.S. laboratory module employs physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption to remove trace chemical contamination produced by equipment offgassing and anthropogenic sources from the cabin atmosphere. The chemical adsorption stage, consisting of a packed bed of granular lithium hydroxide (LiOH), is located after the thermal catalytic oxidation stage and is designed to remove acid gas byproducts that may be formed in the upstream oxidation stage. While in service on board the ISS, the LiOH bed exhibited a change in flow resistance that leading to flow control difficulties in the TCCS. Post flight evaluation revealed LiOH granule size attrition among other changes. An experimental program was employed to investigate mechanisms hypothesized to contribute to the change in the packed bed s flow resistance. Background on the problem is summarized, including a discussion of likely mechanisms. The experimental program is described, results are presented, and implications for the future are discussed.

  17. Fundamental Research on a New Process to Remove Al3+ as Potassium Alum during Lithium Extraction from Lepidolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hui; Kuang, Ge; Yang, Jing-Xi; Hu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Sulfuric acid method can effectively extract lithium from lepidolite. However, purification problems make the method still tough before being widely applied. Especially, a considerable amount of Al3+ is contained in leaching solution, which needs to be removed before Li2CO3 precipitation. Based on the characteristic that K+, Rb+, and Cs+ can form corresponding alums with Al3+, an alum crystallization method was introduced and applied in our research. The feasibility of this method was also verified by phase equilibrium investigations in Li2SO4-K2SO4-Al2(SO4)3-H2O and its subternary system, which were typical subsystems of leaching solution. The results showed that Al2(SO4)3 can form potassium alum (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O) with K2SO4 easily, while no alum or double salt was found between Li2SO4 and Al2(SO4)3. Although Li2SO4 can generate KLiSO4 with K2SO4, the crystallization of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O still has priority over KLiSO4 when K2SO4 concentration is relatively low. Therefore, aluminum probably can be removed by regulating the concentration of leaching solution located in the crystallization field of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O. Besides, the effects of controlling factors specifically temperature, pH, and molar ratio of K+/Al3+ (m (K+/Al3+)) on alum crystallization were investigated. The results indicated that lower temperature and the addition of K2SO4 can accelerate the removal of Al2(SO4)3 obviously. The alum crystallization method turned out to be effective such that about 78 pct of Al2(SO4)3 can be removed mainly as potassium alum (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O) at 278 K (5 °C) with m (K+/Al3+) at 0.9 and pH of 2. A slight loss of lithium was caused by entrainment during alum crystallization. This research can be a promising exploration to purify leaching solution of lepidolite or other aluminosilicates.

  18. Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Boehmer, H.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McWilliams, R.; Leneman, D.; Vincena, S.

    2007-01-15

    In order to study the interaction of ions of intermediate energies with plasma fluctuations, two plasma immersible lithium ion sources, based on solid-state thermionic emitters (Li aluminosilicate) were developed. Compared to discharge based ion sources, they are compact, have zero gas load, small energy dispersion, and can be operated at any angle with respect to an ambient magnetic field of up to 4.0 kG. Beam energies range from 400 eV to 2.0 keV with typical beam current densities in the 1 mA/cm{sup 2} range. Because of the low ion mass, beam velocities of 100-300 km/s are in the range of Alfven speeds in typical helium plasmas in the large plasma device.

  19. Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Boehmer, H; Heidbrink, W W; McWilliams, R; Leneman, D; Vincena, S

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the interaction of ions of intermediate energies with plasma fluctuations, two plasma immersible lithium ion sources, based on solid-state thermionic emitters (Li aluminosilicate) were developed. Compared to discharge based ion sources, they are compact, have zero gas load, small energy dispersion, and can be operated at any angle with respect to an ambient magnetic field of up to 4.0 kG. Beam energies range from 400 eV to 2.0 keV with typical beam current densities in the 1 mAcm(2) range. Because of the low ion mass, beam velocities of 100-300 kms are in the range of Alfven speeds in typical helium plasmas in the large plasma device.

  20. Identification of Li O absorption bands based on lithium isotope substitutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocuń, Marek; Handke, Mirosław

    2001-09-01

    Isotope substitution method was used to identify the Li-O absorption bands in crystalline lithium silicates (2Li 2O 3·SiO 2, Li 2O·SiO 2, Li 2O·2SiO 2) and selected aluminosilicates (β-eucriptite and β-spodumene). Isotopic shift was established after mathematical decomposition of the IR spectra. Absorption bands connected directly with internal, LiO 4 tetrahedron vibrations are observed in the range 460-250 cm -1. Bending vibrations of Si-O-Li bridges give absorption bands in the range 500-600 cm -1. The exact position of the bands and their isotopic shifts are given.